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Sample records for adhesive resin cements

  1. Statistical failure analysis of adhesive resin cement bonded dental ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaou; Katsube, Noriko; Seghi, Robert R; Rokhlin, Stanislav I.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work is to quantitatively examine the effect of adhesive resin cement on the probability of crack initiation from the internal surface of ceramic dental restorations. The possible crack bridging mechanism and residual stress effect of the resin cement on the ceramic surface are examined. Based on the fracture-mechanics-based failure probability model, we predict the failure probability of glass-ceramic disks bonded to simulated dentin subjected to indentation loads. The theoretical predictions match experimental data suggesting that both resin bridging and shrinkage plays an important role and need to be considered for accurate prognostics to occur. PMID:18670583

  2. Simulated Wear of Self-Adhesive Resin Cements.

    PubMed

    Takamizawa, T; Barkmeier, W W; Latta, M A; Berry, T P; Tsujimoto, A; Miyazaki, M

    2016-01-01

    One of the primary areas of concern with luting agents is marginal gap erosion and attrition. The purpose of this laboratory study was to evaluate bulk and marginal slit (gap) generalized wear of self-adhesive resin cements. Three self-adhesive resin cements were used in this study: G-CEM LinkAce (LA), Maxcem Elite (ME), and RelyX Unicem2 Automix (RU). A custom stainless-steel fixture with a cavity 4.5 mm in diameter and 4 mm deep was used for simulated generalized (bulk) wear. For simulated marginal gap wear, a two-piece stainless-steel custom fixture was designed with a slit (gap) 300 μm wide and 3 mm in length. For both wear models, 20 specimens each for each of the three adhesive cements were made for both light-cure and chemical-cure techniques. The cured cements were polished with a series of carbide papers to a 4000-grit surface and subjected to 100,000 cycles using the slit (gap) wear model and 400,000 cycles for generalized (bulk) wear in a Leinfelder-Suzuki (Alabama machine) wear simulator (maximum load of 78.5 N). Flat-ended stainless-steel antagonists were used in a water slurry of poly(methylmethacrylate) beads for simulation of generalized contact-free area wear with both wear models. Before and after the wear challenges, the specimens were profiled with a Proscan 2100 noncontact profilometer, and wear (volume loss [VL] and mean facet depth [FD]) was determined using AnSur 3D software. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc tests were used for data analysis for the two wear models. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine polished surfaces of the resin cements and the worn surfaces after the wear challenges. The two-way ANOVA of VL using the generalized (bulk) wear model showed a significant effect among the three resin cement materials for the factor of resin cement (p<0.001) and the interaction of the cement and cure method (p<0.001), but not for the cure method (p=0.465). The two-way ANOVA for FD also found a

  3. Effects of mechanical properties of adhesive resin cements on stress distribution in fiber-reinforced composite adhesive fixed partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Daiichiro; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Vallittu, Pekka K; Shinya, Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Using finite element analysis (FEA), this study investigated the effects of the mechanical properties of adhesive resin cements on stress distributions in fiber-reinforced resin composite (FRC) adhesive fixed partial dentures (AFPDs). Two adhesive resin cements were compared: Super-Bond C&B and Panavia Fluoro Cement. The AFPD consisted of a pontic to replace a maxillary right lateral incisor and retainers on a maxillary central incisor and canine. FRC framework was made of isotropic, continuous, unidirectional E-glass fibers. Maximum principal stresses were calculated using finite element method (FEM). Test results revealed that differences in the mechanical properties of adhesive resin cements led to different stress distributions at the cement interfaces between AFPD and abutment teeth. Clinical implication of these findings suggested that the safety and longevity of an AFPD depended on choosing an adhesive resin cement with the appropriate mechanical properties. PMID:22447051

  4. Retention of overdenture posts cemented with self-adhesive resin cements.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Mohamed Ezzat; El-Mowafy, Omar; Fenton, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two self-adhesive resin cements on the retention of overdenture anchor posts after 30 days of aging in water. Forty caries-free human canines were randomly assigned to four test groups. Uni-Anchor posts were cemented to specimens in groups A and B with Breeze and Maxcem self-adhesive resin cements, respectively. In groups C and D, Fuji glass-ionomer cement and Fleck's zinc phosphate cement were used, respectively. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 30 days. Each specimen was loaded in tension in an Instron universal testing machine. The maximum force required to dislodge each post was recorded. Means and standard deviations (SDs) were calculated and data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA). Means and SDs were 706.5 +/- 204.6 N for Breeze, 585.1 +/- 213.5 N for Maxcem, 449.2 +/- 181.1 N for Fuji, and 330.4 +/- 120.6 N for Fleck's. ANOVA revealed significant differences among the means (P < .0003). Adhesive failure was observed with all groups except group A, in which eight specimens underwent a cohesive fracture of the dentin. Breeze cement (group A) resulted in the highest retention force and most frequent cohesive failure and thus would be expected to clinically perform in a superior manner. PMID:19548412

  5. Bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to composite submitted to different surface pretreatments

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Victor Hugo; Griza, Sandro; de Moraes, Rafael Ratto

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Extensively destroyed teeth are commonly restored with composite resin before cavity preparation for indirect restorations. The longevity of the restoration can be related to the proper bonding of the resin cement to the composite. This study aimed to evaluate the microshear bond strength of two self-adhesive resin cements to composite resin. Materials and Methods Composite discs were subject to one of six different surface pretreatments: none (control), 35% phosphoric acid etching for 30 seconds (PA), application of silane (silane), PA + silane, PA + adhesive, or PA + silane + adhesive (n = 6). A silicone mold containing a cylindrical orifice (1 mm2 diameter) was placed over the composite resin. RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE) or BisCem (Bisco Inc.) self-adhesive resin cement was inserted into the orifices and light-cured. Self-adhesive cement cylinders were submitted to shear loading. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). Results Independent of the cement used, the PA + Silane + Adhesive group showed higher microshear bond strength than those of the PA and PA + Silane groups. There was no difference among the other treatments. Unicem presented higher bond strength than BisCem for all experimental conditions. Conclusions Pretreatments of the composite resin surface might have an effect on the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to this substrate. PMID:24516824

  6. Mechanical Properties and Sliding-impact Wear Resistance of Self-adhesive Resin Cements.

    PubMed

    Furuichi, T; Takamizawa, T; Tsujimoto, A; Miyazaki, M; Barkmeier, W W; Latta, M A

    2016-01-01

    The present study determined the mechanical properties and impact-sliding wear characteristics of self-adhesive resin cements. Five self-adhesive resin cements were used: G-CEM LinkAce, BeautiCem SA, Maxcem Elite, Clearfil SA Automix, and RelyX Unicem 2. Clearfil Esthetic Cement was employed as a control material. Six specimens for each resin cement were used to determine flexural strength, elastic modulus, and resilience according to ISO specification #4049. Ten specimens for each resin cement were used to determine the wear characteristics using an impact-sliding wear testing apparatus. Wear was generated using a stainless-steel ball bearing mounted inside a collet assembly. The maximum facet depth and volume loss were determined using a noncontact profilometer in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Data were evaluated using analysis of variance followed by the Tukey honestly significantly different test (α=0.05). The flexural strength of the resin cements ranged from 68.4 to 144.2 MPa; the elastic modulus ranged from 4.4 to 10.6 GPa; and the resilience ranged from 4.5 to 12.0 MJ/m(3). The results for the maximum facet depth ranged from 25.2 to 235.9 μm, and volume loss ranged from 0.0107 to 0.5258 mm(3). The flexural properties and wear resistance were found to vary depending upon the self-adhesive resin cement tested. The self-adhesive cements tended to have lower mechanical properties than the conventional resin cement. All self-adhesive resin cements, apart from G-CEM LinkAce, demonstrated significantly poorer wear resistance than did the conventional resin cement. PMID:26918929

  7. Bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to tooth structure

    PubMed Central

    Hattar, Susan; Hatamleh, Muhanad M.; Sawair, Faleh; Al-Rabab’ah, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the strength of the bond between newly introduced self-adhesive resin cements and tooth structures (i.e., enamel and dentin). Methods Three self-adhesive cements (SmartCem2, RelyX Unicem, seT SDI) were tested. Cylindrical-shaped cement specimens (diameter, 3 mm; height, 3 mm) were bonded to enamel and dentin. Test specimens were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. The shear bond strength (SBS) was tested in a Zwick Roll testing machine. Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and t-test. Statistically significant differences were defined at the α = 0.05 level. Bond failures were categorized as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed. Results The SBS values ranged from 3.76 to 6.81 MPa for cements bonded to enamel and from 4.48 to 5.94 MPa for cements bonded to dentin (p > 0.05 between surfaces). There were no statistically significant differences between the SBS values to enamel versus dentin for any given cement type. All cements exhibited adhesive failure at the resin/tooth interface. Conclusions Regardless of their clinical simplicity, the self-adhesive resin cements examined in this study exhibit limited bond performance to tooth structures; therefore, these cements must be used with caution. PMID:26082572

  8. Effect of indirect composite treatment microtensile bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Escribano, Nuria; Baracco, Bruno; Romero, Martin; Ceballos, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background No specific indications about the pre-treatment of indirect composite restorations is provided by the manufacturers of most self-adhesive resin cements. The potential effect of silane treatment to the bond strength of the complete tooth/indirect restoration complex is not available.The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of different surface treatments on microtensile bond strength of composite overlays to dentin using several self-adhesive resin cements and a total-etch one. Material and Methods Composite overlays were fabricated and bonding surfaces were airborne-particle abraded and randomly assigned to two different surface treatments: no treatment or silane application (RelyX Ceramic Primer) followed by an adhesive (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT). Composite overlays were luted to flat dentin surfaces using the following self-adhesive resin cements: RelyX Unicem, G-Cem, Speedcem, Maxcem Elite or Smartcem2, and the total-etch resin cement RelyX ARC. After 24 h, bonded specimens were cut into sticks 1 mm thick and stressed in tension until failure. Two-way ANOVA and SNK tests were applied at α=0.05. Results Bond strength values were significantly influenced by the resin cement used (p<0.001). However, composite surface treatment and the interaction between the resin cement applied and surface treatment did not significantly affect dentin bond strength (p>0.05). All self-adhesive resin cements showed lower bond strength values than the total-etch RelyX ARC. Among self-adhesive resin cements, RelyX Unicem and G-Cem attained statistically higher bond strength values. Smartcem2 and Maxcem Elite exhibited 80-90% of pre-test failures. Conclusions The silane and adhesive application after indirect resin composite sandblasting did not improve the bond strength of dentin-composite overlay complex. Selection of the resin cement seems to be a more relevant factor when bonding indirect composites to dentin than its surface treatment. Key words

  9. Effect of Self-adhesive Resin Cement and Tribochemical Treatment on Bond Strength to Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jie; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Shinya, Akiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the interactive effects of different self-adhesive resin cements and tribochemical treatment on bond strength to zirconia. Methodology The following self-adhesive resin cements for bonding two zirconia blocks were evaluated: Maxcem (MA), Smartcem (SM), Rely X Unicem Aplicap (UN), Breeze (BR), Biscem (BI), Set (SE), and Clearfil SA luting (CL). The specimens were grouped according to conditioning as follows: Group 1, polishing with 600 grit polishing paper; Group 2, silica coating with 110 µm Al2O3 particles which modified with silica; and, Group 3, tribochemical treatment - silica coating + silanization. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours before testing shear bond strength. Results Silica coating and tribochemical treatment significantly increased the bond strength of the MA, UN, BR, BI, SE and CL to zirconia compared to #600 polishing. For both #600 polished and silica coating treatments, MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cement CL had the highest bond strengths to zirconia. Conclusion Applying silica coating and tribochemical treatment improved the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement to zirconia, especially for CL. PMID:20690416

  10. Tensile Bond Strength of Self Adhesive Resin Cement After Various Surface Treatment of Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Sahil; Garg, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In self adhesive resin cements adhesion is achieved to dental surface without surface pre-treatment, and requires only single step application. This makes the luting procedure less technique-sensitive and decreases postoperative sensitivity. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate bond strength of self adhesive resin after surface treatment of enamel for bonding base metal alloy. Materials and Methods On the labial surface of 64 central incisor rectangular base metal block of dimension 6 mm length, 5mm width and 1 mm height was cemented with RelyX U200 and Maxcem Elite self adhesive cements with and without surface treatment of enamel. Surface treatment of enamel was application of etchant, one step bonding agent and both. Tensile bond strength of specimen was measured with universal testing machine at a cross head speed of 1mm/min. Results Least tensile bond strength (MPa) was in control group i.e. 1.33 (0.32) & 1.59 (0.299), Highest bond strength observed when enamel treated with both etchant and bonding agent i.e. 2.72 (0.43) & 2.97 (0.19) for Relyx U200 and Elite cement. When alone etchant and bonding agent were applied alone bond strength is 2.19 (0.18) & 2.24 (0.47) for Relyx U200, and 2.38 (0.27) 2.49 (0.16) for Max-cem elite. Mean bond strength was higher in case of Max-cem Elite as compared to RelyX U200 resin cement, although differences were non–significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion Surface treatment of enamel increases the bond strength of self adhesive resin cement. PMID:26894165

  11. Adhesion of conventional and simplified resin-based luting cements to superficial and deep dentin.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mutlu; Mese, Ayse

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the bond strengths of conventional (chemically and dual-polymerized) and simplified resin-based luting cements with their corresponding adhesives to superficial dentin (SD) and deep dentin (DD). Recently extracted third molars (N = 70, n = 10 per group) were obtained and prepared for testing procedures. After using their corresponding etchants, primers, and/or adhesive systems, the conventional and simplified cements (Variolink II [group A, conventional], Bifix QM [group B, conventional], Panavia F2.0 [group C, conventional], Multilink Automix [group D, simplified], Superbond C&B [group E, conventional], Clearfil Esthetic Cement [group F, simplified], Ketac-Fil [group G, conventional]) were adhered incrementally onto the dentin surfaces using polyethylene molds (inner diameter 3.5 mm, height 5 mm) and polymerized accordingly. Resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) acted as the control material. Shear bond strengths (1 mm/min) were determined after 500 times of thermocycling. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze the data (α = 0.05). Bond strength (MPa) results were significantly affected by the cement types and their corresponding adhesive systems (p ≤ 0.05). The shear bond strengths (MPa ± SD) for groups A-G were 14.6 ± 3.8, 18.9 ± 3.9, 5.5 ± 4.5, 3.1 ± 3.6, 1.1 ± 2.5, 15.5 ± 2.6, 7 ± 4.3 and 7.1 ± 5.8, 15.1 ± 7.8, 8.4 ± 7.3, 7.5 ± 7.3, 4.9 ± 5.1, 12.5 ± 2.1, 6 ± 2.6 for SD and DD, respectively. The level of dentin depth did not decrease the bond strength significantly (p > 0.05) for all cements, except for Variolink II (p < 0.05). On the SD, bond strength of resin cements with "etch-and-rinse" adhesive systems (Variolink II, Bifix QM, Super-Bond C&B) showed similar results being higher than those of the simplified ones. Simplified cements and RMGIC as control material showed inferior adhesion to superficial and deep dentin compared to conventional resin cements tested. PMID:21833482

  12. Bonding of self-adhesive resin cements to enamel using different surface treatments: bond strength and etching pattern evaluations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Shinya, Akiyoshi

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strengths and etching patterns of seven self-adhesive resin cements to human enamel specimens which were subjected to one of the following surface treatments: (1) Polishing with #600 polishing paper; (2) Phosphoric acid; (3) G-Bond one-step adhesive; or (4) Phosphoric acid and G-Bond. After surface treatment, the human incisor specimens were bonded to a resin composite using a self-adhesive resin cement [Maxcem (MA), RelyX Unicem (UN), Breeze (BR), BisCem (BI), seT (SE), Clearfil SA Luting (CL)] or a conventional resin cement [ResiCem (RE)]. Representative morphology formed with self-adhesive resin cements showed areas of etched enamel intermingled with areas of featureless enamel. In conclusion, etching efficacy influenced the bonding effectiveness of self-adhesive resin cements to unground enamel, and that a combined use of phosphoric acid and G-Bond for pretreatment of human enamel surfaces improved the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements. PMID:20668359

  13. Influence of chlorhexidine on dentin adhesive interface micromorphology and nanoleakage expression of resin cements.

    PubMed

    Stape, Thiago Henrique Scarabello; Menezes, Murilo De Sousa; Barreto, Bruno De Castro Ferreira; Naves, Lucas Zago; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Quagliatto, Paulo Sérgio; Martins, Luís Roberto Marcondes

    2013-08-01

    This study focused on adhesive interface morphologic characterization and nanoleakage expression of resin cements bonded to human dentin pretreated with 1% chlorhexidine (CHX). Thirty-two non-carious human third molars were ground flat to expose superficial dentin. Resin composite blocks were luted to the exposed dentin using one conventional (RelyX ARC) and one self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100), with/without CHX pretreatment. Four groups (n = 8) were obtained: control groups (ARC and U100); experimental groups (ARC/CHX and U100/CHX) were pretreated with 1% CHX prior to the luting process. After storage in water for 24 h, the bonded teeth were sectioned into 0.9 × 0.9 mm(2) sticks producing a minimum of 12 sticks per tooth. Four sticks from each tooth were prepared for hybrid layer evaluation by scanning electron microscope analysis. The remaining sticks were immersed in silver nitrate for 24 h for either nanoleakage evaluation along the bonded interfaces or after rupture. Nanoleakage samples were carbon coated and examined using backscattered electron mode. Well-established hybrid layers were observed in the groups luted with RelyX ARC. Nanoleakage evaluation revealed increase nanoleakage in groups treated with CHX for both resin cements. Group U100/CHX exhibited the most pronouncing nanoleakage expression along with porous zones adjacent to the CHX pretreated dentin. The results suggest a possible incompatibility between CHX and RelyX U100 that raises the concern that the use of CHX with self-adhesive cements may adversely affect resin-dentin bond. PMID:23737406

  14. Tensile bond strength of indirect composites luted with three new self-adhesive resin cements to dentin

    PubMed Central

    TÜRKMEN, Cafer; DURKAN, Meral; CİMİLLİ, Hale; ÖKSÜZ, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the tensile bond strengths between indirect composites and dentin of 3 recently developed self-adhesive resin cements and to determine mode of failure by SEM. Material and Methods Exposed dentin surfaces of 70 mandibular third molars were used. Teeth were randomly divided into 7 groups: Group 1 (control group): direct composite resin restoration (Alert) with etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Bond 1 primer/adhesive), Group 2: indirect composite restoration (Estenia) luted with a resin cement (Cement-It) combined with the same etch-and-rinse adhesive, Group 3: direct composite resin restoration with self-etch adhesive system (Nano-Bond), Group 4: indirect composite restoration luted with the resin cement combined with the same self-etch adhesive, Groups 5-7: indirect composite restoration luted with self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Maxcem, and Embrace WetBond, respectively) onto the non-pretreated dentin surfaces. Tensile bond strengths of groups were tested with a universal testing machine at a constant speed of 1 mm/min using a 50 kgf load cell. Results were statistically analyzed by the Student's t-test. The failure modes of all groups were also evaluated. Results The indirect composite restorations luted with the self-adhesive resin cements (groups 5-7) showed better results compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Group 4 showed the weakest bond strength (p>0.05). The surfaces of all debonded specimens showed evidence of both adhesive and cohesive failure. Conclusion The new universal self-adhesive resins may be considered an alternative for luting indirect composite restorations onto non-pretreated dentin surfaces. PMID:21710095

  15. In-vitro evaluation of an experimental method for bonding of orthodontic brackets with self-adhesive resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Ramazanzadeh, Barat Ali; Merati, Mohsen; Shafaee, Hooman; Dogon, Leon; Sohrabi, Keyvan

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-adhesive resin cements do not require the surface treatment of teeth and are said to release fluoride, which makes them suitable candidates for bonding of orthodontic brackets. The objectives of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength (SBS) of self-adhesive resin cements on etched on non-etched surfaces in vitro and to assess their fluoride release features. Materials and Methods Four fluoride-releasing dual-cure self-adhesive resin cements were investigated. For SBS experiment, 135 freshly extracted human maxillary premolars were used and divided into nine groups of 15 teeth. In the control group, brackets were cemented by Transbond XT (3M Unitek, USA), in four groups self-adhesive resin cements were used without acid-etching and in four groups self-adhesive cements were applied on acid-etched surfaces and the brackets were then deboned in shear with a testing machine. Adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were also calculated. For fluoride release investigation, 6 discs were prepared for each self-adhesive cement. Transbond XT and Fuji Ortho LC (GC, Japan) served as negative and positive control groups, respectively. The fluoride release of each disc into 5 ml of deionized water was measured at days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 using a fluoride ion-selective electrode connected to an ion analyzer. To prevent cumulative measurements, the storage solutions were changed daily. Results The SBS of brackets cemented with Transbond XT were significantly higher compared to self-adhesives applied on non-etched surfaces (P<0.001). However, when the self-adhesive resin cements were used with enamel etching, no significant differences was found in the SBS compared to Transbond XT, except for Breeze. The comparisons of the ARI scores indicated that bracket failure modes were significantly different between the etched and non-etched groups. All self-adhesive cements released clinically sufficient amounts of fluoride for an extended period of time

  16. Adhesion of 10-MDP containing resin cements to dentin with and without the etch-and-rinse technique

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Deniz; Tuncelli, Betul; Özcan, Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE This study evaluated the adhesion of 10-MDP containing self-etch and self-adhesive resin cements to dentin with and without the use of etch-and-rinse technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS Human third molars (N=180) were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=30 per group). Conventional (Panavia F2.0, Kuraray-PAN) and self-adhesive resin cements (Clearfil SA, Kuraray-CSA) were bonded to dentin surfaces either after application of 3-step etch-and-rinse (35% H3PO4 + ED Primer) or two-step self-etch adhesive resin (Clearfil SE Bond). Specimens were subjected to shear bond strength test using the universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). The failure types were analyzed using a stereomicroscope and quality of hybrid layer was observed under a scanning electron microscope. The data (MPa) were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α=.05). RESULTS Overall, PAN adhesive cement showed significantly higher mean bond strength (12.5 ± 2.3 - 14.1 ± 2.4 MPa) than CSA cement (9.3 ± 1.4 - 13.9 ± 1.9 MPa) (P<.001). Adhesive failures were more frequent in CSA cement groups when used in conjunction with two-step self-adhesive (68%) or no adhesive at all (66%). Hybrid layer quality was inferior in CSA compared to PAN cement in all conditions. CONCLUSION In clinical situations where bonding to dentin substrate is crucial, both conventional and self-adhesive resin cements based on 10-MDP can benefit from etch-and-rinse technique to achieve better quality of adhesion in the early clinical period. PMID:24049562

  17. Intra-radicular dentin treatments and retention of fiber posts with self-adhesive resin cements.

    PubMed

    Faria-e-Silva, André Luis; Menezes, Murilo de Sousa; Silva, Fernanda Pereira; Reis, Giselle Rodrigues dos; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treating intraradicular dentin with irrigating solutions on the retention of glass-fiber posts luted with self-adhesive resin cement. Bovine incisors were endodontically treated, and 9-mm-deep postholes were prepared. Before inserting the cement, the root canals were irrigated with various solutions: 11.5% polyacrylic acid for 30 s, 17% EDTA for 60 s, or 5% NaOCl for 60 s, respectively. Irrigation with distilled water was used in the control group. After all specimens had been rinsed with distilled water, the excess moisture was removed and the posts were luted using either BisCem (Bisco) or RelyX Unicem clicker (3M ESPE). Seven days after luting, the specimens were sectioned transversally into 1-mm-thick slices, which were submitted to push-out testing on a mechanical testing machine. Bond strength data (n = 6 per group) were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls' test (α = 0.05). For Unicem, EDTA showed lower bond strength than the other solutions, which had similar results. For BisCem, EDTA showed higher bond strength than the other treatments, while application of NaOCl yielded higher bond strength than polyacrylic acid whereas the control group had intermediate results. In conclusion, irrigating root canals before insertion of self-adhesive resin cements, especially EDTA, might interfere with retention of the fiber posts. PMID:23306622

  18. In vitro evaluation of the bonding durability of self-adhesive resin cement to titanium using highly accelerated life test.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka; Shinya, Akiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bonding durability of three self-adhesive resin cements to titanium using the Highly Accelerated Life Test (HALT). The following self-adhesive resin cements were used to bond pairs of titanium blocks together according to manufacturers' instructions: RelyX Unicem, Breeze, and Clearfil SA Luting. After storage in water at 37°C for 24 h, bonded specimens (n=15) immersed in 37°C water were subjected to cyclic shear load testing regimes of 20, 30, or 40 kg using a fatigue testing machine. Cyclic loading continued until failure occurred, and the number of cycles taken to reach failure was recorded. The bonding durability of a self-adhesive resin cement to titanium was largely influenced by the weight of impact load. HALT showed that Clearfil SA Luting, which contained MDP monomer, yielded the highest median bonding lifetime to titanium. PMID:22123007

  19. Conventional dual-cure versus self-adhesive resin cements in dentin bond integrity

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Renata Andreza Talaveira; COUTINHO, Margareth; CARDOZO, Pedro Igor; da SILVA, Larissa Alves; ZORZATTO, José Roberto

    2011-01-01

    During post preparation, the root canal is exposed to the oral cavity, and endodontic treatment may fail because of coronal leakage, bacterial infection and sealing inability of the luting cement. Objective this study quantified the interfacial continuity produced with conventional dual-cure and self-adhesive resin cements in the cervical (C), medium (M) and apical (A) thirds of the root. Material and methods Forty single-rooted human teeth were restored using Reforpost # 01 conical glass-fiber posts and different materials (N=10 per group): group AC=Adper™ ScotchBond™ Multi-purpose Plus + AllCem; group ARC=Adper™ ScotchBond™ Multi-purpose Plus + RelyX ARC; group U100=RelyX U100; and group MXC=Maxcem Elite. After being kept in 100% humidity at 37ºC for 72 hours, the samples were sectioned parallel to their longitudinal axis and positive epoxy resin replicas were made. The scanning electron micrographs of each third section of the teeth were combined using Image Analyst software and measured with AutoCAD-2002. We obtained percentage values of the interfacial continuity. Results Interfacial continuity was similar in the apical, medium and cervical thirds of the roots within the groups (Friedman test, p>0.05). Comparison of the different cements in a same root third showed that interfacial continuity was lower in MXC (C=45.5%; M=48.5%; A=47.3%) than in AC (C=85.9%, M=81.8% and A=76.0%), ARC (C=83.8%, M=82.4% and A=75.0%) and U100 (C=84.1%, M=82.4% and A=77.3%) (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.05). Conclusions Allcem, Rely X ARC and U100 provide the best cementation; cementation was similar among root portions; in practical terms, U100 is the best resin because it combines good cementation and easy application and none of the cements provides complete interfacial continuity. PMID:21710099

  20. Dual and self-curing potential of self-adhesive resin cements as thin films.

    PubMed

    Moraes, R R; Boscato, N; Jardim, P S; Schneider, L F J

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the dual- and self-curing potential of self-adhesive resin cements (SARCs) as thin, clinically-relevant cement films was investigated. The SARCs tested were: BisCem (BSC; Bisco), Maxcem Elite (MXE; Kerr), RelyX Unicem clicker (UNI; 3M ESPE), seT capsule (SET; SDI), and SmartCem 2 (SC2; Dentsply Caulk). The conventional cement RelyX ARC (3M ESPE) was tested as a reference. The degree of conversion (DC) as a function of time was evaluated by real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) device. The cements were either photoactivated for 40 seconds (dual-cure mode) or not photoactivated (self-cure mode). The cement film thickness was 50 ± 10 μm. The DC (%) was evaluated 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after placing the cement on the ATR cell. Data for DC as a function of time were analyzed by two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). DC values at 30 minutes for the self- and dual-cure modes were submitted to one-way ANOVA. Post hoc comparisons were performed using the Student-Newman-Keuls test (p<0.05). The rate and the extent of conversion were lower for the SARCs compared with the conventional cement. Means ± standard deviations (SD) for the dual-cure mode at 30 minutes were: 75 ± 5 (ARC)a, 73 ± 8 (SET)a, 61 ± 4 (MXE)b, 51 ± 9 (BSC)c, 51 ± 4 (UNI)c, and 48 ± 3 (SC2)c, while in the self-cure mode means and SD were 62 ± 6 (ARC)a, 54 ± 3 (MXE)b, 40 ± 6 (SC2)c, 35 ± 2 (UNI)c, 35 ± 3 (SET)c, and 11 ± 3 (BSC)d. The DC for the dual-cure mode was generally higher than the self-cure, irrespective of the time. Discrepancies in DC between the dual- and self-cure modes from 11% to 79% were observed. In conclusion, SARCs may present slower rate of polymerization and lower final DC than conventional resin cements, in either the dual- or self-cure mode. PMID:21864125

  1. Direct Tensile Strength and Characteristics of Dentin Restored with All-Ceramic, Resin-Composite, and Cast Metal Prostheses Cemented with Resin Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Piemjai, Morakot; Nakabayashi, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    A dentin-cement-prosthesis complex restored with either all-porcelain, cured resin-composite, or cast base metal alloy and cemented with either of the different resin cements was trimmed into a mini-dumbbell shape for tensile testing. The fractured surfaces and characterization of the dentin-cement interface of bonded specimens were investigated using a Scanning Electron Microscope. A significantly higher tensile strength of all-porcelain (12.5 ± 2.2 MPa) than that of cast metal (9.2 ± 3.5 MPa) restorations was revealed with cohesive failure in the cement and failure at the prosthesis-cement interface in Super-Bond C&B group. No significant difference in tensile strength was found among the types of restorations using the other three cements with adhesive failure on the dentin side and cohesive failure in the cured resin. SEM micrographs demonstrated the consistent hybridized dentin in Super-Bond C&B specimens that could resist degradation when immersed in hydrochloric acid followed by NaOCl solutions whereas a detached and degraded interfacial layer was found for the other cements. The results suggest that when complete hybridization of resin into dentin occurs tensile strength at the dentin-cement is higher than at the cement-prosthesis interfaces. The impermeable hybridized dentin can protect the underlying dentin and pulp from acid demineralization, even if detachment of the prosthesis has occurred. PMID:26539520

  2. Direct Tensile Strength and Characteristics of Dentin Restored with All-Ceramic, Resin-Composite, and Cast Metal Prostheses Cemented with Resin Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Piemjai, Morakot; Nakabayashi, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    A dentin-cement-prosthesis complex restored with either all-porcelain, cured resin-composite, or cast base metal alloy and cemented with either of the different resin cements was trimmed into a mini-dumbbell shape for tensile testing. The fractured surfaces and characterization of the dentin-cement interface of bonded specimens were investigated using a Scanning Electron Microscope. A significantly higher tensile strength of all-porcelain (12.5 ± 2.2 MPa) than that of cast metal (9.2 ± 3.5 MPa) restorations was revealed with cohesive failure in the cement and failure at the prosthesis-cement interface in Super-Bond C&B group. No significant difference in tensile strength was found among the types of restorations using the other three cements with adhesive failure on the dentin side and cohesive failure in the cured resin. SEM micrographs demonstrated the consistent hybridized dentin in Super-Bond C&B specimens that could resist degradation when immersed in hydrochloric acid followed by NaOCl solutions whereas a detached and degraded interfacial layer was found for the other cements. The results suggest that when complete hybridization of resin into dentin occurs tensile strength at the dentin-cement is higher than at the cement-prosthesis interfaces. The impermeable hybridized dentin can protect the underlying dentin and pulp from acid demineralization, even if detachment of the prosthesis has occurred. PMID:26539520

  3. Comparison of the flexural strength of two dual cure adhesive resin cements under oral simulated conditions: an in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, P; Nair, A; Regish, K M; Viswambaran, M; Kumar, M

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the flexural strength of the newly developed self-adhesive dual cure resin cement and compare it with conventional resin cement under oral simulated conditions. A conventional resin cement (Calibra) and self adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100) were selected and 40 specimens of each cement were fabricated for the study. Half of these specimens were polymerized directly whereas the other half were polymerized through 2 mm of porcelain disc. Specimens were tested after 24hrs and after 30 days immersion in artificial saliva. A three point bending test was performed using universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. Overall RelyX U100 showed higher mean flexural strength compared to Calibra (141.55 MPa, 119.46MPa, respectively). When the specimens of both the cements were light cured through 2 mm porcelain disc, their flexural strength decreased significantly. The mean flexural strength of both self adhesive and conventional dual cure adhesive resin cements was increased significantly after storage in artificial saliva for 30 days at 37 degreeC. Among the two dual cure resin cements, the self adhesive dual cure cement (RelyX U100) showed increased overall mean flexural strength as compared to conventional resin cement (Calibra) under all the curing and storage protocols. PMID:23888528

  4. In-depth polymerization of a self-adhesive dual-cured resin cement.

    PubMed

    Puppin-Rontani, R M; Dinelli, R G; de Paula, A B; Fucio, S B P; Ambrosano, G M B; Pascon, F M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess Knoop hardness at different depths of a dual-cured self-adhesive resin cement through different thicknesses of Empress Esthetic® ceramic.Flattened bovine dentin was embedded in resin. The cement was inserted into a rubber mold (0.8 x 5 mm) that was placed between two polyvinyl chloride plastic films and placed over the flat dentin and light cured by Elipar Trilight-QTH (800 mW/cm2) or Ultra-Lumelight-emitting diode (LED 5; 1585 mW/cm2) over ceramic disks 1.4 or 2 mm thick. The specimens(n=6) were stored for 24 hours before Knoop hardness (KHN) was measured. The data were submitted to analysis of variance in a factorial split-plot design and Tukey's test (a=0.05).There was significant interaction among the study factors. In the groups cured by the QTHunit, an increase in ceramic thickness resulted in reduced cement hardness values at all depths, with the highest values always being found in the center (1.4 mm, 58.1; 2 mm, 50.1)and the lowest values at the bottom (1.4 mm,23.8; 2 mm, 20.2). When using the LED unit, the hardness values diminished with increased ceramic thickness only on the top (1.4 mm,51.5; 2 mm, 42.3). In the group with the 1.4-mm-thick disk, the LED curing unit resulted in similar values on the top (51.5) and center(51.9) and lower values on the bottom (24.2).However, when the cement was light cured through the 2-mm disk, the highest hardness value was obtained in the center (51.8), followed by the top (42.3) and bottom (19.9),results similar to those obtained with the QTH curing unit (center > top > bottom). The hardness values of the studied cement at different depths were dependent on the ceramic thickness but not on the light curing units used. PMID:22166106

  5. Si-based thin film coating on Y-TZP: Influence of deposition parameters on adhesion of resin cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz, José Renato Cavalcanti; Nogueira Junior, Lafayette; Massi, Marcos; Silva, Alecssandro de Moura; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Sobrinho, Argemiro Soares da Silva; Özcan, Mutlu

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of deposition parameters for Si-based thin films using magnetron sputtering for coating zirconia and subsequent adhesion of resin cement. Zirconia ceramic blocks were randomly divided into 8 groups and specimens were either ground finished and polished or conditioned using air-abrasion with alumina particles coated with silica. In the remaining groups, the polished specimens were coated with Si-based film coating with argon/oxygen magnetron discharge at 8:1 or 20:1 flux. In one group, Si-based film coating was performed on air-abraded surfaces. After application of bonding agent, resin cement was bonded. Profilometry, goniometry, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy analysis were performed on the conditioned zirconia surfaces. Adhesion of resin cement to zirconia was tested using shear bond test and debonded surfaces were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Si-based film coating applied on air-abraded rough zirconia surfaces increased the adhesion of the resin cement (22.78 ± 5.2 MPa) compared to those of other methods (0-14.62 MPa) (p = 0.05). Mixed type of failures were more frequent in Si film coated groups on either polished or air-abraded groups. Si-based thin films increased wettability compared to the control group but did not change the roughness, considering the parameters evaluated. Deposition parameters of Si-based thin film and after application of air-abrasion influenced the initial adhesion of resin cement to zirconia.

  6. Nanoleakage for Self-Adhesive Resin Cements used in Bonding CAD/CAD Ceramic Material to Dentin

    PubMed Central

    El-Badrawy, Wafa; Hafez, Randa Mohamed; El Naga, Abeer Ibrahim Abo; Ahmed, Doaa Ragai

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine nanoleakage of CAD/CAM ceramic blocks bonded to dentin with self-adhesive resin cement. Methods: Eighteen sound extracted human molars were sterilized and sectioned into 3 mm-thick dentin sections. Trilux Cerec Vitablocks (Vita) were also sectioned into 3 mm sections, surface-treated using 5% hydrofluoric acid-etchant, and then coated with silane primer (Vita). Trilux and dentin sections were cemented together by means of three resin cements: Rely-X Unicem (3M/ESPE), BisCem (Bisco), and Calibra (Dentsply), according to manufacturers’ recommendations. Calibra was used in conjunction with Prime/Bond-NT adhesive (Dentsply), while the other two are self-adhesive. The bonded specimens were stored for 24h in distilled water at 37°C. Specimens were vertically sectioned into 1 mm-thick slabs, yielding up to six per specimen. Two central slabs were randomly chosen from each specimen making up the cement groups (n=12). Each group was subdivided into two subgroups (n=6), a control and a thermocycled subgroup (5–55°C) for 500 cycles. Slabs were coated with nail polish up to 1 mm from the interface, immersed in a 50% silver nitrate solution for 24h, and tested for nanoleakage using Quanta Environmental SEM and EDAX. Data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc tests. Results: Rely-X Unicem and Calibra groups demonstrated no significant difference in the percentage of silver penetration, while the BisCem group revealed a significantly higher percentage (P≤.05). Thermocycling (500 cycles) did not have a statistically significant effect on the percentage of silver penetration (P>.05). Conclusions: One self-adhesive-resin cement demonstrated a similar sealing ability when compared with a standard resin cement. Thermo-cycling did not significantly increase dye penetration under the test conditions. PMID:21769269

  7. Antibacterial activity of resin adhesives, glass ionomer and resin-modified glass ionomer cements and a compomer in contact with dentin caries samples.

    PubMed

    Herrera, M; Castillo, A; Bravo, M; Liébana, J; Carrión, P

    2000-01-01

    A total of 103 clinical samples of carious dentin were used to study the antibacterial action of different dental resin adhesive materials (Gluma 2000, Syntac, Prisma Universal Bond 3, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and Prime&Bond 2.0) glass ionomer cements (Ketac-Cem, Ketac-Bond, Ketac-Silver, Ketac-Fil) resin-modified glass ionomer cements (Fuji II LC, Vitremer and Vitrebond) and a compomer (Dyract). The agar plate diffusion method was used for the microbial cultures and a chlorhexidine control. The growth of the caries-producing microorganisms was effectively inhibited by the Vitremer and Vitrebond cements, and to a lesser extent by the Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive system. Overall, there were statistically significant differences in the antibacterial activity of the products tested. PMID:11203829

  8. Effect of dentin pretreatment and curing mode on the microtensile bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Seung-Hyun; Jung, Kyoung-Hwa; Son, Sung-Ae; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim was to evaluate the effect of curing mode and different dentin surface pretreatment on microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of self-adhesive resin cements. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-six extracted human permanent molars were sectioned horizontally exposing flat dentin surface. The teeth were divided into 12 groups (3 teeth/group) according to the dentin surface pretreatment methods (control, 18% EDTA, 10% Polyacrylic acid) and curing mode (self-curing vs. light-curing) of cement. After pretreatment, composite resin blocks were cemented with the following: (a) G-CEM LinkAce; (b) RelyX U200, followed by either self-curing or light-curing. After storage, the teeth were sectioned and µTBS test was performed using a microtensile testing machine. The data was statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Student T-test and Scheffe's post-hoc test at P<.05 level. RESULTS For G-CEM LinkAce cement groups, polyacrylic acid pretreatment showed the highest µTBS in the self-cured group. In the light-cured group, no significant improvements were observed according to the dentin surface pretreatment. There were no significant differences between curing modes. Both dentin surface pretreatment methods helped to increase the µTBS of RelyX U200 resin cement significantly and degree of pretreatment effect was similar. No significant differences were found regarding curing modes except control groups. In the comparisons of two self-adhesive resin cements, all groups within the same pretreatment and curing mode were significantly different excluding self-cured control groups. CONCLUSION Selecting RelyX U200 used in this study and application of dentin surface pretreatment with EDTA and polyacrylic acid might be recommended to enhance the bond strength of cement to dentin. PMID:26330979

  9. Immediate and delayed photoactivation of self-adhesive resin cements and retention of glass-fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Faria-e-Silva, André Luis; Peixoto, Aline Carvalho; Borges, Marcela Gonçalves; Menezes, Murilo de Sousa; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immediate and delayed photoactivation of self-adhesive resin cements (SARCs) on the retention of glass-fiber posts luted into root canals. Bovine incisors were endodontically treated, and post holes of 9 mm in depth were prepared. Fiber posts were luted using one of two SARCs, BisCem (Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, USA) or RelyX Unicem clicker (3M ESPE, Saint Paul, USA), or a regular (etch-and-rinse) resin cement (AllCem; FGM, Joinvile, Brazil). Photoactivation was performed immediately, or at 5 or 10 min after cementation. Root/post specimens were transversely sectioned 7 days after luting into 1-mm-thick slices, which were submitted to push-out testing in a mechanical testing machine. Bond strength data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls' method (α = 0.05). Immediate photoactivation resulted in the highest bond strength for Unicem. BisCem demonstrated higher bond strength values when photoactivated after a 10-min delay. Immediate photoactivation yielded the lowest bond strengths for AllCem, although no differences in bond strength were observed between photoactivation delayed by 5 and 10 min. In conclusion, the moment of resin cement photoactivation may affect the intraradicular retention of fiber posts, depending upon the resin cement used for luting. PMID:25006624

  10. Effect of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesive systems on hardness uniformity of resin cements after glass fiber post cementation

    PubMed Central

    Grande da Cruz, Fernanda Zander; Grande, Christiana Zander; Roderjan, Douglas Augusto; Galvão Arrais, César Augusto; Bührer Samra, Adriana Postiglione; Calixto, Abraham Lincoln

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesive systems on Vickers hardness (VHN) uniformity of dual-cured resin cements after fiber post cementation. Methods: Fifty glass fiber posts were cemented into bovine roots using the following cementing systems: Prime&Bond 2.1 Dual Cure and Enforce with light-activation (PBDC-LCEN); Prime&Bond 2.1 and Enforce with light-activation (PB-CLEN); Prime&Bond 2.1 Dual Cure and Enforce without light exposure (PBDC-SCEN); ED Primer and Panavia 21 (ED-SCPN); and Clearfil SE Bond and Panavia 21 (CF-SCPN). The roots were stored in distilled water for 72 h and transversely sectioned into thirds (coronal, medium, and apical). The VHN values of the resin cement layers were measured close to the post and to the dentin wall on the transversely sectioned flat surfaces. The results were analyzed by three-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post-hoc test (pre-set alpha of 5%). Results: Most resin cements presented higher VHN values near the post than near the dentin wall. The ED-SCPN group showed the highest VHN values regardless of the root third, while the self-cured group PBDC-SCEN exhibited the lowest values. The resin cements from the light-activated groups PBDC-LCEN and PB-LCEN showed lower VHN values at the apical third than at the coronal third. The VHN values were not influenced by the root third in self-cured groups PBDC-SCEN, ED-SCPN, and ED-SCPN. Conclusion: Depending on the product, bonding agents might promote changes in hardness uniformity of resin cements after post cementation. PMID:22904652

  11. Push-out bond strength of quartz fibre posts to root canal dentin using total-etch and self-adhesive resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Narmin; Navimipour, Elmira J.; Shakerifar, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several adhesive systems are available for cementation of fibre posts into the root canal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the push-out bond strengths of quartz fibre posts to root dentin with the use of different total-etch and self-adhesive resin cements. Study Design: Ninety single-rooted human premolars were endodontically treated and standardized post-spaces were prepared. Fibre posts were cemented with different luting agents: total-etch (Nexus NX3, Duo-Link, and RelyX ARC) and self-adhesive resin cements (Maxcem Elite, BisCem, and RelyX Unicem). Three post/dentin sections (coronal, middle and apical) were obtained from each specimen, and push-out bond strength test was performed in each section at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data was analyzed with two-factor and one-way analysis of variance and a post-hoc Tukey test at a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: Cement type, canal region, and their interaction significantly influenced bond strength. Significantly higher bond strength values were observed in the apical region of self-adhesive cements. Only Duo-Link and RelyX ARC cements resulted in homogeneous bond strengths. Conclusions: Cementation of quartz fibre posts using self-adhesive cements provided higher push-out bond strengths especially in the apical region, while total-etch cements resulted in more uniform bond strengths in different regions of the root canal. Key words: Push-out bond strength; quartz fibre post; total-etch resin cement; self-adhesive resin cement. PMID:22143695

  12. Bonding effectiveness of self-adhesive and conventional-type adhesive resin cements to CAD/CAM resin blocks. Part 2: Effect of ultrasonic and acid cleaning.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Asuka; Matsumoto, Mariko; Higashi, Mami; Miura, Jiro; Minamino, Takuya; Kabetani, Tomoshige; Takeshige, Fumio; Mine, Atsushi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed the effect of ultrasonic and acid cleaning on resin cement bonding to CAD/CAM resin blocks. One of two resin cements, PANAVIA V5 (PV5) or PANAVIA SA CEMENT HANDMIX (PSA), were bonded to one of 24 CAD/CAM blocks (KATANA AVENCIA BLOCK). Each cement group was divided into four subgroups: no cleaning (Ctl), ultrasonic cleaning (Uc), acid cleaning (Ac) and Uc+Ac. Micro-tensile bond strengths (µTBSs) were measured immediately and 1, 3, and 6 months after water storage. Block surfaces after each treatment were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant effect for the parameters 'surface treatment' (p<0.001, F=40), 'resin cement' (p<0.001, F=696) and 'water aging' (p<0.001, F=71). The PV5 group exhibited higher µTBS values than the PSA group. Although cleaning after sandblasting was effective in removing residual alumina particles, it did not affect the long-term bonding durability with non-contaminated CAD/CAM resin blocks. PMID:26830822

  13. Bonding effectiveness of self-adhesive and conventional-type adhesive resin cements to CAD/CAM resin blocks. Part 1: Effects of sandblasting and silanization.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Mami; Matsumoto, Mariko; Kawaguchi, Asuka; Miura, Jiro; Minamino, Takuya; Kabetani, Tomoshige; Takeshige, Fumio; Mine, Atsushi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed the effect of sandblasting and silanization on resin cement bond strengths to CAD/CAM resin blocks. Twenty four blocks (KATANA AVENCIA BLOCK) were divided into two resin cement groups (PANAVIA V5 [PV5] and PANAVIA SA CEMENT HANDMIX [PSA]), and further divided into four subgroups representing different surface treatment methods: no treatment (Ctl), silanization (Si), sandblasting (Sb), and Sb+Si. After resin application, microtensile bond strengths (μTBSs) were measured immediately, 1, 3 and 6 months after water storage. In addition, surfaces resulting from each of the treatment methods were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three-way analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant effect for the parameters 'surface treatment' (p<0.001, F=370), 'resin cement' (p<0.001, F=103, PSA

  14. Effect of atmospheric plasma versus conventional surface treatments on the adhesion capability between self-adhesive resin cement and titanium surface

    PubMed Central

    Kilicarslan, Mehmet Ali; Deniz, Sule Tugba; Mumcu, Emre; Ozkan, Pelin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of atmospheric plasma (APL) versus conventional surface treatments on the adhesion of self-adhesive resin cement to Ti-6Al-4V alloy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty plates of machined titanium (Ti) discs were divided into five groups (n=12): 1) Untreated (CNT); 2) Sandblasted (SAB); 3) Tribochemically treated (ROC); 4) Tungsten CarbideBur (TCB); 5) APL treated (APL). SEM analysis and surface roughness (Ra) measurements were performed. Self-adhesive resin cement was bonded to the Ti surfaces and shear bond strength (SBS) tests, Ra and failure mode examinations were carried out. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and chi-squared test. RESULTS The lowest SBS value was obtained with CNT and was significantly different from all other groups except for APL. The ROC showed the highest SBS and Ra values of all the groups. CONCLUSION It was concluded that the effect of APL on SBS and Ra was not sufficient and it may not be a potential for promoting adhesion to titanium. PMID:26140177

  15. Influence of preheating the bonding agent of a conventional three-step adhesive system and the light activated resin cement on dentin bond strength

    PubMed Central

    Holanda, Daniel Brandão Vilela; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; do Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Flório, Flávia Martão; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2013-01-01

    Aims: to evaluate the influence of preheating the bonding agent (Scotchbond Multipurpose Adhesive/3M ESPE) and the light-activated resin cement (RelyX Venner/3M ESPE) on dentin microtensile bond strength. Materials and Methods: The exposed flat dentin surface of 40 human third molars were randomly distributed into four groups for cementation (SR Adoro/Ivoclar Vivadent) (n = 10): G1-bond and resin cement, both at room temperature (22°C), G2-bond preheated to 58°C and cement at room temperature (22°C), G3-bond at room temperature (22°C) and the cement preheated to 58°C, G4-bond preheated to 58°C and cement preheated to 58°C. Sticks of dentin/block set measuring approximately 1 mm2 were obtained and used for the microtensile bond strength test. All sticks had their failure mode classified. Statistical analysis used: Factorial analysis of variance was applied, 2 × 2 (bond × cement) (P < 0.05). Results: Preheating the bonding agent (P = 0.8411) or the cement (P = 0.7155), yielded no significant difference. The interaction bond × cement was not significant (P = 0.9389). Conclusions: Preheating the bond and/or the light-activated resin cement did not influence dentin bond strength or fracture failure mode. PMID:24347889

  16. Heat treatment of pre-hydrolyzed silane increases adhesion of phosphate monomer-based resin cement to glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Rodrigo Furtado; Cotes, Caroline; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; Leite, Fabíola Pessoa Pereira; Özcan, Mutlu

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different forms of heat treatment on a pre-hydrolyzed silane to improve the adhesion of phosphate monomer-based (MDP) resin cement to glass ceramic. Resin and feldspathic ceramic blocks (n=48, n=6 for bond test, n=2 for microscopy) were randomly divided into 6 groups and subject to surface treatments: G1: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + MDP resin cement (Panavia F); G2: HF 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + Heat Treatment (oven) + Panavia F; G3: Silane + Heat Treatment (oven) + Panavia F; G4: HF 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + Heat Treatment (hot air) + Panavia F; G5: Silane + Heat Treatment (hot air) + Panavia F; G6: Silane + Panavia F. Microtensile bond strength (MTBS) test was performed using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). After debonding, the substrate and adherent surfaces were analyzed using stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to categorize the failure types. Data were analyzed statistically using two-way test ANOVA and Tukey's test (=0.05). Heat treatment of the silane containing MDP, with prior etching with HF (G2: 13.15 ± 0.89a; G4: 12.58 ± 1.03a) presented significantly higher bond strength values than the control group (G1: 9.16 ± 0.64b). The groups without prior etching (G3: 10.47 ± 0.70b; G5: 9.47 ± 0.32b) showed statistically similar bond strength values between them and the control group (G1). The silane application without prior etching and heat treatment resulted in the lowest mean bond strength (G6: 8.05 ± 0.37c). SEM analysis showed predominantly adhesive failures and EDS analysis showed common elements of spectra (Si, Na, Al, K, O, C) characterizing the microstructure of the glass-ceramic studied. Heat treatment of the pre-hydrolyzed silane containing MDP in an oven at 100 °C for 2 min or with hot air application at 50 ± 5 ºC for 1 min, was effective in increasing the bond strength values between the ceramic and resin cement containing MDP. PMID:25672383

  17. Analysis of Self-Adhesive Resin Cement Microshear Bond Strength on Leucite-Reinforced Glass-Ceramic with/without Pure Silane Primer or Universal Adhesive Surface Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Woo, Jung-Soo; Yi, Young-Ah; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of self-adhesive resin (SA) cement on leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic using silane or universal adhesive. Materials and Methods. Ceramic blocks were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid and divided into three groups (n = 16): (1) negative control (NC) without treatment; (2) Single Bond Universal (SBU); (3) RelyX Ceramic Primer as positive control (PC). RelyX Unicem resin cement was light-cured, and μSBS was evaluated with/without thermocycling. The μSBS was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The fractured surfaces were examined using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results. Without thermocycling, μSBS was highest for PC (30.50 MPa ± 3.40), followed by SBU (27.33 MPa ± 2.81) and NC (20.18 MPa ± 2.01) (P < 0.05). Thermocycling significantly reduced μSBS in SBU (22.49 MPa ± 4.11) (P < 0.05), but not in NC (20.68 MPa ± 4.60) and PC (28.77 MPa ± 3.52) (P > 0.05). PC and NC predominantly fractured by cohesive failure within the ceramic and mixed failure, respectively. Conclusion. SBU treatment improves μSBS between SA cement and glass ceramics, but to a lower value than PC, and the improvement is eradicated by thermocycling. NC exhibited the lowest μSBS, which remained unchanged after thermocycling. PMID:26557660

  18. Analysis of marginal adaptation and sealing to enamel and dentin of four self-adhesive resin cements.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Carina Maria; Lang, Reinhold; Handel, Gerhard; Behr, Michael

    2012-02-01

    This in vitro study compared the marginal adaptation of all-ceramic MOD-inlays luted to human molars with four self-adhesive resin cements. Thirty-two human third molars were randomly assigned to four test groups (n = 8 per group). MOD cavities were prepared with approximal finishing lines in dentin and enamel. All-ceramic Empress 2 inlays were luted with four self-adhesive cements (Clearfil SA, iCEM, Bifix SE, seT). Oral stress was simulated by 90 day storage in water as well as by thermal and mechanical loading (TCML, 1.2 × 10(6) × 50 N, 6,000 × 5°/55°, 1.6 Hz). The marginal fit was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dye penetration. Data were analyzed with the ANOVA/Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The SEM investigation of the gingival cement margins (cement-tooth interface) showed values of perfect margin [percent] (means ± SD) after simulated aging between 84 ± 9% and 95 ± 5% for enamel and 80 ± 9% and 92 ± 3% for dentin. In enamel, seT showed significantly higher marginal integrity than iCEM after water storage and TCML (post hoc; p = 0.011). Furthermore, the marginal adaptation of iCEM in enamel deteriorated by simulated aging (p = 0.014, ANOVA). Mean values of dye penetration (percentage of dye entry into dentin) at the investigated restorations margins ranged between 3% and 8% for enamel and 12% and 22% for dentin. Clearfil SA, iCEM, and seT showed lower dye penetration in enamel than in dentin (Clearfil SA: p = 0.013, iCEM: p = 0.044, seT: p = 0.003). The results suggest that the four self-adhesive luting agents investigated seem to successfully bond to dentin-restricted as well as to enamel-restricted cavities, predicting good clinical performance. PMID:21327799

  19. In vitro comparative bond strength of contemporary self-adhesive resin cements to zirconium oxide ceramic with and without air-particle abrasion.

    PubMed

    Blatz, Markus B; Phark, Jin-Ho; Ozer, Fusun; Mante, Francis K; Saleh, Najeed; Bergler, Michael; Sadan, Avishai

    2010-04-01

    This study compared shear bond strengths of six self-adhesive resin cements to zirconium oxide ceramic with and without air-particle abrasion. One hundred twenty zirconia samples were air-abraded (group SB; n = 60) or left untreated (group NO). Composite cylinders were bonded to the zirconia samples with either BisCem (BC), Maxcem (MC), G-Cem (GC), RelyX Unicem Clicker (RUC), RelyX Unicem Applicator (RUA), or Clearfil SA Cement (CSA). Shear bond strength was tested after thermocycling, and data were analyzed with analysis of variance and Holm-Sidak pairwise comparisons. Without abrasion, RUA (8.0 MPa), GC (7.9 MPa), and CSA (7.6 MPa) revealed significantly higher bond strengths than the other cements. Air-particle abrasion increased bond strengths for all test cements (p < 0.001). GC (22.4 MPa) and CSA (18.4 MPa) revealed the highest bond strengths in group SB. Bond strengths of self-adhesive resin cements to zirconia were increased by air-particle abrasion. Cements containing adhesive monomers (MDP/4-META) were superior to other compositions. PMID:19415350

  20. The effects of tooth preparation cleansing protocols on the bond strength of self-adhesive resin luting cement to contaminated dentin.

    PubMed

    Chaiyabutr, Yada; Kois, John C

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of a self-adhesive luting cement after using four different techniques to remove surface contamination on dentin. Extracted human molars were flattened to expose the dentin surface and prepared for full crown preparation. Acrylic temporary crowns were fabricated and placed using temporary cement. The specimens were stored at room temperature with 100% relative humidity for seven days. Following removal of the temporary crowns, the specimens were randomly divided into four groups, and excess provisional cement was removed with (1) a hand instrument (excavator), (2) prophy with a mixture of flour pumice and water (3) aluminous oxide abrasion with a particle size of 27 microm at 40 psi and (4) aluminous oxide abrasion with a particle size of 50 microm at 40 psi. The microstructure morphology of the tooth surface was evaluated and residual materials were detected using SEM and EDS analysis of randomly selected specimens. The ceramics were treated with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid-etch and silanized to the prepared dentin prior to cementing with self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE). The shear bond strength was determined at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The results were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test. Particle abrasion treatment of dentin with an aluminous oxide particle provided the highest values of bond strength, while hand instrument excavation was the lowest (p < 0.05). Aluminous oxide particle size did not significantly influence the bond strength at 40 psi. The use of low pressure and small particle abrasion treated dentin as a mechanical cleansing protocol prior to definitive cementation increased the bond strength of self-adhesive resin-luting cement to dentin following eugenol-containing temporary cement. PMID:18833862

  1. Evaluation of pH, ultimate tensile strength, and micro-shear bond strength of two self-adhesive resin cements.

    PubMed

    Costa, Luciana Artioli; Carneiro, Karina Kato; Tanaka, Auro; Lima, Darlon Martins; Bauer, José

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and micro-shear bond strength (µSBS) of two self-adhesive resin cements to enamel and dentin. Sound bovine incisors (n = 10) and two self-adhesive resin cements (i.e., RelyX U-100 and seT PP) were used. The pH of the resin cements was measured using a pH-indicator paper (n = 3). Specimens for UTS were obtained from an hourglass-shaped mold. For µSBS, cylinders with internal diameter of 0.75 mm and height of 0.5 mm were bonded to the flat enamel and dentin surfaces. Bonded cylinders were tested in the shear mode using a loop wire. The fracture mode was also evaluated. The cement seT PP showed a low pH; U-100 showed significantly higher UTS (49.9 ± 2.0) than seT PP (40.0 ± 2.1) (p < 0.05) and high µSBS to enamel (10.7 ± 3.7). The lowest µSBS was found for seT PP to dentin (0.7 ± 0.6); seT PP to enamel (4.8 ± 1.7), and for U-100 to dentin (7.2 ± 1.9), showing an intermediate µSBS value (p < 0.05). Adhesive failure was the most frequently observed failure mode. The resin cement that presented the lowest pH and UTS also presented the lowest micro-shear bond strength to enamel and dentin. PMID:25337932

  2. The effect of dentin desensitizers and Nd:YAG laser pre-treatment on microtensile bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Tuncer, Duygu; Yuzugullu, Bulem; Celik, Cigdem

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to evaluate if pre-treatment with desensitizers have a negative effect on microtensile bond strength before cementing a restoration using recently introduced self-adhesive resin cement to dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-five human molars' occlusal surfaces were ground to expose dentin; and were randomly grouped as (n=5); 1) Gluma-(Glutaraldehyde/HEMA) 2) Aqua-Prep F-(Fluoride), 3) Bisblock-(Oxalate), 4) Cervitec Plus-(Clorhexidine), 5) Smart protect-(Triclosan), 6) Nd:YAG laser, 7) No treatment (control). After applying the selected agent, RelyX U200 self-adhesive resin cement was used to bond composite resin blocks to dentin. All groups were subjected to thermocycling for 1000 cycles between 5-55℃. Each bonded specimen was sectioned to microbars (6 mm × 1 mm × 1 mm) (n=20). Specimens were submitted to microtensile bond strength test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Levene's test, Kruskal-Wallis One-way Analysis of Variance, and Conover's nonparametric statistical analysis were used (P<.05). RESULTS Gluma, Smart Protect and Nd:YAG laser treatments showed comparable microtensile bond strengths compared with the control group (P>.05). The microtensile bond strengths of Aqua-Prep F, and Cervitec Plus were similar to each other but significantly lower than the control group (P<.05). Bisblock showed the lowest microtensile bond strength among all groups (P<.001). Most groups showed adhesive failure. CONCLUSION Within the limitation of this study, it is not recommended to use Aqua-prep F, Cervitec Plus and Bisblock on dentin when used with a self-adhesive resin cement due to the decrease they cause in bond strength. Beside, pre-treatment of dentin with Gluma, Smart protect, and Nd:YAG laser do not have a negative effect. PMID:24843392

  3. Shear Bond Strength of MDP-Containing Self-Adhesive Resin Cement and Y-TZP Ceramics: Effect of Phosphate Monomer-Containing Primers

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jin-Soo; Yi, Young-Ah; Lee, Yoon; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different phosphate monomer-containing primers on the shear bond strength between yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramics and MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cement. Materials and Methods. Y-TZP ceramic surfaces were ground flat with #600-grit SiC paper and divided into six groups (n = 10). They were treated as follows: untreated (control), Metal/Zirconia Primer, Z-PRIME Plus, air abrasion, Metal/Zirconia Primer with air abrasion, and Z-PRIME Plus with air abrasion. MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cement was applied to the surface-treated Y-TZP specimens. After thermocycling, a shear bond strength test was performed. The surfaces of the Y-TZP specimens were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The bond strength values were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Student–Newman–Keuls multiple comparison test (P < 0.05). Results. The Z-PRIME Plus treatment combined with air abrasion produced the highest bond strength, followed by Z-PRIME Plus application, Metal/Zirconia Primer combined with air abrasion, air abrasion alone, and, lastly, Metal/Zirconia Primer application. The control group yielded the lowest results (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The application of MDP-containing primer resulted in increased bond strength between Y-TZP ceramics and MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cements. PMID:26539485

  4. Shear bond strength evaluation of resin composite bonded to three different liners: TheraCal LC, Biodentine, and resin-modified glass ionomer cement using universal adhesive: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, Velagala L; Dhamaraju, Bhargavi; Bollu, Indira Priyadharsini; Balaji, Tandri S

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To compare and evaluate the bonding ability of resin composite (RC) to three different liners: TheraCal LC™ (TLC), a novel resin-modified (RM) calcium silicate cement, Biodentine™ (BD), and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) using an universal silane-containing adhesive and characterizing their failure modes. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted intact human molars with occlusal cavity (6-mm diameter and 2-mm height) were mounted in acrylic blocks and divided into three groups of 10 samples each based on the liner used as Group A (TLC), Group B (BD), and Group C (RMGIC). Composite post of 3 mm diameter and 3 mm height was then bonded to each sample using universal adhesive. Shear bond strength (SBS) analysis was performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results: No significant difference was observed between group A and group C (P = 0.573) while group B showed the least bond strength values with a highly significant difference (P = 0.000). The modes of failure were predominantly cohesive in Groups A and B (TLC and BD) while RMGIC showed mixed and adhesive failures. Conclusions: Hence, this present study concludes that the bond strength of composite resin to TLC and RMGIC was similar and significantly higher than that of BD following application of universal adhesive. PMID:27099425

  5. Analytical method to estimate resin cement diffusion into dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Ferraz, Larissa Cristina; Ubaldini, Adriana Lemos Mori; de Oliveira, Bruna Medeiros Bertol; Neto, Antonio Medina; Sato, Fracielle; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the diffusion of two resin luting agents (resin cements) into dentin, with the aim of presenting an analytical method for estimating the thickness of the diffusion zone. Class V cavities were prepared in the buccal and lingual surfaces of molars (n=9). Indirect composite inlays were luted into the cavities with either a self-adhesive or a self-etch resin cement. The teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and the cement-dentin interface was analyzed by using micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and scanning electron microscopy. Evolution of peak intensities of the Raman bands, collected from the functional groups corresponding to the resin monomer (C–O–C, 1113 cm-1) present in the cements, and the mineral content (P–O, 961 cm-1) in dentin were sigmoid shaped functions. A Boltzmann function (BF) was then fitted to the peaks encountered at 1113 cm-1 to estimate the resin cement diffusion into dentin. The BF identified a resin cement-dentin diffusion zone of 1.8±0.4 μm for the self-adhesive cement and 2.5±0.3 μm for the self-etch cement. This analysis allowed the authors to estimate the diffusion of the resin cements into the dentin. Fitting the MRS data to the BF contributed to and is relevant for future studies of the adhesive interface.

