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Sample records for adi-r autism diagnostic

  1. Longitudinal Changes in Scores on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) in Pre-School Children with Autism: Implications for Diagnostic Classification and Symptom Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soke, Gnakub Norbert; Philofsky, Amy; Diguiseppi, Carolyn; Lezotte, Dennis; Rogers, Sally; Hepburn, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We prospectively examined mean changes in Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) Total and Domains scores and stability of the ADI-R diagnostic classification in 28 children with autism initially assessed at age 2-4 years and reassessed 2 years later. Mean Total, Social Interaction, and Communication scores decreased significantly from Time 1…

  2. Multisite Study of New Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) Algorithms for Toddlers and Young Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So Hyun; Thurm, Audrey; Shumway, Stacy; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Using two independent datasets provided by National Institute of Health funded consortia, the Collaborative Programs for Excellence in Autism and Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment (n = 641) and the National Institute of Mental Health (n = 167), diagnostic validity and factor structure of the new Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R)…

  3. Interrelationship between Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) classification in children and adolescents with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Ketelaars, Cees; Kraijer, Dirk; Mulder, Erik; Volkmar, Fred; Minderaa, Ruud

    2004-04-01

    The interrelationship between the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) and clinical classification was studied in 184 children and adolescents with Mental Retardation (MR). The agreement between the ADI-R and ADOS-G was fair, with a substantial difference between younger and older children (5-8 vs. 8+ years). Compared with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-TR (DSM-IV-TR) classification of Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD), both instruments measure AD or PDD validly and reliably. Even in low-functioning children the interrelationship between the instruments and the clinical classification was satisfactory. The combination of ADI-R and ADOS-G identifies AD or PDD, as described in the DSM-IV-TR, most appropriately. Both instruments seem to be of great value in the diagnostic process of PDD in children and adolescents with MR.

  4. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) Algorithms for Toddlers and Young Preschoolers: Application in a Non-US Sample of 1,104 Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Zander, Eric; Bölte, Sven; Sturm, Harald; Yirmiya, Nurit; Yaari, Maya; Charman, Tony; Salomone, Erica; LeCouteur, Ann; Green, Jonathan; Bedia, Ricardo Canal; Primo, Patricia García; van Daalen, Emma; de Jonge, Maretha V.; Guðmundsdóttir, Emilía; Jóhannsdóttir, Sigurrós; Raleva, Marija; Boskovska, Meri; Rogé, Bernadette; Baduel, Sophie; Moilanen, Irma; Yliherva, Anneli; Buitelaar, Jan; Oosterling, Iris J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) algorithms for toddlers and young preschoolers (Kim and Lord, "J Autism Dev Disord" 42(1):82-93, 2012) in a non-US sample from ten sites in nine countries (n = 1,104). The construct validity indicated a good fit of the algorithms. The diagnostic…

  5. The Discriminative Ability and Diagnostic Utility of the ADOS-G, ADI-R, and GARS for Children in a Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Oswald, Donald P.

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge of interest in assessment instruments for diagnosing autism in children. Instruments have generally been developed and evaluated from a research perspective. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), and Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS) have received…

  6. Clinical Validity of the ADI-R in a US-Based Latino Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanegas, Sandra B.; Magaña, Sandra; Morales, Miguel; McNamara, Ellyn

    2016-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) has been validated as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of Autism; however, given the growing diversity in the United States, the ADI-R must be validated for different languages and cultures. This study evaluates the validity of the ADI-R in a US-based Latino, Spanish-speaking population of 50 children…

  7. Symptoms of Autism in Males with Fragile X Syndrome: A Comparison to Nonsyndromic ASD Using Current ADI-R Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Andrea; Thurman, Angela John; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of autism are frequent in males with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but it is not clear whether symptom profiles differ from those of nonsyndromic ASD. Using individual item scores from the Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised, we examined which current symptoms of autism differed in boys with FXS relative to same-aged boys diagnosed with…

  8. Symptoms of Autism in Males with Fragile X Syndrome: A Comparison to Nonsyndromic ASD Using Current ADI-R Scores.

    PubMed

    McDuffie, Andrea; Thurman, Angela John; Hagerman, Randi J; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2015-07-01

    Symptoms of autism are frequent in males with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but it is not clear whether symptom profiles differ from those of nonsyndromic ASD. Using individual item scores from the Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised, we examined which current symptoms of autism differed in boys with FXS relative to same-aged boys diagnosed with nonsyndromic ASD. In addition, different subsamples of participants were matched on autism diagnostic status and severity of autism symptoms. Between-group comparisons revealed that boys with FXS showed significantly less impairment in Social Smiling than did age-, diagnostic-, and severity-matched boys with nonsyndromic ASD. Severity-matched boys with FXS showed more impairment in complex mannerisms than did boys with nonsyndromic ASD. Behavioral differences between FXS and nonsyndromic ASD may be of theoretical importance in understanding the causes and correlates of ASD in FXS and in developing and implementing appropriate treatments.

  9. Reliability and Validity of Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Japanese Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Matsumoto, Kaori; Yagi, Atsuko; Inada, Naoko; Kuroda, Miho; Inokuchi, Eiko; Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Sakai, Saeko; Mohri, Ikuko; Taniike, Masako; Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Ogasahara, Kei; Miyachi, Taishi; Nakajima, Shunji; Tani, Iori; Ohnishi, Masafumi; Inoue, Masahiko; Nomura, Kazuyo; Hagiwara, Taku; Uchiyama, Tokio; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Kobayashi, Shuji; Miyamoto, Ken; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Takei, Nori

    2013-01-01

    To examine the inter-rater reliability of Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Japanese Version (ADI-R-JV), the authors recruited 51 individuals aged 3-19 years, interviewed by two independent raters. Subsequently, to assess the discriminant and diagnostic validity of ADI-R-JV, the authors investigated 317 individuals aged 2-19 years, who were…

  10. Effects of Child Characteristics on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: Implications for Use of Scores as a Measure of ASD Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hus, Vanessa; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is commonly used to inform diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Considering the time dedicated to using the ADI-R, it is of interest to expand the ways in which information obtained from this interview is used. The current study examines how algorithm totals reflecting past (ADI-Diagnostic)…

  11. Using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule with Young Children with Developmental Delay: Evaluating Diagnostic Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kylie M.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Sweeney, Deborah J.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the validity of the ADI-R and ADOS in the assessment of preschool children with developmental delay. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic validity of the ADI-R and the ADOS in young children. Two-hundred and nine children aged 20-55 months participated in the study, 120 of whom received a diagnosis of autism.…

  12. Using Standardized Diagnostic Instruments to Classify Children with Autism in the Study to Explore Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine E.; Moody, Eric J.; Bernal, Pilar; Blaskey, Lisa; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Lee, Li-Ching; Levy, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is a multi-site case-control study designed to explore the relationship between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotypes and etiologies. The goals of this paper are to (1) describe the SEED algorithm that uses the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule…

  13. How to Use the ADI-R for Classifying Autism Spectrum Disorders? Psychometric Properties of Criteria from the Literature in 1,204 Dutch Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bildt, Annelies; Oosterling, Iris J.; van Lang, Natasja D. J.; Kuijper, Sanne; Dekker, Vera; Sytema, Sjoerd; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; van Steijn, Daphne J.; Visser, Janne C.; Rommelse, Nanda N.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; van Engeland, Herman; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K.; de Jonge, Maretha V.

    2013-01-01

    The algorithm of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised provides criteria for autism versus non-autism according to DSM-IV. Criteria for the broader autism spectrum disorders are needed. This study investigated the validity of seven sets of criteria from the literature, in 1,204 Dutch children (aged 3-18 years) with and without mental…

  14. The Structure of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: Diagnostic and Phenotypic Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Anne V.; Lecavalier, Luc; Houts, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Background: Multivariate statistics can assist in refining the nosology and diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and also contribute important information for genetic studies. The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is one of the most widely used assessment instruments in the field of PDD. The current study investigated its…

  15. Brief Report: Excellent Agreement between Two Brief Autism Scales (Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder and Social Responsiveness Scale) Completed Independently by Parents and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Michael J.; Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Smith, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Agreement between the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and two brief scales completed by parents was 93.1% for the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder (CASD) and 89.7% for the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a sample of adolescents with suspected autism spectrum disorders. Our study is consistent with others showing that brief…

  16. Brief Report: Telephone Administration of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised--Reliability and Suitability for Use in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-King, Jessica; Cohen, Ira L.; Penning, Henderika; Holden, Jeanette J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised is one of the "gold standard" diagnostic tools for autism spectrum disorders. It is traditionally administered face-to-face. Cost and geographical concerns constrain the employment of the ADI-R for large-scale research projects. The telephone interview is a reasonable alternative, but has not yet been…

  17. Overlap between autism and specific language impairment: comparison of Autism Diagnostic Interview and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores.

    PubMed

    Leyfer, Ovsanna T; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Dowd, Michael; Tomblin, J Bruce; Folstein, Susan E

    2008-10-01

    Autism and specific language impairment (SLI) are developmental disorders that, although distinct by definition, have in common some features of both language and social behavior. The goal of this study was to further explore the extent to which specific clinical features of autism are seen in SLI. The children with the two disorders, matched for non-verbal IQ, were compared on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). In the SLI group, 41% met autism or autism spectrum cut-offs for social or communication domains either on the ADI or ADOS or both. No relationship was found between the language deficits exhibited by the children with SLI and their scores on the ADI and ADOS. These findings contribute to evidence that there is some overlap in social and communicative deficits between autism and SLI, supporting the view that autism and SLI share etiologic factors. This continuum of pathology between SLI and autism appears to range from structural language abnormalities as seen in individuals with SLI to individuals with SLI with both structural and social abnormalities to individuals with autism with pragmatic impairment and language abnormalities.

  18. Brief report: excellent agreement between two brief autism scales (Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder and Social Responsiveness Scale) completed independently by parents and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised.

    PubMed

    Murray, Michael J; Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Smith, Laura A

    2011-11-01

    Agreement between the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and two brief scales completed by parents was 93.1% for the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder (CASD) and 89.7% for the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a sample of adolescents with suspected autism spectrum disorders. Our study is consistent with others showing that brief scales like the CASD and SRS have strong psychometric support and compare favorably with the ADI-R. The CASD and SRS are each completed and scored in 15 min, whereas the ADI-R takes over 2 h to administer and score. The CASD and SRS offer a valid and cost effective alternative to lengthy and expensive measures and, by virtue of their brevity and simplicity, could facilitate diagnosis, access to treatment, and research. PMID:21301946

  19. Measurement Equivalence of the Autism Symptom Phenotype in Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Georgiades, Stelios; Thompson, Ann; Liu, Xiao-Qing; Paterson, Andrew D.; Bennett, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is a gold standard assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) symptoms and behaviours. A key underlying assumption of studies using the ADI-R is that it measures the same phenotypic constructs across different populations (i.e. males/females, younger/older, verbal/nonverbal). The…

  20. Brief report: telephone administration of the autism diagnostic interview--revised: reliability and suitability for use in research.

    PubMed

    Ward-King, Jessica; Cohen, Ira L; Penning, Henderika; Holden, Jeanette J A

    2010-10-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview--revised is one of the "gold standard" diagnostic tools for autism spectrum disorders. It is traditionally administered face-to-face. Cost and geographical concerns constrain the employment of the ADI-R for large-scale research projects. The telephone interview is a reasonable alternative, but has not yet been examined for reliability with face-to-face administration. In this study, participants were interviewed both face-to-face and on the telephone using the complete ADI-R interview. Results indicate that there was no significant difference between the algorithm scores or the diagnoses arrived at for face-to-face and telephone administrations. Reliability statistics across the two modalities were very good and indicate that telephone interviews using the ADI-R are a viable option for researchers.

  1. Diagnosing Autism in a Clinical Sample of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: How Useful Are the "ADOS" and the "ADI-R"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappok, Tanja; Diefenbacher, Albert; Budczies, Jan; Schade, Christoph; Grubich, Claudia; Bergmann, Thomas; Bolte, Sven; Dziobek, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are frequently co-occurring conditions. Carefully diagnosing ASD in individuals with ID would allow for more tailored clinical interventions that would improve mental health and quality of life. In this study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the "Autism Diagnostic…

  2. Validation of a brief quantitative measure of autistic traits: comparison of the social responsiveness scale with the autism diagnostic interview-revised.

    PubMed

    Constantino, John N; Davis, Sandra A; Todd, Richard D; Schindler, Matthew K; Gross, Maggie M; Brophy, Susan L; Metzger, Lisa M; Shoushtari, Christiana S; Splinter, Reagan; Reich, Wendy

    2003-08-01

    Studies of the broader autism phenotype, and of subtle changes in autism symptoms over time, have been compromised by a lack of established quantitative assessment tools. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-formerly known as the Social Reciprocity Scale) is a new instrument that can be completed by parents and/or teachers in 15-20 minutes. We compared the SRS with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) in 61 child psychiatric patients. Correlations between SRS scores and ADI-R algorithm scores for DSM-IV criterion sets were on the order of 0.7. SRS scores were unrelated to I.Q. and exhibited inter-rater reliability on the order of 0.8. The SRS is a valid quantitative measure of autistic traits, feasible for use in clinical settings and for large-scale research studies of autism spectrum conditions. PMID:12959421

  3. Obstetric and Parental Psychiatric Variables as Potential Predictors of Autism Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Anna E.; Anderson, George M.; Dubrow, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Associations between obstetric and parental psychiatric variables and subjects' Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) domain scores were examined using linear mixed effects models. Data for the 228 families studied were provided by the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange. Hypertension (P =…

  4. Autism Spectrum Phenotype in Males and Females with Fragile X Full Mutation and Premutation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Sally; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Bui, Quang M.; Huggins, Richard; Taylor, Annette K.; Loesch, Danuta Z.

    2007-01-01

    The behavioural phenotype of autism was assessed in individuals with full mutation and premutation fragile X syndrome (FXS) using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale-Generic (ADOS-G) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R). The participants, aged 5-80 years, comprised 33 males and 31 females with full mutation, 7 males and 43 females with…

  5. Reliability of the ADI-R for the Single Case-Part II: Clinical versus Statistical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Lord, Catherine; Koenig, Kathy; Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2014-01-01

    In an earlier investigation, the authors assessed the reliability of the ADI-R when multiple clinicians evaluated a single case, here a female 3 year old toddler suspected of having an autism spectrum disorder (Cicchetti et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord" 38:764-770, 2008). Applying the clinical criteria of Cicchetti and Sparrow ("Am J…

  6. Self-Reported Autism Symptoms in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Somer L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2012-01-01

    Scores on the autism spectrum quotient (AQ) were examined in 65 adults with ASD. Maternal reports of symptoms were collected simultaneously using the autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R) and the Vineland Screener. A slightly revised AQ administration procedure was used to accommodate adults with below average IQ. AQ scores were lower than…

  7. Autism Profiles of Males With Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Susan W.; Hessl, David; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Ferranti, Jessica; Bacalman, Susan; Barbato, Ingrid; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Paul J.; Herman, Kristin; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2008-01-01

    Autism, which is common in individuals with fragile X syndrome, is often difficult to diagnose. We compared the diagnostic classifications of two measures for autism diagnosis, the ADOS and the ADI-R, in addition to the DSM-IV-TR in 63 males with this syndrome. Overall, 30% of the subjects met criteria for autistic disorder and 30% met criteria…

  8. Parent PDD Behavior Inventory Profiles of Young Children Classified According to Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ira L.; Gomez, Tina Rovito; Gonzalez, Maripaz G.; Lennon, Elizabeth M.; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Gardner, Judith M.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative variations in score profiles from the parent version of the PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) were examined in young Autism and PDD-NOS groups defined by ADOS-G and ADI-R criteria, relative to a not spectrum (NS) group of similar age. Both the Autism and the PDD-NOS group profiles markedly differed from the NS group. The most sensitive…

  9. Identification of Genetic Loci Underlying the Phenotypic Constructs of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiao-Qing; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Thompson, Ann; Devlin, Bernie; Cook, Edwin H.; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Szatmari, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the underlying phenotypic constructs in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to identify genetic loci that are linked to these empirically derived factors. Method: Exploratory factor analysis was applied to two datasets with 28 selected Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) algorithm items. The first dataset was from…

  10. A National Study of the Prevalence of Autism among Five-Year-Old Children in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samadi, Sayyed Ali; Mahmoodizadeh, Ameneh; McConkey, Roy

    2012-01-01

    In Iran, more than 1.3 million five-year olds have been screened for autism over three academic years, with the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is used to confirm a diagnosis of typical autism. The resulting prevalence of 6.26 per 10,000 for typical autism is in line with rates for certain…

  11. Autism spectrum conditions in individuals with Möbius sequence, CHARGE syndrome and oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum: diagnostic aspects.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Råstam, Maria

    2010-01-01

    As part of multidisciplinary surveys of three Behavioural Phenotype Conditions (BPCs); Möbius sequence (Möbius), CHARGE syndrome (CHARGE) and oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAV), autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) was diagnosed in 45%, 68% and 42% of the individuals, respectively. Diagnostic difficulties due to additional dysfunctions such as mental retardation (MR), impaired vision, reduced hearing and cranial nerve dysfunction, were experienced in all three BPC groups. The applicability of current autism diagnostic instruments, such as the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the Autistic Behaviour Checklist (ABC), in individuals with ASCs and Möbius/CHARGE/OAV was analysed. Use of an extensive battery of diagnostic instruments, including both observational schedules and parent interviews, and, if possible, independent judgements from two clinicians, is essential in the diagnostics of ASCs in these individuals. Further, in individuals who are deaf and blind the applicability of current autism diagnostic instruments is highly questionable. PMID:19709852

  12. How Useful Is the Social Communication Questionnaire in Toddlers at Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterling, Iris; Rommelse, Nanda; De Jonge, Maretha; Van Der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Swinkels, Sophie; Roos, Sascha; Visser, Janne; Buitelaar, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) is a screening instrument with established validity against the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) in children aged 4 years and older. Indices of diagnostic accuracy have been shown to be strong in school-aged samples; however, relatively little is known about the performance of the…

  13. Autism Spectrum Traits in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine ASD traits in children with clinical anxiety in early development, as well as current manifestations. Parents of 42 children with an anxiety disorder (but no known diagnosis of ASD) and 42 typically developing children were interviewed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R). They also completed…

  14. Autism in Angelman syndrome: implications for autism research.

    PubMed

    Peters, S U; Beaudet, A L; Madduri, N; Bacino, C A

    2004-12-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe mental retardation, ataxia, and a happy/sociable disposition. Maternally, but not paternally, derived defects, such as duplications, within the AS critical region result in autistic symptomatology, suggesting that the UBE3A gene might be implicated in the causation of autism. This study examined the prevalence of autism in AS in 19 children representing three known molecular classes of AS. Children were studied over the course of 1 year. Forty-two percent of this population, eight of 19 children, met criteria for autism according to the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Parents of children who were diagnosed with autism according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria as well as the ADOS - Generic, Module 1 (ADOS-G) were administered the Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised (ADI-R). Data from the ADI-R were convergent with data from the ADOS-G in all cases. Children with comorbid autism and AS scored lower on measures of language, adaptive behavior, and cognition, and demonstrated a slower rate of improvement over the course of the study. Furthermore, they demonstrated deficits in communication and socialization that mirror those observed in children with idiopathic autism. The study highlights the phenotypic overlap between autism and AS and increases the probability that dysregulation of UBE3A may play a role in the causation of autism.

  15. Use of Artificial Intelligence to Shorten the Behavioral Diagnosis of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Dennis P.; Dally, Rebecca; Luyster, Rhiannon; Jung, Jae-Yoon; DeLuca, Todd F.