  6. Effects of dentin moisture on the push-out bond strength of a fiber post luted with different self-adhesive resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Uzunoğlu, Emel; Yılmaz, Zeliha

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effects of intraradicular moisture on the pushout bond strength of a fibre post luted with several self-adhesive resin cements. Materials and Methods Endodontically treated root canals were treated with one of three luting cements: (1) RelyX U100, (2) Clearfil SA, and (3) G-Cem. Roots were then divided into four subgroups according to the moisture condition tested: (I) dry: excess water removed with paper points followed by dehydration with 95% ethanol, (II) normal moisture: canals blot-dried with paper points until appearing dry, (III) moist: canals dried by low vacuum using a Luer adapter, and (IV) wet: canals remained totally flooded. Two 1-mm-thick slices were obtained from each root sample and bond strength was measured using a push-out test setup. The data were analysed using a two-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni post hoc test with p = 0.05. Results Statistical analysis demonstrated that moisture levels had a significant effect on the bond strength of luting cements (p < 0.05), with the exception of G-Cem. RelyX U100 displayed the highest bond strength under moist conditions (III). Clearfil SA had the highest bond strength under normal moisture conditions (II). Statistical ranking of bond strength values was as follows: RelyX U100 > Clearfil SA > G-Cem. Conclusions The degree of residual moisture significantly affected the adhesion of luting cements to radicular dentine. PMID:24303359

  7. Monkey pulpal responses to conventional and adhesive luting cements.

    PubMed

    Inokoshi, S; Fujitani, M; Otsuki, M; Sonoda, H; Kitasako, Y; Shimada, Y; Tagami, J

    1998-01-01

    Monkey pulpal responses to metal inlays luted with a combination of an adhesive resin and luting composite and conventional dental cements were histopathologically evaluated. Initial pulpal responses caused by re-exposure of the cut dentin surfaces and luting procedure under hydraulic pressure subsided at 90 days after final cementation. There was no significant difference among pulpal reactions to conventional dental cements and a combination of an adhesive resin and luting composite. The adhesive resin coating of freshly cut dentinal walls/floors immediately after cavity preparation seems to provide protection for the dentin and pulp in indirect restorations requiring temporary sealing. PMID:9610329

  8. Pull-out bond strength of a self-adhesive resin cement to NaOCl-treated root dentin: effect of antioxidizing agents

    PubMed Central

    Kachuei, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effect of three antioxidizing agents on pull-out bond strengths of dentin treated with sodium hypochlorite. Materials and Methods Root canals of 75 single-rooted human teeth were prepared. Fifteen teeth were irrigated with normal saline for a negative control group, and the remaining 60 teeth (groups 2 - 5) with 2.5% NaOCl. The teeth in group 2 served as a positive control. Prior to post cementation, the root canals in groups 3 - 5 were irrigated with three antioxidizing agents including 10% rosmarinic acid (RA, Baridge essence), 10% hesperidin (HPN, Sigma), and 10% sodium ascorbate hydrogel (SA, AppliChem). Seventy-five spreaders (#55, taper .02, Produits Dentaires S.A) were coated with silica and silanized with the Rocatec system and ceramic bond. All the prepared spreaders were cemented with a self-adhesive resin cement (Bifix SE, Voco Gmbh) in the prepared canals. After storage in distilled water (24 h/37℃), the spreaders were pulled out in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Pull-out strength values were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (α = 0.05). Results There were significant differences between study groups (p = 0.016). The highest pull-out strength was related to the SA group. The lowest strength was obtained in the positive control group. Conclusions Irrigation with NaOCl during canal preparation decreased bond strength of resin cement to root dentin. Amongst the antioxidants tested, SA had superior results in reversing the diminishing effect of NaOCl irrigation on the bond strength to root dentin. PMID:24790921

  9. Surface roughness and bond strength between Y-TZP and self-adhesive resin cement after air particle abrasion protocols.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Rafael Santiago de; Campos, Fernanda; Sarmento, Hugo Ramalho; Alves, Maria Luiza Lima; Dal Piva, Amanda Maria de Oliveira; Gondim, Laísa Daniel; Souza, Rodrigo Othávio Assunção

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different air particle abrasion (APA) protocols-with variations in particle types, duration of application, and the distance between the device tip and the ceramic-on the surface roughness (SR) of zirconia-based ceramic (yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal [Y-TZP]) and the shear bond strength (SBS) between Y-TZP and resin cement. In total, 135 sintered Y-TZP blocks were polished and divided into 9 groups according to 3 factors: particle (alumina vs alumina coated with silica), duration (5 vs 10 seconds), and distance (contact vs 10 mm away). All 3 factors significantly influenced the SR values between the experimental groups and the control group. For SBS, only the particle type was a statistically significant factor. Results showed that air particle abrasion with silica-coated alumina resulted in higher SBS, even though the SR values associated with those groups were not the highest. PMID:27599282

  10. Microleakage and marginal gap of adhesive cements for noble alloy full cast crowns.

    PubMed

    Hooshmand, T; Mohajerfar, M; Keshvad, A; Motahhary, P

    2011-01-01

    Very limited comparative information about the microleakage in noble alloy full cast crowns luted with different types of adhesive resin cements is available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage and marginal gap of two self-adhesive resin cements with that of other types of adhesive luting cements for noble alloy full cast crowns. Fifty noncarious human premolars and molars were prepared in a standardized manner for full cast crown restorations. Crowns were made from a noble alloy using a standardized technique and randomly cemented with five cementing agents as follows: 1) GC Fuji Plus resin-modified glass ionomer cement, 2) Panavia F 2.0 resin cement, 3) Multilink Sprint self-adhesive resin cement, 4), Rely X Unicem self-adhesive resin cement with pretreatment, and 5) Rely X Unicem with no pretreatment. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for two weeks and then subjected to thermocycling. They were then placed in a silver nitrate solution, vertically cut in a mesiodistal direction and evaluated for microleakage and marginal gap using a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn multiple range test at a p<0.05 level of significance. The Rely X Unicem (with or with no pretreatment) exhibited the smallest degree of microleakage at both tooth-cement and cement-crown interfaces. The greatest amount of microleakage was found for Panavia F 2.0 resin cement followed by GC Fuji Plus at both interfaces. No statistically significant difference in the marginal gap values was found between the cementing agents evaluated (p>0.05). The self-adhesive resin cements provided a much better marginal seal for the noble alloy full cast crowns compared with the resin-modified glass ionomer or dual-cured resin-based cements. PMID:21740242

  11. Try-in Pastes Versus Resin Cements: A Color Comparison.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Edenize Cristina; Vaz, Maysa Magalhães; Rodrigues Gonçalves de Oliveira, Maria Beatriz; Takano, Alfa Emília; de Carvalho Cardoso, Paula; de Torres, Érica Miranda; Gonzaga Lopes, Lawrence

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the color of ceramic veneer restorations using different shades of try-in pastes and resin cement. Researchers found no differences between try-in pastes and resin cements after cementation. PMID:27213935

  12. Surface treatment of gold alloys for resin adhesion.

    PubMed

    Eder, A; Wickens, J

    1996-01-01

    This in vitro study compared three methods of surface treating gold alloys to improve resin adhesion. The tensile bond strengths and modes of failure between specimen pairs cemented with a chemically adhesive resin were recorded. Heat-treated gold alloy specimens were significantly more resistant to bond failure under tensile loading than were either alumina-blasted or tin-plated gold specimens. There was no statistically significant difference in bond failure between alumina-blasted and tin-plated gold specimens. The surface treatment altered the mode of failure from adhesive and/or adhesive-cohesive for alumina-blasted and tinplated gold specimens to cohesive (within the resin) for heat-treated gold specimens. Three case reports are presented to illustrate clinical applications of heat-treated gold alloys. PMID:9063210

  13. Color stability of composite resin cements.

    PubMed

    Smith, Darrell S; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Whisler, Gerry

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to determine the difference in color stability of resin cements after one year of storage in water. Three commercial resin cements (Nexus 3, Calibra, Variolink 2) were evaluated under three different curing conditions (photo-, dual-, and self-cure) over three storage time periods (3, 6, and 12 months). A plastic mold was used to prepare cylindrical specimens of each of the three resin cements. For the phototcured specimens, only the base component of the resin cement was cured. For the dual- and self-cure specimens, the base and catalyst of the cements were mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions, syringed into the mold, and either photocured as before (dual-cure) or allowed to chemically set (self-cure). The total amount of color change (delta E) was calculated using a spectrophotometer after 24 hours (baseline) and after 3, 6, and 12 months of storage in distilled water. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA and a Tukey test. After one year of storage, Nexus 3 demonstated the lowest color change values (delta E) under all curing conditions, although it was not significantly different from Variolink 2 when photocured or Calibra when self-cured. New resin cements without a traditional benzoyl peroxide/amine redox initiator system, such as Nexus 3, could be more color-stable over time. PMID:22313825

  14. Effect of filler size on wear resistance of resin cement.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, K; Suzuki, S; Katoh, Y

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of filler size on the wear of resin cements. Materials tested included four experimental dual-cure resin cements (Kuraray) consisting of different-sized filler particles. A rectangular box cavity was prepared on the flattened occlusal surface of extracted human molars. Ceramic inlays for the cavities were fabricated using the Cerec 2 system. The Cerec inlays were cemented with the respective cements and adhesive systems according to the manufacturer's directions. The restored surface was finished by wet-grinding with an 800-grit silicon carbide paper. Six specimens were prepared for each resin cement. Half of the specimens were subjected to a three-body wear test for 200,000 cycles, and the others were subjected to a toothbrush abrasion test for 30,000 cycles. The worn surface of each restoration was scanned by a profilometer (Surfcom 475 A) at eight different points for each restoration. The wear value was determined by measuring the vertical gap depth on the profilometric tracings. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe's test. The results showed that, with increase of filler size, the wear value decreased in the toothbrush test and increased in the three-body wear test. The cement with 0.04-microm filler exhibited the lowest wear value among the materials in the three-body wear test, and the same wear value as the cement with 0.97-microm filler in the toothbrush test. Based upon the results of this study, it is concluded that the wear of resin cements was affected by the filler size as well as the mode of wear test. PMID:14530920

  15. Influence of cement type and thickness on polyfiber post adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Uzunoğlu, Emel; Türker, Sevinç Aktemur; Yilmaz, Zeliha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the effect of two different post space diameters and related resin cement film thicknesses on the bond strength of a polyfiber post. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 premolars were randomly divided into two according to the post space diameter: 1.1 mm and 1.5 mm. Then each group was divided into three sub-groups according to luting cement used: RelyX U100, Panavia F2.0/ED primer, Clearfil SA cement. Spirapost was then luted into the canal using luting cements. Two slices were obtained from each root specimen. Push-out tests were performed. Data was analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Connover post-hoc and Mann-Whitney U-test (P < 0.05). Results: Push-out bond strength was found to vary significantly according to type of adhesive system and post space diameter size (P < 0.05). The self-adhesive resin cement RelyX U100 had significantly higher bond strengths compared with the other adhesive system (P < 0.05). The self-etch adhesive system (Panavia F2.0) showed significantly lower bond strengths compared with the other systems (P < 0.05). There was a significant interaction between the luting systems and post space diameter (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The increases in post space diameter significantly reduced the bond strength of Spirapost to root dentine for both groups. PMID:24944450

  16. Relined fiberglass post: an ex vivo study of the resin cement thickness and dentin-resin interface.

    PubMed

    Souza, Niélli Caetano de; Marcondes, Maurem Leitão; Breda, Ricardo Vaz; Weber, João Batista Blessmann; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the thickness of resin cements in the root thirds when using conventional fiberglass posts (CP) and relined fiberglass posts (RP) in weakened roots and to evaluate the morphological characteristics of the dentin-resin interface. Forty human maxillary anterior teeth had the crown sectioned below the cemento-enamel junction. The canals were endodontically treated and weakened with diamond burs. Teeth were divided into four groups (n = 10): Group 1 - CP + RelyX ARC; Group 2 - CP + RelyX U200; Group 3 - RP + RelyX ARC; and Group 4 - RP + RelyX U200. Prior to luting, 0.1% Fluorescein and 0.1% Rhodamine B dyes were added to an adhesive and resin cement, respectively. Slices were obtained from the apical, middle, and cervical thirds of the root. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images were recorded in four areas (buccal, lingual, mesial, distal) of each third. In each area, four equidistant measures of the resin cement were made and the mean value was calculated. The interface morphology was observed. The data were submitted to three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The interaction between fiberglass posts, resin cement, and root thirds was significant (p < 0.0001). The resin cement thicknesses were significantly lower for RP in comparison with CP, except in the apical third. There was no significant difference between the resin cements for RP. There was formation of resin cement tags and adhesive tags along the root for RP. RP favored the formation of thin and uniform resin cement films and resin tags in weakened roots. PMID:27556553

  17. Evaluation of the flexural strength of dual-cure composite resin cements.

    PubMed

    Duymus, Zeynep Yesil; Yanikoğlu, Nuran Dinckal; Alkurt, Murat

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate of flexural strength of some adhesive resin cements. Three dual-cure composite resin cements (Nexus 3; Variolink II, Panavia F) were prepared. The manufacturer's mixing directions for the cements were followed. Adhesive resin cement was mixed, placed in the rectangular portion of the mold. Fifteen specimens were prepared for each cements. The cements were light-activated with light lamp for 40 s on both and top and bottom surfaces. The each cement specimens were divided into three groups according to time of storage and stored in distilled water for 24 h, 15, and 30 days. Total 45 specimens were stored at 37°C (98.6 0F) in distilled water for 24 h, 15, and 30 days prior to tests. The flexural strength was tested wıth a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min (0.02 in.) The maximum load was recorded as MPa. The results were analyzed by Analysis of Variance and Duncan test. The Panavia F resin cements content Bisphenol A was showed the highest flexural strength (80.80 MPa) (11.71 ksi) for 24 h. The lowest flexural strength was observed in Nexus 3 (51.00 MPa) (7.39 ksi). It was found significant interaction of material and time (p < 0.05). The types of cement and time of storage was statistically significant on the flexural strengths (p < 0.001). PMID:23359518

  18. Do resin cements influence the cuspal deflection of teeth restored with composite resin inlays?

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Helen C V; Marcondes, Maurem L; de Souza, Niélli C; Weber, João B B; Spohr, Ana M

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different resin cements on the cuspal deflection of endodontically treated teeth restored with composite resin inlays. Sixty upper premolars were randomly divided into five groups (n=12): 1 - sound teeth; 2 - cavity; 3 - Rely X ARC; 4 - RelyX Unicem; 5 - SeT. The teeth from groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 received a MOD preparation and endodontic treatment. Impressions were made with vinyl polysiloxane and poured using type IV die stone in groups 3, 4 and 5. Inlays with composite resin were built over each cast and luted with the resin cements. A 200 N load was applied on the occlusal surface, and cuspal deflection was measured using a micrometer. After 24 h, cuspal deflection was measured again using a 300 N load. The Student t-test showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the 200 N and 300 N occlusal loads only for the sound teeth group (p = 0.389) and the RelyX ARC group (p = 0.188). ANOVA and Tukey'test showed that the sound teeth had the lowest mean cuspal deflection, differing statistically from the other groups (p<0.05). The highest cuspal deflections were obtained in the SeT group and the cavity group, with no statistical difference between them. Intermediate values were obtained in RelyX ARC group and RelyX Unicem group, which differed statistically. The self-adhesive resin cements RelyX Unicem and SeT showed less capacity to maintain the stiffness of the tooth/restoration complex than the conventional resin cement RelyX ARC. PMID:25950160

  19. Evaluation of tensile retention of Y-TZP crowns cemented on resin composite cores: effect of the cement and Y-TZP surface conditioning.

    PubMed

    Rippe, M P; Amaral, R; Oliveira, F S; Cesar, P F; Scotti, R; Valandro, L F; Bottino, M A

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the cement type (adhesive resin, self-adhesive, glass ionomer, and zinc phosphate) on the retention of crowns made of yttria-stabilized polycrystalline tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP). Therefore, 108 freshly extracted molars were embedded in acrylic resin, perpendicular to their long axis, and prepared for full crowns: the crown preparations were removed and reconstructed using composite resin plus fiber posts with dimensions identical to the prepared dentin. The preparations were impressed using addition silicone, and Y-TZP copings were produced, which presented a special setup for the tensile testing. Cementation was performed with two adhesive resin cements (Multilink Automix, Ivoclar-Vivadent; RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA), one self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100, 3M ESPE), one glass ionomer based cement (RelyX Luting, 3M ESPE), and one zinc phosphate cement (Cimento de Zinco, SS White, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). For the resin cement groups, the inner surfaces of the crowns were subjected to three surface treatments: cleaning with isopropyl alcohol, tribochemical silica coating, or application of a thin low-fusing glass porcelain layer plus silanization. After 24 hours, all groups were subjected to thermocycling (6000 cycles) and included in a special device for tensile testing in a universal testing machine to test the retention of the infrastructure. After testing, the failure modes of all samples were analyzed under a stereomicroscope. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the surface treatment and cement type (α=0.05) affected the tensile retention results. The Multilink cement presented the highest tensile retention values, but that result was not statistically different from RelyX ARC. The surface treatment was statistically relevant only for the Multilink cement. The cement choice was shown to be more important than the crown surface treatment for cementation of a Y-TZP crown to a composite resin substrate. PMID

  20. Effects of different surface treatments on bond strength between resin cements and zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Erdem, A; Akar, G C; Erdem, A; Kose, T

    2014-01-01

    This study compares the bond strength of resin cement and yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) ceramic with different surface conditioning methods. Two hundred presintered Y-TZP ceramic specimens were prepared, sintered (4 × 4 × 4 mm), and randomly assigned to four equal groups as control (C, no conditioning); airborne particle abraded (APA, air abrasion with 11 μm Al2O3); tribochemical silica coating/silane coupling system (TSC, Rocatec, air abrasion with 110 μm Al2O3, 30 μm silica-coated Al2O3 and silane); and laser (L, Er:YAG laser irradiation treated at a power setting of 200 mJ). After specimen preparation, composite resin cylinders were prepared and cemented with resin cements (Clearfil Esthetic, Panavia F 2.0, Rely X-U100, Super Bond C&B, and Multilink Automix) on the ceramic surfaces and kept in an incubator at 37°C for 60 days. All specimens were tested for shear bond strength with a universal testing machine, and fractured surfaces were evaluated by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests (α=0.05). The bond strengths for C and L groups were not significantly different according to adhesive resin cement. APA and TSC resulted in increased bond strength for Panavia F 2.0 and Rely X-U100 resin cements. Additionally, TSC presented higher bond strength with Multilink Automix. Adhesive fracture between the ceramic and resin cement was the most common failure. Complete cohesive fracture at the ceramic or composite cylinders was not observed. Regardless of the adhesive resin cement used, laser treatment did not improve resin bond strength. PMID:24299447

  1. Microtensile Bond Strength of Self-Adhesive Luting Cements to Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Abo, Tomoko; Uno, Shigeru; Yoshiyama, Masahiro; Yamada, Toshimoto; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the bond strengths of the self-adhesive luting cements between ceramics and resin cores and examine their relation to the cement thickness. Three self-adhesive luting cements (Smartcem, Maxcem, and G-CEM) and a resin cement (Panavia F 2.0) for control were used in the paper. The thickness of the cements was controlled in approximately 25, 50, 100, or 200 μm. Each 10 specimens were made according to the manufacturers' instructions and stored in water at 37°C. After 24 hours, microtensile bond strength (μTBS) was measured. There were significant differences in cements. Three self-adhesive cements showed significantly lower μTBSs than control that required both etching and priming before cementation (Tukey, P < 0.05). The cement thickness of 50 or 100 μm tended to induce the highest μTBSs for each self-adhesive luting cements though no difference was found. PMID:22606202

  2. The role of resin cement on bond strength of glass-fiber posts luted into root canals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Sarkis-Onofre, R; Skupien, J A; Cenci, M S; Moraes, R R; Pereira-Cenci, T

    2014-01-01

    Because there are several ways to cement glass-fiber posts (GFPs) into root canals, there is no consensus on the best strategy to achieve high bond strengths. A systematic review was conducted to determine if there is difference in bond strength to dentin between regular and self-adhesive resin cements and to verify the influence of several variables on the retention of GFPs. This report followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. In vitro studies that investigated the bond strength of GFPs luted with self-adhesive and regular resin cements were selected. Searches were carried out in the PubMed and Scopus databases. No publication year or language limit was used, and the last search was done in October 2012. A global comparison was performed between self-adhesive and regular resin cements. Two subgroup analyses were performed: 1) Self-adhesive × Regular resin cement + Etch-and-rinse adhesive and 2) Self-adhesive × Regular resin cement + Self-etch adhesive. The analyses were carried out using fixed-effect and random-effects models. The results showed heterogeneity in all comparisons, and higher bond strength to dentin was identified for self-adhesive cements. Although the articles included in this meta-analysis showed high heterogeneity and high risk of bias, the in vitro literature seems to suggest that use of self-adhesive resin cement could improve the retention of GFPs into root canals. PMID:23937401

  3. Effect of eugenol-based endodontic cement on the adhesion of intraradicular posts.

    PubMed

    Alfredo, Edson; de Souza, Emanuel Soares; Marchesan, Melissa Andréia; Paulino, Silvana Maria; Gariba-Silva, Ricardo; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated, in vitro, the influence of an eugenol-based endodontic sealer (EndoFill) on the adhesion of intra-radicular posts cemented with a resin-based cement (Enforce) ou a zinc phosphate cement. Twenty-four single-rooted maxillary canines were divided into 2 groups (n=12) and obturated with either gutta-percha points plus EndoFill or gutta-percha points alone (no cement). In each group, half of intracanal posts (n=6) were cemented with Enforce resin-based cement and half with zinc phosphate cement. Specimens were submitted to pull-out test in an Instron machine and tensile force was applied at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until post dislodgement. The maximum forces required for post removal was recorded (N) and means were submitted to statistical analysis by Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.01). Posts cemented with zinc phosphate cement were significantly more retentive (353.4 N) than those cemented with Enforce (134.9 N) (p<0.01). Regarding the influence of the eugenol-based cement (EndoFill) on post retention, there was statistically significant difference (p<0.01) only between the groups cemented with Enforce, i.e., in the canals filled with EndoFill + guta-percha there was lower bond strength than in the canals filled with gutta-percha points alone (101.5 and 168.2 N, respectively). In conclusion, the zinc-phosphate-based cement showed greater post retention than the resin-based cement. The findings of this study suggest that the eugenol-containing sealer interfered with the adhesive properties of the resin-based cement. PMID:16924340

  4. Effect of thermal cycling on the bond strength of self-adhesive cements to fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Mazzitelli, Claudia; Monticelli, Francesca; Toledano, Manuel; Ferrari, Marco; Osorio, Raquel

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the push-out bond strengths of self-adhesive resin cements to epoxy resin-based fiber posts after challenging by thermocycling. Thirty-six single-rooted premolars were endodontically treated, and the post-spaces were drilled to receive RelyX Fiber posts #1. Three self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, G-Cem, and Breeze) were used for luting fiber posts. The bonded specimens were either stored for 1 month in a moist field (37°C) or submitted to thermocycling (5,000 times) prior to push-out test. The maximum force required to dislodge the post via an apical-coronal direction was recorded (megapascal). The data were statistically analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p < 0.05). The factors "luting cement" and "thermocycling" significantly influenced bond strengths. The initial push-out values of RelyX Unicem and Breeze were higher than those of G-Cem. After thermocycling, the bond strength of G-Cem increased and no differences were found between groups. RelyX Unicem and Breeze bond strengths were not affected by the thermal challenge. Thermal cycling and cement type differently influence the bond strengths of self-adhesive resin cements. Self-adhesive cements can represent an option for luting fiber posts into root canal. PMID:21670983

  5. Bonding All-Ceramic Restorations with Two Resins Cement Techniques: A Clinical Report of Three-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Junior, Amilcar Chagas Freitas; Martini, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    Ceramics have been widely used for esthetic and functional improvements. The resin cement is the material of choice for bonding ceramics to dental substrate and it can also dictate the final esthetic appearance and strength of the restoration. The correct use of the wide spectrum of resin luting agents available depends on the dental tooth substrate. This article presents three-year clinical results of a 41 years old female patient B.H.C complaining about her unattractive smile. Two all-ceramic crowns and two laminates veneers were placed in the maxillary incisors and cemented with a self-adhesive resin luting cement and conventional resin luting cement, respectively. After a three-year follow-up, the restorations and cement/teeth interface were clinically perfect with no chipping, fractures or discoloration. Proper use of different resin luting cements shows clinical appropriate behavior after a three-year follow-up. Self-adhesive resin luting cement may be used for cementing all-ceramic crowns with high predictability of success, mainly if there is a large dentin surface available for bonding and no enamel at the finish line. Otherwise, conventional resin luting agent should be used for achieving an adequate bonding strength to enamel. PMID:21912505

  6. Correlation between clinical performance and degree of conversion of resin cements: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    DE SOUZA, Grace; BRAGA, Roberto Ruggiero; CESAR, Paulo Francisco; LOPES, Guilherme Carpena

    2015-01-01

    Resin-based cements have been frequently employed in clinical practice to lute indirect restorations. However, there are numerous factors that may compromise the clinical performance of those cements. The aim of this literature review is to present and discuss some of the clinical factors that may affect the performance of current resin-based luting systems. Resin cements may have three different curing mechanisms: chemical curing, photo curing or a combination of both. Chemically cured systems are recommended to be used under opaque or thick restorations, due to the reduced access of the light. Photo-cured cements are mainly indicated for translucent veneers, due to the possibility of light transmission through the restoration. Dual-cured are more versatile systems and, theoretically, can be used in either situation, since the presence of both curing mechanisms might guarantee a high degree of conversion (DC) under every condition. However, it has been demonstrated that clinical procedures and characteristics of the materials may have many different implications in the DC of currently available resin cements, affecting their mechanical properties, bond strength to the substrate and the esthetic results of the restoration. Factors such as curing mechanism, choice of adhesive system, indirect restorative material and light-curing device may affect the degree of conversion of the cement and, therefore, have an effect on the clinical performance of resin-based cements. Specific measures are to be taken to ensure a higher DC of the luting system to be used. PMID:26398507

  7. Shear bond strength of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing feldspathic and nano resin ceramics blocks cemented with three different generations of resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Ab-Ghani, Zuryati; Jaafar, Wahyuni; Foo, Siew Fon; Ariffin, Zaihan; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the shear bond strength between the dentin substrate and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing feldspathic ceramic and nano resin ceramics blocks cemented with resin cement. Materials and Methods: Sixty cuboidal blocks (5 mm × 5 mm × 5 mm) were fabricated in equal numbers from feldspathic ceramic CEREC® Blocs PC and nano resin ceramic Lava™ Ultimate, and randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). Each block was cemented to the dentin of 60 extracted human premolar using Variolink® II/Syntac Classic (multi-steps etch-and-rinse adhesive bonding), NX3 Nexus® (two-steps etch-and-rinse adhesive bonding) and RelyX™ U200 self-adhesive cement. All specimens were thermocycled, and shear bond strength testing was done using the universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results: Combination of CEREC® Blocs PC and Variolink® II showed the highest mean shear bond strength (8.71 Mpa), while the lowest of 2.06 Mpa were observed in Lava™ Ultimate and RelyX™ U200. There was no significant difference in the mean shear bond strength between different blocks. Conclusion: Variolink® II cement using multi-steps etch-and-rinse adhesive bonding provided a higher shear bond strength than the self-adhesive cement RelyX U200. The shear bond strength was not affected by the type of blocks used. PMID:26430296

  8. Processable polyimide adhesive and matrix composite resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Progar, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature polyimide composition prepared by reacting 4,4'-isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride with metaphenylenediamine is employed to prepare matrix resins, adhesives, films, coatings, moldings, and laminates, especially those showing enhanced flow with retention of mechanical and adhesive properties. It can be used in the aerospace industry, for example, in joining metals to metals or metals to composite structures. One area of application is in the manufacture of lighter and stronger aircraft and spacecraft structures.

  9. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes in hydraulic cement

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Kalb, P.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Work has been conducted to investigate the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes with portland cements. These efforts have been directed toward the development of acceptable formulations for the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes and the characterization of the resultant waste forms. This paper describes formulation development work and defines acceptable formulations in terms of ternary phase compositional diagrams. The effects of cement type, resin type, resin loading, waste/cement ratio and water/cement ratio are described. The leachability of unsolidified and solidified resin waste forms and its relationship to full-scale waste form behavior is discussed. Gamma irradiation was found to improve waste form integrity, apparently as a result of increased resin crosslinking. Modifications to improve waste form integrity are described. 3 tables.

  10. Effect of Adhesive Cementation Strategies on the Bonding of Y-TZP to Human Dentin.

    PubMed

    Alves, Mll; Campos, F; Bergoli, C D; Bottino, M A; Özcan, M; Souza, Roa

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different adhesive strategies on the adhesion of zirconia to dentin using conventional and self-adhesive cements and their corresponding adhesive resins. The occlusal parts of human molars (N=80) were sectioned, exposing the dentin. The teeth and zirconia cylinders (N=80) (diameter=3.4 mm; height=4 mm) were randomly divided into eight groups according to the factors "surface conditioning" and "cement type" (n=10 per group). One conventional cement (CC: RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE) and one self-adhesive cement (SA: RelyX U200, 3M ESPE) and their corresponding adhesive resin (for CC, Adper Single Bond Plus; for SA, Scotchbond Universal Adhesive-SU) were applied on dentin. Zirconia specimens were conditioned either using chairside (CJ: CoJet, 30 μm, 2.5 bar, four seconds), laboratory silica coating (RC: Rocatec, 110 μm, 2.5 bar, four seconds), or universal primer (Single Bond Universal-UP). Nonconditioned groups for both cements acted as the control (C). Specimens were stored in water (37°C, 30 days) and subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) testing (1 mm/min). Data (MPa) were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and a Tukey test (α=0.05). While surface conditioning significantly affected the SBS values (p=0.0001) (Ccement type did not (p=0.148) (CC=SA). The interaction terms were significant (p=0.014). Failure types were predominantly adhesive. Air-abrasion and the use of the universal primer improved the bond strength of zirconia to dentin compared to the control group, regardless of the type of resin cement used. PMID:26509232

  11. Retention of gold alloy crowns cemented with traditional and resin cements.

    PubMed

    Pinzón, Lilliam M; Frey, Gary N; Winkler, Mark M; Tate, William H; Burgess, John O; Powers, John M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure in vitro retention of cast gold crowns cemented with traditional and resin cements. Forty-eight human molars were prepared on a lathe to produce complete crown preparations with a consistent taper and split into six groups, eight crowns in each group. Crowns were cast in a high-gold alloy and then cemented. After 24 hours, the retention force (N) was recorded and mean values were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and the Fisher post-hoc least significant difference (PLSD) multiple comparisons test (a = .05). Failure sites were examined under 3100 magnification and recorded. Mean values (SD) for each group in increasing order of retention force were: Harvard Cement: 43 N (27), TempoCem: 59 N (16), PermaCem Dual: 130 N (42), RelyX Luting Cement: 279 N (26), Contax and PermaCem Dual: 286 N (38), and TempoCem with Contax and PermaCem Dual: 340 N (14). The Fisher PLSD interval (P = .05) for comparing cements was 29 N. Zinc-phosphate cement and provisional resin cements had the lowest retention forces. Resin cement with a bonding agent and the hybrid-ionomer cement had similar retention forces. Resin cement with a bonding agent applied after use of a provisional resin cement had a significantly higher retention force than the other cements tested. PMID:19639070

  12. Composite resin vs resin cement for luting of indirect restorations: comparison of solubility and shrinkage behavior.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, Tissiana; Guillarme, Davy; Gutemberg, Daniel; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Krejci, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate relationship between shrinkage development and early solubility of two commonly used luting materials, a self-adhesive cement (GCem chemical and light cured) and composite resin (Tetric). Linear displacement, shrinkage forces and leaching of UDMA from specimens immersed in 75% ethanol/25% water were measured. The least amount of linear shrinkage (33.0±2.9 µm) and polymerization force (4.1±0.3 kg) was observed in Tetric. UDMA leaching (% µg/mL) was the following: chemically cured GCem (4.2±0.2)>light cured GCem (1.5±0.1)>Tetric (0.1). Shrinkage development in the early stages of polymerization was much slower in the self-cured specimens in respect to light cured ones. With the chemically cured self-adhesive cement, incomplete materials' setting during the initial stages after polymerization favored monomer leaching from the cements' mass. PMID:24088842

  13. Influence of Temporary Cements on the Bond Strength of Self-Adhesive Cement to the Metal Coronal Substrate.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Raniel Fernandes; De Aguiar, Caio Rocha; Jacob, Eduardo Santana; Macedo, Ana Paula; De Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello; Antunes, Rossana Pereira de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    This research evaluated the influence of temporary cements (eugenol-containing [EC] or eugenol-free [EF]) on the tensile strength of Ni-Cr copings fixed with self-adhesive resin cement to the metal coronal substrate. Thirty-six temporary crowns were divided into 4 groups (n=9) according to the temporary cements: Provy, Dentsply (eugenol-containing), Temp Cem, Vigodent (eugenol-containing), RelyX Temp NE, 3M ESPE (eugenol-free) and Temp Bond NE, Kerr Corp (eugenol-free). After 24 h of temporary cementation, tensile strength tests were performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min and 1 kN (100 kgf) load cell. Afterwards, the cast metal cores were cleaned by scraping with curettes and air jet. Thirty-six Ni-Cr copings were cemented to the cast metal cores with self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U200, 3M ESPE). Tensile strength tests were performed again. In the temporary cementation, Temp Bond NE (12.91 ± 2.54) and Temp Cem (12.22 ± 2.96) presented the highest values of tensile strength and were statistically similar to each other (p>0.05). Statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was observed only between Provy (164.44 ± 31.23) and Temp Bond NE (88.48 ± 21.83) after cementation of Ni-Cr copings with self-adhesive resin cement. In addition, Temp Cem (120.68 ± 48.27) and RelyX Temp NE (103.04 ± 26.09) showed intermediate tensile strength values. In conclusion, the Provy eugenol-containing temporary cement was associated with the highest bond strength among the resin cements when Ni-Cr copings were cemented to cast metal cores. However, the eugenol cannot be considered a determining factor in increased bond strength, since the other tested cements (1 eugenol-containing and 2 eugenol-free) were similar. PMID:26963209

  14. Evaluation of polymerization shrinkage of resin cements through in vitro and in situ experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A. P. G. O.; Karam, L. Z.; Pulido, C. A.; Gomes, O. M. M.; Kalinowski, H. J.

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of two types of resin cements , conventional dual and dual self adhesive, through in vitro and in situ experiments. For the in vitro assay were selected two resin cements that were handled and dispensed over a mylar strip supported by a glass plate. The Bragg grating sensors were positioned and another portion of cement. was placed, covered by another mylar strip. For the in situ experiment 16 single-rooted teeth were selected who were divided into 2 groups: group 1 - conventional dual resin cement Relyx ARC and group 2 - dual self adhesive resin cement Relyx U200 ( 3M/ESPE ). The teeth were treated and prepared to receive the intracanal posts. Two Bragg grating sensors were recorded and introduced into the root canal at different apical and coronal positions. The results showed that the in vitro experiment presented similar values of polymerization shrinkage that the in situ experiment made in cervical position; whereas Relyx ARC resulted lower values compared to Relyx U200; and cervical position showed higher shrinkage than the apical.

  15. The effect of amine-free initiator system and the polymerization type on color stability of resin cements.

    PubMed

    Ural, Çağrı; Duran, İbrahim; Tatar, Numan; Öztürk, Özgür; Kaya, İsmail; Kavut, İdris

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the short-term (4 weeks) color stability of light-cure and dual-cure resin cements. Sixty disk-shaped test specimens of adhesive resin cement (10 × 1 mm) were prepared. One feldspathic porcelain test specimen (12 × 14 × 0.8 mm) was prepared from a prefabricated ceramic block. The feldspathic sample was placed on the resin cement disk and all the measurements were performed without cementation. Specific color coordinate differences (ΔL, Δa, and Δb), and the total color differences (ΔE) were calculated after immersion in distilled water for different periods. Data were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (α = 0.05). The test results revealed that different chemical structures and curing modes affected the ΔE values (P < 0.05). The highest ΔE values were obtained for RelyX Unicem dual-cure cement (2.14 ± 0.40), and the lowest for NX3 light-cure cement (0.78 ± 0.34). Third generation adhesive resin cement free of tertiary amines and benzoyl peroxide showed relatively slight color change in both test groups (light-cure and dual-cure resin cement). (J Oral Sci 58, 157-161, 2016). PMID:27349535

  16. Haemostatic agents on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin

    PubMed Central

    Anil, Akansha; Sekhar, Anand; Ginjupalli, Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Background Dentin surface contaminated with haemostatic agents can interfere with the bonding of self-adhesive resin cement. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various haemostatic agents such as Aluminium chloride, Ferric sulphate and Tannic acid on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin luting agent. Material and Methods The buccal surfaces of extracted premolars were flattened to expose the dentine. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups. In Group I Aluminium Chloride was applied on the flattened dentinal surface, in Group II Ferric Sulphate was applied to exposed dentin surface, in Group III tannic acid was applied on to the dentinal surface, and the control group, i.e. Group IV was rinsed with saline. After the surface treatment, all the teeth were air dried. Then a predetermined dimension of RelyX™ U200 self-adhesive resin cement was bonded to the pretreated dentin surfaces. The samples were then stored under 370C in distilled water for 24 hours under 100 % humidity. Following this each sample was tested for shear bond strength with an Instron testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. Results There was significant difference in the shear bond strength of control and tannic acid contaminated group (p<0.05), whereas there was no significant differences between the shear bond strength between control and aluminium chloride and ferric sulphate groups (p>0.05). Conclusions The usage of haemostatic agent can negatively affect the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement (Rely X) on to the dentin surface. As per the study Tannic acid significantly weakened the bond between the self-adhesive resin and dentin. Key words:Aluminium chloride, Ferric sulphate, haemostatic agent, self-adhesive resin cement, shear bond strength, Tannic acid. PMID:26330930

  17. Effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of zirconia to three resin cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadjoo, Nisa

    Statement of problem: There are no standard guidelines for material selection to obtain acceptable bonding to high-strength zirconium oxide ceramic. Studies suggest resin cements in combination with MDP-containing primer is a reasonable choice, however, the other cements cannot be rejected and need further investigation. Objective: The purpose of this in vitro study was the evaluation of the shear bond strength of three composite resin cements to zirconia ceramic after using different surface conditioning methods. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty sintered Y-TZP ceramic (IPS e.max ZirCAD) squares (8 x 8 x 4 mm) were embedded in acrylic molds, then divided into three groups (n=40) based on the type of cement used. Within each group, the specimens were divided into four subgroups (n=10) and treated as follows: (1) Air abrasion with 50microm aluminum oxide (Al2O 3) particles (ALO); (2) Air abrasion + Scotchbond Universal adhesive (SBU); (3) Air abrasion + Monobond Plus (MBP); (4) Air abrasion + Z-Prime Plus (ZPP). Composite cylinders were used as carriers to bond to conditioned ceramic using (1) RelyX Ultimate adhesive resin cement (RX); (2) Panavia SA self-adhesive resin cement (PSA); (3) Calibra esthetic cement (CAL). The bonded specimens were submerged in distilled water and subjected to 24-hour incubation period at 37°C. All specimens were stressed in shear at a constant crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. The bond strength values (MPa), means and standard deviations were calculated and data were analyzed using analysis of variance with Fisher's PLSD multiple comparison test at the 0.05 level of significance. The nature of failure was recorded. Results: The two-way ANOVA showed Panavia SA to have the highest strength at 44.3 +/- 16.9 MPa (p<0.05). The combination of Scotchbond Universal surface treatment with Panavia SA cement showed statistically higher bond strength (p=0.0054). The highest bond

  18. Effect of resin cement, aging process and root level on the bond strength of the resin-fiber posts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuhim, Khalid Salman

    Background. Little is known about the long-term clinical bonding effectiveness of the Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts cemented with self-etch adhesive systems. Bond stability and longevity of the cemented post are adversely affected by physical and chemical factors over time, such as expansion and contraction stresses caused by thermal changes and occlusal load. This clinical condition can be simulated in vitro by thermocyclic loading; and bonding effectiveness can be evaluated by applying the micropush out test. Therefore, more in vitro studies are needed to evaluate the bond strength of the fiber posts cemented with different resin cement systems after simulating the artificial aging induced by thermocycling. The aim of this study was to compare the microtensile bond strength of two different resin cement systems (total etch, and self-etch resin cement system) used for cementation of fiber reinforced composite posts in three different aging periods using thermocycling. Methods. Following IRB approval, sixty freshly extracted bicuspid single rooted natural teeth were endodontically treated, and the post-spaces were prepared to receive a fiber-post cemented with either a total etch resin cement (Rely-X Ultimate) or with a self-etch resin cement (Rely-X Unicem). No thermocycling, 20,000 and 40,000 cycles was used to age the specimens. Teeth were randomly allocated into six different groups: G1 - Control: Rely-X Ultimate cement with no thermocycling. G2: Rely-X Ultimate cement with 20,000 thermocycling. G3: Rely-X Ultimate cement with 40,000 thermocycling. G4: Rely-X Unicem cement. G5: Rely-X Unicem cement. G6: Rely-X Unicem cement. Microtensile bond strength determined using a micropush out test on a universal testing machine (MTS). Additionally, the failure mode of each specimen was observed under a stereomicroscope (Olympus) at 40x magnification. Finally, one representative sample was randomly selected from each of the five failure modes for scanning

  19. Effects of curing mode of resin cements on the bond strength of a titanium post: An intraradicular study

    PubMed Central

    Reza, Fazal; Lim, Siau Peng

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To compare push-out bond strength between self-cured and dual-cured resin cement using a titanium post. Background: Dual-cured resin cements have been found to be less polymerized in the absence of light; thus the bond strength of cements would be compromised due to the absence of light with a metallic post. Materials and Methods: Ten extracted teeth were prepared for cement titanium PARAPOST, of five specimens each, with Panavia F [dual-cured (PF)] and Rely×Luting 2 [self-cured resin-modified glass ionomer luting cement (RL)]; the push-out bond strength (PBS) at three different levels of the sectioned roots was measured. The failure modes were observed and the significance of the differences in bond strength of the two types of cement at each level and at different levels of the same type was analyzed with non-parametric tests. Results: The push-out bond strength of the RL group was greater at all the three levels; with significant differences at the coronal and middle levels (P<0.05). No significant differences in PBS at different levels of the same group were observed. Cement material around the post was obvious in the PF group. The failure mode was mostly adhesive between the post and resin cement in the RL group. Conclusion: Bond strength was greater with self-cured, resin-modified glass ionomer luting cement, using titanium post. PMID:22557808

  20. The influence of polymerization shrinkage of resin cements on bonding to metal.

    PubMed

    Verzijden, C W; Feilzer, A J; Creugers, N H; Davidson, C L

    1992-02-01

    During the setting of a resin composite cement (RCC) used as an adhesive between a resin-bonded bridge and tooth structure, the adhesion may be disrupted by the development of shrinkage stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the shrinkage stress of three different RCCs on their adhesive and cohesive qualities when bonded to metal surfaces in a rigid set-up. Two opposing parallel NiCr discs (Wiron 77) were mounted in a tensilometer at a mutual distance of 200 microns and cemented with Panavia Ex, Clearfil F2, or Microfill Pontic C. The alloy surfaces were treated by either electrolytic etching, sand-blasting, silane-coating, or tin-plating. During setting, the discs were kept at their original mutual distance to simulate the extreme clinical situation of "complete" rigidity, where the casting and the tooth cannot move toward each other. The developing shrinkage stress was recorded continuously. During setting, the adhesive strength of the RCCs to silane-coated surfaces was always higher than their early cohesive strength. Electrolytically-etched surfaces as well as sand-blasted surfaces showed, in almost all cases, adhesive failure. The tin-plated samples showed mainly adhesive failure at the metal/resin interface. The highest bond strength values were found for silane-coated surfaces in combination with Clearfil F2. PMID:1556300

  1. Bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramic with different surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Usumez, Aslıhan; Hamdemirci, Nermin; Koroglu, Bilge Yuksel; Simsek, Irfan; Parlar, Ozge; Sari, Tugrul

    2013-01-01

    Zirconia-based ceramics offer strong restorations in dentistry, but the adhesive bond strength of resin cements to such ceramics is not optimal. This study evaluated the influence of surface treatments on the bond strength of resin cement to yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramic. Seventy-five plates of Y-TZP ceramic were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 15) according to the surface treatments [airborne particle abrasion, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation (Fidelis Plus 3, Fotona; 2 W, 200 mJ, 10 Hz, with two different pulse durations 180 or 320 μs), glaze applied, and then 9.5 % hydrofluoric acid gel conditioned, control]. One specimen from each group was randomly selected, and specimens were evaluated with x-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. The resin cement (Clearfil Esthetic Cement, Kuraray) was adhered onto the zirconia surfaces with its corresponding adhesive components. Shear bond strength of each sample was measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Bond strengths were analyzed through one-way ANOVA/Tukey tests. Surface treatments significantly modified the topography of the Y-TZP ceramic. The Nd:YAG laser-irradiated specimens resulted in both increased surface roughness and bond strength of the resin cement. The highest surface roughness and bond strength values were achieved with short pulse duration. Nd:YAG laser irradiation increased both surface roughness of Y-TZP surfaces and bond strength of resin cement to the zirconia surface. PMID:22718473

  2. Deproteinized dentin: a favorable substrate to self-bonding resin cements?

    PubMed

    Barbosa De Souza, Fábio; Sinclér Delfino, Carina; Lacalle Turbino, Míriam; Braz, Rodivan

    2011-08-01

    The adhesive performance on deproteinized dentin of different self-adhesive resin cements was evaluated through microtensile bond strength (μTBS) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Occlusal dentin of human molars were distributed into different groups, according to the categories: adhesive cementation with two-step bonding systems-control Groups (Adper Single Bond 2 + RelyX ARC/3M ESPE; One Step Plus + Duolink/Bisco; Excite + Variolink I/Ivoclar Vivadent) and self-adhesive cementation-experimental groups (Rely X Unicem/3M ESPE; Biscem/Bisco; MultiLink Sprint/Ivoclar Vivadent). Each group was subdivided according to the dentin approach to: α, maintenance of collagen fibers and β, deproteinization. The mean values were obtained, and submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test. Statistical differences were obtained to the RelyX Unicem groups (α = 13.59 MPa; β = 30.19 MPa). All the BIS Group specimens failed before the mechanical tests. Dentinal deproteinization provided an improved bond performance for the self-adhesive cement Rely X Unicem, and had no negative effect on the other cementing systems studied. PMID:21648064

  3. Influence of endodontic sealer composition and time of fiber post cementation on sealer adhesiveness to bovine root dentin.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; Moraes, Rafael do Amaral; Broch, Juliana; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the influence of the type of endodontic sealer (salicylate resin-based sealer vs. two endodontic sealers) and the time of fiber post cementation after root filling on the post adhesion to bovine root dentin. Sixty bovine roots were assigned to six groups (n=10), considering an experimental design with two factors (factorial 3x2): endodontic sealer factor in three levels [epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus), eugenol-based sealer (Endofill), and salicylate resin-based sealer plus mineral trioxide aggregate - MTA (MTA Fillapex)] and time for post cementation factor in two levels (immediate post cementation or 15 days after root canal filling). After post cementation, 2-mm-thick slices were produced and submitted to push-out test. The failure modes were analyzed under a 40× stereomicroscope and scored as: adhesive at cement/dentin interface; adhesive at cement/post interface; cement cohesive; post cohesive; dentin cohesive; or mixed. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (α=0.05). When the fiber posts were cemented immediately after the root canal filling, the bond strengths were similar, independent of the endodontic sealer type. However, after 15 days, the epoxy resin-based sealer presented higher bond strength than the other sealers (p<0.05). Comparison between each sealer in different experimental times did not reveal any differences. The main failure type was adhesive at dentin/cement interface (89.4%). The time elapsed between the root canal filling and post cementation has no influence on post/root dentin adhesion. On the contrary, the type of endodontic sealer can influence the adhesion between fiber posts and root dentin. PMID:23969913

  4. A medicated polycarboxylate cement to prevent complications in composite resin therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Y.; Shintani, H.; Yamaki, M. )

    1990-01-01

    Preparative treatment is the preferred method to protect the dentin and pulp from complications in composite resin therapy. This study investigated the in vivo effects of the polycarboxylate cement containing zinc fluoride and tannic acid in composite resin restorations. Scanning electron micrographs established that the composite resin failed to contact the axial wall. The gaps varied from 10 to 60 microns. However, this polycarboxylate cement was shown to provide excellent adaptation to dentin when used as a base and its chemical adhesion allowed it to make close contact with the unetched dentin. The newly developed electron probe x-ray microanalyzer revealed that the in vivo penetration of fluoride and zinc occurred through the dentinal tubules. When this polycarboxylate cement was used, the orifices of dentinal tubules were partially occluded, possibly with the smear layer fixed by tannic acid. In addition, by releasing the components, this polycarboxylate cement adds acid resistance to dentin and increases the resistance of dentin collagen to proteolytic enzymes. As such this polycarboxylate cement offers advantages as a base to composite resin therapy.

  5. Adhesive Cementation of Indirect Composite Inlays and Onlays: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    D'Arcangelo, Camillo; Vanini, Lorenzo; Casinelli, Matteo; Frascaria, Massimo; De Angelis, Francesco; Vadini, Mirco; D'Amario, Maurizio

    2015-09-01

    The authors conducted a literature review focused on materials and techniques used in adhesive cementation for indirect composite resin restorations. It was based on English language sources and involved a search of online databases in Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus using related topic keywords in different combinations; it was supplemented by a traditional search of peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. The purpose of most research on adhesive systems has been to learn more about increased bond strength and simplified application methods. Adherent surface treatments before cementation are necessary to obtain high survival and success rates of indirect composite resin. Each step of the clinical and laboratory procedures can have an impact on longevity and the esthetic results of indirect restorations. Cementation seems to be the most critical step, and its long-term success relies on adherence to the clinical protocols. The authors concluded that in terms of survival rate and esthetic long-term outcomes, indirect composite resin techniques have proven to be clinically acceptable. However, the correct management of adhesive cementation protocols requires knowledge of adhesive principles and adherence to the clinical protocol in order to obtain durable bonding between tooth structure and restorative materials. PMID:26355440

  6. Surface Hardness of Resin Cement Polymerized under Different Ceramic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Kesrak, Pimmada; Leevailoj, Chalermpol

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the surface hardness of two light-cured resin cements polymerized under different ceramic discs. Methods. 40 experimental groups of 2 light-cured resin cement specimens (Variolink Veneer and NX3) were prepared and polymerized under 5 different ceramic discs (IPS e.max Press HT, LT, MO, HO, and Cercon) of 4 thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mm), Those directly activated of both resin cements were used as control. After light activation and 37°C storage in an incubator, Knoop hardness measurements were obtained at the bottom. The data were analyzed with three-way ANOVA, t-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results. The KHN of NX3 was of significantly higher than that of Variolink Veneer (P < 0.05). The KHN of resin cement polymerized under different ceramic types and thicknesses was significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Resin cements polymerized under different ceramic materials and thicknesses showed statistically significant differences in KHN. PMID:22548062

  7. Evaluation of TEGDMA leaching from four resin cements by HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Altintas, Subutay Han; Usumez, Aslihan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the elution of TEGDMA from dual cured resin cements, used for bonding of ceramic restoration by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: Forty freshly extracted caries and restoration free molar teeth used in this study. Standardized Class I preparations were prepared in all teeth. Ceramic inlays were cemented with one of the dual cured resin cements (Variolink II, Rely X ARC, Rely X Unicem and Resilute). After cementation, specimens were stored in 75% ethanol solution. HPLC was used to analyze the amounts of TEGDMA in different time intervals. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were used to evaluate the results (P<.05). Results: The amount of TEGDMA eluted from Resilute was the highest and the amount of TEG-DMA eluted from Rely X Unicem was the lowest (P<.05). The total amount of monomers was the highest after 21 days (P<.05). Conclusion: In the case of resin cements, elution of TEGDMA was the highest in Resilute and lowest in Rely X Unicem. The amount of TEGDMA eluted from resin cements was influenced by the time. PMID:22904653

  8. A Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Resin based Sealers on Retention of Crown Cemented with Three Types of Cement – An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sumeet; Patel, J.R.; Sethuraman, Rajesh; Singh, Sarbjeet; Wazir, Nikhil Dev; Singh, Harvinder

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In an effort to control postoperative sensitivity, dentin sealers are being applied following crown preparations, with little knowledge of how crown retention might be affected. A previous study demonstrated no adverse effect when using a gluteraldehyde-based sealer, and existing studies have shown conflicting results for resin-based products. This study determined the retention of the casting cemented with three types of cement, with and without use of resin sealers and it determined the mode of failure. Materials and Methods: Extracted human molars (n=60) were prepared with a flat occlusal, 20-degree taper, and 4-mm axial length. The axial surface area of each preparation was determined and specimens were distributed equally among groups (n=10). A single-bottle adhesive system (one step single bottle adhesive system) was used to seal dentin, following tooth preparation. Sealers were not used on the control specimens. The test castings were prepared by using Ni-Cr alloy for each specimen and they were cemented with a seating force of 20 Kg by using either Zinc Phosphate (Harvard Cement), Glass Ionomer (GC luting and lining cement,GC America Inc.) and modified-resin cement (RelyXTMLuting2). Specimens were thermocycled for one month and were then removed along the path of insertion by using a Universal Testing Machine at 0.5 mm/min. A single-factor ANOVA was used with a p value of .05. The nature of failure was recorded and the data was analyzed by using Chi-square test. Results: Mean dislodgement stress for Zinc phosphate (Group A) was 24.55±1.0 KgF and that for zinc phosphate with sealer (Group D) was 14.65±0.8 KgF. For glass ionomer (Group B) without sealer, the mean value was 32.0±1.0 KgF and mean value for glass ionomer with sealer (Group E) was 37.90±1.0 KgF. The mean value for modified resin cement (Group C) was 44.3±1.0KgF and that for modified resins with sealer (Group F) was 57.2±1.2 KgF. The tooth failed before casting dislodgement in 8 to 10

  9. Antibacterial effect and shear bond strength of an orthodontic adhesive cement containing Galla chinensis extract

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LU-FEI; LUO, FENG; XUE, CHAO-RAN; DENG, MENG; CHEN, CHEN; WU, HAO

    2016-01-01

    Galla chinensis extract (GCE), a naturally-derived agent, has a significant inhibitory effect on cariogenic bacteria. The present study aims to evaluate the antibacterial effect and shear bond strength of an orthodontic adhesive cement containing GCE. A resin-modified glass ionomer cement incorporated GCE at five mass fractions (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8%) to prepare GCE-containing cement for analysis. For the agar diffusion test, cement specimens were placed on agar disk inoculated with Streptococcus mutans (strain ATCC 25175). Following 48 h incubation, the inhibition halo diameter was measured. To assess bacteria colonization susceptibility, S. mutans adhesion to cement specimens was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) following 48 h incubation. To evaluate bond strength, a total of 50 metal brackets were bonded on premolar surfaces by using cement (10 teeth/group). Following immersion in an artificial saliva for 3 days, shear bond strength (SBS) was measured. The results demonstrated that GCE-containing samples exhibited a larger bacterial inhibition halo than control, and the inhibition zone increased as the GCE mass fraction increased. SEM analysis demonstrated that S. mutans presented a weaker adherent capacity to all GCE-containing cements compared with control, but the difference between each GCE-containing group was not significant. SBS values of each GCE-containing group exhibited no difference compared with the control. In conclusion, GCE-containing adhesive cement exhibits a promising inhibitory effect on S. mutans growth and adhesion. Without compromising bond strength, adding GCE in adhesive cement may be an attractive option for preventing white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment. PMID:27073642

  10. Effect of flexural strength of orthodontic resin cement on bond strength of metal brackets to enamel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun

    2011-04-01

    Three types of experimental resin cements with different curing systems, dual, light, and chemical, were designed. The relationship between the flexural strengths of the three experimental and five commercial (Beauty Ortho Bond, Transbond™ XT, Light Cure Bond, Kurasper® F, and Super Bond) orthodontic resin cements on the tensile bond strength (TBS) and shear bond strength (SBS) of metal brackets to enamel was determined. Seven specimen bars of each resin were prepared for measuring the flexural strengths of the resins. Bonded specimens of each resin were prepared, seven for measuring TBS and seven SBS for after bonding of a metal bracket to a maxillary central human labial anterior tooth using experimental and commercial resin cements. The results were analysed by one-way analysis of variance and Scheffé's multiple comparison tests. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. Increases in the flexural strength of the resin cements were related to increases in the TBS and SBS of the metal bracket. While the light-curing cements exhibited a strong linear correlation between flexural strengths and TBS or SBS, the dual- and chemical-curing cements exhibited a different flexural strength effect on both TBS and SBS. This was a result of the adhesive layer under the metal bracket, which could be chemically cured, in contrast to the light-curing cement. To control setting time and to obtain higher initial TBS and SBS by polymerizing the resin cement under the bracket, a dual-curing system, that combines both light- and chemical-curing systems, is essential. PMID:20937669

  11. Comparing the effect of a resin based sealer on crown retention for three types of cements: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pankaj; Thummar, Mansukh; Shah, Dipti; Pitti, Varun

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effect of resin based sealer on retention of casting cemented with three different luting agents. 55 extracted molar teeth were prepared with a flat occlusal surface, 20° taper and 4 mm axial height. The axial surface of each specimen was determined. The specimen were then distributed into five groups based on decreasing surface area, so each cementation group contained 11 specimens with similar mean axial surface area. A two-step, single bottle universal adhesive system (One-Step-Resinomer, Bisco) was used to seal dentin after the tooth preparation. Sealer was not used on the control specimens except for the modified-resin cement (Resinomer, Bisco) specimens that required use of adhesive with cementation. Using ceramometal (Wirobond(®), BEGO), a casting was produced for each specimen and cemented with either zinc phosphate (Harvard), glass ionomer (Vivaglass) or modified resin cement (Resinomer) with single bottle adhesive. All the castings were cemented with a force of 20 kg. Castings were thermal cycled at 5 and 55 °C for 2,500 cycles and were then removed along the path of insertion using a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. A single-factor ANOVA was used with a = 0.05. The nature of failure was also recorded. The mean stress removal for non sealed zinc phosphate, sealed zinc phosphate, non sealed glass ionomer, sealed glass ionomer and modified resin cement was found to be 3.56, 1.92, 2.40, 4.26, 6.95 MPa respectively. Zinc phosphate cement remained principally on the castings when the tooth surface was treated with the sealer and was found on both the tooth and the casting when the sealer was not used. Fracture of root before dislodgement was seen in 9 of 11 specimens with modified resin cement. Resin sealer decreases the retention of the castings when used with zinc phosphate and increases it when used with glass ionomer cement. The highest mean dislodgement force was measured with modified resin cement. PMID:24431752

  12. Resin cementation of zirconia ceramics with different bonding agents

    PubMed Central

    Tanış, Merve Çakırbay; Akay, Canan; Karakış, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sandblasting and different chemical bonding agents on shear bond strength of zirconia and conventional resin cement. In this study, 35 zirconia specimens were treated as follows: Group I: control; Group II: sandblasting; Group III: sandblasting + Monobond S; Group IV: sandblasting + Monobond Plus; Group V: sandblasting + Z-Prime Plus. The specimens in each group were bonded with conventional composite resin cement Variolink II. After cementation, specimens were stored in distilled water (at 37 °C) for 24 h and shear test was performed. The highest shear bond strength values were observed in Groups IV and V. The lowest shear bond strength values were observed in Group I. Using 10-methacryloyloxy-decyl dihydrogenphosphate monomer-containing priming agents, e.g. Monobond Plus and Z-PRIME Plus, combined with sandblasting can be an effective method for resin bonding of zirconia restorations. PMID:26019653

  13. DESENSITIZING BIOACTIVE AGENTS IMPROVES BOND STRENGTH OF INDIRECT RESIN-CEMENTED RESTORATIONS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    Pires-De-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri; de Marco, Fabíola Fiorezi; Casemiro, Luciana Assirati; Panzeri, Heitor

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the bond strength of indirect composite restorations cemented with a resin-based cement associated with etch-and-rinse and self-etching primer adhesive systems to dentin treated or not with a bioactive material. Materials and Method: Twenty bovine incisor crowns had the buccal enamel removed and the dentin ground flat. The teeth were assigned to 4 groups (n=5): Group I: acid etching + Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply); Group II: application of a bioactive glass (Biosilicato®)+ acid etching + Prime & Bond NT; Group III: One-up Bond F (J Morita); Group IV: Biosilicato® + One-up Bond F. Indirect composite resin (Artglass, Kulzer) cylinders (6x10mm) were fabricated and cemented to the teeth with a dualcure resin-based cement (Enforce, Dentsply). After cementation, the specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37oC for 30 days and thereafter tested in tensile strength in a universal testing machine (EMIC) with 50 kgf load cell at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Failure modes were assessed under scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (95% level of confidence). Results: Groups I, II and III had statistically similar results (p>0.05). Group IV had statistically significant higher bond strength means (p<0.05) than the other groups. The analysis of the debonded surfaces showed a predominance of adhesive failure mode for Group III and mixed failure mode for the other groups. Conclusion: The use of desensitizing agent did not affect negatively the bonding of the indirect composite restorations to dentin, independently of the tested adhesive systems. PMID:19089114

  14. Occupational contact allergy to unsaturated polyester resin cements.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, K; Jolanki, R; Estlander, T

    1993-04-01

    6 men contracted occupational allergic contact dermatitis from unsaturated polyester (UP) cements. 4 of the men were employed in car repair painting and the remaining 2 in mold manufacturing. The exposure time to UP cements ranged from 6 to 32 years before onset of skin symptoms. All patients had eczema on their hands; in addition, 4 had skin symptoms on airborne areas, i.e., wrists, neck and face. All 6 patients developed allergic reactions when patch tested with UP resin at 0.5-10% in petrolatum (pet.). None of the tested patients reacted to auxiliary or cross-linking chemicals of the cements. Diethylene glycol maleate (DGM) was purified and identified from the UP resin of a cement. 1 patient reacting to UP resin was also patch test positive to DGM and he produced an allergic reaction to DGM down to a concentration of 0.0032% pet. DGM was found in both uncured and cured UP resin. None of the patients could continue their work with UP cements after their sensitization. PMID:8508632

  15. Bond strength of resin cement to CO2 and Er:YAG laser-treated zirconia ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Kasraei, Shahin; Heidari, Bijan; Vafaee, Fariborz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives It is difficult to achieve adhesion between resin cement and zirconia ceramics using routine surface preparation methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CO2 and Er:YAG laser treatment on the bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramics. Materials and Methods In this in-vitro study 45 zirconia disks (6 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) were assigned to 3 groups (n = 15). In control group (CNT) no laser treatment was used. In groups COL and EYL, CO2 and Er:YAG lasers were used for pretreatment of zirconia surface, respectively. Composite resin disks were cemented on zirconia disk using dual-curing resin cement. Shear bond strength tests were performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min after 24 hr distilled water storage. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's HSD tests. Results The means and standard deviations of shear bond strength values in the EYL, COL and CNT groups were 8.65 ± 1.75, 12.12 ± 3.02, and 5.97 ± 1.14 MPa, respectively. Data showed that application of CO2 and Er:YAG lasers resulted in a significant higher shear bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramics (p < 0.0001). The highest bond strength was recorded in the COL group (p < 0.0001). In the CNT group all the failures were adhesive. However, in the laser groups, 80% of the failures were of the adhesive type. Conclusions Pretreatment of zirconia ceramic via CO2 and Er:YAG laser improves the bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramic, with higher bond strength values in the CO2 laser treated samples. PMID:25383349

  16. In-vitro study of resin-modified glass ionomer cements for cementation of orthodontic bands. Isolation, surplus removal and humidity as factors influencing the bond strength between enamel, cement and metal.

    PubMed

    Liebmann, S M; Jost-Brinkmann, P G

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate different light-cured and chemically cured resin-modified glass ionomer cements used for the cementation of orthodontic bands and to analyze various factors influencing the adhesive strength between enamel, cement and stainless steel. Four resin-modified glass ionomers (Fuji Ortho LC/GC, Fuji Duet/GC, Unitek Multi-Cure Glass Ionomer Orthodontic Band Cement/3M Unitek, Vitremer/3M) and 1 compomer (Band-Lok/Reliance) were examined. Flattened and polished bovine teeth embedded in polyurethane resin were used as enamel specimens. Before cementation, 50% of the specimens were moistened with the aerosol of an inhalation device, while the rest were dried with compressed air. Stainless steel cylinders (CrNi 18 10) were perpendicularly bonded onto the polished enamel using a custom-made cementation device and immediately topped with a pressure of 0.25 MPa. The cement was isolated with either Ketac Glaze/ESPE, Fuji Coat/GC, Cacao Butter/GC, Dryfoil/Jalenko or Final Varnish/VOCO, or was left uncoated. Eight minutes after the beginning of mixing, either the surplus cement was removed with a scalpel or surplus removal was simulated with ultrasound. After 24 hours storage in a water bath at 37 degrees C and 1,000 thermocycles the shear bond strength was determined. Significant differences with respect to the shear bond strength were found among the following cements, ranking from highest to lowest: Fuji Duet, Unitek cement > Fuji Ortho LC > Vitremer > Band-Lok. The application of a barrier coating significantly increased the shear bond strength of all cements except Fuji Ortho LC. The light-cured resin Ketac Glaze proved to be the most effective barrier coating. A dry enamel surface increased the bond strength of all investigated cements except Unitek cement. The use of ultrasound led to no significant reduction in shear bond strength in comparison with surplus removal with a scalpel. PMID:10546417

  17. The Comparison of Sorption and Solubility Behavior of Four Different Resin Luting Cements in Different Storage Media

    PubMed Central

    Giti, Rashin; Vojdani, Mahroo; Abduo, Jaafar; Bagheri, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Structural integrity and dimensional stability are the key factors that determine the clinical success and durability of luting cements in the oral cavity. Sorption and solubility of self-adhesive resin luting cements in food-simulating solutions has not been studied sufficiently. Purpose This study aimed to compare the sorption and solubility of 2 conventional and 2 self-adhesive resin-based luting cements immersed in four different storage media. Materials and Method A total of 32 disc-shaped specimens were prepared from each of four resin luting cements; seT (SDI), Panavia F (Kuraray), Clearfil SA Cement (Kuraray), and Choice 2 (Bisco). Eight specimens of each material were immersed in all tested solutions including n-heptane 97%, distilled water, apple juice, or Listerine mouth wash. Sorption and solubility were measured by weighing the specimens before and after immersion and desiccation. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 18, using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test with p≤ 0.05 set as the level of significance. Results There was a statistically significant interaction between the materials and solutions. The effect of media on the sorption and solubility was material-dependent. While seT showed the highest values of the sorption in almost all solutions, Choice 2 showed the least values of sorption and solubility. Immersion in apple juice caused more sorption than other solutions (p≤ 0.05). Conclusion The sorption and solubility behavior of the studied cements were significantly affected by their composition and the storage media. The more hydrophobic materials with higher filler content like Choice 2 resin cement showed the least sorption and solubility. Due to their lower sorption and solubility, these types of resin-based luting cements are recommended to be used clinically. PMID:27284553

  18. Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Noble and Base Metal Alloys with Different Surface Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Raeisosadat, Farkhondeh; Ghavam, Maryam; Hasani Tabatabaei, Masoomeh; Arami, Sakineh; Sedaghati, Maedeh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The bond strength of resin cements to metal alloys depends on the type of the metal, conditioning methods and the adhesive resins used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of resin cements to base and noble metal alloys after sand blasting or application of silano-pen. Materials and Method: Cylinders of light cured Z 250 composite were cemented to “Degubond 4” (Au Pd) and “Verabond” (Ni Cr) alloys by either RelyX Unicem or Panavia F2, after sandblasting or treating the alloys with Silano-Pen. The shear bond strengths were evaluated. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and t tests at a significance level of P<0.05. Results: When the alloys were treated by Silano-Pen, RelyX Unicem showed a higher bond strength for Degubond 4 (P=0.021) and Verabond (P< 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the bond strength of Panavia F2 to the alloys after either of surface treatments, Degubond 4 (P=0.291) and Verabond (P=0.899). Panavia F2 showed a higher bond strength to sandblasted Verabond compared to RelyX Unicem (P=0.003). The bond strength of RelyX Unicem was significantly higher to Silano-Pen treated Verabond (P=0.011). The bond strength of the cements to sandblasted Degubond 4 showed no significant difference (P=0.59). RelyX Unicem had a higher bond strength to Silano-Pen treated Degubond 4 (P=0.035). Conclusion: The bond strength of resin cements to Verabond alloy was significantly higher than Degubond 4. RelyX Unicem had a higher bond strength to Silano-Pen treated alloys. Surface treatments of the alloys did not affect the bond strength of Panavia F2. PMID:25628687

  19. Bonding Effectiveness of Two Adhesive Luting Cements to Glass Fiber Posts: Pull-Out Evaluation of Three Different Post Surface Conditioning Methods

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength at the post/resin-cement interface with 3 different surface treatments of glass fiber posts and with 2 different luting resin cements. Sixty glass fiber posts (RelyX Fiber Post) were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 20) and were luted with a dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement (RelyX Unicem) and with a dual-polymerizing resin cement (RelyX ARC). This was carried out in association with a dual-polymerizing adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus) in simulated plexiglass root canals after receiving three different pretreatment procedures. A pull-out test was performed on each sample to measure bond strengths. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA. Two samples from each group were processed for SEM observations in order to investigate the morphologic aspect of the post/cement interface. Both resin cements demonstrated significant different bond strength values (P < 0.0001). The surface treatment result was also statistically significant (P = 0.0465). SEM examination showed a modification of the post surface after pretreatment with methyl methacrylate. The dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement achieved higher MPa bond strength values. The use of methyl methacrylate as a surface treatment of glass fiber posts provided a significant increase in bond strengths between the posts and both luting materials. PMID:24987418

  20. Bond strength of selected composite resin-cements to zirconium-oxide ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Fons-Font, Antonio; Amigó-Borrás, Vicente; Granell-Ruiz, María; Busquets-Mataix, David; Panadero, Rubén A.; Solá-Ruiz, Maria F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate bond strengths of zirconium-oxide (zirconia) ceramic and a selection of different composite resin cements. Study Design: 130 Lava TM cylinders were fabricated. The cylinders were sandblasted with 80 µm aluminium oxide or silica coated with CoJet Sand. Silane, and bonding agent and/or Clearfil Ceramic Primer were applied. One hundred thirty composite cement cylinders, comprising two dual-polymerizing (Variolink II and Panavia F) and two autopolymerizing (Rely X and Multilink) resins were bonded to the ceramic samples. A shear test was conducted, followed by an optical microscopy study to identify the location and type of failure, an electron microscopy study (SEM and TEM) and statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test for more than two independent samples and Mann-Whitney for two independent samples. Given the large number of combinations, Bonferroni correction was applied (α=0.001). Results: Dual-polymerizing cements provided better adhesion values (11.7 MPa) than the autopolymerizing (7.47 MPa) (p-value M-W<0.001). The worst techniques were Lava TM + sandblasting + Silane + Rely X; Lava TM + sandblasting + Silane + Multilink and Lava TM + CoJet + silane + Multilink. Adhesive failure (separation of cement and ceramic) was produced at a lesser force than cohesive failure (fracture of cement) (p-value M-W<0.001). Electron microscopy confirmed that the surface treatments modified the zirconium-oxide ceramic, creating a more rough and retentive surface, thus providing an improved micromechanical interlocking between the cement and the ceramic. Key words:Shear bond strength, silica coating, surface treatment, zirconia ceramics, phosphate monomer. PMID:22926485

  1. Tissue response of apatite-filled resin cement and titanium-reinforced apatite dental implants in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ogiso, M; Tabata, T; Nakabayashi, N; Yamashita, Y; Borgese, D

    1993-01-01

    Abutment and root portion divided two-piece dental implants were designed to modify the one-piece dense hydroxyapatite (D-HAP) implant. The initial placement of the root portion endosseously ensured an aseptic environment and physical stability for the implant during the bone healing period. The outer D-HAP shell of the root portion was fortified by an inner titanium cylinder and cemented with an adhesive resin cement containing 4-methacryloyoxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META) and reinforced by fine apatite filler. Upon attaining integration of the bone and implant, the abutment was screwed and fixed into the screw hole of the root portion. The tissue response of both the apatite-filled resin cement and root portion of the two-piece implant was studied by animal canine experiments. Light and electron microscopic examination of specimens taken from experimental animal tissue showed bone contacted directly not only the exposed apatite filler at the surface of the apatite-filled resin cement, but also the resin portion. These findings of direct bone contact suggested that the tissue response of apatite-filled resin cement was approximately similar to the usual D-HAP. Because most of the surface of the outer D-HAP shell of the root portion came in contact with bone, it prevented the deposition of contamination on the D-HAP surface during the manufacturing procedures of the root portion. PMID:10148567

  2. Solubility and sorption of resin-based luting cements.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, L A; Kerby, R E; McMillen, K; Clelland, N

    2000-01-01

    This study compared the seven-day water sorption, water solubility and lactic acid solubility of three composite cements and three resin-modified glass-ionomer cements. Disc-shaped specimens measuring 15 mm x 0.5 mm were prepared according to each manufacturer's specifications and desiccated to a constant mass. Specimens were then placed in distilled water at 37 degrees C for seven days. Acid solubility was performed in 0.01 M lactic acid. The weight changes of the specimens after immersion in distilled water or 0.01 M lactic acid were measured using an electronic analytical balance. A one-way ANOVA followed by the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch (REGW) multiple range test was performed on all data. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found among several cements tested for each of the properties investigated. Due to their hydrophilic nature, all resin-modified glass-ionomer cements showed significantly higher water sorption compared to composite cements. PMID:11203853

  3. Shear bond strength of resin cement to an acid etched and a laser irradiated ceramic surface

    PubMed Central

    Motro, Pelin Fatma Karagoz; Yurdaguven, Haktan

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of hydrofluoric acid etching and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the shear bond strength of resin cement to lithium disilicate ceramic. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty-five ceramic blocks (5 mm × 5 mm × 2 mm) were fabricated and embedded in acrylic resin. Their surfaces were finished with 1000-grit silicon carbide paper. The blocks were assigned to five groups: 1) 9.5% hydrofluoric-acid etching for 60 s; 2-4), 1.5-, 2.5-, and 6-W Er,Cr:YSGG laser applications for 60 seconds, respectively; and 5) no treatment (control). One specimen from each group was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Ceramic primer (Rely X ceramic primer) and adhesive (Adper Single Bond) were applied to the ceramic surfaces, followed by resin cement to bond the composite cylinders, and light curing. Bonded specimens were stored in distilled water at 37℃ for 24 hours. Shear bond strengths were determined by a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests (α=0.05). RESULTS Adhesion was significantly stronger in Group 2 (3.88 ± 1.94 MPa) and Group 3 (3.65 ± 1.87 MPa) than in Control group (1.95 ± 1.06 MPa), in which bonding values were lowest (P<.01). No significant difference was observed between Group 4 (3.59 ± 1.19 MPa) and Control group. Shear bond strength was highest in Group 1 (8.42 ± 1.86 MPa; P<.01). CONCLUSION Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation at 1.5 and 2.5 W increased shear bond strengths between ceramic and resin cement compared with untreated ceramic surfaces. Irradiation at 6 W may not be an efficient ceramic surface treatment technique. PMID:23755333

  4. Composites with improved fiber-resin interfacial adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cizmecioglu, Muzaffer (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The adhesion of fiber reinforcement such as high modulus graphite to a matrix resin such as polycarbonate is greatly enhanced by applying a very thin layer, suitably from 50 Angstroms to below 1000 Angstroms, to the surface of the fiber such as by immersing the fiber in a dilute solution of the matrix resin in a volatile solvent followed by draining to remove excess solution and air drying to remove the solvent. The thin layer wets the fiber surface. The very dilute solution of matrix resin is able to impregnate multifilament fibers and the solution evenly flows onto the surface of the fibers. A thin uniform layer is formed on the surface of the fiber after removal of the solvent. The matrix resin coated fiber is completely wetted by the matrix resin during formation of the composite. Increased adhesion of the resin to the fibers is observed at fracture. At least 65 percent of the surface of the graphite fiber is covered with polycarbonate resin at fracture whereas uncoated fibers have very little matrix resin adhering to their surfaces at fracture and epoxy sized graphite fibers exhibit only slightly higher coverage with matrix resin at fracture. Flexural modulus of the composite containing matrix resin coated fibers is increased by 50 percent and flexural strength by 37 percent as compared to composites made with unsized fibers.

  5. Effect of CO2 and Nd:YAG Lasers on Shear Bond Strength of Resin Cement to Zirconia Ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Kasraei, Shahin; Yarmohamadi, Ebrahim; Shabani, Amanj

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Because of poor bond between resin cement and zirconia ceramics, laser surface treatments have been suggested to improve adhesion. The present study evaluated the effect of CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers on the shear bond strength (SBS) of resin cement to zirconia ceramic. Materials and Methods: Ninety zirconia disks (6×2 mm) were randomly divided into six groups of 15. In the control group, no surface treatment was used. In the test groups, laser surface treatment was accomplished using CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers, respectively (groups two and three). Composite resin disks (3×2 mm) were fabricated and cemented to zirconia disks with self-etch resin cement and stored in distilled water for 24 hours. In the test groups four-six, the samples were prepared as in groups one-three and then thermocycled and stored in distilled water for six months. The SBS tests were performed (strain rate of 0.5 mm/min). The fracture modes were observed via stereomicroscopy. Data were analyzed with one and two-way ANOVA, independent t and Tukey’s tests. Results: The SBS values of Nd:YAG group (18.95±3.46MPa) was significantly higher than that of the CO2 group (14.00±1.96MPa), but lower than that of controls (23.35±3.12MPa). After thermocycling and six months of water storage, the SBS of the untreated group (1.80±1.23 MPa) was significantly lower than that of the laser groups. In groups stored for 24 hours, 60% of the failures were adhesive; however, after thermocycling and six months of water storage, 100% of failures were adhesive. Conclusion: Bonding durability of resin cement to zirconia improved with CO2 and Nd:YAG laser surface treatment of zirconia ceramic. PMID:27148380

  6. Effects of Mechanical and Chemical Pretreatments of Zirconia or Fiber Posts on Resin Cement Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Zhou, Hui; Wei, Wei; Wang, Chen; Sun, Ying Chun; Gao, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The bonding strength between resin cement and posts is important for post and core restorations. An important method of improving the bonding strength is the use of various surface pretreatments of the post. In this study, the surfaces of zirconia (fiber) posts were treated by mechanical and/or chemical methods such as sandblasting and silanization. The bonding strength between the zirconia (fiber) post and the resin cement was measured by a push-out method after thermocycling based on the adhesion to Panavia F 2.0 resin cement. The zirconia and fiber posts exhibited different bonding strengths after sandblasting and/or silanization because of the different strengths and chemical structures. The zirconia post showed a high bonding strength of up to 17.1 MPa after a combined treatment of sandblasting and silanization because of the rough surface and covalent bonds at the interface. This effect was also enhanced by using 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane for the formation of a flexible layer at the interface. In contrast, a high bonding strength of 13.9 MPa was obtained for the fiber post treated by silane agents because the sandblasting treatment resulted in damage to the fiber post, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the improvement in the bonding strength between the post and the resin cement could be controlled by different chemical and/or mechanical treatments. Enhanced bonding strength depended on covalent bonding and the surface roughness. A zirconia post with high bonding strength could potentially be used for the restoration of teeth in the future. PMID:26066349

  7. Push-out bond strengths of fiber-reinforced composite posts with various resin cements according to the root level

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hoon-Sang; Noh, Young-Sin; Lee, Yoon; Min, Kyung-San

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine whether the push-out bond strengths between the radicular dentin and fiber reinforced-composite (FRC) posts with various resin cements decreased or not, according to the coronal, middle or apical level of the root. MATERIALS AND METHODS FRC posts were cemented with one of five resin cement groups (RelyX Unicem: Uni, Contax with activator & LuxaCore-Dual: LuA, Contax & LuxaCore-Dual: Lu, Panavia F 2.0: PA, Super-Bond C&B: SB) into extracted human mandibular premolars. The roots were sliced into discs at the coronal, middle and apical levels. Push-out bond strength tests were performed with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min, and the failure aspect was analyzed. RESULTS There were no significant differences (P>.05) in the bond strengths of the different resin cements at the coronal level, but there were significant differences in the bond strengths at the middle and apical levels (P<.05). Only the Uni and LuA cements did not show any significant decrease in their bond strengths at all the root levels (P>.05); all other groups had a significant decrease in bond strength at the middle or apical level (P<.05). The failure aspect was dominantly cohesive at the coronal level of all resin cements (P<.05), whereas it was dominantly adhesive at the apical level. CONCLUSION All resin cement groups showed decreases in bond strengths at the middle or apical level except LuA and Uni. PMID:24049569

  8. Cytotoxicity evaluation of five different dual-cured resin cements used for fiber posts cementation

    PubMed Central

    Dioguardi, M; Perrone, D; Troiano, G; Laino, L; Ardito, F; Lauritano, F; Cicciù, M; Muzio, L Lo

    2015-01-01

    Custom-cast posts and cores are usually used to treat endodontically treated teeth. However, several researches have underlined how these devices may be a much higher elastic modulus than the supporting dentine and the difference in the modulus could lead to stress concentrating in the cement lute, leading to failure. The role of the cement seems to play a fundamental role in order to transfer the strength during the chewing phases. Aim of this research is to record the rate of cytotoxicity of five different dual-cured resin cements used for fiber posts cementation. We tested the cytotoxicity of this five materials on MG63 osteoblast-like cells through two different methods: MTT ([3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide succinate) assay which tests for mitochondrial enzyme activity6 and xCELLigence® system. PMID:26309592

  9. Cytotoxicity evaluation of five different dual-cured resin cements used for fiber posts cementation.

    PubMed

    Dioguardi, M; Perrone, D; Troiano, G; Laino, L; Ardito, F; Lauritano, F; Cicciù, M; Muzio, L Lo

    2015-01-01

    Custom-cast posts and cores are usually used to treat endodontically treated teeth. However, several researches have underlined how these devices may be a much higher elastic modulus than the supporting dentine and the difference in the modulus could lead to stress concentrating in the cement lute, leading to failure. The role of the cement seems to play a fundamental role in order to transfer the strength during the chewing phases. Aim of this research is to record the rate of cytotoxicity of five different dual-cured resin cements used for fiber posts cementation. We tested the cytotoxicity of this five materials on MG63 osteoblast-like cells through two different methods: MTT ([3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide succinate) assay which tests for mitochondrial enzyme activity(6) and xCELLigence® system. PMID:26309592

  10. Comparison of bond strength of three adhesives: composite resin, hybrid GIC, and glass-filled GIC.

    PubMed

    Rix, D; Foley, T F; Mamandras, A

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare 3 orthodontic adhesives in the areas of shear-peel bond strength, location of adhesive failure, and extent of enamel cracking before bonding and after debonding of orthodontic brackets. The adhesives included a composite resin control (Transbond XT; 3M/Unitek, St Paul, Minn), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Fuji Ortho LC; GC America Corp, Alsip, Ill), and a polyacid-modified composite resin under dry and saliva-contaminated conditions (Assure; Reliance Orthodontic Products Inc, Itasca, Ill). Metal brackets were bonded to the buccal surfaces of 160 (4 groups of 40) human premolars. The bonded teeth were stored in deionized water at 37 degrees C for 30 days and thermocycled for 24 hours before debonding with a Universal Instron (Instron Corp, Canton, Mass) testing machine. The extent of cracking in the buccal surfaces was evaluated under 16x magnification before bonding and after debonding. Although the bond strength of the composite resin control (20.19 MPa) was significantly greater (P <.05) than that of the adhesives in the other groups, clinically acceptable shear-peel bond strengths were found for all adhesives (Fuji Ortho LC = 13.57 MPa, Assure-dry = 10.74 MPa, Assure-wet = 10.99 MPa). The bond strength for the Assure adhesive was not significantly affected by saliva contamination. The sample of extracted premolars used in this study displayed a greater frequency of buccal surface enamel cracking (46.7%) than that reported in the literature for in vivo premolars (7.8%-10.2%), which was possibly due to the extraction process. The frequency of enamel cracking in a subset of this sample (n = 34) increased from 46.4% at prebonding to 62.4% at postdebonding as a result of the forces of debonding. PMID:11174538

  11. Hydroxyapatite composite resin cement augmentation of pedicle screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Alexander W L; Gillies, R Mark; Svehla, Martin J; Saito, Masanobu; Walsh, William R

    2003-01-01

    Pedicle screw stability is poor in osteopenic vertebrae attributable, in part, to low screw-bone interface strength. The current authors examined cement augmentation using a low curing temperature hydroxyapatite and bis-phenol-A glycidol methacrylate-based composite resin. This cement may stiffen the screw-bone interface and reduce the harmful effects associated with polymethylmethacrylate regarding temperature and toxic monomer. Thirty-five lumbar vertebrae from human cadavers were instrumented with pedicle screws, with one pedicle previously injected with cement and the other as the control. Caudocephalad toggling of +/- 1 mm for 1600 cycles was applied to the pedicle screws, and the resulting forces supported by the implant-bone interface were captured by a load cell. A curve was constructed from the peak caudal load for each cycle and three mechanical measures parameterized this curve: (1) initial load; (2) rate of load decay during the first 400 cycles; and (3) final load. The initial load increased by 16% as a result of cement augmentation, the final load increased by 65%, and the rate of load decay decreased by 59%. Cement augmentation of pedicle screws increased the stiffness and stability of the screw-bone interface. PMID:12579026

  12. Retention strength of tin plated gold inlays bonded with two resin cements.

    PubMed

    Eakle, W S; Giblin, J M

    2000-01-01

    Research has shown bonding of restorations to tooth structure to enhance retention of the restoration to increase the fracture resistance of the tooth, and to reduce microleakage. Resin cements have superior physical properties to traditional cements such as zinc phosphate. The purpose of this study was to compare the retention of gold inlays luted with two resin cements to that of those luted with zinc phosphate cement. PMID:11199614

  13. Affordable Resins and Adhesives From Optimized Soybean Varieties (ARA Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Richard WOol; Dr. X. Susan Sun; Rich Chapas

    2004-04-21

    The Mission of the ARA Program was to develop the Corporate Infrastructure to mass-produce new bio-based materials from Soybeans. The resins were integrated with the bio-fuels program. (1) to research, develop, and commercialize low cost adhesives and resins from soy oil and protein, the co-products of the soy bio-diesel process. (2) to study structure-functionality of soy oil and proteins at molecular and genomic levels

  14. Effect of Self-etching Adhesives on the Bond Strength of Glass-Ionomer Cements

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Panahandeh, Narges; Tabatabaei Shafiei, Zahra Sadat; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Statement of Problem: Adequate bond strength between glass ionomer cements and composite resin is necessary for the success of the sandwich technique. Purpose of Study: This study assessed the micro-shear bond strength of composite resin to glass-ionomer cements (GIC) using self-etch adhesives with different pH values. Materials and Methods: One hundred specimens (6×4×2 mm) were made using Fuji II and Fuji II LC GICs and treated with different adhesives as follows: Group 1:Fuji II+ Adper Prompt L-Pop, Group-2: Fuji II+SE bond, Group-3: Fuji II + AdheSE, Group-4:Fuji II+ Protect bond, Group-5: Fuji II + Single bond, Group-6:Fuji II LC+ Adper Prompt LPop, Group-7: Fuji II LC+SE bond, Group-8:Fuji II LC+ AdheSE, Group-9: Fuji II LC+ Protect bond, and Group-10: Fuji II LC+ Single bond. Each group consisted of 10 specimens. A cylinder of Z100 composite resin was placed on each sample and light cured. After 24 hours of water storage (37°C), the specimens were subjected to micro-shear bond strength tests (0.5 mm/min). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: The mean micro-shear bond strength of groups 1–10 was 11.66±1.79, 16.50±1.85, 18.47±1.77, 13.95±1.77, 15.27±1.49, 15.14±0.90, 20.03±1.19, 17.48±3.00, 16.24±1.98 and 16.03±1.49 MPa, respectively. There were significant differences between groups 1 and 7 (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed between other groups (P>0.05). Fuji II LC showed higher bond strength than Fuji II (P<0.05). Conclusion: Type of self-etch adhesive had no significant effect on micro-shear bond strength of glass-ionomer to composite resin. Resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) exhibited higher bond strength than the conventional GIC. PMID:25628698

  15. Restoration of Strip Crown with a Resin-Bonded Composite Cement in Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Mi-ae; Kim, Ah-hyeon; Shim, Youn-soo; An, So-youn

    2013-01-01

    Background. Early childhood caries is a widely prevalent disease throughout the world. It is necessary to treat this condition in early childhood; however, child behavior management may be particularly challenging during treatment. To overcome this challenge, we used Carigel to remove caries and RelyX Unicem resin cement for strip crown restoration. It not only has the desired aesthetic effect but is also more effective for primary teeth, which are used for a shorter period than permanent teeth are. Case Presentation. We report a case of three pediatric patients with early childhood caries, in whom caries was removed by using Carigel to avoid the risk of pulpal exposure associated with high-speed handpieces. Subsequently, aesthetic restoration was performed using strip crown with RelyX Unicem self-adhesive resin cement. Conclusion. RelyX Unicem has the following advantages: (1) not requiring have any special skills for the dentist for performing the procedure, (2) decreased occurrence of bubbles during injection of the cement, and (3) overall short duration of the procedure. Thus, it is appropriate for the treatment of pediatric patients whose behavior is difficult to manage. However, further studies are required in order to establish the use of RelyX Unicem as a stable restorative material in early childhood caries. PMID:24490090

  16. Effect of eugenol-based root canal sealers on retention of prefabricated metal posts luted with resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ali, Khalil

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of two different eugenol-based root canal sealers on the retention of prefabricated metal posts luted with adhesive resin cement. Materials and methods Thirty prefabricated ParaPosts randomly divided among three groups of 10 each were luted into extracted single-rooted teeth with adhesive resin cement. Two of the groups had been obturated with Gutta–Percha and one of two eugenol-based root canal sealers (Endofil and Tubli-Seal), respectively. The third group was not obturated and served as the control. The forces required for dislodgment of posts from their prepared post spaces were recorded using a universal testing machine. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple range test was used to determine the mean differences. Results Endofil and Tubli-Seal groups demonstrated significantly reduced retention compared to the unobturated (control) group (P < 0.05). Conclusion Eugenol-based sealers significantly reduced the retention of prefabricated posts luted with adhesive resin cement. PMID:23960462

  17. Strengthening of Porcelain Provided by Resin Cements and Flowable Composites.

    PubMed

    Spazzin, A O; Guarda, G B; Oliveira-Ogliari, A; Leal, F B; Correr-Sobrinho, L; Moraes, R R

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of mechanical properties of resin-based luting agents on the strength of resin-coated porcelain. The luting agents tested were two flowable resin composites (Filtek Z350 Flow and Tetric-N Flow), a light-cured resin cement (Variolink Veneer [VV]), and a dual-cured resin cement (Variolink II) in either light-cured (base paste) or dual-cured (base + catalyst pastes [VD]) mode. Flexural strength (σf) and modulus of elasticity (Ef) of the luting agents were measured in three-point bending mode (n=5). Porcelain discs (Vita VM7) were tested either untreated (control) or acid etched, silanized, and coated with the luting agents. Biaxial flexural strength (σbf) of the porcelain discs was tested using a ball-on-ring setup (n=30). The σbf of the resin-coated specimens was calculated at z-axial positions for multilayer specimens in the ball-on-ring test: position z = 0 (ceramic surface at the bonded interface) and position z = -t2 (luting agent surface above ring). The σf and Ef data were subjected to analysis of variance and the Student-Newman-Keuls test (α=0.05). A Weibull analysis was performed for σbf data. Weibull modulus (m) and characteristic strength (σ0) were calculated. Linear regression analyses investigated the relationship between mechanical properties of the luting agents and the strengthening of porcelain. VD had higher and VV had lower mechanical strength than the other materials. At z = 0, all resin-coated groups had higher σbf than the control group. No significant differences between the luting agents were observed for σbf and σ0. At z = -t2, VD had the highest σbf and σ0, whereas VV had the poorest results. No significant differences in m were observed across groups. A linear increase in flexural strength of the porcelain was associated with increased σf and Ef of the luting agents at position z = -t2. In conclusion, resin coating and use of luting agents with better physical properties generally improved the

  18. Status of high-temperature laminating resins and adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Johnston, N. J.

    1980-01-01

    High-temperature polymers now being developed as adhesives and composite matrices are reviewed, including aromatic polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, polyphenylquinoxalines, nadic end-capped imide oligomers, maleimide end-capped oligomers, and acetylene-terminated imide oligomers. The mechanical properties of laminates based on these resins are reported together with preliminary test results on the adhesive properties for titanium-to-titanium and composite-to-composite lap shear specimens.

  19. Effect of antioxidants on push-out bond strength of hydrogen peroxide treated glass fiber posts bonded with two types of resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Mazaheri, Hamid; Tarighi, Pardis; Samimi, Pouran

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) surface treatment of fiber posts has been reported to increase bond strength of fiber posts to resin cements. However, residual oxygen radicals might jeopardize the bonding procedure. This study examined the effect of three antioxidant agents on the bond strength of fiber posts to conventional and self-adhesive resin cements. Materials and Methods Post spaces were prepared in forty human maxillary second premolars. Posts were divided into five groups of 8 each: G1 (control), no pre-treatment; G2, 10% H2O2 pre-treatment; G3, G4 and G5. After H2O2 application, Hesperidin (HES), Sodium Ascorbate (SA) or Rosmarinic acid (RA) was applied on each group respectively. In each group four posts were cemented with Duo-Link conventional resin cement and the others with self-adhesive BisCem cement. Push-out test was performed and data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and tukey's post-hoc test (α = 0.05). Results There was a statistically significant interaction between the cement type and post surface treatment on push-out bond strength of fiber posts (p < 0.001, F = 16). Also it was shown that different posts' surface treatments significantly affect the push-out bond strength of fiber posts (p = 0.001). H2O2 treated posts (G2) and control posts (G1) cemented with Duo-link showed the highest (15.96 ± 5.07MPa) and lowest bond strengths (6.79 ± 3.94) respectively. Conclusions It was concluded that H2O2 surface treatment might enhance the bond strength of fiber posts cemented with conventional resin cements. The effect of antioxidants as post's surface treatment agents depends on the characteristics of resin cements used for bonding procedure. PMID:25383350

  20. Chemical adhesion rather than mechanical retention enhances resin bond durability of a dental glass-ceramic with leucite crystallites.

    PubMed

    Meng, X F; Yoshida, K; Gu, N

    2010-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of chemical adhesion by a silane coupler and mechanical retention by hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching on the bond durability of resin to a dental glass ceramic with leucite crystallites. Half of the ceramic plates were etched with 4.8% HFA (HFA group) for 60 s, and the other half were not treated (NoHFA group). The scale of their surface roughness and rough area was measured by a 3D laser scanning microscope. These plates then received one of the following two bond procedures to form four bond test groups: HFA/cement, NoHFA/cement, HFA/silane/cement and NoHFA/silane/cement. The associated micro-shear bond strength and bond failure modes were tested after 0 and 30 000 thermal water bath cycles. Four different silane/cement systems (Monobond S/Variolink II, GC Ceramic Primer/Linkmax HV, Clearfil Ceramic Primer/Clearfil Esthetic Cement and Porcelain Liner M/SuperBond C&B) were used. The data for each silane/cement system were analyzed by three-way ANOVA. HFA treatment significantly increased the surface R(a) and R(y) values and the rough area of the ceramic plates compared with NoHFA treatment. After 30 000 thermal water bath cycles, the bond strength of all the test groups except the HFA/Linkmax HV group was significantly reduced, while the HFA/Linkmax HV group showed only adhesive interface failure. The other HFA/cement groups and all NoHFA/cement groups lost bond strength completely, and all NoHFA/silane/cement groups with chemical adhesion had significantly higher bond strength and more ceramic cohesive failures than the respective HFA/cement groups with mechanical retention. The result of the HFA/silane/cement groups with both chemical adhesion and mechanical retention revealed that HFA treatment could enhance the bond durability of resin/silanized glass ceramics, which might result from the increase of the chemical adhesion area on the ceramic rough surface and subsequently reduced degradation speed of the silane coupler

  1. Cariogenic bacteria degrade dental resin composites and adhesives.

    PubMed

    Bourbia, M; Ma, D; Cvitkovitch, D G; Santerre, J P; Finer, Y

    2013-11-01

    A major reason for dental resin composite restoration replacement is related to secondary caries promoted by acid production from bacteria including Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). We hypothesized that S. mutans has esterase activities that degrade dental resin composites and adhesives. Standardized specimens of resin composite (Z250), total-etch (Scotchbond Multipurpose, SB), and self-etch (Easybond, EB) adhesives were incubated with S. mutans UA159 or uninoculated culture medium (control) for up to 30 days. Quantification of the BisGMA-derived biodegradation by-product, bishydroxy-propoxy-phenyl-propane (BisHPPP), was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Surface analysis of the specimens was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). S. mutans was shown to have esterase activities in levels comparable with those found in human saliva. A trend of increasing BisHPPP release throughout the incubation period was observed for all materials and was more elevated in the presence of bacteria vs. control medium for EB and Z250, but not for SB (p < .05). SEM confirmed the increased degradation of all materials with S. mutans UA159 vs. control. S. mutans has esterase activities at levels that degrade resin composites and adhesives; degree of degradation was dependent on the material's chemical formulation. This finding suggests that the resin-dentin interface could be compromised by oral bacteria that contribute to the progression of secondary caries. PMID:24026951

  2. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

  6. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on bond durability of fiber posts cemented with etch-and-rinse adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Sarafraz, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was undertaken to investigate whether use of an adhesive penetration enhancer, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), improves bond stability of fiber posts to root dentin using two two-step etch-and-rinse resin cements. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty human maxillary central incisor roots were randomly divided into 4 groups after endodontic treatment and post space preparation, based on the fiber post/cement used with and without DMSO pretreatment. Acid-etched root dentin was treated with 5% DMSO aqueous solution for 60 seconds or with distilled water (control) prior to the application of Excite DSC/Variolink II or One-Step Plus/Duo-link for post cementation. After micro-slicing the bonded root dentin, push-out bond strength (P-OBS) test was performed immediately or after 1-year of water storage in each group. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Student's t-test (α=.05). RESULTS A significant effect of time, DMSO treatment, and treatment × time interaction were observed (P<.001). DMSO did not affect immediate bonding of the two cements. Aging significantly reduced P-OBS in control groups (P<.001), while in DMSO-treated groups, no difference in P-OBS was observed after aging (P>.05). CONCLUSION DMSO-wet bonding might be a beneficial method in preserving the stability of resin-dentin bond strength over time when fiber post is cemented with the tested etch-and-rinse adhesive cements. PMID:27555893

  7. Effect of root canal rinsing protocol on dentin bond strength of two resin cements using three different method of test

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Sheikhi, Mohammadreza; Soleimani, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Background Different studies have used different tests to evaluate bond strength of resin cements to root dentin. In this in vitrostudy, three different tests were used to evaluate the bond strength of two resin cements to root dentin using two root dentin irrigation protocols. Material and Methods Ninety-six intact single-rooted teeth were selected for this study. Forty-eight teeth, with a root length of 15mm, were randomly divided into two groups and irrigated with normal saline or 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solutions during root canal preparation, respectively. For each 12 specimens from each group, fiber post #1 was bonded using an etch-and-rinse (Duo-Link) and a self-adhesive (BisCem) resin cement, respectively. After incubation, two specimens were prepared for the push-out test from the middle thirds of the roots. In another 24 teeth, after two 1.5-mm sections were prepared from the middle thirds of the prepared roots, sections of the post were bonded in two subgroups with each of the cements mentioned above and the samples were prepared for the pull-out test. For shear test, the crowns of 48 teeth were cut away, the dentin surfaces were prepared, the two irrigation solutions were used, and the resin cements were bonded. Data collected from the three tests were evaluated by ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey and Weibull tests (α=0.05). Results There were significant differences in the mean bond strength values between the three bond strength tests (P<0.001). Rinsing protocol and cement type resulted in similar variations in the mean bond strength in all tests (P>0.05). Conclusions Under the limitations of the present study, the method of the test used had an effect on the recorded bond strength between the resin cement and root dentin. Cement type and irrigation protocol resulted in similar variations with all the tests. Push-out and shear tests exhibited more coherent results. Key words:Bond strength, endodontically treated tooth, fiber post, resin cement, sodium

  8. [Adhesive strengths of cast crowns with various types of cements].

    PubMed

    Utz, K H; Grüner, M; Büscher, M

    1990-12-01

    In an in vitro study the adhesive strength of sand-blasted castings (gold alloy) was tested on human teeth prepared and finished in different ways. For cementation we used two glass ionomer and one phosphate cement. On the surfaces treated with carbide finishing instruments the force required for separating the crown from the tooth was about 1.9 N/mm2 for Ketac-cem, about 2 N/mm2 for Fuji Ionomer, and about 1.8 N/mm2 for Harvard (a zinc oxide phosphate cement). Compared with this, the values obtained for dentin surfaces pretreated with fine diamonds (red ring) were 1.5 N/mm2 for Ketac-cem, 1.6 N/mm2 for Fuji Ionomer, and 1.9 N/mm2 for Harvard. The measured differences between the various types of cement were statistically not significant. PMID:2135267

  9. Immobilization of caesium-loaded ion exchange resins in zeolite-cement blends

    SciTech Connect

    Bagosi, S.; Csetenyi, L.J.

    1999-04-01

    In several countries, low-level radioactive waste immobilization strategies are based on cementitious materials. Water leaching of caesium (Cs)-loaded cemented ion exchange resin and the mechanism of Cs immobilization were studied in the cement-resin-zeolite (mainly clinoptilolite) system. Present work focuses on the reduction of significant Cs leaching (in terms of the total Cs adsorbed on the resin) by blending natural untreated and chemically treated zeolites to the cement. Addition of natural zeolites decreased Cs release by up to 70--75% (of the quantity originally bonded in the resin) in the course of a 3-year leaching period.

  10. Effect of surface preparation on bond strength of resin luting cements to dentin.

    PubMed

    Peerzada, Farrahnaz; Yiu, Cynthia Kar Yung; Hiraishi, Noriko; Tay, Franklin Russell; King, Nigel Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using two different burs for dentin surface preparation on the microtensile bond strength (microTBS) of three resin luting cements. Flat, deep dentin surfaces from 45 extracted human third molars were divided into three groups (n = 15) according to bur type: (i) diamond bur and (ii) tungsten carbide bur. The controls were abraded with #600-grit SiC paper. Both burs operated in a high-speed handpiece under water-cooling. Composite blocks were luted onto the dentin using one of three cements: RelyX ARC (ARC, 3M ESPE), Panavia F2.0 (PF, Kuraray) and RelyX Unicem (UN, 3M ESPE) following the manufacturers' instructions. For ARC, the dentin surface was treated with 32% phosphoric acid. The bonded specimens were stored at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and sectioned into 0.9 x 0.9 mm beams for microTBS testing. The data were analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests. Representative fractured beams from each group were prepared for fractographic analysis under SEM. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the effects of "dentin surface preparation" and "luting cement" were statistically significant (p < 0.001); however, the interaction of these two factors was not significant (p > 0.05). ARC showed no significant difference in microTBS among the three differently prepared dentin surfaces. The microTBS of PF and UN was significantly lower when bonding to dentin prepared with a diamond bur (p < 0.05), compared to the control. For Panavia F2.0, higher bond strengths were achieved on the dentin surface prepared with a tungsten carbide bur. Proper bur selection is essential to optimizing the dentin adhesion of self-etch resin luting cements. PMID:21180001

  11. Do conventional glass ionomer cements release more fluoride than resin-modified glass ionomer cements?

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Maria Fernanda Costa; Martinho, Roberto Luiz de Menezes; Guedes-Neto, Manoel Valcácio; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa; Pontes, Danielson Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride release of conventional glass ionomer cements (GICs) and resin-modified GICs. Materials and Methods The cements were grouped as follows: G1 (Vidrion R, SS White), G2 (Vitro Fil, DFL), G3 (Vitro Molar, DFL), G4 (Bioglass R, Biodinâmica), and G5 (Ketac Fil, 3M ESPE), as conventional GICs, and G6 (Vitremer, 3M ESPE), G7 (Vitro Fil LC, DFL), and G8 (Resiglass, Biodinâmica) as resin-modified GICs. Six specimens (8.60 mm in diameter; 1.65 mm in thickness) of each material were prepared using a stainless steel mold. The specimens were immersed in a demineralizing solution (pH 4.3) for 6 hr and a remineralizing solution (pH 7.0) for 18 hr a day. The fluoride ions were measured for 15 days. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test with 5% significance were applied. Results The highest amounts of fluoride release were found during the first 24 hr for all cements, decreasing abruptly on day 2, and reaching gradually decreasing levels on day 7. Based on these results, the decreasing scale of fluoride release was as follows: G2 > G3 > G8 = G4 = G7 > G6 = G1 > G5 (p < 0.05). Conclusions There were wide variations among the materials in terms of the cumulative amount of fluoride ion released, and the amount of fluoride release could not be attributed to the category of cement, that is, conventional GICs or resin-modified GICs. PMID:26295024

  12. Color agreement between nanofluorapatite ceramic discs associated with try-in pastes and with resin cements.

    PubMed

    Rigoni, Paulo; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho do; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro color agreement between nanofluorapatite ceramic discs (e.max Ceram / Ivoclar Vivadent / A2) associated with try-in pastes and those bonded with resin cements (Vitique / DMG/ try-in shade A2½ and cement shade A2½, Variolink II / Ivoclar Vivadent / try-in shade A1 and cement shade A1, and Choice 2 / Bisco / try-in shade A2 and cement shade A2), and to evaluate the shade stability of the discs bonded with resin cements. The shades of composite resin discs (Lliss / FGM / A2) and nanofluorapatite ceramic discs with try-in pastes or cements were evaluated according to the Vita Classical shade guide by a digital spectrophotometer (Micro EspectroShade, MHT) immediately after placing the try-in pastes or resin cements between composite resin discs and ceramic discs. Other evaluations were performed at 2, 5, and 6 day intervals after cementation with the resin cements. All ceramic discs that received try-in pastes presented an A2 shade. There was no statistical difference in the shade of the ceramic specimens fixed with different cements at the different intervals, as evaluated by the Friedman test (p > 0.05). Two try-in pastes presented shade compatibility with those recommended by the manufacturers. There was no similarity of shades between the ceramic discs with try-in pastes and those with the respective resin cements. Shade stability was observed in ceramic discs with resin cements within the intervals evaluated. PMID:23184164

  13. Resistance to bond degradation between dual-cure resin cements and pre-treated sintered CAD-CAM dental ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Raquel; Monticelli, Francesca; Osorio, Estrella; Toledano, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the bond stability of resin cements when luted to glass-reinforced alumina and zirconia CAD/CAM dental ceramics. Study design: Eighteen glass-infiltrated alumina and eighteen densely sintered zirconia blocks were randomly conditioned as follows: Group 1: No treatment; Group 2: Sandblasting (125 µm Al2O3-particles); and Group 3: Silica-coating (50 µm silica-modified Al2O3-particles). Composite samples were randomly bonded to the pre-treated ceramic surfaces using different resin cements: Subgroup 1: Clearfil Esthetic Cement (CEC); Subgroup 2: RelyX Unicem (RXU); and Subgroup 3: Calibra (CAL). After 24 h, bonded specimens were cut into 1 ± 0.1 mm2 sticks. One-half of the beams were tested for microtensile bond strength (MTBS). The remaining one-half was immersed in 10 % NaOCl aqueous solution (NaOClaq) for 5 h before testing. The fracture pattern and morphology of the debonded surfaces were assessed with a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). A multiple ANOVA was conducted to analyze the contributions of ceramic composition, surface treatment, resin cement type, and chemical challenging to MTBS. The Tukey test was run for multiple comparisons (p < 0.05). Results: After 24 h, CEC luted to pre-treated zirconia achieved the highest MTBS. Using RXU, alumina and zirconia registered comparable MTBS. CAL failed prematurely, except when luted to sandblasted zirconia. After NaOClaq storage, CEC significantly lowered MTBS when luted to zirconia or alumina. RXU decreased MTBS only when bonded to silica-coated alumina. CAL recorded 100 % of pre-testing failures. Micromorphological alterations were evident after NaOClaq immersion. Conclusions: Resin-ceramic interfacial longevity depended on cement selection rather than on surface pre-treatments. The MDP-containing and the self-adhesive resin cements were both suitable for luting CAD/CAM ceramics. Despite both cements being prone to degradation, RXU luted to zirconia or untreated or

  14. Analysis of residual stress in the resin of metal-resin adhesion structures by scanning acoustic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hiroki; Endo, Kazuhiko; Nagano-Takebe, Futami; Ida, Yusuke; Kakino, Ken; Narita, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    The residual stress caused by polymerization shrinkage and thermal contraction of a heat-curing resin containing 4-META on a metal-resin structure was measured by a scanning acoustic microscope. The tensile residual stress in the resin occurred within 70 µm of the adhesion interface with a flat plate specimen. The maximum tensile stress was about 58 MPa at the interface. On a metal plate specimen with retention holes, ring-like cracks in the resin occurred around the retention holes with the adhesive specimen and many linear cracks occurred in the resin vertical to the longitudinal direction of the metal frame with the non-adhesive specimens. There was tensile residual stress on the resin surface at the center of the retention holes of the adhesion specimen, indicating that the stress in the specimen with surface treatment for adhesion was higher than in that without surface treatment. PMID:24240901

  15. Color changes in resin cement polymerized with different curing lights under indirect restorations

    PubMed Central

    Bayindir, Funda; Ilday, Nurcan Ozakar; Bayindir, Yusuf Ziya; Karataş, Ozcan; Gurpinar, Aysel

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different interface materials and curing units on color changes in a resin cement material. Materials and Methods: Three interface materials and different curing systems, quartz-tungsten-halogen and polywave and monowave light-emitting diode (LED) light curing units, were studied at two-time intervals. Polystyrene strip was used as a control group. All measurements were made on a white background for standard color measurement. According to the CIE L*a*b* color space, the baseline color values of each specimen were measured. Differences between the measurements were calculated as ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's tests (α = 0.05) with SPSS 20.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). ANOVA revealed significance for interface materials and curing units and time for ΔE (P < 0.05). Results: Interaction between polymerizing units, material and time was not significant (P > 0.05). Monowave LED exhibited significantly higher color changes than the other units ([P < 0.05] [ΔE 2.94 ± 0.44]). QTH promoted composite specimens significantly less color change ([P < 0.05] [ΔE 0.87 ± 0.41]). Conclusion: This study concluded that color of resin cement used in the adhesion of indirect restorations was affected by curing device light and indirect restoration material type. PMID:26957793

  16. Effect of sandblasting, silica coating, and laser treatment on the microtensile bond strength of a dental zirconia ceramic to resin cements.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Nasrin; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Heidari, Solmaz; Khoshro, Kimia

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of laser irradiation as well as other surface treatment methods on the microtensile bond strength of a dental zirconia ceramic to the two types of resin cements. Zirconia ceramic blocks (ICE Zirkon) were sintered according to the manufacturer's instructions and duplicated in resin composites. The ceramic specimens were divided into four groups according to the following surface treatments: no surface treatment (control), sandblasting with alumina, silica coating plus silanization, and Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The specimens were divided equally and then bonded with Panavia F2.0 (self-etching resin cement) and Clearfil SA Luting (self-adhesive resin cement) to the composite blocks. The bonded ceramic-composite blocks were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 72 h, cut to prepare bar-shaped specimens with a bonding area of approximately 1 mm(2), and thermocycled for 3000 cycles between 5 and 55 °C, and the microtensile bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. The results showed that the self-adhesive resin cement used in this study did not improve the microtensile bond strength when the zirconia surface was sandblasted by alumina. The use of the Nd:YAG laser did not enhance the bond strength between the zirconia and both types of resin cements. In addition, silica coating of the zirconia surfaces plus silane application significantly improved the bond strength regardless of the type of resin cement utilized. PMID:26690357

  17. Effect of Carbodiimide on Bonding Durability of Adhesive-cemented Fiber Posts in Root Canals.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, F; Yousefipour, B; Mohammadi-Bassir, M

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether using a protein cross-linker, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC), improves bonding stability of fiber posts to root dentin using three resin cements. Sixty human maxillary central incisor roots were randomly divided into six groups after endodontic treatment, according to the cements used with and without EDC pretreatment. In the etch-and-rinse group, 0.3 M EDC aqueous solution was applied on acid-etched root dentin prior to Excite DSC/Variolink II for post cementation. In the self-etch and self-adhesive groups, EDC was used on EDTA-conditioned root space prior to application of ED Primer II/Panavia F2.0 and Clearfil SA, respectively. After microslicing the root dentin, a push-out bond strength (BS) test was performed immediately or after one-year of water storage for each group. Data were analyzed using three-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (α=0.05). A significant effect of cement type, time, EDC, and Time × Cement and Time × EDC interactions were observed (p≤0.001). EDC pretreatment did not affect immediate bonding of the three cements (p>0.05). Aging significantly reduced the BS in all the groups (p≤0.001), but EDC groups exhibited a higher BS compared with the respective control groups (p<0.001). Despite the significant effect of aging on decreasing the BS of fiber post to radicular dentin, EDC could diminish this effect for the three tested cements. PMID:26794191

  18. Adhesive and composite evaluation of acetylene-terminated phenylquinoxaline resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    A series of acetylene-terminated phenylquinoxaline (ATPQ) oligomers of various molecular weights were prepared and subsequently chain extended by the thermally induced reaction of the ethynyl groups. The processability and thermal properties of these oligomers and their cured resins were compared with that of a relatively high molecular weight linear polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) with the same chemical backbone. The ATPQ oligomers exhibited significantly better processability than the linear PPQ but the PPQ displayed substantially better thermooxidative stability. Adhesive (Ti/Ti) and composite (graphite filament reinforcement) work was performed to evaluate the potential of these materials for structural applications. The PPQ exhibited better retention of adhesive and laminate properties than the ATPQ resins at 260 C after aging for 500 hr at 260 C in circulating air.

  19. Effect of Resin Cement Porosity on Retention of Glass-Fiber Posts to Root Dentin: An Experimental and Finite Element Analysis.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Natércia Rezende; Aguiar, Grazielle Crystine Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Monise de Paula; Bicalho, Aline Aredes; Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Veríssimo, Crisnicaw; Soares, Carlos José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of porosity of self-adhesive resin on the stress distribution, post retention and failure mode of fiber post cemented to human root dentin. Ten human central upper incisors with circular root canal were selected. They were sectioned with 15 mm and were endodontically filled. The roots were scanned using micro-CT after post space preparation for root filling remaining evaluation. Fiber posts were cemented using self-adhesive resin cement (Rely X U200, 3M-ESPE). Two 1-mm-thick slices from the cervical, medium and apical thirds were scanned for resin cement bubbles volume measurements and submitted to a push-out test (PBS). Three operators using stereomicroscopy and confocal laser microscopy classified the failure mode. Stress distributions during the push-out test were analyzed using 3D finite element analysis. PBS values (MPa) were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests and the failure modes using the Kappa coefficient to assess inter-operator agreement. Chi-square test was used to determine significant differences between the methods ( = 0.05). Push-out bond strength was significantly affected by the bubbles presence in all root depth (p<0.05). The stress concentration was higher when the bubbles were present. Adhesive dentin/resin cement interface failure was the most frequent type of failure. Confocal microscopy was better than stereomicroscopy for failure analysis. Bubbles generated during resin cement insertion into the root canal negatively affect the stress distribution and the bond strength. The use of confocal microscopy is recommended for failure analysis. PMID:26963208

  20. Influence of light curing unit and ceramic thickness on temperature rise during resin cement photo-activation.

    PubMed

    Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Consani, Simonides; Mastrofrancisco, Sarina; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different ceramic thickness on heat generation during resin cement photo-activation by QTH (quartz-tungsten-halogen), LED (light emitting diode), and PAC (plasma arc-curing) LCUs (light curing units). The resin cement used was Rely X ARC (3M-ESPE), and the ceramic was IPS Empress Esthetic (Ivoclar-Vivadent), of which 0.7-, 1.4- and 2.0-mm thick disks, 0.8 mm in diameter were made. Temperature increase was recorded with a type-K thermocouple connected to a digital thermometer (Iopetherm 46). An acrylic resin base was built to guide the thermocouple and support the 1.0-mm thick dentin disk. A 0.1-mm thick black adhesive paper matrix with a perforation 6 mm in diameter was placed on the dentin to contain the resin cement and support the ceramic disks of different thicknesses. Three LCUs were used: QTH, LED and PAC. Nine groups were formed (n=10) according to the interaction: 3 ceramic thicknesses, 1 resin cement and 3 photo-activation methods. Temperature increase data were submitted to Tukey's test (5%). For all ceramic thicknesses, a statistically significant difference in temperature increase was observed among the LCUs, with the highest mean value for the QTH LCU (p<0.05). For all the LCUs, a thickness of 0.7 mm produced the highest temperatures (1.4 and 2.0mm, p<0.05). There was no difference in temperature values between the latter two thicknesses (p>0.05). The interaction of higher energy density with smaller ceramic thickness showed higher temperature increase values. PMID:19420877

  1. Curing time effect on the fraction of {sup 137}Cs from cement-ion exchange resins-bentonite clay composition

    SciTech Connect

    Plecas, Ilija; Dimovic, Slavko

    2007-07-01

    To assess the safety of disposal of radioactive waste material in cement, curing conditions and time of leaching radionuclides {sup 137}Cs have been studied. Leaching tests in cement-ion exchange resins-bentonite matrix, were carried out in accordance with a method recommended by IAEA. Curing conditions and curing time prior to commencing the leaching test are critically important in leach studies since the extent of hydration of the cement materials determines how much hydration product develops and whether it is available to block the pore network, thereby reducing leaching. Incremental leaching rates R{sub n}(cm/d) of {sup 137}Cs from cement ion exchange resins-bentonite matrix after 180 days were measured. The results presented in this paper are examples of results obtained in a 20-year concrete testing project which will influence the design of the engineer trenches system for future central Serbian radioactive waste storing center. (authors)

  2. Temporary zinc oxide-eugenol cement: eugenol quantity in dentin and bond strength of resin composite.

    PubMed

    Koch, Tamara; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Malinovskii, Vladimir; Flury, Simon; Häner, Robert; Lussi, Adrian

    2013-08-01

    Uptake of eugenol from eugenol-containing temporary materials may reduce the adhesion of subsequent resin-based restorations. This study investigated the effect of duration of exposure to zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) cement on the quantity of eugenol retained in dentin and on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of the resin composite. The ZOE cement (IRM Caps) was applied onto the dentin of human molars (21 per group) for 1, 7, or 28 d. One half of each molar was used to determine the quantity of eugenol (by spectrofluorimetry) and the other half was used for μTBS testing. The ZOE-exposed dentin was treated with either OptiBond FL using phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄) or with Gluma Classic using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) conditioning. One group without conditioning (for eugenol quantity) and two groups not exposed to ZOE (for eugenol quantity and μTBS testing) served as controls. The quantity of eugenol ranged between 0.33 and 2.9 nmol mg⁻¹ of dentin (median values). No effect of the duration of exposure to ZOE was found. Conditioning with H₃PO₄ or EDTA significantly reduced the quantity of eugenol in dentin. Nevertheless, for OptiBond FL, exposure to ZOE significantly decreased the μTBS, regardless of the duration of exposure. For Gluma Classic, the μTBS decreased after exposure to ZOE for 7 and 28 d. OptiBond FL yielded a significantly higher μTBS than did Gluma Classic. Thus, ZOE should be avoided in cavities later to be restored with resin-based materials. PMID:23841789

  3. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When..., paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as follows: (1) As prescribed...

  4. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When..., paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as follows: (1) As prescribed...

  5. Evaluation of the Bond Strength of Resin Cements Used to Lute Ceramics on Laser-Etched Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Duzdar, Lale; Oksuz, Mustafa; Tanboga, Ilknur

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength (SBS) of two different adhesive resin cements used to lute ceramics on laser-etched dentin. Background data: Erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation has been claimed to improve the adhesive properties of dentin, but results to date have been controversial, and its compatibility with existing adhesive resin cements has not been conclusively determined. Materials and methods: Two adhesive cements, one “etch-and-rinse” [Variolink II (V)] and one “self-etch” [Clearfil Esthetic Cement (C)] luting cement, were used to lute ceramic blocks (Vita Celay Blanks, Vita) onto dentin surfaces. In total, 80 dentin specimens were distributed randomly into eight experimental groups according to the dentin surface-etching technique used Er,Cr:YSGG laser and Er:YAG laser: (1) 37% orthophosphoric acid+V (control group), (2) Er,Cr:YSGG laser+V, (3) Er,Cr:YSGG laser+acid+V, (4) Er:YAG laser+V, (5) Er:YAG laser+acid+V, (6) C, (7) Er,Cr:YSGG laser+C, and (8) Er:YAG laser+C. Following these applications, the ceramic discs were bonded to prepared surfaces and were shear loaded in a universal testing machine until fracture. SBS was recorded for each group in MPa. Shear test values were evaluated statistically using the Mann–Whitney U test. Results: No statistically significant differences were evident between the control group and the other groups (p>0.05). The Er,Cr:YSGG laser+A+V group demonstrated significantly higher SBS than did the Er,Cr:YSGG laser+V group (p=0.034). The Er,Cr:YSGG laser+C and Er:YAG laser+C groups demonstrated significantly lower SBS than did the C group (p<0.05). Conclusions: Dentin surfaces prepared with lasers may provide comparable ceramic bond strengths, depending upon the adhesive cement used. PMID:24992276

  6. Resin content in cement liquids of resin-modified glass ionomers.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, K; Fujishima, A; Suzuki, M; Inoue, M; Sasa, R; Miyazaki, T

    1999-09-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted on four kinds of resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) cement liquids, LC, LC II, LC III (hereinafter referred to as LCs) and VM, using HPLC and laser Raman spectroscopic methods. HPLC revealed that among the RMGI liquids LCs contain 31-32% HEMA (2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate), and VM contains 18% of the same. The composition of RMGI cement liquids varied significantly between manufacturers. In Raman spectroscopic analyses, the spectra of liquids of various ratios of polyacrylic acid and HEMA were measured, and calculations were made on the peak intensity ratios of C=C stretch vibration to C=O stretch vibration, common in both HEMA and polyacrylic acid. The composition ratio of polycarboxylic acid to HEMA of commercial glass ionomer cements was assessed by the regression curve generated by a combination of peak intensity ratios and composition ratios. In addition, Raman spectroscopy was able to identity the differences in form of the methacryloyloxy group. PMID:10786135

  7. Study of deformation of resin cements used in fixing of root posts through fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, C. A.; Franco, A. P. G. O.; Karam, L. Z.; Kalinowski, H. J.; Gomes, O. M. M.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the polymerization shrinkage "in situ" in resin cements inside the root canal during the fixation of glass fiber posts. For cementation teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the resin cement used: Group1 - resin cement dual Relyx ARC (3M/ESPE), and Group 2 - resin cement dual Relyx U200 (3M/ESPE). Before inserting the resin cement into the root canal, two Bragg grating sensors were recorded and pasted in the region without contact with the canal, one at the apical and other at the coronal thirds of the post. The sensors measured the deformation of the resin cements in coronal and apical root thirds to obtain the values in micro-strain (μɛ).

  8. Submargination of a resin luting cement--a clinical case report.

    PubMed

    Chan, D C; Titus, H W

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this case report was to examine the marginal integrity of an indirect inlay and an onlay luted with resin luting cement over a four year period. A technique to seal the occlusal margins of the inlay restoration was reported. Over time, the occlusal margins of the inlay were noticeably submarginated due to wear degradation of the resin inlay cement. The onlay margins were less affected by wear. Clinical techniques to overcome submargination problems were discussed. PMID:9518821

  9. Interfacial adhesion of dental ceramic-resin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Bona, Alvaro

    The clinical success of resin bonding procedures for indirect ceramic restorations and ceramic repairs depends on the quality and durability of the bond between the ceramic and the resin. The quality of this bond will depend upon the bonding mechanisms that are controlled in part by the surface treatment that promotes micromechanical and/or chemical bonding to the substrate. The objective of this study is to correlate interfacial toughness (K A) with fracture surface morphological parameters of the dental ceramic-resin systems as a function of ceramic surface treatment. The analytical procedures focused on characterizing the microstructure and fracture properties of EmpressRTM ceramics (a leucite-based core ceramic, two lithia disilicate-based core ceramics, and a glass veneer) and determining the ceramic-resin adhesion zone bond strength characteristics. Microstructure and composition are controlling factors in the development of micromechanical retention produced by etching. Silane treated ceramics negated the effect of surface roughening produced by etching, inducing lower surface energy of the ceramic and, reduced bonding effectiveness. There was a positive correlation between WA, tensile bond strength (a), and KA, i.e., higher mean WA value, and higher mean sigma and KA values. This study suggests that (1) the sigma and KA values for ceramic bonded to resin are affected by the ceramic microstructure and the ceramic surface treatments; (2) the definition of the adhesion zone is essential to classify the modes of failure, which should be an integral component of all failure analyses; (3) the microtensile test may be preferable to conventional shear or flexural tests as an indicator of composite-ceramic bond quality; and (4) careful microscopic analysis of fracture surfaces and an x-ray dot map can produce a more consistent and complete description of the fracture process and interpretation of the modes of failure. The mode of failure and fractographic analyses

  10. Polyimide molding powder, coating, adhesive, and matrix resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Progar, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a polyimide prepared from 3,4'-oxydianiline (3,4'-ODA) and 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA), in 2-methoxyethyl ether (diglyme). The polymer was prepared in ultra high molecular weight and in a controlled molecular weight form which has a 2.5 percent offset in stoichiometry (excess diamine) with a 5.0 percent level of phthalic anhydride as an endcap. This controlled molecular weight form allows for greatly improved processing of the polymer for moldings, adhesive bonding, and composite fabrication. The higher molecular weight version affords tougher films and coatings. The overall polymer structure groups in the dianhydride, the diamine, and a metal linkage in the diamine affords adequate flow properties for making this polymer useful as a molding powder, adhesive, and matrix resin.

  11. Cement waste-form development for ion-exchange resins at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Veazey, G.W.; Ames, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the development of a cement waste form to stabilize ion-exchange resins at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). These resins have an elevated potential for ignition due to inadequate wetness and contact with nitrates. The work focused on the preparation and performance evaluation of several Portland cement/resin formulations. The performance standards were chosen to address Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Environmental Protection Agency Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements, compatibility with Rocky Flats equipment, and throughput efficiency. The work was performed with surrogate gel-type Dowex cation- and anion-exchange resins chosen to be representative of the resin inventory at RFETS. Work was initiated with nonactinide resins to establish formulation ranges that would meet performance standards. Results were then verified and refined with actinide-containing resins. The final recommended formulation that passed all performance standards was determined to be a cement/water/resin (C/W/R) wt % ratio of 63/27/10 at a pH of 9 to 12. The recommendations include the acceptable compositional ranges for each component of the C/W/R ratio. Also included in this report are a recommended procedure, an equipment list, and observations/suggestions for implementation at RFETS. In addition, information is included that explains why denitration of the resin is unnecessary for stabilizing its ignitability potential.

  12. Do adhesive systems leave resin coats on the surfaces of the metal matrix bands? An adhesive remnant characterization.

    PubMed

    Arhun, Neslihan; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak

    2013-01-01

    Reestablishing proximal contacts with composite resins may prove challenging since the applied adhesives may lead to resin coating that produces additional thickness. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface of metal matrix bands after application of adhesive systems and blowing or wiping off the adhesive before polymerization. Seventeen groups of matrix bands were prepared. The remnant particles were characterized by energy dispersive spectrum and scanning electron microscopy. Total etch and two-step self-etch adhesives did not leave any resin residues by wiping and blowing off. All-in-one adhesive revealed resin residues despite wiping off. Prime and Bond NT did not leave any remnant with compomer. Clinicians must be made aware of the consequences of possible adhesive remnants on matrix bands that may lead to a defective definitive restoration. The adhesive resin used for Class II restorations may leave resin coats on metal matrix bands after polymerization, resulting in additional thickness on the metal matrix bands and poor quality of the proximal surface of the definitive restoration when the adhesive system is incorporated in the restoration. PMID:23484179

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Bond Strength of Dual-Cured Resin Cements: An In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, R Veena; Poluri, Ramya Krishna; Nagaraj, Hema; Siddaruju, Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Background: To compare the microtensile bond strength of resin cements to enamel and dentin and to determine the type of bond failure using stereomicroscope. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study 40 teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and divided into two main groups i.e., Group A for enamel and Group B for dentin. Each group is again subdivided into four subgroups, which are as follows; Subgroup 1 for Calibra resin cement, Subgroup 2 for Paracem, Subgroup 3 for Variolink II and Subgroup 4 for Rely X ARC. These resin cements were applied on enamel and dentin according to manufacturer’s instructions followed by incremental build-up of composite resin on the top of resin cements. Each tooth was sectioned perpendicular to the resin-substrate interface with a slow speed diamond saw under water cooling yielding sections of approximately 1 mm2. On an average, three sections from each tooth were used for testing. The beams obtained after sectioning were stressed to failure under tension in a custom made stainless steel forceps held in a universal testing machine (Lloyd) at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Results were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance, independent t-test, and Tukey’s HSD post-hoc test. Results: Cements bonded to enamel substrates showed higher mean bond strength compared to dentin, which is statistically significant. Rely X ARC showed highest mean bond strength to both the substrates. Conclusion: There was a significant difference between the bond strength to enamel and dentin and, Rely X ARC resin cement showed higher bond strength compared with the other groups. PMID:26225104

  14. Influence of post and resin cement on stress distribution of maxillary central incisors restored with direct resin composite.

    PubMed

    Spazzin, A O; Galafassi, D; de Meira-Júnior, A D; Braz, R; Garbin, C A

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated the influence of two endodontic post systems and the elastic modulus and film thickness of resin cement on stress distribution in a maxillary central incisor (MCI) restored with direct resin composite using finite element analysis (FEA). A three-dimensional model of an MCI with a coronary fracture and supporting structures was performed. A static chewing pressure of 2.16 N/mm2 was applied to two areas on the palatal surface of the composite restoration. Zirconia ceramic (ZC) and glass fiber (GF) posts were considered. The stress distribution was analyzed in the post, dentin and cement layer when ZC and GF posts were fixed to the root canals using resin cements of different elastic moduli (7.0 and 18.6 GPa) and different layer thicknesses (70 and 200 microm). The different post materials presented a significant influence on stress distribution with lesser stress concentration when using the GF post. The higher elastic modulus cement created higher stress levels within itself. The cement thicknesses did not present significant changes. PMID:19363979

  15. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a device... to a tooth surface. (b) Classification. Class II....

  16. Effect of blastfurnace slag addition to Portland cement for cationic exchange resins encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafond, E.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Gauffinet, S.; Chartier, D.; Le Bescop, P.; Stefan, L.; Nonat, A.

    2013-07-01

    In the nuclear industry, cement-based materials are extensively used to encapsulate spent ion exchange resins (IERs) before their final disposal in a repository. It is well known that the cement has to be carefully selected to prevent any deleterious expansion of the solidified waste form, but the reasons for this possible expansion are not clearly established. This work aims at filling the gap. The swelling pressure of IERs is first investigated as a function of ions exchange and ionic strength. It is shown that pressures of a few tenths of MPa can be produced by decreases in the ionic strength of the bulk solution, or by ion exchanges (2Na+ instead of Ca2+, Na+ instead of K+). Then, the chemical evolution of cationic resins initially in the Na+ form is characterized in CEM I (Portland cement) and CEM III (Portland cement + blastfurnace slag) cements at early age and an explanation is proposed for the better stability of CEM III material.

  17. Comparison of Flexural Strength of Resin Cements After Storing in Different Media and Bleaching Agents.

    PubMed

    Geramipanah, Farideh; Rezaei, Susan Mir Mohammad; Jafary, Maryam; Sadighpour, Leyla

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different storage media and bleaching treatments on the flexural strength of two resin cements (Panavia and BisCem). One hundred rectangular-shaped specimens were prepared with two resin cements and were stored in five media types (n = 10): distilled water (DW), lactic acid (LA), sodium hydroxide (NH), in-office bleaching (OB) and home bleaching (HB). There was significant interaction between the solutions and cements (p < 0.05). The lowest three-point flexural strength was found in sodium hydroxide for both cements (p < 0.05). Both cements exhibited significant increase in flexural strength following home and in-office bleaching (except Panavia in OB) (p < 0.05) compared with immersion in distilled water. Panavia recorded significantly higher flexural strength compared with BisCem in all media (p < 0.002), with the exception of in-office bleaching. PMID:26373198

  18. An evaluation of commercial and experimental resin-modified glass-ionomer cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanchanavasita, Widchaya

    Glass-ionomer cement (GIG) has become widely accepted as a restorative material due to its bonding ability and sustained release of fluoride. The cement is, however, sensitive to moisture imbalance and lacks toughness. Recently, resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RMGIC) have been introduced. These materials contain monomeric species, such as 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in addition to the components of the conventional glass-ionomer cements. Disadvantages of RMGICs include a relatively high contraction and exotherm on polymerisation. HEMA is known to be cytotoxic, leading to problems of biocompatibility, and polyHEMA swells on exposure to water, leading to dimensional instability of the cements. Addressing these problems is important in the development of the RMGICs. Using alternative monomers to replace or reduce the amount of HEMA used in the current RMGIC formulations would be appropriate. This study was divided into two parts. Initially certain properties such as water sorption, micro-hardness, flexural strength and polymerisation exotherm of commercially available RMGICs were evaluated. Long-term storage of RMGICs in aqueous solutions resulted in their high water uptakes and solubilities and large volumetric expansions. However, the surface hardness and strengths of the restorative grade RMGICs were not affected on storage in distilled water. When the materials were immersed in artificial saliva, significantly higher water uptake were obtained; the equilibrium water uptake were not reached after 20 months. As a consequence, plastic behaviour and reduced surface hardness were observed. The RMGICs also produced high exotherm during polymerisation. The second part of the study investigated the use of an experimental resin as an alternative to HEMA. The experimental resin has the advantage of low toxicity to the pulp and relatively low polymerisation shrinkage. This study compared the polymerisations of the resin and HEMA, and of mixtures of these two

  19. Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material

    SciTech Connect

    Laili, Zalina; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Wahab, Mohd Abdul

    2015-04-29

    Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material i.e. biochar is described in this paper. Different percentage of biochar (0%, 5%, 8%, 11%, 14% and 18%) was investigated in this study. The characteristics such as compressive strength and leaching behavior were examined in order to evaluate the performance of solidified radioactive waste resins. The results showed that the amount of biochar affect the compressive strength of the solidified resins. Based on the data obtained for the leaching experiments performed, only one formulation showed the leached of Cs-134 from the solidified radioactive waste resins.

  20. Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laili, Zalina; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Wahab, Mohd Abdul

    2015-04-01

    Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material i.e. biochar is described in this paper. Different percentage of biochar (0%, 5%, 8%, 11%, 14% and 18%) was investigated in this study. The characteristics such as compressive strength and leaching behavior were examined in order to evaluate the performance of solidified radioactive waste resins. The results showed that the amount of biochar affect the compressive strength of the solidified resins. Based on the data obtained for the leaching experiments performed, only one formulation showed the leached of Cs-134 from the solidified radioactive waste resins.

  1. Colour matching of composite resin cements with their corresponding try-in pastes.

    PubMed

    Kampouropoulos, D; Gaintantzopoulou, M; Papazoglou, E; Kakaboura, A

    2014-06-01

    Two shades of four resin cements (Calibra, Clearfil Esthetic, Insure, Variolink II), in light- and dual-curing modes, were tested for colour matching with their corresponding try-in pastes, immediately after photopolymerization and after 24-hour dry and dark storage. Colour measurements were performed for 0.8 mm-thick specimens through a 0.8mm-thick ceramic plate. For each resin cement, colour differences (deltaE) were calculated between the two curing modes, and between the corresponding try-in paste, at baseline and after 24h. deltaE>0 values were detected between all resin cements and their try-in pastes, which were brand/shade/curing mode depended. The try-in pastes of the Variolink II system demonstrated the best colour matching (deltaE<2). Try-in pastes of Calibra and Insure, at both curing modes, did not match at an acceptable value, the shade of their corresponding resin cements (deltaE>3.3). Calibra presented the highest colour differences. deltaE values of the Clearfil Esthetic system immediately after photo-activation ranged between 2 and 3 units. A ceramic restoration may fail aesthetically as a result of not acceptable colour match (deltaE>3.3) between the shade of certain resin cements and their relevant try-in pastes. PMID:25134367

  2. The resin-bonded cast post core: technical preparation and cementation protocols.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, M; Vichi, A; Colt, S G; Mason, P N

    1997-03-01

    Post and core restorations have been widely utilized in the reconstruction of endodontically treated teeth. This study compares the traditional cast post core with the bonded type, and reviews the restoration of devitalized teeth without imposing frictional forces within the root canal walls. Clinical and laboratory aspects are discussed, with emphasis on the cementing procedure. Several resin cements are evaluated and compared to traditional zinc oxide phosphate cement techniques; microleakage test results are presented. The learning objective of this article is to outline the clinical indications, advantages, disadvantages, and the clinical techniques employed for resin-bonded cast post core restoration. A case of an endodontically treated maxillary left central incisor following a direct trauma is used to illustrate the procedure of resin-bonded post core placement. Biocompatibility of the cast post core is confirmed by a radiograph 2 years postoperatively. PMID:12698529

  3. The Influence of Casing-Sand Adhesion on Cementing Bond Strength

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Guan, Zhichuan; Xu, Minglei; Shi, Yucai; Liao, Hualin; Sun, Jia

    2015-01-01

    In the petroleum industry, one of the most serious problems encountered during cementing is the failure at the bonding interface. Many measures including casing-sand adhesion have been developed to improve cementing bond strength. However, due to the lack of detailed study of the technique, many questions remain. The primary goal of this study is to investigate the influence of casing-sand adhesion on cementing bond strength, and to optimize parameters. An orthogonal experiment and a supplementary experiment were conducted. The results indicated that casing-sand adhesion can improve the cementing bond strength. The priority orders of key factors are: sand grain size, sand coverage, adhesive curing temperature and adhesive curing time. The optimal parameters recommended for application are: 1.6mm~1.9mm sand grain size, 60%~70% sand coverage, 30°C curing temperature and 60 hours curing time. PMID:26115343

  4. Etching conditions for resin-modified glass ionomer cement for orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Valente, Rudolfo M; De Rijk, Waldemar G; Drummond, James L; Evans, Carla A

    2002-05-01

    This study reports the tensile bond strength of orthodontic eyelets (RMO, Inc, Denver, Colo) bonded to human extracted teeth with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) (Fuji Ortho LC, GC America, Alsip, Ill) and various acid etchants (Etch-37 and All-Etch, Bisco, Schaumburg, Ill; Ultra Etch, 3M Unitek, St Paul, Minn) for enamel preparation before bonding. The enamel etch conditions were as follows: 37% phosphoric acid with silica; 37% phosphoric acid, silica-free; 10% phosphoric acid, silica-free; 10% polyacrylic acid; and unetched enamel. Bond strength was measured by pulling in tension on the eyelet with a 0.018-in steel wire perpendicular to the enamel surface with a testing machine (Instron model 1125, Canton, Mass) at a speed of 2 mm/min. A light-cured resin cement (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) applied to enamel etched with 37% phosphoric acid containing silica served as a control. Each group included 30 specimens. The Weibull distribution (m) was used for statistical analysis with a 90% CI. The different etchants used with RMGIC did not affect tensile bond strength. The resin cement group had the highest tensile strength. Significantly lower bond strengths were observed when glass ionomer cement was used to bond orthodontic attachments to nonetched teeth. However, unlike resin cement, RMGIC can bond effectively to etched teeth in a moist environment without an additional bonding agent. PMID:12045770

  5. Solidification of microbiologically treated ion-exchange resins using Portland cement-based systems

    SciTech Connect

    Voima Oy, I.

    1993-12-31

    Pretreated inactive ion exchange resins from the Loviisa nuclear power plant (NPP) were first reduced to one tenth of the original volume through microbiological treatment. During the process, the granular ion exchange resins were decomposed to result in dregs, which were solidified with two types of Portland cements. The objective of the present experiments was to investigate whether commercial cements are suitable solidification agents for this kind of waste. A total of ten mixtures were pretested for their rheological and setting properties. On the basis of the pretest results, four additional mixtures were chosen and tested for the spread value, density, air content, setting time and bleeding of the fresh waste product and for the dimensional stability and compressive strength of the hardened waste product. The cementing systems incorporated in the tests were ASTM type V Portland cement and ASTm type P Portland Composite cements. The dregs used in the tests were taken from a Pilot-Plant experiment at the Loviisa NPP and contained 2 wt-% solids. The test results were promising in showing that microbiological dregs can very easily be soldified with Portland cements to form a high-quality waste product. Thus, the microbiological treatment of spent ion exchange resins will drastically decrease the amount of solidified waste to be disposed of at the Loviisa NPP.

  6. Influence of glass particle size of resin cements on bonding to glass ceramic: SEM and bond strength evaluation.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Fernanda; Moraes, Rafael R; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Boscato, Noéli

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of the filler particle size (micron or submicron) of experimental resin cements on the microtensile bond strength to a glass-ceramic pretreated with hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching or alumina airborne-particle abrasion (AA). Cements were obtained from a Bis-GMA/TEGDMA mixture filled with 60 mass% micron-sized (1 ± 0.2 µm) or submicron-sized (180 ± 30 µm) Ba-Si-Al glass particles. Ceramic blocks (PM9; VITA) were treated with 10% HFA for 60 s or AA for 15 s. Silane and adhesive were applied. Ceramic blocks were bonded to resin composite blocks (Z250; 3M ESPE) using one of the cements. Bonded specimens were sectioned into beams (n = 20/group) and subjected to microtensile bond strength tests. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls' tests (5%). Failure modes were classified under magnification. Morphologies of the treated ceramic surfaces and bonded interfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The HFA-submicron group had lower bond strengths than the other groups. All AA-submicron specimens debonded prematurely. Mixed failures were predominant for HFA groups, whereas interfacial failures predominated for AA groups. SEM revealed a honeycomb-like aspect in the HFA-treated ceramic, whereas the AA-treated groups showed an irregular retentive pattern. Continuity of cement infiltration along the bonded interface was more uniform for HFA-treated compared to AA-treated specimens. Cracks toward the bulk of the ceramic were observed in AA-treated specimens. Particle size significantly influenced the ceramic bond strength, whereas surface treatment had a minor effect. PMID:24610793

  7. The effect of resin cements and primer on retentive force of zirconia copings bonded to zirconia abutments with insufficient retention

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Mi; Yoon, Ji-Young; Lee, Myung-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resin cements and primer on the retentive force of zirconia copings bonded to zirconia abutments with insufficient retention. MATERIALS AND METHODS Zirconia blocks (Lava, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) were obtained and forty sets of zirconia abutments and copings were fabricated using CAD/CAM technology. They were grouped into 4 categories as follows, depending on the types of resin cements used, and whether the primer is applied or not:Panavia F2.0 (P), Panavia F2.0 using Primer (PRIME Plus, Bisco Inc, Schaumburg, IL, USA) (PZ), Superbond C&B (S), and Superbond C&B using Primer (SZ). For each of the groups, the cementation was conducted. The specimens were kept in sterilized water (37℃) for 24 hours. Retentive forces were tested and measured, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The nature of failure was recorded. RESULTS The means and standard deviations of retentive force in Newton for each group were 265.15 ± 35.04 N (P), 318.21 ± 22.24 N (PZ), 445.13 ± 78.54 N (S) and 508.21 ± 79.48 N (SZ). Superbond C&B groups (S & SZ) showed significantly higher retentive force than Panavia F2.0 groups (P & PZ). In Panavia F2.0 groups, the use of primer was found to contribute to the increase of retentive force. On the other hand, in Superbond C&B groups, the use of primer did not influence the retention forces. Adhesive failure was observed in all groups. CONCLUSION This study suggests that cementation of the zirconia abutments and zirconia copings with Superbond C&B have a higher retentive force than Panavia F2.0. When using Panavia F2.0, the use of primer increases the retentive force. PMID:23755347

  8. Adhesion of polycarboxylate-based dental cements to enamel: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Jemt, T; Stålblad, P A; Oilo, G

    1986-06-01

    The bond strength of two polycarboxylate and two glass ionomer cements to enamel in vivo has been measured by a tensile test method. The four cements were used to cement small stainless steel cylinders onto the facial surfaces of 11 and 21. The cylinders were removed by a tensile force applied by a handpiece containing a semi-conductor sensory unit. The results showed that all cements gave two sets of bond strength values, either a good bond corresponding to a cohesive failure, or a weak bond corresponding to an adhesive failure. The mean bond strength values were lower than those recorded in vitro, and differences among the cements were limited. PMID:3519712

  9. Influence of the feldspathic ceramic thickness and shade on the microhardness of dual resin cement.

    PubMed

    Soares, Carlos José; da Silva, Natéricia Rezende; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the microhardness of a dual resin cement under the influence of thickness and shade of a feldspathic ceramic. Ninety-five bovine incisors were selected; the crowns, with the roots removed, were embedded in a polystyrene resin and were randomly divided into 19 groups (n=5). On the buccal surface, a standardized cavity, 4.0 mm in diameter and 1.0 mm in depth, was prepared. Ceramic restorations (Noritake Ex 3) were manufactured with 4.0 mm diameter and 1, 2 and 4-mm thicknesses at shades A1, A2, A3, A3.5 and A4. A dual resin cement (Rely X-ARC) was inserted into the prepared cavity. A mylar strip was positioned over the prepared cavity, and light curing was performed for 40 seconds following the protocols: controls-without insertion of the restoration at distances of 0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mm. The remaining groups had the restorations positioned between the resin cement and light source during polymerization. The Vickers hardness test was performed on the cement layer with 50 g of load application for 30 seconds, with 5 indentations for each sample. Two-way ANOVA (5 x 3) and Tukey test (alpha = 0.05) were used to compare the results. The chemical curing of the dual resin cement was not sufficient to compensate for the energy attenuation promoted by the interposition of A3.5 and A4 ceramic material with 4-mm of thickness. The thickness had a greater influence on the cement microhardness than the ceramic restoration shade. PMID:16802648

  10. Corrosion of steel drums containing cemented ion-exchange resins as intermediate level nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffó, G. S.; Farina, S. B.; Schulz, F. M.