    2012-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is one of the most commonly used instruments for assisting in the behavioral diagnosis of autism. The exam consists of 93 questions that must be answered by a care provider within a focused session that often spans 2.5 hours. We used machine learning techniques to study the complete sets of answers to the ADI-R available at the Autism Genetic Research Exchange (AGRE) for 891 individuals diagnosed with autism and 75 individuals who did not meet the criteria for an autism diagnosis. Our analysis showed that 7 of the 93 items contained in the ADI-R were sufficient to classify autism with 99.9% statistical accuracy. We further tested the accuracy of this 7-question classifier against complete sets of answers from two independent sources, a collection of 1654 individuals with autism from the Simons Foundation and a collection of 322 individuals with autism from the Boston Autism Consortium. In both cases, our classifier performed with nearly 100% statistical accuracy, properly categorizing all but one of the individuals from these two resources who previously had been diagnosed with autism through the standard ADI-R. Our ability to measure specificity was limited by the small numbers of non-spectrum cases in the research data used, however, both real and simulated data demonstrated a range in specificity from 99% to 93.8%. With incidence rates rising, the capacity to diagnose autism quickly and effectively requires careful design of behavioral assessment methods. Ours is an initial attempt to retrospectively analyze large data repositories to derive an accurate, but significantly abbreviated approach that may be used for rapid detection and clinical prioritization of individuals likely to have an autism spectrum disorder. Such a tool could assist in streamlining the clinical diagnostic process overall, leading to faster screening and earlier treatment of individuals with autism. PMID:22952789

  16. Trends in Autism Prevalence: Diagnostic Substitution Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coo, Helen; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Lloyd, Jennifer E. V.; Kasmara, Liza; Holden, Jeanette J. A.; Lewis, M. E. Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    There has been little evidence to support the hypothesis that diagnostic substitution may contribute to increases in the administrative prevalence of autism. We examined trends in assignment of special education codes to British Columbia (BC) school children who had an autism code in at least 1 year between 1996 and 2004, inclusive. The proportion…

  17. Update on diagnostic classification in autism

    PubMed Central

    King, Bryan H.; Navot, Noa; Bernier, Raphael; Webb, Sara Jane

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review In the lead up to and following the recent publication of the DSM-5, the diagnostic construct of autism has received intense scrutiny. Recent findings This article briefly reviews the history of the diagnosis of autism, the changes that have occurred in the diagnosis over time, and the rationale for change. The most significant changes being introduced with the DSM-5 are highlighted, as well as some of the concerns that will be a focus of attention with respect to the potential impacts going forward. Summary The categorical divisions that characterized the pervasive developmental disorders are now collapsed into a single entity, autism spectrum disorder. The final DSM-5 criteria have yet to be formally compared prospectively against prior criteria, but early indications suggest that the boundaries around the pervasive developmental disorders have not been substantially altered. PMID:24441420

  18. Diagnostic Stability in Very Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Jamie M.; Ventola, Pamela E.; Pandey, Juhi; Verbalis, Alyssa D.; Barton, Marianne; Hodgson, Sarah; Green, James; Dumont-Mathieu, Thyde; Robins, Diana L.; Fein, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) diagnosis in very young children may be delayed due to doubts about validity. In this study, 77 children received a diagnostic and developmental evaluation between 16 and 35 months and also between 42 and 82 months. Diagnoses based on clinical judgment, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and the Autism Diagnostic…

  19. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule--Toddler Module: A New Module of a Standardized Diagnostic Measure for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyster, Rhiannon; Gotham, Katherine; Guthrie, Whitney; Coffing, Mia; Petrak, Rachel; Pierce, Karen; Bishop, Somer; Esler, Amy; Hus, Vanessa; Oti, Rosalind; Richler, Jennifer; Risi, Susan; Lord, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; Lord et al., J Autism Dev Disord, 30(3):205-223, 2000) is widely accepted as a "gold standard" diagnostic instrument, but it is of restricted utility with very young children. The purpose of the current project was to modify the ADOS for use in children under 30 months of age. A modified ADOS, the…

  20. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults: The Use of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Meffert, Harma; Hein, Simone; Huizinga, Petra; Ketelaars, Cees; Pijnenborg, Marieke; Bartels, Arnold; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian; de Bildt, Annelies

    2011-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4 was investigated in an independent sample of high-functioning adult males with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to three specific diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, psychopathy, and typical development. ADOS module 4 proves to be a reliable instrument with good predictive value. It…

  1. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children Referred for Diagnostic Autism Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Sonia A; Spinks-Franklin, Adiaha; Treadwell-Deering, Diane; Berry, Leandra; Sellers-Vinson, Sherry; Smith, Eboni; Proud, Monica; Voigt, Robert G

    2015-12-01

    Increased public awareness of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and routine screening in primary care have contributed to increased requests for diagnostic ASD evaluations. However, given the scarcity of subspecialty autism diagnostic resources, overreferral of children suspected of having ASD may be contributing to long waiting lists at tertiary care autism centers and delaying diagnosis for those children who truly have ASD. To determine whether children are being excessively referred to ASD-specific diagnostic clinics, our objective was to determine the prevalence of true ASD diagnoses in children referred for diagnostic ASD evaluation. Charts of all patients referred to a regional autism center between April 2011 and August 2012 for suspicion of a possible ASD were retrospectively reviewed and demographic and clinical diagnoses abstracted. Only 214 of 348 patients evaluated (61%) received an ASD diagnosis. Thus, concerns about autism are not confirmed by an ASD diagnosis in a significant number of children. PMID:26130396

  2. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children Referred for Diagnostic Autism Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Sonia A; Spinks-Franklin, Adiaha; Treadwell-Deering, Diane; Berry, Leandra; Sellers-Vinson, Sherry; Smith, Eboni; Proud, Monica; Voigt, Robert G

    2015-12-01

    Increased public awareness of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and routine screening in primary care have contributed to increased requests for diagnostic ASD evaluations. However, given the scarcity of subspecialty autism diagnostic resources, overreferral of children suspected of having ASD may be contributing to long waiting lists at tertiary care autism centers and delaying diagnosis for those children who truly have ASD. To determine whether children are being excessively referred to ASD-specific diagnostic clinics, our objective was to determine the prevalence of true ASD diagnoses in children referred for diagnostic ASD evaluation. Charts of all patients referred to a regional autism center between April 2011 and August 2012 for suspicion of a possible ASD were retrospectively reviewed and demographic and clinical diagnoses abstracted. Only 214 of 348 patients evaluated (61%) received an ASD diagnosis. Thus, concerns about autism are not confirmed by an ASD diagnosis in a significant number of children.

  3. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Toddler Module: Standardized Severity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esler, Amy N.; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Guthrie, Whitney; Wetherby, Amy; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Standardized calibrated severity scores (CSS) have been created for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) Modules 1-4 as a metric of the relative severity of autism-specific behaviors. Total and domain CSS were created for the Toddler Module to facilitate comparison to other modules. Analyses included 388 children with ASD…

  4. The Use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised with a Latino Population of Adolescents and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magana, Sandy; Smith, Leann E.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that Latinos are less likely to be diagnosed with autism than their non-Latino counterparts. One factor that may contribute to these differences is that autism diagnostic instruments have not been adapted for the Latino population. The present study compared scores from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised for two groups: 48…

  5. Evaluation of the Revised Algorithm of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in the Diagnostic Investigation of High-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp-Becker, Inge; Ghahreman, Mardjan; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Peters, Mira; Remschmidt, Helmut; Becker, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is a semi-structured, standardized assessment designed for use in diagnostic evaluation of individuals with suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ADOS has been effective in categorizing children who definitely have autism or not, but has lower specificity and sometimes sensitivity for…

  6. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: Revised Algorithms for Improved Diagnostic Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotham, Katherine; Risi, Susan; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Modules 1-3 item and domain total distributions were reviewed for 1,630 assessments of children aged 14 months to 16 years with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or with heterogeneous non-spectrum disorders. Children were divided by language level and age to yield more homogeneous cells. Items were…

  7. Birth order effects on nonverbal IQ scores in autism multiplex families.

    PubMed

    Spiker, D; Lotspeich, L J; Dimiceli, S; Szatmari, P; Myers, R M; Risch, N

    2001-10-01

    Lord (1992) published a brief report showing a trend for decreasing nonverbal IQ scores with increasing birth order in a sample of 16 autism multiplex families, and urged replication in a larger sample. In this report, analyses of nonverbal IQ scores for a sample of 144 autism multiplex families indicated that nonverbal IQ scores were significantly lower in secondborn compared with firstborn siblings with autism. This birth order effect was independent of gender as well as the age differences within sib pairs. No such birth order effects were found for social or communicative deficits as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), but there was a modest tendency for increased scores for ritualistic behaviors for the firstborn sibs. Further, there were no gender differences on nonverbal IQ scores in this sample. Results are discussed in terms of implications for genetic studies of autism.

  8. Ordered-subset analysis of savant skills in autism for 15q11-q13.

    PubMed

    Ma, D Q; Jaworski, J; Menold, M M; Donnelly, S; Abramson, R K; Wright, H H; Delong, G R; Gilbert, J R; Pericak-Vance, M A; Cuccaro, Michael L

    2005-05-01

    Autism is a complex disorder characterized by genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Analysis of phenotypically homogeneous subtypes has been used to both confirm and narrow potential autism linkage regions such as the chromosomal region 15q11-q13. Increased evidence for linkage in this region had been found in a subgroup of 21 autism families (total families = 94) stratified based on a savant skill factor (SSF) from the Autism Diagnostic Interview, Revised (ADI-R). We examined the savant phenotypic finding in our sample of 91 multiplex autism families. Using two-point parametric analysis in stratification with a cutoff point of a savant skill score of 0.16, our families failed to demonstrate linkage to 15q11-q13. In addition, ordered subset analysis (OSA) using SSF as a covariate also failed to show evidence for linkage. Our findings do not support savant skills as an informative phenotypic subset for linkage in our sample.

  9. Validity and Diagnostic Accuracy of Scores from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the internal structure, relationships with other variables, and diagnostic accuracy of scores on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G; Lord et al., 1999) for the purpose of diagnostic decision-making. Participants were 462 children enrolled in a public school district in the southern…

  10. Applying Machine Learning to Facilitate Autism Diagnostics: Pitfalls and Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bone, Daniel; Goodwin, Matthew S.; Black, Matthew P.; Lee, Chi-Chun; Audhkhasi, Kartik; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2015-01-01

    Machine learning has immense potential to enhance diagnostic and intervention research in the behavioral sciences, and may be especially useful in investigations involving the highly prevalent and heterogeneous syndrome of autism spectrum disorder. However, use of machine learning in the absence of clinical domain expertise can be tenuous and lead…

  11. The broad autism phenotype questionnaire: prevalence and diagnostic classification.

    PubMed

    Sasson, Noah J; Lam, Kristen S L; Childress, Debra; Parlier, Morgan; Daniels, Julie L; Piven, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) was administered to a large community-based sample of biological parents of children with autism (PCAs) and comparison parents (CPs) (n = 1,692). Exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency parameters confirmed a robust three-factor structure of the BAPQ, corresponding to the proposed aloof, pragmatic language and rigidity subscales. Based upon the distribution of Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP) features in the general population, new normative cutoff values for BAPQ subscales were established that provide increased specificity relative to those previously reported, and thus enhance the utility of the BAPQ for diagnostically classifying the BAP. These cutoffs were also used to estimate prevalence of the BAP and its three components, with rates ranging between 14-23% for PCAs and between 5-9% for CPs. Analysis of patterns of BAP characteristics within family members revealed that BAP features were more likely to co-occur in PCAs relative to CPs. Collectively, these findings extend the utility of the BAPQ and provide additional evidence that it is an efficient and reliable tool for disaggregating the heterogeneity of autism through the identification of meaningful subgroups of parents. Autism Res 2013, 6: 134-143. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Validation of existing diagnosis of autism in mainland China using standardised diagnostic instruments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Zhang, Zhixiang; Matthews, Fiona E; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2015-11-01

    Research to date in mainland China has mainly focused on children with autistic disorder rather than Autism Spectrum Conditions and the diagnosis largely depended on clinical judgment without the use of diagnostic instruments. Whether children who have been diagnosed in China before meet the diagnostic criteria of Autism Spectrum Conditions is not known nor how many such children would meet these criteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate children with a known diagnosis of autism in mainland China using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised to verify that children who were given a diagnosis of autism made by Chinese clinicians in China were mostly children with severe autism. Of 50 children with an existing diagnosis of autism made by Chinese clinicians, 47 children met the diagnosis of autism on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule algorithm and 44 children met the diagnosis of autism on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised algorithm. Using the Gwet's alternative chance-corrected statistic, the agreement between the Chinese diagnosis and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule diagnosis was very good (AC1 = 0.94, p < 0.005, 95% confidence interval (0.86, 1.00)), so was the agreement between the Chinese diagnosis and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (AC1 = 0.91, p < 0.005, 95% confidence interval (0.81, 1.00)). The agreement between the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised was lower but still very good (AC1 = 0.83, p < 0.005).

  13. Diagnosing autism spectrum disorders in adults: the use of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4.

    PubMed

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A; Meffert, Harma; Hein, Simone; Huizinga, Petra; Ketelaars, Cees; Pijnenborg, Marieke; Bartels, Arnold; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian; de Bildt, Annelies

    2011-09-01

    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4 was investigated in an independent sample of high-functioning adult males with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to three specific diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, psychopathy, and typical development. ADOS module 4 proves to be a reliable instrument with good predictive value. It can adequately discriminate ASD from psychopathy and typical development, but is less specific with respect to schizophrenia due to behavioral overlap between autistic and negative symptoms. However, these groups differ on some core items and explorative analyses indicate that a revision of the algorithm in line with Gotham et al. (J Autism Dev Disord 37: 613-627, 2007) could be beneficial for discriminating ASD from schizophrenia.

  14. Applying Machine Learning to Facilitate Autism Diagnostics: Pitfalls and promises

    PubMed Central

    Bone, Daniel; Goodwin, Matthew S.; Black, Matthew P.; Lee, Chi-Chun; Audhkhasi, Kartik; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2014-01-01

    Machine learning has immense potential to enhance diagnostic and intervention research in the behavioral sciences, and may be especially useful in investigations involving the highly prevalent and heterogeneous syndrome of autism spectrum disorder. However, use of machine learning in the absence of clinical domain expertise can be tenuous and lead to misinformed conclusions. To illustrate this concern, the current paper critically evaluates and attempts to reproduce results from two studies (Wall et al., 2012a; Wall et al., 2012b) that claim to drastically reduce time to diagnose autism using machine learning. Our failure to generate comparable findings to those reported by Wall and colleagues using larger and more balanced data underscores several conceptual and methodological problems associated with these studies. We conclude with proposed best-practices when using machine learning in autism research, and highlight some especially promising areas for collaborative work at the intersection of computational and behavioral science. PMID:25294649

  15. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-toddler module: a new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Luyster, Rhiannon; Gotham, Katherine; Guthrie, Whitney; Coffing, Mia; Petrak, Rachel; Pierce, Karen; Bishop, Somer; Esler, Amy; Hus, Vanessa; Oti, Rosalind; Richler, Jennifer; Risi, Susan; Lord, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; Lord et al., J Autism Dev Disord, 30(3):205-223, 2000) is widely accepted as a "gold standard" diagnostic instrument, but it is of restricted utility with very young children. The purpose of the current project was to modify the ADOS for use in children under 30 months of age. A modified ADOS, the ADOS Toddler Module (or Module T), was used in 360 evaluations. Participants included 182 children with best estimate diagnoses of ASD, non-spectrum developmental delay or typical development. A final set of protocol and algorithm items was selected based on their ability to discriminate the diagnostic groups. The traditional algorithm "cutoffs" approach yielded high sensitivity and specificity, and a new range of concern approach was proposed.

  16. A genome-wide association study of autism incorporating autism diagnostic interview-revised, autism diagnostic observation schedule, and social responsiveness scale.

    PubMed

    Connolly, John J; Glessner, Joseph T; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to understand the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been hampered by genetic complexity and heterogeneity among individuals. One strategy for reducing complexity is to target endophenotypes, simpler biologically based measures that may involve fewer genes and constitute a more homogenous sample. A genome-wide association study of 2,165 participants (mean age = 8.95 years) examined associations between genomic loci and individual assessment items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and Social Responsiveness Scale. Significant associations with a number of loci were identified, including KCND2 (overly serious facial expressions), NOS2A (loss of motor skills), and NELL1 (faints, fits, or blackouts). These findings may help prioritize directions for future genomic efforts. PMID:22935194

  17. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Toddler Module: Standardized Severity Scores

    PubMed Central

    Esler, Amy N.; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Guthrie, Whitney; Wetherby, Amy; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Lord, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Standardized calibrated severity scores (CSS) have been created for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) Modules 1–4 as a metric of the relative severity of autism-specific behaviors. Total and domain CSS were created for the Toddler Module to facilitate comparison to other modules. Analyses included 388 children with ASD age 12 to 30 months and were replicated on 435 repeated assessments from 127 children with ASD. Compared to raw scores, associations between total and domain CSS and participant characteristics were reduced in the original sample. Verbal IQ effects on Social Affect-CSS were not reduced in the replication sample. Toddler Module CSS increases comparability of ADOS-2 scores across modules and allows studies of symptom trajectories to extend to earlier ages. PMID:25832801

  18. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Toddler Module: Standardized Severity Scores.

    PubMed

    Esler, Amy N; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Guthrie, Whitney; Wetherby, Amy; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Lord, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    Standardized calibrated severity scores (CSS) have been created for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) Modules 1-4 as a metric of the relative severity of autism-specific behaviors. Total and domain CSS were created for the Toddler Module to facilitate comparison to other modules. Analyses included 388 children with ASD age 12-30 months and were replicated on 435 repeated assessments from 127 children with ASD. Compared to raw scores, associations between total and domain CSS and participant characteristics were reduced in the original sample. Verbal IQ effects on Social Affect-CSS were not reduced in the replication sample. Toddler Module CSS increases comparability of ADOS-2 scores across modules and allows studies of symptom trajectories to extend to earlier ages.

  19. The Added Value of the Combined Use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: Diagnostic Validity in a Clinical Swedish Sample of Toddlers and Young Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zander, Eric; Sturm, Harald; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic validity of the new research algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the revised algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule was examined in a clinical sample of children aged 18-47 months. Validity was determined for each instrument separately and their combination against a clinical consensus…

  20. Does sex influence the diagnostic evaluation of autism spectrum disorder in adults?

    PubMed

    Wilson, C Ellie; Murphy, Clodagh M; McAlonan, Grainne; Robertson, Dene M; Spain, Debbie; Hayward, Hannah; Woodhouse, Emma; Deeley, P Quinton; Gillan, Nicola; Ohlsen, J Chris; Zinkstok, Janneke; Stoencheva, Vladimira; Faulkner, Jessica; Yildiran, Hatice; Bell, Vaughan; Hammond, Neil; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan Gm

    2016-10-01

    It is unknown whether sex influences the diagnostic evaluation of autism spectrum disorder, or whether male and female adults within the spectrum have different symptom profiles. This study reports sex differences in clinical outcomes for 1244 adults (935 males and 309 females) referred for autism spectrum disorder assessment. Significantly, more males (72%) than females (66%) were diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder of any subtype (x(2) = 4.09; p = 0.04). In high-functioning autism spectrum disorder adults (IQ > 70; N = 827), there were no significant sex differences in severity of socio-communicative domain symptoms. Males had significantly more repetitive behaviours/restricted interests than females (p = 0.001, d = 0.3). A multivariate analysis of variance indicated a significant interaction between autism spectrum disorder subtype (full-autism spectrum disorder/partial-autism spectrum disorder) and sex: in full-autism spectrum disorder, males had more severe socio-communicative symptoms than females; for partial-autism spectrum disorder, the reverse was true. There were no sex differences in prevalence of co-morbid psychopathologies. Sex influenced diagnostic evaluation in a clinical sample of adults with suspected autism spectrum disorder. The sexes may present with different manifestations of the autism spectrum disorder phenotype and differences vary by diagnostic subtype. Understanding and awareness of adult female repetitive behaviours/restricted interests warrant attention and sex-specific diagnostic assessment tools may need to be considered.