    2013-07-01

    Exhausted ion-exchange resins used in nuclear reactors are immobilized by cementation before being stored. They are contained in steel drums that may undergo internal corrosion depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The objective of this work is to evaluate the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins with different aggressive species. The corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, and the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored for 900 days. Results show that the cementation of ion-exchange resins seems not to pose special risks regarding the corrosion of the steel drums. The corrosion rate of the steel in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins in the absence of contaminants or in the presence of 2.3 wt.% sulphate content remains low (less than 0.1 μm/year) during the whole period of the study (900 days). The presence of chloride ions increases the corrosion rate of the steel at the beginning of the exposure but, after 1 year, the corrosion rate drops abruptly reaching a value close to 0.1 μm/year. This is probably due to the lack of water to sustain the corrosion process. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drums containing the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years, it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums. Cementation of ion-exchange resins does not seem to pose special risks regarding the corrosion of the steel drums that contained them; even in the case the matrix is highly contaminated with chloride ions.

  11. Effect of Different Thicknesses of Pressable Ceramic Veneers on Polymerization of Light-cured and Dual-cured Resin Cements

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seok-Hwan; Lopez, Arnaldo; Berzins, David W.; Prasad, Soni; Ahn, Kwang Woo

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study evaluated the effects of ceramic veneer thicknesses on the polymerization of two different resin cements. Materials and Methods A total of 80 ceramic veneer discs were fabricated by using a pressable ceramic material (e.max Press; Ivoclar Vivadent) from a Low Translucency (LT) ingot (A1 shade). These discs were divided into light-cured (LC; NX3 Nexus LC; Kerr) and dual-cured (DC; NX3 Nexus DC; Kerr) and each group was further divided into 4 subgroups, based on ceramic disc thickness (0.3 mm, 0.6 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.2 mm). The values of Vickers microhardness (MH) and degree of conversion (DOC) were obtained for each specimen after a 24-hour storage period. Association between ceramic thickness, resin cement type, and light intensity readings (mW/cm2) with respect to microhardness and degree of conversion was statistically evaluated by using ANOVA. Results For the DOC values, there was no significant difference observed among the LC resin cement subgroups, except in the 1.2 mm subgroup; only the DOC value (14.0 ± 7.4%) of 1.2 mm DC resin cement had significantly difference from that value (28.9 ± 7.5%) of 1.2 mm LC resin cement (P<.05). For the MH values between LC and DC resin cement groups, there was statistically significant difference (P<.05); overall, the MH values of LC resin cement groups demonstrated higher values than DC resin cement groups. On the other hands, among the DC resin cement subgroups, the MH values of 1.2 mm DC subgroup was significantly lower than the 0.3 mm and 0.6 mm subgroups (P<.05). However, among the LC subgroups, there was no statistically significant difference among them (P >.05). Conclusion The degree of conversion and hardness of the resin cement was unaffected with veneering thicknesses between 0.3 and 0.9 mm. However, the DC resin cement group resulted in a significantly lower DOC and MH values for the 1.2 mm subgroup. Clinical Significance While clinically adequate polymerization of LC resin cement can be achieved

  12. Radiopacity of different resin-based and conventional luting cements compared to human and bovine teeth.

    PubMed

    Pekkan, Gürel; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the radiopacity of different resin-based luting materials and compared the results to human and bovine dental hard tissues. Disc specimens (N=130, n=10 per group) (diameter: 6 mm, thickness: 1 mm) were prepared from 10 resin-based and 3 conventional luting cements. Human canine dentin (n=10), bovine enamel (n=10), bovine dentin (n=10) and Aluminium (Al) step wedge were used as references. The optical density values of each material were measured from radiographic images using a transmission densitometer. Al step wedge thickness and optical density values were plotted and equivalent Al thickness values were determined for radiopacity measurements of each material. The radiopacity values of conventional cements and two resin luting materials (Rely X Unicem and Variolink II), were significantly higher than that of bovine enamel that could be preferred for restorations cemented on enamel. Since all examined resin-based luting materials showed radiopacity values equivalent to or greater than that of human and bovine dentin, they could be considered suitable for the restorations cemented on dentin. PMID:22277608

  13. Novel fabrication method for zirconia restorations: bonding strength of machinable ceramic to zirconia with resin cements.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Soichi; Terui, Yuichi; Higuchi, Daisuke; Goto, Daisuke; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A novel method was developed to fabricate all-ceramic restorations which comprised CAD/CAM-fabricated machinable ceramic bonded to CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia framework using resin cement. The feasibility of this fabrication method was assessed in this study by investigating the bonding strength of a machinable ceramic to zirconia. A machinable ceramic was bonded to a zirconia plate using three kinds of resin cements: ResiCem (RE), Panavia (PA), and Multilink (ML). Conventional porcelain-fused-to-zirconia specimens were also prepared to serve as control. Shear bond strength test (SBT) and Schwickerath crack initiation test (SCT) were carried out. SBT revealed that PA (40.42 MPa) yielded a significantly higher bonding strength than RE (28.01 MPa) and ML (18.89 MPa). SCT revealed that the bonding strengths of test groups using resin cement were significantly higher than those of Control. Notably, the bonding strengths of RE and ML were above 25 MPa even after 10,000 times of thermal cycling -adequately meeting the ISO 9693 standard for metal-ceramic restorations. These results affirmed the feasibility of the novel fabrication method, in that a CAD/CAM-fabricated machinable ceramic is bonded to a CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia framework using a resin cement. PMID:21597207

  14. Effects of Surface Treatments on the Bond Strength Between Resin Cement and a New Zirconia-reinforced Lithium Silicate Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Sato, T P; Anami, L C; Melo, R M; Valandro, L F; Bottino, M A

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of surface treatments on the bond strength between the new zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic (ZLS) and resin cement. VITA Suprinity blocks were crystallized according to the manufacturer's instructions and randomly assigned to six groups (N=36; n=6), according to the surface treatment to be performed and aging conditions: HF20, 10% hydrofluoric acid for 20 seconds, baseline (control); HF20tc, 10% hydrofluoric acid for 20 seconds, aging; HF40, 10% hydrofluoric acid for 40 seconds, baseline; HF40tc, 10% hydrofluoric acid for 40 seconds, aging; CJ, CoJet sandblasting (25 seconds, 2.5 bar, 15-mm distance), baseline; and CJtc, CoJet sandblasting (25 seconds, 2.5 bar, 15-mm distance), aging. All specimens were silanized (Monobond S) and cemented with Panavia F to newly polymerized Z250 resin blocks. After specimens were immersed for 24 hours in distilled water at 37° C, 1-mm(2) cross-section microbars were obtained by means of a cutting machine under constant cooling. Baseline groups were immediately tested, whereas "tc" groups were used to analyze the effect of aging on bond strength (10,000 thermal cycles, 5/55°C, 30-second bath). The microtensile bond strength test was performed with a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min), and bond strength (MPa) was calculated when the load-to-failure (N) was divided by the adhesive area (mm(2)). We also evaluated the surface roughness (Sa, average roughness; Str, texture aspect ratio; Sdr, developed interfacial area ratio) and the contact angle resulting from the treatments. Data were statistically analyzed by one- or two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (all α=5%). The failure mode of each specimen was evaluated by stereomicroscopy, and representative specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The microtensile bond strength was affected by the surface conditioning (p<0.0001), storage condition (p<0.0001), and the interaction between them (p=0.0012). The

  15. Effects of Different Surface Treatment Methods and MDP Monomer on Resin Cementation of Zirconia Ceramics an In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanış, Merve Çakırbay; Akçaboy, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Resin cements are generally preferred for cementation of zirconia ceramics. Resin bonding of zirconia ceramics cannot be done with the same methods of traditional ceramics because zirconia is a silica-free material. In recent years, many methods have been reported in the literature to provide the resin bonding of zirconia ceramics. The purpose of this in vitro study is to evaluate effects of different surface treatments and 10-metacryloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) monomer on shear bond strength between zirconia and resin cement. Methods: 120 zirconia specimens were treated as follows: Group I: sandblasting, group II: sandblasting + tribochemical silica coating + silane, group III: sandblasting + Nd:YAG (neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet) laser. One specimen from each group was evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Specimens in each group were bonded either with conventional resin cement Variolink II or with a MDP containing resin cement Panavia F2.0. Subgroups of bonded specimens were stored in distilled water (37°C) for 24 hours or 14 days. Following water storage shear bond strength test was performed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min in a universal test machine. Then statistical analyses were performed. Results: Highest shear bond strength values were observed in group II. No significant difference between group I and III was found when Panavia F2.0 resin cement was used. When Variolink II resin cement was used group III showed significantly higher bond strength than group I. In group I, Panavia F2.0 resin cement showed statistically higher shear bond strength than Variolink II resin cement. In group II no significant difference was found between resin cements. No significant difference was found between specimens stored in 37°C distilled water for 24 hours and 14 days. In group I surface irregularities with sharp edges and grooves were observed. In group II less roughened surface was observed with silica particles. In group

  16. Shear bond strength of new self-adhesive flowable composite resins.

    PubMed

    Wajdowicz, Michael N; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Means, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    Recently, new self-adhesive flowable composite resin systems have been introduced to the market. These new composite resin systems reportedly bond to dentin and enamel without the application of an adhesive bonding agent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength to enamel of two new self-adhesive flowable composites with and without the use of an etch-and-rinse bonding agent. The new self-adhesive flowable composites had significantly lower bond strengths to enamel compared to a traditional adhesively bonded flowable composite. Both self-adhesive flowable composites had a significant increase in bond strength to enamel with the use of a phosphoric acid-etch and adhesive bonding agent. PMID:22414513

  17. New restoration and direct pulp capping systems using adhesive composite resin.

    PubMed

    Kashiwada, T; Takagi, M

    1991-12-01

    There have been many arguments on the irritating mechanisms of the composite resin on the dental pulp. While the direct irritative effect of the resin has been preferred, some authors considered that the marginal microleakage and the resulting bacterial infection play a more important role in inducing the complicating pulp irritation. We developed a new filling technique, called the direct inlay restoration method, which could prevent the marginal leakage associated with the polymerization shrinkage of the adhesive composite resin. In this study, we tried to apply our method clinically. None of the 440 cases which were filled with the adhesive composite resin and 60 cases out of 64 cases in which the pulps were directly capped with the adhesive composite resin developed any signs and symptoms of pulp irritation. The other 4 cases developed signs of pulp irritation. Two of those 4 cases were pulpectomized due to spontaneous pain and the other 2 cases turned out to be well after re-restoration. With the informed consent of the patients, the direct pulp capping using the adhesive composite resin was experimentally performed on 6 caries-free 3rd molars and the histopathological examination of these capped molars revealed that neither significant degenerative nor inflammatory changes were brought about in the dental pulp. These clinical and histopathological observation suggest that the dental pulp irritation after resin filling is not induced by the composite resin itself. PMID:1764760

  18. Handling sticky resin by Stingless Bees: adhesive properties of surface structures.

    PubMed

    Gastauer, Markus; Campos, Lucio A O; Wittmann, Dieter

    2013-09-01

    Many Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) like Tetragonisca angustula collect resin to defend their nests against intruders like ants or Robber Bees. Small portions of resin are attached to intruders bodies and extremities causing their immobilization. It has been observed that resin is removed easily from the bee's mandible but adheres strongly to the intruder's cuticle. We tested the hypothesis that resin sticks lesser to the mandibles of Stingless Bees than to the surface of intruders due to special surface structures or adhesive properties of these structures. The surface structures of the mandible of T. angustula and the trochanter of Camponotus sericeiventris were studied by scanning electron microscopy. To measure adhesion properties, selected surfaces were fixed on a fine glass pin and withdrawn from a glass tip covered with resin. The deformation of the glass pin indicates adhesion forces operating between the resin and the selective surface. The absolute value of the forces is computed from the glass pin's stiffness. It has been shown that resin sticks more to the smooth mandible of the bee than to the structured trochanter of the ant. A new hypothesis to be tested says that the bees might lubricate their mandibles with nectar or honey to reduce the resin's adhesion temporarily. PMID:24068098

  19. Factors affecting on bond strength of glass fiber post cemented with different resin cements to root canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavijo, V. R. G.; Bandéca, M. C.; Calixto, L. R.; Nadalin, M. R.; Saade, E. G.; Oliveira-Junior, O. B.; Andrade, M. F.

    2009-09-01

    Luting materials provides the retention of endodontic post. However, the failures of endodontic posts predominantly occurred are the losses of retention. Thus, the alternating use to remove the smear layer, open the dentine tubules, and/or etch the inter-tubular dentine can be provided by EDTA. This study was performed to evaluate effect of EDTA on bond strength of glass fiber post cemented with different resin cements to root canal. Fifty bovine incisors were selected and the crowns were removed to obtain a remaining 14-mm-height root. The roots were randomly distributed into five groups: GI: RelyX™ ARC/LED; GII: RelyX™ U100/LED; GIII EDTA/RelyX™ U100/LED; GIV: Multilink™; and GV: EDTA/Multlink™. After endodontic treatment, the post space was prepared with the drills designated for the quartz-coated-carbon-fiber post Aestheti-Post®. Before application of resin cements, root canals were irrigated with 17% EDTA (GIII and GV) during 1 min, rinsed with distilled water and dried using paper points. The light-cured materials were light-activated with UltraLume LED 5 (Ultradent, South Jordan, Utah) with power density of 1315 mW/cm2. Specimens were perpendicularly sectioned into approximately 1 mm thick sections and the stubs were performed on Universal Testing Machine. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post-hoc tests showed significant statistical different between RelyX™ ARC (GI) and RelyX™ U100 independent of the pre-treatment (GII to GIII) ( P < 0.05). The Multlink™ showed between RelyX™ ARC and RelyX™ U100 (GI to GIII; GII to GV) ( P < 0.05). The ANOVA showed significant statistical similar ( P > 0.05) to all resin cements between the Cervical to Apical regions (GI to GV). The use of 17% EDTA showed no difference significant between the resin cements evaluated (GII to GIII; GIV to GV). Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that the use of EDTA did not provide efficiency on bond strength. The RelyX™ ARC

  20. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When... requirements apply. Except as otherwise provided in this part, the description “Paint” is the proper...

  1. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When... requirements apply. Except as otherwise provided in this part, the description “Paint” is the proper...

  2. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When... requirements apply. Except as otherwise provided in this part, the description “Paint” is the proper...

  3. Influence of Resin Cements on the Tension Force of Cast Frameworks Made by the Technique of Framework Cemented on Prepared Abutments.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Ana Paula; Gomes, Érica Alves; Bielemann, Amália Machado; Baseggio, Bruna; Federizzi, Leonardo; Spazzin, Aloísio Oro; dos Santos, Mateus Bertolini Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the tension force of cast frameworks made by the technique of framework cemented on prepared abutments using two different resin cements. Forty multi-unit abutment analogs were individually fixed with chemically cured acrylic resin inside PVC cylinders using a parallelometer. Brass cylindrical abutments were tightened to the multi-unit abutments to be used as spacers and then castable UCLA abutments were positioned above. These abutments were cast with Ni-Cr and then divided into 4 groups (n=10): cemented with RelyX U100(r); cemented with RelyX U100(r) and simulation of acrylic resin polymerization process; cemented with Multilink(r); and cemented with Multilink(r) and simulation of acrylic resin polymerization process. Abutments were cemented according to manufacturers' instructions. In a universal testing machine, tensile strength was applied in the direction of the long axis of the abutments at 1 mm/min crosshead speed until displacement of the luted abutments was obtained. The values of maximum tensile force (N) required for the displacement of the luted abutments were tabulated and analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA with a 95% confidence level. No statistically significant difference was found among the groups (p>0.05). There was an increase in mean tension force when the specimens were subjected to the simulation of acrylic resin polymerization process, but the results did not differ statistically. Both resin cements presented positive results as regards the retention of luted abutments on their respective multi-unit abutments. Both materials may be indicated for the technique of framework cemented on prepared abutments when professionals pursuit better adaptation of implant-supported frameworks. PMID:26312978

  4. Effect of Coloring–by-Dipping on Microtensile Bond Strength of Zirconia to Resin Cement

    PubMed Central

    Mahshid, Minoo; Berijani, Naeem; Sadr, Seyed Jalil; Homayoon, Sepide Sorour

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Studies on the effect of coloring procedures on the bond strength of zirconia to resin cement are lacking in the literature. This study evaluated the effect of dipping of zirconia ceramic in different liquid color shades on the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of zirconia ceramic to resin cement. Materials and Methods: This in vitro study was conducted on 100 microbar specimens divided into five groups of B2, C1, D4, A3 and control (not colored). To prepare the microbars, 20 white zirconia ceramic blocks, measuring 5×11×11 mm, were dipped in A3, B2, C1 or D4 liquid color shades for 10 seconds (five blocks for each color shade) and five blocks were not colored as controls. All the zirconia blocks were sintered in a sintering furnace. Composite blocks of similar dimensions were fabricated and bonded to zirconia ceramic blocks using Panavia F 2.0 resin cement. Zirconia-cement-composite blocks were sectioned into microbars measuring 1×1×10 mm. The MTBS of microbars was measured by a testing machine. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. All tests were carried out at 0.05 level of significance. Results: Statistically significant differences were found among the groups in MTBS (P<0.001). The D4 group had the highest MTBS value (39.16 ± 6.52 MPa). Conclusion: Dipping affected the MTBS of zirconia ceramic to Panavia F 2.0 resin cement; however, a similar pattern of change was not seen due to the different liquid color shades. PMID:26884775

  5. Evaluation of shear bond strength between dual cure resin cement and zirconia ceramic after thermocycling treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Kang, Cheol-Kyun; Oh, Ju-Won

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was performed to evaluate shear bond strength (SBS) between three dual-cured resin cements and silica coated zirconia, before and after thermocycling treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty specimens were cut in 15 × 2.75 mm discs using zirconia. After air blasting of 50 µm alumina, samples were prepared by tribochemical silica coating with Rocatec™ plus. The specimens were divided into three groups according to the dual-cure resin cement used: (1) Calibra silane+Calibra®, (2) Monobond S+Multilink® N and (3) ESPN sil+RelyX™ Unicem Clicker. After the resin cement was bonded to the zirconia using a Teflon mold, photopolymerization was carried out. Only 10 specimens in each group were thermocycled 6,000 times. Depending on thermocycling treatment, each group was divided into two subgroups (n=10) and SBS was measured by applying force at the speed of 1 mm/min using a universal testing machine. To find out the differences in SBS according to the types of cements and thermocycling using the SPSS, two-way ANOVA was conducted and post-hoc analysis was performed by Turkey's test. RESULTS In non-thermal aged groups, SBS of Multilink group (M1) was higher than that of Calibra (C1) and Unicem (U1) group (P<.05). Moreover, even after thermocycling treatment, SBS of Multilink group (M2) was higher than the other groups (C2 and U2). All three cements showed lower SBS after the thermocycling than before the treatments. But Multilink and Unicem had a significant difference (P<.05). CONCLUSION In this experiment, Multilink showed the highest SBS before and after thermocycling. Also, bond strengths of all three cements decreased after thermocycling. PMID:25722830

  6. Film Thickness and Flow Properties of Resin-Based Cements at Different Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, R

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: For a luting agent to allow complete seating of prosthetic restorations, it must obtain an appropriate flow rate maintaining a minimum film thickness. The performance of recently introduced luting agents in this regard has not been evaluated. Purpose: To measure and compare the film thickness and flow properties of seven resin-containing luting cements at different temperatures (37°C, 25°C and10°C). Material and Methods: Specimens were prepared from five resin luting cements; seT (SDI), Panavia F (Kuraray), Varioloink II (Ivoclar), Maxcem (Kerr), Nexus2 (Kerr) and two resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements (RM-GICs); GC Fuji Plus (GC Corporation), and RelyX Luting 2 (3 M/ESPE). The film thickness and flow rate of each cement (n=15) was determined using the test described in ISO at three different temperatures. Results: There was a linear correlation between film thickness and flow rate for most of the materials. Cooling increased fluidity of almost all materials while the effect of temperature on film thickness was material dependent. At 37°C, all products revealed a film thickness of less than 25µm except for GC Fuji Plus. At 25°C, all cements produced a film thickness of less than 27 µm except for seT. At 10°C, apart from seT and Rely X Luting 2, the remaining cements showed a film thickness smaller than 20 µm. Conclusion: Cooling increased fluidity of almost all materials, however. the film thickness did not exceed 35 µm in either condition, in spite of the lowest film thickness being demonstrated at the lowest temperature. PMID:24724120

  7. Adhesive strength of paint-on resins to crown and bridge composites.

    PubMed

    Kanie, Takahito; Arikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Koichi; Ban, Seiji

    2004-12-01

    This paper examined the adhesive strength of paint-on resin to crown and bridge composites after soaking in water and thermal-cycling. Three shades of paint-on resin were coated on three kinds of crown and bridge composite under four surface treatment conditions (a combination of sandblaster and pretreatment liquid). These specimens were soaked in water at 37 degrees C for 1 day, 1 month, and 1 year, and at 4 degrees C and 60 degrees C alternatively for 1-minute periods for 10,000 cycles by thermal-cycling machine. The adhesive strengths were obtained by shear test. There were no significant differences among the adhesive strengths of three shades of paint-on resin to three composites after storage (p > 0.05). The adhesive strengths to composites with sandblasting showed higher values than those without it (p < 0.01). PMID:15693161

  8. Evaluation of MMA-4-META-TBB resin as a dental adhesive material.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Y S

    1984-04-01

    A new adhesive resin containing a reactive monomer, 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META) was prepared, and its application to hard tooth tissues and metals was studied. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the average length of 4-META resin tags in enamel and dentin was 22 mu and 40 mu respectively. The tensile adhesive strength between 4-META resin and enamel was about 130 kg/cm2 after etching with 65% phosphoric acid. Its bond strength to dentin treated with a cleaning solution of 10% citric acid and 3% ferric chloride was about 190 kg/cm2. In precious alloys heated at 500 degrees C for 5-10 minutes, a bond strength of more than 100 kg/cm2 was obtained. The precious alloys containing Au, Ag, Pt and Cu should be selected especially for dental restorations. In polished non-precious alloys, the bond strength was greater than 100 kg/cm2. If non-precious alloys were oxidized with HNO3, the bond strength increased to 150-200 kg/cm2. The results suggest that the nickel-chromium alloy used in fixed prosthodontics must be treated chemically before adhesion with 4-META resin, but cobalt-chromium alloy used in removable partial dentures bonds well with 4-META resin without chemical treatment. In conclusion, MMA-4-META-TBB resin seems to be a promising adhesive material in dentistry. PMID:6571588

  9. Effect of plasma arc curing on polymerization shrinkage of orthodontic adhesive resins.

    PubMed

    Bang, H-C; Lim, B-S; Yoon, T-H; Lee, Y-K; Kim, C-W

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the polymerization shrinkage of three orthodontic adhesive resins when polymerized with a high-energy plasma arc light (1340 mW cm(-2)) and a conventional halogen light (500 mW cm(-2)), and to correlate the polymerization shrinkage with the degree of conversion. To equalize the total light energy delivered to the adhesive resin, irradiation time was varied between 3 or 6 s for a plasma arc-curing unit, and 8 or 16 s for a halogen light-curing unit. The polymerization shrinkage of adhesive resins during the light-curing process was measured using a computer-controlled mercury dilatometer and the degree of conversion was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A plasma arccuring unit produced significantly lower polymerization shrinkage than a halogen light-curing unit when the equivalent total light energy was irradiated to the orthodontic adhesive resins (P < 0.05). The magnitude of polymerization shrinkage was significantly different depending on the kind of adhesive resins (P < 0.05), but there was no significant correlation between the filler fraction and the polymerization shrinkage (r2 = 0.039). There was strong correlation (r2 = 0.787) between the polymerization shrinkage and the degree of conversion with a halogen light-curing unit, but poor correlation (r2 = 0.377) was observed with a plasma arc-curing unit. PMID:15265218

  10. Effect of femtosecond laser beam angle on bond strength of zirconia-resin cement.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Yusuf Z; Kepceoglu, Abdullah; Yavuz, Tevfik; Aslan, Muhammed A; Demirtag, Zulfikar; Kılıc, Hamdi S; Usumez, Aslihan

    2015-11-01

    Yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) ceramic is widely used as an all-ceramic core material because of its enhanced mechanical and aesthetic properties. The bond strength of Y-TZP restorations affects long-term success; hence, surface treatment is required on ceramic boundaries. This study evaluated the effect of different laser beam angles on Y-TZP-resin cement shear bond strength (SBS). Forty plates of Y-TZP ceramics were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10). A femtosecond amplifier laser pulse was applied on Y-TZP surface with different incidence angles (90°, 75°, 60°, 45°). The resin cement was adhered onto the zirconia surfaces. The SBS of each sample was measured using universal testing machine at crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The SBS was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)/Tukey tests. The results showed that the degree of laser beam angle affects the SBS of resin cement to Y-TZP. The laser beam was applied to a surface with a 45° angle which resulted in significantly higher SBS (18.2 ± 1.43 MPa) than other groups (at 90° angulation (10.79 ± 1.8 MPa), at 75° (13.48 ± 1.2 MPa) and at 60° (15.85 ± 0.81 MPa); p < 0.001). This study shows that decreasing of the angle between the ceramic surface and the laser beam increased the SBS between the resin cement and the ceramic material, as well as the orifice. PMID:25958172

  11. Analysis of the enamel/adhesive resin interface with laser Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Masashi; Sato, Hikaru; Onose, Hideo; Moore, B Keith; Platt, Jeffery A

    2003-01-01

    Adhesion of resin composites into enamel is currently believed to rely on infiltration of bonding resin into the porous zone, establishing micromechanical retention to etched enamel. This study investigated the change in chemical composition of the enamel/resin interface using a laser Raman microscopic system (System-2000, Renishaw). Two-step bonding systems, Mac Bond II (Tokuyama Corp), Clearfil Mega Bond and Single Bond (3M/ESPE) were employed. Resin composites were bonded to bovine enamel with bonding systems and sectioned through the bonded interface. The sectioned surfaces were then polished with diamond pastes down to 1.0 microm particle size. Raman spectra were successively recorded along a line perpendicular to the enamel/ resin interface. The sample stage was moved in 0.2 microm increments on a computer-controlled X-Y precision table. Additional spectra from samples of enamel and cured bonding resins were recorded for reference. The relative amounts of the hydroxyapatite (960cm(-1), P-O), bonding agent (640cm(-1), aromatic ring) and alkyl group (1450cm(-1), C-H) in the enamel/resin bonding area were calculated. From Raman spectroscopy, a gradual decrease in hydroxyapatite was observed, and it was estimated to extend 2.2-2.6 microm for Mac Bond II, 1.2-1.6 pm for Clearfil Mega Bond and 5.2-5.6 microm for Single Bond. Furthermore, the enamel/resin interface represents a gradual transition of bonding agent from the resin to tooth side. Evidence of poor saturation of adhesive resin in etched enamel with Single Bond was detected. From the results of this study, non-uniform resin infiltration into etched enamel was detected and the degree of resin infiltration was found to be different among the bonding systems used. PMID:12670068

  12. Do Resin Cements Alter Action Potentials of Isolated Rat Sciatic Nerve?

    PubMed Central

    Ertan, Ahmet Atila; Beriat, Nilufer Celebi; Onur, Mehmet Ali; Tan, Gamze; Cehreli, Murat Cavit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects dual-cure resin cements on nerve conduction. Methods: Panavia F, RelyX ARC, and Variolink II polymerized either by light-emitting diode (LED) or quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) were used in the study (n=10). The conductance of sciatic nerves of 50 rats were measured before and after contact with the specimens for 1 h. Results: The time-dependent change in nerve conductance and the comparison of LED versus QTH showed that differences between groups are significant (P<.05). For both polymerization techniques, pair-wise comparisons of resin cements showed that the nerve conductance between groups is different (P<.05). RelyX ARC elicited irreversible inhibition of compound action potentials (more than 50% change) and Panavia F and Variolink II polymerized by LED and QTH did not alter nerve conduction beyond physiologic limits. Conclusions: Resin cements may alter nerve conductance and even lead to neurotoxic effects. PMID:21494389

  13. Influence of the bracket on bonding and physical behavior of orthodontic resin cements.

    PubMed

    Bolaños-Carmona, Victoria; Zein, Bilal; Menéndez-Núñez, Mario; Sánchez-Sánchez, Purificación; Ceballos-García, Laura; González-López, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the influence of the type of bracket, on bond strength, microhardness and conversion degree (CD) of four resin orthodontic cements. Micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS) test between the bracket base and the cement was carried out on glass-hour-shaped specimens (n=20). Vickers Hardness Number (VHN) and micro-Raman spectra were recorded in situ under the bracket base. Weibull distribution, ANOVA and non-parametric test were applied for data analysis (p<0.05). The highest values of ή as well as the β Weibull parameter were obtained for metallic brackets with Transbond™ plastic brackets with the self-curing cement showing the worst performance. The CD was from 80% to 62.5%. PMID:26235709

  14. Microtensile bond strength of a newly developed resin cement to dentin.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Shimpei; Fu, Jiale; Saikaew, Pipop; Chowdhury, Afm Almas; Fukuzawa, Naoyuki; Kadowaki, Yoshitaka; Kakuda, Shinichi; Hoshika, Shuhei; Nakaoki, Yasuko; Ikeda, Takatsumi; Tanaka, Toru; Sano, Hidehiko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of a newly developed resin cement, ECD-89 (ECD, Tokuyama Dental, Tokyo, Japan) to dentin and to observe the interfacial micromorphology by comparing with two commercial resin cements, Multilink Automix (MA, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and Panavia F2.0 (PF, Kuraray Noritake Dental, Tokyo, Japan). Flat dentin surfaces of human third molars were exposed using #600 SiC. After application of primer and cement to the dentin surface, each cement was applied and cured with light (light condition) or without light (dark condition). The teeth were sectioned to obtain beams (1 mm×1 mm) after 24 h of water storage. The mean bond strengths and SDs (MPa) were: ECD: 68.6±14.9, MA: 39.2±18.9, PF: 39.4±18.5 and ECD: 54.5±22.4, MA: 36.7±15.6, PF: 13.4±4.46 when cured in light and dark condition, respectively. In both conditions, ECD-89 showed statistically higher µTBS than the others. PMID:25748460

  15. Light transmittance of zirconia as a function of thickness and microhardness of resin cements under different thicknesses of zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Egilmez, Ferhan; Ergun, Gulfem; Kaya, Bekir M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare microhardness of resin cements under different thicknesses of zirconia and the light transmittance of zirconia as a function of thickness. Study design: A total of 126 disc-shaped specimens (2 mm in height and 5 mm in diameter) were prepared from dual-cured resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Panavia F and Clearfil SA cement). Photoactivation was performed by using quartz tungsten halogen and light emitting diode light curing units under different thicknesses of zirconia. Then the specimens (n=7/per group) were stored in dry conditions in total dark at 37°C for 24 h. The Vicker’s hardness test was performed on the resin cement layer with a microhardness tester. Statistical significance was determined using multifactorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) (alpha=.05). Light transmittance of different thicknesses of zirconia (0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 mm) was measured using a hand-held radiometer (Demetron, Kerr). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test (alpha=.05). Results: ANOVA revealed that resin cement and light curing unit had significant effects on microhardness (p < 0.001). Additionally, greater zirconia thickness resulted in lower transmittance. There was no correlation between the amount of light transmitted and microhardness of dual-cured resin cements (r = 0.073, p = 0.295). Conclusion: Although different zirconia thicknesses might result in insufficient light transmission, dual-cured resin cements under zirconia restorations could have adequate microhardness. Key words:Zirconia, microhardness, light transmittance, resin cement. PMID:23385497

  16. Nanoindentation Study of Resin Impregnated Sandstone and Early-Age Cement Paste Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Fonteyn, M. T. J.; Hughes, J.; Pearce, C.

    Nanoindentation testing requires well prepared samples with a good surface finish. Achieving a good surface finish is difficult for heterogeneous materials, particularly those with weak and fragile structures/phases, which are easily damaged or lost during preparation. The loss of weak structures can be drastically reduced by impregnating the sample with a resin before cutting and polishing. This technique is commonly used in SEM microscopy but has not been used for nanoindentation-testing before. This paper reports an investigation to extract micro-mechanical properties of different phases in resin impregnated sandstone and 1-day hydrated cement samples. The results appeared to show that it is feasible to use resin impregnated specimens for nanoindentation study of both materials.

  17. Priming the tooth surface with chlorhexidine and antibacterial activity of resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Monika; Singh, Yashpal; Garg, Rishabh; Pandey, Anita

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of priming the tooth surface with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate on antibacterial activity of resin cement. METHODS: Ten patients in whom a single missing tooth was present on both the right and left side in the upper or lower arch were selected. Two fixed partial dentures (FPDs) in each patient on the right and left side were planned. Each FPD was assigned either to the control or test group. In the control group, FPD was luted with resin cement and in the test group, the tooth surface was primed with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate before luting with resin cement. Bacteriological samples were collected at base line level, as the patient came to the outpatient department before the start of any treatment, 5 wk prior to cementation of FPD and at 13 wk (8 wk after final cementation). Microbiological processing of all samples was done and the results were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: In the test group, a predominance of aerobic/facultative gram positive cocci rod was seen which indicates a healthy periodontal site, whereas in the control group, a predominance of anaerobic gram negative rods was present which indicates an unhealthy periodontal condition. This is evident by the fact that the anaerobic bacteria percentage in the control sample is 57% and 15% in the test sample after 13 wk, whereas the aerobic/facultative bacteria percentage is 43% in the control sample and 85% in the test sample after 13 wk. The percentage of gram negative bacteria in the control sample is 61% and in the test sample is 20% after 13 wk, whereas the percentage of gram positive bacteria in the control sample is 39% and in the test sample is 80% after 13 wk. The shift from anaerobic gram negative bacteria to aerobic gram positive bacteria is clearly seen from the control to test sample after 13 wk. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that priming the tooth surface with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate may enhance antibacterial activity of the resin cement. PMID

  18. Effect of chemical treatment of aramid fibres on their adhesion performance with polyester resin

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, M.G.; Massoudi, A.H.

    1993-12-31

    Aramid fibers were chemically treated to improve their wetting characteristics and to selectively bond suitable coupling agents to their surface. It was found that an organic coupling agent, which had been reactively bonded to the surface of the aramid fibers and contained an unsaturated pendant group, not only significantly improved the wetting performance of the fibers but also increased the adhesion of polyester resin to the fibers by approximately 200%. This increase in adhesion is attributed primarily to chemical rather than physical bonding. It is suggested that the unsaturated end groups of the attached coupling agent cross-link with the polyester resin during the curing process.

  19. Bonding Analysis of Amino Resin Wood Adhesive with Pesticide Using Response Surface Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, Awang; Rajin, Mariani; Siambun, Nancy Julius

    Wood base industries are among the dominant players in Malaysia economic activities. In this research, by using Response Surface Method (RSM), studies of bonding between Disodium Tetraborate Decahydrate (DTD) pesticide and various formulation of wood adhesive i.e., Melamine-Urea-Formaldehyde (MUF) resin is carried out. The RSM formulated twenty-five MUF formulations, consisting combination of different amount of formaldehyde, melamine, urea added in stage-1 and stage-2 of resin synthesis and DTD pesticide. The liquid products of resin are then hardened and tested using Fourier Transformation Infra-Red (FTIR) and visible spectrophotometer (VIS), to analyse the bonding of the resin and pesticide. The data from the FTIR and VIS analysis were then compiled and analysed using Response Surface Method. The results show that, different amount of the formaldehyde, melamine, urea and DTD pesticide, gives specific impact to the strength of MUF resin-pesticide bonding.

  20. A study on the compatibility between one-bottle dentin adhesives and composite resins using micro-shear bond strength

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to determine whether the combined use of one-bottle self-etch adhesives and composite resins from same manufacturers have better bond strengths than combinations of adhesive and resins from different manufacturers. Materials and Methods 25 experimental micro-shear bond test groups were made from combinations of five dentin adhesives and five composite resins with extracted human molars stored in saline for 24 hr. Testing was performed using the wire-loop method and a universal testing machine. Bond strength data was statistically analyzed using two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test. Results Two way ANOVA revealed significant differences for the factors of dentin adhesives and composite resins, and significant interaction effect (p < 0.001). All combinations with Xeno V (Dentsply De Trey) and Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray Dental) adhesives showed no significant differences in micro-shear bond strength, but other adhesives showed significant differences depending on the composite resin (p < 0.05). Contrary to the other adhesives, Xeno V and BondForce (Tokuyama Dental) had higher bond strengths with the same manufacturer's composite resin than other manufacturer's composite resin. Conclusions Not all combinations of adhesive and composite resin by same manufacturers failed to show significantly higher bond strengths than mixed manufacturer combinations. PMID:25671210

  1. The Effect of Glass Ionomer and Adhesive Cements on Substance P Expression in Human Dental Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Garcia, German; Camelo, Patricia; Mejia, Monica; Ojeda, Karyn; Azuero-Holguin, Maria M.; Abad-Coronel, Dunia; Munoz, Hugo R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of glass ionomer and adhesive cements on SP expression in healthy human dental pulp. Study Design: Forty pulp samples were obtained from healthy premolars where extraction was indicated for orthodontic reasons. In thirty of these premolars a Class V cavity preparation was performed and teeth were equally divided in three groups: Experimental Group I: Glass Ionomer cement was placed in the cavity. Experimental Group II: Adhesive Cement was placed in the cavity. Positive control group: Class V cavities only. The remaining ten healthy premolars where extracted without treatment and served as a negative control group. All pulp samples were processed and SP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: Greater SP expression was found in the adhesive cement group, followed by the glass ionomer and the positive control groups. The lower SP values were for the negative control group. ANOVA showed statistically significant differences between groups (p<0.0001). Tukey HSD post hoc tests showed statistically significant differences in SP expression between negative control group and the 3 other groups (p<0.01). Differences between the cavity-only group and the two experimental groups were also statistically significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively). There is also a statistically significant difference between the two experimental groups (p<0.01). Conclusions: These findings suggest that adhesive cements provoke a greater SP expression when compared with glass ionomer. Key words:Glass Ionomer, adhesive cement, Substance P, human dental pulp. PMID:23722145

  2. Effects of coronal substrates and water storage on the microhardness of a resin cement used for luting ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    de MENDONÇA, Luana Menezes; PEGORARO, Luiz Fernando; LANZA, Marcos Daniel Septímio; PEGORARO, Thiago Amadei; de CARVALHO, Ricardo Marins

    2014-01-01

    Composite resin and metallic posts are the materials most employed for reconstruction of teeth presenting partial or total destruction of crowns. Resin-based cements have been widely used for cementation of ceramic crowns. The success of cementation depends on the achievement of adequate cement curing. Objectives To evaluate the microhardness of Variolink® II (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), used for cementing ceramic crowns onto three different coronal substrate preparations (dentin, metal, and composite resin), after 7 days and 3 months of water storage. The evaluation was performed along the cement line in the cervical, medium and occlusal thirds on the buccal and lingual aspects, and on the occlusal surface. Material and Methods Thirty molars were distributed in three groups (N=10) according to the type of coronal substrate: Group D- the prepared surfaces were kept in dentin; Groups M (metal) and R (resin)- the crowns were sectioned at the level of the cementoenamel junction and restored with metallic cast posts or resin build-up cores, respectively. The crowns were fabricated in ceramic IPS e.max® Press (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and luted with Variolink II. After 7 days of water storage, 5 specimens of each group were sectioned in buccolingual direction for microhardness measurements. The other specimens (N=5) were kept stored in deionized water at 37ºC for three months, followed by sectioning and microhardness measurements. Results Data were first analyzed by three-way ANOVA that did not reveal significant differences between thirds and occlusal surface (p=0.231). Two-way ANOVA showed significant effect of substrates (p<0.001) and the Tukey test revealed that microhardness was significantly lower when crowns were cemented on resin cores and tested after 7 days of water storage (p=0.007). Conclusion The type of material employed for coronal reconstruction of preparations for prosthetic purposes may influence the cement properties

  3. In vitro degradation of resin-dentin bonds with one-bottle self-etching adhesives.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Masanori; Fujita, Shinichi; Endo, Kazuhiko; Ohno, Hiroki

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the durability of one-bottle self-etching adhesive during long-term water-storage testing. Resin-dentin bonded specimens were prepared using four commercially available one-bottle self-etching adhesives. The specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the adhesive interface to produce beam-shaped specimens that were stored in water for 24 h (control group) and 100, 200, and 300 d (experimental groups). After each storage period, the beams were subjected to a microtensile bond test. After the bond test, fractured surfaces were examined using a scanning electron microscope. In addition, interfacial observations of the silver tracer were performed using the secondary and back-scatter modes of the scanning electron microscope. The bond strength of all tested adhesives decreased significantly after 100 or more days in water. The interfacial observations showed an oxygen-inhibition zone as electron lucent in the adhesive-composite border in control specimens, displaying silver impregnation with breakage after aging. The deterioration of the oxygen-inhibition zone in the adhesive-resin composite junction resulted in a decrease in bond strength after 100 d in water for one-bottle self-etching adhesives. PMID:19758260

  4. Nanoleakage of Class V Resin Restorations Using Two Nanofilled Adhesive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Al-Agha, Ebaa I; Alagha, Mustafa I

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out to evaluate the nanoleakage of two types of nanofilled adhesive systems in Class V composite resin restorations. Materials and Methods: Totally 60 human premolars were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 30). Standardized round Class V cavities (enamel and dentin margins) were prepared. A total-etch (N-Bond total etch) (Ivoclar Vivadent) and self-etching (N-Bond self-etch) (Ivoclar Vivadent) adhesive system were evaluated. The cavities were restored incrementally with nanohybird composite resin (Tetric N-Ceram). The teeth were sectioned into a series of 1 mm thick beams then they were immersed in the prepared ammoniacal silver nitrate tracer solution for 24 h in a black photo-film container to ensure total darkness. The beams were then rinsed with distilled water, and immersed in photo-developing solution for eight hours then they were subjected to the nanoleakage evaluation. The specimens were analyzed in the environmental scanning electron operated with backscattered electron mode at ×1000 magnification. Results: Self-etch adhesive recorded higher nanoleakage % mean value than the total-etch adhesive. The difference in nanoleakage % mean values between total and self-etch adhesive was statistically significant. Conclusion: The self-etch adhesive had statistically significant higher nanoleakage mean values than the total-etch adhesive. PMID:26229363

  5. 3D micro-CT analysis of void formations and push-out bonding strength of resin cements used for fiber post cementation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To investigate the void parameters within the resin cements used for fiber post cementation by micro-CT (µCT) and regional push-out bonding strength. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-one, single and round shaped roots were enlarged with a low-speed drill following by endodontic treatment. The roots were divided into three groups (n=7) and fiber posts were cemented with Maxcem Elite, Multilink N and Superbond C&B resin cements. Specimens were scanned using µCT scanner at resolution of 13.7 µm. The number, area, and volume of voids between dentin and post were evaluated. A method of analysis based on the post segmentation was used, and coronal, middle and apical thirds considered separately. After the µCT analysis, roots were embedded in epoxy resin and sectioned into 2 mm thick slices (63 sections in total). Push-out testing was performed with universal testing device at 0.5 mm/min cross-head speed. Data were analyzed with Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests (α=.05). RESULTS Overall, significant differences between the resin cements and the post level were observed in the void number, area, and volume (P<.05). Super-Bond C&B showed the most void formation (44.86 ± 22.71). Multilink N showed the least void surface (3.51 ± 2.24 mm2) and volume (0.01 ± 0.01 mm3). Regional push-out bond strength of the cements was not different (P>.05). CONCLUSION µCT proved to be a powerful non-destructive 3D analysis tool for visualizing the void parameters. Multilink N had the lowest void parameters. When efficiency of all cements was evaluated, direct relationship between the post region and push-out bonding strength was not observed. PMID:27141253

  6. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of dental adhesives and glass-ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Magni, Elisa; Ferrari, Marco; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2010-02-01

    Adhesives and lining/base materials should relieve the stresses concentrated at the tooth/restoration interface. The study aimed at comparing the mechanical properties of eight adhesives and six glass-ionomer cements (GICs). The adhesives were applied on dentin disks, whereas 2 mm x 3 mm x 2 mm GICs specimens were prepared in a teflon mold. Vicker's hardness (VH), elastic modulus (E), creep (Cr) and elastic work (We/Wtot) were measured with a micro hardness indenter. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to compare the mechanical properties within each materials' type and among the materials' classes. Enamel and dentin were used as references. Significant differences were detected within each materials' type and among the materials' classes and enamel and dentin. GICs were superior to adhesives in VH and E and showed a VH similar to dentin. GICs presented mechanical properties more similar to enamel and dentin than adhesives. PMID:19241096

  7. Cutting effectiveness of diamond points on commercial core composite resins and cements.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, H; Taira, M; Yamaki, M

    1996-06-01

    In dental clinics, composite resin and cement cores are routinely cut and polished during abutment tooth preparation. To identify their characteristics during cutting, weight-load cutting tests were performed on eight commercial core composites and two cements, using diamond points driven by an air-turbine handpiece. It became evident that the cutting effectiveness of the diamond points on nine workpieces exceeded that on natural tooth dentine, while that on one composite containing Si3,N4 filler was analogous to that on dentine. With continued use, the cutting effectiveness of the diamond point on all workpieces gradually declined. SEM observations revealed that diamond particles of the diamond point wore out with repeated use. It is clinically advised to select the core material with material characteristics during cutting and mechanical strength similar to those of dentin. PMID:8809696

  8. Quantitative analysis of adhesive resin in the hybrid layer using Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yuan; Armstrong, Steven R.; Jessop, Julie L. P.

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to determine absolute molar concentration of adhesive resin components in the hybrid layer by establishing methods based on Raman spectroscopy fundamentals. The hybrid layer was treated as a three-component system consisting of collagen and an adhesive resin containing two monomers. Adhesive standard specimens and Raman peak area ratios obtained with a 785 nm excitation wavelength were used to construct separate calibration curves for comonomer relative molar concentration and Bis-GMA absolute molar concentration. Since collagen and water had no measurable peaks in the fingerprint region, a dilution coefficient Kj was defined to describe their impact on Raman peak area and to calculate HEMA absolute molar concentration. Methodology was validated using an analogous system containing acetone/ethanol/water. The absolute molar concentration of Bis-GMA and HEMA decreased 87% and 83%, respectively, from the top quarter to the middle of the hybrid layer. Additionally, less Bis-GMA penetrated the hybrid layer than HEMA, as indicated by the ∼20% decrease in comonomer molar concentration ratio between the adhesive resin layer and the top half of the hybrid layer. Lack of complete monomer infiltration will further challenge dentin-adhesive bond longevity. PMID:20186729

  9. Formulation Study on Immobilization of Spent Ion Exchange Resins in Polymer Cements

    SciTech Connect

    Lili Xia; Meiqiong Lin; Bao Liangjin

    2006-07-01

    Applying normal design and correlative computer software, a new matrix material and an excellent waste formulation were developed. Based on the theory calculations and normal design in this paper, using polymer complex cement as immobilization matrix that mixed with simulating spent ion exchange resin a new waste formulation was carried out. The characterization of solidified waste had been done after 28 days curing. The results conformed to the treatment of the waste about the requests of the national standard [GB14569-93-1]. Leach index of the solidified waste was excellent. An optimized formulation was recommended. (authors)

  10. Influence of resin cement shade on the color and translucency of ceramic veneers

    PubMed Central

    HERNANDES, Daiana Kelly Lopes; ARRAIS, Cesar Augusto Galvão; de LIMA, Erick; CESAR, Paulo Francisco; RODRIGUES, José Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective This in vitro study evaluated the effect of two different shades of resin cement (RC- A1 and A3) layer on color change, translucency parameter (TP), and chroma of low (LT) and high (HT) translucent reinforced lithium disilicate ceramic laminates. Material and Methods One dual-cured RC (Variolink II, A1- and A3-shade, Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied to 1-mm thick ceramic discs to create thin RC films (100 µm thick) under the ceramics. The RC was exposed to light from a LED curing unit. Color change (ΔE) of ceramic discs was measured according to CIEL*a*b* system with a standard illuminant D65 in reflectance mode in a spectrophotometer, operating in the light range of 360-740 nm, equipped with an integrating sphere. The color difference between black (B) and white (W) background readings was used for TP analysis, while chroma was calculated by the formula C* ab=(a*2+b*2)½. ΔE of 3.3 was set as the threshold of clinically unacceptable. The results were evaluated by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Results HT ceramics showed higher ΔE and higher TP than LT ceramics. A3-shade RC promoted higher ΔE than A1-shade cement, regardless of the ceramic translucency. No significant difference in TP was noted between ceramic discs with A1- and those with A3-shade cement. Ceramic with underlying RC showed lower TP than discs without RC. HT ceramics showed lower chroma than LT ceramics, regardless of the resin cement shade. The presence of A3-shade RC resulted in higher chroma than the presence of A1-shade RC. Conclusions Darker underlying RC layer promoted more pronounced changes in ceramic translucency, chroma, and shade of high translucent ceramic veneers. These differences may not be clinically differentiable. PMID:27556211

  11. Copolymer resins made of agricultural and forest residues extracts for wood laminating adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.M.

    1995-11-01

    Extracts of Southern pine bark, peanut hulls, pecan nut pitch, and pecan shell flour were used to synthesize copolymer resins using resorcinol, phenol, and formaldehyde. The test joints of both southern pine and oak were laminated in room temperature. The gluability of these copolymer resins were evaluated with shear compression loading test. The effects of resorcinol level, the molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenolic, and the composition of the hardener on bonding quality were investigated. With a more than 80% wood failure after vacuum pressure treatment, several copolymer resins provided good bonding quality as a wood laminating adhesive. Different extracts required different formulations of copolymer resin and hardner to obtain the best bonding quality.

  12. Bonding of Resin Cement to Zirconia with High Pressure Primer Coating

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-jie; Jiao, Kai; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Wei; Shen, Li-juan; Fang, Ming; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiang; Tay, Franklin R.; Chen, Ji-hua

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of air-drying pressure during ceramic primer coating on zirconia/resin bonding and the surface characteristics of the primed zirconia. Methods Two ceramic primers (Clearfil Ceramic Primer, CCP, Kuraray Medical Inc. and Z-Prime Plus, ZPP, Bisco Inc.) were applied on the surface of air-abraded zirconia (Katana zirconia, Noritake) and dried at 4 different air pressures (0.1–0.4 MPa). The primed zirconia ceramic specimens were bonded with a resin-based luting agent (SA Luting Cement, Kuraray). Micro-shear bond strengths of the bonded specimens were tested after 3 days of water storage or 5,000× thermocycling (n = 12). Failure modes of the fractured specimens were examined with scanning electron miscopy. The effects of air pressure on the thickness of the primer layers and the surface roughness (Sa) of primed zirconia were evaluated using spectroscopic ellipsometry (n = 6), optical profilometry and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) (n = 6), respectively. Results Clearfil Ceramic Primer air-dried at 0.3 and 0.4 MPa, yielding significantly higher µSBS than gentle air-drying subgroups (p<0.05). Compared to vigorous drying conditions, Z-Prime Plus air-dried at 0.2 MPa exhibited significantly higher µSBS (p<0.05). Increasing air-drying pressure reduced the film thickness for both primers. Profilometry measurements and ESEM showed rougher surfaces in the high pressure subgroups of CCP and intermediate pressure subgroup of ZPP. Conclusion Air-drying pressure influences resin/zirconia bond strength and durability significantly. Higher air-drying pressure (0.3-0.4 MPa) for CCP and intermediate pressure (0.2 MPa) for ZPP are recommended to produce strong, durable bonds between resin cement and zirconia ceramics. PMID:24992678

  13. Distribution of calcium ions at the interface between resin bonding materials and tooth dentin. Use of commercially available adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Hanaizumi, Y; Maeda, T; Takano, Y

    1998-01-01

    It has been proposed that calcium ions play a key role in chemical (chelate) binding between the adhesive resin and dentin surface. However, no data is available concerning how calcium ions are distributed at the binding sites. The aim of this study is to demonstrate calcium ions at the resin-dentin interface by means of X-ray microanalysis and calcium ion-sensitive histochemical staining. The dentin surface in human teeth was ground by use of 240 grit silicon carbide abrasive paper under running water and treated with the dentin-primer and adhesive resin in Clearfil Liner Bond System or IMPERVA Bond System according to the manufacturer's instructions. After removing dentin matrix and isolating adhesive resin by the KOH-digestion method, one half of the samples were processed for scanning electron microscopy. The rest were embedded in Epon 812 and processed either for glyoxal bis (2-hydroxyanil) (GBHA) staining or transmission electron microscopy combined with X-ray microanalysis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed Ca-phosphate deposits at the bottom of the resin-impregnated layer. The adhesive resin above the resin-impregnated layer was amorphous and showed no precipitates of Ca-phosphate. GBHA displayed intense calcium reactions throughout the resin-impregnated layer and also moderate ones in the 10 microns (Clearfil Liner Bond System) or 30 microns (IMPERVA Bonding System) thick boundary zone of the adhesive resin as well as in the resin tags. These data are the first to offer a distinct localization of calcium ions within the adhesive resin at the dentin-resin interface. PMID:9800373

  14. Effect of different grades of gum rosins and hydrogenated resins on the solubility, disintegration, and dimensional alterations of Grossman cement.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Neto, M D; Guimarães, L F; Saquy, P C; Pécora, J D

    1999-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of the addition of different grades of gum rosins and hydrogenated resins to Grossman cement on dimensional stability, solubility and disintegration. pH and conductivity, which may affect these properties, were also determined. The experiments were performed according to Specification 57 of the American Dental Association for root canal cements using Grossman cements containing three gum rosins (grades X, WW, and WG) and two hydrogenated resins (Staybelite and Staybelite ester 10). The results showed that the solubility, disintegration, and dimensional stability of Grossman cement containing Staybelite and Staybelite ester 10 were inferior to the values considered acceptable by the American Dental Association Specification 57. PMID:10687510

  15. Evaluation of the shear bond strength of resin cement to Y-TZP ceramic after different surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yoo-Jin; Shin, Yooseok; Yi, Young-Ah; Kim, Jaehoon; Lee, In-Bog; Cho, Byeong-Hoon; Son, Ho-Hyun; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various surface treatments on the shear bond strength of Y-TZP (Yttria-Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystal) ceramics with zirconia primer and two different resin cements both containing 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP). Zirconia blocks (LAVA, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) were polished and assigned to five groups according to the surface treatment: (1) no further treatment (control); (2) airborne abrasion with Al2 O3 particles; (3) Z-PRIME Plus (Bisco, Schaumburg, IL) applied on polished zirconia; (4) Z-PRIME Plus applied on zirconia after airborne abrasion; and (5) tribochemical silica-coating performed with the CoJet system (3M ESPE) followed by application of ESPE®-Sil (3M ESPE). Each group was further divided into one of two resin cements: Panavia F2.0 (Kuraray, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan) and Clearfil SA Luting (Kuraray). Resin cement placed inside a gel-cap was polymerized on the zirconia surface. Shear bond strength was tested with a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. One-way analysis of variance and paired t-test were done. (p < 0.05), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken. Zirconia primer applied after airborne abrasion significantly increased the shear bond strength resulting in the highest value for both resin cements. Control groups for both cements showed the weakest value for shear bond strength. No significant differences were found between the shear bond strengths of the individual resin cements applied to zirconia surfaces treated the same way. In conclusion, the combined surface treatment of airborne abrasion followed by a zirconia primer is recommended for zirconia bonding with Panavia F2.0 and Clearfil SA Luting cements. PMID:24676632

  16. The effect of a diode laser and traditional irrigants on the bond strength of self-adhesive cement

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Cihan; Ozcan, Erhan; Polat, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a diode laser and traditional irrigants on the bond strength of self-adhesive cement. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty-five incisors extracted due to periodontal problems were used. All teeth were instrumented using a set of rotary root canal instruments. The post spaces were enlarged for a No.14 (diameter, 1.4 mm) Snowlight (Abrasive technology, OH, USA) glass fiber reinforced composite post with matching drill. The teeth were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups of 11 teeth each. The post spaces were treated with the followings: Group 1: 5 mL 0.9% physiological saline; Group 2: 5 mL 5.25% sodium hypochlorite; Group 3: 5 mL 17% ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA), Group 4: 37% orthophosphoric acid and Group 5: Photodynamic diode laser irradiation for 1 minute after application of light-active dye solution. Snowlight posts were luted with self-adhesive resin cement. Each root was sectioned perpendicular to its long axis to create 1 mm thick specimens. The push-out bond strength test method was used to measure bond strength. One tooth from each group was processed for scanning electron microscopic analysis. RESULTS Bond strength values were as follow: Group 1 = 4.15 MPa; Group 2 = 3.00 MPa; Group 3 = 4.45 MPa; Group 4 = 6.96 MPa; and Group 5 = 8.93 MPa. These values were analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey honestly significant difference test (P<.05). Significantly higher bond strength values were obtained with the diode laser and orthophosphoric acid (P<.05). There were no differences found between the other groups (P>.05). CONCLUSION Orthophosphoric acid and EDTA were more effective methods for removing the smear layer than the diode laser. However, the diode laser and orthophosphoric acid were more effective at the cement dentin interface than the EDTA, Therefore, modifying the smear layer may be more effective when a self-adhesive system is used. PMID:24353886

  17. Microleakage of Two Self-Adhesive Cements in the Enamel and Dentin After 24 Hours and Two Months

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Kalantar Motamedi, Mojdeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Microleakage is a main cause of restorative treatment failure. In this study, we compared occlusal and cervical microleakage of two self-adhesive cements after 24 hours and two months. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, class II inlay cavities were prepared on 60 sound human third molars. Composite inlays were fabricated with Z100 composite resin. The teeth were randomly assigned to six groups. RelyX-Arc (control), RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem were used for the first three groups and specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The same cements were used for the remaining three groups, but the specimens were stored for 2 months. The teeth were subjected to 500 thermal cycles (5°C and 55°C) and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and then sectioned mesiodistally and dye penetration was evaluated in a class II cavity with occlusal and cervical margins using X20 magnification stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: After 24 hours, cements had significant differences only in cervical margin microleakage (P=0.0001) and microleakage of RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was significantly more than that of RelyX-Arc (both P=0.0001). Cervical microleakage in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was greater than occlusal (P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively). Microleakage was not significantly different between the occlusal and cervical margins after 2 months. Conclusion: Cervical microleakage was greater than occlusal in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem after 24h. The greatest microleakage was reported for the cervical margin of RelyX-Unicem after 24 hours. PMID:25584053

  18. Comparative study of the radiopacity of resin cements used in aesthetic dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Monterde-Hernández, Manuel; Cabanillas-Casabella, Cristina; Pallares-Sabater, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to compare the radiopacity of 6 modern resin cements with that of human enamel and dentine using the Digora digital radiography system, to verify whether they meet the requirements of ANSI/ADA specification no. 27/1993 and the ISO 4049/2000 standard and assess whether their radiopacity is influenced by the thickness of the cement employed. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three 3-thickness samples (0.5, 1 and 1.5 mm) were fabricated for each material. The individual cement samples were radiographed on the CCD sensor next to the aluminium wedge and the tooth samples. Five radiographs were made of each sample and therefore five readings of radiographic density were taken for each thickness of the materials. The radiopacity was measured in pixels using Digora 2.6 software. The calibration curve obtained from the mean values of each step of the wedge made it possible to obtain the equivalent in mm of aluminium for each mm of the luting material. RESULTS With the exception of Variolink Veneer Medium Value 0, all the cements studied were more radiopaque than enamel and dentin (P<.05) and complied with the ISO and ANSI/ADA requirements (P<.001). The radiopacity of all the cements examined depended on their thickness: the thicker the material, the greater its radiopacity. CONCLUSION All materials except Variolink Veneer Medium Value 0 yielded radiopacity values that complied with the recommendations of the ISO and ANSI/ADA. Variolink Veneer Medium Value 0 showed less radiopacity than enamel and dentin. PMID:27350854

  19. The effect of different adhesive system applications on push-out bond strengths of glass fiber posts

    PubMed Central

    Deniz Arısu, Hacer; Üçtaşlı, Mine Betül; Okay, Tufan Can

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Over the past years, the adhesion of fiber posts luted with simplified adhesive systems has been a matter of great interest. The aim of this study was to assess the post retentive potential of a self-adhesive resin cement using different adhesive systems to compare the push-out bond strengths of fiber posts. MATERIALS AND METHODS The post spaces of 56 mandibular premolar roots were prepared and divided into 4 experimental groups and further divided into 2 subgroups according to testing time (n=7). The fiber posts (Rely X Fiber Post) were luted with a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem) and one of the following adhesive systems: no adhesive, a total-etch adhesive resin (Single Bond), a two-step self-etch adhesive resin (Clearfil SE Bond) and a one-step self-etch adhesive resin (Clearfil S3 Bond). Each root was cut horizontally, and 1.5 mm thick six root segments were prepared. Push-out tests were performed after one week or three months (0.5 mm/min). Statistical analysis were performed with three-way ANOVA (α=.05). RESULTS Cervical root segments showed higher bond strength values than middle segments. Adhesive application increased the bond strength. For one week group, the total-etch adhesive resin Single Bond showed higher bond strength than the self-adhesive resin cement RelyX Unicem applied without adhesive resin at middle region. For 3 months group, the two-step self-etch adhesive resin Clearfil SE Bond showed the highest bond strength for both regions. Regarding the time considered, Clearfil SE Bond 3 months group showed higher bond strength values than one week group. CONCLUSION Using the adhesive resins in combination with the self-adhesive resin cement improves the bond strengths. The bond strength values of two-step self-etch adhesive resin Clearfil SE Bond improved as time passes. PMID:24049572

  20. Surface pH of resin-modified glass polyalkenoate (ionomer) cements.

    PubMed

    Woolford, M J; Chadwick, R G

    1992-12-01

    The recently developed group of materials known as light-activated, or resin-modified, glass polyalkenoate (ionomer) cements have been produced in response to clinical demands for a command set cavity base material. This study monitored the surface pH of three commercially available resin-modified glass ionomer cements over a 60-min period following either mixing alone or mixing followed by a 30-s exposure to a curing lamp. The results indicate that each material behaves in a unique manner. For all materials and conditions the pH reached after a 60-min period was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than the initial value. Light curing the materials significantly increased (P < 0.01) the surface pH of two of the materials (Baseline VLC and Vitrebond) as compared to the same materials in the uncured state. In the case of XR-Ionomer, however, no significant (P > 0.05) effect of light curing upon the surface pH was apparent. The precise clinical consequences of a low surface pH are unclear but may be an aetiological factor in postoperative pulpal sensitivity. It is therefore recommended that a sublining of a proprietary calcium hydroxide lining material should be placed routinely beneath these materials and every effort made to ensure effective light curing. PMID:1452877

  1. Effect of Bonding Application Time on Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Glass Ionomer Cement

    PubMed Central

    Panahandeh, Narges; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Ghassemi, Amir; Mahdian, Mina; Akbarzadeh Bagheban, Alireza; Moayyedi, Seddigheh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This experimental study evaluated the effect of bonding application time on the microshear bond strength of composite resin to different types of glass ionomer cements (GICs). Materials and Methods: One-hundred and sixty specimens (two conventional and two resin-modified GICs) were prepared and divided into 16 groups. The surface of all specimens was prepared using two different bonding systems (Frog and Stea) at three different times. After setting, the composite resin (Z100) was placed over the GICs. The specimens were then stored in distilled water for 24 hours (37°C) and exposed to microshear stresses at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The results were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (P<0.05). Results: In conventional GICs, bond strength was affected by the type of bonding system at different times, and bond strength was significantly higher in the Fuji II group compared to Riva Self Cure group. In the Riva Self Cure group, bond strength was significantly affected by time; whereas, the type of bonding system failed to exert a significant effect on bond strength. There was no significant correlation between the type of bonding system and the two brands of resin-modified GICs. Bond strength was not affected by the type of bonding agent; however, among the two brands of resin-modified GICs, Fuji II LC yielded a significantly stronger bond. Conclusion: It appears that the type of bonding agent does not affect the microshear bond strength, and the bonding application time affects the microshear bond strength in Riva Self Cure GICs. PMID:27507998

  2. Influence of the interposition of ceramic spacers on the degree of conversion and the hardness of resin cements.

    PubMed

    Calgaro, Patricia Angélica Milani; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Correr, Gisele Maria; Ornaghi, Bárbara Pick; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated: I) the effect of photo-activation through ceramics on the degree of conversion (DC) and on the Knoop hardness (KHN) of light- and dual-cured resin cements; and II) two different protocols for obtaining the spectra of uncured materials, to determine the DC of a dual-cured resin cement. Thin films of cements were photo-activated through ceramics [feldspathic porcelain (FP); lithium disilicate glass-ceramics of low translucency (e.max-LT), medium opacity (e.max-MO) and high translucency (e.max-HT); glass-infiltrated alumina composite (IC) and polycrystalline zirconia (ZR)] with thicknesses of 1.5 and 2.0 mm. DC was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Two protocols were used to obtain the spectra of the uncured materials: I) base and catalyst pastes were mixed, and II) thin films of base and catalyst pastes were obtained separately, and an average was obtained. KHN assessment was performed with cylindrical specimens. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α= 0.05). The light-cured cement showed higher DC (61.9%) than the dual-cured cement (55.7%). The DC varied as follows: FP (65.4%), e.max-HT (65.1%), e.max-LT (61.8%), e.max-MO (60.9%), ZR (54.8%), and IC (44.9%). The light-cured cement showed lower KHN (22.0) than the dual-cured (25.6) cement. The cements cured under 1.5 mm spacers showed higher KHN (26.2) than when polymerized under 2.0 mm ceramics (21.3). Regarding the two protocols, there were significant differences only in three groups. Thus, both methods can be considered appropriate. The physical and mechanical properties of resin cements may be affected by the thickness and microstructure of the ceramic material interposed during photo-activation. PMID:24036978

  3. Paucity of Nanolayering in Resin-Dentin Interfaces of MDP-based Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Tian, F; Zhou, L; Zhang, Z; Niu, L; Zhang, L; Chen, C; Zhou, J; Yang, H; Wang, X; Fu, B; Huang, C; Pashley, D H; Tay, F R

    2016-04-01

    Self-assembled nanolayering structures have been reported in resin-dentin interfaces created by adhesives that contain 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP). These structures have been hypothesized to contribute to bond durability. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent of nanolayering in resin-dentin interfaces after application of commercialized 10-MDP-containing self-etch and universal adhesives to human dentin. Seven commercialized adhesives were examined: Adhese Universal (Ivoclar-Vivadent), All-Bond Universal (Bisco, Inc.), Clearfil SE Bond 2, Clearfil S3 Bond Plus, Clearfil Universal Bond (all from Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc.), G-Premio Bond (GC Corp.), and Scotchbond Universal (3M ESPE). Each adhesive was applied in the self-etch mode on midcoronal dentin according to the respective manufacturer's instructions. Bonded specimens (n = 6) were covered with flowable resin composite, processed for transmission electron microscopy, and examined at 30 random sites without staining. Thin-film glancing angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to detect the characteristic peaks exhibited by nanolayering (n = 4). The control consisted of 15%wt, 10%wt, and 5%wt 10-MDP (DM Healthcare Products, Inc.) dissolved in a mixed solvent (ethanol and water weight ratio 9:8, with photoinitiators). Experimental primers were applied to dentin for 20 s, covered with hydrophobic resin layer, and examined in the same manner. Profuse nanolayering with highly ordered periodicity (~3.7 nm wide) was observed adjacent to partially dissolved apatite crystallites in dentin treated with the 15% 10-MDP primer. Three peaks in the 2θ range of 2.40° (3.68 nm), 4.78° (1.85 nm), and 7.18° (1.23 nm) were identified from thin-film XRD. Reduction in the extent of nanolayering was observed in the 10% and 5% 10-MDP experimental primer-dentin interface along with lower intensity XRD peaks. Nanolayering and characteristic XRD peaks were rarely observed in

  4. In vitro evaluation of the film thickness of self-etching resin cements.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Lozada, Julio; Urquía-Morales, María Del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the film thickness of selfetching resin cement. The following materials were used: Group1, Relyx U100 (3M /ESPE); Group 2, BisCem (Bisco); Group 3, Max Cem (Kerr); Group 4, Set (SDI) and Group 5, Relyx ARC (3M/ESPE) as control. Two 5.4 x 76.2 x 1 mm glass slides were marked in the center to identify the area where the material would be placed. A volume of 0.05 ml was used for each specimen material. After 1, 3 and 6 minutes, a 50 N load was applied for one minute. The thickness of each specimen was then measured using a digital micrometer to the nearest 1 μm; (Digimatic, Mitutoyo Corporation, Japan.). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests. No significant difference was found between the materials tested (p = 0.0921) or material/time interaction (p = 0.0864), but there were differences in the time factor (p = 0.0001). At one minute, the thinnest film was Relyx ARC (control) (14 μm), followed by Relyx U100 (17 μm), and Maxcem and SeT (19 μm). At 3 minutes, Group 5 (control) was also the thinnest film (19 μm), followed by Group 1 (21 μm), Group 3 (25 μm), Group 2 (29 μm), and Group 4 (31 μm). At 6 minutes, Group 4 was the thinnest (34 μm), followed by Group 1 (38 μm), Group 5 (40 μm), Group 2 (41 μm) and Group 3 (42 μm). The film thickness of resin cements was influenced by time and polymerization reaction. The film thickness of self-etching cements was low. PMID:25560694

  5. EFFECT OF EUGENOL-BASED ENDODONTIC SEALER ON THE ADHESION OF INTRARADICULAR POSTS CEMENTED AFTER DIFFERENT PERIODS

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Larissa Lustosa Lima; Giovani, Alessandro Rogério; Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa Silva; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal; Alfredo, Edson; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Paulino, Silvana Maria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated in vitro the influence of an eugenol-based sealer (EndoFill) on the retention of stainless steel prefabricated posts cemented with zinc phosphate and resin-based (Panavia F) cements after different periods of root canal obturation, using the pull-out test. Material and methods: Sixty upper canines were decoronated and the roots were embedded in resin blocks. The specimens were distributed into 3 groups, according to the period elapsed between canal obturation and post cementation: Group I - immediately; Group II - 72 h and Group III - 4 months. The groups were subdivided according to the type of cement used for post cementation: A - zinc phosphate and B - Panavia F. Following the experimental periods, specimens were subjected to pull- out test in an Instron machine with application of tensile force at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until post dislodgement. The maximum forces required for post removal were recorded (kN) and means were subjected to statistical analysis by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test (α=0.001) Results: There were statistically significant differences (p<0.01) between the posts cemented with zinc phosphate cement (0.2112 kN) and Panavia F (0.0501 kN). However, no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found between the three post cementation periods, regardless of the cement. Conclusions: It was concluded that the eugenol-based sealer influenced the tensile strength of the posts cemented with the resin cement, but had no influence on the time waited between root canal obturation and post space preparation/post cementation. PMID:20027430

  6. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1993-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

  7. Optical fiber sensors and their application in monitoring stress build-up in dental resin cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottevaere, H.; Tabak, M.; Fernandez Fernandez, A.; Berghmans, F.; Thienpont, H.