  1. The Evolving Diagnostic and Genetic Landscapes of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ziats, Mark N; Rennert, Owen M

    2016-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental syndromes defined by impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, restricted social interaction, and the presence of stereotyped patterns of behavior. The prevalence of ASD is rising, and the diagnostic criteria and clinical perspectives on the disorder continue to evolve in parallel. Although the majority of individuals with ASD will not have an identifiable genetic cause, almost 25% of cases have identifiable causative DNA variants. The rapidly improving ability to identify genetic mutations because of advances in next generation sequencing, coupled with previous epidemiological studies demonstrating high heritability of ASD, have led to many recent attempts to identify causative genetic mutations underlying the ASD phenotype. However, although hundreds of mutations have been identified to date, they are either rare variants affecting only a handful of ASD patients, or are common variants in the general population conferring only a small risk for ASD. Furthermore, the genes implicated thus far are heterogeneous in their structure and function, hampering attempts to understand shared molecular mechanisms among all ASD patients; an understanding that is crucial for the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. However, new work is beginning to suggest that the heterogeneous set of genes implicated in ASD may ultimately converge on a few common pathways. In this review, we discuss the parallel evolution of our diagnostic and genetic understanding of autism spectrum disorders, and highlight recent attempts to infer common biology underlying this complicated syndrome. PMID:27200076

  2. The Evolving Diagnostic and Genetic Landscapes of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ziats, Mark N.; Rennert, Owen M.

    2016-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental syndromes defined by impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, restricted social interaction, and the presence of stereotyped patterns of behavior. The prevalence of ASD is rising, and the diagnostic criteria and clinical perspectives on the disorder continue to evolve in parallel. Although the majority of individuals with ASD will not have an identifiable genetic cause, almost 25% of cases have identifiable causative DNA variants. The rapidly improving ability to identify genetic mutations because of advances in next generation sequencing, coupled with previous epidemiological studies demonstrating high heritability of ASD, have led to many recent attempts to identify causative genetic mutations underlying the ASD phenotype. However, although hundreds of mutations have been identified to date, they are either rare variants affecting only a handful of ASD patients, or are common variants in the general population conferring only a small risk for ASD. Furthermore, the genes implicated thus far are heterogeneous in their structure and function, hampering attempts to understand shared molecular mechanisms among all ASD patients; an understanding that is crucial for the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. However, new work is beginning to suggest that the heterogeneous set of genes implicated in ASD may ultimately converge on a few common pathways. In this review, we discuss the parallel evolution of our diagnostic and genetic understanding of autism spectrum disorders, and highlight recent attempts to infer common biology underlying this complicated syndrome. PMID:27200076

  3. The Evolving Diagnostic and Genetic Landscapes of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ziats, Mark N; Rennert, Owen M

    2016-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental syndromes defined by impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, restricted social interaction, and the presence of stereotyped patterns of behavior. The prevalence of ASD is rising, and the diagnostic criteria and clinical perspectives on the disorder continue to evolve in parallel. Although the majority of individuals with ASD will not have an identifiable genetic cause, almost 25% of cases have identifiable causative DNA variants. The rapidly improving ability to identify genetic mutations because of advances in next generation sequencing, coupled with previous epidemiological studies demonstrating high heritability of ASD, have led to many recent attempts to identify causative genetic mutations underlying the ASD phenotype. However, although hundreds of mutations have been identified to date, they are either rare variants affecting only a handful of ASD patients, or are common variants in the general population conferring only a small risk for ASD. Furthermore, the genes implicated thus far are heterogeneous in their structure and function, hampering attempts to understand shared molecular mechanisms among all ASD patients; an understanding that is crucial for the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. However, new work is beginning to suggest that the heterogeneous set of genes implicated in ASD may ultimately converge on a few common pathways. In this review, we discuss the parallel evolution of our diagnostic and genetic understanding of autism spectrum disorders, and highlight recent attempts to infer common biology underlying this complicated syndrome.

  4. Validation of Existing Diagnosis of Autism in Mainland China Using Standardised Diagnostic Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Xiang; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Zhang, Zhixiang; Matthews, Fiona E.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Research to date in mainland China has mainly focused on children with autistic disorder rather than Autism Spectrum Conditions and the diagnosis largely depended on clinical judgment without the use of diagnostic instruments. Whether children who have been diagnosed in China before meet the diagnostic criteria of Autism Spectrum Conditions is not…

  5. Comparison between diagnostic instruments for identifying high-functioning children with autism.

    PubMed

    Yirmiya, N; Sigman, M; Freeman, B J

    1994-06-01

    Two instruments for identifying autism in children and adolescents with intellectual abilities in the normal range were compared. Diagnostic tools consisted of the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI). The sample was composed of 18 children who were all diagnosed as having either infantile autism or infantile autism, residual state based on DSM-III criteria by a clinical team using observations, parental interviews, and interactions with the children. Only 4 of the children met diagnostic cutoffs for autism on the current ABC but all met criteria for diagnosis on the ABC using parental recall of the child's behavior at 3-5 years of age. The ADI had somewhat greater specificity in that 3 children did not meet criteria for diagnosis although 2 of these children also received ABC scores based on parental recollection that were in the borderline range. PMID:8050982

  6. Co-Occurrence of Autism and Deafness: Diagnostic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Louise; Arnold, Paul; Monteiro, Brendan

    2003-01-01

    Two parts of the Autism Screening Instrument were administered to 13 individuals with deafness and autism (ages 15-24), individuals with autism (n=12), and individuals with deafness and learning disabilities (n=15). No differences in symptomatology were found between those who had autism, although those with deafness were diagnosed with autism…

  7. Looping Genomes: Diagnostic Change and the Genetic Makeup of the Autism Population.

    PubMed

    Navon, Daniel; Eyal, Gil

    2016-03-01

    This article builds on Hacking's framework of "dynamic nominalism" to show how knowledge about biological etiology can interact with the "kinds of people" delineated by diagnostic categories in ways that "loop" or modify both over time. The authors use historical materials to show how "geneticization" played a crucial role in binding together autism as a biosocial community and how evidence from genetics research later made an important contribution to the diagnostic expansion of autism. In the second part of the article, the authors draw on quantitative and qualitative analyses of autism rates over time in several rare conditions that are delineated strictly according to genomic mutations in order to demonstrate that these changes in diagnostic practice helped to both increase autism's prevalence and create its enormous genetic heterogeneity. Thus, a looping process that began with geneticization and involved the social effects of genetics research itself transformed the autism population and its genetic makeup.

  8. Does Sex Influence the Diagnostic Evaluation of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, C. Ellie; Murphy, Clodagh M.; McAlonan, Grainne; Robertson, Dene M.; Spain, Debbie; Hayward, Hannah; Woodhouse, Emma; Deeley, P. Quinton; Gillan, Nicola; Ohlsen, J. Chris; Zinkstok, Janneke; Stoencheva, Vladimira; Faulkner, Jessica; Yildiran, Hatice; Bell, Vaughan; Hammond, Neil; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether sex influences the diagnostic evaluation of autism spectrum disorder, or whether male and female adults within the spectrum have different symptom profiles. This study reports sex differences in clinical outcomes for 1,244 adults (935 males and 309 females) referred for autism spectrum disorder assessment. Significantly, more…

  9. How Different Are Girls and Boys above and below the Diagnostic Threshold for Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworzynski, Katharina; Ronald, Angelica; Bolton, Patrick; Happe, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to explore sex differences in autistic traits in relation to diagnosis, to elucidate factors that might differentially impact whether girls versus boys meet diagnostic criteria for autism or a related autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: Data from a large population-based sample of children were examined. Girls and…

  10. Use of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in a Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Cynthia A.; Murray, Donna S.; Akers, Rachel; Mitchell, Terry; Manning-Courtney, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) as it is commonly used in clinical practice. ADOS classifications were compared to final diagnoses given by a multidisciplinary team to 584 children referred for evaluation for possible autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical…

  11. A Replication of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Revised Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotham, Katherine; Risi, Susan; Dawson, Geraldine; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Joseph, Robert; Carter, Alice; Hepburn, Susan; McMahon, William; Rodier, Patricia; Hyman, Susan L.; Sigman, Marian; Rogers, Sally; Landa, Rebecca; Spence, M. Anne; Osann, Kathryn; Flodman, Pamela; Volkmar, Fred; Hollander, Eric; Buxbaum, Joseph; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A study replicated the module comparability and predictive ability of the revised algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in an independent dataset of children with autism. Results indicated that the revised ADOS algorithms improved module comparability and predictive validity for autistic children than the earlier…

  12. Identification of genetic loci underlying the phenotypic constructs of autism spectrum disorders Running head: Genetic loci for latent factors in ASD

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Qing; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Thompson, Ann; Devlin, Bernie; Cook, Edwin H.; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Szatmari, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the underlying phenotypic constructs in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to identify genetic loci that are linked to these empirically derived factors. Method Exploratory factor analysis was applied to two datasets with 28 selected Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) algorithm items. The first dataset was from the Autism Genome Project (AGP) phase I (1,236 ASD subjects from 618 families); the second was from the AGP phase II (804 unrelated ASD subjects). Variables derived from the factor analysis were then used as quantitative traits in genome-wide variance components linkage analyses. Results Six factors, joint attention, social interaction and communication, non-verbal communication, repetitive sensory-motor behaviour, peer interaction, and compulsion/restricted interests, were retained for both datasets. There was good agreement between the factor loading patterns from the two datasets. All factors showed familial aggregation. Suggestive evidence for linkage was obtained for the joint attention factor on 11q23. Genome-wide significant evidence for linkage was obtained for the repetitive sensory-motor behaviour factor on 19q13.3. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the underlying phenotypic constructs based on the ADI-R algorithm items are replicable in independent datasets; and the empirically derived factors are suitable and informative in genetic studies of ASD. PMID:21703496

  13. New Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised Algorithms for Toddlers and Young Preschoolers from 12 to 47 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So Hyun; Lord, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Rutter et al. in "Autism diagnostic interview-revised." Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, 2003) diagnostic algorithms specific to toddlers and young preschoolers were created using 829 assessments of children aged from 12 to 47 months with ASD, nonspectrum disorders, and typical development. The…

  14. Convergent Validity of the Autism Spectrum Disorder-Diagnostic for Children (ASD-DC) and Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Neal, Daniene

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies analyzed the reliability as well as sensitivity and specificity of the Autism Spectrum Disorder-Diagnostic for Children (ASD-DC). This study further examines the psychometric properties of the ASD-DC by assessing whether the ASD-DC has convergent validity against a psychometrically sound observational instrument for Autistic…

  15. Atypical face gaze in autism.

    PubMed

    Trepagnier, Cheryl; Sebrechts, Marc M; Peterson, Rebecca

    2002-06-01

    An eye-tracking study of face and object recognition was conducted to clarify the character of face gaze in autistic spectrum disorders. Experimental participants were a group of individuals diagnosed with Asperger's disorder or high-functioning autistic disorder according to their medical records and confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Controls were selected on the basis of age, gender, and educational level to be comparable to the experimental group. In order to maintain attentional focus, stereoscopic images were presented in a virtual reality (VR) headset in which the eye-tracking system was installed. Preliminary analyses show impairment in face recognition, in contrast with equivalent and even superior performance in object recognition among participants with autism-related diagnoses, relative to controls. Experimental participants displayed less fixation on the central face than did control-group participants. The findings, within the limitations of the small number of subjects and technical difficulties encountered in utilizing the helmet-mounted display, suggest an impairment in face processing on the part of the individuals in the experimental group. This is consistent with the hypothesis of disruption in the first months of life, a period that may be critical to typical social and cognitive development, and has important implications for selection of appropriate targets of intervention.

  16. Atypical face gaze in autism.

    PubMed

    Trepagnier, Cheryl; Sebrechts, Marc M; Peterson, Rebecca

    2002-06-01

    An eye-tracking study of face and object recognition was conducted to clarify the character of face gaze in autistic spectrum disorders. Experimental participants were a group of individuals diagnosed with Asperger's disorder or high-functioning autistic disorder according to their medical records and confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Controls were selected on the basis of age, gender, and educational level to be comparable to the experimental group. In order to maintain attentional focus, stereoscopic images were presented in a virtual reality (VR) headset in which the eye-tracking system was installed. Preliminary analyses show impairment in face recognition, in contrast with equivalent and even superior performance in object recognition among participants with autism-related diagnoses, relative to controls. Experimental participants displayed less fixation on the central face than did control-group participants. The findings, within the limitations of the small number of subjects and technical difficulties encountered in utilizing the helmet-mounted display, suggest an impairment in face processing on the part of the individuals in the experimental group. This is consistent with the hypothesis of disruption in the first months of life, a period that may be critical to typical social and cognitive development, and has important implications for selection of appropriate targets of intervention. PMID:12123243

  17. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Module 4: Revised Algorithm and Standardized Severity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hus, Vanessa; Lord, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The recently published Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) includes revised diagnostic algorithms and standardized severity scores for modules used to assess younger children. A revised algorithm and severity scores are not yet available for Module 4, used with verbally fluent adults. The current study revises the Module 4…

  18. [Diagnostics of the genetic causes of autism spectrum disorders - a clinical geneticist's view].

    PubMed

    Szczaluba, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Explanation of the genetic basis of autism spectrum disorders has, for many decades, been a part of interest of researchers and clinicians. In recent years, thanks to modern molecular and cytogenetic techniques, a significant progress has been achieved in the diagnosis of genetic causes of autism. This applies particularly, but not exclusively, to those cases of autism that are accompanied by other clinical signs (i. e. complex phenotypes). The important clinical markers belong to different categories, and include congenital defects/anomalies, dysmorphism and macro-/microcephaly, to name the few. Thus, the choice of the diagnostic strategy depends on the clinical and pedigree information and, under Polish circumstances, the availability of specific diagnostic techniques and the amount of reimbursement under the National Health Service. Overall, the identification of the genetic causes of autism spectrum disorders is possible in about 10-30% of patients. In this paper the practical aspects of the use of different diagnostic techniques are briefly described. Some clinical examples and current recommendations for the diagnosis of patients with autism spectrum disorders are also presented. The point of view of a specialist in clinical genetics, increasingly involved, as part of the multidisciplinary care team, in the diagnostics of an autistic child has been demonstrated.

  19. Autism Phenotypes in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations.

    PubMed

    Gipson, Tanjala T; Poretti, Andrea; Thomas, Emily A; Jenkins, Kosunique T; Desai, Sonal; Johnston, Michael V

    2015-12-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a multisystem, chronic genetic condition characterized by systemic growth of benign tumors and often accompanied by epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and intellectual disability. Nonetheless, the neurodevelopmental phenotype of these patients is not often detailed. The authors describe 3 individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex who share common characteristics that can help to identify a distinct profile of autism spectrum disorder. These findings include typical cognitive development, expressive and pragmatic language deficits, and anxiety. The authors also describe features specific to tuberous sclerosis complex that require consideration before diagnosing an autism spectrum disorder. Identifying distinct profiles of autism spectrum disorder in tuberous sclerosis complex can help optimize treatment across the life span. PMID:26303410

  20. The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R): A Scale to Assist the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults--An International Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward R.; Guthrie, Donald; Ritvo, Max J.; Hufnagel, Demetra H.; McMahon, William; Tonge, Bruce; Mataix-Cols, David; Jassi, Amita; Attwood, Tony; Eloff, Johann

    2011-01-01

    The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R) is a valid and reliable instrument to assist the diagnosis of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The 80-question scale was administered to 779 subjects (201 ASD and 578 comparisons). All ASD subjects met inclusion criteria: DSM-IV-TR, ADI/ADOS diagnoses and standardized IQ…

  1. A Novel Stratification Method in Linkage Studies to Address Inter- and Intra-Family Heterogeneity in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Talebizadeh, Zohreh; Arking, Dan E.; Hu, Valerie W.

    2013-01-01

    Most genome linkage scans for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have failed to be replicated. Recently, a new ASD phenotypic sub-classification method was developed which employed cluster analyses of severity scores from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Here, we performed linkage analysis for each of the four identified ADI-R stratified subgroups. Additional stratification was also applied to reduce intra-family heterogeneity and to investigate the impact of gender. For the purpose of replication, two independent sets of single nucleotide polymorphism markers for 392 families were used in our study. This deep subject stratification protocol resulted in 16 distinct group-specific datasets for linkage analysis. No locus reached significance for the combined non-stratified cohort. However, study-wide significant (P = 0.02) linkage scores were reached for chromosomes 22q11 (LOD = 4.43) and 13q21 (LOD = 4.37) for two subsets representing the most severely language impaired individuals with ASD. Notably, 13q21 has been previously linked to autism with language impairment, and 22q11 has been separately associated with either autism or language disorders. Linkage analysis on chromosome 5p15 for a combination of two stratified female-containing subgroups demonstrated suggestive linkage (LOD = 3.5), which replicates previous linkage result for female-containing pedigrees. A trend was also found for the association of previously reported 5p14-p15 SNPs in the same female-containing cohort. This study demonstrates a novel and effective method to address the heterogeneity in genetic studies of ASD. Moreover, the linkage results for the stratified subgroups provide evidence at the gene scan level for both inter- and intra-family heterogeneity as well as for gender-specific loci. PMID:23840741

  2. Validity Study of the Autism Spectrum Disorders-Diagnostic for Children (ASD-DC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa; Wilkins, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Disorders-Diagnostic for Children (ASD-DC) is a 40-item Likert format scale designed to serve in the diagnosis of children and adolescents from 2 to 16 years of age. The reliability and factor structure of the scale have been established in previous research. Studies 1 and 2 were designed to evaluate the validity of the measure…

  3. Sensitivity and Specificity of Proposed "DSM-5" Diagnostic Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, James C.; Reichow, Brian; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the potential impact of proposed "DSM-5" diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: The study focused on a sample of 933 participants evaluated during the "DSM-IV" field trial; 657 carried a clinical diagnosis of an ASD, and 276 were diagnosed with a non-autistic disorder. Sensitivity and…

  4. A Systematic Review of the Diagnostic Stability of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfenden, Sue; Sarkozy, Vanessa; Ridley, Greta; Williams, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    There is debate in the current literature regarding the permanence of an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis. We undertook a systematic review of the diagnostic stability of ASD to summarise current evidence. A comprehensive search strategy was used to identify studies. Participants were children with ASD. Risk of bias was assessed by…

  5. White Matter Fractional Anisotrophy Differences and Correlates of Diagnostic Symptoms in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, C.; Chua, S. E.; Cheung, V.; Khong, P. L.; Tai, K. S.; Wong, T. K. W.; Ho, T. P.; McAlonan, G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Individuals with autism have impairments in 3 domains: communication, social interaction and repetitive behaviours. Our previous work suggested early structural and connectivity abnormalities in prefrontal-striato-temporal-cerebellar networks but it is not clear how these are linked to diagnostic indices. Method: Children with autism…

  6. The Borderland of Autism and Rett Syndrome: Five Case Histories to Highlight Diagnostic Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher

    1989-01-01

    Case studies of 4 females and 1 male, aged 6-25, with pervasive developmental disorders are described. All met standard diagnostic criteria for autism and showed many Rett syndrome symptoms. It is concluded that there is considerable overlap between the 2 disorders and that symptomatic similarities might mirror common pathopsychological…

  7. Negotiating Knowledge: Parents' Experience of the Neuropsychiatric Diagnostic Process for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson, Emilia; Miniscalco, Carmela; Kadesjö, Björn; Laakso, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parents often recognize problems in their child's development earlier than health professionals do and there is new emphasis on the importance of involving parents in the diagnostic process. In Gothenburg, Sweden, over 100 children were identified as having an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 2009-11 through a general population…

  8. Usability and Reliability of a Remotely Administered Adult Autism Assessment, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4

    PubMed Central

    McCue, Michael P.; Parmanto, Bambang; McGonigle, John; Handen, Benjamin; Lewis, Allen; Pulantara, I. Wayan; Saptono, Andi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4 is an autism assessment designed for verbally fluent adolescents and adults. Because of a shortage of available clinical expertise, it can be difficult for adults to receive a proper autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic assessment. A potential option to address this shortage is remote assessment. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility, usability, and reliability of administering the ADOS Module 4 remotely using the Versatile and Integrated System for Telerehabilitation (VISYTER). Materials and Methods: VISYTER consists of computer stations at the client site and clinician site for video communication and a Web portal for managing and coordinating the assessment process. Twenty-three adults with an ASD diagnosis participated in a within-subject crossover design study in which both a remote ADOS and a face-to-face ADOS were administered. After completing the remote ADOS, participants completed a satisfaction survey. Results: Participant satisfaction with the remote ADOS delivery system was high. The kappa value was greater than 0.61 on 21 of 31 ADOS items. There was substantial agreement on ADOS classification (i.e., diagnosis) between assessments delivered face-to-face versus assessments delivered remotely (interclass coefficient=0.92). Non-agreement may have been due to outside factors or practice effect despite a washout period. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that an autism assessment designed to be delivered face to face can be administered remotely using an integrated Web-based system with high levels of usability and reliability. PMID:25569603

  9. Temperament and its Association with Autism Symptoms in a High-risk Population.

    PubMed

    Garon, Nancy; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan; Smith, Isabel M; Brian, Jessica; Roncadin, Caroline; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Armstrong, Vickie; Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Roberts, Wendy

    2016-05-01

    Temperament was investigated in a group of high-risk infants (N = 383; 45 % girls) who had an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and in community control infants (N = 162; 46 % girls) with no family history of ASD (low-risk). The infants were assessed at age 12 months using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, and at 24 months using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire. At 36 months, an independent blind diagnostic assessment for ASD was conducted using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). The results indicate not only differences in temperament traits between the high- and low-risk groups, but also differences in the structure of higher-order temperament factors. The results support the importance of early reactive temperament in the development of Effortful Control in the high-risk sample. Furthermore, Effortful Control at 24 months appears to play a critical role in predicting later ASD symptoms (at 36 months). Taken together, these findings support the use of early temperament as an endophenotype for ASD.