    2005-09-01

    The field of optical fiber sensing is highly diverse and this diversity is perceived as a great advantage over more conventional sensors in that an optical sensor can be tailored to measure any of a myriad of physical parameters. In this paper we present a niche application for optical fiber sensors in the domain of biophotonics, namely the monitoring of stress build-up during the curing process of dental resin cements. We discuss the origin of this stress build-up and the problems it can cause when treating patients. Optical fiber sensors aim at excelling in two kind of applications: firstly to perform quality control on batch produced dental cements and measure their total material shrinkage, secondly to monitor the hardening of the cement during in-vivo measurements resulting in the dynamic measurement of the shrinkage and to control the stress in a facing based restoration. We therefore investigated two types of optical fiber sensors as alternatives to conventional measurement techniques; namely polarimetric optical fiber sensors and fiber Bragg gratings written in polarization maintaining fibers. After discussing the results obtained with both optical fiber sensors, we will conclude with a critical assessment of the suitability of the two proposed sensing configurations for multi-parameter stress monitoring.

  8. Push-Out Bond Strength Evaluation of Glass Fiber Posts With Different Resin Cements and Application Techniques.

    PubMed

    Durski, M T; Metz, M J; Thompson, J Y; Mascarenhas, A K; Crim, G A; Vieira, S; Mazur, R F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the push-out strength of two different adhesive cements (total etch and self-adhesive) for glass fiber post (GFP) cementation using two different techniques (microbrush and elongation tip) of cement application. In addition, this study evaluated the effect of total-etch conditioning before the use of a self-adhesive cement. Sixty premolar specimens with a single root canal were selected, endodontically treated, and shaped for GFP cementation. The specimens were randomly placed into one of six groups according to the cement and technique used: RelyX ARC (ARC): ARC + microbrush, ARC + elongation tip; RelyX Unicem (RU): RU + microbrush, RU + elongation tip; or RelyX Unicem + 37% phosphoric acid (RUE): RUE + microbrush, RUE + elongation tip. Each specimen root was cut perpendicular to the vertical axis yielding six 1.0-mm-thick sections. Push-out strength test was performed, followed by statistical analysis using three-way analysis of variance and the Games-Howell test (p<0.05). Statistically significant differences between the groups were found (p< 0.05). The cervical third of the roots had the highest mean push-out strength values, while the apical third had the lowest mean values regardless of the technique used. The elongation technique produced higher mean push-out strength values compared to the microbrush technique. The self-etch adhesive cement had the highest mean push-out strength value in all thirds. The addition of a conditioning step before the self-etch adhesive cementation appears to be effective in enhancing push-out strength with GFPs. PMID:26332737

  9. [Comparative in vitro evaluation of modern glass ionomer cements for adhesion strength and fluoride release].

    PubMed

    Zhitkov, M Yu; Rusanov, F S; Poyurovskaya, I Ya

    2016-01-01

    The study proved similar adhesion strength and fluoride release level in aqueous extracts of glass ionomer cements Cemion (VladMiVa, Russia), Glassin Rest (Omega-Dent, Russia), Cemfil 10 (StomaDent, Russia) and Fuji VIII (GC Corporation, Japan). Despite of close concentrations of fluoride in glasses, the rate of fluoride release in water from calcium and calcium-barium glasses is much higher than that of strontium glasses. PMID:27239999

  10. The bond strength of elastomer tray adhesives to thermoplastic and acrylic resin tray materials.

    PubMed

    Hogans, W R; Agar, J R

    1992-04-01

    This study evaluated the bond strength of selected impression materials (Permlastic, Express, and Hydrosil) to a thermoplastic custom tray material as a function of drying time of the adhesive after application to a tray material. In addition, bond strengths of a polysulfide impression material to an acrylic resin tray material and to a thermoplastic tray material made directly against wax were evaluated. Bond strengths were obtained directly from values of applied load at failure and important conclusions were drawn. PMID:1507140

  11. Studies on acrylated epoxydised triglyceride resin-co-butyl methacrylate towards the development of biodegradable pressure sensitive adhesives.

    PubMed

    David, S Begila; Sathiyalekshmi, K; Gnana Raj, G Allen

    2009-12-01

    The potential chemical utility of Soya bean oil for the preparation of novel biodegradable polymeric pressure sensitive adhesive has been investigated. Epoxy resin was prepared through in situ epoxidation of Soya bean oil under controlled reaction conditions. Acrylated epoxidised triglyceride resin (AET resin) and copolymer of AET resin with butyl methacrylate were prepared and evaluated. Higher the concentration of butyl methacrylate higher is the degree of copolymerization of AET resin with butyl methacrylate. An optimum concentration of AET resin with butyl methacrylate (100 : 0.40) yields favourable shear holding time and peel strength to qualify as pressure sensitive adhesive. The candidate PSA formulation is biodegradable with antimicrobial activity against gram positive S. aureus ATCC 25923. PMID:18584126

  12. Comparison of Microleakage and Thickness of Resin Cement in Ceramic Inlays with Various Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Alaghemand, Homayoun; Abolghasemzadeh, Faezeh; Pakdel, Farzaneh; Judi Chelan, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Microleakage is still one of the major problems of composite-based restorations.This study compared the microleakage and thickness of resin cement in ceramic inlays with various temperatures. Materials and methods. Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual aspects of thirty human molars with occlusal margins in enamel and gingival margins in dentin (3 mm wide, 5 mm long and 2 mm deep). Laboratory-made inlays (LMI) were used for buccal cavities, and CAD/CAM inlays (CMI) were used for lingual cavities. All the cavities were divided into six groups (n=10): 1) LMI at -5°C; 2) LMI at 50°C; 3) LMI at room temperature (25°C); 4) CMI at -5°C; 5) CMI at 50°C; 6) CMI at room temperature (25°C). Inlays were bonded to cavities in a pulp pressure- and temperature-simulating device. After thermocycling and dye penetration, the teeth were divided into two mesiodistal halves. Amount of dye penetration and film thickness were measured under a stereomicroscope and analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon and Spearman's correlation tests ( = 0.05). Results. There were no statistically significant differences in leakage between different inlay temperatures (P > 0.05). The mean cement thickness in laboratory-made inlays (gingival margin, 83.7 ± 11 and occlusal margin, 84.7 ± 19) was greater than that in CAD/CAM inlays (gingival margin, 69 ± 16 and occlusal margin, 84.7 ± 16). No correlation was found be-tween cement thickness and microleakage either in enamel or dentin for any of the ceramic systems. Conclusion. Differences in inlay temperature had no effect on microleakage. CAD/CAM inlays had lower cement thickness than laboratory-made inlays, but this was not related to their microleakage. PMID:25024839

  13. Assessment of the Shear Bond Strength between Nanofilled Composite Bonded to Glass-ionomer Cement Using Self-etch Adhesive with Different pHs and Total-Etch Adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Choobineh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem In the sandwich technique, the undesirable bond between the composite resin and glass-ionomer cement (GIc) is one of the most important factors which lead to the failure of restoration. Total-etch and self-etch adhesives may improve the bond strength based on their pH. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between the nanofilled composite resin and GIc using different adhesives. Materials and Method In this experimental study, 40 specimens (6×6mm) in 4 groups (n=10) were prepared in acrylic mold. Each specimen contained conventional GI ChemFil Superior with a height of 3mm, bonded to Z350 composite resin with a height measured 3mm. In order to bond the composite to the GI, the following adhesives were used, respectively: A: mild Clearfil SE Bond self-etch (pH=2), B: intermediate OptiBond self-etch (pH=1.4), C: strong Adper Prompt L-Pop (pH=1), and D: Adper Single Bond 2 total-etch (pH=7.2). The shear bond strength was measured by using universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used to analyze the data (p< 0.05). Results The shear bond strength in group A was significantly higher than group B (p= 0.002), C (p< 0.001), and D (p< 0.001). Moreover, the shear bond strength of groups A and B (self-etch) was significantly different from group D (total-etch) (p< 0.001); and C (self-etch) with D (p= 0.024). Conclusion The results of this study showed that applying the mild self-etch adhesive between the composite and the GIc results in stronger shear bond strength compared to intermediate and strong self-etch adhesives. Moreover, the self-etch adhesive increased the shear bond strength between composite resin and GIc more significantly than total-etch adhesive. PMID:26966701

  14. Effect of resin hydrophilicity on water-vapour permeability of dental adhesive films.

    PubMed

    King, Nigel M; Hiraishi, Noriko; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Pashley, Edna L; Loushine, Robert J; Rueggeberg, Fred A; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2005-10-01

    This study examined the water-vapour permeability of thin polymerized resin films fabricated from five co-monomer blends of increasing degrees of hydrophilicity, as measured by their Hoy's solubility parameters. Neat resin films were prepared from five experimental light-curable resins (n = 10). Each film was mounted in a Fisher permeability cup with 8 g of water placed inside the cup. The experiments were conducted in a modified twin-outlet desiccator connected to a vacuum pump in one outlet to permit a continuous airflow to encourage water evaporation. Weight losses by water evaporation were measured at 3, 6, 9, 24, 30, and 48 h by using an analytical balance. Additional resin films were examined by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after immersion in ammoniacal silver nitrate. A significant correlation was observed between the cumulative water loss at 48 h and the Hoy's total cohesive energy density (delta(t)). Transmission electron microscopy revealed silver-filled channels along film peripheries and silver grains of decreasing dimensions toward the film centres in co-monomer blends 3, 4, and 5 of increasing hydrophilicity. Hydrophilic dentin adhesives polymerized in thin films are prone to water loss by evaporation. This probably accounts for the water droplets seen on the surface of vital-bonded dentin after the application of simplified dentin adhesives. PMID:16202033

  15. Adhesion of denture tooth porcelain to heat-polymerized denture resin.

    PubMed

    Marchack, B W; Yu, Z; Zhao, X Y; White, S N

    1995-09-01

    Use of porcelain denture teeth may be desirable in many clinical situations, including implant-supported prostheses. However, lack of space because of frameworks often precludes the use of conventional retention by diatorics and pins. Adhesion of porcelain denture teeth to denture resin could also stiffen and possibly strengthen dentures and decrease stain ingress between porcelain teeth and resin denture bases. Unlike previous studies that investigated the bond between conventional feldspathic metal-ceramic porcelain and bis-GMA based composite resin, this study investigated adhesion of denture tooth porcelain to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). High-energy air abrasion, hydrofluoric acid etching, and the use of a general purpose bonding agent resulted in an improved bond strength of heat-cured denture PMMA bonded to denture tooth porcelain. Silane coating did not improve bond strengths, and conventional air abrasion was no more effective than polishing with 600-grit silicon carbide. Storage in water and artificial aging substantially decreased bond strengths. The strongest bond strengths were achieved by a high-energy-abrasion + etching + multi-purpose bonding-agent treatment, but a simpler etching + multiple-purpose bonding-agent treatment also produced reliable results. A laboratory technique was suggested. The role of surface treatment in the mechanism of adhesion was examined with scanning electron microscopy. High-energy abrasion produced a slightly more detailed initial topography than conventional air abrasion, but after etching, the high-energy topography became much more detailed. Surface topography alone did not account for all differences found. PMID:7473277

  16. Preservation of resin-dentin interfaces treated with benzalkonium chloride adhesive blends.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Camila; Ortiz, Pilar A; Pashley, David H

    2015-04-01

    Reducing collagen degradation within hybrid layers may contribute to the preservation of adhesive interfaces. This study evaluated the stability of resin-dentin interfaces treated with benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-modified adhesive blends and assessed collagen degradation in dentin matrices treated with BAC. The etch-and-rinse adhesive, Adper Single Bond Plus, modified with 0.5% and 1.0% BAC, was evaluated for microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and nanoleakage (NL) after 24 h and 1 yr. Thirty completely demineralized dentin beams from human molars were dipped for 60 s in deionized water (DW; control), or in 0.5% or 1.0% BAC, and then incubated in simulated body fluid (SBF). Collagen degradation was assessed by quantification of the dry mass loss and the amount of hydroxyproline (HYP) released from hydrolyzed specimens after 1 or 4 wk. Although all groups demonstrated a significant increase in NL after 1 yr, adhesive modified with 0.5% BAC showed stable bond strength after 1 yr (9% decrease) relative to the control (44% decrease). Significantly less HYP release and dry mass loss were observed for both 0.5% and 1.0% BAC relative to the control. This in vitro study demonstrates that BAC contributes to the preservation of resin-dentin bonds for up to 1 yr by reducing collagen degradation. PMID:25691079

  17. Therapeutic polymers for dental adhesives: Loading resins with bio-active components

    PubMed Central

    Imazato, Satoshi; Ma, Sai; Chen, Ji-hua; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Many recent adhesives on the market exhibit reasonable clinical performance. Future innovations in adhesive materials should therefore seek out novel properties rather than simply modifying existing technologies. It is proposed that adhesive materials that are “bio-active” could contribute to better prognosis of restorative treatments. Methods This review examines the recent approaches used to achieve therapeutic polymers for dental adhesives by incorporating bio-active components. A strategy to maintain adhesive restorations is the focus of this paper. Results Major trials on therapeutic dental adhesives have looked at adding antibacterial activities or remineralization effects. Applications of antibacterial resin monomers based on quaternary ammonium compounds have received much research attention, and the loading of nano-sized bioactive particles or multiple ion-releasing glass fillers have been perceived as advantageous since they are not expected to influence the mechanical properties of the carrier polymer. Significance The therapeutic polymer approaches described here have the potential to provide clinical benefits. However, not many technological applications in this category have been successfully commercialized. Clinical evidence as well as further advancement of these technologies can be a driving force to make these new types of materials clinically available. PMID:23899387

  18. Influence of ozone and paracetic acid disinfection on adhesion of resilient liners to acrylic resin

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of paracetic acid (PAA) and ozone disinfection on the tensile bond strength (TBS) of silicone-based resilient liners to acrylic resins. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred and twenty dumbbell shaped heat-polymerized acrylic resins were prepared. From the mid segment of the specimens, 3 mm of acrylic were grinded off and separated parts were reattached by resilient liners. The specimens were divided into 2 control (control1, control7) and 4 test groups of PAA and ozone disinfection (PAA1, PAA7, ozone1 and ozone7; n=10). While control groups were immersed in distilled water for 10 min (control1) and 7 days (control7), test groups were subjected to PAA (16 g/L) or ozone rich water (4 mg/L) for 1 cycle (10 min for PAA and 60 min for ozone) per day for 7 days prior to tensile tests. Measurements of the TBS were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. RESULTS Adhesive strength of Mollosil decreased significantly by application of ozone disinfection. PAA disinfection had no negative effect on the TBS values of Mollosil and Molloplast B to acrylic resin. Single application of ozone disinfection did not have any negative effect on TBS values of Molloplast B, but prolonged exposure to ozone decreased its adhesive strength. CONCLUSION The adhesion of resilient liners to acrylic was not adversely affected by PAA disinfection. Immersion in ozonated water significantly decreased TBS of Mollosil. Prolonged exposure to ozone negatively affects adhesion of Molloplast B to denture base materials. PMID:27555898

  19. Effect of smear layer treatment on dentin bond of self-adhesive cements.

    PubMed

    Kambara, Keisuke; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Hosaka, Keiichi; Takahashi, Masahiro; Thanatvarakorn, Ornnicha; Ichinose, Shizuko; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dentin bond strength of three self-adhesive cements with smear layer pretreatments using a calcium-chelating agent (EDTA) and deproteinizing solution (NaOCl) and to evaluate their interfacial characteristics. Smear layer-covered dentin surfaces were pretreated with EDTA for 60 s, NaOCl for 5 and 15 s, or none. Three self-adhesive cements; Clearfil SA luting (Kuraray Medical), Rely X Unicem clicker (3M ESPE) and Breeze (Pentron) were applied to the dentin surfaces. After 24-h water storage, shear bond strengths to dentin were determined. In addition, nanoleakage evaluation at the interface was performed using FE-SEM and EDS. EDTA-pretreatment significantly improved the bond strength of BR (p<0.05) and NaOCl-pretreatment for 15 s significantly improved the bond strength of RX (p<0.05). On the other hand, for SA, both pretreatments significantly decreased bond strength to dentin (p<0.05). Nanoleakage formation was observed in various amounts at the cement-dentin interfaces. PMID:23207204

  20. Bonding between oxide ceramics and adhesive cement systems: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Papia, Evaggelia; Larsson, Christel; du Toit, Madeleine; Vult von Steyern, Per

    2014-02-01

    The following aims were set for this systematic literature review: (a) to make an inventory of existing methods to achieve bondable surfaces on oxide ceramics and (b) to evaluate which methods might provide sufficient bond strength. Current literature of in vitro studies regarding bond strength achieved using different surface treatments on oxide ceramics in combination with adhesive cement systems was selected from PubMed and systematically analyzed and completed with reference tracking. The total number of publications included for aim a was 127 studies, 23 of which were used for aim b. The surface treatments are divided into seven main groups: as-produced, grinding/polishing, airborne particle abrasion, surface coating, laser treatment, acid treatment, and primer treatment. There are large variations, making comparison of the studies difficult. An as-produced surface of oxide ceramic needs to be surface treated to achieve durable bond strength. Abrasive surface treatment and/or silica-coating treatment with the use of primer treatment can provide sufficient bond strength for bonding oxide ceramics. This conclusion, however, needs to be confirmed by clinical studies. There is no universal surface treatment. Consideration should be given to the specific materials to be cemented and to the adhesive cement system to be used. PMID:24123837

  1. Development of a ceramic primer with higher bond durability for resin cement.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui

    2010-07-01

    To increase the bond durability of resin to the CAD/CAM ceramic surface, two types of two-bottle type ceramic primers, consisting of Primer A1 or A2 and Primer B, were designed. Primer A1 was prepared by dissolving 25, 50, or 100 mg of gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane in 1 mL of ethanol. Primer A2 was prepared by dissolving 50 mg of mixed silanes, consisting of 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane to gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, in 1 mL of ethanol. Mole fractions of 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane to gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane were 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mol%. Primer B was prepared after dissolving 0.01, 0.05 or 0.1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid in ethanol by 50 vol%. Ceramic surface was silanated with a mixture of Primers A1 and B or Primers A2 and B for 1 min, and then air-dried. Commercial GC ceramic primer and Porcelain Liner M were utilized. Thereafter, dual-curing type resin cement was bonded to silanated ceramic surface through visible-light irradiation. Shear bond strength of resin to the ceramic surface was measured, before and after thermo-cycling. Addition of 0.01 or 0.05 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid to the gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane allowed for significant increases in the bond strength. However, thermo-cycling resulted in significant decreases of approximately 5 MPa in the bond strength. Conversely, when the mixed silane, where 30 mol% of 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane dissolved in gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, was utilized with 0.05 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid, the reduction in the bond strength decreased to approximately 2 MPa. The designed ceramic primers exhibited higher ceramic bond durability than commercial ceramic primers. PMID:20136699

  2. An Investigation on Load Bearing Capacities of Cement and Resin Grouted Rock Bolts Installed in Weak Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyoncu Erguler, Guzide; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal

    2015-04-01

    Rock bolts have been considered one of indispensable support method to improve load bearing capacity of many underground engineering projects, and thus, various types of them have been developed until now for different purposes. Although mechanically anchored rock bolts can be successfully installed to prevent structurally controlled instabilities in hard rocks, in comparison with cement and resin grouted rock bolts, these types of anchors are not so effective in weak rocks characterized by relatively low mechanical properties. In order to investigate the applicability and to measure relative performance of cement and resin grouted rock bolts into weak and heavily jointed rock mass, a research program mainly consisting of pull-out tests was performed in a metal mine in Turkey. The rock materials excavated in this underground mining were described as basalt, tuff, ore dominated volcanic rocks and dacite. To achieve more representative results for rock materials found in this mining and openings excavated in varied dimensions, the pull-out tests were conducted on rock bolts used in many different locations where more convergences were measured and deformation dependent instability was expected to cause greater engineering problems. It is well known that the capacity of rock bolts depends on the length, diameter and density of the bolt pattern, and so considering the thickness of plastic zone in the studied openings, the length and diameter of rock bolts were taken as 2.4 m. and 25 mm., respectively. The spacing between rows changed between 70 and 180 cm. In this study, totally twenty five pull-out tests were performed to have a general understanding about axial load bearing capacity and support reaction curves of cement and resin grouted rock bolts. When pull load-displacement curves belongs to cement and resin grouted rock bolts were compared with each other, it was determined that cement grouted rock bolts carry more load ranging between 115.6 kN and 127.5 kN with

  3. Effects of polar solvents and adhesive resin on the denaturation temperatures of demineralised dentine matrices

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Steven R.; Jessop, Julie L.P.; Winn, Erik; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives To measure the denaturation temperature (Td) of demineralised dentine matrix as a function of infiltration with water vs polar solvents vs adhesive resins. Methods Small disks of normal dentine were completely demineralised in 0.5 M EDTA. Dried demineralised specimens were placed in water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, η-butanol or HEMA. Additional specimens were infiltrated with Prime & Bond NT and polymerised. All specimens sealed in high pressure pans and scanned using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results Demineralised dentine saturated with water showed a Td of 65.6°C that increased with saturation by methanol, ethanol, acetone, η-butanol or HEMA to 148.5°C. These increases in Td were inversely related to the molar concentration of the solvents and to their Hoy’s solubility parameter for hydrogen bonding (δh, p<0.01), as well as directly related to the cube root of their molecular weights (p<0.001). The presence of adhesive resins also increased the Td of demineralised matrices to even higher values depending if the resin bonded dentine was measured after 24 h of water storage (166.8°C) or dry (172.7°C) storage. Conclusions Solvents and monomers with low δh values (i.e. 100% HEMA) increase the Td of demineralized dentin above that produced by solvents with higher δh values such as methanol and water. PMID:18022750

  4. Influence of Photoinitiator and Light-Curing Source on Bond Strength of Experimental Resin Cements to Dentin.

    PubMed

    Segreto, Dario Raimundo; Naufel, Fabiana Scarparo; Brandt, William Cunha; Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the bond strength (BS) of experimental resin cements formulated with different photoinitiators when activated by two kinds of light-curing units (LCUs) through a ceramic material. Seven resin blends with different camphorquinone (CQ) and/or phenylpropanedione (PPD) concentrations (weight) were prepared: C5: 0.5% CQ; C8: 0.8% CQ; P5: 0.5% PPD; P8: 0.8% PPD; C1P4: 0.1% CQ and 0.4% PPD; C4P1: 0.4% CQ and 0.1% PPD; C4P4: 0.4% CQ and 0.4% PPD. Two LCUs were used: one quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH - 850 mW/cm²) and one light-emitting diode (LED - 1300 mW/cm²). The microtensile bond strength of each blend was assessed. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The BS values did not exhibit significant differences for LCUs, regardless of the photoinitiator type. Three cements showed significant differences: P5 and C5 had higher BS with QTH, and C4P1 with LED. For QTH, P5 showed the highest and C1P4 the lowest BS. For the LED, C4P1 showed the highest BS of all the cements. The results indicated that PPD was a viable alternative in the formulation of photocured resin cements, reducing or eliminating CQ that is yellowish without impairing the bond strength. Furthermore, both LED and QTH were effective in curing resin cements that contain PPD or CQ. PMID:27007352

  5. Influence of adhesive system and bevel preparation on fracture strength of teeth restored with composite resin.

    PubMed

    Coelho-de-Souza, Fábio Herrmann; Rocha, Analice da Cunha; Rubini, Alessandro; Klein-Júnior, Celso Afonso; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture strength of teeth with different cavosurface margin cavity preparations and restored with composite resin and different adhesive systems. Eighty premolars were randomly divided in 8 groups, as follow: G1- sound teeth; G2- MOD preparation (no restoration); G3- Adper Single Bond without bevel preparation (butt joint); G4- Adper Single Bond with bevel preparation; G5- Adper Single Bond with chamfer preparation; G6- Clearfil SE Bond without bevel (butt joint); G7- Clearfil SE Bond with bevel preparation; G8- Clearfil SE Bond with chamfer preparation. The adhesive systems were applied according to manufacturers' instructions. Composite resin (Filtek Z250) was incrementally placed in all cavities. After 24 h, the specimens were tested in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (fracture strength) and Fisher's exact test (fracture pattern). The confidence level was set at 95% for all tests. Prepared and non-restored teeth showed the worst performance and G4 exhibited the highest fracture strength among all groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, all restorative treatments were able to recover the fracture strength of non-restored teeth to levels similar to those of sound teeth. Using a total-etch adhesive system with bevel preparation significantly improved the resistance to fracture. PMID:20976383

  6. Push-out bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin using glass ionomer and resin modified glass ionomer cements

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Jefferson Ricardo; da ROSA, Ricardo Abreu; SÓ, Marcus Vinícius Reis; AFONSO, Daniele; KUGA, Milton Carlos; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; do VALLE, Accácio Lins; VIDOTTI, Hugo Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin after cementation with glass ionomer (GICs) and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs). Material and Methods Fifty human maxillary canines were transversally sectioned at 15 mm from the apex. Canals were prepared with a step back technique until the application of a #55 K-file and filled. Post spaces were prepared and specimens were divided into five groups according to the cement used for post cementation: Luting & Lining Cement; Fuji II LC Improved; RelyX Luting; Ketac Cem; and Ionoseal. After cementation of the glass fiber posts, all roots were stored at 100% humidity until testing. For push-out test, 1-mm thick slices were produced. The push-out test was performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute and the values (MPa) were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene's tests and by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significance level of 5%. Results Fiber posts cemented using Luting & Lining Cement, Fuji II LC Improved, and Ketac Cem presented the highest bond strength to root dentin, followed by RelyX Luting. Ionoseal presented the lowest bond strength values (P>0.05). The post level did not influence the bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin (P=0.148). The major cause of failure was cohesive at the cement for all GICs and RMGICs. Conclusions Except for Ionoseal, all cements provided satisfactory bond strength values. PMID:25004052

  7. Effect of Surface Treatment on Shear Bond Strength between Resin Cement and Ce-TZP/Al2O3

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Eun; Kim, Jee-Hwan; Shim, June-Sung; Roh, Byoung-Duck

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Although several studies evaluating the mechanical properties of Ce-TZP/Al2O3 have been published, to date, no study has been published investigating the bonding protocol between Ce-TZP/Al2O3 and resin cement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength to air-abraded Ce-TZP/Al2O3 when primers and two different cement types were used. Materials and Methods. Two types of zirconia (Y-TZP and Ce-TZP/Al2O3) specimens were further divided into four subgroups according to primer application and the cement used. Shear bond strength was measured after water storage for 3 days or 5,000 times thermocycling for artificial aging. Results. The Y-TZP block showed significantly higher shear bond strength than the Ce-TZP/Al2O3 block generally. Primer application promoted high bond strength and less effect on bond strength reduction after thermocycling, regardless of the type of cement, zirconia block, or aging time. Conclusions. Depending on the type of the primer or resin cement used after air-abrasion, different wettability of the zirconia surface can be observed. Application of primer affected the values of shear bond strength after the thermocycling procedure. In the case of using the same bonding protocol, Y-TZP could obtain significantly higher bond strength compared with Ce-TZP/Al2O3. PMID:27382569

  8. Aminophenoxycyclotriphosphazene cured epoxy resins and the composites, laminates, adhesives and structures thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Devendra (Inventor); Fohlen, George M. (Inventor); Parker, John A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Aminophenoxy cyclotriphosphazenes such as hexakis (4-aminophenoxy) cyclotriphosphazene and tris (4-aminophenoxy)-tris phenoxy cyclotriphosphazene are used as curing agents for epoxy resins. These 1,2-epoxy resins are selected from di- or polyepoxide containing organic moieties of the formula (CH2-CHO-CH2) m-W-R-W- (CH2CH-CH2O)m where R is diphenyl dimethylmethane, diphenylmethane; W is a nitrogen or oxygen atom; and m is 1 when W is oxygen and 2 when W is nitrogen. The resins are cured thermally in stages at between about 110 to 135 C for between about 1 and 10 min, then at between about 175 to 185 C for between 0.5 to 10 hr and post cured at between about 215 and 235 C for between 0.1 and 2 hr. These resins are useful for making fire resistant elevated temperature stable composites, laminates, molded parts, and adhesives and structures, usually for aircraft secondary structures and for spacecraft construction.

  9. Effect of laser preparation on adhesion of a self-adhesive flowable composite resin to primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Shafiei, Fereshteh; Razmjoei, Faranak; Kianimanesh, Nasrin

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the adhesion of a self-adhering flowable composite resin to primary tooth enamel and dentin after silicon carbide paper (SiC) and laser pretreatment. Adhesive properties were evaluated as shear bond strength (SBS) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) characteristics. A total 120 primary canine teeth were randomly divided into two groups to study enamel and dentin. Each group was divided into 6 subgroups (n = 10) according to type of surface preparation (SiC or Er:YAG laser) of enamel or dentin. Three methods were used to build cylinders of restoration on tooth surface: OptiBond All-In-One + Premise Flowable composite, OptiBond All-In-One + Vertise Flow and Vertise flow. After restoration, samples were tested for SBS and failure mode. Twenty eight samples were examined by SEM. The results of the study showed SBS of Vertise Flow was lower than others in enamel and dentin samples pretreated with SiC and in dentin samples pretreated with laser (P < 0.001). Compared to SiC pretreatment, laser pretreatment led to a significantly higher SBS with Vertise Flow on enamel (P < 0.001). Vertise Flow associated with the adhesive led to a higher SBS in enamel and dentin compared to Vertise Flow alone. Adhesive and mixed failure modes were observed more frequently in Vertise Flow groups. SEM images showed that Vertise Flow led to more irregularities on enamel and more open dentinal tubules after laser ablation compared SiC pretreatment. PMID:26888173

  10. Effects of delayed polymerization time and bracket manipulation on orthodontic resin modified glass ionomer adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Danielle Wiggins

    This study examined the effect of varying delayed polymerization times in combination with bracket manipulation on shear bond strength (SBS), degree of conversion (DC), and adhesive remnant index (ARI) score when using a resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) adhesive. Specimens were divided into three groups of clinically relevant delay times (0.5, 2, and 4-min) to simulate the delay that frequently occurs between bracket placement and manipulation and subsequent light curing. Based on an analysis of variance (alpha=.05), the SBS was not significantly different between the three groups. While one of the goals of this study was to be the first study to quantify DC of RMGI using Raman microspectroscopy, several challenges, including weak peak signal with and without fluorescence, were encountered and as a result, DC could not be determined. A significant difference (p<0.05) in ARI score was detected between the 0.5-min and 4.0-min delay groups with more adhesive remaining on the bracket with increasing delay time. A Spearman correlation between SBS and ARI indicated no positive association between SBS and ARI measures across delay times. The results of this study suggest that clinically relevant delay times of 0.5, 2, and 4-min do not negatively impact the SBS of a RMGI adhesive. However, with increasing delay time, the results suggest that more adhesive might remain on the bracket during debonding. With more adhesive remaining on the bracket, this could be beneficial in that less adhesive needs to be removed from enamel by grinding at the time of bracket removal when orthodontic treatment is completed.

  11. Reduction of bacterial adhesion on dental composite resins by silicon-oxygen thin film coatings.

    PubMed

    Mandracci, Pietro; Mussano, Federico; Ceruti, Paola; Pirri, Candido F; Carossa, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    Adhesion of bacteria on dental materials can be reduced by modifying the physical and chemical characteristics of their surfaces, either through the application of specific surface treatments or by the deposition of thin film coatings. Since this approach does not rely on the use of drugs or antimicrobial agents embedded in the materials, its duration is not limited by their possible depletion. Moreover it avoids the risks related to possible cytotoxic effects elicited by antibacterial substances released from the surface and diffused in the surrounding tissues. In this work, the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis was studied on four composite resins, commonly used for manufacturing dental prostheses. The surfaces of dental materials were modified through the deposition of a-SiO(x) thin films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The chemical bonding structure of the coatings was analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The morphology of the dental materials before and after the coating deposition was assessed by means of optical microscopy and high-resolution mechanical profilometry, while their wettability was investigated by contact angle measurements. The sample roughness was not altered after coating deposition, while a noticeable increase of wettability was detected for all the samples. Also, the adhesion of S. mitis decreased in a statistically significant way on the coated samples, when compared to the uncoated ones, which did not occur for S. mutans. Within the limitations of this study, a-SiO(x) coatings may affect the adhesion of bacteria such as S. mitis, possibly by changing the wettability of the composite resins investigated. PMID:25634298

  12. Shear bond strength evaluation of resin composite bonded to GIC using three different adhesives.

    PubMed

    Gopikrishna, V; Abarajithan, M; Krithikadatta, J; Kandaswamy, D

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated the bonding ability of composite to glass ionomer cement (GIC) using three different bonding systems. One hundred samples of composites bonded to GIC were prepared and divided into five groups. In Group A, the composite was bonded to GIC after the initial setting of the GIC being employed as a total-etch adhesive. In Group B, the self-etch primer was employed to bond composite to GIC before the initial setting of the GIC. In Group C, the self-etch primer was employed to bond composite to the GIC after the initial setting of the GIC. In Group D, the GIC-based adhesive was employed to bond composite to the GIC before the initial setting of the GIC. In Group E, the GIC-based adhesive was employed to bond composite to the GIC after the initial setting of the GIC. Shear bond strength analysis was performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The results were tabulated and the statistical analysis was performed with one-way ANOVA; the Tukey's test showed that the bond strength of composite to GIC was significantly higher for the self-etch primer group employed on unset GIC and the GIC-based adhesive group employed on the set GIC for bonding composite to GIC. PMID:19678453

  13. Comparison of Adhesive Resistance to Chewing Gum among Denture Base Acrylic Resin, Cobalt-Chromium Alloy, and Zirconia.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takeshi; Takano, Tomofumi; Ueda, Takayuki; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the adhesiveness of chewing gum to acrylic resin, cobalt-chromium alloy, and zirconia. Test specimens were fabricated using acrylic resin (resin), cobalt-chromium alloy (Co-Cr), and Ceria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal-based nanostructured zirconia/alumina composite (zirconia). Specimens of each material were attached to the upper and lower terminals of a digital force gauge. The operator masticated chewing gum, wiped off any saliva, and placed the gum on the lower specimen. The gum was compressed to a thickness of 1 mm between the upper and lower specimens. Thereafter, traction was applied to the upper specimen at a cross-head speed of 100 mm/min under 3 different conditions (dry, wet with distilled water, and wet with artificial saliva) to determine the maximum adhesive strength of the chewing gum. The statistical analysis was performed using the Bonferroni test after a one-way analysis of variance (α=0.05). Under dry conditions, adhesive force was 14.8±6.8 N for resin, 14.0±4.8 N for Co-Cr, and 4.3±2.3 N for zirconia. Significant differences were noted between resin and zirconia, and between Co-Cr and zirconia. When distilled water was applied to the specimen surface, the adhesive strength was 16.8±1.7 N for resin, 8.3±2.1 N for Co-Cr, and 2.7±0.8 N for zirconia. Significant differences were noted between resin and Co-Cr, resin and zirconia, and Co-Cr and zirconia. When artificial saliva was applied to the specimen surface, the adhesive force was 18.5±2.8 N for resin, 5.3±0.8 N for Co-Cr, and 3.0±1.7 N for zirconia. Significant differences were noted between resin and Co-Cr, and resin and zirconia. Chewing gum adhered less strongly to zirconia than to acrylic resin or cobalt-chromium alloy. PMID:26961330

  14. Influence of different luting protocols on shear bond strength of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing resin nanoceramic material to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Pigozzo, Marco; Ceci, Matteo; Scribante, Andrea; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of three different luting protocols on shear bond strength of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) resin nanoceramic (RNC) material to dentin. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 30 disks were milled from RNC blocks (Lava Ultimate/3M ESPE) with CAD/CAM technology. The disks were subsequently cemented to the exposed dentin of 30 recently extracted bovine permanent mandibular incisors. The specimens were randomly assigned into 3 groups of 10 teeth each. In Group 1, disks were cemented using a total-etch protocol (Scotchbond™ Universal Etchant phosphoric acid + Scotchbond Universal Adhesive + RelyX™ Ultimate conventional resin cement); in Group 2, disks were cemented using a self-etch protocol (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive + RelyX™ Ultimate conventional resin cement); in Group 3, disks were cemented using a self-adhesive protocol (RelyX™ Unicem 2 Automix self-adhesive resin cement). All cemented specimens were placed in a universal testing machine (Instron Universal Testing Machine 3343) and submitted to a shear bond strength test to check the strength of adhesion between the two substrates, dentin, and RNC disks. Specimens were stressed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey's test at a level of significance of 0.05. Results: Post-hoc Tukey testing showed that the highest shear strength values (P < 0.001) were reported in Group 2. The lowest data (P < 0.001) were recorded in Group 3. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, conventional resin cements (coupled with etch and rinse or self-etch adhesives) showed better shear strength values compared to self-adhesive resin cements. Furthermore, conventional resin cements used together with a self-etch adhesive reported the highest values of adhesion. PMID:27076822

  15. Microencapsulation of 2-octylcyanoacrylate tissue adhesive for self-healing acrylic bone cement.

    PubMed

    Brochu, Alice B W; Chyan, William J; Reichert, William M

    2012-10-01

    Here, we report the first phase of developing self-healing acrylic bone cement: the preparation and characterization of polyurethane (PUR) microcapsules containing a medical cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive. Capsules were prepared by interfacial polymerization of a toluene-2,4-diisocyanate-based polyurethane prepolymer with 1,4-butanediol to encapsulate 2-octylcyanoacrylate (OCA). Various capsule characteristics, including: resultant morphology, average size and size distribution, shell thickness, content and reactivity of encapsulated agent, and shelf life are investigated and their reliance on solvent type and amount, surfactant type and amount, temperature, pH, agitation rate, reaction time, and mode of addition of the oil phase to the aqueous phase are presented. Capsules had average diameters ranging from 74 to 222 μm and average shell thicknesses ranging from 1.5 to 6 μm. The capsule content was determined via thermogravimetric analysis and subsequent analysis of the capsules following up to 8 weeks storage revealed minimal loss of core contents. Mechanical testing of OCA-containing capsules showed individual capsules withstood compressive forces up to a few tenths of Newtons, and the contents released from crushed capsules generated tensile adhesive forces of a few Newtons. Capsules were successfully mixed into the poly(methyl methacrylate) bone cement, surviving the mixing process, exposure to methyl methacrylate monomer, and the resulting exothermic matrix curing. PMID:22807313

  16. Microencapsulation of 2-octylcyanoacrylate tissue adhesive for self-healing acrylic bone cement

    PubMed Central

    Brochu, Alice B. W.; Chyan, William J.; Reichert, William M.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the first phase of developing self-healing acrylic bone cement: the preparation and characterization of polyurethane (PUR) microcapsules containing a medical cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive. Capsules were prepared by interfacial polymerization of a toluene-2,4-diisocyanate-based polyurethane prepolymer with 1,4-butanediol to encapsulate 2-octylcyanoacrylate (OCA). Various capsule characteristics, including: resultant morphology, average size and size distribution, shell thickness, content and reactivity of encapsulated agent, and shelf life are investigated and their reliance on solvent type and amount, surfactant type and amount, temperature, pH, agitation rate, reaction time, and mode of addition of the oil phase to the aqueous phase are presented. Capsules had average diameters ranging from 74 to 222 μm and average shell thicknesses ranging from 1.5 to 6 μm. The capsule content was determined via thermogravimetric analysis and subsequent analysis of the capsules following up to 8 weeks storage revealed minimal loss of core contents. Mechanical testing of OCA-containing capsules showed individual capsules withstood compressive forces up to a few tenths of Newtons, and the contents released from crushed capsules generated tensile adhesive forces of a few Newtons. Capsules were successfully mixed into the poly(- methyl methacrylate) bone cement, surviving the mixing process, exposure to methyl methacrylate monomer, and the resulting exothermic matrix curing. PMID:22807313

  17. Experimental and computational models to investigate the effect of adhesion on the mechanical properties of bone-cement composites.

    PubMed

    Helgason, B; Stirnimann, P; Widmer, R; Ferguson, S J

    2011-10-01

    A generic finite element approach was developed to study the effect of adhesion on the mechanical response of bone cement composites and validated against literature data. The results showed that a zero friction bone-cement (PMMA) interface conditions captured the results of the experimental testing better than assuming a fully bonded interface. An experimental model for studying the effect of interface adhesion in a bone-cement like composite was also developed in the present study. The results using this model indicate that the difference in Young's modulus and ultimate strength between a fully bonded interface and unbonded interface is approximately 30% for bone volume fraction similar to what can be found in osteoporotic vertebrae. Apart from concluding that bone to cement adhesion is a major contributor to the mechanical response of bone-cement composites, our studies based on the generic FE approach also indicate that the mechanical properties of the cement is the most important contributor to the resulting mechanical properties of the composite at bone volume fraction relevant in terms of vertebroplasty treatment. PMID:21714083

  18. A Confocal Microscopic Evaluation of the Dehydration Effect on Conventional, Resin Reinforced Powder/Liquid and Paste to Paste Glass Ionomer Luting Cements

    PubMed Central

    George, Liza; Kandaswamy, D

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dehydration of resin-modified glass ionomer powder/liquid system, resin-modified glass ionomer paste/paste luting cements in three different quantities and to compare them with a conventional glass ionomer luting cement using confocal laser scanning microscope. Materials and Methods: A conventional glass ionomer (Group I), a resin modified powder/liquid system (Group II), and a resin-modified paste/paste system (Group III) were selected for the study. In Group III, there were three subgroups based on the quantity of material dispensed. 50 premolar teeth were selected and randomly divided among the groups with 10 samples in each. The teeth were ground flat to expose a flat occlusal dentin. A device was made to standardize the thickness of cement placed on the teeth. The teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 h and then longitudinally sectioned to examine the tooth dentin interface under a confocal microscope. The specimens were allowed to dehydrate under the microscope for different time intervals. The width of the crack after dehydration near the dentinal interface was measured at definite intervals in all the groups and analyzed statistically using Student’s t-test. Results: Conventional glass ionomer cement showed the maximum width of the crack followed by resin modified paste/paste system during the dehydration period. Resin modified powder/liquid system did not show cohesive failure. Conclusions: Conventional glass ionomer luting cement is more susceptible to cohesive failure when subjected to dehydration compared to resin-modified glass ionomer paste/paste luting cement. Among the luting cements, resin-modified glass ionomer powder/liquid system showed the best results when subjected to dehydration. PMID:26464535

  19. Modelling of the interaction between chemical and mechanical behaviour of ion exchange resins incorporated into a cement-based matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neji, M.; Bary, B.; Burlion, N.; Le Bescop, P.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present a predictive model, based on experimental data, to determine the macroscopic mechanical behavior of a material made up of ion exchange resins solidified into a CEM III cement paste. Some observations have shown that in some cases, a significant macroscopic expansion of this composite material may be expected, due to internal pressures generated in the resin. To build the model, we made the choice to break down the problem in two scale's studies. The first deals with the mechanical behavior of the different heterogeneities of the composite, i.e. the resin and the cement paste. The second upscales the information from the heterogeneities to the Representative Elementary Volume (REV) of the composite. The heterogeneities effects are taken into account in the REV by applying a homogenization method derived from the Eshelby theory combined with an interaction coefficient drawn from the poroelasticity theory. At the first scale, from the second thermodynamic law, a formulation is developed to estimate the resin microscopic swelling. The model response is illustrated on a simple example showing the impact of the calculated internal pressure, on the macroscopic strain.

  20. Effects of adding silica particles on certain properties of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement

    PubMed Central

    Felemban, Nayef H.; Ebrahim, Mohamed I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of incorporation of silica particles with different concentrations on some properties of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC): Microleakage, compressive strength, tensile strength, water sorption, and solubility. Materials and Methods: Silica particle was incorporated into RMGIC powder to study its effects, one type of RMGIC (Type II visible light-cured) and three concentrations of silica particles (0.06, 0.08, and 0.1% weight) were used. One hundred and twenty specimens were fabricated for measuring microleakage, compressive strength, tensile strength, water sorption, and solubility. Statistical Analysis: One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests were used for measuring significance between means where P ≤ 0.05. Results: RMGIC specimens without any additives showed significantly highest microleakage and lowest compressive and tensile strengths. Conclusion: Silica particles added to RMGIC have the potential as a reliable restorative material with increased compressive strength, tensile strength, and water sorption but decreased microleakage and water solubility. PMID:27095901

  1. Effect of different light curing methods on mechanical and physical properties of resin-cements polymerized through ceramic discs

    PubMed Central

    CEKIC-NAGAS, Isil; ERGUN, Gulfem

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the polimerization ability of three different light-curing units (quartz tungsten halogen, light-emitting diodes and plasma arc) and their exposure modes (high-intensity and soft-start) by determination of microhardness, water sorption and solubility, and diametral tensile strength of 5 dual-curing resin cements. Material and methods A total of 720 disc-shaped samples (1 mm height and 5 mm diameter) were prepared from different dual-curing resin cements (Duolink, Nexus, Bifix-QM, Panavia F and RelyX Unicem). Photoactivation was performed by using quartz tungsten halogen (high-power and soft-up modes), light-emitting diode (standard and exponential modes) and plasma arc (normal and ramp-curing modes) curing units through ceramic discs. Then the samples (n=8/per group) were stored dry in the dark at 37ºC for 24 h. The Vickers hardness test was performed on the resin cement layer with a microhardness tester (Shimadzu HMV). For sorption and solubility tests; the samples were stored in a desiccator at 37ºC and weighed to a constant mass. The samples were weighed both before and after being immersed in deionized water for different periods of time (24 h and 7 days) and being desiccated. The diametral tensile strength of the samples was tested in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by nonparametric Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at 5% significance level. Results Resin cement and light-curing unit had significant effects (p<0.05) on microhardness, diametral tensile strength, water solubility and sorption. However, no significant differences (p>0.05) were obtained with different modes of LCUs. Conclusion The study indicates that polymerization of resin cements with different light-curing units may result in various polymer structures, and consequently different mechanical and physical properties. PMID:21710093

  2. Retention of Root Canal Posts: Effect of Cement Film Thickness, Luting Cement, and Post Pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, A R; Flury, S; Peutzfeldt, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other half received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement, pretreatment with tribochemical silicate coating significantly increased retention of the posts. Increased cement film thickness resulted in decreased retention of untreated posts and of pretreated posts luted with zinc phosphate cement. Increased cement film thickness had no influence on retention of pretreated posts luted with resin cement. Thus, retention of the posts was influenced by the type of luting cement, by the cement film thickness, and by the post pretreatment. PMID:25764045

  3. Sealing of adhesive systems in ferric sulfate-contaminated dentinal margins in class V composite resin restorations.

    PubMed

    Shadman, Niloofar; Farzin Ebrahimi, Shahram; Mollaie, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hemostatic agents are applied to prepare an isolated bleeding-free condition during dental treatments and can influence adhesive restorations. This study evaluated the effect of a hemostatic agent (ViscoStat) on microleakage of contaminated dentinal margin of class V composite resin restorations with three adhesives. Methods. Sixty freshly extracted human molars were selected and class V cavities (3×3×1.5 mm) were prepared on buccal and lingual surfaces. Gingival margins of the cavities were placed below the cementoenamel junction. The teeth were divided into six groups randomly. The adhesives were Excite, AdheSE and AdheSE One. In three groups, the gingival walls of the cavities were contaminated with ViscoStat and then rinsed. The cavities were restored with composite resin and light-cured. After storage in distilled water (37°C) for 24 hours and polishing, the samples were thermocycled and sealed with nail varnish. Then they were stored in 1% basic fuchsin for 24 hours, rinsed and mounted in self-cured acryl resin, followed by sectioning buccolingually. Dye penetration was observed under a stereomicroscope and scored. Data were statistically analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. P<0.05 was set as the level of significance. Results. Only in the Excite group, contamination did not have adverse effects on dentin microleakage (P > 0.05). In the contaminated groups, Excite had significantly less microleakage than the others (P = 0.003). AdheSE and AdheSE One did not exhibit significant difference in microleakage (P > 0.05). Conclusion. ViscoStat hemostatic agent increased dentinal microleakage in AdheSE and AdheSE One adhesives with no effect on Excite. PMID:27092210

  4. Sealing of adhesive systems in ferric sulfate-contaminated dentinal margins in class V composite resin restorations

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Niloofar; Farzin Ebrahimi, Shahram; Mollaie, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hemostatic agents are applied to prepare an isolated bleeding-free condition during dental treatments and can influence adhesive restorations. This study evaluated the effect of a hemostatic agent (ViscoStat) on microleakage of contaminated dentinal margin of class V composite resin restorations with three adhesives. Methods. Sixty freshly extracted human molars were selected and class V cavities (3×3×1.5 mm) were prepared on buccal and lingual surfaces. Gingival margins of the cavities were placed below the cementoenamel junction. The teeth were divided into six groups randomly. The adhesives were Excite, AdheSE and AdheSE One. In three groups, the gingival walls of the cavities were contaminated with ViscoStat and then rinsed. The cavities were restored with composite resin and light-cured. After storage in distilled water (37°C) for 24 hours and polishing, the samples were thermocycled and sealed with nail varnish. Then they were stored in 1% basic fuchsin for 24 hours, rinsed and mounted in self-cured acryl resin, followed by sectioning buccolingually. Dye penetration was observed under a stereomicroscope and scored. Data were statistically analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. P<0.05 was set as the level of significance. Results. Only in the Excite group, contamination did not have adverse effects on dentin microleakage (P > 0.05). In the contaminated groups, Excite had significantly less microleakage than the others (P = 0.003). AdheSE and AdheSE One did not exhibit significant difference in microleakage (P > 0.05). Conclusion. ViscoStat hemostatic agent increased dentinal microleakage in AdheSE and AdheSE One adhesives with no effect on Excite. PMID:27092210

  5. Study on the structural evolution of modified phenol formaldehyde resin adhesive for the high-temperature bonding of graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jigang; Jiang, Nan; Guo, Quangui; Liu, Lang; Song, Jinren

    2006-01-01

    A novel adhesive for carbon materials composed of phenol-formaldehyde resin, boron carbide and fumed silica, was prepared. The adhesive property of graphite joints bonded by the above adhesive treated at high-temperatures was tested. Results showed that the adhesive was found to have outstanding high-temperature bonding properties for graphite. The adhesive structure was dense and uniform even after the graphite joints were heat-treated at 1500 °C. Bonding strength was 17.1 MPa. The evolution of adhesive structure was investigated. The results indicated that the addition of the secondary additive, fumed silica, improved the bonding performance greatly. Borosilicate phase with better stability was formed during the heat-treatment process, and the volume shrinkage was restrained effectively, which was responsible for the satisfactory high-temperature bonding performance of graphite.

  6. Effect of different adhesive systems on microleakage at the amalgam/composite resin interface.

    PubMed

    Hadavi, F; Hey, J H; Ambrose, E R; Elbadrawy, H E

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different bonding systems on teh microleakage at the amalgam/composite interface. The microleakage at the amalgam/composite resin interface was evaluated with a quantitative dye penetration method. Amalgam cylinders were made and a 2 mm composite base was added after the application of five different bonding systems to the roughened interface of the amalgam cylinders. The cylinders were filled with an exact volume of 0.05% fuchsin solution, and the total weight of the sample was measured. The cylinders were placed on a filter paper with the composite base down and evaluated for leakage after 1, 3, 6, and 24 hours. Weight loss and coloring of the filter paper represented microleakage. The results indicated that the application of Prisma Universal Bond 2 adhesive, Cover Up II, or Amalgambond (groups E, F, and G) reduced the amount of microleakage significantly as compared to the groups in which no adhesive system, 3M Porcelain Repair Kit (with and without acid etching of the amalgam surface), or Prisma Universal Bond 2 primer and adhesive (groups A, B, C or D) was applied. PMID:8332537

  7. Influence of alloy microstructure on the microshear bond strength of basic alloys to a resin luting cement.

    PubMed

    Bauer, José; Costa, José Ferreira; Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Souza, Douglas Nesadal de; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of microstructure and composition of basic alloys on their microshear bond strength (µSBS) to resin luting cement. The alloys used were: Supreme Cast-V (SC), Tilite Star (TS), Wiron 99 (W9), VeraBond II (VBII), VeraBond (VB), Remanium (RM) and IPS d.SIGN 30 (IPS). Five wax patterns (13 mm in diameter and 4mm height) were invested, and cast in a centrifugal casting machine for each basic alloy. The specimens were embedded in resin, polished with a SiC paper and sandblasted. After cleaning the metal surfaces, six tygon tubes (0.5 mm height and 0.75 mm in diameter) were placed on each alloy surface, the resin cement (Panavia F) was inserted, and the excess was removed before light-curing. After storage (24 h/37°C), the specimens were subjected to µSBS testing (0.5 mm/min). The data were subjected to a one-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Turkey's test (α=0.05). After polishing, their microstructures were revealed with specific conditioners. The highest µSBS (mean/standard deviation in MPa) were observed in the alloys with dendritic structure, eutectic formation or precipitation: VB (30.6/1.7), TS (29.8/0.9), SC (30.6/1.7), with the exception of IPS (31.1/0.9) which showed high µSBS but no eutectic formation. The W9 (28.1/1.5), VBII (25.9/2.0) and RM (25.9/0.9) showed the lowest µSBS and no eutectic formation. It seems that alloys with eutectic formation provide the highest µSBS values when bonded to a light-cured resin luting cement. PMID:23306223

  8. A long term study of fluoride release from metal-containing conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Williams, J A; Billington, R W; Pearson, G J

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine long term release of fluoride from a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) (Fuji II LC (FLC)) compared with that from two conventional acid-base setting cements (HiDense (HD) and KetacSilver (KS)) marketed for similar restorative purposes. Fluoride release from discs of cement immersed in water or artificial saliva was measured for 2.7 years using an ion selective electrode technique. The RMGIC was affected by water if immersed immediately after setting. This is similar to conventional acid-base cements and the experimental method was designed to allow for this. Over the 2.7-year period, the RMGIC and HD released similar amounts of fluoride into both water and artificial saliva. In water, the RMGIC released the most fluoride, while in artificial saliva the highest release was from HD. KS released the least amount of fluoride in both immersing liquids. In artificial saliva, release was reduced to 17-25% of that found in water, with the RMGIC showing the greatest reduction. Both acid-base cured cements showed changes in colour over the 2.7-year span, while the colour of the RMGIC was stable. It was concluded that the RMGIC released equivalent or greater amounts of fluoride than the two acid-base cure glass-ionomers over a period of 2.7 years. PMID:11298908

  9. Shear Bond Strengths of Methacrylate- and Silorane-based Composite Resins to Feldspathic Porcelain using Different Adhesive Systems.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Narmin; Shakur Shahabi, Maryam; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Pournagi Azar, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeel

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Use of porcelain as inlays, laminates and metal-ceramic and all-ceramic crowns is common in modern dentistry. The high cost of ceramic restorations, time limitations and difficulty of removing these restorations result in delays in replacing fractured restorations; therefore, their repair is indicated. The aim of the present study was to compare the shear bond strengths of two types of composite resins (methacrylate-based and silorane-based) to porcelain, using three adhesive types. Materials and methods. A total of 156 samples of feldspathic porcelain surfaces were prepared with air-abrasion and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=26). In groups 1-3, Z250 composite resin was used to repair porcelain samples with Ad-per Single Bond 2 (ASB), Clearfil SE Bond (CSB) and Silorane Adhesive (SA) as the bonding systems, afterapplication of silane, respectively. In groups 4-6, the same adhesives were used in the same manner with Filtek Silorane composite resin. Finally, the shear bond strengths of the samples were measured. Two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests were used to compare bond strengths between the groups with different adhesives at P<0.05. Results. There were significant differences in the mean bond strength values in terms of the adhesive type (P<0.001). In addition, the interactive effect of the adhesive type and composite resin type had no significant effect on bond strength (P=0.602). Conclusion. The results of the present study showed the highest repair bond strength values to porcelain with both composite resin types with the application of SA and ASB. PMID:26697151

  10. Shear Bond Strengths of Methacrylate- and Silorane-based Composite Resins to Feldspathic Porcelain using Different Adhesive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Narmin; Shakur Shahabi, Maryam; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Pournagi Azar, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeel

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Use of porcelain as inlays, laminates and metal-ceramic and all-ceramic crowns is common in modern dentistry. The high cost of ceramic restorations, time limitations and difficulty of removing these restorations result in delays in replacing fractured restorations; therefore, their repair is indicated. The aim of the present study was to compare the shear bond strengths of two types of composite resins (methacrylate-based and silorane-based) to porcelain, using three adhesive types. Materials and methods. A total of 156 samples of feldspathic porcelain surfaces were prepared with air-abrasion and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=26). In groups 1-3, Z250 composite resin was used to repair porcelain samples with Ad-per Single Bond 2 (ASB), Clearfil SE Bond (CSB) and Silorane Adhesive (SA) as the bonding systems, afterapplication of silane, respectively. In groups 4-6, the same adhesives were used in the same manner with Filtek Silorane composite resin. Finally, the shear bond strengths of the samples were measured. Two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests were used to compare bond strengths between the groups with different adhesives at P<0.05. Results. There were significant differences in the mean bond strength values in terms of the adhesive type (P<0.001). In addition, the interactive effect of the adhesive type and composite resin type had no significant effect on bond strength (P=0.602). Conclusion. The results of the present study showed the highest repair bond strength values to porcelain with both composite resin types with the application of SA and ASB. PMID:26697151

  11. En face optical coherence tomography investigation of interface fiber posts/adhesive cement/root canal wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negruţiu, Meda; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin; Rominu, Mihai; Markovic, Dubravka; Pop, Daniela; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes the adaptation and gap width between fiber posts, adhesive luting cement and root canal wall using optical coherence tomography. The results prove the importance of assessing the quality of the interface after each process of fiber post luting.

  12. Effects of ceramic component on cephalexin release from bioactive bone cement consisting of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin and bioactive glass ceramics.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, M; Fujita, H; Nakamura, T; Kokubo, T

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of amount of ceramic cement powder on drug release from bioactive bone cement. The associated bone-bonding strength was also investigated. The bioactive bone cement under investigation consisted of bisphenol-alpha-glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA), triethylene-glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) resin and a combination of apatite- and wollastonite-containing glass-ceramic (A-W GC) powder. A-W GC powder (50%, 70% and 80% w/w) containing 5% cephalexin (CEX) powder hardened within 5 min after mixing with Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin. The compressive strength of the cement with or without drug increased with increasing the amount of ceramic powder. The compressive strength of the 80% ceramic cement without the incorporation of cephalexin was 194 MPa. This compressive strength was about 3 times higher than that for polymethylmethacrylate cement. After the cement was implanted in the proximal metaphysis of the tibiae of male rabbits, the failure load for the cement was found to increase with increasing of the amount of ceramic powder. This finding suggested that the cement formed a bonding with bone. In vitro CEX release from bioactive bone cement pellets in a simulated body fluid at pH 7.25 and 37 degrees C continued for more than 2 weeks. Drug release profile followed the Higuchi equation initially, but not at later stages. The drug release rate increased with increasing amount of ceramic powder in the mixture. Since the pore volume of the cement increased with increasing of amount of ceramic powder, the drug diffused in the pores between the ceramics particle and polymer matrix. As hydroxyapatite precipitated on the cement surface, the drug release rate decreased, as observed at the later release stage. These results suggest that varying the amount of ceramic powder in the cement system could control the drug release rate from bioactive bone cement. PMID:11281575

  13. Do blood contamination and haemostatic agents affect microtensile bond strength of dual cured resin cement to dentin?

    PubMed Central

    KİLİC, Kerem; ARSLAN, Soley; DEMETOGLU, Goknil Alkan; ZARARSIZ, Gokmen; KESİM, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood contamination and haemostatic agents such as Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the microtensile bond strength between dual cured resin cement-dentin interface. Material and Methods: Twelve pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramics were luted to flat occlusal dentin surfaces with Panavia F under the following conditions: Control Group: no contamination, Group Blood: blood contamination, Group ABS: ABS contamination Group H2O2: H2O2 contamination. The specimens were sectioned to the beams and microtensile testing was carried out. Failure modes were classified under stereomicroscope. Two specimens were randomly selected from each group, and SEM analyses were performed. Results: There were significant differences in microtensile bond strengths (µTBS) between the control and blood-contaminated groups (p<0.05), whereas there were no significant differences found between the control and the other groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Contamination by blood of dentin surface prior to bonding reduced the bond strength between resin cement and the dentin. Ankaferd Blood Stoper and H2O2 could be used safely as blood stopping agents during cementation of all-ceramics to dentin to prevent bond failure due to blood contamination. PMID:23559118

  14. [Adhesion of sealer cements to dentin with and without smear layer].

    PubMed

    Gettleman, B H; Messer, H H; ElDeeb, M E

    1991-01-01

    The influence of a smear layer on the adhesion of sealer cements to dentin was assessed in recently extracted human anterior teeth. A total of 120 samples was tested, 40 per sealer; 20 each with and without the smear layer. The teeth were split longitudinally, and the internal surfaces were ground flat. One-half of each tooth was left with the smear layer intact, while the other half had the smear removed by washing for 3 min with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCI. Evidence of the ability to remove the smear layer was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Using a specially designed jig, the sealer was placed into a 4-mm wide x 4 mm deep well which was then set onto the tooth. PMID:1659858

  15. Mechanical characteristics of antibacterial epoxy resin adhesive wood biocomposites against skin disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zi-xiang; Zhang, Zhong-feng; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul

    2015-01-01

    Moldy wood can cause some skin disease. However epoxy resin adhesive (EP) can inhibit mold growth. Therefore, antibacterial EP/wood biocomposites were reinforced and analyzed by the nonlinear finite element. Results show that glass fiber cloth and aluminum foil have the obvious reinforced effect under flat pressure, but this was not the case under side pressure. And when the assemble pattern was presented in 5A way, the strengthening effect was better. The nonlinear finite element showed that the aluminum foil and glass fiber cloth have the obvious reinforced effect. The mutual influence and effect of span, thickness and length on the ultimate bearing capacity of specimen were studied. And the simulation results agreed with the test. It provided a theoretical basis on the preparation of antibacterial EP/wood biocomposites against skin disease. PMID:26858557

  16. Mechanical characteristics of antibacterial epoxy resin adhesive wood biocomposites against skin disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zi-Xiang; Zhang, Zhong-Feng; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul

    2016-01-01

    Moldy wood can cause some skin disease. However epoxy resin adhesive (EP) can inhibit mold growth. Therefore, antibacterial EP/wood biocomposites were reinforced and analyzed by the nonlinear finite element. Results show that glass fiber cloth and aluminum foil have the obvious reinforced effect under flat pressure, but this was not the case under side pressure. And when the assemble pattern was presented in 5A way, the strengthening effect was better. The nonlinear finite element showed that the aluminum foil and glass fiber cloth have the obvious reinforced effect. The mutual influence and effect of span, thickness and length on the ultimate bearing capacity of specimen were studied. And the simulation results agreed with the test. It provided a theoretical basis on the preparation of antibacterial EP/wood biocomposites against skin disease. PMID:26858557

  17. Evaluation of Adhesion and Morphology of Human Osteoblasts to White MTA and Portland Cement

    PubMed Central

    Bidar, Maryam; Tavakkol Afshari, Jalil; Shahrami, Fatemeh

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Osteoblasts and periodontal ligament cells are major cells for wound healing after root end resection. The interaction of osteoblasts with filling materials could play a critical role in healing of surgical lesion. Adhesion and spreading of cells on material surface are the initial phase for cellular function. The purpose of the present study was the evaluation of morphology and attachment of human osteoblasts in present of white MTA, Portland cement (PC) and IRM as root end filling and perforation repair materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The human osteoblasts (MG-63 cell line) were prepared from Iranian Pasteur Institute; Cellular Bank, were grown in RPMI 1640 medium. The testing materials were mixed according to the manufacture's instruction, inserted in to the wells of 24-well flat-bottomed plate, and condensed to disk of 1mm thickness and 1×1mm diameter. Cells were added to the materials after two weeks. During 1,3,7 days intervals, the disk of materials along with cells were grown on their surface, examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). We used of IRM as negative group. RESULTS: Results showed that after 7 days many of osteoblasts were attached on the surface of white MTA and PC and appeared partially round or flat. The cells appeared round with no attachment and spreading in conjunction with IRM. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that human osteoblasts have a favorable response to white MTA and Portland cement compared with IRM. PMID:24298287

  18. Bond performance of "Touch and Cure" adhesives on resin core systems.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Yoshitaka; Kakuda, Shinichi; Kawano, Shimpei; Katsumata, Aiichiro; Ting, Shihchun; Hoshika, Shuhei; Ikeda, Takatsumi; Tanaka, Toru; Carvalho, Ricardo Marinsde; Sano, Hidehiko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS) of three resin core composites to dentin and to examine the bonded interface of the composites. One experimental TDK-03(TD) and, two commercial, DC core Automix One (DC) and Unifil core EM(UN) were used. Flat dentin surfaces of human molars were exposed using #600 SiC paper and bonded with the respective adhesive of each system. After bonding, the composites were built up on the surfaces and cured under two conditions: "light condition" or "dark condition". µTBSs (MPa) in the light condition were: TD; 60.02±17.08, DC; 38.21±13.70, and UN; 29.50±9.71; in the dark condition: TD; 54.62±17.11, DC; 8.40±4.81, and UN; 9.47±6.56. Dark curing negatively affected the bond strength of the two commercial resin-core materials. The experimental material was not affected by the curing conditions. PMID:27251993

  19. The Role of Host-derived Dentinal Matrix Metalloproteinases in Reducing Dentin Bonding of Resin Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shan-chuan; Kern, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Dentin matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of host-derived proteolytic enzymes trapped within mineralized dentin matrix, which have the ability to hydrolyze the organic matrix of demineralized dentin. After bonding with resins to dentin there are usually some exposed collagen fibrils at the bottom of the hybrid layer owing to imperfect resin impregnation of the demineralized dentin matrix. Exposed collagen fibrils might be affected by MMPs inducing hydrolytic degradation, which might result in reduced bond strength. Most MMPs are synthesized and released from odontoblasts in the form of proenzymes, requiring activation to degrade extracellular matrix components. Unfortunately, they can be activated by modern self-etch and etch-and-rinse adhesives. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the role of dentinal host-derived MMPs in dentin matrix degradation. We also discuss various available MMP inhibitors, especially chlorhexidine, and suggest that they could provide a potential pathway for inhibiting collagen degradation in bonding interfaces thereby increasing dentin bonding durability. PMID:20690420

  20. Effects of surface treatments, thermocycling, and cyclic loading on the bond strength of a resin cement bonded to a lithium disilicate glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    Guarda, G B; Correr, A B; Gonçalves, L S; Costa, A R; Borges, G A; Sinhoreti, M A C; Correr-Sobrinho, L

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives : The aim of this present study was to investigate the effect of two surface treatments, fatigue and thermocycling, on the microtensile bond strength of a newly introduced lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) and a dual-cured resin cement. Methods : A total of 18 ceramic blocks (10 mm long × 7 mm wide × 3.0 mm thick) were fabricated and divided into six groups (n=3): groups 1, 2, and 3-air particle abraded for five seconds with 50-μm aluminum oxide particles; groups 4, 5, and 6-acid etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 20 seconds. A silane coupling agent was applied onto all specimens and allowed to dry for five seconds, and the ceramic blocks were bonded to a block of composite Tetric N-Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent) with RelyX ARC (3M ESPE) resin cement and placed under a 500-g static load for two minutes. The cement excess was removed with a disposable microbrush, and four periods of light activation for 40 seconds each were performed at right angles using an LED curing unit (UltraLume LED 5, Ultradent) with a final 40 second light exposure from the top surface. All of the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. Groups 2 and 5 were submitted to 3,000 thermal cycles between 5°C and 55°C, and groups 3 and 6 were submitted to a fatigue test of 100,000 cycles at 2 Hz. Specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the bonding area to obtain beams with a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2) (30 beams per group) and submitted to a microtensile bond strength test in a testing machine (EZ Test) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test (p≤0.05). Results : The microtensile bond strength values (MPa) were 26.9 ± 6.9, 22.2 ± 7.8, and 21.2 ± 9.1 for groups 1-3 and 35.0 ± 9.6, 24.3 ± 8.9, and 23.9 ± 6.3 for groups 4-6. For the control group, fatigue testing and thermocycling produced a predominance of adhesive failures. Fatigue and

  1. Effect of dentin dehydration and composite resin polymerization mode on bond strength of two self-etch adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Pooran; Alizadeh, Mehdi; Shirban, Farinaz; Davoodi, Amin; Khoroushi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dual-cured composite resins are similar to self-cured composite resins in some of their clinical applications due to inadequate irradiation, lack of irradiation, or delayed irradiation. Therefore, incompatibility with self-etch adhesives (SEAs) should be taken into account with their use. On the other, the extent of dentin dehydration has a great role in the quality of adhesion of these resin materials to dentin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dentin dehydration and composite resin polymerization mode on bond strength of two SEAs. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 dentinal specimens were prepared from extracted intact third molars. Half of the samples were dehydrated in ethanol with increasing concentrations. Then Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB) and Prompt L-Pop (PLP) adhesives were applied in the two groups. Cylindrical composite resin specimens were cured using three polymerization modes: (1) Immediate light-curing, (2) delayed light-curing after 20 min, and (3) self-curing. Bond strength was measured using universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Duncan post hoc tests. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: There were no significant differences for CSEB subgroups with hydrated and dehydrated dentin samples between the three different curing modes (P > 0.05). PLP showed significant differences between subgroups with the lowest bond strength in hydrated dentin with delayed light-curing and self-cured mode of polymerization. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, a delay in composite resin light-curing or using chemically cured composite resin had a deleterious effect on dentin bond strength of single-step SEAs used in the study. PMID:27041894

  2. Degree of conversion of two dual-cured resin cements light-irradiated through zirconia ceramic disks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kim, Young-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic study was to measure the degree of conversion (DC) of dual-cured resin cements light-irradiated through zirconia ceramic disks with different thicknesses using various light-curing methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS Zirconia ceramic disks (KT12) with three different thicknesses (1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mm) were prepared. The light transmittance of the disks was measured using ultraviolet visible near-infrared spectroscopy. Four different light-curing protocols were used by combining two curing light modes (Elipar TriLight (standard mode) and bluephase G2 (high power mode)) with light-exposure times of 40 and 120 seconds. The DCs of the two dual-cured resin cements (Duo-Link and Panavia F2.0) light-irradiated through the disks was analyzed at three time intervals (3, 7, and 10 minutes) by FTIR spectroscopy. The data was analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA (α=.05).Two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test were used to analyze the 10 minute DC results. RESULTS The 1.0 mm thick disk exhibited low light transmittance (<25%), and the transmittance decreased considerably with increasing disk thickness. All groups exhibited significantly higher 10 minute DC values than the 3 or 7 minute values (P<.05), but some exceptions were observed in Duo-Link. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the influence of the zirconia disk thickness on the 10 minute DC was dependent on the light-curing methods (P<.001). This finding was still valid even at 4.0 mm thickness, where substantial light attenuation took place. CONCLUSION The curing of the dual-cured resin cements was affected significantly by the light-curing technique, even though the additional chemical polymerization mechanism worked effectively. PMID:24353887

  3. Long-term monitoring of microleakage of dental cements by radiochemical diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Powis, D.R.; Prosser, H.J.; Wilson, A.D.