  10. A genetic study of autism in Costa Rica: multiple variables affecting IQ scores observed in a preliminary sample of autistic cases

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, L Alison; González, Patricia Jiménez; Manghi, Elina R; Esquivel, Marcela; Monge, Silvia; Delgado, Marietha Fallas; Fournier, Eduardo; Bondy, Pamela; Castelle, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    Background Autism is a heritable developmental disorder of communication and socialization that has not been well studied in Hispanic populations. Therefore, we are collecting and evaluating all possible cases of autism from a population isolate in the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR) for a clinical and genetic study. Methods We are assessing all subjects and parents, as appropriate, using the newly translated Spanish versions of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) as well as tests of intelligence and adaptive behavior. Detailed obstetric and family medical/psychiatric histories are taken. All cases are tested for Fragile X and will be extensively evaluated for cytogenetic abnormalities. Results To date we have obtained clinical evaluations on over 76 cases of possible autism referred to our study and report data for the initial 35 complete cases. The mean age of the probands is 6.7 years, and 31 of the 35 cases are male. Twenty-one of the cases have IQs <50 and only 6 cases have IQs ≥ 70. Over half of the mothers had complications during pregnancy and/or delivery. No cases have tested positively for Fragile X or PKU. Chromosomal G-banding is not yet complete for all cases. Conclusion Diagnostic data gathered on cases of autism in the CVCR using Spanish versions of the ADI-R and ADOS look similar to that generated by studies of English-speaking cases. However, only 17% of our cases have IQs within the normal range, compared to the figure of 25% seen in most studies. This result reflects an ascertainment bias in that only severe cases of autism come to treatment in the CVCR because there are no government-sponsored support programs or early intervention programs providing an incentive to diagnose autism. The severity of mental retardation seen in most of our cases may also be exaggerated by the lack of early intervention programs and the use of IQ tests without Costa Rican norms. Still, we must

  11. Views on the diagnostic labels of autism and Asperger's disorder and the proposed changes in the DSM.

    PubMed

    Kite, Donna M; Gullifer, Judith; Tyson, Graham A

    2013-07-01

    With the approaching release of the DSM V in 2013, there has been much debate about the proposal to remove the diagnostic label of Asperger's disorder from the new DSM. This study explored how health and education professionals perceive the conditions of autism and Asperger's disorder and their views on the proposed diagnostic changes. Analysis of the 547 participant responses confirmed an increase stigma is associated with the label of autism, with autism considered to be a more severe than the condition of Asperger's disorder. Approximately half of the participants reported being opposed to proposed diagnostic changes and of the remaining participants, 22% supported the proposed changes and 28% expressed uncertainty.

  12. The Autism Simplex Collection: an international, expertly phenotyped autism sample for genetic and phenotypic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for expanding and enhancing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples, in order to better understand causes of ASD. Methods In a unique public-private partnership, 13 sites with extensive experience in both the assessment and diagnosis of ASD embarked on an ambitious, 2-year program to collect samples for genetic and phenotypic research and begin analyses on these samples. The program was called The Autism Simplex Collection (TASC). TASC sample collection began in 2008 and was completed in 2010, and included nine sites from North America and four sites from Western Europe, as well as a centralized Data Coordinating Center. Results Over 1,700 trios are part of this collection, with DNA from transformed cells now available through the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) measures are available for all probands, as are standardized IQ measures, Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales (VABS), the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and physical measures (height, weight, and head circumference). At almost every site, additional phenotypic measures were collected, including the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) and Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), as well as the non-word repetition scale, Communication Checklist (Children’s or Adult), and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). Moreover, for nearly 1,000 trios, the Autism Genome Project Consortium (AGP) has carried out Illumina 1 M SNP genotyping and called copy number variation (CNV) in the samples, with data being made available through the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Whole exome sequencing (WES) has been carried out in over 500 probands, together with ancestry matched controls, and this data is also available through the NIH. Additional WES is being carried out by the Autism Sequencing Consortium (ASC), where the

  13. Pre-Linguistic Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule Adapted for Older Individuals with Severe to Profound Mental Retardation: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berument, Sibel Kazak; Starr, Elizabeth; Pickles, Andrew; Tomlins, Megan; Papanikolauou, Katerina; Lord, Catherine; Rutter, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule (ADOS) is a semi-structured observational scale developed to assess social interaction, communication and play in individuals who are suspected to have autism. Since the ADOS is not suitable to be used with severely or profoundly mentally retarded adolescents and adults with very limited language…

  14. Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Does Sex Moderate the Pathway from Clinical Symptoms to Adaptive Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Mandic-Maravic, Vanja; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Mitkovic-Voncina, Marija; Kostic, Milutin; Aleksic-Hil, Olivera; Radosavljev-Kircanski, Jelena; Mincic, Teodora; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica

    2015-01-01

    We explored sex differences in diagnostic categories, clinical symptoms and adaptive behavior of persons with autism spectrum disorders, as well as sex-specific correlations of clinical and adaptive caracteristics. The study involved 108 patients (83 males, 6.73 ± 4.33 years old) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Assessment included ADI-R and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II. Males were more often diagnosed with typical autism. There were no sex differences in the autistic symptoms, while females showed better functioning in Daily living skills, without reaching statistically significant difference (p = 0.062). We have found different associations of autistic symptoms with different aspects of adaptive behavior in males and females. Social reciprocity in females correlated with social domain of adaptive behavior, in a positive direction. Our findings have shown that although there are no sex differences in autistic symptoms, females tend to be somewhat more functional, and are also less frequently diagnosed with typical autism. Our results have also shown that sex might moderate the way clinical symptoms are expressed in adaptive behavior. Social reciprocity might be the core feature regarding sex differences in ASD. Our findings might have diagnostic and therapeutical implications, pointing out to the need for individualized, sex-specific treatment in this group of disorders. PMID:25988942

  15. Sex differences in autism spectrum disorders: does sex moderate the pathway from clinical symptoms to adaptive behavior?

    PubMed

    Mandic-Maravic, Vanja; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Mitkovic-Voncina, Marija; Kostic, Milutin; Aleksic-Hil, Olivera; Radosavljev-Kircanski, Jelena; Mincic, Teodora; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica

    2015-01-01

    We explored sex differences in diagnostic categories, clinical symptoms and adaptive behavior of persons with autism spectrum disorders, as well as sex-specific correlations of clinical and adaptive caracteristics. The study involved 108 patients (83 males, 6.73 ± 4.33 years old) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Assessment included ADI-R and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II. Males were more often diagnosed with typical autism. There were no sex differences in the autistic symptoms, while females showed better functioning in Daily living skills, without reaching statistically significant difference (p = 0.062). We have found different associations of autistic symptoms with different aspects of adaptive behavior in males and females. Social reciprocity in females correlated with social domain of adaptive behavior, in a positive direction. Our findings have shown that although there are no sex differences in autistic symptoms, females tend to be somewhat more functional, and are also less frequently diagnosed with typical autism. Our results have also shown that sex might moderate the way clinical symptoms are expressed in adaptive behavior. Social reciprocity might be the core feature regarding sex differences in ASD. Our findings might have diagnostic and therapeutical implications, pointing out to the need for individualized, sex-specific treatment in this group of disorders.

  16. Clinical use of the autism diagnostic observation schedule-second edition with children who are deaf.

    PubMed

    Mood, Deborah; Shield, Aaron

    2014-11-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition (ADOS-2) was administered to eight children who are deaf and who are native American Sign Language (ASL) users with previous autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Classification on two different module selection criteria was compared based on: (1) standardized administration rules (signs not counted as equivalent to words) and (2) commonly utilized clinical administration (sign language complexity treated equivalently to spoken language complexity). Differential module selection resulted in discrepant classification in five of the eight cases (63%) and suggests that ADOS-2 via standardized test administration may result in a failure to identify autism among children who are deaf with primary communication in ASL. Two of the eight children (25%) did not exceed the cutoff for an ASD classification on either module administered despite previous ASD diagnosis. Overall results suggest that caution should be used when utilizing the ADOS-2 with children who are deaf who primarily communicate using ASL. PMID:25321853

  17. The Structure of Autism Symptoms as Measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Megan; Lecavalier, Luc; Edwards, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested several competing models of the autism phenotype using data from modules 1 and 3 of the ADOS. Participants included individuals with ASDs aged 3-18 years (N = 1,409) from the AGRE database. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed on total samples and subsamples based on age and level of functioning. Three primary…

  18. The autism diagnostic observation schedule, module 4: revised algorithm and standardized severity scores.

    PubMed

    Hus, Vanessa; Lord, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    The recently published Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) includes revised diagnostic algorithms and standardized severity scores for modules used to assess younger children. A revised algorithm and severity scores are not yet available for Module 4, used with verbally fluent adults. The current study revises the Module 4 algorithm and calibrates raw overall and domain totals to provide metrics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom severity. Sensitivity and specificity of the revised Module 4 algorithm exceeded 80 % in the overall sample. Module 4 calibrated severity scores provide quantitative estimates of ASD symptom severity that are relatively independent of participant characteristics. These efforts increase comparability of ADOS scores across modules and should facilitate efforts to examine symptom trajectories from toddler to adulthood.

  19. Diagnostic evaluation for autism spectrum disorder: a survey of health professionals in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lauren J; Eapen, Valsamma; Maybery, Murray T; Midford, Sue; Paynter, Jessica; Quarmby, Lyndsay; Smith, Timothy; Williams, Katrina; Whitehouse, Andrew J O

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is currently no agreed Australian standard for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) even though there are specific diagnostic services available. We suspected inconsistency in the diagnostic practices of health professionals in Australia and aimed to assess these practices across the nation by surveying all relevant professional groups. Design In this study, we completed a survey of 173 health professionals whose clinical practice includes participating in the diagnostic process for ASD in Australia. Participants completed an online questionnaire which included questions about their diagnostic setting, diagnostic practice and diagnostic outcomes in 2014–2015. Participants Participants covered a range of disciplines including paediatrics, psychiatry, psychology, speech pathology and occupational therapy. All states and territories of Australia were represented. Setting Participants came from a range of service settings which included hospitals, non-governmental organisations, publicly funded diagnostic services and private practice. Results There was variability in diagnostic practices for ASD in Australia. While some clinicians work within a multidisciplinary assessment team, others practice independently and rarely collaborate with other clinicians to make a diagnostic decision. Only half of the respondents reported that they include a standardised objective assessment tool such as the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule in ASD assessments, and one-third indicated that they do not include measures of development, cognition and language in assessments where ASD is suspected. Conclusions Reported practice of some professionals in Australia may not be consistent with international best practice guidelines for ASD diagnosis. These findings highlight the need for a minimum national standard for ASD diagnosis throughout Australia that ensures best practice regardless of the type of setting in which the service is provided. PMID:27601502

  20. Do Individuals with High Functioning Autism Have the IQ Profile Associated with Nonverbal Learning Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Kojkowski, Nicole; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Previously researchers have noted a high level of occurrence of the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) in Asperger syndrome (ASP) but not in high functioning autism (HFA). We examined the IQ profile scores of a large sample of children (n=69) and adults (n=77) with HFA, stringently diagnosed according to ADOS, ADI-R,…

  1. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Autism Incorporating Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and Social Responsiveness Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, John J.; Glessner, Joseph T.; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to understand the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been hampered by genetic complexity and heterogeneity among individuals. One strategy for reducing complexity is to target endophenotypes, simpler biologically based measures that may involve fewer genes and constitute a more homogenous sample. A genome-wide association…

  2. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Module 4: Application of the Revised Algorithms in an Independent, Well-Defined, Dutch Sample (N = 93)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Meffert, Harma; Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A. C. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the discriminative ability of the revised Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule module 4 algorithm (Hus and Lord in "J Autism Dev Disord" 44(8):1996-2012, 2014) in 93 Dutch males with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, psychopathy or controls. Discriminative ability of the revised algorithm ASD cut-off…

  3. Views on the Diagnostic Labels of Autism and Asperger's Disorder and the Proposed Changes in the DSM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kite, Donna M.; Gullifer, Judith; Tyson, Graham A.

    2013-01-01

    With the approaching release of the DSM V in 2013, there has been much debate about the proposal to remove the diagnostic label of Asperger's disorder from the new DSM. This study explored how health and education professionals perceive the conditions of autism and Asperger's disorder and their views on the proposed diagnostic changes.…

  4. Lead Excretion in Spanish Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Albero, Milagros; Puig-Alcaraz, Carmen; Cauli, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Among epigenetic factors leading to increased prevalence of juvenile neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, exposure to metals, such as lead (Pb) have led to conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of Pb in the urine of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with typically developing children (TD) age- and sex-matched, and to analyze any association between core symptoms of ASD, special diets, supplements intake or prescription drugs and the concentration of Pb. The study was performed in a group of children with ASD (n = 35, average age 7.4 ± 0.5 years) and TD (n = 34, average age 7.7 ± 0.9 years). Measurement of lead in urine was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry; symptoms of ASD were analyzed by diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DMS-IV) using the questionnary ADI-R. Careful clinical evaluation was also undertaken and statistical analysis was done taking into account any possible confounding factor. PMID:25692508

  5. Autism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some people with autism are especially good at music or computers or art — just like other teens. ... sleep) Many other types of therapy (including diet, music, and art therapies) can help people with autism ...

  6. Socio-communicative deficits in young children with Williams syndrome: performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule.

    PubMed

    Klein-Tasman, Bonita P; Mervis, Carolyn B; Lord, Catherine; Phillips, Kristin D

    2007-09-01

    In this investigation, the socio-communicative skills of 29 children with Williams syndrome aged 2 (1/2) to 5 (1/2) years were examined using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 1. Most of the participants showed socio-communicative difficulties. Approximately half of the participants were classified by the ADOS algorithm as "autism spectrum." Three participants were classified "autism." Difficulties with pointing, gestures, giving, showing, and eye contact were present for more than half of the participants, with many also showing difficulties with initiation and response to joint attention and with integration of gaze with other behaviors. Expressive and receptive language abilities of the children with Williams syndrome classified "autism spectrum" were weaker than for children classified nonspectrum, but expressive and receptive language level did not account for the socio-communicative difficulties. Implications for our understanding of the socio-communicative abilities of young children with Williams syndrome and diagnostic practices regarding dual diagnosis are discussed.

  7. Autism.

    PubMed

    Essential facts Autism is a lifelong developmental disability that affects how individuals communicate with and relate to other people and the world around them. Autism is known as a spectrum condition because the symptoms vary from person to person and range from mild to severe. According to the National Autistic Society, autism affects around one in 100 people.

  8. Social Communication Disorder outside Autism? A Diagnostic Classification Approach to Delineating Pragmatic Language Impairment, High Functioning Autism and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Green, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Developmental disorders of language and communication present considerable diagnostic challenges due to overlapping of symptomatology and uncertain aetiology. We aimed to further elucidate the behavioural and linguistic profile associated with impairments of social communication occurring outside of an autism diagnosis. Methods: Six to…

  9. Diagnostic classification of intrinsic functional connectivity highlights somatosensory, default mode, and visual regions in autism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Colleen P; Keown, Christopher L; Jahedi, Afrooz; Nair, Aarti; Pflieger, Mark E; Bailey, Barbara A; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2015-01-01

    Despite consensus on the neurological nature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), brain biomarkers remain unknown and diagnosis continues to be based on behavioral criteria. Growing evidence suggests that brain abnormalities in ASD occur at the level of interconnected networks; however, previous attempts using functional connectivity data for diagnostic classification have reached only moderate accuracy. We selected 252 low-motion resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) scans from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) including typically developing (TD) and ASD participants (n = 126 each), matched for age, non-verbal IQ, and head motion. A matrix of functional connectivities between 220 functionally defined regions of interest was used for diagnostic classification, implementing several machine learning tools. While support vector machines in combination with particle swarm optimization and recursive feature elimination performed modestly (with accuracies for validation datasets <70%), diagnostic classification reached a high accuracy of 91% with random forest (RF), a nonparametric ensemble learning method. Among the 100 most informative features (connectivities), for which this peak accuracy was achieved, participation of somatosensory, default mode, visual, and subcortical regions stood out. Whereas some of these findings were expected, given previous findings of default mode abnormalities and atypical visual functioning in ASD, the prominent role of somatosensory regions was remarkable. The finding of peak accuracy for 100 interregional functional connectivities further suggests that brain biomarkers of ASD may be regionally complex and distributed, rather than localized. PMID:26106547

  10. The Swedish Version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale: Revised (RAADS-R). A Validation Study of a Rating Scale for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lisa M. J.; Naswall, Katharina; Manouilenko, Irina; Nylander, Lena; Edgar, Johan; Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward; Bejerot, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of diagnostic instruments for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R), an 80-item self-rating scale designed to assist clinicians diagnosing ASD in adults. It was administered to 75…

  11. Sensorimotor Difficulties Are Associated with the Severity of Autism Spectrum Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hannant, Penelope; Cassidy, Sarah; Tavassoli, Teresa; Mann, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Present diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum conditions (ASC) include social communication and interaction difficulties, repetitive behavior and movement, and atypical sensory responsivity. Few studies have explored the influence of motor coordination and sensory responsivity on severity of ASC symptoms. In the current study, we explore whether sensory responsivity and motor coordination differences can account for the severity of autistic behaviors in children with ASC. Thirty-six children participated: 18 (13 male, 5 female) with ASC (ages 7–16: mean age = 9.93 years) and 18 (7 male, 11 female) typically developing (TD) children (ages 6–12; mean age = 9.16 years). Both groups completed a battery of assessments that included motor coordination, sensory responsivity, receptive language, non-verbal reasoning and social communication measures. Children with ASC also completed the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Autism Diagnostic Interview—Revised (ADI-R). Results showed that children with ASC scored significantly lower on receptive language, coordination, sensory responsivity and a sensorimotor subscale, Modulation of Activity (MoA) compared to the TD group. In the ASC group, MoA significantly predicted ASC severity across all ASC measures; receptive language and sensory responsivity significantly predicted parental reported autism measures; and coordination significantly predicted examiner observed reported scores. Additionally, specific associations were found between the somatosensory perceptive modalities and ASC severity. The results show that sensorimotor skills are associated with severity of ASC symptoms; furthering the need to research sensorimotor integration in ASC and also implying that diagnosis of ASC should also include the assessment of both coordination deficit and atypical sensory responsivity. PMID:27582694

  12. Sensorimotor Difficulties Are Associated with the Severity of Autism Spectrum Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hannant, Penelope; Cassidy, Sarah; Tavassoli, Teresa; Mann, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Present diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum conditions (ASC) include social communication and interaction difficulties, repetitive behavior and movement, and atypical sensory responsivity. Few studies have explored the influence of motor coordination and sensory responsivity on severity of ASC symptoms. In the current study, we explore whether sensory responsivity and motor coordination differences can account for the severity of autistic behaviors in children with ASC. Thirty-six children participated: 18 (13 male, 5 female) with ASC (ages 7-16: mean age = 9.93 years) and 18 (7 male, 11 female) typically developing (TD) children (ages 6-12; mean age = 9.16 years). Both groups completed a battery of assessments that included motor coordination, sensory responsivity, receptive language, non-verbal reasoning and social communication measures. Children with ASC also completed the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Results showed that children with ASC scored significantly lower on receptive language, coordination, sensory responsivity and a sensorimotor subscale, Modulation of Activity (MoA) compared to the TD group. In the ASC group, MoA significantly predicted ASC severity across all ASC measures; receptive language and sensory responsivity significantly predicted parental reported autism measures; and coordination significantly predicted examiner observed reported scores. Additionally, specific associations were found between the somatosensory perceptive modalities and ASC severity. The results show that sensorimotor skills are associated with severity of ASC symptoms; furthering the need to research sensorimotor integration in ASC and also implying that diagnosis of ASC should also include the assessment of both coordination deficit and atypical sensory responsivity. PMID:27582694

  13. Comparing Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders Using the Current "DSM-IV-TR" Diagnostic Criteria and the Proposed "DSM-V" Diagnostic Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Julie A.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2012-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association has proposed major revisions for the diagnostic category encompassing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), which will reportedly increase the specificity and maintain the sensitivity of diagnoses. As a result, the aim of the current study was to compare symptoms of ASD in children and adolescents (N = 208) who met…

  14. Head circumference and height in autism: a study by the Collaborative Program of Excellence in Autism.

    PubMed

    Lainhart, Janet E; Bigler, Erin D; Bocian, Maureen; Coon, Hilary; Dinh, Elena; Dawson, Geraldine; Deutsch, Curtis K; Dunn, Michelle; Estes, Annette; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Folstein, Susan; Hepburn, Susan; Hyman, Susan; McMahon, William; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeff; Osann, Kathy; Ozonoff, Sally; Rodier, Patricia; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Spence, M Anne; Stodgell, Christopher J; Volkmar, Fred

    2006-11-01

    Data from 10 sites of the NICHD/NIDCD Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism were combined to study the distribution of head circumference and relationship to demographic and clinical variables. Three hundred thirty-eight probands with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) including 208 probands with autism were studied along with 147 parents, 149 siblings, and typically developing controls. ASDs were diagnosed, and head circumference and clinical variables measured in a standardized manner across all sites. All subjects with autism met ADI-R, ADOS-G, DSM-IV, and ICD-10 criteria. The results show the distribution of standardized head circumference in autism is normal in shape, and the mean, variance, and rate of macrocephaly but not microcephaly are increased. Head circumference tends to be large relative to height in autism. No site, gender, age, SES, verbal, or non-verbal IQ effects were present in the autism sample. In addition to autism itself, standardized height and average parental head circumference were the most important factors predicting head circumference in individuals with autism. Mean standardized head circumference and rates of macrocephaly were similar in probands with autism and their parents. Increased head circumference was associated with a higher (more severe) ADI-R social algorithm score. Macrocephaly is associated with delayed onset of language. Although mean head circumference and rates of macrocephaly are increased in autism, a high degree of variability is present, underscoring the complex clinical heterogeneity of the disorder. The wide distribution of head circumference in autism has major implications for genetic, neuroimaging, and other neurobiological research. PMID:17022081

  15. Diagnostic practice and its impacts on parental health and child behaviour problems in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Reed, Phil; Osborne, Lisa A

    2012-10-01

    Obtaining a diagnosis is a key point in developing a treatment plan for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but little attention has been paid to the impacts of diagnostic practices on families, and the consequent impact on child outcomes. Parents' experiences during ASD diagnosis for their child can be stressful, and such stress can lead to parental ill health, child-behaviour problems, and poorer child outcomes following treatment. Thus, the conduct of diagnosis may be of particular importance for subsequent child outcomes and parental health. A lack of knowledge regarding best diagnostic practice may ultimately impair treatment efficacy and lead to increased health- and economic-burdens. Given this, the current article examines recent work concerning: parental experiences of ASD diagnoses; general health and psychological functioning of parents of newly-diagnosed children with ASD; aspects of the diagnostic process impacting on parental functioning; and the relationship of parental functioning to child outcomes. These are placed into the context of diagnostic best practice for ASD, and understanding the complex relationship between ASD and family variables.

  16. Rapid-Response Parenting Intervention in Diagnostic Centers as a Patient-Centered Innovation for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillin, Stephen Edward; Bultas, Margaret W.; Wilmott, Jennifer; Grafeman, Sarah; Zand, Debra H.

    2015-01-01

    Parents of children newly diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders are a high-need population for whom skills-based parenting interventions likely help. Diagnostic centers are compelling locations to deliver parenting interventions because families are served in an accessible location and at a time they receive overwhelming treatment…

  17. Impact of Adherence to Best Practice Guidelines on the Diagnostic and Assessment Services for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathorn, Claire; Alateeqi, Nahed; Graham, Catriona; O'Hare, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Despite their range and complexity, adherence to Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network guideline for the diagnosis and assessment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) was shown to be high within child development and specialist diagnostic clinics serving a geographical cohort of children diagnosed under the age of 7 years. A retrospective…

  18. Emotion Perception in Asperger's Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism: The Importance of Diagnostic Criteria and Cue Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Oswald, Donald P.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared emotion perception accuracy between children with Asperger's syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA). Thirty children were diagnosed with AS or HFA based on empirically supported diagnostic criteria and administered an emotion perception test consisting of facial expressions and tone of voice cues that varied in…

  19. Utility of the 3Di Short Version for the Diagnostic Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Compatibility with DSM-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slappendel, Geerte; Mandy, William; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Sijde, Ad; Duvekot, Jorieke; Skuse, David; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Diagnostic Dimensional Interview-short version (3Di-sv) provides a brief standardized parental interview for diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study explored its validity, and compatibility with DSM-5 ASD. 3Di-sv classifications showed good sensitivity but low specificity when compared to ADOS-2-confirmed clinical…

  20. Diagnostic Yield of Chromosomal Microarray Analysis in a Cohort of Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders from a Highly Consanguineous Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mamari, Watfa; Al-Saegh, Abeer; Al-Kindy, Adila; Bruwer, Zandre; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Al-Thihli, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders are a complicated group of disorders characterized with heterogeneous genetic etiologies. The genetic investigations for this group of disorders have expanded considerably over the past decade. In our study we designed a tired approach and studied the diagnostic yield of chromosomal microarray analysis on patients…

  1. Autism Spectrum Conditions in Individuals with Mobius Sequence, CHARGE Syndrome and Oculo-Auriculo-Vertebral Spectrum: Diagnostic Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Rastam, Maria

    2010-01-01

    As part of multidisciplinary surveys of three Behavioural Phenotype Conditions (BPCs); Mobius sequence (Mobius), CHARGE syndrome (CHARGE) and oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAV), autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) was diagnosed in 45%, 68% and 42% of the individuals, respectively. Diagnostic difficulties due to additional dysfunctions such as…

  2. Markers of Celiac Disease and Gluten Sensitivity in Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Nga M.; Green, Peter H. R.; Taylor, Annette K.; Hellberg, Dan; Ajamian, Mary; Tan, Caroline Z.; Kosofsky, Barry E.; Higgins, Joseph J.; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M.; Alaedini, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Gastrointestinal symptoms are a common feature in children with autism, drawing attention to a potential association with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity. However, studies to date regarding the immune response to gluten in autism and its association with celiac disease have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess immune reactivity to gluten in pediatric patients diagnosed with autism according to strict criteria and to evaluate the potential link between autism and celiac disease. Methods Study participants included children (with or without gastrointestinal symptoms) diagnosed with autism according to both the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview, Revised (ADI-R) (n = 37), their unaffected siblings (n = 27), and age-matched healthy controls (n = 76). Serum specimens were tested for antibodies to native gliadin, deamidated gliadin, and transglutaminase 2 (TG2). Affected children were genotyped for celiac disease associated HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 alleles. Results Children with autism had significantly higher levels of IgG antibody to gliadin compared with unrelated healthy controls (p<0.01). The IgG levels were also higher compared to the unaffected siblings, but did not reach statistical significance. The IgG anti-gliadin antibody response was significantly greater in the autistic children with gastrointestinal symptoms in comparison to those without them (p<0.01). There was no difference in IgA response to gliadin across groups. The levels of celiac disease-specific serologic markers, i.e., antibodies to deamidated gliadin and TG2, did not differ between patients and controls. An association between increased anti-gliadin antibody and presence of HLA-DQ2 and/or -DQ8 was not observed. Conclusions A subset of children with autism displays increased immune reactivity to gluten, the mechanism of which appears to be distinct from that in celiac disease. The increased anti-gliadin antibody

  3. Diagnostic Yield of Chromosomal Microarray Analysis in a Cohort of Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders from a Highly Consanguineous Population.

    PubMed

    Al-Mamari, Watfa; Al-Saegh, Abeer; Al-Kindy, Adila; Bruwer, Zandre; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Al-Thihli, Khalid

    2015-08-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders are a complicated group of disorders characterized with heterogeneous genetic etiologies. The genetic investigations for this group of disorders have expanded considerably over the past decade. In our study we designed a tired approach and studied the diagnostic yield of chromosomal microarray analysis on patients referred to the Genetic and Developmental Medicine clinic in Sultan Qaboos University in Oman for autism spectrum disorders in a highly consanguineous population. Copy number variants were seen in 27% of our studied cohort of patients and it was strongly associated with dysmorphic features and congenital anomalies. PMID:25703031

  4. Neurotrophin blood-based gene expression and social cognition analysis in patients with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Segura, Mònica; Pedreño, Carla; Obiols, Jordi; Taurines, Regina; Pàmias, Montserrat; Grünblatt, Edna; Gella, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise neurodevelopmental disorders with clinical onset during the first years of life. The identification of peripheral biomarkers could significantly impact diagnosis and an individualized, early treatment. Although the aetiology of ASD remains poorly understood, there is increasing evidence that neurotrophins and their receptors represent a group of candidate genes for ASD pathophysiology and biomarker research. Total messenger RNA (mRNA) from whole blood was obtained from adolescents and adults diagnosed as ASD (n = 21) according to DSM-IV criteria and confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) algorithms, as well as healthy controls (n = 10). The mRNA expression of neurotrophins (BDNF, NT3 and NT4) and their receptors (TrkA, TrkB and p75 (NTR) ) was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Moreover, social cognition abilities of ASD patients and controls were determined according to three Theory of Mind (ToM) tests (Reading the Mind in the Eyes, Faux pas, and Happé stories). The NT3 and NT4 mRNA expression in the whole blood was significantly lower in ASD compared to healthy controls, while p75(NTR) was higher (P < 0.005). In addition, lower scores in three of the ToM tests were observed in ASD subjects compared to controls. A significant (P < 0.005) ToM impairment in Happé stories test was demonstrated in ASD. Nevertheless, no correlations were observed between neurotrophins and their receptors expressions and measures of ToM. Given their potential as peripheral blood-based biomarkers, NT3, NT4 and p75 (NTR) mRNA expression patterns may be useful tools for a more personalized diagnostics and therapy in ASD. Further investigations with larger numbers of samples are needed to verify these results.

  5. Autism

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Susan E; Mandell, David S; Schultz, Robert T

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by severe deficits in socialisation, communication, and repetitive or unusual behaviours. Increases over time in the frequency of these disorders (to present rates of about 60 cases per 10 000 children) might be attributable to factors such as new administrative classifications, policy and practice changes, and increased awareness. Surveillance and screening strategies for early identification could enable early treatment and improved outcomes. Autism spectrum disorders are highly genetic and multifactorial, with many risk factors acting together. Genes that affect synaptic maturation are implicated, resulting in neurobiological theories focusing on connectivity and neural effects of gene expression. Several treatments might address core and comorbid symptoms. However, not all treatments have been adequately studied. Improved strategies for early identification with phenotypic characteristics and biological markers (eg, electrophysiological changes) might hopefully improve effectiveness of treatment. Further knowledge about early identification, neurobiology of autism, effective treatments, and the effect of this disorder on families is needed. PMID:19819542

  6. Air Pollution and Newly Diagnostic Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Chau-Ren; Lin, Yu-Ting; Hwang, Bing-Fang

    2013-01-01

    There is limited evidence that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution increases the risk of childhood autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of the study was to investigate the associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and newly diagnostic ASD in Taiwan. We conducted a population-based cohort of 49,073 children age less than 3 years in 2000 that were retrieved from Taiwan National Insurance Research Database and followed up from 2000 through 2010. Inverse distance weighting method was used to form exposure parameter for ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10). Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards (PH) model was performed to evaluate the relationship between yearly average exposure air pollutants of preceding years and newly diagnostic ASD. The risk of newly diagnostic ASD increased according to increasing O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 levels. The effect estimate indicating an approximately 59% risk increase per 10 ppb increase in O3 level (95% CI 1.42–1.79), 37% risk increase per 10 ppb in CO (95% CI 1.31–1.44), 340% risk increase per 10 ppb increase in NO2 level (95% CI 3.31–5.85), and 17% risk increase per 1 ppb in SO2 level (95% CI 1.09–1.27) was stable with different combinations of air pollutants in the multi-pollutant models. Our results provide evident that children exposure to O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 in the preceding 1 year to 4 years may increase the risk of ASD diagnosis. PMID:24086549

  7. Autism.

    PubMed

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2014-03-01

    Autism is a set of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions, characterised by early-onset difficulties in social communication and unusually restricted, repetitive behaviour and interests. The worldwide population prevalence is about 1%. Autism affects more male than female individuals, and comorbidity is common (>70% have concurrent conditions). Individuals with autism have atypical cognitive profiles, such as impaired social cognition and social perception, executive dysfunction, and atypical perceptual and information processing. These profiles are underpinned by atypical neural development at the systems level. Genetics has a key role in the aetiology of autism, in conjunction with developmentally early environmental factors. Large-effect rare mutations and small-effect common variants contribute to risk. Assessment needs to be multidisciplinary and developmental, and early detection is essential for early intervention. Early comprehensive and targeted behavioural interventions can improve social communication and reduce anxiety and aggression. Drugs can reduce comorbid symptoms, but do not directly improve social communication. Creation of a supportive environment that accepts and respects that the individual is different is crucial.

  8. Comparison of ICD-10R, DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 in an Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnostic Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, C. Ellie; Gillan, Nicola; Spain, Deborah; Robertson, Dene; Roberts, Gedeon; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Maltezos, Stefanos; Zinkstok, Janneke; Johnston, Katie; Dardani, Christina; Ohlsen, Chris; Deeley, P. Quinton; Craig, Michael; Mendez, Maria A.; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2013-01-01

    An Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis is often used to access services. We investigated whether ASD diagnostic outcome varied when DSM-5 was used compared to ICD-10R and DSM-IV-TR in a clinical sample of 150 intellectually able adults. Of those diagnosed with an ASD using ICD-10R, 56% met DSM-5 ASD criteria. A further 19% met DSM-5 (draft)…

  9. Prospective diagnostic analysis of copy number variants using SNP microarrays in individuals with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Caroline; Keren, Boris; Mignot, Cyril; Rastetter, Agnès; Chantot-Bastaraud, Sandra; Faudet, Anne; Fonteneau, Eric; Amiet, Claire; Laurent, Claudine; Jacquette, Aurélia; Whalen, Sandra; Afenjar, Alexandra; Périsse, Didier; Doummar, Diane; Dorison, Nathalie; Leboyer, Marion; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre; Cohen, David; Brice, Alexis; Héron, Delphine; Depienne, Christel

    2014-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) have repeatedly been found to cause or predispose to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). For diagnostic purposes, we screened 194 individuals with ASDs for CNVs using Illumina SNP arrays. In several probands, we also analyzed candidate genes located in inherited deletions to unmask autosomal recessive variants. Three CNVs, a de novo triplication of chromosome 15q11–q12 of paternal origin, a deletion on chromosome 9p24 and a de novo 3q29 deletion, were identified as the cause of the disorder in one individual each. An autosomal recessive cause was considered possible in two patients: a homozygous 1p31.1 deletion encompassing PTGER3 and a deletion of the entire DOCK10 gene associated with a rare hemizygous missense variant. We also identified multiple private or recurrent CNVs, the majority of which were inherited from asymptomatic parents. Although highly penetrant CNVs or variants inherited in an autosomal recessive manner were detected in rare cases, our results mainly support the hypothesis that most CNVs contribute to ASDs in association with other CNVs or point variants located elsewhere in the genome. Identification of these genetic interactions in individuals with ASDs constitutes a formidable challenge. PMID:23632794

  10. Prospective diagnostic analysis of copy number variants using SNP microarrays in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Nava, Caroline; Keren, Boris; Mignot, Cyril; Rastetter, Agnès; Chantot-Bastaraud, Sandra; Faudet, Anne; Fonteneau, Eric; Amiet, Claire; Laurent, Claudine; Jacquette, Aurélia; Whalen, Sandra; Afenjar, Alexandra; Périsse, Didier; Doummar, Diane; Dorison, Nathalie; Leboyer, Marion; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre; Cohen, David; Brice, Alexis; Héron, Delphine; Depienne, Christel

    2014-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) have repeatedly been found to cause or predispose to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). For diagnostic purposes, we screened 194 individuals with ASDs for CNVs using Illumina SNP arrays. In several probands, we also analyzed candidate genes located in inherited deletions to unmask autosomal recessive variants. Three CNVs, a de novo triplication of chromosome 15q11-q12 of paternal origin, a deletion on chromosome 9p24 and a de novo 3q29 deletion, were identified as the cause of the disorder in one individual each. An autosomal recessive cause was considered possible in two patients: a homozygous 1p31.1 deletion encompassing PTGER3 and a deletion of the entire DOCK10 gene associated with a rare hemizygous missense variant. We also identified multiple private or recurrent CNVs, the majority of which were inherited from asymptomatic parents. Although highly penetrant CNVs or variants inherited in an autosomal recessive manner were detected in rare cases, our results mainly support the hypothesis that most CNVs contribute to ASDs in association with other CNVs or point variants located elsewhere in the genome. Identification of these genetic interactions in individuals with ASDs constitutes a formidable challenge. PMID:23632794

  11. Brief Report: An Exploratory Study Comparing Diagnostic Outcomes for Autism Spectrum Disorders under DSM-IV-TR with the Proposed DSM-5 Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Vicki; Aldridge, Fiona; Chandler, Felicity; Witzlsperger, Ellen; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The proposed revision for Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) represents a shift from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). As the proposed DSM-5 criteria require a higher minimum number of symptoms to be…

  12. Autism Litigation: Outcomes for 2010, Trends in Decision Making and Changes in Diagnostic Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Doris Adams; Kearley, Regina

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder has systematically risen since Kanner's description in 1943 and Asperger's definition in 1944. An increase in numbers has met with an increase in litigation regarding autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA). Outcomes that first favored parents…

  13. Validation of a Brief Quantitative Measure of Autistic Traits: Comparison of the Social Responsiveness Scale with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, John N.; Davis, Sandra A.; Todd, Richard D.; Schindler, Matthew K.; Gross, Maggie M.; Brophy, Susan L.; Metzger, Lisa M.; Shoushtari, Christiana S.; Splinter, Reagan; Reich, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    A study compared the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised in 61 children (ages 4-16) with autism. Correlations between the test scores for DSM-IV criterion sets were on the order of 0.7. SRS scores were unrelated to I.Q. and exhibited inter-rater reliability on the order of 0.8. (Contains references.)…

  14. Autism according to diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 5(th) edition: The need for further improvements.