    1988-06-01

    Radioactive /sup 14/C sucrose was found to be an ideal marker for microleakage because it did not penetrate tooth tissue, dental cement, or mounting resin. The main finding is that the adhesive cements--the glass-ionomer and polycarboxylate--are significantly more effective at preventing microleakage than are the traditional phosphate cements--silicate and zinc phosphate. The differences can be as high as two orders of magnitude. The adhesive cements provide almost perfect and reliable seals. By contrast, the nonadhesive cements are erratic sealants with most of the restorations leaking.

  4. Biocompatibility of a restorative resin-modified glass ionomer cement applied in very deep cavities prepared in human teeth.

    PubMed

    Soares, Diana Gabriela; Basso, Fernanda Gonçalves; Scheffel, Débora Lopes Sales; Giro, Elisa Maria Aparecida; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto; Hebling, Josimeri

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated whether a restorative resin-modified glass ionomer cement, Vitremer (VM), would be biocompatible with pulp tissue when used as a liner in very deep cavities prepared in young human permanent teeth. Two dental cements in current use as liner materials, Vitrebond (VB) and Dycal (DY), were compared to VM. Class V cavities were prepared in 36 sound premolars that were scheduled for extraction, and the cavity floor was lined with the restorative cement (VM) or a liner/base control cement (VB or DY). For VM specimens, the cavity floor was pretreated with a primer (polyacrylic acid plus 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate). Teeth were extracted after 7 or 30 days and processed for microscopic evaluation. In the VM group, inward diffusion of dental material components through dentinal tubules, associated with disruption of the odontoblastic layer, moderate to intense inflammatory response, and resorption of inner dentin, was observed in 2 teeth at 7 days. These histologic features were observed in 1 tooth at 30 days. In the VB group, mild inflammatory reactions and tissue disorganization observed at 7 days were resolved at 30 days. No pulpal damage occurred in the DY specimens. Of the materials tested, only Vitremer was not considered biocompatible, because it caused persistent pulpal damage when applied in very deep cavities (remaining dentin thickness less than 0.3 mm). PMID:27367631

  5. An effect of immediate dentin sealing on the shear bond strength of resin cement to porcelain restoration

    PubMed Central

    Cho, In-Ho

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine differences in shear bond strength to human dentin using immediate dentin sealing (IDS) technique compared to delayed dentin sealing (DDS). MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty extracted human molars were divided into 4 groups with 10 teeth each. The control group was light-cured after application of dentin bonding agent (Excite® DSC) and cemented with Variolink® II resin cement. IDS/SE (immediate dentin sealing, Clearfil™ SE Bond) and IDS/SB (immediate dentin sealing, AdapterTM Single Bond 2) were light-cured after application of dentin bonding agent (Clearfil™ SE Bond and Adapter™ Sing Bond 2, respectively), whereas DDS specimens were not treated with any dentin bonding agent. Specimens were cemented with Variolink® II resin cement. Dentin bonding agent (Excite® DSC) was left unpolymerized until the application of porcelain restoration. Shear strength was measured using a universal testing machine at a speed of 5 mm/min and evaluated of fracture using an optical microscope. RESULTS The mean shear bond strengths of control group and IDS/SE group were not statistically different from another at 14.86 and 11.18 MPa. Bond strength of IDS/SE group had a significantly higher mean than DDS group (3.14 MPa) (P < .05). There were no significance in the mean shear bond strength between IDS/SB (4.11 MPa) and DDS group. Evaluation of failure patterns indicates that most failures in the control group and IDS/SE groups were mixed, whereas failures in the DDS were interfacial. CONCLUSION When preparing teeth for indirect ceramic restoration, IDS with Clearfil™ SE Bond results in improved shear bond strength compared with DDS. PMID:21165186

  6. Promotion of adhesive penetration and resin bond strength to dentin using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Geum-Jun; Kim, Chang-Keun; Oh, Kyu-Hwan; Chung, Sung-No; Chun, Bae-Hyeock; Cho, Byeong-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas (NT-APPs) have been shown to improve the bond strength of resin composites to demineralized dentin surfaces. Based on a wet-bonding philosophy, it is believed that a rewetting procedure is necessary after treatment with NT-APP because of its air-drying effect. This study investigated the effect of 'plasma-drying' on the bond strength of an etch-and-rinse adhesive to dentin by comparison with the wet-bonding technique. Dentin surfaces of human third molars were acid-etched and divided into four groups according to the adhesion procedure: wet bonding, plasma-drying, plasma-drying/rewetting, and dry bonding. In plasma treatment groups, the demineralized dentin surfaces were treated with a plasma plume generated using a pencil-type low-power plasma torch. After the adhesion procedures, resin composite/dentin-bonded specimens were subjected to a microtensile bond-strength test. The hybrid layer formation was characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The plasma-drying group presented significantly higher bond strength than the wet-bonding and dry-bonding groups. Micro-Raman spectral analysis indicated that plasma-drying improved the penetration and polymerization efficacy of the adhesive. Plasma-drying could be a promising method to control the moisture of demineralized dentin surfaces and improve the penetration of adhesive and the mechanical property of the adhesive/dentin interface. PMID:26714586

  7. The role of MDP in a bonding resin of a two-step self-etching adhesive system.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Naoko; Takagaki, Tomohiro; Sadr, Alireza; Ikeda, Masaomi; Ichinose, Shizuko; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) contained in the bonding resin of a two-step self-etch adhesive system. An experimental adhesive (M0) containing MDP only in the primer, but not in the bonding resin was prepared. Clearfil SE Bond (MM) and M0 were compared in terms of microtensile bond strength to dentin, ultimate tensile strength of the bonding resin, and dentin-resin bonding interface morphology under SEM and TEM. The immediate µTBS values of MM significantly decreased after thermal cycles while M0 were stable even after 10,000 cycles. In the SEM observations, formation of erosion was observed beneath the acid-base resistant zone only in M0. The results suggested that MDP in the bonding resin of the two-step self-etching system; 1) improved the immediate bond strength, but caused reduction in long-term bond durability; 2) offered the advantages of acid-base resistance at the ABRZ forefront area. PMID:25740167

  8. Effect of Bioactive Glass air Abrasion on Shear Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Resins to Decalcified Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Eshghi, Alireza; Khoroushi, Maryam; Rezvani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bioactive glass air abrasion is a conservative technique to remove initial decalcified tissue and caries. This study examined the shear bond strength of composite resin to sound and decalcified enamel air-abraded by bioactive glass (BAG) or alumina using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight permanent molars were root-amputated and sectioned mesiodistally. The obtained 96 specimens were mounted in acrylic resin; the buccal and lingual surfaces remained exposed. A demineralizing solution was used to decalcify half the specimens. Both sound and decalcified specimens were divided into two groups of alumina and bioactive glass air abrasion. In each group, the specimens were subdivided into two subgroups of Clearfil SE Bond or OptiBond FL adhesives (n=12). Composite resin cylinders were bonded on enamel surfaces cured and underwent thermocycling. The specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and three-way ANOVA (α=0.05). Similar to the experimental groups, the enamel surface of one specimen underwent SEM evaluation. Results: No significant differences were observed in composite resin bond strength subsequent to alumina or bioactive glass air abrasion preparation techniques (P=0.987). There were no statistically significant differences between the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive groups (P=1). Also, decalcified or intact enamel groups had no significant difference (P=0.918). However, SEM analysis showed much less enamel irregularities with BAG air abrasion compared to alumina air abrasion. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, preparation of both intact and decalcified enamel surfaces with bioactive glass air abrasion results in similar bond strength of composite resin in comparison with alumina air abrasion using etch-&-rinse or self-etch adhesives. PMID:25628694

  9. Effect of Light Intensity on the Degree of Conversion of Dual-cured Resin Cement at Different Depths with the use of Translucent Fiber Posts

    PubMed Central

    Bahari, Mahmoud; Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Mohammadi, Narmin; Saati Khosroshahi, Elmira

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of different light intensities on the degree of conversion (DC) of dual-cured resin cement at different depths of translucent fiber posts. Materials and Methods: Thirty translucent fiber posts were randomly assigned into three (n=10) groups. They were cemented in the simulated canal spaces using Duo-Link dual-cured resin cement. The cement was light-cured under 600, 800 and 1100 mW/cm2 light intensities for 40 seconds. DC of the resin cement was calculated at cervical, middle and apical thirds using the spectra of FT-Raman spectrometer. Data were analyzed by repeated measurement ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc tests (α=0.05). Results: In all the groups, the least DC was obtained at the apical region. There were no significant differences in the DC with different light intensities between the cervical and middle regions (p>0.05). However, in the apical region, the DC in both 800 and 1100 mw/cm2 was similar (p>0.05), but greater with 600 mW/cm2 light intensity (p=0.02 and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: In comparison with the light intensity of 600 mW/cm2, the light intensity of 800 mW/cm2 significantly increased the DC of dual-cured resin cement in the apical region. However, DC was not significantly different between 800 and 1100 mw/cm2 light intensities. If the resin cement, especially in the apical areas is not sufficiently cured, microleakage might increase and post retention might be jeopardized. In comparison with 600 mW/cm2 light intensity, 800 mW/cm2 significantly increases DC at the apical third that might be clinically beneficial. PMID:25628659

  10. Shear Bond Strength of a Resin Cement to Different Alloys Subjected to Various Surface Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Tabari, Kasra; Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Kharrazi fard, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Micromechanical retention of resin cements to alloys is an important factor affecting the longevity of metal base restorations. This study aimed to compare the bond strength and etching pattern of a newly introduced experimental etchant gel namely Nano Met Etch with those of conventional surface treatment techniques for nickel-chrome (Ni-Cr) and high noble alloys. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 discs (8×10×15 mm) were cast with Ni-Cr (n=20), high noble BegoStar (n=50) and gold coin alloys (n=50). Their Surfaces were ground with abrasive papers. Ni-Cr specimens received sandblasting and etching. High noble alloy specimens (BegoStar and gold coin) received sandblasting, sandblasting-alloy primer, etching, etch-alloy primer and alloy primer alone. Cylindrical specimens of Panavia were bonded to surfaces using Tygon tubes. Specimens were subjected to micro-shear bond strength testing after storing at 37°C for 24 hours. Results: In gold coin group, the highest bond strength was achieved after sandblasting (25.82±1.37MPa, P<0.001) and etching+alloy primer (26.60 ± 5.47 MPa, P<0.01). The lowest bond strength belonged to sandblasting+alloy primer (17.79±2.96MPa, P<0.01). In BegoStar group, the highest bond strength was obtained in the sandblasted group (38.40±3.29MPa, P<0.001) while the lowest bond strength was detected in the sandblast+ alloy primer group (15.38±2.92MPa, P<0.001). For the Ni-Cr alloy, bond strength in the etched group (20.79±2.01MPa) was higher than that in the sandblasted group (18.25±1.82MPa) (P<0.01). Conclusions: For the Ni-Cr alloy, etching was more efficient than sandblasting but for the high noble alloys, higher Au content increased the efficacy of etching. PMID:27536326

  11. Long-term clinical evaluation of fracture and pulp injury following glass-ionomer cement or composite resin applied as a base filling in teeth restored with amalgam.

    PubMed

    De C Luz, M A; Ciaramicoli-Rodrigues, M T; Garone Netto, N; De Lima, A C

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this research was to analyse the long-term clinical behaviour of two dental materials applied as filling under silver amalgam restorations: glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and composite resin with adhesive system (CR). In this study, 117 posterior teeth (29 premolars and 88 molars) were selected with carious lesions which resulted in great loss of dentin and cusps with unsupported enamel. After caries removal, cavities were prepared and totally filled with GIC or with CR. In a following visit, new cavities were prepared, leaving the employed filling material as a base and support for the enamel, which were then restored with silver amalgam. Restorations were evaluated periodically after 6 months and up to 5 years. Both fracture and pulpal involvement rates were low. Although differences could be observed in the behaviour of the materials, statistical survival estimation showed that the performances of GIC and CR as filling material were similar. There was a significant association both between kind of tooth (molar or premolar) and long-term survival of the restorations; and between degree of unsupported enamel and the same long-term survival. Our results confirmed that the technique in which GIC or CR are used as filling under silver amalgam restorations is clinically acceptable. PMID:11422695

  12. Effect of a CO2 Laser on the Inhibition of Root Surface Caries Adjacent to Restorations of Glass Ionomer Cement or Composite Resin: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, L. C.; Araújo, F. C.; Zancopé, B. R.; Hanashiro, F. S.; Nobre-dos-Santos, M.; Youssef, M. N.; Souza-Zaroni, W. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of CO2 laser irradiation on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to glass ionomer cement (GIC) or composite resin (CR) restorations. 40 dental blocks were divided into 4 groups: G1 (negative control): cavity preparation + adhesive restoration with CR; G2: (positive control) cavity preparation + GIC restoration; G3: equal to group 1 + CO2 laser with 6 J/cm2; G4: equal to group 2 + CO2 laser. The blocks were submitted to thermal and pH cycling. Dental demineralization around restorations was quantified using microhardness analyses and Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF). The groups showed no significant differences in mineral loss at depths between 20 μm and 40 μm. At 60 μm, G2 and G3 ≠ G1, but G4 = G1, G2 and G3. At 80 μm, G4 ≠ G1, and at 100 μm, G4 = G2 = G1. At 140 and 220 μm, G2, G3, and G4 = G1. The averages obtained using QFL in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 0.637, 0.162, 0.095, and 0.048, respectively. QLF and microhardness analyses showed that CO2 laser irradiation reduced mineral loss around the CR restorations but that it did not increase the anticariogenic effect of GIC restorations. PMID:26347900

  13. The erosion kinetics of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements in acidic buffer solutions.

    PubMed

    Hazar-Yoruc, Binnaz; Bavbek, Andac Barkin; Özcan, Mutlu

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the erosion kinetics of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements in acidic buffer solutions as a function of time. Disc shaped specimens were prepared from conventional (Ketac-Cem: KTC) and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (Fuji Plus: FP) and immersed in three acidic buffer solutions (0.01 M) namely, acetic acid/sodium acetate (AA(B)), lactic acid/sodium lactate (LA(B)) and citric acid/sodium citrate (CA(B)) with a constant pH of 4.1 and stored for 1, 8, 24, 48, 80, 120 and 168 h. F concentration was determined using ion-specific electrode. Si, Ca and Al concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Ca, Al, Si and F solubility rates in both FP and KTC were the highest in CA(B) solution. The erosion rates of both FP and KTC in all buffer solutions increased as a function of immersion time. The amount of F eluted from FP was more than that of KTC. The total amount of elements released from FP was less than KTC in all solutions. PMID:23207217

  14. Leach studies on cement-solidified ion exchange resins from decontamination processes at operating nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W.; Morcos, N.

    1992-08-01

    The effects of varying pH and leachant compositions on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents were determined for cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small scale waste-form specimens were collected during waste solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station. The collected specimens were leach tested, and their compressive strength was measured in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form`` (Revision 1), from the Low-Level Waste Management Branch. Leachates from these studies were analyzed for radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to assess the leachability of these waste form constituents. Leachants used for the study were deionized water, simulated seawater, and groundwater compositions similar to those found at Barnwell, South Carolina and Hanford, Washington. Results of this study indicate that initial leachant pH does not affect leachate pH or releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms. However, differences in leachant composition and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. In addition, results from this study indicate that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents observed for forms that disintegrated were similar to those for forms that maintained their general physical integrity.

  15. Leach studies on cement-solidified ion exchange resins from decontamination processes at operating nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W.; Morcos, N.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of varying pH and leachant compositions on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents were determined for cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small scale waste-form specimens were collected during waste solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station. The collected specimens were leach tested, and their compressive strength was measured in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Technical Position on Waste Form'' (Revision 1), from the Low-Level Waste Management Branch. Leachates from these studies were analyzed for radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to assess the leachability of these waste form constituents. Leachants used for the study were deionized water, simulated seawater, and groundwater compositions similar to those found at Barnwell, South Carolina and Hanford, Washington. Results of this study indicate that initial leachant pH does not affect leachate pH or releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms. However, differences in leachant composition and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. In addition, results from this study indicate that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents observed for forms that disintegrated were similar to those for forms that maintained their general physical integrity.

  16. Dental repair material: a resin-modified glass-ionomer bioactive ionic resin-based composite.

    PubMed

    Croll, Theodore P; Berg, Joel H; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This report documents treatment and repair of three carious teeth that were restored with a new dental repair material that features the characteristics of both resin-modified glass-ionomer restorative cement (RMGI) and resin-based composite (RBC). The restorative products presented are reported by the manufacturer to be the first bioactive dental materials with an ionic resin matrix, a shock-absorbing resin component, and bioactive fillers that mimic the physical and chemical properties of natural teeth. The restorative material and base/liner, which feature three hardening mechanisms, could prove to be a notable advancement in the adhesive dentistry restorative materials continuum. PMID:25822408

  17. Advanced zinc-doped adhesives for high performance at the resin-carious dentin interface.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel; Osorio, Estrella; García-Godoy, Franklin; Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Aguilera, Fátima S

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the remineralization ability of an etch-and-rinse Zn-doped resin applied on caries-affected dentin (CAD). CAD surfaces were subjected to: (i) 37% phosphoric acid (PA) or (ii) 0.5M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). 10wt% ZnO nanoparticles or 2wt% ZnCl2 were added into the adhesive Single Bond (SB), to create the following groups: PA+SB, PA+SB-ZnO, PA+SB-ZnCl2, EDTA+SB, EDTA+SB-ZnO, EDTA+SB-ZnCl2. Bonded interfaces were submitted to mechanical loading or stored during 24h. Remineralization of the bonded interfaces was studied by AFM nano-indentation (hardness and Young׳s modulus), Raman spectroscopy [mapping with principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA)] and Masson׳s trichrome staining technique. Dentin samples treated with PA+SB-ZnO attained the highest values of nano-mechanical properties. Load cycling increased both mineralization and crystallographic maturity at the interface; this effect was specially noticed when using ZnCl2-doped resin in EDTA-treated carious dentin. Crosslinking attained higher frequencies indicating better conformation and organization of collagen in specimens treated with PA+SB-ZnO, after load cycling. Trichrome staining technique depicted a deeper demineralized dentin fringe that became reduced after loading, and it was not observable in EDTA+SB groups. Multivariate analysis confirmed de homogenizing effect of load cycling in the percentage of variances, traces of centroids and distribution of clusters, especially in specimens treated with EDTA+SB-ZnCl2. PMID:27232828

  18. Acrylic resin guide for locating the abutment screw access channel of cement-retained implant prostheses.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ayman; Maroulakos, Georgios; Garaicoa, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    Abutment screw loosening represents a common and challenging technical complication of cement-retained implant prostheses. This article describes the fabrication of a simple and accurate poly(methyl methacrylate) guide for identifying the location and angulation of the abutment screw access channel of a cement-retained implant prosthesis with a loosened abutment screw. PMID:26794698

  19. The effect of oxalate desensitizers on the microleakage of resin composite restorations bonded by etch and rinse adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Motamedi, Mehran; Alavi, Ali Asghar; Namvar, Babak

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of an oxalate desensitizer (OX) on the marginal microleakage of resin composite restorations bonded by two three-step and two two-step etch and rinse adhesives. Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 126 extracted premolars at the cementoenamel junction and randomly divided into nine groups of 14 each. In the control groups (1-4), four adhesives were applied, respectively, including Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP), Optibond FL (OBFL), One-Step Plus (OS) and Excite (EX). In the experimental groups (5-8), the same adhesives, in combination with OX (BisBlock), were applied. And, in one group, OX was applied without any adhesive, as the negative control group (9). All the groups were restored with a resin composite. After 24 hours of storage in distilled water and thermocycling, the samples were placed in 1% methylene blue dye solution. The dye penetration was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed using non-parametric tests. The OX application, in combination with OBFL and EX, resulted in significantly increasing microleakage at the gingival margins (p < 0.05), while it had no effect on OS and SBMP (p > 0.05). At the occlusal margins, no significant difference in microleakage was observed after OX application for each of four adhesives (p > 0.05). PMID:21180008

  20. Luting of ceramic crowns with a self-adhesive cement: Effect of contamination on marginal adaptation and fracture strength

    PubMed Central

    Slavcheva, Slavena; Krejci, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the percentages of continuous margins (%CM) and fracture strength (FS) of crowns made out from blocs of leucite-reinforced ceramic (IPS Empress CAD) and luted with a representative self-adhesive cement (RelyX Unicem) under four contaminating agents: saliva, water, blood, a haemostatic solution containing aluminium chloride (pH= 0.8) and a control group with no contamination. Study Design: %CM at both tooth-cement (TC) and cement-crown (CC) interfaces were determined before and after a fatigue test consisting of 600’000 chewing loads and 1’500 temperature cycles changing from 5º C to 50º C. Load to fracture was recorded on fatigued specimens. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare %CM and FS between the five groups with a level of confidence of 95%. Results: At the TC interface, no significant differences in marginal adaptation before loading could be detected between groups. After loading, a significant marginal degradation was observed in the group contaminated with aluminium chloride (52 ± 22 %CM) in respect to the other groups. No significant differences in %CM could be detected between the groups contaminated with saliva, water, blood and the control. At the CC interface, no significant differences in marginal adaptation were observed between the groups. The FS on loaded specimens was around 1637N, with no significant differences between groups as well. Conclusions: An adverse interaction of the highly acidic haemostatic agent with either dentin or the self-adhesive cement could explain the specimens’ marginal degradation. The self-adhesive cement tested in this study was no sensitive to moisture contamination either with saliva, water or blood. Key words:Marginal adaptation, RelyX Unicem, contamination, all-ceramic crowns. PMID:23722123

  1. Effect of air polishing on the fluoride release of (resin-modified) glass ionomer cements and of a polyacid-modified composite resin.

    PubMed

    Jost-Brinkmann, P G

    1998-06-01

    Eight different conventional and resin-modified glass ionomers as well as a polyacid-modified composite were air polished and their fluoride release was determined in comparison to untreated controls. The air polishing was done with two different devices at medium and maximum setting for powder and water. Ninety discs of 1.5 mm thickness and 7.0 mm diameter were produced from each cement. These discs were stored in 5 ml deionized water at 37 degrees C. After 1 day and 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, the specimens were transferred into new vials with fresh deionized water. From the 4th week onward, the specimens (except for the untreated controls) were air polished on half of their upper and lower surfaces for 2 s each before being put into a new vial. After 20 weeks the fluoride released during the previous 4 weeks was determined with a fluoride ion-sensitive electrode. With the exception of Ketac-Cem, all cements released significantly more fluoride ions after air polishing, irrespective of the devices' settings. The differences in the amount of fluoride released among the investigated materials were greater than the changes in fluoride release patterns caused by air polishing. Air polishing increased the fluoride release by 20-60% in most of the materials investigated. PMID:15490782

  2. Microtensile strength of resin cement bond to indirect composite treated by different output powers of Er:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Garshasbzadeh, Nazanin Zeinab; Mirzaie, Mansoreh; Yassini, Esmaeil; Shahabi, Sima; Benedicenti, Stefano; Angiero, Francesca; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2016-04-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of different output powers of Er:YAG laser on microtensile bonding strength of indirect composite to resin cements.36 indirect composite blocks (GC Gradia DA2, Japan) size 15 × 10 × 10 mm(3) were constructed, and divided into 12 groups, as follows:G1: control group (no treatment); Groups G2 to G6: treated with Er:YAG laser (2,940 nm) in noncontact mode, frequency 20 Hz, pulse duration 470 µs, with output power ranging from 2W to 6W; Groups G7 sandblasting, Groups 8 to G12: as Groups G2 to G 6 with preparatory sandblasting. One specimen from each group was analyzed by SEM; each specimen was fixed to a specialized metal jig using cyanoacrylate (Mitreapel, Beta Kimya San. Ve TIC, Iran) and debonded under tension with a universal testing machine (Zwick, Germany) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm min(-1). Sandblasting and laser can improve bond strength above an energy level of 150 mJ. SEM evaluation of laser-treated specimens showed irregularities and deep undercuts. T test analysis showed no significant difference between sandblasted and non-sandblasted group, with laser output power of 0, 100, or 150 mJ (P = 0.666, P = 0.875, and P =  .069); in the specimens irradiated with energy output of 200, 250, or 300 mJ, sandblasted specimens showed higher bond strength than non-sandblasted ones. The results demonstrate that, in composite resin irradiated with laser at energy output of 200-300 mJ, sandblasting might be a suitable procedure to enhance bond strength of resin cement. PMID:26873266

  3. Evaluation of Adhesive Bonding of Lithium Disilicate Ceramic Material with Duel Cured Resin Luting Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gundawar, Sham M.; Radke, Usha M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this vitro study was to comparatively evaluate the adhesive bonding of dual cured resin luting agents with lithium disilicate ceramic material. Materials and Methods: Porcelain laminate veneers were prepared with lithium disilicate ceramic material i.e. IPS Empress II( E-Max Press). These laminates were bonded with RelyX ARC, Panavia F 2.0, Variolink II, Duolink and Nexus NX3.The porcelain laminates were etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid (Pulpdent Corporation) for one minute, washed for 15 sec with three way syringe and dried for 15 sec with air syringe. The silane (Ultradent) was applied with the help of applicator tip in a single coat and kept undisturbed for one minute. The prepared surfaces of the premolars were treated with 37% phosphoric acid (Prime dent) for 15 sec, thoroughly rinsed and dried as per manufactures instructions. The shear bond test was carried out on all samples with the Universal testing machine (Instron U.S.A.) The scanning electron microscopic study was performed at the fractured interface of representative samples from each group of luting agents. Result: In this study, the highest value of shear bond strength was obtained for NEXUS NX3 and the lowest for VARIOLINK II. Conclusion: The difference in bond strength can be interpreted as the difference in fracture resistance of luting agents, to which shearing load was applied during the shear bond strength test. It is inferred from this study that the composition of the luting agent determines the adhesive characteristics in addition to surface treatment and bonding surface area. PMID:25859514

  4. The bond strength of adhesive resins to AH plus contaminated dentin cleaned by various gutta-percha solvents.

    PubMed

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Demirbuga, Sezer; Pala, Kansad; Cayabatmaz, Muhammed; Topçuoğlu, Gamze

    2015-01-01

    The optimal bonding of adhesives to dentin requires the sealer to be completely removed from dentinal walls. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different cleaning procedures using gutta-percha solvents on bond strength of adhesive resins to AH Plus contaminated dentin (APCD). The pulp chamber dentin surfaces were contaminated with AH Plus and cleaned with five different techniques (dry cotton, chloroform, orange oil, eucalyptol, and ethanol). Then, Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) (Kuraray), and Tetric N Bond (TNB) (Ivoclar Vivadent) were applied and filled with a composite resin. The serial sticks (1 × 1 mm) were obtained and tested for microtensile bond strength. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for analysis of debonded surfaces. Ethanol exhibited the highest bond strength to APCD followed by dry cotton. There was no statistically significant difference between ethanol and dry cotton (p > 0.05). Eucalyptol showed the lowest bond strength to APCD and statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in comparison with other groups. APCD reduced the bond strength of all adhesive resins. Dry cotton, ethanol, and chloroform were the most suitable techniques when used with CSE together, whereas ethanol was best with TNB. PMID:25678408

  5. Novel bio-based thermoset resins based on epoxidized vegetable oils for structural adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivasubramanian, Shivshankar

    Conventional engineered wood composites are bonded for the most part through formaldehyde-based structural adhesives such as urea formaldehyde (UF), melamine formaldehyde (MF), phenol formaldehyde (PF) and resorcinol formaldehyde (RF). Formaldehyde is a known human carcinogen; the occupational exposure and emission after manufacturing of these binders is raising more and more concern. With increasing emphasis on environmental issues, there is clear incentive to replace these hazardous conventional formaldehyde-based binders with cco-friendly resins having similar properties but derived from renewable sources, bearing in mind the economics of the structural wood composite industry. In this thesis, the curing reaction of bio-derived epoxy thermosets with inexpensive, low-toxicity precursors, including polyimines and amino acids was investigated. Epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were successfully crosslinked with both branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) and triethylenetetramine (fETA). Epoxidized castor oil (ECO) was crosslinked with polyethyleneimine (PEI), having different molecular weights. Curing conditions were optimized through solvent uptake and soluble fraction analysis. Finally, the mechanical properties of the optimized compositions of rigid bioepoxies were evaluated using dynamic mechanical rheological testing (DMRT). While not as stiff as conventional materials, optimized materials have sufficient room temperature moduli to show promise for coatings and as binders in engineered wood products.

  6. Evaluation of the resin cement thicknesses and push-out bond strengths of circular and oval fiber posts in oval-shapes canals

    PubMed Central

    Er, Özgür; Kılıç, Kerem; Kılınç, Halil İbrahim; Sağsen, Burak

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the push-out bond strength varies between oval and circular fiber posts, and to examine the effect on the resin cement thicknesses around the posts. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eighteen mandibular premolar roots were separated into two groups for oval and circular fiber posts systems. Post spaces were prepared and fiber posts were luted to the post spaces. Roots were cut horizontally to produce 1-mm-thick specimens. Resin cement thicknesses were determined with a metallographic optical microscope and push-out tests were done. RESULTS No significant differences were observed in terms of push-out bond strength between the oval and circular fiber posts (P>.05) The resin cement thicknesses of the oval posts were greater than those of the circular posts group in the coronal, middle and apical specimens (P<.05). CONCLUSION In the light of these results, it can be stated that resin cement thickness does not affect the push-out bond strength. PMID:25722832

  7. Adhesion of Poly(phenylene sulfide) Resin with Polymeric Film of Triazine Thiol on Aluminum Surface Modified by Anodic Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eun Hyuk; Jang, Eun Kyung; Hong, Tae Eun; Kim, Jong Pil; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Jin, Jong Sung; Hyun, Myung Ho; Shin, Dong Su; Bae, Jong-Seong; Jeong, Euh Duck

    2015-01-01

    Various surface modifications have been applied to improve the adhesion properties of aluminum for the cap plate and sealing quality of electrolyte on Li ion batteries. In this study, we have tried to find the effective condition for the polymerization of triazine thiols (TT) on modified aluminum surfaces by anodic aluminum oxide. Characterization of polymerized films on aluminum was explored by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis. Scanning electron microscopy results reveal that meaningful roughness was formed on aluminum surfaces by anodic oxidation. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis results represent that the peel strength was found to depend on film thickness and the composition of the adhesion layer. As a result, Al/PPS (polyphenylene sulfide) resin assemblies developed in this study have superior adhesive property. Therefore, these assemblies might be a viable candidate for a sealing technique for Li ion batteries. PMID:26301310

  8. Adhesive strength of total knee endoprostheses to bone cement - analysis of metallic and ceramic femoral components under worst-case conditions.

    PubMed

    Bergschmidt, Philipp; Dammer, Rebecca; Zietz, Carmen; Finze, Susanne; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of the adhesive strength of femoral components to the bone cement is a relevant parameter for predicting implant safety. In the present experimental study, three types of cemented femoral components (metallic, ceramic and silica/silane-layered ceramic) of the bicondylar Multigen Plus knee system, implanted on composite femora were analysed. A pull-off test with the femoral components was performed after different load and several cementing conditions (four groups and n=3 components of each metallic, ceramic and silica/silane-layered ceramic in each group). Pull-off forces were comparable for the metallic and the silica/silane-layered ceramic femoral components (mean 4769 N and 4298 N) under standard test condition, whereas uncoated ceramic femoral components showed reduced pull-off forces (mean 2322 N). Loading under worst-case conditions led to decreased adhesive strength by loosening of the interface implant and bone cement using uncoated metallic and ceramic femoral components, respectively. Silica/silane-coated ceramic components were stably fixed even under worst-case conditions. Loading under high flexion angles can induce interfacial tensile stress, which could promote early implant loosening. In conclusion, a silica/silane-coating layer on the femoral component increased their adhesive strength to bone cement. Thicker cement mantles (>2 mm) reduce adhesive strength of the femoral component and can increase the risk of cement break-off. PMID:25781660

  9. Adhesion of Streptococcus Mutans to Glass Ionomer, BisCem Cement and Enamel: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Jalalian, Ezzatollah; Ahmadpour, Sogol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Considering the adhesion of some microorganisms such as Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) to restorative materials and the unrecognized consequences of this phenomenon, and due to the controversies in this regard, it is important to discover the materials to which the lowest adhesion of S. mutans occurs. The objective of this study was to assess the level of adhesion of S. mutans to glass ionomer (GI), BisCem Cement and enamel. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, 12 specimens including five GI blocks (GC America Inc., Alsip, IL, USA), five BisCem blocks (Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, IL, USA) and two enamel blocks were exposed to a bacterial suspension (1×106 mg/mL). After incubation for one hour at 37°C, the swab samples were taken and cultured in blood agar. The S. mutans colonies were counted by unaided vision after 48 hours of incubation. The results were analyzed using ANOVA followed by the Tukey’s test. Results: The number of colonies attributed to enamel, GI, and BisCem blocks was 24±2, 24.2±2.7 and 14.8±1.7 colonies/mm2, respectively. There was no difference between enamel and GI in terms of adhesion of S. mutans (P=0.08 and P>0.001, respectively); however, the difference between these two and BisCem was statistically significant (P= 0.00075 and P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, BisCem cement is superior to GI for the cementation of indirect restorations. PMID:27148379

  10. Swelling behavior of ion exchange resins incorporated in tri-calcium silicate cement matrix: I. Chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neji, M.; Bary, B.; Le Bescop, P.; Burlion, N.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the first part of a theoretical and experimental work aiming at modeling the chemo-mechanical behavior of composites made up of ion exchange resins (IER) solidified in a tri-calcium silicate cement paste (C3S). Because of ion exchange processes, the volume change of the IER may cause internal pressures leading to the degradation of the material. In this study, a predictive modeling is developed for describing the chemical behavior of such material. It is based on thermodynamic equilibria to determine the evolution of the ion exchange processes, and the potential precipitation of portlandite in the composite. In parallel, a phenomenological study has been set up to understand chemical phenomena related to the swelling mechanisms. The model created has been finally implemented in a finite elements software; the simulation of a laboratory test has been performed and the results compared to experimental data.

  11. Improving adhesion between luting cement and zirconia-based ceramic with an alternative surface treatment.

    PubMed

    Martins, Aurealice Rosa Maria; Gotti, Valéria Bisinoto; Shimano, Marcos Massao; Borges, Gilberto Antônio; Gonçalves, Luciano de Souza

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of an alternative surface treatment on the microshear bond strength (μsbs) of zirconia-based ceramic. Thirty-five zirconia disks were assigned to five groups according to the following treatments: Control (CO), glass and silane were not applied to the zirconia surface; G1, air blasted with 100μm glass beads + glaze + silane; G2, a gel containing 15% (by weight) glass beads applied to the ceramic surface + glaze + silane; G3, a gel containing 25% (by weight) glass beads applied to the ceramic surface + glaze + silane; and G4, a gel containing 50% (by weight) glass beads applied to the ceramic surface + glaze + silane. The specimens were built up using RelyX ARC®, according to the manufacturer's recommendations, and inserted in an elastomeric mold with an inner diameter of 0.8 mm. The μsbs test was performed using a testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05) were applied to the bond strength values (in MPa). CO (15.6 ± 4.1) showed the lowest μsbs value. There were no statistical differences between the G1 (24.9 ± 7.4), G2 (24.9 ± 2.3), G3 (35.0 ± 10.3) and G4 (35.3 ± 6.0) experimental groups. Those groups submitted to surface treatments with higher concentrations of glass showed a lower frequency of adhesive failures. In conclusion, the glass application improved the interaction between the ceramic and the luting cement. PMID:25859635

  12. Microleakage and Resin-to-Dentin Interface Morphology of Pre-Etching versus Self-Etching Adhesive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Waldman, G.L; Vaidyanathan, T.K; Vaidyanathan, J

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the microleakage and tissue-adhesive interface morphology from Class V restorations using different systems of dentin adhesives. Class V cavities were prepared on buccal surfaces of 27 extracted caries-free molars and premolars. Teeth were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) Prime & Bond NT, a 5th generation system using an initial step of total etch followed by a second step of application of a self bonding primer (2) Clearfil SE Bond, a 5th generation adhesive system employing two separate steps of self-etch priming and subsequent bonding (3) One-up Bond F, a 6th generation one step self-etching, self-priming and self-bonding adhesive. Microleakage and interface morphology of teeth restored with these adhesives and a composite resin were evaluated. Kruskal-Wallis Test (p = 0.05) was used to analyze the results. SEM analysis was used to relate interface morphology to microleakage. The mean and (SD) values of microleakage were: Prime and Bond NT: 0.15 (0.33), Clearfil SE Bond: 0.06 (0.17) and One-up Bond F: 2.96 (0.63). The mean microleakage for One-up Bond was significantly higher than for the other groups (p<0.05). Protruding tags in dentin channels were observed in Prime and Bond and Clearfil systems, but not in One-up Bond. The single step adhesive system, although more convenient for the clinician, uses a low viscosity formulation difficult to keep in place on cavity walls. It also tends to be too aggressive and hydrophilic to create an impermeable hybridized tissue-adhesive interfacial layer resistant to microleakage. Two-step adhesive systems, on the other hand, were retained on all segments of the cavosurface during application, and formed a hybridized interfacial layer resistant to microleakage. PMID:19444319

  13. Swelling behavior of ion exchange resins incorporated in tri-calcium silicate cement matrix: II. Mechanical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neji, M.; Bary, B.; Le Bescop, P.; Burlion, N.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the second part of a study aiming at modelling the mechanical behavior of composites made up of ion exchange resins (IER) solidified in a tri-calcium silicate cement paste (C3S). Such composites may be subjected to internal pressures due to ion exchange processes between ionic species which are in IER and interstitial solution of the cement paste. The reactive transport model developed in the companion paper is coupled in this study to a multi-scale approach describing the mechanical behavior of the material. It is based on an analogy with thermomechanics for taking in account the IER internal pressures, and on Eshelby-based homogenization techniques to estimate both mechanical and coupling parameters. A laboratory test has been set up to measure the macroscopic strain caused by the swelling phenomenon. The model has been finally implemented in a finite elements software. The simulation of the laboratory tests has been performed and the results have been analyzed and compared to experimental data.

  14. The influence of surface standardization of lithium disilicate glass ceramic on bond strength to a dual resin cement.

    PubMed

    Brum, R; Mazur, R; Almeida, J; Borges, G; Caldas, D

    2011-01-01

    In vitro studies to assess bond strength between resins and ceramics have used surfaces that have been ground flat to ensure standardization; however, in patients, ceramic surfaces are irregular. The effect of a polished and unpolished ceramic on bond strength needs to be investigated. Sixty ceramic specimens (20×5×2 mm) were made and divided into two groups. One group was ground with 220- to 2000-grit wet silicon carbide paper and polished with 3-, 1-, and ¼-μm diamond paste; the other group was neither ground nor polished. Each group was divided into three subgroups: treated polished controls (PC) and untreated unpolished controls (UPC), polished (PE) and unpolished specimens (UPE) etched with hydrofluoric acid, and polished (PS) and unpolished specimens (UPS) sandblasted with alumina. Resin cement cylinders were built over each specimen. Shear bond strength was measured, and the fractured site was analyzed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc tests were performed. PE (44.47 ± 5.91 MPa) and UPE (39.70 ± 5.46 MPa) had the highest mean bond strength. PS (31.05 ± 8.81 MPa), UPC (29.11 ± 8.11 MPa), and UPS (26.41 ± 7.31 MPa) were statistically similar, and PC (24.96 ± 8.17 MPa) was the lowest. Hydrofluoric acid provides the highest bond strength regardless of whether the surface is polished or not. PMID:21819200

  15. One step deposition of highly adhesive diamond films on cemented carbide substrates via diamond/β-SiC composite interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Zhuang, Hao; Jiang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Deposition of adherent diamond films on cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide substrates has been realized by application of diamond/beta-silicon carbide composite interlayers. Diamond top layers and the interlayers were deposited in one single process by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. Two different kinds of interlayers have been employed, namely, gradient interlayer and interlayer with constant composition. The distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide phases was precisely controlled by manipulating the gas phase composition. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were employed to determine the existence of diamond, beta-silicon carbide and cobalt silicides (Co2Si, CoSi) phases, as well as the quality of diamond crystal and the residual stress in the films. Rockwell-C indentation tests were carried out to evaluate the film adhesion. It is revealed that the adhesion of the diamond film is drastically improved by employing the interlayer. This is mainly influenced by the residual stress in the diamond top layer, which is induced by the different thermal expansion coefficient of the film and the substrate. It is even possible to further suppress the stress by manipulating the distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide in the interlayer. The most adhesive diamond film on cemented carbide is thus obtained by employing a gradient composite interlayer.

  16. Push-out bond strength of a self-adhesive resin cement used as endodontic sealer

    PubMed Central

    Gurgel-Filho, Eduardo Diogo; Lima, Felipe Coelho; Saboia, Vicente de Paula Aragão; Coutinho-Filho, Tauby de Souza; Neves, Aline de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the bond strength of RelyX Unicem (3M) to root canal dentin when used as an endodontic sealer. Materials and Methods Samples of 24 single-rooted teeth were prepared with Gates Glidden drills and K3 files. After that, the roots were randomly assigned to three experimental groups (n = 8) according to the filling material, (1) AH Plus (Dentsply De Trey GmbH)/Gutta-Percha cone; (2) Epiphany SE (Pentron)/Resilon cone; (3) RelyX Unicem/Gutta-Percha cone. All roots were filled using a single cone technique associated to vertical condensation. After the filling procedures, each tooth was prepared for a push-out bond strenght test by cutting 1 mm-thick root slices. Loading was performed on a universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey test for multiple comparisons were used to compare the results among the experimental groups. Results Epiphany SE/Resilon showed significantly lower push-out bond strength than both AH Plus/Gutta-Percha and RelyX Unicem/Gutta-Percha (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in bond strength between AH Plus/Gutta-Percha and RelyX Unicem/Gutta-Percha (p > 0.05). Conclusions Under the present in vitro conditions, bond strength to root dentin promoted by RelyX Unicem was similar to AH Plus. Epiphany SE/Resilon resulted in lower bond strength values when compared to both materials. PMID:25383347

  17. Cytotoxicity evaluation of luting resin cements on bovine dental pulp-derived cells (bDPCs) by real-time cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Arslan Malkoç, Meral; Demir, Necla; Şengün, Abdulkadir; Bozkurt, Şerife Buket; Hakki, Sema Sezen

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxicity of resin cements on dental pulp-derived cells (bDPCs), Bifix QM (BQM), Choice 2(C2), RelyX U200(RU200), Maxcem Elite(ME), and Multilink Automix(MA) were tested. The materials were incubated in DMEM for 72 h. A real-time cell analyzer was used to evaluate cell survival. The statistical analyses used were one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests. BQM, RU200, and ME demonstrated a significant decrease in the bDPCs' index at 24 and 72 h (p≤0.001). These materials were found to be the most toxic resin cements, as compared to the control and other tested materials (C2 and MA). However, C2 and MA showed a better survival rate, compared to BQM, RU200, and ME, and had lower cell index than the control group. The cytotoxic effects of resin cements on pulpa should be evaluated during the selection of proper cements. PMID:25736260

  18. Evaluation of light transmission through different esthetic posts and its influence on the degree of polymerization of a dual cure resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Sonali; Kumari, Manju; Gupta, Anupama

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To measure the light transmission through different esthetic posts and to evaluate the degree of polymerization of dual cure resin cement cured through these posts. Materials and Methods: The posts were divided into two experimental groups i.e. Group A (D.T. Light post); Group B (D.T. White post) and control i.e. Group C (metal post), each group having 10 samples. Posts of each group were illuminated with curing light and photographs were taken keeping the parameters standardized to evaluate the intensity of light transmission at different levels. The degree of polymerization of dual cure resin cement was evaluated using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: D.T. Light post showed highest light transmission and degree of polymerization. The light intensity decreased from cervical to apical for both esthetic post but the decrease from middle to apical third was insignificant for D.T. White post group. No light transmission was detected in metal post but the degree of polymerization decreased significantly from cervical to middle third. Conclusion: Cementation of fibre post with superior light transmitting ability using dual cured resin cement resulted in increased degree of polymerization. PMID:23349573

  19. An in vitro Comparative Evaluation of Micro Tensile Bond Strength of Two metal bonding Resin Cements bonded to Cobalt Chromium alloy

    PubMed Central

    Musani, Smita; Musani, Iqbal; Dugal, Ramandeep; Habbu, Nitin; Madanshetty, Pallavi; Virani, Danish

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the micro tensile bond strength of two metal bonding resin cements to sandblasted cobalt chromium alloy. Materials & Methods: Eight, Cobalt chromium alloy blocks of dimensions 10x5x5 mm were cast, finished and polished. One of the faces of each alloy block measuring 5x5mm was sandblasted with 50 μm grit alumina particles. The alloy blocks were then cleaned in an ultrasonic cleaner for 1 min and then air dried with an air stream. The Sandblasted surfaces of the two alloy blocks were bonded together with 2 different metal bonding resin systems (Panavia F Kuraray and DTK Kleber – Bredent). The samples were divided into 2 groups (n=4). Group 1- Two Co-Cr blocks were luted with Panavia cement. Group 2- Two Co-Cr blocks were luted with DTK Kleber-Bredent cement. The bonded samples were cut with a diamond saw to prepare Microtensile bars of approximately 1mm x 1mm x 6mm. Thirty bars from each group were randomly separated into 2 subgroups (n=15) and left for 3hrs (baseline) as per manufacturer's instructions while the other group was aged for 24hrs in 370C water, prior to loading to failure under tension at a cross head speed of 1mm/min. Failure modes were determined by means of stereomicroscopy (sm). Statistical analysis was performed through one way – ANOVA. Results: Significant variation in micro-tensile bond strength was observed between the two metal bonding resin systems. Conclusion: DTK showed higher mean bond strength values than Panavia F cement both at baseline and after aging. How to cite this article: Musani S, Musani I, Dugal R, Habbu N, Madanshetty P, Virani D. An in vitro Comparative Evaluation of Micro Tensile Bond Strength of Two metal bonding Resin Cements bonded to Cobalt Chromium alloy. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(5):73-8. PMID:24324308

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage Between Nano-Ionomer, Giomer and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement in Class V Cavities- CLSM Study

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Archana; Thumu, Jayaprakash; Velagula, Lakshmi Deepa; Bolla, Nagesh; Varri, Sujana; Kasaraneni, Srikanth; Nalli, Siva Venkata Malathi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Marginal integrity of adhesive restorative materials provides better sealing ability for enamel and dentin and plays an important role in success of restoration in Class V cavities. Restorative material with good marginal adaptation improves the longevity of restorations. Aim Aim of this study was to evaluate microleakage in Class V cavities which were restored with Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC), Giomer and Nano-Ionomer. Materials and Methods This in-vitro study was performed on 60 human maxillary and mandibular premolars which were extracted for orthodontic reasons. A standard wedge shaped defect was prepared on the buccal surfaces of teeth with the gingival margin placed near Cemento Enamel Junction (CEJ). Teeth were divided into three groups of 20 each and restored with RMGIC, Giomer and Nano-Ionomer and were subjected to thermocycling. Teeth were then immersed in 0.5% Rhodamine B dye for 48 hours. They were sectioned longitudinally from the middle of cavity into mesial and distal parts. The sections were observed under Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) to evaluate microleakage. Depth of dye penetration was measured in millimeters. Statistical Analysis The data was analysed using the Kruskal Wallis test. Pair wise comparison was done with Mann Whitney U Test. A p-value<0.05 is taken as statistically significant. Results Nano-Ionomer showed less microleakage which was statistically significant when compared to Giomer (p=0.0050). Statistically no significant difference was found between Nano Ionomer and RMGIC (p=0.3550). There was statistically significant difference between RMGIC and Giomer (p=0.0450). Conclusion Nano-Ionomer and RMGIC showed significantly less leakage and better adaptation than Giomer and there was no statistically significant difference between Nano-Ionomer and RMGIC. PMID:27437363

  1. Effect of Resin Cement Pre-heating on the Push-out Bond Strength of Fiber Post to Root Canal Dentin.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh Oskoee, Parnian; Nooroloyouni, Ahmad; Pornaghi Azar, Fatemeh; Sajjadi Oskoee, Jafar; Pirzadeh Ashraf, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Various factors influence the interfacial bond between the fiber posts and root canal dentin. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pre-warming of resin cement on the push-out bond strength of fiber posts to various segments of root canal dentin. Materials and methods . In this in vitro study, 40 single-rooted human premolars were decoronated and underwent root canal treatment along with post space preparation. The samples were randomly divided into two groups: In group 1, Panavia F 2.0 cement was used at room temperature; in group 2, the same cement was warmed to 55‒60°C before mixing. After fiber posts were placed and cemented in the root canals, 3 dentin/post sections (coronal, middle and apical) with a thickness of 3 mm were prepared. A universal testing machine was used to measure push-out bond strength in MPa. Data was analyzed using two-factor ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey test at α=0.05. Results. The mean value of push-out bond strength was high at room temperature, and the differences in the means of push-out bond strength values between the resin cement temperatures and between different root segments in each temperature were significant (P<0.05). Conclusion. Pre-warming of Panavia F 2.0 resin cement up to 55-60°C reduced push-out bond strength to root canal dentin. In addition, in each temperature group bond strengths decreased from coronal to apical segments. PMID:26889360

  2. Effect of Resin Cement Pre-heating on the Push-out Bond Strength of Fiber Post to Root Canal Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh Oskoee, Parnian; Nooroloyouni, Ahmad; Pornaghi Azar, Fatemeh; Sajjadi Oskoee, Jafar; Pirzadeh Ashraf, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Various factors influence the interfacial bond between the fiber posts and root canal dentin. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pre-warming of resin cement on the push-out bond strength of fiber posts to various segments of root canal dentin. Materials and methods. In this in vitro study, 40 single-rooted human premolars were decoronated and underwent root canal treatment along with post space preparation. The samples were randomly divided into two groups: In group 1, Panavia F 2.0 cement was used at room temperature; in group 2, the same cement was warmed to 55‒60°C before mixing. After fiber posts were placed and cemented in the root canals, 3 dentin/post sections (coronal, middle and apical) with a thickness of 3 mm were prepared. A universal testing machine was used to measure push-out bond strength in MPa. Data was analyzed using two-factor ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey test at α=0.05. Results. The mean value of push-out bond strength was high at room temperature, and the differences in the means of push-out bond strength values between the resin cement temperatures and between different root segments in each temperature were significant (P<0.05). Conclusion. Pre-warming of Panavia F 2.0 resin cement up to 55-60°C reduced push-out bond strength to root canal dentin. In addition, in each temperature group bond strengths decreased from coronal to apical segments. PMID:26889360

  3. Effect of glycine pretreatment on the shear bond strength of a CAD/CAM resin nano ceramic material to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Ceci, Matteo; Pigozzo, Marco; Scribante, Andrea; Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of glycine pretreatment on the shear bond strength between dentin and a CAD/CAM resin nano ceramic material (LavaTM Ultimate Restorative), bonded together with adhesive cements using three different luting protocols (total-etch; self-etch; self-adhesive). Material and Methods Thirty cylinders were milled from resin nano ceramic blocks with CAD/CAM technology. The cylinders were subsequently cemented to the exposed dentin of 30 bovine permanent mandibular incisors. The specimens were assigned into six groups of five teeth each according to luting procedure and dentin pretreatment. In the first two groups (A1, A2) 10 cylinders were cemented using a total-etch protocol; in groups B1 and B2, 10 cylinders were cemented using a self-etch protocol; in groups C1 and C2, 10 cylinders were cemented using a self-adhesive protocol; in groups A1, B1 and C1 the dentinal surface was also treated with glycine powder. All cemented specimens were submitted to a shear bond strength test. Statistical analysis was performed with Stata 9.0 software. Results ANOVA showed the presence of significant differences among the various groups (P <0.0001). Conclusions Glycine did not change the different bond strength demonstrated by the various luting protocols tested. Conventional resin composite cements used together with a self-etch adhesive reported the highest values. However the use of glycine seems to increase the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements. Key words:Adhesive cements, CAD/CAM, glycine, luting system, resin nano ceramic, shear bond strength. PMID:27034754

  4. Transmission of composite polymerization contraction force through a flowable composite and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Pereira, Rosana Aparecida; Cavalcanti, Ana Paula; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the individual contraction force during polymerization of a composite resin (Z-250), a flowable composite (Filtek Flow, FF) and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond, VB), and the transmission of Z-250 composite resin polymerization contraction force through different thicknesses of FF and VB. The experiment setup consisted of two identical parallel steel plates connected to a universal testing machine. One was fixed to a transversal base and the other to the equipment's cross head. The evaluated materials were inserted into a 1-mm space between the steel plates or between the inferior steel plate and a previously polymerized layer of an intermediate material (either FF or VB) adhered to the upper steel plate. The composite resin was light-cured with a halogen lamp with light intensity of 500 mW/cm(2) for 60 s. A force/time graph was obtained for each sample for up to 120 s. Seven groups of 10 specimens each were evaluated: G1: Z-250; G2: FF; G3: VB; G4: Z-250 through a 0.5-mm layer of FF; G5: Z-250 through a 1-mm layer of FF; G6: Z-250 through a 0.5-mm of VB; G7: Z-250 through a 1-mm layer of VB. They were averaged and compared using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test at a = 0.05. The obtained contraction forces were: G1: 6.3N + 0.2N; G2: 9.8 + 0.2N; G3: 1.8 + 0.2N; G4: 6.8N + 0.2N; G5: 6.9N + 0.3N; G6: 4.0N + 0.4N and G7: 2.8N + 0.4N. The use of VB as an intermediate layer promoted a significant decrease in polymerization contraction force values of the restorative system, regardless of material thickness. The use of FF as an intermediate layer promoted an increase in polymerization contraction force values with both material thicknesses. PMID:19089187

  5. Adhesion improvement of electroless copper plating on phenolic resin matrix composite through a tin-free sensitization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Bian, Cheng; Jing, Xinli

    2013-04-01

    In order to improve the adhesion of electroless copper plating on phenolic resin matrix composite (PRMC), a new and efficient tin-free sensitization process has been developed. Electroless copper plating could be achieved in three steps, namely: (i) chemical etching with potassium permanganate solution; (ii) sensitization and activation with glucose and silver nitrate solution respectively; and (iii) electroless copper plating. Compared with the sample sensitized with stannous chloride (SnCl2), the copper plating obtained in the tin-free process showed excellent adhesion with the PRMC substrate, but had lower plating rate and conductivity. Additionally, the morphology of the copper plating was affected by the sensitization process, and the tin-free process was conducive to the formation of the large spherical copper polycrystal. Although the process is slightly complicated, the new sensitization process is so low-cost and environment-friendly that it is of great significance and could be applied into large-scale commercial manufacturing.

  6. Non-thermal atmospheric plasmas in dental restoration: improved resin adhesive penetration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Yu, Qingsong; Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of non-thermal plasma treatment on the penetration of a model dental adhesive into the demineralized dentin. Methods Prepared dentin surfaces were conditioned with Scotchbond Universal etchant for 15 s and sectioned equally perpendicular to the etched surfaces. The separated halves were randomly selected for treatment with an argon plasma brush (input current 6 mA, treatment time 30 s) or gentle argon air blowing (treatment time 30 s, as control). The plasma-treated specimens and control specimens were applied with a model adhesive containing 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]-propane (BisGMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) (mass ratio of 30/70), gently air-dried for 5 s, and light-cured for 20 s. Cross-sectional specimens were characterized using micro-Raman spectral mapping across the dentin, adhesive/dentin interface, and adhesive layer at 1∼micron spatial resolution. SEM was also employed to examine the adhesive/dentin interfacial morphology. Results The micro-Raman result disclosed that plasma treatment significantly improved the penetration of the adhesive, evidenced by the apparently higher content of the adhesive at the adhesive/dentin interface as compared to the control. Specifically, the improvement of the adhesive penetration using plasma technique was achieved by dramatically enhancing the penetration of hydrophilic monomer (HEMA), while maintaining the penetration of hydrophobic monomer (BisGMA). Morphological observation at the adhesive/dentin interface using SEM also confirmed the improved adhesive penetration. The results further suggested that plasma treatment could benefit polymerization of the adhesive, especially in the interface region. Conclusion The significant role of the non-thermal plasma brush in improving the adhesive penetration into demineralized dentin has been demonstrated. The results obtained may offer a better prospect of using plasma in dental restoration to

  7. Effect of pretreatment methods and chamber pressure on morphology, quality and adhesion of HFCVD diamond coating on cemented carbide inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangi, S. K.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Chattopadhyay, A. K.

    2008-04-01

    In the present investigation, diamond coating was deposited on cemented carbide substrate by hot filament chemical vapour deposition. The effect of substrate pretreatment methods and chamber pressure on morphology, quality, and adhesion of the diamond film were studied. The carbide inserts were pretreated with acid, Murakami's solution, and Murakami's solution followed by acid, respectively. The chamber pressure was set at 6.6, 13.2, 26.4, 39.6 and 66 mbar. Deposition carried out at pressure of 26.4 and 39.6 mbar on inserts pretreated with acid exhibited uniform crystal habit and provided coating-substrate adhesion adequate for machining application. Good coating morphology was obtained when deposition was done at 6.6 mbar on carbide inserts treated with Murakami's solution. Pretreatment with Murakami's solution followed by acid and deposition at 6.6 mbar also resulted in good morphology of diamond film. Indentation (Rockwell C scale) was done on diamond-coated inserts to assess coating-substrate adhesion under three loads of 294, 588 and 980 N. The diameter of the indentation crack at the coating-substrate interface was observed under SEM. The results suggested that diamond coating deposited at medium pressure of 26.4 mbar on carbide substrate treated with acid not only exhibited best morphology but also highest coating-substrate adhesion and improved machining performance.

  8. Temperature Rise during Primer, Adhesive, and Composite Resin Photopolymerization of a Low-Shrinkage Composite Resin under Caries-Like Dentin Lesions.

    PubMed

    Mousavinasab, Sayed-Mostafa; Khoroushi, Maryam; Moharreri, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated temperature rise of low-shrinkage (LS) self-etch primer (P), LS self-etch adhesive (A), and P90 silorane-based composite resin systems, photopolymerized under normal and artificially demineralized dentin. Methods. Forty 1.5 mm-thick dentin discs were prepared from sound human molars, half of which were demineralized. Temperature rise was measured during photopolymerization using a K-type thermocouple under the discs: 10 s and 40 s irradiation of the discs (controls/groups 1 and 2); 10 s irradiation of primer (P), 10 s irradiation of adhesive (A), 40 s irradiation of P90 without P and A, and 40 s irradiation of P90 with P and A (groups 3 to 6, resp.). The samples were photopolymerized using an LED unit under 550 mW/cm(2) light intensity. Data was analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and paired-sample t-test (α = 0.05). Results. There were no significant differences in temperature rise means between the two dentin samples for each irradiation duration (P > 0.0001), with significant differences between the two irradiation durations (P > 0.0001). Temperature rise measured with 40 s irradiation was significantly higher than that of 10 s duration for undemineralized and demineralized dentin P < 0.0001). Conclusions. Light polymerization of P90 low-shrinkage composite resin resulted in temperature rise approaching threshold value under artificially demineralized and undemineralized dentin. PMID:23320185

  9. Resin-dentin bond strength of 10 contemporary etch-and-rinse adhesive systems after one year of water storage.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Silvia Terra; Cubas, Gloria Beatriz de Azevedo; Flores, Josiane Barcelos; Montemezzo, Murieli Leonor; Pinto, Marcia Bueno; Piva, Evandro

    2010-01-01

    To compare the resin-dentin bond degradation of 10 contemporary etch-and-rinse adhesive systems after one year of water storage, 100 bovine incisors were randomly separated into 10 groups and their superficial coronal dentin was exposed. According to manufacturers' instructions, dentin surfaces were bonded with one of seven two-step etch-and-rinse adhesives or one of three three-step etch-and-rinse adhesives. Composite buildups were constructed incrementally. Restored teeth were sectioned to obtain sticks (0.5 mm²). The specimens were subjected to a microtensile bond strength test after storage in distilled water (at 37°C) for one year. Data (MPa) were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey's tests at α = 0.05. Of the adhesives tested, One Step, All Bond 2, and Optibond FL attained the highest bond strength to dentin after one year in water storage, while Magic Bond DE and Master Bond presented a high number of premature debonded flaws. PMID:21062710

  10. Thio-urethane oligomers improve the properties of light-cured resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Bacchi, Ataís; Consani, Rafael L.; Martim, Gedalias C.; Pfeifer, Carmem S.

    2015-01-01

    Thio-urethanes were synthesized by combining 1,6-Hexanediol-diissocyante (aliphatic) with pentaerythritol tetra-3-mercaptopropionate (PETMP) or 1,3-bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl)benzene (aromatic) with trimethylol-tris-3-mercaptopropionate (TMP), at 1:2 isocyanate:thiol, leaving pendant thiols. Oligomers were added at 10–30 phr to BisGMA-UDMA-TEGDMA (5:3:2, BUT). 25wt% silanated inorganic fillers were added. Commercial cement (Relyx Veneer, 3M-ESPE) was also evaluated with 10–20 phr of aromatic oligomer. Near-IR was used to follow methacrylate conversion (DC) and rate of polymerization (Rpmax). Mechanical properties were evaluated in three-point bending (ISO 4049) for flexural strength/modulus (FS/FM, and toughness), and notched specimens (ASTM Standard E399-90) for fracture toughness (KIC). Polymerization stress (PS) was measured on the Bioman. Volumetric shrinkage (VS, %) was measured with the bonded disk technique. Results were analyzed with ANOVA/Tukey’s test (α=5%). In general terms, for BUT cements, conversion and mechanical properties in flexure increased for selected groups with the addition of thio-urethane oligomers. The aromatic versions resulted in greater FS/FM than aliphatic. Fracture toughness increased by twofold in the experimental groups (from 1.17±0.36 to around 3.23±0.22 MPa.m1/2). Rpmax decreased with the addition of thio-urethanes, though the vitrification point was not statistically different from the control. VS and PS decreased with both oligomers. For the commercial cement, 20 phr of oligomer increased DC, vitrification, reduced Rpmax and also significantly increased KIC, and reduced PS and FM. Thio-urethane oligomers were shown to favorably modify conventional dimethacrylate networks. Significant reductions in polymerization stress were achieved at the same time conversion and fracture toughness increased. PMID:25740124

  11. Effects of hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and heat activation of silane on the shear bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite posts to resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Tae-Bong; Lee, Joo-Hee; Ahn, Kang-Min; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and heat activation of silane on the shear bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite posts to resin cement. MATERIALS AND METHODS The specimens were prepared to evaluate the bond strength of epoxy resin-based fiber posts (D.T. Light-Post) to dual-curing resin cement (RelyX U200). The specimens were divided into four groups (n=18) according to different surface treatments: group 1, no treatment; group 2, silanization; group 3, silanization after hydrogen peroxide etching; group 4, silanization with warm drying at 80℃ after hydrogen peroxide etching. After storage of the specimens in distilled water at 37℃ for 24 hours, the shear bond strength (in MPa) between the fiber post and resin cement was measured using a universal testing machine. The fractured surface of the fiber post was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc analysis with Tukey's HSD test (α=0.05). RESULTS Silanization of the fiber post (Group 2) significantly increased the bond strength in comparison with the non treated control (Group 1) (P<.05). Heat drying after silanization also significantly increased the bond strength (Group 3 and 4) (P<.05). However, no effect was determined for hydrogen peroxide etching before applying silane agent (Group 2 and 3) (P>.05). CONCLUSION Fiber post silanization and subsequent heat treatment (80℃) with warm air blower can be beneficial in clinical post cementation. However, hydrogen peroxide etching prior to silanization was not effective in this study. PMID:27141252

  12. A review of the development of radical photopolymerization initiators used for designing light-curing dental adhesives and resin composites.

    PubMed

    Ikemura, Kunio; Endo, Takeshi

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews our recent studies on radical photopolymerization initiators, which are used in the design of light-curing dental adhesives and resin composites, by collating information of related studies from original scientific papers, reviews, and patent literature. The photopolymerization reactivities of acylphosphine oxide (APO) and bisacylphosphine oxide (BAPO) derivatives, and D,L-camphorquinone (CQ)/tertiary amine were investigated, and no significant differences in degree of conversion (DC) were found between BAPO and CQ/amine system (p>0.05). In addition, a novel 7,7-dimethyl-2,3-dioxobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carbonyldiphenyl phosphine oxide (DOHC-DPPO=CQ-APO) was synthesized and its ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS) spectral behavior was investigated. CQ-APO possessed two maximum absorption wavelengths (λmax) at 350-500 nm [372 nm (from APO group) and 475 nm (from CQ moiety)], and CQ-APO-containing resins exhibited good photopolymerization reactivity, excellent color tone, relaxed operation time, and high mechanical strength. It was also found that a newly synthesized, water-soluble photoinitiator (APO-Na) improved adhesion to ground dentin. PMID:20859059

  13. Micro-tensile bond strength of different adhesive systems on sound dentin and resin-based composite: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Rashmirekha; Sarangi, Priyanka; Mohanty, Sandhyarani; Behera, Subasish; Nanda, Soumyaranjan; Satapathy, Sukanta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the difference in the micro-tensile bond strength of specimens made with two different adhesive systems and compare them with two homogenous substrates. Materials and Methods: Sixty permanent mandibular molars were mounted in acrylic blocks and sectioned with exposed dentin surfaces. Samples were then divided into four groups. To Group-I Adper Single Bond 2 and to Group-II Adper Self-Etch plus bonding agents were applied. For Group-I and Group-II beams consisted of resin composite in the upper half and dentin in the lower half. In Group-III beams were made of only dentin. In Group-IV beams were made of only composite. Fifteen specimens of each group were taken for the micro-tensile bond strength test. Statistical Analysis: The results are analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Critical Difference test. Results: The interface bonded with the two adhesive systems had lower micro-tensile bond strength than those of dentin and resin composite and the self-etching adhesive Adper Self-Etch plus had comparable bond strength with total-etch adhesive Adper Single Bond 2. Conclusion: The bond strength values for current adhesive systems cannot be compared to the micro-tensile bond strength of dentin and resin composite, and self-etching adhesives have comparable bond strength with total-etch adhesives. PMID:26430301

  14. Surface modification of an epoxy resin with polyamines and polydopamine: Adhesion toward electroless deposited copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaubroeck, David; Mader, Lothar; Dubruel, Peter; Vanfleteren, Jan

    2015-10-01

    In this paper the influence of the epoxy roughness, surface modifications and ELD (electroless copper deposition) temperatures on the adhesive strength of the copper is studied. Good adhesion at low roughness values is targeted due to their applicability in high density electronic circuits. Roughened epoxy surfaces are modified with adsorbed polyamines, polydopamine and polyamines grafted to polydopamine. Next the, adhesive strength of ELD copper is determined with peel strength measurements and the interphases are examined with SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Polydopamine and polyamines grafted to polydopamine can lead to increased adhesive strength at lower roughness values compared to the non-modified samples at specific plating temperatures.