    PubMed

    Posar, Annio; Resca, Federica; Visconti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The fifth edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) introduced significant changes in the classification of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including the abolition of the diagnostic subcategories proposed by DSM-IV-Text Revision. DSM-5 describes three levels of increasing severity of ASD. The authors report two explanatory cases with ASD (verbal boys, aged about 7 and a half years, without intellectual disability). According to DSM-5, both cases fall into the lowest severity level of ASD. However, their neuropsychological and neurobehavioral profile varies significantly. While the first boy showed a prevalent impairment of visuoconstructional and visuoperceptual abilities, the second one presented a predominant involvement of verbal functions, with qualitative impairments in communication. A further step forward in the definition and classification of ASD, taking into account both intensity and quality of symptoms, is recommended in order to formulate a reliable prognosis, plan an individualized treatment and monitor the clinical course over time.

  15. Phenotypic overlap between core diagnostic features and emotional/behavioral problems in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Georgiades, Stelios; Szatmari, Peter; Duku, Eric; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan; Roberts, Wendy; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Smith, Isabel; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Thompson, Ann

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the phenotypic overlap between core diagnostic features and emotional/behavioral problems in a sample of 335 preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results from principal component analysis (2 components; 49.70% variance explained) suggested substantial phenotypic overlap between core diagnostic features and emotional/behavioral problems. Component I, Emotional Behavioral Repetitive Problems, was independent of the children's intellectual, adaptive functioning, and structural language abilities. Component II, Social Communication Deficits, was negatively related to the children's intellectual, adaptive functioning, and structural language abilities. Both components were positively related to parental stress. This exploratory study contributes to our understanding of the ASD phenotype and provides further support for including emotional/behavioral problems as part of the clinical characterization of children with ASD.

  16. Combining Information from Multiple Sources in the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risi, Susan; Lord, Catherine; Gotham, Katherine; Corsello, Christina; Chrysler, Christina; Szatmari, Peter; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Pickles, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Background: Standard case criteria are proposed for combined use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule to diagnose autism and to define the broader category of autism spectrum disorders. Method: Single and combined Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule…

  17. The Effect of Diagnostic Labels on the Affective Responses of College Students towards Peers with "Asperger's Syndrome" and "Autism Spectrum Disorder"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Mark; Mills, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Given the removal of Asperger's Syndrome label in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition," the impact of clinical labels upon the affective responses of college students was explored. A total of 120 college students read two vignettes depicting social interactions typical of a person with autism spectrum…

  18. Evaluating Autism Diagnostic and Screening Tools for Cultural and Linguistic Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Bryn; Barton, Erin E.; Albert, Chantel

    2014-01-01

    While clear guidelines and best practices exist for the assessment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little information is available about assessing for ASD in culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) populations. CLD populations might be misidentified and under-identified with ASD due to the assessment practices that we employ. Four autism…

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorder in the DSM-5: Diagnostic Sensitivity and Specificity in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansz, Jessica A.; Gray, Kylie M.; Taffe, John; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    Changes to the DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) criteria raised concerns among parents and practitioners that the criteria may exclude some children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). Few studies have examined DSM-5 sensitivity and specificity in children less than 5 years of age. This study evaluated 185 children aged 20-55 months…

  20. Increasing prevalence, changes in diagnostic criteria, and nutritional risk factors for autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Neggers, Yasmin H

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) diagnoses has been increasing for decades, but researchers cannot agree on whether the trend is a result of increased awareness, improved detection, expanding definition, or an actual increase in incidence or a combination of these factors. Though both genetic and multiple environmental risk factors have been studied extensively, many potentially modifiable risk factors including nutritional and immune function related risk factors such as vitamin D, folic acid, and metabolic syndrome have not received sufficient attention. Several recent studies have put forward hypotheses to explain the mechanism of association between both folic acid and vitamin D and autism. A continuous rise in the prevalence of autism in the USA has coincided with a significant enhancement of maternal folate status with FDA mandated folic acid fortification of certain foods starting in 1998. There is also a growing body of research that suggests that vitamin D status either in utero or early in life may be a risk for autism. In this communication, controversies regarding increase in estimate of prevalence, implications of changes in definition, and possible association between some modifiable nutritional risk factors such as folic acid and vitamin D and ASD will be discussed.

  1. Neural synchrony examined with magnetoencephalography (MEG) during eye gaze processing in autism spectrum disorders: preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gaze processing deficits are a seminal, early, and enduring behavioral deficit in autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, a comprehensive characterization of the neural processes mediating abnormal gaze processing in ASD has yet to be conducted. Methods This study investigated whole-brain patterns of neural synchrony during passive viewing of direct and averted eye gaze in ASD adolescents and young adults (M Age  = 16.6) compared to neurotypicals (NT) (M Age  = 17.5) while undergoing magnetoencephalography. Coherence between each pair of 54 brain regions within each of three frequency bands (low frequency (0 to 15 Hz), beta (15 to 30 Hz), and low gamma (30 to 45 Hz)) was calculated. Results Significantly higher coherence and synchronization in posterior brain regions (temporo-parietal-occipital) across all frequencies was evident in ASD, particularly within the low 0 to 15 Hz frequency range. Higher coherence in fronto-temporo-parietal regions was noted in NT. A significantly higher number of low frequency cross-hemispheric synchronous connections and a near absence of right intra-hemispheric coherence in the beta frequency band were noted in ASD. Significantly higher low frequency coherent activity in bilateral temporo-parieto-occipital cortical regions and higher gamma band coherence in right temporo-parieto-occipital brain regions during averted gaze was related to more severe symptomology as reported on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Conclusions The preliminary results suggest a pattern of aberrant connectivity that includes higher low frequency synchronization in posterior cortical regions, lack of long-range right hemispheric beta and gamma coherence, and decreased coherence in fronto-temporo-parietal regions necessary for orienting to shifts in eye gaze in ASD; a critical behavior essential for social communication. PMID:24976870

  2. Comparison of ICD-10R, DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 in an adult autism spectrum disorder diagnostic clinic.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C Ellie; Gillan, Nicola; Spain, Deborah; Robertson, Dene; Roberts, Gedeon; Murphy, Clodagh M; Maltezos, Stefanos; Zinkstok, Janneke; Johnston, Katie; Dardani, Christina; Ohlsen, Chris; Deeley, P Quinton; Craig, Michael; Mendez, Maria A; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan G M

    2013-11-01

    An Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis is often used to access services. We investigated whether ASD diagnostic outcome varied when DSM-5 was used compared to ICD-10R and DSM-IV-TR in a clinical sample of 150 intellectually able adults. Of those diagnosed with an ASD using ICD-10R, 56 % met DSM-5 ASD criteria. A further 19 % met DSM-5 (draft) criteria for Social Communication Disorder. Of those diagnosed with Autistic Disorder/Asperger Syndrome on DSM-IV-TR, 78 % met DSM-5 ASD criteria. Sensitivity of DSM-5 was significantly increased by reducing the number of criteria required for a DSM-5 diagnosis, or by rating 'uncertain' criteria as 'present', without sacrificing specificity. Reduced rates of ASD diagnosis may mean some ASD individuals will be unable to access clinical services.

  3. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Module 4: Application of the Revised Algorithms in an Independent, Well-Defined, Dutch Sample (n = 93).

    PubMed

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Meffert, Harma; Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A C J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the discriminative ability of the revised Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule module 4 algorithm (Hus and Lord in J Autism Dev Disord 44(8):1996-2012, 2014) in 93 Dutch males with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, psychopathy or controls. Discriminative ability of the revised algorithm ASD cut-off resembled the original algorithm ASD cut-off: highly specific for psychopathy and controls, lower sensitivity than Hus and Lord (2014; i.e. ASD .61, AD .53). The revised algorithm AD cut-off improved sensitivity over the original algorithm. Discriminating ASD from schizophrenia was still challenging, but the better-balanced sensitivity (.53) and specificity (.78) of the revised algorithm AD cut-off may aide clinicians' differential diagnosis. Findings support using the revised algorithm, being conceptually conform the other modules, thus improving comparability across the lifespan.

  4. Diagnostic boundaries of autism disorder vs pervasive developmental disorder nos comparative observational study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Carigi, Tiziana; Muratori, Filippo; Termine, Cristiano; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Derhemi, Ledhina; Di Nardo, Roberta; Rossi, Giorgio; Balottin, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs), and above all diagnosis of the different PDD subtypes, is an ongoing challenge in psychopathology. Application of categorical criteria is complex and problematic in the clinical field where the boundaries dividing some of the PDD entities are blurred, creating particular problems for the clinician. A dimensional clinical approach, considering autistic symptom severity, level of functioning, developmental characteristics and symptoms other than the ones typically observed in autism, may be a more suitable approach in the clinical field and could provide the clinician treating these disorders with empirical guidance. To identify the clinical features that might differentiate the PDD subtypes, we conducted a comparative study in a clinical sample of children affected by autism disorder (AD) or pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and a mini critical review of the available literature addressing clinical and psychopathological differences between the two subtypes. The results of both our study and our literature review seem to show little support for the current PDD subtypes. In such a framework, the most significant element in clinical practice appears to be a deep knowledge of the characteristics of the individual in question. By adopting a broad and multi-faceted perspective, it becomes possible to define the most effective rehabilitation treatment. This applies particularly to the pharmacological treatment, since, to date, no specific therapies for PDDs are known and the choice of pharmacotherapy can be decided only on the basis of the patient's general profile and specific features.

  5. Test Review: Lord, C., Luyster, R. J., Gotham, K., & Guthrie, W. (2012). "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition (ADOS-2) Manual (Part II): Toddler Module." Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2012. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition." Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam; Rostad, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition" (ADOS-2; Lord, Luyster, Gotham, & Guthrie, 2012; Lord, Rutter et al., 2012), a newly updated, semistructured, standardized measure of communication, social interaction, play/imagination, and restricted and/or repetitive behaviors published by Western…

  6. Brief report: an exploratory study comparing diagnostic outcomes for autism spectrum disorders under DSM-IV-TR with the proposed DSM-5 revision.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Vicki; Aldridge, Fiona; Chandler, Felicity; Witzlsperger, Ellen; Smith, Karen

    2012-08-01

    The proposed revision for Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders--Fifth Edition (DSM-5) represents a shift from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders--Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). As the proposed DSM-5 criteria require a higher minimum number of symptoms to be present compared to DSM-IV-TR, there have been some concerns about the impact that this will have on diagnostic outcomes. Therefore, the current study aimed to compare diagnostic outcomes using both DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria for 132 children. Of the 111 participants who received an ASD diagnosis under DSM-IV-TR, 26 did not meet DSM-5 criteria. The majority of these had received a DSM-IV-TR PDD-NOS diagnosis. Implications of the results and the proposed DSM-5 changes to the ASD criteria are discussed.

  7. Discriminant and concurrent validity of a simplified DSM-based structured diagnostic instrument for the assessment of autism spectrum disorders in youth and young adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To evaluate the concurrent and discriminant validity of a brief DSM-based structured diagnostic interview for referred individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Methods To test concurrent validity, we assessed the structured interview's agreement in 123 youth with the expert clinician assessment and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Discriminant validity was examined using 1563 clinic-referred youth. Results The structured diagnostic interview and SRS were highly sensitive indicators of the expert clinician assessment. Equally strong was the agreement between the structured interview and SRS. We found evidence for high specificity for the structured interview. Conclusions A simplified DSM-based ASD structured diagnostic interview could serve as a useful diagnostic aid in the assessment of subjects with ASDs in clinical and research settings. PMID:22208391

  8. [DSM-5 AND AUTISM: DIAGNOSTIC CHANGES AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD].

    PubMed

    Faroy, Michal; Meiri, Gal; Arbelle, Shoshana

    2016-05-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by significant disability in interpersonal communication, social interactions and patterns of unusual behavior. In recent decades the worldwide prevalence of ASDs is rising almost exponentially, without a clear known etiological explanation. Until recently, ASDs were defined by the American Manual of Psychiatric Diagnoses: The DSM-IV-TR, under one conceptual umbrella of "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" (PDD). Under this category, there were five separate diagnoses. The DSM-5 eliminated the separate,diagnoses and created one continuum (Autism Spectrum Disorder = ASD). By this definition, the symptomatic manifestation was reduced and the criteria for diagnosis are fixed for the entire spectrum. The differences between individuals are expressed in the levels of severity rated. Studies evaluating the transition from PDD to ASD, found an increase in the specificity of the diagnosis and its potential ability to distinguish between clinical and non-clinical populations. Alongside the increase in consistency and stability, there is a decrease in sensitivity, and about a quarter of the children who were previously diagnosed with PDD are not diagnosed as such, due to a failure to meet all the necessary symptoms. These changes especially affect the clinical diagnosis of young children as their symptomatic manifestation is not yet clear and distinct enough due to their age and maturation processes. This article discusses the clinical implications of these findings and demonstrates it from a case report. PMID:27526557

  9. The effect of diagnostic labels on the affective responses of college students towards peers with 'Asperger's Syndrome' and 'Autism Spectrum Disorder'.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Mark; Mills, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Given the removal of Asperger's Syndrome label in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition, the impact of clinical labels upon the affective responses of college students was explored. A total of 120 college students read two vignettes depicting social interactions typical of a person with autism spectrum disorder. In one vignette, they were informed that the character was a typical college student and in the other, the character had a clinical disorder (either autism spectrum disorder, Asperger's Syndrome or Schizophrenia). Participants' affective responses were measured on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. No significant differences in positive and negative affective responses were found between the clinical labels. However, affective responses were significantly more positive and less negative towards behaviours associated with clinical groups compared to the typical college student. The implications for students disclosing their diagnosis at university are discussed.

  10. Comparing Diagnostic Outcomes of Autism Spectrum Disorder Using DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 Criteria.

    PubMed

    Harstad, Elizabeth B; Fogler, Jason; Sideridis, Georgios; Weas, Sarah; Mauras, Carrie; Barbaresi, William J

    2015-05-01

    Controversy exists regarding the DSM-5 criteria for ASD. This study tested the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 model and determined how well it performed across different gender, IQ, and DSM-IV-TR sub-type, using clinically collected data on 227 subjects (median age = 3.95 years, majority had IQ > 70). DSM-5 was psychometrically superior to the DSM-IV-TR model (Comparative Fit Index of 0.970 vs 0.879, respectively). Measurement invariance revealed good model fit across gender and IQ. Younger children tended to meet fewer diagnostic criteria. Those with autistic disorder were more likely to meet social communication and repetitive behaviors criteria (p < .001) than those with PDD-NOS. DSM-5 is a robust model but will identify a different, albeit overlapping population of individuals compared to DSM-IV-TR.

  11. Genetic analyses of roundabout (ROBO) axon guidance receptors in autism.

    PubMed

    Anitha, A; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Kazuo; Suda, Shiro; Thanseem, Ismail; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Hattori, Eiji; Toyota, Tomoko; Miyachi, Taishi; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Kawai, Masayoshi; Sekine, Yoshimoto; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Sugihara, Gen-Ichi; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Koizumi, Keita; Higashida, Haruhiro; Takei, Nori; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Mori, Norio

    2008-10-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder diagnosed in early childhood. Abnormalities of serotonergic neurotransmission have been reported in autism. Serotonin transporter (SERT) modulates serotonin levels, and is a major therapeutic target in autism. Factors that regulate SERT expression might be implicated in the pathophysiology of autism. One candidate SERT regulatory protein is the roundabout axon guidance molecule, ROBO. SerT expression in Drosophila is regulated by robo; it plays a vital role in mammalian neurodevelopment also. Here, we examined the associations of ROBO3 and ROBO4 with autism, in a trio association study using DNA from 252 families recruited to AGRE. Four SNPs of ROBO3 (rs3923890, P = 0.023; rs7925879, P = 0.017; rs4606490, P = 0.033; and rs3802905, P = 0.049) and a single SNP of ROBO4 (rs6590109, P = 0.009) showed associations with autism; the A/A genotype of rs3923890 showed lower ADI-R_A scores, which reflect social interaction. Significant haplotype associations were also observed for ROBO3 and ROBO4. We further compared the mRNA expressions of ROBO1, ROBO2, ROBO3, and ROBO4 in the lymphocytes of 19 drug-naïve autistic patients and 20 age- and sex-matched controls. Expressions of ROBO1 (P = 0.018) and ROBO2 (P = 0.023) were significantly reduced in the autistic group; the possibility of using the altered expressions of ROBO as peripheral markers for autism, may be explored. In conclusion, we suggest a possible role of ROBO in the pathogenesis of autism. Abnormalities of ROBO may lead to autism either by interfering with serotonergic system, or by disrupting neurodevelopment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report relating ROBO with autism.

  12. A vaccine and diagnostic target for Clostridium bolteae, an autism-associated bacterium.

    PubMed

    Pequegnat, Brittany; Sagermann, Martin; Valliani, Moez; Toh, Michael; Chow, Herbert; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Monteiro, Mario A

    2013-06-10

    Constipation and diarrhea are common in autistic patients. Treatment with antibiotics against bacteria appears to partially alleviate autistic-related symptoms. Clostridium bolteae is a bacterium that has been shown to be overabundant in the intestinal tract of autistic children suffering from gastric intestinal ailments, and as such is an organism that could potentially aggravate gastrointestinal symptoms. We set out to investigate the cell-wall polysaccharides of C. bolteae in order to evaluate their structure and immunogenicity. Our explorations revealed that C. bolteae produces a conserved specific capsular polysaccharide comprised of rhamnose and mannose units: [→3)-α-D-Manp-(1→4)-β-d-Rhap-(1→], which is immunogenic in rabbits. These findings are the first description of a C. bolteae immunogen and indicate the prospect of using this polysaccharide as a vaccine to reduce or prevent C. bolteae colonization of the intestinal tract in autistic patients, and as a diagnostic marker for the rapid detection of C. bolteae in a clinical setting. PMID:23602537

  13. A vaccine and diagnostic target for Clostridium bolteae, an autism-associated bacterium.

    PubMed

    Pequegnat, Brittany; Sagermann, Martin; Valliani, Moez; Toh, Michael; Chow, Herbert; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Monteiro, Mario A

    2013-06-10

    Constipation and diarrhea are common in autistic patients. Treatment with antibiotics against bacteria appears to partially alleviate autistic-related symptoms. Clostridium bolteae is a bacterium that has been shown to be overabundant in the intestinal tract of autistic children suffering from gastric intestinal ailments, and as such is an organism that could potentially aggravate gastrointestinal symptoms. We set out to investigate the cell-wall polysaccharides of C. bolteae in order to evaluate their structure and immunogenicity. Our explorations revealed that C. bolteae produces a conserved specific capsular polysaccharide comprised of rhamnose and mannose units: [→3)-α-D-Manp-(1→4)-β-d-Rhap-(1→], which is immunogenic in rabbits. These findings are the first description of a C. bolteae immunogen and indicate the prospect of using this polysaccharide as a vaccine to reduce or prevent C. bolteae colonization of the intestinal tract in autistic patients, and as a diagnostic marker for the rapid detection of C. bolteae in a clinical setting.