  15. The effect of acrylic latex-based polymer on cow blood adhesive resins for wood composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, J.; Lin, H. L.; Feng, G. Z.; Gunasekaran, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, alkali-modified cow blood adhesive (BA) and blood adhesive/acrylic latex-based adhesive (BA/ALB) were prepared. The physicochemical and adhesion properties of cow blood adhesive such as UV- visible spectra, particle size, viscosity were evaluated; share strength, water resistance were tested. UV- visible spectra indicates that the strong bonding strength of BA/ALB appeared after incorporating; the particle size of adhesive decreased with the increase of ALB concentration, by mixing ALB and BA, hydrophilic polymer tends locate or extand the protein chains and provide stability of the particles; viscosity decreased as shear rate increased in concordance with a pseudoplastic behavior; both at dry and soak conditions, BA and ALB/BA show significant difference changes when mass fraction of ALB in blend adhesive was over 30% (p < 0.05). ALB/ BA (ALB30%) is not significant different than that of phenol formaldehyde which was used as control. A combination of cow blood and acrylic latex-based adhesive significantly increased the strength and water resistance of the resulting wood.

  16. Impact of adhesive application to wet and dry dentin on long-term resin-dentin bond strengths.

    PubMed

    Reis, Alessandra; Pellizzaro, Arlete; Dal-Bianco, Karen; Gones, Osnara Mongruel; Patzlaff, Rafael; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the effects of moisture and rubbing action on the immediate and one-year microtensile bond strength (BS) of an ethanol/water-based adhesive system (Single Bond [SB]) and an acetone-based system (One Step [OS]) to dentin. A flat superficial dentin surface on 60 human molars was exposed by wet abrasion. Two coats of the adhesives were applied on either a dry (D) or rewetted surface (W) with no (NRA), slight (SRA) or vigorous rubbing action (VRA). After light curing (600 mW/cm2/10 seconds), composite buildups were constructed incrementally and the specimens were stored in water (37 degrees C/24 hours). They were longitudinally sectioned in the "x" and "y" directions to obtain bonded sticks (0.8 mm2) to be tested in tension at 0.5 mm/minute. The sticks from each tooth were then divided, stored in water at 37 degrees C and tested immediately and after 12 months (12 M) at 0.5 mm/minute. The bond strength values of sticks from the same hemitooth were averaged for statistical purposes. The prematurely debonded specimens were included in the hemi-tooth mean. The data from each adhesive was analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison tests (alpha = 0.05). In the dry groups, high bond strength values were obtained under VRA. When the dentin was kept moist, both SRA and VRA provided high resin-dentin bond strength values. Reductions in bond strength values after one year of water storage were not observed for the SB adhesive or were less pronounced for the OS adhesive when it was vigorously rubbed onto the dentin surface. PMID:17695611

  17. Adhesion enhancement of steel fibers to acrylic bone cement through a silane coupling agent.

    PubMed

    Kotha, S P; Lieberman, M; Vickers, A; Schmid, S R; Mason, J J

    2006-01-01

    The use of a silane coupling agent (methacryloxypropyl-trichlorosilane) to improve the mechanical properties of steel fiber-reinforced acrylic bone cements was assessed. Changes to the tensile and fracture properties of bone cements reinforced with silane-coated or uncoated 316L stainless steel fibers of different aspect ratios were studied. Contact-angle measurements indicated that the coupling agent coats the metal surface through room temperature treatments in a short time (within 2 h). Push-out tests indicated that the interfacial shear strength of silane-coated 316L stainless steel rods is 141% higher than the uncoated rods. The elastic moduli, ultimate stresses, and fracture toughness of the silane-coated, steel fiber-reinforced bone cements are significantly higher than the bone cements reinforced with uncoated steel fibers. There were no differences in the tensile mechanical properties of the silane-coated or uncoated, steel fiber-reinforced cements after aging in a physiological saline solution, indicating that the bonding effectiveness is decreased by the intrusion of water at the metal-polymer interface. Because of possible biocompatibility issues with leaching of the silane coupling agent and no long-term mechanical benefit in simulated aging experiments, the use of these agents is not recommended for in vivo use. PMID:16224777

  18. Effect of adhesive primers on bonding strength of heat cure denture base resin to cast titanium and cobalt-chromium alloy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Sung; Yang, Hong-So; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2009-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM The poor chemical bonding of a denture base resin to cast titanium framework often introduces adhesive failure and increases microleakage. PURPOSE This study evaluated the shear bond strengths of a heat cure denture base resin to commercially pure titanium, Ti-6Al-4V alloy and a cobalt-chromium alloy using two adhesive primers. MATERIAL AND METHODS Disks of commercially pure titanium, Ti-6Al-4V alloy and a cobalt-chromium alloy were cast. Specimens without the primer were also prepared and used as the controls. The shear bond strengths were measured on a screw-driven universal testing machine. RESULTS The primers significantly (P < .05) improved the shear bond strengths of the heat cure resin to all metals. However, the specimens primed with the Alloy primer® (MDP monomer) showed higher bond strength than those primed with the MR bond® (MAC-10 monomer) on titanium. Only adhesive failure was observed at the metal-resin interface in the non-primed specimens, while the primed specimens showed mixed failure of adhesive and cohesive failure. CONCLUSIONS The use of appropriate adhesive metal primers makes it possible not only to eliminate the need for surface preparation of the metal framework before applying the heat cure resins, but also reduce the need for retentive devices on the metal substructure. In particular, the Alloy primer®, which contains the phosphoric acid monomer, MDP, might be clinically more acceptable for bonding a heat cure resin to titanium than a MR bond®, which contains the carboxylic acid monomer, MAC-10. PMID:21165254

  19. Effect of aluminum chloride hemostatic agent on microleakage of class V composite resin restorations bonded with all-in-one adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Narmin; Bahari, Mahmood; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Mozafari, Aysan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Since hemostatic agents can induce changes on enamel and dentin surfaces and influence composite resin adhesion, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the aluminum chloride hemostatic agent on the gingival margin microleakage of class V (Cl V) composite resin restorations bonded with all-in-one adhesive. Study design: Cl V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 60 sound bovine permanent incisors. Gingival margins of the cavities were placed 1.5 mm apical to the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). The teeth were randomly divided into two groups of 30. In group 1, the cavities were restored without the application of a hemostatic agent; in group 2, the cavities were restored after the application of the hemostatic agent. In both groups all-in-one adhesive and Z250 composite resin were used to restore the cavities with the incremental technique. After finishing and polishing, the samples underwent a thermocycling procedure, followed by immersion in 2% basic fuschin solution for 24 hours. The samples were sectioned and gingival microleakage was evaluated under a stereomicroscope. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare microleakage between the two groups. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05. Results: A statistically significant difference was observed in microleakage between the two groups (P<0.001). Conclusions: Contamination of Cl V composite resin restorations bonded with all-in-one adhesive with aluminum chloride hemostatic agent significantly increases restoration gingival margin microleakage. Key words:All-in-one adhesive resin, composite resin restoration, hemostatic agent, microleakage. PMID:22322497

  20. Application of inverse gas chromatography in physicochemical characterization of phenolic resin adhesives.

    PubMed

    Strzemiecka, Beata; Voelkel, Adam; Hinz, Mateusz; Rogozik, Mateusz

    2014-11-14

    One of the most important stages during production of abrasive tools is their hardening. The degree of hardening is very important and influence toughness of the final product. During hardening process the cross-linking of the phenolic resins, used as a binder, occurs. Nowadays, there is no standard, accurate and simple method for the estimation of the hardening degree of abrasive tools. The procedure of the determination of hardening degree of the binder (phenolic resins) by means of inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was presented in this paper. Results obtained by use of IGC derived method was verified by Soxhlet extraction and by FTIR method. Good agreement was found for results from IGC and Soxhlet extraction whereas those from FTIR were much lower. FTIR method supplies data concerning bulk properties not the surface as in case of IGC and Soxhlet methods. These results indicate that resins are more cross-linked on the surface than inside the material. PMID:25441354

  1. Effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Mouhat, Mathieu; Nergård, John Magnus; Lægreid, Solveig Jenssen; Kanno, Taro; Milleding, Percy; Örtengren, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The present study investigated the effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns in relation to their compressive strength. Materials and methods Four different cements were tested: zinc phosphate cement (ZPC), glass-ionomer cement (GIC), self-adhesive resin-based cement (SRC) and resin-based cement (RC). RC was used in both dual cure mode (RC-D) and chemical cure mode (RC-C). First, the compressive strength of each cement was tested according to a standard (ISO 9917-1:2004). Second, load-to-failure test was performed to analyze the crown fracture resistance. CAD/CAM-produced monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm were prepared and cemented to dies with each cement. The crown–die samples were loaded until fracture. Results The compressive strength of SRC, RC-D and RC-C was significantly higher than those of ZPC and GIC (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the fracture load of the crown between the groups. Conclusion The values achieved in the load-to-failure test suggest that monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm may have good resistance against fracture regardless of types of cements. PMID:27335900

  2. Effect of ultraviolet light irradiation on bond strength of fiber post: Evaluation of surface characteristic and bonded area of fiber post with resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Reza, Fazal; Ibrahim, Nur Sukainah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Fiber post is cemented to a root canal to restore coronal tooth structure. This research aims to evaluate the effect of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on bond strength of fiber post with resin cement. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 of the two types of fiber posts, namely, FRC Prostec (FRC) and Fiber KOR (KOR), were used for the experiment. UV irradiation was applied on top of the fiber post surface for 0, 15, 20, and 30 min. The irradiated surface of the fiber posts (n = 5) were immediately bonded with resin cement (Rely X U200) after UV irradiation. Shear bond strength (SBS) MPa was measured, and the dislodged area of post surfaces was examined with scanning electron microscopes. Changes in surface roughness (Ra) of the FRC group after UV irradiation were observed (n = 3) using atomic force microscopy. Data of SBS were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, followed by multiple comparisons (P < 0.05). Results: SBS was significantly higher for 20 min of UV irradiation of the FRC group while significantly higher SBS was observed with 15 min of UV irradiation of the KOR group. Resin cement was more evident (cohesive failure) on the dislodged post surface of the UV treated groups compared with the control. The surface roughness of the FRC post was Ra = 175.1 nm and Ra = 929.2 nm for the control and the 20 min group, respectively. Conclusions: Higher surface roughness of the UV irradiated group indicated formation of mechanical retention on the fiber post surface. Evidence of cohesive failure was observed which indicated higher SBS of fiber post with the UV irradiated group. PMID:25713488

  3. Effects of air abrasion with alumina or glass beads on surface characteristics of CAD/CAM composite materials and the bond strength of resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Nobuaki, ARAO; Keiichi, YOSHIDA; Takashi, SAWASE

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The study aimed to evaluate effects of air abrasion with alumina or glass beads on bond strengths of resin cements to CAD/CAM composite materials. Material and Methods CAD/CAM composite block materials [Cerasmart (CS) and Block HC (BHC)] were pretreated as follows: (a) no treatment (None), (b) application of a ceramic primer (CP), (c) alumina-blasting at 0.2 MPa (AB), (d) AB followed by CP (AB+CP), and (e) glass-beads blasting at 0.4 MPa (GBB) followed by CP (GBB+CP). The composite specimens were bonded to resin composite disks using resin cements [G-CEM Cerasmart (GCCS) and ResiCem (RC)]. The bond strengths after 24 h (TC 0) and after thermal cycling (TC 10,000 at 4–60°C) were measured by shear tests. Three-way ANOVA and the Tukey compromise post hoc tests were used to analyze statistically significant differences between groups (α=0.05). Results For both CAD/CAM composite materials, the None group exhibited a significant decrease in bond strength after TC 10,000 (p<0.05). AB showed significantly higher bond strength after TC 10,000 than the None group, while CP did not (p<0.05). GBB exhibited smaller surface defects than did AB; however, their surface roughnesses were not significantly different (p>0.05). The AB+CP group showed a significantly higher bond strength after TC 10,000 than did the AB group for RC (p<0.05), but not for GCCS. The GBB+CP group showed the highest bond strength for both thermal cyclings (p<0.05). Conclusions Air abrasion with glass beads was more effective in increasing bond durability between the resin cements and CAD/CAM composite materials than was using an alumina powder and a CP. PMID:26814465

  4. Shear Strength at 75 F to 500 F of Fourteen Adhesives Used to Bond a Glass-fabric-reinforced Phenolic Resin Laminate to Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John R

    1956-01-01

    Fourteen adhesives used to bond a glass-fabric-reinforced phenolic resin laminate to steel were tested in order to determine their shear strengths at temperatures from 75 F to 500 F. Fabrication methods were varied to evaluate the effect of placing cloth between the facing surfaces to maintain a uniform bond-line thickness. One glass-fabric supported phenolic adhesive was found to have a shear strength of 3,400 psi at 300 F and over 1,000 psi at 500 F. Strength and fabrication data are tabulated for all adhesives tested.

  5. Adhesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... adhesions Ovarian cyst References Munireddy S, Kavalukas SL, Barbul A. Intra-abdominal healing: gastrointestinal tract and adhesions. Surg Clin N Am Kulaylat MN, Dayton, MT. Surgical complications. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, ...

  6. Effect of pH on the release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resins collected from operating nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W. )

    1991-06-01

    Data are presented on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small-scale waste--form specimens collected during solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station were leach-tested and subjected to compressive strength testing in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Technical Position on Waste Form'' (Revision 1). Samples of untreated resin waste collected from each solidification vessel before the solidification process were analyzed for concentrations of radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to determine the quantities of these chemicals in the waste-form specimens. The chelating agents included oxalic, citric, and picolinic acids. In order to determine the effect of leachant chemical composition and pH on the stability and leachability of the waste forms, waste-form specimens were leached in various leachants. Results of this study indicate that differences in pH do not affect releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms, but that differences in leachant chemistry and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. Also, this study indicates that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents are similar for waste- form specimens that decomposed and those that retained their general physical form. 36 refs., 60 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. Improved Adhesion of Gold Thin Films Evaporated on Polymer Resin: Applications for Sensing Surfaces and MEMS

    PubMed Central

    Moazzez, Behrang; O'Brien, Stacey M.; Merschrod S., Erika F.

    2013-01-01

    We present and analyze a method to improve the morphology and mechanical properties of gold thin films for use in optical sensors or other settings where good adhesion of gold to a substrate is of importance and where controlled topography/roughness is key. To improve the adhesion of thermally evaporated gold thin films, we introduce a gold deposition step on SU-8 photoresist prior to UV exposure but after the pre-bake step of SU-8 processing. Shrinkage and distribution of residual stresses, which occur during cross-linking of the SU-8 polymer layer in the post-exposure baking step, are responsible for the higher adhesion of the top gold film to the post-deposition cured SU-8 sublayer. The SU-8 underlayer can also be used to tune the resulting gold film morphology. Our promoter-free protocol is easily integrated with existing sensor microfabrication processes. PMID:23760086

  8. BOND STRENGTH OF RESIN MODIFIED GLASS IONOMER CEMENT TO PRIMARY DENTIN AFTER CUTTING WITH DIFFERENT BUR TYPES AND DENTIN CONDITIONING

    PubMed Central

    Nicoló, Rebeca Di; Shintome, Luciana Keiko; Myaki, Silvio Issáo; Nagayassu, Marcos Paulo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different bur types and acid etching protocols on the shear bond strength (SBS) of a resin modified glass ionomer cement (RM-GIC) to primary dentin. Forty-eight clinically sound human primary molars were selected and randomly assigned to four groups (n=12). In G1, the lingual surface of the teeth was cut with a carbide bur until a 2.0-mm-diameter dentin area was exposed, followed by the application of RM-GIC (Vitremer – 3M/ESPE) prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The specimens of G2, received the same treatment of G1, however the dentin was conditioned with phosphoric acid. In groups G3 and G4 the same procedures of G1 and G2 were conducted respectively, nevertheless dentin cutting was made with a diamond bur. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24h, and then tested in a universal testing machine. SBS. data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA (= 5%) and indicated that SBS values of RM-GIC bonded to primary dentin cut with different burs were not statistically different, but the specimens that were conditioned with phosphoric acid presented SBS values significantly higher that those without conditioning. To observe micromorphologic characteristics of the effects of dentin surface cut by diamond or carbide rotary instruments and conditioners treatment, some specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Smear layer was present in all specimens regardless of the type of rotary instrument used for dentin cutting, and specimens etched with phosphoric acid presented more effective removal of smear layer. It was concluded that SBS of a RM-GIC to primary dentin was affected by the acid conditioning but the bur type had no influence. PMID:19089179

  9. Effect of novel chitosan-fluoroaluminosilicate resin modified glass ionomer cement supplemented with translationally controlled tumor protein on pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Wanachottrakul, Nattaporn; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Kedjarune-Leggat, Ureporn

    2014-04-01

    Dental materials that can promote cell proliferation and function is required for regenerative pulp therapy. Resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), a broadly used liner or restorative material, can cause apoptosis to pulp cells mainly due to HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), the released residual monomer. Recent studies found that chitosan and albumin could promote release of protein in GIC while translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) has an anti-apoptotic activity against HEMA. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chitosan and albumin modified RMGIC (Exp-RMGIC) supplemented with TCTP on pulp cell viability and mineralization. Exp-RMGIC+TCTP was composed of RMGIC powder incorporated with 15 % of chitosan, 5 % albumin and supplemented with TCTP mixed with the same liquid components of RMGIC. The effect of each specimen on pulp cells was examined using the Transwell plate. From the MTT assay, Exp-RMGIC+TCTP had the highest percentages of viable cells (P < 0.05) at both 24 and 74 h. Flow cytometry revealed that, after 24 h, Exp-RMGIC+TCTP gave the lowest percentages of apoptotic cells compared to other groups. There was no difference in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity among different formula of the specimens, while cells cultured in media with TCTP had higher ALP activity. Von Kossa staining revealed that RMGIC+TCTP, and Exp-RMGIC+TCTP had higher percentages of calcium deposit area compared to those without TCTP. It was concluded that Exp-RMGIC supplemented with TCTP had less cytotoxicity than RMGIC and can protect cells from apoptosis better than RMGIC supplemented with TCTP. PMID:24398913

  10. Comparison of Apical Microleakage of Dual-Curing Resin Cements with Fluid-Filtration and Dye Extraction Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Sadullah; Özer, Senem Yiğit; Adigüzel, Özkan; Oruçoğlu, Hasan; Değer, Yalçın; Tümen, Emin Caner; Uysal, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background Endodontically treated teeth with excessive loss of tooth structure are frequently restored using fiber posts. In this in vitro study, the apical leakage of self- and dual-activated curing modes for dual-curing resins cementing a translucent fiber post was evaluated using computerized fluid filtration meter and dye extraction method. Material/Methods One hundred and four extracted human maxillary incisors with single root and canal were used. Experimental samples embedded in a closed system were divided into 4 groups (n=20) according to 2 dual-curing luting systems, with 2 different curing modes (either with self- or light-activation): (1) Panavia F 2.0 with self-cure, (2) Panavia F 2.0 with light-activation, (3) Clearfill SA with self-cure, and (4) Clearfill SA with light activation. Twenty-four teeth served as negative and positive controls. Translucent fiber posts were luted in the roots except in the control groups. Results Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference in leakage among groups (p>0.05) with 4.12×10−4 (Panavia self-cure), 4.55×10−4 (Clearfill SA self-cure), 5.17×10−4 (Panavia dual-cure), and 5.59×10−4 (Clearfill SA dual-cure) in fluid-filtration method. Absorbance values for dye-extraction method were 266 nanometer (nm) (Panavia self-cure), 268 nm (Clearfill SA self-cure), 270 nm (Panavia dual-cure), and 271 nm (Clearfill SA dual-cure), in which difference among the groups were not statistically significant (p>0.05). When comparing the leakage, assessment methods results showed no statistically significant difference between the tested evaluation techniques (p>0.05). Conclusions Light- and self-activation curing modes of Panavia F 2.0 and Clearfill SA perform similar to each other in a closed system. PMID:25824712

  11. Characterization of the Mineral Trioxide Aggregate–Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement Interface in Different Setting Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Ashraf A.; Komabayashi, Takashi; Watanabe, Etsuko; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Watanabe, Ikuya

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been used successfully for perforation repair, vital pulpotomies, and direct pulp capping. However, little is known about the interactions between MTA and glass ionomer cement (GIC) in final restorations. In this study, 2 null hypotheses were tested: (1) GIC placement time does not affect the MTA-GIC structural interface and hardness and (2) moisture does not affect the MTA-GIC structural interface and hardness. Methods Fifty cylinders were half filled with MTA and divided into 5 groups. The other half was filled with resin-modified GIC either immediately after MTA placement or after 1 or 7 days of temporization in the presence or absence of a wet cotton pellet. The specimens were then sectioned, carbon coated, and examined using a scanning electron microscope and an electron probe micro-analyzer (SEM-EPMA) for interfacial adaptation, gap formation, and elemental analysis. The Vickers hardness numbers of the interfacial MTA were recorded 24 hours after GIC placement and 8 days after MTA placement and analyzed using the analysis of variance test. Results Hardness testing 24 hours after GIC placement revealed a significant increase in hardness with an increase of temporization time but not with a change of moisture conditions (P < .05). Hardness testing 8 days after MTA placement indicated no significant differences among groups. SEM-EPMA showed interfacial adaptation to improve with temporization time and moisture. Observed changes were limited to the outermost layer of MTA. The 2 null hypotheses were not rejected. Conclusions GIC can be applied over freshly mixed MTA with minimal effects on the MTA, which seemed to decrease with time. PMID:22794220

  12. Adhesion/cementation to zirconia and other non-silicate ceramics: Where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jeffrey Y; Stoner, Brian R.; Piascik, Jeffrey R.; Smith, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Non-silicate ceramics, especially zirconia, have become a topic of great interest in the field of prosthetic and implant dentistry. A clinical problem with use of zirconia-based components is the difficulty in achieving suitable adhesion with intended synthetic substrates or natural tissues. Traditional adhesive techniques used with silica-based ceramics do not work effectively with zirconia. Currently, several technologies are being utilized clinically to address this problem, and other approaches are under investigation. Most focus on surface modification of the inert surfaces of high strength ceramics. The ability to chemically functionalize the surface of zirconia appears to be critical in achieving adhesive bonding. This review will focus on currently available approaches as well as new advanced technologies to address this problem. PMID:21094526

  13. Viscoelastic modelling of epoxy-resins for adhesive and composite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiel, C.; Cardon, A. H.; Brinson, H. F.

    1984-01-01

    Nonlinear viscoelastic and thermoelastic characterization procedures were applied to a rubber toughened adhesive that is commercially available as FM-300. Long time (accelerated testing) predictions on the basis of stress-time-superposition and time-temperature-superposition were compared with actual long term data. Good verification was obtained.

  14. Biocompatibility of a flowable composite bonded with a self-etching adhesive compared with a glass lonomer cement and a high copper amalgam.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yasushi; Seki, Yuichi; Sasafuchi, Yasutaka; Arakawa, Makoto; Burrow, Michael F; Otsuki, Masayuki; Tagami, Junji

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the pulpal response and in-vivo microleakage of a flowable composite bonded with a self-etching adhesive and compared the results with a glass ionomer cement and amalgam. Cervical cavities were prepared in monkey teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups. A self-etching primer system (Imperva FluoroBond, Shofu) was applied to the teeth in one of the experimental groups, and the cavities were filled with a flowable composite (SI-BF-2001-LF, Shofu). In the other groups, a glass ionomer cement (Fuji II, GC) or amalgam (Dispersalloy, Johnson & Johnson) filled the cavity. The teeth were then extracted after 3, 30 and 90 days, fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution and prepared according to routine histological techniques. Five micrometer sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or Brown and Brenn gram stain for bacterial observation. No serious inflammatory reaction of the pulp, such as necrosis or abscess formation, was observed in any of the experimental groups. Slight inflammatory cell infiltration was the main initial reaction, while deposition of reparative dentin was the major long-term reaction in all groups. No bacterial penetration along the cavity walls was detected in the flowable composite or glass ionomer cement except for one case at 30 days in the glass ionomer cement. The flowable composite bonded with self-etching adhesive showed an acceptable biological com- patibility to monkey pulp. The in vivo sealing ability of the flowable composite in combination with the self-etching adhesive was considered comparable to glass ionomer cement. Amalgam restorations without adhesive liners showed slight bacterial penetration along the cavity wall. PMID:14753328

  15. [Cementable and adhesive pulpal pins as alternatives to self-threading screws].

    PubMed

    Dau, B; Albers, H K

    1989-11-01

    Self-threading retentive pins are to be disputed in case of the possible dentinal damage in form of cracks and craze patterns. For a short time two new pin systems are offered on the german market. The essential retention shall be attained by cementing or otherwise by gluing in the pin channel. It is obvious that the promised elimination of cracking and crazing stands in opposition to a significantly reduced retention in the dentin, compared to self-threading systems. A general dispensation of self-threading pins is therefore not to be recommended. PMID:2639541

  16. Bonded amalgam sealants and adhesive resin sealants: five-year clinical results.

    PubMed

    Staninec, Michal; Artiga, Nelson; Gansky, Stuart A; Marshall, Grayson W; Eakle, Stephan

    2004-05-01

    Bonded amalgams were used as pit-and-fissure sealants without mechanical preparation. They were compared with resin-based pit-and-fissure sealants for retention over a 5-year period. Clinical examinations at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years revealed no difference between the two techniques. Although amalgam sealants may not be practical by themselves, they can be used to seal pits and fissures surrounding very conservative preparations, in the "preventive amalgam restoration." Conventional amalgam retentive features and 90-degree cavosurface margins may not be necessary when bonding is used with amalgam. PMID:15130073

  17. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is preferably dried and stored until it is used (along with an alkali, an aldehyde and an adhesive filler) in compounding an adhesive of the type generally used in the manufacture of plywood.

  18. Adhesion analysis of non-woven natural fibres in unsaturated polyester resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omri, Med Amin; Triki, A.; Guicha, M.; Ben Hassen, Med; Arous, M.; Ahmed El Hamzaoui, H.; Bulou, A.

    2015-03-01

    The presence of wool fibres in non-woven Alfa fibres sheet was investigated as a mean of improving adhesion of Alfa fibre-reinforced unsaturated polyester composite. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy results revealed that such improvement could occur by a decrease in the hydrophilic character of the Alfa fibres owing to the presence of wool fibres. Hence, physical and chemical interactions could happen between the reinforcement and the matrix as demonstrated by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy results. Tensile testing performed on this composite confirmed that such adhesion could occur according to its excellent specific parameters despite of its low tensile strength attributed to a higher fibre to fibre contact of wool fibres.

  19. Microtensile bond strength of indirect resin composite to resin-coated dentin: interaction between diamond bur roughness and coating material.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Atsushi; Oishi, Takumi; Sugawara, Toyotarou; Hirai, Yoshito

    2009-02-01

    This aim of this study was to determine the effect of type of bur and resin-coating material on microtensile bond strength (microTBS) of indirect composite to dentin. Dentin surfaces were first ground with two types of diamond bur and resin-coated using UniFil Bond (UB) or Adper Single Bond (SB), and then bonded to a resin composite disc for indirect restoration with adhesive resin cement. After storage for 24 hr in distilled water at 37 degrees C, microTBS was measured (crosshead speed 1 mm/min). When UB was applied to dentin prepared using the regular-grit diamond bur, microTBS was significantly lower than that in dentin prepared using the superfine-grit bur. In contrast, no significant difference was found between regular-grit and superfine-grit bur with SB. However, more than half of the superfine-grit specimens failed before microTBS testing. These results indicate that selection of bur type is important in improving the bond strength of adhesive resin cement between indirect resin composite and resin-coated dentin. PMID:19622875

  20. The Retentive Strength of Cemented Zirconium Oxide Crowns after Dentin Pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste Containing 8% Arginine and Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Pilo, Raphael; Harel, Noga; Nissan, Joseph; Levartovsky, Shifra

    2016-01-01

    The effect of dentin pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate on the retention of zirconium oxide (Y-TZP) crowns was tested. Forty molar teeth were mounted and prepared using a standardized protocol. Y-TZP crowns were produced using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology. The 40 prepared teeth were either pretreated with Desensitizing Paste or not pretreated. After two weeks, each group was subdivided into two groups, cemented with either Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC) or Self Adhesive Resin Cement (SARC)). Prior to cementation, the surface areas of the prepared teeth were measured. After aging, the cemented crown-tooth assemblies were tested for retentive strength using a universal testing machine. The debonded surfaces of the teeth and crowns were examined microscopically at 10× magnification. Pretreating the dentin surfaces with Desensitizing Paste prior to cementation did not affect the retention of the Y-TZP crowns. The retentive values for RMGIC (3.04 ± 0.77 MPa) were significantly higher than those for SARC (2.28 ± 0.58 MPa). The predominant failure modes for the RMGIC and SARC were adhesive cement-dentin and adhesive cement-crown, respectively. An 8.0% arginine and calcium carbonate in-office desensitizing paste can be safely used to reduce post-cementation sensitivity without reducing the retentive strength of Y-TZP crowns. PMID:27023532

  1. The Retentive Strength of Cemented Zirconium Oxide Crowns after Dentin Pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste Containing 8% Arginine and Calcium Carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Pilo, Raphael; Harel, Noga; Nissan, Joseph; Levartovsky, Shifra

    2016-01-01

    The effect of dentin pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate on the retention of zirconium oxide (Y-TZP) crowns was tested. Forty molar teeth were mounted and prepared using a standardized protocol. Y-TZP crowns were produced using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology. The 40 prepared teeth were either pretreated with Desensitizing Paste or not pretreated. After two weeks, each group was subdivided into two groups, cemented with either Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC) or Self Adhesive Resin Cement (SARC)). Prior to cementation, the surface areas of the prepared teeth were measured. After aging, the cemented crown-tooth assemblies were tested for retentive strength using a universal testing machine. The debonded surfaces of the teeth and crowns were examined microscopically at 10× magnification. Pretreating the dentin surfaces with Desensitizing Paste prior to cementation did not affect the retention of the Y-TZP crowns. The retentive values for RMGIC (3.04 ± 0.77 MPa) were significantly higher than those for SARC (2.28 ± 0.58 MPa). The predominant failure modes for the RMGIC and SARC were adhesive cement-dentin and adhesive cement-crown, respectively. An 8.0% arginine and calcium carbonate in-office desensitizing paste can be safely used to reduce post-cementation sensitivity without reducing the retentive strength of Y-TZP crowns. PMID:27023532

  2. Effect of adhesive hydrophilicity and curing-time on the permeability of resins bonded to water vs. ethanol-saturated acid-etched dentin

    PubMed Central

    Cadenaro, Milena; Breschi, Lorenzo; Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Agee, Kelli; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Carrilho, Marcela; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study examined the ability of five comonomer blends (R1-R5) of methacrylate-based experimental dental adhesives solvated with 10 mass% ethanol, at reducing the permeability of acid-etched dentin. The resins were light-cured for 20, 40 or 60 s. The acid-etched dentin was saturated with water or 100% ethanol. Method Human unerupted third molars were converted into crown segments by removing the occlusal enamel and roots. The resulting crown segments were attached to plastic plates connected to a fluid-filled system for quantifying fluid flow across smear layer-covered dentin, acid-etched dentin and resin-bonded dentin. The degree of conversion of the resins was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Result Application of the most hydrophobic comonomer blend (R1) to water-saturated dentin produced the smallest reductions in dentin permeability (31.9, 44.1 and 61.1% after light-curing for 20, 40 or 60 s respectively). Application of the same blend to ethanol-saturated dentin reduced permeability of 74.1, 78.4 and 81.2%, respectively (p<0.05). Although more hydrophilic resins produced larger reductions in permeability, the same trend of significantly greater reductions in ethanol-saturated dentin over that of water-saturated dentin remained. This result can be explained by the higher solubility of resins in ethanol vs. water. Significance The largest reductions in permeability produced by resins were equivalent but not superior, to those produced by smear layers. Resin sealing of dentin remains a technique-sensitive step in bonding etch-and-rinse adhesives to dentin. PMID:18571228

  3. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

  4. Effect of ascorbic acid, ethanol and acetone on adhesion between the treated fiber posts and composite resin cores

    PubMed Central

    Zahra, Khamverdi

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of ascorbic acid, ethanol and acetone on microtensile bond strength between fiber posts pre-treated with hydrogen peroxide and composite resin cores. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty four fiber posts were pre-treated with 24% hydrogen peroxide and divided into 4 groups as follows: G1: no treatment, as control group; G2: treatment with 10% ascorbic acid solution for 5 minutes; G3: treatment with 70% ethanol solution for 5 minutes; and G4: treatment with 70% acetone solution for 5 minutes. Each fiber post was surrounded by a cylinder-shaped polyglass matrix which was subsequently filled with composite resin. Two sections from each sample were selected for microtensile test at a crosshead with speed of 0.5 mm/min. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey HSD test. Fractured surfaces were observed under a stereomicroscope at ×20 magnification. The fractured surfaces of the specimens were observed and evaluated under a SEM. RESULTS Means of microtensile bond strength values (MPa) and standard deviations in the groups were as follows: G1: 9.70±0.81; G2: 12.62±1.80; G3: 16.60±1.93; and G4: 21.24±1.95. G4 and G1 had the highest and the lowest bond strength values, respectively. A greater bond strength value was seen in G3 compared to G2. There were significant differences between all the groups (P<.001). All the failures were of the adhesive mode. CONCLUSION Application of antioxidant agents may increase microtensile bond strength between fiber posts treated with hydrogen peroxide and composite cores. Acetone increased bond strength more than ascorbic acid and ethanol. PMID:23236569

  5. Evaluation of microshear bond strength of resin composites to enamel of dental adhesive systems associated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassimiro-Silva, Patricia F.; Zezell, Denise M.; Monteiro, Gabriela Q. d. M.; Benetti, Carolina; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of resin composite to enamel etching by Er,Cr:YSGG laser with the use of two differents adhesives systems. Fifty freshly extracted human molars halves were embedded in acrylic resin before preparation for the study, making a total of up to 100 available samples. The specimens were randomly assigned into six groups (η=10) according to substrate pre-treatment and adhesive system on the enamel. A two-step self-etching primer system (Clearfil SE Bond) and a universal adhesive used as an etch-andrinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond Universal) were applied to the nonirradiated enamel surface according to manufacturer's instructions, as control groups (Control CF and Control SB, respectively). For the other groups, enamel surfaces were previously irradiated with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser with 0.5 W, 75 mJ and 66 J/cm2 (CF 5 Hz and SB 5 Hz) and 1.25 W, 50 mJ and 44 J/cm2 (CF 15 Hz and SB 15 Hz). Irradiation was performed under air (50%) and water (50%) cooling. An independent t-test was performed to compare the adhesive systems. Mean μSBS ± sd (MPa) for each group was 16.857 +/- 2.61, 17.87 +/- 5.83, 12.23 +/- 2.02, 9.88 +/- 2.26, 15.94 +/- 1.98, 17.62 +/- 2.10, respectively. The control groups and the 50 mJ laser groups showed no statistically significant differences, regardless of the adhesive system used. The results obtained lead us to affirm that the bonding interaction of adhesives to enamel depends not only on the morphological aspects of the dental surface, but also on the characteristics of the adhesive employed and the parameters of the laser.

  6. Effect of physicochemical properties of a cement based on silicocarnotite/calcium silicate on in vitro cell adhesion and in vivo cement degradation.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Julia Lucas; Rueda, Carmen; Manchón, Ángel; Ewald, Andrea; Gbureck, Uwe; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Jerez, Luis Blanco; Cabarcos, Enrique López

    2016-01-01

    A silicon calcium phosphate cement (Si-CPC) was developed to produce a composite of calcium phosphate and calcium silicate. The silicon cements prepared with low silicon (Si) content were composed of crystalline phases of brushite and silicocarnotite. However, the cements prepared with high Si content were mainly composed of amorphous phases of silicocarnotite, hydroxyapatite and calcium silicate. The cement porosity was about 40% with a shift of the average pore diameter to the nanometric range with increasing Si content. Interestingly, this new cement system provides a matrix with a high specific surface area of up to 29 m(2) g(-1). The cytocompatibility of the new Si-doped cements was tested with a human osteoblast-like cell line (MG-63) showing an enhancement of cell proliferation (up to threefold) when compared with unsubstituted material. Cements with a high silica content also improved the cell attachment. The in vivo results indicated that Si-CPCs induce the formation of new bone tissue, and modify cement resorption. We conclude that this cement provides an optimal environment to enhance osteoblast growth and proliferation that could be of interest in bone engineering. PMID:27481549

  7. In vitro studies of the penetration of adhesive resins into artificial caries-like lesions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, C; Brookes, S J; Kirkham, J; Wood, S R; Shore, R C

    2001-01-01

    Instead of removing the porous carious tissue at a relatively late stage in the disease process, attempts have been made to 'fill' the microporosities of lesions at a much earlier stage of lesion development. This would not only reduce the porosity and therefore access of acid and egress of dissolved material, but also afford some mechanical support to the tissue and perhaps inhibit further attack. Successful infiltration of materials into lesions has been demonstrated previously using resorcinol-formaldehyde which, however, was clinically unacceptable. The advent of dental adhesives with potentially suitable properties has prompted a re-examination of this concept. Artificial lesions of enamel were generated in extracted human teeth using acidified gels. A range of currently available adhesive materials was then used to infiltrate the porosities. The extent of occlusion of the lesion porosities was determined both qualitatively using light microscopy and quantitatively using a chloronaphthalene imbibition technique. The effect of such treatment upon subsequent exposure to acid gels was also investigated. Results showed that up to 60% of the lesion pore volume had been occluded following infiltration with some of the materials and that this treatment was capable of reducing further acid demineralization. The development of such treatment strategies could offer potential noninvasive means of treating early enamel lesions. PMID:11275674

  8. Microtensile bond strength and micromorphologic analysis of surface-treated resin nanoceramics

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different surface treatment methods on the microtensile bond strength of resin cement to resin nanoceramic (RNC). MATERIALS AND METHODS RNC onlays (Lava Ultimate) (n=30) were treated using air abrasion with and without a universal adhesive, or HF etching followed by a universal adhesive with and without a silane coupling agent, or tribological silica coating with and without a universal adhesive, and divided into 6 groups. Onlays were luted with resin cement to dentin surfaces. A microtensile bond strength test was performed and evaluated by one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (α=.05). A nanoscratch test, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used for micromorphologic analysis (α=.05). The roughness and elemental proportion were evaluated by Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U test. RESULTS Tribological silica coating showed the highest roughness, followed by air abrasion and HF etching. After HF etching, the RNC surface presented a decrease in oxygen, silicon, and zirconium ratio with increasing carbon ratio. Air abrasion with universal adhesive showed the highest bond strength followed by tribological silica coating with universal adhesive. HF etching with universal adhesive showed the lowest bond strength. CONCLUSION An improved understanding of the effect of surface treatment of RNC could enhance the durability of resin bonding when used for indirect restorations. When using RNC for restoration, effective and systemic surface roughening methods and an appropriate adhesive are required. PMID:27555896

  9. Evaluation of shear bond strength between self-etching adhesive systems and dentin and analysis of the resin-dentin interface.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Cleonice Silveira; Chain, Marcelo Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strength between dentin and four self-etching adhesive systems: Clearfil SE Bond (Group 1), Optibond Solo Plus SE (Group 2), Adper Prompt SE (Group 3), and Tyrian SPE (Group 4). A single-bottle adhesive system (Optibond Solo Plus) was used as the control (Group 5). The resin-dentin interface was analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The facial and lingual surfaces of 40 human molars were wet-ground flat; the teeth then were assigned randomly to one of five groups. Each adhesive system was applied to the dentin and the respective resin was applied using a Teflon mold. After 24 hours, the specimens were sheared at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. Five additional teeth were prepared for SEM. Mean scores (+/-SD) in MP a were highest for Group 1 (33.23 +/- 12.67), followed by Group 2 (32.41 +/- 9.90), Group 5 (30.68 +/- 4.08), Group 4 (21.37 +/- 5.87), and Group 3 (17.50 +/- 4.24). The statistical analysis by Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum tests revealed no significant difference (p > 0.05) between Groups 1, 2, and 5. Groups 3 and 4 were different from the others and from each other (p < 0.05). The fracture modes were mostly interfacial/adhesive and cohesive in the resin. SEM analysis of the resin-dentin interface showed a homogeneous gap-free hybrid layer for all groups. PMID:20236904

  10. Effect of Four Surface Treatment Methods on the Shear Bond Strength of Resin Cement to Zirconia Ceramics- A Comparative in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Manoharan; Balaji; Livingstone, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Improving the retention of zirconia-based ceramics is desirable in order to avoid the failure of crowns and fixed partial dentures .This can be achieved by creating micromechanical retention using surface treatments. Therefore, it becomes necessary to constantly compare and re-evaluate the influence of different surface treatment methods on the bond strength . Aim: To evaluate the effect of four different surface treatments on shear bond strength between zirconia surface and resin cements. Settings and Design: Observational study. Materials and Methods: Twenty five zirconia plate samples were prepared based on ISO standards and were divided into five groups and each group was subjected to following five different surface treatments : no treatment, sandblasting with 110 μm alumina, sandblasting with 250 μm alumina, acid etching with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid and laser radiation on the surface. All the samples were surface disinfected and were embedded in blocks of autopolymerising resin to check shear bond strength on the universal testing machine. Statistical analysis used-data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and a Post Hoc Bonferroni test. Results: Analysis of the data showed that the highest shear bond strength values were obtained with laser treatment (18.120 ± 0.8159 Mpa). The lowest values were obtained with control group (9.166 ± 0.569 Mpa). Laser treatment increased the shear bond strength values significantly (p<0.05). Conclusion: Surface treatments increased the bond strength between zirconia and resin cement and carbon dioxide laser could be an effective surface treatment for increasing bond strength. PMID:25386526

  11. XPS study on the weakest zone in the adhesion structure between resin containing 4-META and precious metal alloys treated with different surface modification methods.

    PubMed

    Ohno, H; Endo, K; Yamane, Y; Kawashima, I

    2001-03-01

    Three precious metal alloys, Type IV gold alloy, 14 K gold alloy, and silver-based alloy, were treated with different surface modifications including a metal primer (VBATDT) application, a SiOx coating method, high-temperature oxidation, modification method with a liquid Ga-Sn alloy, and tin electroplating. Then thin PMMA films were bonded with a resin containing 4-META. Water durability at the adhesion interface was evaluated after water immersion, followed by thermal cycling used liquid nitrogen. The weakest zone at the interface was investigated using XPS only for the Ag-Pd alloy specimens that had been surface-treated with as-polishing, adhesive primer, and the SiOx coating method, since peeling of the PMMA film on the surface of specimens surface-treated by other methods was not observed. Metal elements were detected from the resin side at the adhesion interface. The chemical states of Cu in the resin before argon ion etching were characterized as metal oxides and/or states of chemical interaction with 4-META, VBATDT, or SiOx. PMID:11441491

  12. An in vitro study to compare the effect of two etching techniques on the tensile bond strength of resin cement bonded to base metal alloy and enamel.

    PubMed

    Sudheer, Arunachalam; Shetty, Gautam

    2013-12-01

    Resin-bonded retainers are being preferred for anterior restorations. To increase the retentive strength of the metal fixed to the tooth, the retainer surface has to be etched. Different etching techniques are described in the literature with different researchers expressing the superiority of one technique over the other. This study was conducted to compare electro chemical and chemical etching techniques and the mode of bond failure. Twenty human maxillary premolars with the crown portion separated from root were embedded in resin block such that mesial or distal portion of it was exposed on the top of the block. 4 × 5 mm area was marked on the tooth, and wax pattern was prepared to cover the exact area, with the opposite end having a hook like structure which was later attached to universal testing machine. Wiron99 Ni-Cr alloy was used for casting. Once the casting and etching procedures were finished, wax patterns were invested, casted and half the samples were etched chemically using Aqua-regia and the other half samples were etched electrochemically. The castings were cleaned and cemented to tooth structure using Rely-X ARC (3 M ESPE, USA) resin cement. Specimens were fixed to universal testing machine and de-bonded. The load required to de-bond and mode of de-bonding was noted. Results were subjected to five different statistical tests, each test specific to the variable being tested. The mean failure load was calculated as 5.95 kg for electrochemically etched samples and that of chemically etched samples was calculated as 11.15 kg. The standard deviation of the force required to debond the specimens (Kgf) was calculated and found to be 0.65 for electrochemically etched samples and 1.11 for chemically etched samples. The following conclusions have been drawn from the study. 1. Chemical etching of the samples created better retentive surfaces than electrochemical etching. 2. The results of mode of de-bonding show that in case of chemical etching

  13. Effect of biological contamination on dentine bond strength of adhesive resins.

    PubMed

    van Schalkwyk, J H; Botha, F S; van der Vyver, P J; de Wet, F A; Botha, S J

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of saliva (S) and blood (B) contamination on the dentine bond strength of two single-component dentine bonding systems. The occlusal thirds of 120 recently extracted, human molars were removed with a low speed saw and subsequently embedded in Bencor rings by means of self-curing, acrylic resin. The occlusal surfaces were ground wet on 600-grit silicone carbide paper in a polishing machine to expose superficial dentine and to create a smear layer. The teeth were randomly divided into 12 groups (n = 10). All the dentine surfaces were etched with 34% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds rinsed with water, air-dried for 3 seconds, leaving the surfaces visibly moist. For the control groups (C) the etched dentine surfaces were treated with either, Scotchbond 1 (SB1, 3M) or Prime & Bond NT (PBNT, Dentsply) according to the manufacturer's instructions. In the contaminated groups, the saliva or blood was applied by means of a disposable brush, left undisturbed for 1 minute, and the excess then thinned by air spray. The dentine bonding systems were then applied, also according to manufacturer's instructions. Composite (Z250 and TPH) and Compomer (F2000 and Dyract AP (D-AP)) stubs were packed and cured incrementally to the corresponding pretreated dentine surfaces. All specimens were stored for 24 hours under water at 37 degrees C. The bonds were then stressed to failure with a Zwick testing machine, operating at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Fractured samples were examined in a Scanning Electron Microscope. The data were statistically analysed (Student-t test). The mean SBS (MPa) were. SB1 with Z250: C = 19.1 +/- 4.4; S = 17.3 +/- 3.5; B = 2.6 +/- 0.9; SB1 with F2000: C = 11.8 +/- 3.3; S = 9.7 +/- 1.8; B = 4.7 +/- 1.6. PBNT with TPH: C = 9.2 +/- 3.2; S = 6.5 +/- 3.0; B = 4.3 +/- 1.5; PBNT with D-AP: C = 10.2 +/- 3.6; S = 9.3 +/- 2.9 and B = 7.3 +/- 2.5. There was no statistical significant difference in shear bond

  14. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of a Novel Resin-Based Pulp Capping Material Containing the Quaternary Ammonium Salt MAE-DB and Portland Cement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongchen; Zhou, Wei; Ban, Jinghao; Wei, Jingjing; Liu, Yan; Gao, Jing; Chen, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    Background Vital pulp preservation in the treatment of deep caries is challenging due to bacterial infection. The objectives of this study were to synthesize a novel, light-cured composite material containing bioactive calcium-silicate (Portland cement, PC) and the antimicrobial quaternary ammonium salt monomer 2-methacryloxylethyl dodecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-DB) and to evaluate its effects on Streptococcus mutans growth in vitro. Methods The experimental material was prepared from a 2∶1 ratio of PC mixed with a resin of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, bisphenol glycerolate dimethacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (4∶3∶1) containing 5 wt% MAE-DB. Cured resin containing 5% MAE-DB without PC served as the positive control material, and resin without MAE-DB or PC served as the negative control material. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium hydroxide (Dycal) served as commercial controls. S. mutans biofilm formation on material surfaces and growth in the culture medium were tested according to colony-forming units (CFUs) and metabolic activity after 24 h incubation over freshly prepared samples or samples aged in water for 6 months. Biofilm formation was also assessed by Live/Dead staining and scanning electron microscopy. Results S. mutans biofilm formation on the experimental material was significantly inhibited, with CFU counts, metabolic activity, viability staining, and morphology similar to those of biofilms on the positive control material. None of the materials affected bacterial growth in solution. Contact-inhibition of biofilm formation was retained by the aged experimental material. Significant biofilm formation was observed on MTA and Dycal. Conclusion The synthesized material containing HEMA-BisGMA-TEGDMA resin with MAE-DB as the antimicrobial agent and PC to support mineralized tissue formation inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation even after aging in water for 6 months, but had no inhibitory effect on bacteria in solution

  15. Microleakage of Dual-Cured Adhesive Systems in Class V Composite Resin Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Kasraie, S.; Azarsina, M.; Khamverdi, Z.; Shokraneh, F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Microleakage is a major factor affecting longevity of composite restorations. This study evaluated the effect of polymerization mode of bonding agent on microleakage of composite restorations. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight Class V cavities were prepared on buccal and lingual surfaces of 24 extracted human premolars. Occlusal and gingival margins were placed in the enamel and dentin, respectively. Teeth were divided into four groups as follows: Group I: Optibond Solo Plus (light-cured); Group II: Optibond Solo Plus (dual-cured); Group III: Prime & Bond NT (light-cured), Group IV: Prime & Bond NT (dual-cured). Teeth were restored using Z250 composite in three increments. After polishing the restorations, samples were thermocycled for 1000 cycles and stored in distilled water for 3 months. Then they were placed in 2% fuchsine solution for 48 hours. The samples were sectioned longitudinally and evaluated for microleakage under a stereomicroscope at ×40 magnification. Dye penetration was scored on a 0–3 ordinal scale. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis, Bonferroni and Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Results: Microleakage was significantly lower in enamel margins compared to dentin margins (P<0.05); multiple comparisons by Bonferroni tests revealed that the only factor with significant effect on leakage of the restoration is location of the restoration margin. Mode of adhesive polymerization had no significant influence on microleakage (P>0.05). Prime & Bond NT had less microleakage compared to Optibond SoloPlus, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: There was no difference in the amount of microleakage in Class V composite restorations using light-cured and dual-cured bonding systems. Dentinal margins of restorations exhibited more microleakage than enamel margins. PMID:23066474

  16. In vitro fluoride release from a different kind of conventional and resin modified glass-ionomer cements

    PubMed Central

    Selimović-Dragaš, Mediha; Hasić-Branković, Lajla; Korać, Fehim; Đapo, Nermin; Huseinbegović, Amina; Kobašlija, Sedin; Lekić, Meliha; Hatibović-Kofman, Šahza

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride release is important characteristic of glass-ionomer cements. Quantity of fluoride ions released from the glass-ionomer cements has major importance in definition of their biological activity. The objectives of this study were to define the quantity of fluoride ions released from the experimental glass-ionomer cements and to define the effect of fluoride ions released from the experimental glass-ionomer cements on their cytotoxicity. Concentrations of the fluoride ions released in the evaluated glass-ionomer cements were measured indirectly, by the fluoride-selective WTW, F500 electrode potential, combined with reference R503/D electrode. Statistical analyses of F-ion concentrations released by all glass-ionomers evaluated at two time points, after 8 and after 24 hours, show statistically higher fluoride releases from RMGICs: Vitrebond, Fuji II LC and Fuji Plus, when compared to conventional glass-ionomer cements: Fuji Triage, Fuji IX GP Fast and Ketac Silver, both after 8 and after 24 hours. Correlation coefficient between concentrations of fluoride ion released by evaluated glass-ionomer cements and cytotoxic response of UMR-106 osteoblast cell-line are relatively high, but do not reach levels of biological significance. Correlation between concentrations of fluoride ion released and cytotoxic response of NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line after 8 hours is high, positive and statistically significant for conventional GICs, Fuji Triage and Fuji IX GP Fast, and RMGIC, Fuji II LC. Statistically significant Correlation coefficient between concentrations of fluoride ion released and cytotoxic response of NIH3T3 cell line after 24 hours is defined for RMGIC Fuji II LC only. PMID:23988173

  17. In vitro fluoride release from a different kind of conventional and resin modified glass-ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Selimović-Dragaš, Mediha; Hasić-Branković, Lajla; Korać, Fehim; Đapo, Nermin; Huseinbegović, Amina; Kobašlija, Sedin; Lekić, Meliha; Hatibović-Kofman, Šahza

    2013-08-01

    Fluoride release is important characteristic of glass-ionomer cements. Quantity of fluoride ions released from the glass-ionomer cements has major importance in definition of their biological activity. The objectives of this study were to define the quantity of fluoride ions released from the experimental glass-ionomer cements and to define the effect of fluoride ions released from the experimental glass-ionomer cements on their cytotoxicity. Concentrations of the fluoride ions released in the evaluated glass-ionomer cements were measured indirectly, by the fluoride-selective WTW, F500 electrode potential, combined with reference R503/D electrode. Statistical analyses of F-ion concentrations released by all glass-ionomers evaluated at two time points, after 8 and after 24 hours, show statistically higher fluoride releases from RMGICs: Vitrebond, Fuji II LC and Fuji Plus, when compared to conventional glass-ionomer cements: Fuji Triage, Fuji IX GP Fast and Ketac Silver, both after 8 and after 24 hours. Correlation coefficient between concentrations of fluoride ion released by evaluated glass-ionomer cements and cytotoxic response of UMR-106 osteoblast cell-line are relatively high, but do not reach levels of biological significance. Correlation between concentrations of fluoride ion released and cytotoxic response of NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line after 8 hours is high, positive and statistically significant for conventional GICs, Fuji Triage and Fuji IX GP Fast, and RMGIC, Fuji II LC. Statistically significant Correlation coefficient between concentrations of fluoride ion released and cytotoxic response of NIH3T3 cell line after 24 hours is defined for RMGIC Fuji II LC only. PMID:23988173

  18. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT ADHESIVE SYSTEMS ON THE PULL-OUT BOND STRENGTH OF GLASS FIBER POSTS

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luciana Mendonça; de Andrade, Andréa Mello; Machuca, Melissa Fernanda Garcia; da Silva, Paulo Maurício Batista; da Silva, Ricardo Virgolino C.; Veronezi, Maria Cecília

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the tensile bond strength of glass fiber posts (Reforpost – Angelus-Brazil) cemented to root dentin with a resin cement (RelyX ARC – 3M/ESPE) associated with two different adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond - 3M/ESPE and Adper Scotchbond Multi Purpose (MP) Plus – 3M/ESPE), using the pull-out test. Twenty single-rooted human teeth with standardized root canals were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n=10): G1- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel (3M/ESPE) + Adper Single Bond + #1 post (Reforpost – Angelus) + four #1 accessory posts (Reforpin – Angelus) + resin cement; G2- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel + Adper Scotchbond MP Plus + #1 post + four #1 accessory posts + resin cement. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days and submitted to the pull-out test in a universal testing machine (EMIC) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean values of bond strength (kgf) and standard deviation were: G1- 29.163 ± 7.123; G2- 37.752 ±13.054. Statistical analysis (Student's t-test; α=0.05 showed no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the groups. Adhesive bonding failures between resin cement and root canal dentin surface were observed in both groups, with non-polymerized resin cement in the apical portion of the post space when Single Bond was used (G1). The type of adhesive system employed on the fiber post cementation did not influence the pull-out bond strength. PMID:19089224

  19. The effect of CO2 laser irradiation plus fluoride dentifrice on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to glass ionomer cement or composite resin restorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, S. R.; Moraes, M.; Hanashiro, F. S.; Youssef, M. N.; Brugnera Junior, A.; Nobre-dos-Santos, M.; de Souza-Zaroni, W. C.

    2016-02-01

    Although the cariostatic effects of CO2 laser on the root surface have been shown, there is scarce information regarding its effects on root secondary caries. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the association of CO2 laser and a fluoride dentifrice on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to composite-resin or glass-ionomer-cement restorations. Dental blocks of human roots were divided into two groups: composite resin (CR) or glass ionomer cement (GIC). Subsequently, the blocks were divided into four subgroups (n  =  10): C, non-fluoride dentifrice; FD, fluoride dentifrice; L, CO2 laser with an energy density of 6.0 J cm-2  +  non-fluoride dentifrice; and L  +  FD, CO2 laser  +  fluoride dentifrice. The blocks were subjected to pH cycling to simulate a high cariogenic challenge. Dental demineralization around the restorations was quantified by microhardness analysis. The results were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey-Kramer test (p  ⩽  0.05). As for mineral loss, it can be observed that all the groups that were treated with a fluoride dentifrice and laser, used alone or not, were statistically similar and superior to the RC-C group. It was concluded that CO2 laser irradiation and a fluoride dentifrice used alone or combined with each other are efficient surface treatments for preventing secondary root caries, regardless of the restorative material used.

  20. Photocurable bioactive bone cement based on hydroxyethyl methacrylate-poly(acrylic/maleic) acid resin and mesoporous sol gel-derived bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Hesaraki, S

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on strong and bioactive bone cement based on ternary bioactive SiO2-CaO-P2O5 glass particles and a photocurable resin comprising hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and poly(acrylic/maleic) acid. The as-cured composite represented a compressive strength of about 95 MPa but it weakened during soaking in simulated body fluid, SBF, qua its compressive strength reached to about 20 MPa after immersing for 30 days. Biodegradability of the composite was confirmed by reducing its initial weight (~32%) as well as decreasing the molecular weight of early cured resin during the soaking procedure. The composite exhibited in vitro calcium phosphate precipitation in the form of nanosized carbonated hydroxyapatite, which indicates its bone bonding ability. Proliferation of calvarium-derived newborn rat osteoblasts seeded on top of the composite was observed during incubation at 37 °C, meanwhile, an adequate cell supporting ability was found. Consequently, it seems that the produced composite is an appropriate alternative for bone defect injuries, because of its good cell responses, high compressive strength and ongoing biodegradability, though more in vivo experiments are essential to confirm this assumption. PMID:27040248

  1. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative /sup 137/Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either /sup 85/Sr or /sup 60/Co. Release rates of /sup 137/Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement.

  2. The Effect of Hydrofluoric Acid Concentration on the Bond Strength and Morphology of the Surface and Interface of Glass Ceramics to a Resin Cement.

    PubMed

    Sundfeld Neto, D; Naves, L Z; Costa, A R; Correr, A B; Consani, S; Borges, G A; Correr-Sobrinho, L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of various concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (HF) on the surface/interface morphology and μ-shear bond strength (μSBS) between IPS Empress Esthetic (EST) (Ivoclar Vivadent) and IPS e.max Press (EMX) (Ivoclar Vivadent) ceramics and resin cement. Ceramic blocks were divided into 12 groups for each kind of ceramic. Six different HF concentrations were evaluated: 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, and 15%. All groups were silanated after etching, and half of the specimens within each group received a thin layer of unfilled resin (UR). Three resin cement cylinders were prepared on each ceramic block for μSBS testing. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The μSBS test was carried out in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. The data were submitted to three-way analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were performed using the Tukey post hoc test (p<0.05). The etched surfaces and bonded interfaces were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. μSBS means (MPa) for 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, and 15% HF concentrations were, respectively, 25.2, 27.2, 30.1, 31.4, 33.3, and 31.8. μSBS means with or without UR application measured 32.24 and 27.4, respectively; EST and EMX measured 29.8 and 29.9, respectively. For the HF concentrations, 10% and 15% showed higher μSBS means than did 1% and 2.5% (p<0.05); 7.5% was higher than 1% (p<0.05); and no statistical differences were found among the other concentrations (p>0.05). When evaluating UR, μSBS mean was significantly higher and better infiltration was observed on the etched surfaces. No statistical difference was found between the ceramics. The HF concentration and UR influenced the bond strength and surface/interface morphology. PMID:25764043

  3. Influence of marginal fit and cement types on microleakage of all-ceramic crown systems.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Ece; Zaimoğlu, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of both marginal fit and cementing with different luting agents on the microleakage of all-ceramic crown systems. Thirty-six extracted upper central incisors were prepared for full-coverage crowns and were divided into three groups. Group 1: CAD/CAM-fabricated ZrO2, Group 2: Heat-pressed lithium-disilicate, and Group 3: Cast Cr-Co copings as the control group. Copings were made following standard techniques, and groups were assigned cementation with either self-adhesive resin cement (A) or glass-ionomer luting cement (B). The specimens were subjected to thermocycling, immersed in basic fuchsin solution, sectioned mesiodistally and buccolingually. The surface of each section was digitally photographed under a stereomicroscope. Microleakage was scored using a five-point scale, and the marginal gap was measured using image analysis software. Data were statistically analyzed using 2-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests (α: 0.05). The marginal discrepancy of each group was 82.7 ± 7 µm, 92.6 ± 4 µm and 96.5 ± 7 µm respectively. Group 1 showed significantly smaller gaps than Group 3 (P = 0.042). Self-adhesive resin cement (A) showed a lower level of microleakage than glass-ionomer luting cement (B) in all groups (P = 0.029). Microleakage scores of '0' were 83% for 1A, 50% for 1B, 50% for 2A, 16% for 2B, 33% for 3A and none for 3B. Marginal discrepancy and cement type both had significant effects on microleakage. Lower levels of microleakage were recorded with self-adhesive resin cement, while CAD/CAM-fabricated ZrO2 copings showed smaller marginal discrepancy and less microleakage in comparison to cast Cr-Co. PMID:21670858

  4. Evaluation of shear bond strength of two resin-based composites and glass ionomer cement to pure tricalcium silicate-based cement (Biodentine®)

    PubMed Central

    CANTEKİN, Kenan; AVCİ, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Tricalcium silicate is the major constituent phase in mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). It is thus postulated that pure tricalcium silicate can replace the Portland cement component of MTA. The aim of this study was to evaluate bond strength of methacrylate-based (MB) composites, silorane-based (SB) composites, and glass ionomer cement (GIC) to Biodentine® and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Material and Methods Acrylic blocks (n=90, 2 mm high, 5 mm diameter central hole) were prepared. In 45 of the samples, the holes were fully filled with Biodentine® and in the other 45 samples, the holes were fully filled with MTA. The Biodentine® and the MTA samples were randomly divided into 3 subgroups of 15 specimens each: Group-1: MB composite; Group-2: SB composite; and Group-3: GIC. For the shear bond strength (SBS) test, each block was secured in a universal testing machine. Results The highest (17.7±6.2 MPa) and the lowest (5.8±3.2 MPa) bond strength values were recorded for the MB composite-Biodentine® and the GIC-MTA, respectively. Although the MB composite showed significantly higher bond strength to Biodentine (17.7±6.2) than it did to MTA (8.9±5.7) (p<0.001), the SB composite (SB and MTA=7.4±3.3; SB and Biodentine®=8.0±3,6) and GIC (GIC and MTA=5.8±3.2; GIC and Biodentine=6.7±2.6) showed similar bond strength performance with MTA compared with Biodentine (p=0.73 and p=0.38, respectively). Conclusions The new pure tricalcium-based pulp capping, repair, and endodontic material showed higher shear bond scores compared to MTA when used with the MB composite. PMID:25141202

  5. Influence of Different Types of Resin Luting Agents on Color Stability of Ceramic Laminate Veneers Subjected to Accelerated Artificial Aging.

    PubMed

    Silami, Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Tonani, Rafaella; Alandia-Román, Carla Cecilia; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated aging (AAA) on the color stability of resin cements for bonding ceramic laminate veneers of different thicknesses. The occlusal surfaces of 80 healthy human molars were flattened. Ceramic laminate veneers (IPS e-max Ceram) of two thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm) were bonded with three types of luting agents: light-cured, conventional dual and self-adhesive dual cement. Teeth without restorations and cement samples (0.5 mm) were used as control. After initial color evaluations, the samples were subjected to AAA for 580 h. After this, new color readouts were made, and the color stability (ΔE) and luminosity (ΔL) data were analyzed. The greatest color changes (p<0.05) occurred when 0.5 mm veneers were fixed with light-cured cement and the lowest when 1.0 mm veneers were fixed with conventional dual cement. There was no influence of the restoration thickness when the self-adhesive dual cement was used. When veneers were compared with the control groups, it was verified that the cement samples presented the greatest alterations (p<0.05) in comparison with both substrates and restored teeth. Therefore, it was concluded that the thickness of the restoration influences color and luminosity changes for conventional dual and light-cured cements. The changes in self-adhesive cement do not depend on restoration thickness. PMID:27007354

  6. On-resin Diels-Alder reaction with inverse electron demand: an efficient ligation method for complex peptides with a varying spacer to optimize cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Mareen; Meier, René; Braun, Klaus; Wiessler, Manfred; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2016-06-01

    Solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) is the method of choice to produce peptides. Several protecting groups enable specific modifications. However, complex peptide conjugates usually require a rather demanding conjugation strategy, which is mostly performed in solution. Herein, an efficient strategy is described using an on-resin Diels-Alder reaction with inverse electron demand (DARinv). This method is compatible with the standard Fmoc/tBu strategy and is easy to monitor. As a proof of concept a titanium binding peptide was modified with a cyclic cell binding peptide (RGD) by DARinv on a solid support applying different tetrazines and alkenes. The generated bulky DARinv linkers were employed to act as the required spacer for RGD mediated cell adhesion on titanium. In vitro studies demonstrated improved cell spreading on DARinv-conjugated peptides and revealed, in combination with molecular dynamics-simulation, new insights into the design of spacers between the RGD peptide and the surface. Performing the DARinv on resin expands the toolbox of SPPS to produce complex peptide conjugates under mild, catalyst free conditions with reduced purification steps. The resulting conjugate can be effectively exploited to promote cell adhesion on biomaterials. PMID:27117044

  7. Resin bonding of metal brackets to glazed zirconia with a porcelain primer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Milim; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to compare the shear bond strength between orthodontic metal brackets and glazed zirconia using different types of primer before applying resin cement and to determine which primer was more effective. Methods Zirconia blocks were milled and embedded in acrylic resin and randomly assigned to one of four groups: nonglazed zirconia with sandblasting and zirconia primer (NZ); glazed zirconia with sandblasting, etching, and zirconia primer (GZ); glazed zirconia with sandblasting, etching, and porcelain primer (GP); and glazed zirconia with sandblasting, etching, zirconia primer, and porcelain primer (GZP). A stainless steel metal bracket was bonded to each target surface with resin cement, and all specimens underwent thermal cycling. The shear bond strength of the specimens was measured by a universal testing machine. A scanning electron microscope, three-dimensional optical surface-profiler, and stereoscopic microscope were used to image the zirconia surfaces. The data were analyzed with one-way analyses of variance and the Fisher exact test. Results Group GZ showed significantly lower shear bond strength than did the other groups. No statistically significant differences were found among groups NZ, GP, and GZP. All specimens in group GZ showed adhesive failure between the zirconia and resin cement. In groups NZ and GP, bonding failed at the interface between the resin cement and bracket base or showed complex adhesive and cohesive failure. Conclusions Porcelain primer is the more appropriate choice for bonding a metal bracket to the surface of a full-contour glazed zirconia crown with resin cement. PMID:26629476

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth Obturated with Resin Based Adhesive Sealers with Conventional Obturation Technique: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Langalia, Akshay K; Dave, Bela; Patel, Neeta; Thakkar, Viral; Sheth, Sona; Parekh, Vaishali

    2015-01-01

    Background: To compare fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth obturated with different resin-based adhesive sealers with a conventional obturation technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 Single canaled teeth were divided into five groups. The first group was taken as a negative control. The rest of the groups were shaped using ProFile rotary files (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). The second group was obturated with gutta-percha and a ZOE-based sealer Endoflas FS (Sanlor Dental Products, USA). The third group was obturated with gutta-percha and an epoxy-based sealer AH Plus (Dentsply, DeTrey, Germany). The fourth group was obturated with Resilon (Pentron Clinical Technologies, Wallingford, CT) and RealSeal sealer (Pentron Clinical Technologies). The fifth group was obturated with EndoREZ points and EndoREZ sealer (both from Ultradent, South Jordan, UT). Roots were then embedded into acrylic blocks and were then fixed into a material testing system and loaded with a stainless steel pin with a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min until fracture. The load at which the specimen fractured was recorded in Newtons. Results: It was found that forces at fracture were statistically significant for the newer resin systems, Resilon, and EndoREZ. Conclusion: It was concluded that roots obturated with newer resin systems (Resilon and EndoREZ) enhanced the root strength almost up to the level of the intact roots. PMID:25859099

  9. A comparative evaluation of the retention of metallic brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cement under different enamel preparations: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Padmaja; Valiathan, Ashima; Arora, Ankit; Agarwal, Sachin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: For orthodontists, the ideal bonding material should be less moisture-sensitive and should release fluoride, thereby reducing unfavorable iatrogenic decalcification. Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cements (RMGICs), due to their ability to bond in the presence of saliva and blood can be a very good bonding agent for orthodontic attachments especially in the areas of mouth, which are difficult to access. Moreover, their fluoride releasing property makes them an ideal bonding agent for patients with poor oral hygiene. However, their immediate bond strength is said to be too low to immediately ligate the initial wire, which could increase the total number of appointments. The effect of sandblasting and the use of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL) on the immediate bond failure of RMGIC clinically have not been reported in the literature until the date. This investigation intended to assess the effect of sandblasting (of the bracket base and enamel) and NaOCL on the rate of bond failure (with immediate ligation at 30 min) of Fuji Ortho LC and its comparison with that of conventional light cured composite resin over a period of 1 year. Materials and Methods: 400 sample teeth were further divided into 4 groups of 100 each and bonded as follows: (1) Group 1: Normal metallic brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (2) Group 2: Sandblasted bracket base and enamel surface, brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (3) Group 3: Deproteinized enamel surface using sodium hypochlorite and brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (4) Group 4: Normal metallic bracket bonded with Transbond XT after etching enamel with 37% phosphoric acid. This group served as control group. Results and Conclusion: Results showed that sandblasting the bracket base and enamel, can significantly reduce the bond failure rate of RMGIC. PMID:24014999

  10. Cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of Zirconia (Y-TZP) posts with various dental cements

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyeongsoon; Ko, Hyunjung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Endodontically treated teeth with insufficient tooth structure are often restored with esthetic restorations. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and biological effects of yttria partially stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) blocks in combination with several dental cements. Materials and Methods Pairs of zirconia cylinders with medium alone or cemented with three types of dental cement including RelyX U200 (3M ESPE), FujiCEM 2 (GC), and Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray) were incubated in medium for 14 days. The cytotoxicity of each supernatant was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays on L929 fibroblasts and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA were evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and IL-6 protein was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The MTT assays showed that MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were more susceptible to dental cements than L929 fibroblasts. The resin based dental cements increased IL-6 expression in L929 cells, but reduced IL-6 expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Conclusions Zirconia alone or blocks cemented with dental cement showed acceptable biocompatibilities. The results showed resin-modified glass-ionomer based cement less produced inflammatory cytokines than other self-adhesive resin-based cements. Furthermore, osteoblasts were more susceptible than fibroblasts to the biological effects of dental cement. PMID:27508157

  11. Influence of adhesive systems on microtensile bond strength of resin-based endodontic sealers to the root dentin

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Juan B.; González-Rodríguez, María P.; González-López, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the microtensile bond strength to root dentin of AH Plus™ and EndoREZ® with Clearfil Liner Bond 2V and Optibond Solo™ Plus adhesive systems. Study Design: The coronal and middle thirds of six single rooted bovine teeth was split longitudinally in a mesio-distal direction. The two halves were joined with AH Plus or EndoREZ, with and without the use of Clearfil Liner Bond 2V and Optibond Solo™ Plus adhesive systems. Build-ups were vertically sectioned into quadrangular (≈1mmx1mm) compound bars and subjected to tensile tests at a constant crosshead speed (1 mm/min) until debonding. Results: Optibond® Solo Plus™ in combination with AH Plus™ and EndoREZ® showed the highest mean microtensile bond strength values, in both coronal and middle thirds. The lowest results were seen in the groups where no dentine adhesive was applied, and in those where the self-etching adhesive Clearfil Liner Bond 2V was used. Conclusion: The microtensile bond strength to root dentin of AH Plus™ and EndoREZ may be increased with the use of a total-etch adhesive. Key words:Adhesive systems, AH Plus, EndoREZ, microtensile bond strength, root dentin. PMID:25136417

  12. Temperature rise during polymerization of different cavity liners and composite resins

    PubMed Central

    Karatas, Ozcan; Turel, Verda; Bayindir, Yusuf Ziya

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the thermal insulating properties of different light curing cavity liners and composite resins during light emitting diode (LED) curing. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four dentin discs, 1 mm thick and 8 mm in diameter, were prepared. Specimens were divided into four groups. Calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2), resin-modified glass ionomer cement, flowable composite and adhesive systems were applied to dentin discs according to the manufacturers’ instructions. The rise in temperature during polymerization with a LED curing unit (LCU) was measured using a K-type thermocouple connected to a data logger. Subsequently, all specimens were randomly divided into one of two groups. A silorane-based composite resin and a methacrylate-based composite resin were applied to the specimens. Temperature rise during polymerization of composite resins with LCU were then measured again. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey analyses. Results: There were significant differences in temperature rise among the liners, adhesives, and composite resins (P < 0.05). Silorane-based composite resin exhibited significantly greater temperature rises than methacrylate-based resin (P < 0.05). The smallest temperature rises were observed in Ca(OH)2 specimens. Conclusion: Thermal insulating properties of different restorative materials are important factors in pulp health. Bonding agents alone are not sufficient to protect pulp from thermal stimuli throughout curing. PMID:26751112

  13. Interfacial fracture toughness between bovine cortical bone and cements.

    PubMed

    Lucksanasombool, P; Higgs, W A J; Higgs, R J E D; Swain, M V

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the bonding strength of the interfaces within the cemented arthroplasty system, various mechanical tests have been used. Conventional push-out and pull-out tests cannot reveal the actual bonding property of the interface because of the significant influence of surface roughness on the measured adhesion and the failure to account for the mismatch of elastic modulus across the interface. An alternative fracture mechanics approach, which considers the mix of opening and shear modes of the crack tip loading associated with the testing system and the elastic mismatch of materials across the interface, was used to evaluate the bonding ability of various cements. The four-point bend interfacial delamination test by Charalambides et al. (J. Appl. Mech. 56 (1989) 77; Mech. Mater. 8 (1990) 269) was used to quantify the bonding ability of cements. This method is arguably more suitable since the applied loading mode is comparable to the nature of loading within the prosthetic system, which is primarily bending. The bovine bone specimens were polished to mirror finish to eliminate bonding by mechanical interlocking. The results revealed minimal bonding for the conventional bone cement (PMMA) whereas substantial bonding was evident for the glass-ionomer cements tested. However, only the conventional glass-ionomer cements showed evidence of bonding on testing, while the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (poly-HEMA) did not. The latter appeared to debond before testing because of excessive expansion stresses associated with swelling in water. PMID:12527256

  14. Effects of Internal Bleaching on the Adhesion of Glass-Fiber Posts

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Moreira, Paulo E.; Pamplona, Lucianne S.; Nascimento, Gláucia C. R.; Esteves, Renata A.; Pessoa, Oscar F.; Silva, Cecy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effects of internal bleaching on the adhesion of glass-fiber posts (GFPs) luted with different resin cements. Methods: Forty extracted human single-root teeth were endodontically treated and divided into four groups (n=10): G1- conventional resin cement (CRC); G2- self-adhesive resin cement (SARC); G3- bleaching + CRC; and G4- bleaching + SARC. Specimens were sectioned transversally into three slices to perform the push-out test at the coronal, middle and apical regions of the root canals. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results: The push-out bond strength of GFPs luted with SARC after bleaching (G4) was significantly lower than that of the other groups (p<0.001). We found no statistically significant differences in push-out bond strength among the other groups. Significance: Internal bleaching reduced the adhesion of GFPs luted with SARC. The adhesion of GFPs luted with CRC was not decreased after bleaching. PMID:26962369

  15. Evaluation of fit of cement-retained implant-supported 3-unit structures fabricated with direct metal laser sintering and vacuum casting techniques.

    PubMed

    Oyagüe, Raquel Castillo; Sánchez-Turrión, Andrés; López-Lozano, José Francisco; Montero, Javier; Albaladejo, Alberto; Suárez-García, María Jesús

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated the vertical discrepancy of implant-fixed 3-unit structures. Frameworks were constructed with laser-sintered Co-Cr, and vacuum-cast Co-Cr, Ni-Cr-Ti, and Pd-Au. Samples of each alloy group were randomly luted in standard fashion using resin-modified glass-ionomer, self-adhesive, and acrylic/urethane-based cements (n = 12 each). Discrepancies were SEM analyzed. Three-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests were run (P < 0.05). Laser-sintered structures achieved the best fit per cement tested. Within each alloy group, resin-modified glass-ionomer and acrylic/urethane-based cements produced comparably lower discrepancies than the self-adhesive agent. The abutment position did not yield significant differences. All misfit values could be considered clinically acceptable. PMID:22075754

  16. Micromorphology and bond strength evaluation of adhesive interface of a self-adhering flowable composite resin-dentin: Effect of surface treatment.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Saadat, Maryam

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of dentin surface treatment on the micromorphology and shear bond strength (SBS) of a self-adhering flowable composite, Vertis Flow (VF). Flat dentin surfaces obtained from sixty extracted human molars were divided into six groups (n = 10) according to the following surface treatments: (G1) control, no treatment; (G2) self-etching adhesive, Optibond All-in-One; (G3) phosphoric acid etching for 15 s; (G4) polyacrylic acid for 10 s; (G5) EDTA for 60 s; and G6) sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 15 s. After restoration using VF, SBS was measured in MPa. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane test (α = 0.05). Six additional specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopy analysis. SBS was significantly affected by surface treatment (P < 0.001). SBS of six groups from the highest to the lowest were as follows: (G3) 13.5(A); (G5) 8.98(AB); (G2) 8.85(AB); (G4) 8.21(AB); (G1) 7.53(BC); and (G6) 4.49(C) (groups with the same superscript letter were statistically similar). Morphological analysis revealed numerous long resin tags at the adhesive interface for acid-etched group, with a few short resin tags for the control group and small gap formation for NaOCl-treated group. In conclusion, dentin surface treatments tested differently affected bonding performance of VF; only acid-etching effectively improved this. PMID:26918399

  17. Pulpal responses to bacterial contamination following dentin bridging beneath hard-setting calcium hydroxide and self-etching adhesive resin system.

    PubMed

    Kitasako, Yuichi; Ikeda, Masaomi; Tagami, Junji

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the pulp healing to bacterial contamination beneath a hard-setting calcium hydroxide (DY: Dycal, L.D. Caulk Co.) and a self-etching adhesive resin (2V: Clearfil Liner Bond 2V, Kuraray Medical Inc.) following dentin bridge formation. Class V cavities were prepared on 30 monkey teeth, and the pulps were exposed with a carbide bur through the cavity floor. Each exposed pulp was capped with either DY or 2V. The cavities were restored with a hybrid resin composite. The resin composite was removed at 180 days after capping, and then cavities were left open to the oral environment for 2 weeks to obtain bacteria contamination DY (BDY) and 2V (B2V; n = 10). A non-bacterial-contaminated group capped with DY was used as control. After bacterial challenges, inflammatory cell infiltration, incidence and differentiation of dentin bridges were evaluated histologically. There were significant differences in the presence of inflammatory cell infiltration among all groups (P < 0.05). No moderate or severe inflammatory reaction was found in Group DY. Group BDY showed moderate or severe inflammatory cell infiltration in 50%, and showed four necrotic specimens. Although no statistically significant difference was found in the formation and differentiation of dentin bridges among all groups, tunnel defects in dentin bridges were detected in 70% (DY), 80% (BDY), and 50% (B2V). Group B2V showed a significantly lower presence of inflammatory cell infiltration than Group BDY (P < 0.05). Bonding agent is supposed to seal the exposure site, and the remaining bonding agent on the cavities was effective as the barrier in the dentin bridges after bacterial challenges. PMID:18352925

  18. An in vitro microleakage study of class V cavities restored with a new self-adhesive flowable composite resin versus different flowable materials

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Regarding the importance of sealing ability of restorative dental materials, this study was done to assess the microleakage of class V cavities restored with a new self-adhesive flowable composite resin and compare to different flowable materials. Materials and Methods: Seventy standardized class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surface of maxillary premolars teeth. The occlusal and the gingival margins of the cavities were located on the enamel and cementum/dentin, respectively. Teeth were randomly assigned into five groups (n = 14) and restored with different flowable materials following the manufacturer's instructions: groups I and II: EMBRACE WetBond flowable composite resin with and without acid etching and bonding agent, respectively; group III: flowable compomer (Dyract Flow); and IV and V: microhybrid (Tetric Flow) and nanofilled (Premise Flowable) flowable composite resins, respectively. After finishing and polishing, the teeth were stored in distilled water at 37°C, thermocycled, coated with nail varnish, and immersed in a basic fuchsin, and then longitudinally sectioned. Dye penetration was examined with a stereomicroscope and scored separately for occlusal and gingival on a 0-3 ordinal scale. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests (α=0.05). Results: EMBRACE WetBond with acid etching and bonding agent had significantly less microleakage at the occlusal margins than those without, but not at cervical margins. Also cavities restored with EMBRACE WetBond without acid etching and bonding agent showed significantly greater microleakage scores than other groups at occlusal margin, but there was no significant difference at the cervical margin. Conclusion: The application of acid etching and bonding agent with EMBRACE WetBond provided better occlusal marginal sealing than those without at class V cavities. PMID:23162589

  19. The effect of two artificial salivas on the adhesion of Candida albicans to heat-polymerized acrylic resin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Xerostomia can diminish the quality of life, leads to changes in normal chemical composition of saliva and oral microbiata, and increases the risk for opportunistic infections, such as Candida albicans. Various artificial salivas have been considered for patients with xerostomia. However, the knowledge on the antifungal and antiadhesive activity of artificial saliva substitutes is limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate influence of two artificial salivas on the adhesion of Candida albicans to the polymethylmethacrylate disc specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two commercial artificial salivas (Saliva Orthana and Biotene Oral Balance Gel) were selected. 45 polymethylmethacrylate disc specimens were prepared and randomly allocated into 3 groups; Saliva Orthana, Biotene-Oral Balance gel and distilled water. Specimens were stored in the artificial saliva or in the sterile distilled water for 60 minutes at 37℃. Then they were exposed to yeast suspensions including Candida albicans. Yeast cells were counted using ×40 magnification under a light microscope and data were analysed. RESULTS Analysis of data indicated statistically significant difference in adhesion of Candida albicans among all experimental groups (P=.000). Findings indicated that Saliva Orthana had higher adhesion scores than the Biotene Oral Balance gel and distilled water (P<.05). CONCLUSION In comparison of Saliva Orthana, the use of Biotene Oral Balance Gel including lysozyme, lactoferrin and peroxidase may be an appropriate treatment method to prevent of adhesion of Candida albicans and related infections in patients with xerostomia. PMID:25932306

  20. Effect of an experimental adhesive resin containing multi-ion releasing fillers on direct pulp-capping.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Satoki; Shinkai, Koichi; Suzuki, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate pulpal healing and reparative dentin formation after 14 and 28 days in exposed rat pulp directly capped with an experimentally developed all-in-one adhesive containing surface reaction-type pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filler. The four experimental groups and the control group were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Steel-Dwass post-hoc test to compare the histopathological score. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the histopathological score at 14 and 28 days for each observation item. All experimental adhesives containing S-PRG fillers developed for direct pulp capping showed no pulpal inflammation. After 14 days, the experimental adhesives containing S-PRG fillers and the control group formed tertiary dentin around the exposed pulp. After 28 days, the experimental adhesives containing 13 and 27 wt% of S-PRG fillers formed dentin bridge equal to the control. PMID:27252005

  1. Tensile bond strength of gold and porcelain inlays to extracted teeth using three cements.

    PubMed

    Michelini, F S; Belser, U C; Scherrer, S S; De Rijk, W G

    1995-01-01

    This in vitro study compared the tensile bond strength of gold and porcelain inlays to extracted molars in standardized cavities. Three cements were used: zinc phosphate, glass-ionomer, and a resin composite cement. The gold inlays were cemented using zinc phosphate or glass-ionomer cement, and the porcelain inlays were luted using resin composite or glass-ionomer cement. Surface treatments included, for gold inlays, either no treatment (zinc phosphate cement) or airborne particle abraded and tinplated (glass-ionomer cement); and for porcelain inlays, either no treatment (glass-ionomer cement) or etched and silane-treated (resin composite cement). Statistical analysis was performed using the Weibull distribution. Results showed no significant differences between gold inlays cemented using zinc phosphate or glass-ionomer cements and porcelain inlays luted using glass-ionomer cements. The bonded porcelain inlays (resin composite cement) showed tensile bond strengths two to three times higher than those obtained for cemented gold inlays. PMID:7575974

  2. The measurement of 129I for the cement and the paraffin solidified low and intermediate level wastes (LILWs), spent resin or evaporated bottom from the pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Park, S D; Kim, J S; Han, S H; Ha, Y K; Song, K S; Jee, K Y

    2009-09-01

    In this paper a relatively simple and low cost analysis procedure to apply to a routine analysis of (129)I in low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (LILWs), cement and paraffin solidified evaporated bottom and spent resin, which are produced from nuclear power plants (NPPs), pressurized water reactors (PWR), is presented. The (129)I is separated from other nuclides in LILWs using an anion exchange adsorption and solvent extraction by controlling the oxidation and reduction state and is then precipitated as silver iodide for counting the beta activity with a low background gas proportional counter (GPC). The counting efficiency of GPC was varied from 4% to 8% and it was reversely proportional to the weight of AgI by a self absorption of the beta activity. Compared to a higher pH, the chemical recovery of iodide as AgI was lowered at pH 4. It was found that the chemical recovery of iodide for the cement powder showed a lower trend by increasing the cement powder weight, but it was not affected for the paraffin sample. In this experiment, the overall chemical recovery yield of the cement and paraffin solidified LILW samples and the average weight of them were 67+/-3% and 5.43+/-0.53 g, 70+/-7% and 10.40+/-1.60 g, respectively. And the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of (129)I for the cement and paraffin solidified LILW samples was calculated as 0.070 and 0.036 Bq/g, respectively. Among the analyzed cement solidified LILW samples, (129)I activity concentration of four samples was slightly higher than the MDA and their ranges were 0.076-0.114 Bq/g. Also of the analyzed paraffin solidified LILW samples, five samples contained a little higher (129)I activity concentration than the MDA and their ranges were 0.036-0.107 Bq/g. PMID:19297180

  3. Effect of the Simulated Disinfection by Microwave Energy on the Impact Strength of the Tooth/Acrylic Resin Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Consani, Rafael L.X.; Mesquita, Marcelo F.; Zampieri, Marinaldo H.; Mendes, Wilson B.; Consani, Simonides

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of simulated microwave disinfection on the tooth/acrylic resin impact strength. Acrylic molar teeth with a wax stick attached to the ridge lap were included in brass flasks. Specimens were made with Classico thermopolymerized acrylic resin, according to the groups: 1 and 5 - tooth with no treatment (control); 2 and 6 – tooth bur abrasion; 3 and 7 – tooth bur retention; and 4 and 8 – tooth monomer etch. Eighty specimens (n=10) were polymerized in bath cycle at 74ºC for 9 hours and deflasked after flask cooling. Specimen from groups 2, 4, 6 and 8 was submitted to simulated microwave disinfection in a microwave oven at 650W for 3 minutes. Impact strength test was performed with an Otto Wolpert-Werke machine (Charpy system) with an impact load of 40 kpcm. Fracture load value was transformed into impact strength as a function of the bond area (kfg/cm2). Collected data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=.05) and results indicate that the simulated microwave disinfection decreased the impact strength in all treatments. PMID:19088877

  4. Glass-ionomer Cements in Restorative Dentistry: A Critical Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Almuhaiza, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Glass-ionomer cements (GICs) are mainstream restorative materials that are bioactive and have a wide range of uses, such as lining, bonding, sealing, luting or restoring a tooth. Although the major characteristics of GICs for the wider applications in dentistry are adhesion to tooth structure, fluoride releasing capacity and tooth-colored restorations, the sensitivity to moisture, inherent opacity, long-term wear and strength are not as adequate as desired. They have undergone remarkable changes in their composition, such as the addition of metallic ions or resin components to their composition, which contributed to improve their physical properties and diversified their use as a restorative material of great clinical applicability. The light-cured polymer reinforced materials appear to have substantial benefits, while retaining the advantages of fluoride release and adhesion. Further research should be directed towards improving the properties, such as strength and esthetics without altering its inherent qualities, such as adhesion and fluoride releasing capabilities. PMID:27340169

  5. Radiopacity Evaluation of Contemporary Luting Cements by Digitization of Images

    PubMed Central

    Reis, José Maurício dos Santos Nunes; Jorge, Érica Gouveia; Ribeiro, João Gustavo Rabelo; Pinelli, Ligia Antunes Pereira; Abi-Rached, Filipe de Oliveira; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of two conventional cements (Zinc Cement and Ketac Cem Easymix), one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RelyX Luting 2) and six resin cements (Multilink, Bistite II DC, RelyX ARC, Fill Magic Dual Cement, Enforce and Panavia F) by digitization of images. Methods. Five disc-shaped specimens (10 × 1.0 mm) were made for each material, according to ISO 4049. After setting of the cements, radiographs were made using occlusal films and a graduated aluminum stepwedge varying from 1.0 to 16 mm in thickness. The radiographs were digitized, and the radiopacity of the cements was compared with the aluminum stepwedge using the software VIXWIN-2000. Data (mmAl) were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Results. The Zinc Cement was the most radiopaque material tested (P < 0.05). The resin cements presented higher radiopacity (P < 0.05) than the conventional (Ketac Cem Easymix) or resin-modified glass ionomer (RelyX Luting 2) cements, except for the Fill Magic Dual Cement and Enforce. The Multilink presented the highest radiopacity (P < 0.05) among the resin cements. Conclusion. The glass ionomer-based cements (Ketac Cem Easymix and RelyX Luting 2) and the resin cements (Fill Magic Dual Cement and Enforce) showed lower radiopacity values than the minimum recommended by the ISO standard. PMID:23008777

  6. Fluoride penetration from three orthodontic adhesives: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Szepietowska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the prophylactic potential of 3 orthodontic bonding adhesives: Fuji Ortho SC, Illuminate, and Resilience. Methods Thirty-six Wistar Wag rats were randomly divided into 4 groups consisting of 9 rats each. One of the groups received no treatment and was used as a control. In the other groups, individual bands coated with one of the 3 adhesives were cemented to the lower incisors. Enamel samples were obtained after 6 and 12 weeks and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive spectrometry. Results Six weeks after band cementation, no fluoride was found in the enamel of the lower incisors. After 12 weeks, there was no fluoride in the enamel of teeth coated with the Resilience composite. However, in the case of the Illuminate composite and the resin-modified glass ionomer Fuji Ortho SC cement, the depth of fluoride penetration reached 2 µm and 4.8 - 5.7 µm, respectively. Conclusions Fluoride ions from orthodontic adhesives can be incorporated into the surface layer of the enamel. Orthodontists may apply orthodontic adhesives, such as the Fuji Ortho SC, to reduce the occurrence of caries during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. PMID:23502591

  7. Soluble high molecular weight polyimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Lubowitz, H. R.

    1970-01-01

    High molecular weight polyimide resins have greater than 20 percent /by weight/ solubility in polar organic solvents. They permit fabrication into films, fibers, coatings, reinforced composite, and adhesive product forms. Characterization properties for one typical polyimide resin are given.

  8. Evaluation of the effect of denture adhesives on surface roughness of two chemically different denture base resins

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Mahmoud; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of four commercially available denture adhesives (DAs) on surface roughness of two chemically different denture base materials. Materials and Methods: Fifty specimens of heat-cured polymethyl methacrylate, and another fifty specimens of light-cured urethane dimethacrylate were divided into five groups (n = 10), each was immersed in four prepared DAs (Corega Super Cream, Corega Ultra Powder, Olivafix Cream, Protefix Cream) as well as distilled water (control group). The mean surface roughness (Ra) of the polished and unpolished surfaces of the specimens was recorded using profilometer device. T-test for paired observation was used to indicate any changes in surface roughness between the baseline and after 30 days of immersion in the DA. Results: Almost all the tested DAs had no significant effect on the roughness of polished and unpolished surfaces of both denture base materials. The Corega super cream DA produced significant increase in the roughness of the polished surfaces of both types of acrylic specimens (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The majority of the investigated DAs appears not to affect the surface roughness of denture base materials. Only Corega super cream DA produced detectable increase in the roughness of polished surfaces of denture base specimens. PMID:27403047

  9. Comparison of the effect of shear bond strength with silane and other three chemical presurface treatments of a glass fiber-reinforced post on adhesion with a resin-based luting agent: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Belwalkar, Vaibhavi Ramkrishna; Gade, Jaykumar; Mankar, Nikhil Purushottam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Loss of retention has been cited to be the most common cause of the failure of postretained restoration with irreversible consequences when materials with different compositions are in intimate contact at the post/adhesive interface. With this background, a study was conducted to improve the adhesion at the resin phase of fiber posts using silane and other chemical pretreatments. Materials and Methods: Hundred glass fiber-reinforced posts were tested with 4 different protocols (n = 25) using silane as a control (Group A) and other three experimental groups, namely, Group B-20% potassium permanganate, Group C-4% hydrofluoric acid, and Group D-10% hydrogen peroxide were pretreated on the postsurface followed by silanization. These specimens were bonded with dual-polymerizing resin-based luting agent, which were then loaded at the crosshead speed of 1 mm/min to record the shear bond strength at the post/adhesive interface. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test for multiple group comparisons and the post hoc Bonferroni test for pairwise comparisons (P < 0.05). Results: Group B showed more influence on the shear bond strength when compared to other protocols, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Alone silanization as a surface treatment did not improve the bond strength. Combination of chemical presurface treatments followed by silanization significantly enhanced the bond strength at the post/adhesive interface. PMID:27307666

  10. [Bond strength of etched enamel to direct composite resins, to indirect composite resins and to etched and silanized porcelain].

    PubMed

    Prévost, A P; Desautels, P

    1990-07-01

    The adhesion to enamel of composite resin inlays are not documented as much as porcelain inlays and direct composite resins. This study evaluates the adhesion of a light cured composite resin (P-50) used in an indirect technique and secondarily polymerized by heat. No significant differences were found between adhesion of P-50 used with an indirect technique and adhesion of porcelain (Mirage). P-50 used with the direct technique yield adhesion values significantly lower than the indirect techniques. PMID:2204471

  11. Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Methacrylate- and Silorane-based Composite Resin Bonded to Resin-Modified Glass-ionomer Containing Micro- and Nano-hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Moradian, Marzie; Motamedi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The adhesion of resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI) to composite resin has a very important role in the durability of sandwich restorations. Hydroxyapatite is an excellent candidate as a filler material for improving the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cement. Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adding micro- and nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) powder to RMGI on the shear bond strength (SBS) of nanofilled and silorane-based composite resins bonded to RMGI containing micro- and nano-HA. Materials and Method Sixty cylindrical acrylic blocks containing a hole of 5.5×2.5 mm (diameter × height) were prepared and randomly divided into 6 groups as Group 1 with RMGI (Fuji II LC) plus Adper Single Bond/Z350 composite resin (5.5×3.5 mm diameter × height); Group 2 with RMGI containing 25 wt% of micro-HA plus Adper Single Bond/Z350 composite resin; Group3 with RMGI containing 25 wt% of nano-HA plus Adper Single Bond/Z350 composite resin; Group 4 with RMGI plus P90 System Adhesive/P90 Filtek composite resin (5.5×3.5 mm diameter × height); Group 5 with RMGI containing 25 wt% of micro-HA plus P90 System Adhesive/P90Filtek composite resin; and Group 6 with RMGI containing 25 wt% of nano-HA plus P90 System Adhesive/P90 Filtek composite resin. The specimens were stored in water (37° C, 1 week) and subjected to 1000 thermal cycles (5°C/55°C). SBS test was performed by using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p< 0.05). Results There were significant differences between groups 1 and 4 (RMGI groups, p= 0.025), and groups 3 and 6 (RMGI+ nano-HA groups, p= 0.012). However, among Z350 and P90 specimens, no statistically significant difference was detected in the SBS values (p= 0.19, p= 0.083, respectively). Conclusion RMGI containing HA can improve the bond strength to methacrylate-based in comparison to silorane-based composite resins. Meanwhile, RMGI

  12. Shear bond strength of resin composite bonded with two adhesives: Influence of Er: YAG laser irradiation distance

    PubMed Central

    Shirani, Farzaneh; Birang, Reza; Malekipour, Mohammad Reza; Hourmehr, Zahra; Kazemi, Shantia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental surfaces prepared with different Er:YAG laser distance may have different characteristics compared with those prepared with conventional instruments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation distance from enamel and dentin surfaces on the shear bond strength of composite with self-etch and etch and rinse bonding systems compared with conventional preparation method. Materials and Methods: Two hundred caries-free human third molars were randomly divided into twenty groups (n = 10). Ten groups were designated for enamel surface (E1-E10) and ten for dentin surface (D1-D10). Er: YAG laser (2940 nm) was used on the E1-E8 (240 mJ, 25 Hz) and D1-D8 (140 mJ, 30 Hz) groups at four different distances of 0.5 (standard), 2, 4 and 11 mm. Control groups (E9, E10, D9 and D10) were ground with medium grit diamond bur. The enamel and dentin specimens were divided into two subgroups that were bonded with either Single Bond or Clearfil SE Bond. Resin composite (Z100) was dispensed on prepared dentin and enamel. The shear bond strengths were tested using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed by SPSS12 statistical software using three way analysis of variance, Tukey and independent t-test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: There was a significant difference between enamel and dentin substrates (P < 0.001) and between lased and un-lased groups; the un-lased group had significantly higher bond strength (P < 0.001). Shear bond strength increased significantly with an increase in the laser irradiation distance (P < 0.05) on enamel surfaces (in both bonding agent subgroups) and on dentin surfaces (in the Single Bond subgroup). Conclusion: Laser irradiation decreases shear bond strength. Irradiation distance affects shear bond strength and increasing the distance would decrease the negative effects of laser irradiation. PMID:25540665

  13. Microleakage under orthodontic brackets bonded with different adhesive systems

    PubMed Central

    Alkis, Huseyin; Turkkahraman, Hakan; Adanir, Necdet

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This in vitro study aimed to compare the microleakage of orthodontic brackets between enamel-adhesive and adhesive-bracket interfaces at the occlusal and gingival margins bonded with different adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: A total of 144 human maxillary premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons was randomly divided into four groups. Each group was then further divided into three sub-groups. Three total-etching bonding systems (Transbond XT, Greengloo and Kurasper F), three one-step self-etching bonding systems (Transbond Plus SEP, Bond Force and Clearfil S3), three two-step self-etching bonding systems (Clearfil SE Bond, Clearfil Protectbond and Clearfil Liner Bond), and three self-adhesive resin cements (Maxcem Elite, Relyx U 100 and Clearfil SA Cement) were used to bond the brackets to the teeth. After bonding, all teeth were sealed with nail varnish and stained with 0.5% basic fuchsine for 24 h. All samples were sectioned and examined under a stereomicroscope to score for microleakage at the adhesive–enamel and adhesive–bracket interfaces from both occlusal and gingival margins. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analyses were performed with Kruskal–Wallis and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results: The results indicate no statistically significant differences between the microleakage scores of the adhesives; microleakage was detected in all groups. Comparison of the average values of the microleakage scores in the enamel–adhesive and adhesive–bracket interfaces indicated statistically significant differences (P < 0.05). The amount of the microleakage was higher at the enamel–adhesive interface than at the bracket-adhesive interface. Conclusions: All of the brackets exhibited some amount of microleakage. This result means that microleakage does not depend on the type of adhesive used. PMID:25713494

  14. Marginal microleakage of cervical composite resin restorations bonded using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives: two dimensional vs. three dimensional methods

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was evaluated the marginal microleakage of two different adhesive systems before and after aging with two different dye penetration techniques. Materials and Methods Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 48 human molars. Clearfil SE Bond and Single Bond (self-etching and etch-and-rinse systems, respectively) were applied, each to half of the prepared cavities, which were restored with composite resin. Half of the specimens in each group underwent 10,000 cycles of thermocycling. Microleakage was evaluated using two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) dye penetration techniques separately for each half of each specimen. Data were analyzed with SPSS 11.5 (SPSS Inc.), using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (α = 0.05). Results The difference between the 2D and 3D microleakage evaluation techniques was significant at the occlusal margins of Single bond groups (p = 0.002). The differences between 2D and 3D microleakage evaluation techniques were significant at both the occlusal and cervical margins of Clearfil SE Bond groups (p = 0.017 and p = 0.002, respectively). The difference between the 2D and 3D techniques was significant at the occlusal margins of non-aged groups (p = 0.003). The difference between these two techniques was significant at the occlusal margins of the aged groups (p = 0.001). The Mann-Whitney test showed significant differences between the two techniques only at the occlusal margins in all specimens. Conclusions Under the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that the 3D technique has the capacity to detect occlusal microleakage more precisely than the 2D technique. PMID:27200275

  15. Cementing porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns.

    PubMed

    Vadachkoria, D

    2009-12-01

    The clinical success of fixed prosthodontic restorations can be complex and involve multifaceted procedures. Preparation design, oral hygiene/micro flora, mechanical forces, and restorative materials are only a few of the factors which contribute to overall success. One key factor to success is choosing the proper cement. Popular use of cements for PFM crowns has shifted from zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements to resin-reinforced glass ionomer, or RRGI, cements. This change has been rapid and profound. Dental cements have always been less than ideal materials, but this is shift to the relatively new RRGI category justified. Resin-reinforced glass ionomer (RRGI) cements appear to be better than zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements when placing porcelain-to-metal crowns. RRGI cements, such as RelyX Luting, Fuji Plus and Vitremer Luting Cement, satisfy more of the ideal characteristics of PFM cementation than any other previous cement. Expansion of all three cements has not caused any apparent problems with the cements when used with PFM or metal crowns, but these cements, however, should be avoided when cementing all-ceramic crowns. PMID:20090144

  16. Retention of posts cemented with various dentinal bonding cements.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, D B; Eakle, W S

    1994-12-01

    This investigation evaluated the retention of preformed posts with four different cements: C & B Metabond, Panavia, All-Bond 2, and Ketac-Cem. Sixty intact maxillary canines were selected for the study. The clinical crowns were removed and endodontic therapy done on each root, which was then prepared to receive prefabricated posts. The 60 samples were divided into four groups of 15, and the posts in each group were cemented with one of the four cements. The roots were mounted in acrylic resin blocks and the posts were separated from the canals with an Instron testing machine. Analysis of the forces needed to dislodge the posts with analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls test disclosed that C & B Metabond cement was the most retentive (p < 0.05). No difference in retention was recorded between Ketac-Cem and Panavia cements. All-Bond 2 cement was the least retentive of cements. PMID:7853255

  17. Simple Heat Treatment of Zirconia Ceramic Pre-Treated with Silane Primer to Improve Resin Bonding.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jung-Yun; Son, Jun Sik; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a strong resin bond to dental zirconia ceramic remains difficult. Previous studies have shown that the conventional application of silane does not work well with zirconia. This paper reports that a silane pre-treatment of dental zirconia ceramic combined with subsequent heat treatment has potential as an adhesive cementation protocol for improving zirconia-resin bonding. Among the various concentrations (0.1 to 16 vol%) of experimental γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MPTS) primers assessed, the 1% solution was found to be the most effective in terms of the shear bond strength of the resin cement to dental zirconia ceramic. A high shear bond strength (approx. 30 MPa) was obtained when zirconia specimens were pre-treated with this primer and then heat-treated in a furnace for 60 min at 150 degrees C. Heat treatment appeared to remove the hydrophilic constituents from the silane film formed on the zirconia ceramic surface and accelerate the condensation reactions between the silanol groups of the hydrolyzed silane molecules at the zirconia/resin interface, finally making a more desirable surface for bonding with resin. This estimation was supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the silanes prepared in this study. PMID:26328408

  18. New modified hydrocarbon resins; An alternative to styrenated terpene resins in hot melts

    SciTech Connect

    Carper, J.D. )

    1990-06-01

    This paper reports on the development of two hydrocarbon-based resin formulations that could be used with different thermoplastic block copolymers to formulate pressure-sensitive adhesives. Results are examined with one of these resins in formulations with styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) and styrene-butadiene (SB) compounds. The new modified hydrocarbon resin, with a softening point of 98{degrees} C, matches the adhesive performance of a terpene resin with a softening point of 105{degrees} C. The resin performs as well as the modified terpene in SIS-, SB-, and EVA-based adhesives. The new hydrocarbon resin is especially well suited for hot-melt adhesives. It exhibits low volatility, good color stability, and excellent melt viscosity stability. Since the new resin is based on petroleum hydrocarbon feedstocks, it should be available at moderate, stable prices. The other hydrocarbon resin, with a softening point of 85{degrees} C, produced comparable results.

  19. Phosphoric acid esters cannot replace polyvinylphosphonic acid as phosphoprotein analogs in biomimetic remineralization of resin-bonded dentin.

    PubMed

    Mai, Sui; Kim, Young Kyung; Toledano, Manuel; Breschi, Lorenzo; Ling, Jun Qi; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2009-10-01

    Polyvinylphosphonic acid (PVPA), a biomimetic analog of phosphoproteins, is crucial for recruiting polyacrylic acid (PAA)-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecursors during biomimetic remineralization of dentin collagen matrices. This study tested the null hypothesis that phosphoric acid esters of methacrylates in dentin adhesives cannot replace PVPA during bimimetic remineralization of resin-dentin interfaces. Human dentin specimens were bonded with: (I) XP Bond, an etch-and-rinse adhesive using moist bonding; (II) XP Bond using dry bonding; (III) Adper Prompt L-Pop, a self-etching adhesive. The control medium contained only set Portland cement and a simulated body fluid (SBF) without any biomimetic analog. Two experimental Portland cement/SBF remineralization media were evaluated: the first contained PAA as the sole biomimetic analog, the second contained PAA and PVPA as dual biomimetic analogs. No remineralization of the resin-dentin interfaces could be identified from specimens immersed in the control medium. After 2-4 months in the first experimental medium, specimens exhibited either no remineralization or large crystal formation within hybrid layers. Only specimens immersed in the second remineralization medium produced nanocrystals that accounted for intrafibrillar remineralization within hybrid layers. The null hypothesis could not be rejected; phosphoric acid esters in dentin adhesives cannot replace PVPA during biomimetic remineralization of adhesive-bonded dentin. PMID:19481792

  20. Development of a multifunctional adhesive system for prevention of root caries and secondary caries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Melo, Mary A. S.; Chen, Chen; Liu, Jason; Weir, Michael D.; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel adhesive for prevention of tooth root caries and secondary caries by possessing a combination of protein-repellent, antibacterial, and remineralization capabilities for the first time; and (2) investigate the effects of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) on dentine bond strength, protein-repellent properties, and dental plaque microcosm biofilm response. Methods MPC, DMAHDM and NACP were added into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose primer and adhesive. Dentine shear bond strengths were measured. Adhesive coating thickness, surface texture and dentine-adhesive interfacial structure were examined. Protein adsorption onto adhesive resin surface was determined by the micro bicinchoninic acid method. A human saliva microcosm biofilm model was used to investigate biofilm metabolic activity, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, and lactic acid production. Results The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP did not adversely affect dentine shear bond strength (p > 0.1). The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP produced a coating on root dentine with a thickness of approximately 70 μm and completely sealed all the dentinal tubules. The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP had 95% reduction in protein adsorption, compared to SBMP control (p < 0.05). The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP was strongly antibacterial, with biofilm CFU being four orders of magnitude lower than that of SBMP control. Significance The novel multifunctional adhesive with strong protein-repellent, antibacterial and remineralization properties is promising to coat tooth roots to prevent root caries and secondary caries. The combined use of MPC, DMAHDM and NACP may have wide applicability to bonding agents, cements, sealants and composites to inhibit caries. PMID:26187532

  1. Clinical measurement of palatal tooth wear following coating by a resin sealing system.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Geeta; Wilson, Ron; Watson, Timothy F; Bartlett, David

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that coating eroded teeth with a resin-based dentin bonding agent gave protection from tooth wear. Nineteen adults with palatal tooth wear exposing dentin were recruited, following referral by their general dental practitioner. Alternate teeth were coated with the resin adhesive, while the uncoated teeth acted as controls. Accurate impressions of the eroded teeth, onto which were cemented machined stainless steel discs to act as reference areas, were scanned with a non-contacting laser profilometer at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. The mean thickness of resin at baseline application was 0.15 mm and, from 0 to 6 months, the rate of wear of the control teeth was higher than those covered with Seal & Protect. There was a statistically significant difference in "wear" measured between resin covered and control teeth at three months. The Inter Class Correlations (repeated measurements) for the step heights obtained for the original and repeat impressions was excellent at 0.99. This study shows that coating eroded teeth with a resin-based adhesive has the potential to prevent further tooth wear. PMID:18051002

  2. Dual antibacterial agents of nano-silver and 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide in dental adhesive to inhibit caries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Li, Fang; Imazato, Satoshi; Cheng, Lei; Liu, Huaibing; Arola, Dwayne D.; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Dental resins containing 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide (MDPB) showed potent antibacterial functions. Recent studies developed antibacterial resins containing nanoparticles of silver (NAg). The objectives of this study were to develop an adhesive containing dual agents of MDPB and NAg for the first time, and to investigate the combined effects of antibacterial adhesive and primer on biofilm viability, metabolic activity, lactic acid, dentin bond strength, and fibroblast cytotoxicity. MDPB and NAg were incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) adhesive “A” and primer “P”. Five systems were tested: SBMP adhesive A; A+MDPB; A+NAg; A+MDPB+NAg; P+MDPB+NAg together with A+MDPB+NAg. Dental plaque microcosm biofilms were cultured using mixed saliva from ten donors. Metabolic activity, colony-forming units, and lactic acid production of biofilms were investigated. Human fibroblast cytotoxicity of bonding agents was determined. MDPB+NAg in adhesive/primer did not compromise dentin bond strength (p>0.1). MDPB or NAg alone in adhesive substantially reduced the biofilm activities. Dual agents MDPB+NAg in adhesive greatly reduced the biofilm viability compared to each agent alone (p<0.05). The greatest inhibition of biofilms was achieved when both adhesive and primer contained MDPB+NAg. Fibroblast viability of groups with dual antibacterial agents was similar to control using culture medium without resin eluents (p>0.1). In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that the antibacterial potency of MDPB adhesive could be substantially enhanced via NAg. Adding MDPB+NAg into both primer and adhesive achieved the strongest anti-biofilm efficacy. The dual agent (MDPB+NAg) method could have wide applicability to other adhesives, sealants, cements and composites to inhibit biofilms and caries. PMID:23529901

  3. Retention of Implant Supported Metal Crowns Cemented with Different Luting Agents: A Comparative Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavipal; Kaur, Simrat; Arora, Aman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To overcome limitations of screw-retained prostheses, cement-retained prostheses have become the restoration of choice now a days. Selection of the cement hence becomes very critical to maintain retrievability of the prostheses. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the retention of base metal crowns cemented to implant abutments with five different luting cements. Materials and Methods Ten implant analogs were secured in five epoxy resin casts perpendicular to the plane of cast in right first molar and left first molar region and implant abutments were screwed. Total of 100 metal copings were fabricated and cemented. The cements used were zinc phosphate, resin modified glass ionomer cement, resin cement, non-eugenol acrylic based temporary implant cement & non-eugenol temporary resin cement implant cement. Samples were subjected to a pull-out test using an Instron universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min. The load required to de-cement each coping was recorded and mean values for each group calculated and put to statistical analysis. Results The results showed that resin cement has the highest retention value 581.075N followed by zinc phosphate luting cement 529.48N, resin modified glass ionomer cement 338.095 N, non-eugenol acrylic based temporary implant cement 249.045 N and non-eugenol temporary resin implant cement 140.49N. Conclusion Within the limitations of study, it was concluded that non-eugenol acrylic based temporary implant cement and non-eugenol temporary resin implant cement allow for easy retrievability of the prosthesis in case of any failure in future. These are suitable for cement retained implant restorations. The results provide a possible preliminary ranking of luting agents based on their ability to retain an implant-supported prosthesis and facilitate easy retrieval. PMID:27190954

  4. Thermal Characterization of Adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spomer, Ken A.

    1999-01-01

    The current Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle adhesive bond system is being replaced due to obsolescence. Down-selection and performance testing of the structural adhesives resulted in the selection of two candidate replacement adhesives, Resin Technology Group's Tiga 321 and 3M's EC2615XLW. This paper describes rocket motor testing of these two adhesives. Four forty-pound charge motors were fabricated in configurations that would allow side by side comparison testing of the candidate replacement adhesives and the current RSRM adhesives. The motors provided an environment where the thermal performance of adhesives in flame surface bondlines was compared. Results of the FPC testing show that: 1) The phenolic char depths on radial bond lines is approximately the same and vary depending on the position in the blast tube regardless of which adhesive was used; 2) The adhesive char depth of the candidate replacement adhesives is less than the char depth of the current adhesives; 3) The heat-affected depth of the candidate replacement adhesives is less than the heat-affected depth of the current adhesives; and 4) The ablation rates for both replacement adhesives are slower than that of the current adhesives.

  5. Discolouration of orthodontic adhesives caused by food dyes and ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Faltermeier, Andreas; Rosentritt, Martin; Reicheneder, Claudia; Behr, Michael

    2008-02-01

    Enamel discolouration after debonding of orthodontic attachments could occur because of irreversible penetration of resin tags into the enamel structure. Adhesives could discolour because of food dyes or ultraviolet irradiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the colour stability of adhesives during ultraviolet irradiation and exposure to food colourants. Four different adhesives were exposed in a Suntest CPS+ ageing device to a xenon lamp to simulate natural daylight (Transbond XT, Enlight, RelyX Unicem, and Meron Plus AC). Tomato ketchup, Coca Cola, and tea were chosen as the food colourants. After 72 hours of exposure, colour measurements were performed by means of a spectrophotometer according to the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*b* system and colour changes (DeltaE*) were computed. Statistical differences were investigated using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Friedman test. Unsatisfactory colour stability after in vitro exposure to food colourants and ultraviolet light was observed for the conventional adhesive systems, Transbond XT and Enlight. RelyX Unicem showed the least colour change and the resin-reinforced glass-ionomer cement (GIC), Meron Plus AC, the greatest colour change. The investigated adhesives seem to be susceptible to both internal and external discolouration. These in vitro findings indicate that the tested conventional adhesive systems reveal unsatisfactory colour stability which should be improved to avoid enamel discolouration. PMID:17873146

  6. Water dynamics in glass ionomer cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, M. C.; Jacobsen, J.; Momsen, N. C. R.; Benetti, A. R.; Telling, M. T. F.; Seydel, T.; Bordallo, H. N.

    2016-07-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are an alternative for preventive dentistry. However, these dental cements are complex systems where important motions related to the different states of the hydrogen atoms evolve in a confined porous structure. In this paper, we studied the water dynamics of two different liquids used to prepare either conventional or resin-modified glass ionomer cement. By combining thermal analysis with neutron scattering data we were able to relate the water structure in the liquids to the materials properties.

  7. Nanotechnology strategies for antibacterial and remineralizing composites and adhesives to tackle dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Weir, Michael D; Melo, Mary Anne S; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin HK

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most widespread disease and an economic burden. Nanotechnology is promising to inhibit caries by controlling biofilm acids and enhancing remineralization. Nanoparticles of silver were incorporated into composites/adhesives, along with quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs), to combat biofilms. Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) released calcium/phosphate ions, remineralized tooth-lesions and neutralized acids. By combining NAg/QAM/NACP, a new class of composites and adhesives with antibacterial and remineralization double benefits was developed. Various other nanoparticles including metal and oxide nanoparticles such as ZnO and TiO2, as well as polyethylenimine nanoparticles and their antibacterial capabilities in dental resins were also reviewed. These nanoparticles are promising for incorporation into dental composites/cements/sealants/bases/liners/adhesives. Therefore, nanotechnology has potential to significantly improve restorative and preventive dentistry. PMID:25723095

  8. Nanotechnology strategies for antibacterial and remineralizing composites and adhesives to tackle dental caries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Weir, Michael D; Melo, Mary Anne S; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H K

    2015-03-01

    Dental caries is the most widespread disease and an economic burden. Nanotechnology is promising to inhibit caries by controlling biofilm acids and enhancing remineralization. Nanoparticles of silver were incorporated into composites/adhesives, along with quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs), to combat biofilms. Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) released calcium/phosphate ions, remineralized tooth-lesions and neutralized acids. By combining nanoparticles of silver/QAM/NACP, a new class of composites and adhesives with antibacterial and remineralization double benefits was developed. Various other nanoparticles including metal and oxide nanoparticles such as ZnO and TiO2, as well as polyethylenimine nanoparticles and their antibacterial capabilities in dental resins were also reviewed. These nanoparticles are promising for incorporation into dental composites/cements/sealants/bases/liners/adhesives. Therefore, nanotechnology has potential to significantly improve restorative and preventive dentistry. PMID:25723095

  9. Inhibition of enamel demineralization and bond-strength properties of bioactive glass containing 4-META/MMA-TBB-based resin adhesive.

    PubMed

    Kohda, Naohisa; Iijima, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Kyotaro; Toshima, Hirokazu; Muguruma, Takeshi; Endo, Kazuhiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the enamel demineralization-prevention ability and shear bond strength (SBS) properties of 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride/methyl methacrylate-tri-n-butyl borane (4-META/MMA-TBB)-based resin containing various amounts (0-50%) of bioactive glass (BG). Disk-shaped specimens were immersed in distilled water and ions released were analysed by inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy. Samples were also immersed in lactic acid solution (pH 4.6) to estimate acid-neutralizing ability. Brackets were bonded to human premolars with BG-containing resins and the bonded teeth were alternately immersed in demineralizing (pH 4.55) and remineralizing (pH 6.8) solutions for 14 d. The enamel hardness was determined by nanoindentation testing at twenty equidistant distances from the external surface. The SBS for each sample was examined. The amounts of ions released [calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), silicon (Si), and boron (B)] and the acid-neutralizing ability increased with increasing BG content. After alternating immersion, the specimens bonded with the BG-containing resin with high BG content were harder than those in the other groups in some locations 1-18.5 μm from the enamel surface. Bioactive glass-containing (10-40%) resin had bond strength equivalent to the control specimen. Thus, the SBS obtained for BG-containing resin (6.5-9.2 MPa) was clinically acceptable, suggesting that this material has the ability to prevent enamel demineralization. PMID:25903115

  10. Resin composite repair: Quantitative microleakage evaluation of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces with different surface treatments

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Cigdem; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Arhun, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of different adhesive systems and surface treatments on the integrity of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces after partial removal of preexisting resin composites using quantitative image analysis for microleakage testing protocol. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 human molar teeth were restored with either of the resin composites (Filtek Z250/GrandioSO) occlusally. The teeth were thermocycled (1000×). Mesial and distal 1/3 parts of the restorations were removed out leaving only middle part. One side of the cavity was finished with course diamond bur and the other was air-abraded with 50 μm Al2O3. They were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10) to receive: Group 1: Adper Single Bond 2; Group 2: All Bond 3; Group 3: ClearfilSE; Group 4: BeautiBond, before being repaired with the same resin composite (Filtek Z250). The specimens were re-thermocycled (1000×), sealed with nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin, sectioned mesiodistally and photographed digitally. The extent of dye penetration was measured by image analysis software (ImageJ) for both bur-finished and air-abraded surfaces at resin-tooth and resin-resin interfaces. The data were analyzed statistically. Results: BeautiBond exhibited the most microleakage at every site. Irrespective of adhesive and initial composite type, air-abrasion showed less microleakage except for BeautiBond. The type of initial repaired restorative material did not affect the microleakage. BeautiBond adhesive may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. Conclusions: Surface treatment with air-abrasion produced the lowest microleakage scores, independent of the adhesive systems and the pre-existing resin composite type. Pre-existing composite type does not affect the microleakage issue. All-in-one adhesive resin (BeautiBond) may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. PMID:25713491

  11. Oligomers with pendant isocyanate groups as adhesives for dentin and other tissues.

    PubMed

    Lee, C H; Brauer, G M

    1989-03-01

    Oligomers containing pendant isocyanate groups were synthesized from various vinyl monomers, m-isopropenyldimethylbenzyl isocyanate (TMI), and 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate (IEM). The liquids were characterized by their refractive indices, infrared spectra, and percentage of isocynate groups in the molecule. Adhesive properties of these compounds were compared with those of oligomers prepared from methacrylate esters, IEM, and/or TMI which had been synthesized previously. Bond strengths of the sodium salt of ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (Na2EDTA adjusted to pH 7.4) and glutaraldehyde-treated dentin cemented to composite resin with dilute solutions of the oligomers and then stored in water were determined by the procedure of Kemper and Kilian (1975). These adhesive compositions, especially formulations synthesized from vinyl monomers, adhered at least as well to dentin as did other dentin bonding agents. Oligomers synthesized with methacrylate esters bonded more strongly to bone than did other hard-tissue adhesives. These oligomeric compositions are also excellent soft-tissue adhesives. For example, they provide a strong bond between a collagenous substrate (such as calfskin) and cured denture-base resin. Provided that their biological properties prove satisfactory, these compositions could find many applications as hard- and soft-tissue adhesives in clinical dentistry. PMID:2921392

  12. Extraoral Cementation Technique to Minimize Cement-Associated Peri-implant Marginal Bone Loss: Can a Thin Layer of Zinc Oxide Cement Provide Sufficient Retention?

    PubMed

    Frisch, Eberhard; Ratka-Krüger, Petra; Weigl, Paul; Woelber, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the use of laboratory-fabricated crown intaglio replicas for extraorally prepared cementation of fixed restorations to implants. This technique minimizes excess cement and may therefore reduce the risk of cement-related marginal peri-implant bone loss. It is unclear whether the remaining thin layer of luting agent provides sufficient retention if low-adhesive zinc oxide (ZnO) cement is used. In 85 consecutive patients, 113 single crowns were cemented to implants using extraoral cementation technique (ECT) and ZnO cement. All patients were followed for 6 months and investigated for decementation. Seven events of decementation (incidence: 6.19%) were found in 7 patients (8.24%). ECT may represent a viable cementation technique for implant-supported single crowns, even using low-adhesion cements. PMID:27479343

  13. A Review of Glass-Ionomer Cements for Clinical Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Sharanbir K; Nicholson, John W

    2016-01-01

    This article is an updated review of the published literature on glass-ionomer cements and covers their structure, properties and clinical uses within dentistry, with an emphasis on findings from the last five years or so. Glass-ionomers are shown to set by an acid-base reaction within 2-3 min and to form hard, reasonably strong materials with acceptable appearance. They release fluoride and are bioactive, so that they gradually develop a strong, durable interfacial ion-exchange layer at the interface with the tooth, which is responsible for their adhesion. Modified forms of glass-ionomers, namely resin-modified glass-ionomers and glass carbomer, are also described and their properties and applications covered. Physical properties of the resin-modified glass-ionomers are shown to be good, and comparable with those of conventional glass-ionomers, but biocompatibility is somewhat compromised by the presence of the resin component, 2 hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Properties of glass carbomer appear to be slightly inferior to those of the best modern conventional glass-ionomers, and there is not yet sufficient information to determine how their bioactivity compares, although they have been formulated to enhance this particular feature. PMID:27367737

  14. [Antimicrobial activity of orthodontic band cements].

    PubMed

    Pavic, J; Arriagada, M; Elgueta, J; García, C

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence of enamel decalcification and caries beneath orthodontic bands, has indicated the need for a new enamel binding adhesive orthodontic cement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, in vitro, on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus, acidophillus, of three materials used to cements the orthodontic bands. The cements studied were: Zinc phosphate cement, Glass-ionomer cement, and Policarboxylate cement. Thirty petri plates were seeded with S. mutans, and thirty with L. acidophillus; on each plate three pellet were placed, one of each cement studied. Petri plates were incubated under microaerophilic conditions at 37 C, and checked at 72 hrs. for Streptococcus, mutans, and four days for Lactobacillus acidophillus to evaluate the inhibition zone. The results were tabulated for each material. It was demonstrated that exists important variations in the antimicrobial properties of the materials studied, as in the microbial sensitivity to these cements. PMID:2135908

  15. Influence of Immediate Dentin Sealing on the Shear Bond Strength of Pressed Ceramic Luted to Dentin with Self-Etch Resin Cement

    PubMed Central

    Dalby, Robert; Ellakwa, Ayman; Millar, Brian; Martin, F. Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the effect of immediate dentin sealing (IDS), with dentin bonding agents (DBAs) applied to freshly cut dentin, on the shear bond strength of etched pressed ceramic luted to dentin with RelyX Unicem (RXU) cement. Method. Eighty extracted noncarious third molars were ground flat to expose the occlusal dentin surfaces. The teeth were randomly allocated to five groups (A to E) of sixteen teeth each. Groups A to D were allocated a dentin bonding agent (Optibond FL, One Coat Bond, Single Bond, or Go!) that was applied to the dentin surface to mimic the clinical procedure of IDS. These specimen groups then had etched glass ceramic discs (Authentic) luted to the sealed dentin surface using RXU. Group E (control) had etched glass ceramic discs luted to the dentin surface (without a dentin bonding agent) using RXU following the manufacturer's instructions. All specimens were stored for one week in distilled water at room temperature and then shear stressed at a constant cross-head speed of 1 mm per minute until failure. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey HSD method (P < 0.05) applied for multiple paired comparisons. Results. The shear bond strength results for group A to E ranged from 6.94 ± 1.53 to 10.03 ± 3.50 MPa. One-way ANOVA demonstrated a difference (P < 0.05) between the groups tested and the Tukey HSD demonstrated a significant (P < 0.05) difference between the shear bond strength (SBS) of Optibond FL (Group A) and Go! (Group D). There was no statistical difference (P > 0.05) in the SBS between the test groups (A–D) or the control (group E). Conclusion. IDS using the dentin bonding agents tested does not statistically (P > 0.05) affect the shear bond strength of etched pressed ceramic luted to dentin with RXU when compared to the control. PMID:22287963

  16. Effect of different adhesive strategies on microtensile bond strength of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing blocks bonded to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Roperto, Renato; Akkus, Anna; Akkus, Ozan; Lang, Lisa; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damiao; Teich, Sorin; Porto, Thiago Soares

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of ceramic and composite computer aided design-computer aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks bonded to dentin using different adhesive strategies. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 30 crowns of sound freshly extracted human molars were sectioned horizontally 3 mm above the cementoenamel junction to produce flat dentin surfaces. Ceramic and composite CAD/CAM blocks, size 14, were sectioned into slices of 3 mm thick. Before bonding, CAD/CAM block surfaces were treated according to the manufacturer's instructions. Groups were created based on the adhesive strategy used: Group 1 (GI) - conventional resin cement + total-etch adhesive system, Group 2 (GII) - conventional resin cement + self-etch adhesive system, and Group 3 (GIII) - self-adhesive resin cement with no adhesive. Bonded specimens were stored in 100% humidity for 24h at 37΀C, and then sectioned with a slow-speed diamond saw to obtain 1 mm × 1 mm × 6 mm microsticks. Microtensile testing was then conducted using a microtensile tester. μTBS values were expressed in MPa and analyzed by one-way ANOVA with post hoc (Tukey) test at the 5% significance level. Results: Mean values and standard deviations of μTBS (MPa) were 17.68 (±2.71) for GI/ceramic; 17.62 (±3.99) for GI/composite; 13.61 (±6.92) for GII/composite; 12.22 (±4.24) for GII/ceramic; 7.47 (±2.29) for GIII/composite; and 6.48 (±3.10) for GIII/ceramic; ANOVA indicated significant differences among the adhesive modality and block interaction (P < 0.05), and no significant differences among blocks only, except between GI and GII/ceramic. Bond strength of GIII was consistently lower (P < 0.05) than GI and GII groups, regardless the block used. Conclusion: Cementation of CAD/CAM restorations, either composite or ceramic, can be significantly affected by different adhesive strategies used. PMID:27076825

  17. Bone cement

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Chauhan, Mayank; Vaish, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge about the bone cement is of paramount importance to all Orthopaedic surgeons. Although the bone cement had been the gold standard in the field of joint replacement surgery, its use has somewhat decreased because of the advent of press-fit implants which encourages bone in growth. The shortcomings, side effects and toxicity of the bone cement are being addressed recently. More research is needed and continues in the field of nanoparticle additives, enhanced bone–cement interface etc. PMID:26403875

  18. An assessment of fracture resistance of three composite resin core build-up materials on three prefabricated non-metallic posts, cemented in endodontically treated teeth: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Bhupinder; Pujari, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Endodontically treated teeth with excessive loss of tooth structure would require to be restored with post and core to enhance the strength and durability of the tooth and to achieve retention for the restoration. The non-metallic posts have a superior aesthetic quality. Various core build-up materials can be used to build-up cores on the posts placed in endodontically treated teeth. These materials would show variation in their bonding with the non-metallic posts thus affecting the strength and resistance to fracture of the remaining tooth structure. Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the fracture resistance of three composite resin core build-up materials on three prefabricated non-metallic posts, cemented in extracted endodontically treated teeth. Material and Methods. Forty-five freshly extracted maxillary central incisors of approximately of the same size and shape were selected for the study. They were divided randomly into 3 groups of 15 each, depending on the types of non-metallic posts used. Each group was further divided into 3 groups (A, B and C) of 5 samples each depending on three core build-up material used. Student’s unpaired ‘t’ test was also used to analyse and compare each group with the other groups individually, and decide whether their comparisons were statistically significant. Results. Luxacore showed the highest fracture resistance among the three core build-up materials with all the three posts systems. Ti-core had intermediate values of fracture resistance and Lumiglass had the least values of fracture resistance. PMID:25755926

  19. Nature of the adhesion bond between epoxy adhesive and steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettegren', V. I.; Mamalimov, R. I.; Savitskii, A. V.; Shcherbakov, I. P.; Sytov, V. V.; Sytov, V. A.

    2014-03-01

    The potential difference that appears in the epoxy resin located between two grade 3 steel plates is studied. One of them is stored in epoxy resin to reach equilibrium, and the second plate is coated with an asprepared mixture of epoxy resin with a hardener. It is found that the potential difference decreases in time because of charge transfer by Fe2+ ions through epoxy resin. The luminescence and infrared absorption spectra of the epoxy adhesive on the grade 3 steel surface are recorded. An analysis of these spectra shows that Fe2+ ions penetrate into the as-prepared mixture of epoxy resin with the hardener, and interact with CN groups in the mixture, and form coordination compounds. As a result, a diffusion layer saturated by the coordination compounds forms at the interface between the steel and the adhesive.

  20. Cervical margin integrity of Class II resin composite restorations in laser- and bur-prepared cavities using three different adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Oskoee, Parnian Alizadeh; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Ebrahimi Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeel; Rikhtegaran, Sahand; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges in durability of posterior tooth-colored restorative materials is polymerization shrinkage, which results in gap formation between the restoration and tooth structure. The aim of the present study was to investigate marginal adaptation of Class II composite restorations using a self-etching and two etch-and-rinse adhesive systems in cavities prepared either with bur or Er,Cr:YSGG laser. A total of 45 extracted sound human premolars were selected. In each tooth, mesial and distal Class II cavities were prepared either by a diamond bur or by Er,Cr:YSGG laser with the margins 1 mm apical to the cemento-enamel junction. Then the teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 15 each, according to the type of the adhesive system used (Single Bond, Single Bond 2, and Adper Easy One adhesive systems). Subsequent to restoring the teeth, the specimens were subjected to thermal cycling between 5 ± 2°C and 55 ± 2°C for 500 cycles and were then cut longitudinally into two halves using a diamond disk. Marginal adaptation was evaluated using a stereomicroscope, and the values for gap widths were obtained in micrometers. Data were analyzed using two-factor analysis of variance and post hoc tests. There were statistically significant differences in mean marginal gap widths between the adhesive type and preparation groups (p<0.05). The interfacial gap width in bur-prepared cavities was significantly less than that in laser-prepared cavities, and the lowest gap width was observed in Adper Easy One regardless of the type of the preparation. PMID:22313277

  1. Evaluation of the fatigue behavior of the resin-dentin bond with the use of different methods.

    PubMed

    Frankenberger, Roland; Strobel, Wolfgang O; Krämer, Norbert; Lohbauer, Ulrich; Winterscheidt, Jens; Winterscheidt, Britta; Petschelt, Anselm

    2003-11-15

    The clinical performance of directly bonded resin composites is fundamentally dependent on durable adhesion to prevent gap formation over time. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of various dentin adhesives by means of quasistatic and dynamic dentin bond strengths, and also to determine marginal and internal gap formation after loading in an artificial oral environment. Three hundred thirty human third molars were used within four weeks of extraction. Adhesives used were A.R.T. Bond, OptiBond FL, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus, Single Bond, Prime & Bond NT, and One Up Bond F for bonding of one resin composite (Z 250). Buccal and lingual aspects of 90 teeth were ground flat to expose dentin, then resin composite cylinders were bonded. Initial bond strengths (n = 10) and adhesive fatigue limits (n = 20) were determined with the use of a shear test apparatus. One hundred eighty conical cavities were prepared into dentin discs and filled with the same materials. After 21 days of storage, initial push-out bond strengths (n = 10) and adhesive fatigue limits (n = 20) were measured. Sixty molars with MO cavities (n = 10) with margins below the cement-enamel junction were filled. Before and after thermomechanical loading (100000 x 50 N and 2500 x thermocycling between + 5 and + 55 degrees C), marginal gap formation and internal adaptation (only after loading) were analyzed under a SEM (x 200). The one-bottle systems showed higher shear bond strengths when evaluated statically and dynamically. However, cyclic fatigue push-out bond strengths resulted in higher values for older multistep systems. Marginal and internal gap analysis confirmed the results, in favor of older adhesive systems (p <.05; Mann-Whitney U test). PMID:14598398

  2. Fracture Resistance of Teeth Restored with Various Post Designs and Cemented with Different Cements: An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Ajay; Pal, Kapil Singh; Ranganath, L M; Jain, Jayesh Kumar; Patil, Prashanth; Babar, Geetika

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies have been carried out on endodontically treated teeth restored with and without ferrule, and influence of the cementing medium, to evaluate their effect on fracture resistance. This study was conducted on 28 freshly extracted maxillary central incisors. Specimens were restored with two types of post designs, and cemented with two different luting agents, and tested for fracture resistance. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were used. Specimens were restored with two types of post designs and cemented with two different luting agents and tested using Instron universal testing machine. The statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal–Wallis test (H) and Tukey honest significant test. Results: Ferrule helped in increasing the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Resin cement showed better results than zinc phosphate cement. The combination of the post with ferrule and resin cement showed the greatest resistance. The combination of the post without ferrule and zinc phosphate cement showed the least resistance. Resin cement increased the resistance of even without ferrule. Conclusion: There was a positive effect of a ferrule in increasing the fracture resistance. Resin cement showed better resistance than zinc phosphate cement. PMID:26225102

  3. The 24-year clinical performance of porcelain laminate veneer restorations bonded with a two-liquid silane primer and a tri-n-butylborane-initiated adhesive resin.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mitsuo; Matsumura, Hideo

    2014-09-01

    This report describes the bonding technique and clinical course of porcelain laminate veneer restorations applied to discolored maxillary incisors and canines. The patient was an 18-year-old woman, and tooth reduction was limited to the enamel. Laminate veneer restorations were made with a feldspathic porcelain material (Cosmotech Porcelain). After try-in, enamel surfaces were etched with 65% phosphoric acid gel, and a tri-n-butylborane-initiated resin (Super-Bond C&B) was applied as a bonding agent. The inner surface of the restorations was etched with 5% hydrofluoric acid gel (HF Gel) and treated with a two-liquid silane primer (Porcelain Liner M), after which the Super-Bond resin was applied. Each restoration was seated with a dual-activated composite luting agent (Cosmotech Composite). After 24 years and 8 months, the restorations are functioning satisfactorily. The luting system and bonding technique described in this report are an option for seating laminate veneer restorations made of silica-based tooth-colored ceramics. PMID:25231150

  4. Cobalt Ions Improve the Strength of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Technique developed for improving mechanical strength of epoxy resins by adding cobalt ions in form of tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt (III) complex. Solid cast disks prepared from cobalt ion-containing epoxy resins tested for flexural strength and stiffness. Incorporation of cobalt ions into epoxies increased flexural strength of resins by 10 to 95 percent. Suitable resins for this technique include any liquid or solid TGMDA resins. Improved epoxy formulation proves useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft.

  5. Evaluation of metal bond strength to dentin and enamel using different adhesives and surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Mine; Gungor, Mehmet Ali; Cal, Ebru; Darcan, Alev; Erdem, Adalet

    2007-01-01

    Because adherence of base metal alloys is important for the long-term clinical success of adhesive fixed partial dentures, it has been necessary to improve adhesion to metal substrate by using different surface treatments. This study used different surface conditioning methods and two different luting resins to evaluate the shear bond strength of base metal alloys to dentin and enamel. Sixty noncarious freshly extracted human teeth were mounted in a plastic holder filled with autopolymerized acrylic resin. After the roots were removed and 30 flat enamel and 30 flat dentin surfaces were exposed, the specimens were divided randomly into two main luting cement groups. Sixty nickel chromium (NiCr) metal specimens were fabricated and subjected to three different surface conditioning procedures: sandblasting with 50 microm aluminum oxide, tribochemical silica coating, and a combination of the two. Scanning electron mircoscopy (SEM) evaluations revealed mainly cohesive failures. Self-cure adhesive resulted in higher bond strengths to dental substrates. Higher bond strengths were achieved through a combination of sandblasting and tribochemical silica coating; however, further clinical research is required. A surface treatment that combines sandblasting with tribochemical silica coating can achieve a more effective bond for adhesive restorations with metal substrates. PMID:17511361

  6. Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lad, Pritam P; Kamath, Maya; Tarale, Kavita; Kusugal, Preethi B

    2014-01-01

    The longevity of fixed partial denture depends on the type of luting cement used with tooth preparation. The clinician’s understating of various cements, their advantages and disadvantages is of utmost importance. In recent years, many luting agents cements have been introduced claiming clinically better performance than existing materials due to improved characteristics. Both conventional and contemporary dental luting cements are discussed here. The various agents discussed are: Zinc phosphate, Zinc polycarboxylate, Zinc oxide-eu