  14. Convergent Validity of the Autism Spectrum Disorders-Diagnostic Adult (ASD-DA) with the Pervasive Developmental Disorder/Autism Subscale of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belva, Brian C.; Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Kozlowski, Allison M.; Bamburg, Jay W.

    2012-01-01

    The "Autism Spectrum Disorders-Diagnosis for Adults" ("ASD-DA") is a standardized assessment used to measure autistic symptomatology in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). In order to further establish the validity of this measure, convergent validity of the "ASD-DA" was established by comparing "ASD-DA" total and subscales scores with the…

  15. A Review of Assessment Tools for Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for School Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klose, Laurie McGarry; Plotts, Cynthia; Kozeneski, Nicole; Skinner-Foster, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of widely used measures for assessing Autism Spectrum Disorders, including the "Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised," "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule," "Psychoeducational Profile-Third Edition," "Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition," and "Childhood Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition." Each measure is…

  16. Diagnostic History and Treatment of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Special Health Care Needs

    MedlinePlus

    ... 94:2–15. 2005. Myers SM, Johnson CP. Management of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatr 120(5):1162–82. 2007. McPherson M, Arango P, Fox H, Lauver C, et al. A new definition of children with special health care needs. Pediatr ...

  17. Brief Report: Concurrent Validity of Autism Symptom Severity Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reszka, Stephanie S.; Boyd, Brian A.; McBee, Matthew; Hume, Kara A.; Odom, Samuel L.

    2014-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic classifications, according to the DSM-5, include a severity rating. Several screening and/or diagnostic measures, such as the autism diagnostic and observation schedule (ADOS), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and social responsiveness scale (SRS) (teacher and parent versions), include an…

  18. An evaluation of the Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services to assess an employee performance problem in a center-based autism treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Ditzian, Kyle; Wilder, David A; King, Allison; Tanz, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    The Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services (PDC-HS) is an informant-based tool designed to assess the environmental variables that contribute to poor employee performance in human services settings. We administered the PDC-HS to 3 supervisors to assess the variables that contributed to poor performance by 4 staff members when securing clients in therapy rooms at a treatment center for children with autism. The PDC-HS identified a lack of appropriate consequences as contributing to poor staff performance. We then evaluated a PDC-HS-indicated intervention as well as an intervention not suggested by PDC-HS results. The PDC-HS-indicated intervention (graphed feedback) was effective to increase performance; the non-PDC-HS-based intervention was ineffective.

  19. School-aged functioning of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder before age three: parent-reported diagnostic, adaptive, medication, and school placement outcomes.

    PubMed

    Towle, Patricia O; Vacanti-Shova, Karyn; Shah, Shristi; Higgins-D'alessandro, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Eighty children with early autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses (under 36 months) were identified using a chart abstraction protocol applied to early intervention charts. Parents filled out questionnaires by mail when the children were school-aged (ages 6-16 years). Similar to previous studies, approximately 20% no longer had ASD diagnoses; the other participants were assigned to Moderate/Severe versus Mild ASD outcome groups. These three groups were compared across several variables, including diagnostic features and functional features including adaptive behavior, social experiences, medication use, and school placement. The findings expand our knowledge about outcomes in longitudinal studies of children with ASD, as well as provide support for using relatively indirect methods (chart review, parent questionnaire) to gather this type of information.

  20. Autism Speaks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Terms of Service What is Autism? Around the World links Autism Speaks Canada Global Autism Public Health Initiative Non-English Resources Shafallah World Autism Awareness Day Connect with Us Facebook Google + ...

  1. Regional Alterations in Purkinje Cell Density in Patients with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Skefos, Jerry; Cummings, Christopher; Enzer, Katelyn; Holiday, Jarrod; Weed, Katrina; Levy, Ezra; Yuce, Tarik; Kemper, Thomas; Bauman, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathological studies, using a variety of techniques, have reported a decrease in Purkinje cell (PC) density in the cerebellum in autism. We have used a systematic sampling technique that significantly reduces experimenter bias and variance to estimate PC densities in the postmortem brains of eight clinically well-documented individuals with autism, and eight age- and gender-matched controls. Four cerebellar regions were analyzed: a sensorimotor area comprised of hemispheric lobules IV–VI, crus I & II of the posterior lobe, and lobule X of the flocculonodular lobe. Overall PC density was thus estimated using data from all three cerebellar lobes and was found to be lower in the cases with autism as compared to controls, an effect that was most prominent in crus I and II (p<0.05). Lobule X demonstrated a trend towards lower PC density in only the males with autism (p = 0.05). Brain weight, a correlate of tissue volume, was found to significantly contribute to the lower lobule X PC density observed in males with autism, but not to the finding of lower PC density in crus I & II. Therefore, lower crus I & II PC density in autism is more likely due to a lower number of PCs. The PC density in lobule X was found to correlate with the ADI-R measure of the patient's use of social eye contact (R2 = −0.75, p = 0.012). These findings support the hypothesis that abnormal PC density may contribute to selected clinical features of the autism phenotype. PMID:24586223

  2. DSM-5 under-Identifies PDDNOS: Diagnostic Agreement between the DSM-5, DSM-IV, and Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Black, Amanda; Tierney, Cheryl D.

    2013-01-01

    Agreement between the DSM-5, DSM-IV, and Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder was assessed in 125 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which included high and low functioning autism (HFA and LFA) and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDDNOS), and children with other clinical disorders (e.g., ADHD, mental…

  3. Brief report: enhanced picture naming in autism.

    PubMed

    Walenski, Matthew; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Gidley-Larson, Jennifer C; Ullman, Michael T

    2008-08-01

    Language and communication deficits are key diagnostic criteria for autism. However, not all aspects of language are equally affected. Here we present evidence of enhanced performance of a critical aspect of language-word processing-in children with autism. The results have implications for explanatory theories of autism and language, and for the development of therapeutic approaches.

  4. Brief Report: Enhanced Picture Naming in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walenski, Matthew; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Gidley-Larson, Jennifer C.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are key diagnostic criteria for autism. However, not all aspects of language are equally affected. Here we present evidence of "enhanced" performance of a critical aspect of language--word processing--in children with autism. The results have implications for explanatory theories of autism and language, and for…

  5. SYMPTOM PRESENTATIONS AND CLASSIFICATION OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: APPLICATION TO THE DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD (DC:0-5).

    PubMed

    Soto, Timothy; Giserman Kiss, Ivy; Carter, Alice S

    2016-09-01

    Over the past 5 years, a great deal of information about the early course of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has emerged from longitudinal prospective studies of infants at high risk for developing ASD based on a previously diagnosed older sibling. The current article describes early ASD symptom presentations and outlines the rationale for defining a new disorder, Early Atypical Autism Spectrum Disorder (EA-ASD) to accompany ASD in the new revision of the ZERO TO THREE Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0-5) (in press) alternative diagnostic classification manual. EA-ASD is designed to identify children who are 9 to 36 months of age presenting with a minimum of (a) two social-communication symptoms and (b) one repetitive and restricted behavior symptom as well as (c) evidence of impairment, with the intention of providing these children with appropriately tailored services and improving the likelihood of optimizing their development. PMID:27556740

  6. SYMPTOM PRESENTATIONS AND CLASSIFICATION OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: APPLICATION TO THE DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD (DC:0-5).

    PubMed

    Soto, Timothy; Giserman Kiss, Ivy; Carter, Alice S

    2016-09-01

    Over the past 5 years, a great deal of information about the early course of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has emerged from longitudinal prospective studies of infants at high risk for developing ASD based on a previously diagnosed older sibling. The current article describes early ASD symptom presentations and outlines the rationale for defining a new disorder, Early Atypical Autism Spectrum Disorder (EA-ASD) to accompany ASD in the new revision of the ZERO TO THREE Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0-5) (in press) alternative diagnostic classification manual. EA-ASD is designed to identify children who are 9 to 36 months of age presenting with a minimum of (a) two social-communication symptoms and (b) one repetitive and restricted behavior symptom as well as (c) evidence of impairment, with the intention of providing these children with appropriately tailored services and improving the likelihood of optimizing their development.

  7. Autism spectrum disorder in Kabuki syndrome: clinical, diagnostic and rehabilitative aspects assessed through the presentation of three cases.

    PubMed

    Parisi, L; Di Filippo, T; Roccella, M

    2015-08-01

    Kabuki syndrome (KS) (Kabuki make-up syndrome, Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome) is a rare genetic disorder first diagnosed in 1981. Kabuki make-up syndrome (KMS) is a multiple malformation/intellectual disability syndrome that was first described in Japan but is now reported in many other ethnic groups. KMS is characterized by multiple congenital abnormalities: craniofacial, skeletal, and dermatoglyphic abnormalities; intellectual disability; and short stature. Other findings may include: congenital heart defects, genitourinary anomalies, cleft lip and/or palate, gastrointestinal anomalies including anal atresia, ptosis and strabismus, and widely spaced teeth and hypodontia. The KS is associated with mutations in the MLL2 gene in some cases were also observed deletions of KDM6A. This study describes three children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and KS and rehabilitative intervention that must be implemented. PMID:26129805

  8. Autism overflows: increasing prevalence and proliferating theories.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, Lynn

    2008-12-01

    This selective review examines the lack of an explanation for the sharply increasing prevalence of autism, and the lack of any synthesis of the proliferating theories of autism. The most controversial and most widely disseminated notion for increasing prevalence is the measles-mumps-rubella/thimerosal vaccine theory. Less controversial causes that have been proposed include changes in autism diagnostic criteria, increasing services for autism, and growing awareness of the disorder. Regardless of its causes, the increasing prevalence of autism has put pressure on the field of autism research to generate productive and predictive theories of autism. However, the heterogeneity of brain deficits, impaired behaviors, and genetic variants in autism have challenged researchers and theorists, and despite 45 years of research, no standard causal synthesis has emerged. Research going forward should assume that autism is an aggregation of myriad independent disorders of impaired sociality, social cognition, communication, and motor and cognitive skills.

  9. Does Pet Arrival Trigger Prosocial Behaviors in Individuals with Autism?

    PubMed Central

    Grandgeorge, Marine; Tordjman, Sylvie; Lazartigues, Alain; Lemonnier, Eric; Deleau, Michel; Hausberger, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Alteration of social interactions especially prosocial behaviors – an important aspect of development – is one of the characteristics of autistic disorders. Numerous strategies or therapies are used to improve communication skills or at least to reduce social impairments. Animal-assisted therapies are used widely but their relevant benefits have never been scientifically evaluated. In the present study, we evaluated the association between the presence or the arrival of pets in families with an individual with autism and the changes in his or her prosocial behaviors. Of 260 individuals with autism - on the basis of presence or absence of pets - two groups of 12 individuals and two groups of 8 individuals were assigned to: study 1 (pet arrival after age of 5 versus no pet) and study 2 (pet versus no pet), respectively. Evaluation of social impairment was assessed at two time periods using the 36-items ADI-R algorithm and a parental questionnaire about their child-pet relationships. The results showed that 2 of the 36 items changed positively between the age of 4 to 5 (t0) and time of assessment (t1) in the pet arrival group (study 1): “offering to share” and “offering comfort”. Interestingly, these two items reflect prosocial behaviors. There seemed to be no significant changes in any item for the three other groups. The interactions between individuals with autism and their pets were more – qualitatively and quantitatively - reported in the situation of pet arrival than pet presence since birth. These findings open further lines of research on the impact of pet’s presence or arrival in families with an individual with autism. Given the potential ability of individuals with autism to develop prosocial behaviors, related studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms involved in the development of such child-pet relationship. PMID:22870246

  10. Autism and visual agnosia in a child with right occipital lobectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jambaque, I; Mottron, L; Ponsot, G; Chiron, C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Autistic disorder is a developmental handicap with an unknown neurological basis. Current neuropsychological models for autism suggest an abnormal construction of visual perceptual representation or a deficit in executive functions. These models predict cerebral lesions in the temporo-occipital or frontal regions of autistic patients. The present study aimed at studying the presence of symptoms of autism and visual agnosia in a 13 year old girl who had a right temporo-occipital cortical dysplasia that was surgically removed at the age of 7.
METHODS—Neuropsychological evaluation included Wechsler and Kaufman intelligence scales, a test of word fluency, digit span, Corsi block, California verbal learning, Trail making, Benton facial recognition, Snoodgrass object recognition tests, Rivermead face learning subtest, and developmental test of visual perception. The ADI-R was used to show current and retrospective diagnosis of autistic disorder. Neuroimagery included brain MRI, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and PET.
RESULTS—Brain MRI showed a right occipital defect and an abnormal hyperintensity of the right temporal cortex. PET and SPECT disclosed a left frontal hypometabolism together with the right occipital defect. Neuropsychological testing showed a visual apperceptive agnosia and executive function deficits. Psychiatric study confirmed the diagnosis of autistic disorder.
CONCLUSIONS—Although the possibilty that autism and visual agnosia were dissociable factors in this patient cannot be excluded, the finding of both deficits supports the possibility that occipito-temporal lesions can predispose to the development of autism.

 PMID:9771784

  11. Autism and Mitochondrial Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as defined by the revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM IVTR criteria (American Psychiatric Association [2000] Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing) as impairment before the age of 3 in language development and socialization with the development of repetitive behaviors, appears…

  12. Annual Research Review: Reaction time variability in ADHD and autism spectrum disorders: measurement and mechanisms of a proposed trans-diagnostic phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Karalunas, Sarah L.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Konrad, Kerstin; Bender, Stephan; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intraindividual variability in reaction time (RT) has received extensive discussion as an indicator of cognitive performance, a putative intermediate phenotype of many clinical disorders, and a possible trans-diagnostic phenotype that may elucidate shared risk factors for mechanisms of psychiatric illnesses. Scope and Methodology Using the examples of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we discuss RT variability. We first present a new meta-analysis of RT variability in ASD with and without comorbid ADHD. We then discuss potential mechanisms that may account for RT variability and statistical models that disentangle the cognitive processes affecting RTs. We then report a second meta-analysis comparing ADHD and non-ADHD children on diffusion model parameters. We consider how findings inform the search for neural correlates of RT variability. Findings Results suggest that RT variability is increased in ASD only when children with comorbid ADHD are included in the sample. Furthermore, RT variability in ADHD is explained by moderate to large increases (d = 0.63–0.99) in the ex-Gaussian parameter τ and the diffusion parameter drift rate, as well as by smaller differences (d = 0.32) in the diffusion parameter of nondecision time. The former may suggest problems in state regulation or arousal and difficulty detecting signal from noise, whereas the latter may reflect contributions from deficits in motor organization or output. The neuroimaging literature converges with this multicomponent interpretation and also highlights the role of top-down control circuits. Conclusion We underscore the importance of considering the interactions between top-down control, state regulation (e.g. arousal), and motor preparation when interpreting RT variability and conclude that decomposition of the RT signal provides superior interpretive power and suggests mechanisms convergent with those implicated using other cognitive

  13. Psychotropic Medication Use among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders within the Simons Simplex Collection: Are Core Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mire, Sarah S.; Nowell, Kerri P.; Kubiszyn, Thomas; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.

    2014-01-01

    Psychotropic medication use and its relationship to autism spectrum core features were examined in a well-characterized but nonstratified North American sample (N = 1605) of children/adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders utilizing the "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule" and the "Autism Diagnostic…

  14. Mercury and Autism: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie; Wheeler, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of autism has increased approximately four times in children in nearly one decade (California Health and Human Services Agency, 2003). It has been reported that explanations such as immigration, shifts in the interpretation of diagnostic criteria, improved identification, or diagnostic accuracies cannot explain the observed increase…

  15. Presentation of Depression in Autism and Asperger Syndrome: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Mary E.; Barnard, Louise; Pearson, Joanne; Hasan, Reem; O'Brien, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Depression is common in autism and Asperger syndrome, but despite this, there has been little research into this issue. This review considers the current literature on the prevalence, presentation, treatment and assessment of depression in autism and Asperger syndrome. There are diagnostic difficulties when considering depression in autism and…

  16. Autism Symptoms in Toddlers with Down Syndrome: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Susan; Philofsky, Amy; Fidler, Deborah J.; Rogers, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Background: Research suggests that children with Down syndrome may be at increased risk of having an autism spectrum disorder; however, previous studies have not utilized comprehensive, state-of-the-art diagnostic tools to address the question of comorbid autism and Down syndrome. Method: Comprehensive evaluations for autism were conducted in 20…

  17. Assessing Early Implementation of State Autism Insurance Mandates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baller, Julia Berlin; Barry, Colleen L.; Shea, Kathleen; Walker, Megan M.; Ouellette, Rachel; Mandell, David S.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, health insurance coverage for autism spectrum disorder treatments has been historically limited. In response, as of 2015, 40 states and Washington, DC, have passed state autism insurance mandates requiring many health plans in the private insurance market to cover autism diagnostic and treatment services. This study examined…

  18. Autism Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... age, and provide the latest information regarding treatment, education, research, and advocacy. Learn more Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ...

  19. Linguistic and Cognitive Functioning and Autism Symptoms in Young Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philofsky, Amy; Hepburn, Susan L.; Hayes, Athena; Hagerman, Randi; Rogers, Sally J.

    2004-01-01

    Linguistic and cognitive profiles were examined in 18 children with autism and 18 children with fragile X syndrome (mean ages = 34 months). State-of-the-art diagnostic procedures for autism symptom identification were administered. Eight children with fragile X met criteria for autism. Comparison of linguistic and cognitive profiles (autism,…

  20. Stability of Early Risk Assessment for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaari, Maya; Yitzhak, Neta; Harel, Ayelet; Friedlander, Edwa; Bar-Oz, Benjamin; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Mankuta, David; Gamliel, Ifat; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2016-01-01

    Stability and change in early autism spectrum disorder risk were examined in a cohort of 99 preterm infants (?34 weeks of gestation) using the Autism Observation Scale for Infants at 8 and 12 months and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule--Toddler Module at 18 months. A total of 21 infants were identified at risk by the Autism Observation…

  1. Autism Assets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarahan, Neal; Copas, Randy

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Disease Control estimates that 1 in 88 children have been identified with autism (CDC, 2012). Autism is often associated with other psychiatric, developmental, neurological, and genetic diagnoses. However, the majority (62%) of children identified on the autism spectrum do not have intellectual disability. Instead, they are hurting.…

  2. Autism spectrum disorders in survivors of extreme prematurity.

    PubMed

    Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies in survivors of extreme prematurity point to an increased prevalence of a previously underrecognized atypical social-behavioral profile strongly suggestive of an autism spectrum disorder. Prospective studies that incorporate early autism screening and autism diagnostic testing are needed to better delineate the sensitivity and specificity of early signs of autism in ex-premature children. Advances in neonatal MRI techniques capable of quantitative structural and functional measurements will also provide important insights into the effects of prematurity itself, and prematurity-related brain injury on the genesis of autism spectrum disorders in this population. Available evidence linking prematurity and autism spectrum disorders is reviewed in this article.

  3. How autism became autism

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the meaning of the word ‘autism’ experienced a radical shift in the early 1960s in Britain which was contemporaneous with a growth in epidemiological and statistical studies in child psychiatry. The first part of the article explores how ‘autism’ was used as a category to describe hallucinations and unconscious fantasy life in infants through the work of significant child psychologists and psychoanalysts such as Jean Piaget, Lauretta Bender, Leo Kanner and Elwyn James Anthony. Theories of autism were then associated both with schizophrenia in adults and with psychoanalytic styles of reasoning. The closure of institutions for ‘mental defectives’ and the growth in speech therapy services in the 1960s and 1970s encouraged new models for understanding autism in infants and children. The second half of the article explores how researchers such as Victor Lotter and Michael Rutter used the category of autism to reconceptualize psychological development in infants and children via epidemiological studies. These historical changes have influenced the form and function of later research into autism and related conditions. PMID:24014081

  4. Are We Under-Estimating the Association between Autism Symptoms?: The Importance of Considering Simultaneous Selection When Using Samples of Individuals Who Meet Diagnostic Criteria for an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Aja Louise; McKenzie, Karen; Kuenssberg, Renate; O'Donnell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude of symptom inter-correlations in diagnosed individuals has contributed to the evidence that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a fractionable disorder. Such correlations may substantially under-estimate the population correlations among symptoms due to simultaneous selection on the areas of deficit required for diagnosis. Using…

  5. Trajectories of Autism Severity in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venker, Courtney E.; Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Relatively little is known about trajectories of autism severity using calibrated severity scores (CSS) from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, but characterizing these trajectories has important theoretical and clinical implications. This study examined CSS trajectories during early childhood. Participants were 129 children with autism…

  6. Increasing Response Diversity in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napolitano, Deborah A.; Smith, Tristram; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Goodkin, Karen; McAdam, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Repetitive and invariant behavior is a diagnostic feature of autism. We implemented a lag reinforcement schedule to increase response diversity for 6 participants with autism aged 6 to 10 years, 4 of whom also received prompting plus additional training. These procedures appeared to increase the variety of building-block structures, demonstrating…

  7. Autism across Cultures: Rethinking Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun Uk

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the autism prevalence rate has been very closely monitored in the United States, the same has not been observed in many other countries. This may be attributed to the fact that each culture views and defines autism differently. Using field notes and semi-structured interviews with family members with an individual with autism, teachers,…

  8. Profiles of Receptive and Expressive Language Abilities in Boys with Comorbid Fragile X Syndrome and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Andrea; Kover, Sara; Abbeduto, Leonard; Lewis, Pamela; Brown, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined receptive and expressive language profiles for a group of verbal male children and adolescents who had fragile X syndrome along with varying degrees of autism symptoms. A categorical approach for assigning autism diagnostic classification, based on the combined use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview--Revised and the Autism…

  9. A Critical Review of Screening and Diagnostic Instruments for Autism Spectrum Disorders in People with Sensory Impairments in Addition to Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vaan, Gitta; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Hoevenaars-van den Boom, Marella; Antonissen, Anneke; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Instruments that are used for diagnosing of, or screening for, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may not be applicable to people with sensory disabilities in addition to intellectual disabilities. First, because they do not account for equifinality, the possibility that different conditions may lead to the same outcome. Second, because they do not…

  10. School-Aged Functioning of Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder before Age Three: Parent-Reported Diagnostic, Adaptive, Medication, and School Placement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towle, Patricia O.; Vacanti-Shova, Karyn; Shah, Shristi; Higgins-D'alessandro, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Eighty children with early autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses (under 36 months) were identified using a chart abstraction protocol applied to early intervention charts. Parents filled out questionnaires by mail when the children were school-aged (ages 6-16 years). Similar to previous studies, approximately 20 % no longer had ASD diagnoses;…

  11. Stability of Initial Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Amy M.; Rosenberg, Rebecca E.; Law, J. Kiely; Lord, Catherine; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Law, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The study's objectives were to assess diagnostic stability of initial autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses in community settings and identify factors associated with diagnostic instability using data from a national Web-based autism registry. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the relative risk of change in initial ASD…

  12. The clinician's guide to autism.

    PubMed

    Harrington, John W; Allen, Korrie

    2014-02-01

    On the basis of the most recent epidemiologic research, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects approximately 1% to 2% of all children. (1)(2) On the basis of some research evidence and consensus, the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers isa helpful tool to screen for autism in children between ages 16 and 30 months. (11) The Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, changes to a 2-symptom category from a 3-symptom category in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition(DSM-5): deficits in social communication and social interaction are combined with repetitive and restrictive behaviors, and more criteria are required per category. The DSM-5 subsumes all the previous diagnoses of autism (classic autism, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) into just ASDs. On the basis of moderate to strong evidence, the use of applied behavioral analysis and intensive behavioral programs has a beneficial effect on language and the core deficits of children with autism. (16) Currently, minimal or no evidence is available to endorse most complementary and alternative medicine therapies used by parents, such as dietary changes (gluten free), vitamins, chelation, and hyperbaric oxygen. (16) On the basis of consensus and some studies, pediatric clinicians should improve their capacity to provide children with ASD a medical home that is accessible and provides family-centered, continuous, comprehensive and coordinated, compassionate, and culturally sensitive care. (20) PMID:24488830

  13. The clinician's guide to autism.

    PubMed

    Harrington, John W; Allen, Korrie

    2014-02-01

    On the basis of the most recent epidemiologic research, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects approximately 1% to 2% of all children. (1)(2) On the basis of some research evidence and consensus, the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers isa helpful tool to screen for autism in children between ages 16 and 30 months. (11) The Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, changes to a 2-symptom category from a 3-symptom category in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition(DSM-5): deficits in social communication and social interaction are combined with repetitive and restrictive behaviors, and more criteria are required per category. The DSM-5 subsumes all the previous diagnoses of autism (classic autism, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) into just ASDs. On the basis of moderate to strong evidence, the use of applied behavioral analysis and intensive behavioral programs has a beneficial effect on language and the core deficits of children with autism. (16) Currently, minimal or no evidence is available to endorse most complementary and alternative medicine therapies used by parents, such as dietary changes (gluten free), vitamins, chelation, and hyperbaric oxygen. (16) On the basis of consensus and some studies, pediatric clinicians should improve their capacity to provide children with ASD a medical home that is accessible and provides family-centered, continuous, comprehensive and coordinated, compassionate, and culturally sensitive care. (20)

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorder Reclassified: A Second Look at the 1980s Utah/UCLA Autism Epidemiologic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith S.; Bilder, Deborah; Farley, Megan; Coon, Hilary; Pinborough-Zimmerman, Judith; Jenson, William; Rice, Catherine E.; Fombonne, Eric; Pingree, Carmen B.; Ritvo, Edward; Ritvo, Riva-Ariella; McMahon, William M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to re-examine diagnostic data from a state-wide autism prevalence study (n = 489) conducted in the 1980s to investigate the impact of broader diagnostic criteria on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) case status. Sixty-four (59%) of the 108 originally "Diagnosed Not Autistic" met the current ASD case definition.…

  15. Descriptive characteristics of children with autism at Autism Treatment Center, KSA.

    PubMed

    Al Shirian, Sarah; Al Dera, Hussain

    2015-11-01

    Autism characteristics in sixty children (aged from 2 to 8) were assed. Their behavioral symptoms were evaluated using the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). ATEC has four main domains of autistic disorders (Speech/Language/Communication, Sociability, Sensory/Cognitive Awareness, and Health/Physical/Behavior) in children with clinical diagnosis by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Utilizing ATEC checklist, our study describes significant behavioral observations between autistic children which could effectively contribute to better understanding and treatment during their early intervention stage.

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Autism Spectrum Disorder Information Page Condensed from Autism Spectrum ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autistic disorder (sometimes called autism or ...

  17. Autism and environmental influences: review and commentary.

    PubMed

    Bello, Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Progress has been slow in identifying pre- and post-natal environmental exposures that might trigger the features that characterize autism. During the past thirty years, research in the field of autism has been conducted in a setting in which diagnostic criteria for this condition have changed and broadened, and differences of opinion regarding diagnostic issues and diagnostic terminology continue. The documented prevalence of all forms of autism has increased steadily during this time, suggesting one or more environmental contributors. Not established, however, is whether an increasing incidence of autism is responsible for increasing prevalence. The increase in documented prevalence could result from expanding and changing case definitions and increased reporting due to increased awareness on the part of professionals who work with children and by the public. This review provides a background for the evolving story of autism and describes the research on the relation between autism and the environment, with a particular focus on some of the more recently proposed environmental triggers. Critical analysis of this body of scientific research in a historical framework helps to explain the often controversial nature of the proposed relations between autism and environmental factors, as well as to rationalize some of the pitfalls in research design and in the often questionable interpretation of data so obtained.

  18. Identifying diagnostically-relevant resting state brain functional connectivity in the ventral posterior complex via genetic data mining in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Philip R; Curtis, Kaylah N; Patriquin, Michelle A; Wolf, Varina; Viswanath, Humsini; Shaw, Chad; Sakai, Yasunari; Salas, Ramiro

    2016-05-01

    Exome sequencing and copy number variation analyses continue to provide novel insight to the biological bases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The growing speed at which massive genetic data are produced causes serious lags in analysis and interpretation of the data. Thus, there is a need to develop systematic genetic data mining processes that facilitate efficient analysis of large datasets. We report a new genetic data mining system, ProcessGeneLists and integrated a list of ASD-related genes with currently available resources in gene expression and functional connectivity of the human brain. Our data-mining program successfully identified three primary regions of interest (ROIs) in the mouse brain: inferior colliculus, ventral posterior complex of the thalamus (VPC), and parafascicular nucleus (PFn). To understand its pathogenic relevance in ASD, we examined the resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the homologous ROIs in human brain with other brain regions that were previously implicated in the neuro-psychiatric features of ASD. Among them, the RSFC of the VPC with the medial frontal gyrus (MFG) was significantly more anticorrelated, whereas the RSFC of the PN with the globus pallidus was significantly increased in children with ASD compared with healthy children. Moreover, greater values of RSFC between VPC and MFG were correlated with severity index and repetitive behaviors in children with ASD. No significant RSFC differences were detected in adults with ASD. Together, these data demonstrate the utility of our data-mining program through identifying the aberrant connectivity of thalamo-cortical circuits in children with ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 553-562. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Infantile autism: adult outcome.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, B

    2000-07-01

    Although the core features of autism do not change qualitatively, a gradual overall symptomatic improvement including an increase in adaptive skills is observed in most cases with age. Follow-up studies show that the diagnostic features, the differential diagnosis, and clinical problems of adult autistics differ substantially from that of autistic children. The differential diagnosis of older autistics include personality disorders, learning disabilities, and mood disorder. Depression, epilepsy, and behavioral problems such as aggression and agitation may be major clinical problems during adolescence. The early indicators of a better outcome include a higher level of IQ and language. Among the neuropsychological variables, measures of flexibility and cognitive shift are important as prognostic factors. Early behavioral and educational intervention may especially increase the adaptive skills of the patients and promote the in-family communication. The outcome studies of autism are particularly helpful in addressing the appropriate and most effective programs of remediation for adult autistics.

  20. Modeling the Phenotypic Architecture of Autism Symptoms from Time of Diagnosis to Age 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, Stelios; Boyle, Michael; Szatmari, Peter; Hanna, Steven; Duku, Eric; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Volden, Joanne; Mirenda, Pat; Smith, Isabel; Roberts, Wendy; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Waddell, Charlotte; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Thompson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The latent class structure of autism symptoms from the time of diagnosis to age 6 years was examined in a sample of 280 children with autism spectrum disorder. Factor mixture modeling was performed on 26 algorithm items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised at diagnosis (Time 1) and again at age 6 (Time 2). At Time 1, a…

  1. The Development of the Minnesota Visual Autism Symptom Scale (MN-VASS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, Diane Estelle

    2010-01-01

    The development and psychometric characteristics of the Minnesota Visual Autism Symptom Scale (MN-VASS) was described. The relationship between the literature surrounding autism symptoms, the diagnostic criteria for autism, and the resulting content of subscales was presented. Item analyses were conducted using item total correlations. All of the…

  2. Facial perception in autism.

    PubMed

    Volkmar, F R; Sparrow, S S; Rende, R D; Cohen, D J

    1989-07-01

    Disturbances in gaze and patterns of facial interaction are prominent aspects of social dysfunction in autism; the nature of this disturbance has up to the present been unclear. This study examined the ability of autistic subjects to use the human face as a source of information. Autistic and age- and MA-matched retarded control subjects assembled a series of puzzles displaying photographs of human faces; puzzles differed in complexity, familiarity of the faces and configuration (normal vs scrambled faces). Significant effects of all three factors, but not of diagnostic group, were observed. The autistic subjects did not exhibit specific deficits in perception of faces. PMID:2768360

  3. Imitation and communication skills development in children with pervasive developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Portoghese, Claudia; Martinelli, Domenico; Fanizza, Isabella; L’Abate, Luciano; Margari, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the correlation between failure to develop spontaneous imitation and language skills in pervasive developmental disorders. Sixty-four children between the age of 3 and 8 years were assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), as well as direct observation of imitation. The sample was subdivided into a verbal and a nonverbal group. Analysis of mean scores on the CARS “imitation” items and of ADI-R “spontaneous imitation” and “pointing to express interest” revealed a statistically significant difference between verbal and nonverbal groups, with more severe impairment/higher scores in the nonverbal than the verbal group. These results suggest that nonverbal children have specifically impaired imitation and pointing skills. PMID:19590730

  4. Autism: From Research to Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Autism is the most commonly studied of a spectrum of developmental disorders that are believed to be neurobiologically based but which, at this point, for lack of good biomarkers, are defined purely by behavior. In the last 20 years, the definition of autism has shifted in emphasis from extreme aloofness and positive signs of abnormality in repetitive and sensori-motor behaviors to a greater awareness of the importance of more subtle reciprocal social-communication deficits as core features. Standard diagnostic instruments were developed for research purposes to acquire information both through caregiver interviews and direct clinical observation. Use of these instruments in clinical practice resulted in major improvements which in turn affected research results. These results yielded further improvements that led to changes in clinical practice over time. The synergism between research and clinical practice in the understanding of autism is discussed. PMID:21058793

  5. Brief Report: Autism Awareness--Views from a Campus Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Leigh Ann; Blacher, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a college community's views of the diagnostic characteristics and causes associated with autism spectrum disorders. An anonymous on-line survey of autism knowledge was distributed via campus server university-wide to all undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, and staff. Of the 1,057 surveys completed, 76% of…

  6. Autism in Angelman Syndrome: An Exploration of Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Ostergaard, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to explore the comorbidity between Angelman syndrome and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Identification of autism in children with Angelman syndrome presents a diagnostic challenge. In the present study, 16 children with Angelman syndrome, all with a 15q11-13 deletion, were examined for ASDs. Thirteen children with Angelman syndrome…

  7. Change in Autism Classification with Early Intervention: Predictors and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study characterized stability and changes of autism diagnostic classification with intervention in very young children and examined pre-treatment predictors and post-intervention outcome. Sixty-eight children diagnosed with autism, aged 18-35 months (M = 25.4, SD = 4.0) participated in the study. Children underwent comprehensive…

  8. Motor Stereotypies in Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Sylvie; Wang, Cuiling; Salgado, Miran W.; Greene, Paul E.; Kim, Mimi; Rapin, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to count and characterize the range of stereotypies--repetitive rhythmical, apparently purposeless movements--in developmentally impaired children with and without autism, and to determine whether some types are more prevalent and diagnostically useful in children with autism. We described each motor stereotypy…

  9. Describing the Sensory Abnormalities of Children and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Nieto, Carmen; Libby, Sarah J.; Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of sensory abnormalities in children and adults with autism were examined using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO). This interview elicits detailed information about responsiveness to a wide range of sensory stimuli. Study 1 showed that over 90% of children with autism had sensory abnormalities and had…

  10. Autism spectrum disorder: prevalence and cause may be bound together.

    PubMed

    Simonoff, Emily

    2012-08-01

    Autism has been in the forefront of science and public concern because of reported increases in its prevalence. Changing diagnostic practice and improved identification explain some of this rise, but there may also be a true increase. Aetiological research needs to include environmental factors to understand the causes of autism.

  11. Advocacy Update: Autism Speaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ursitti, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Autism Speaks, the world's largest autism non-profit organization, is addressing a struggle to obtain evidence-based treatment on autism. The mission of Autism Speaks is to change the future for all who struggle with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Part of their focus is to change state insurance laws to require private health insurance policies…

  12. Families with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepagnier, Cheryl

    1999-01-01

    This article examines trends in autism in the context of parental problems and decisions. It compares autism in America in the 1960s with autism today, considers the roles of the Autism Society of America, and discusses the experience of parenting with emphasis on the individuality of each person with autism, challenges, and the probability of…

  13. Autism and Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document defines and discusses autism and how genes play a role in the condition. Answers to the following questions are covered: (1) What are genes? (2) What is autism? (3) What causes autism? (4) Why study genes to learn about autism? (5) How do researchers look for the genes involved in autism? (screen the whole genome; conduct cytogenetic…

  14. An Evaluation of the Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services to Assess an Employee Performance Problem in a Center-Based Autism Treatment Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditzian, Kyle; Wilder, David A.; King, Allison; Tanz, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    The Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services (PDC-HS) is an informant-based tool designed to assess the environmental variables that contribute to poor employee performance in human services settings. We administered the PDC-HS to 3 supervisors to assess the variables that contributed to poor performance by 4 staff members when securing…

  15. The Autism Mental Status Exam: Sensitivity and Specificity Using DSM-5 Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Verbally Fluent Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodberg, David; Weinger, Paige M.; Halpern, Danielle; Parides, Michael; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    The phenotypic heterogeneity of adults suspected of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires a standardized diagnostic approach that is feasible in all clinical settings. The autism mental status exam (AMSE) is an eight-item observational assessment that structures the observation and documentation of social, communicative and behavioral signs and…

  16. The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers: A Follow-Up Study Investigating the Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Jamie M.; Robins, Diana L.; Ventola, Pamela E.; Pandey, Juhi; Boorstein, Hilary C.; Esser, Emma L.; Wilson, Leandra B.; Rosenthal, Michael A.; Sutera, Saasha; Verbalis, Alyssa D.; Barton, Marianne; Hodgson, Sarah; Green, James; Dumont-Mathieu, Thyde; Volkmar, Fred; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Klin, Ami; Fein, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often go undetected in toddlers. The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) was used to screen 3,793 children aged 16-30 months from low- and high-risk sources; screen positive cases were diagnostically evaluated. Re-screening was performed on 1,416 children aged 42-54 months. Time1 Positive Predictive…

  17. Treating the whole person with autism: the proceedings of the Autism Speaks National Autism Conference.

    PubMed

    Coury, Daniel L; Swedo, Susan E; Thurm, Audrey E; Miller, David T; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy M; Carbone, Paul S; Lounds Taylor, Julie

    2014-02-01

    The identification of autism spectrum disorders has increased dramatically over the past decade, with the latest estimates indicating prevalence as high as 1 in 54 boys. There is greater awareness of medical conditions that co-occur with autism and expansion of treatment options. Closer scrutiny has led to refinement of the diagnostic criteria, and there have been advances in genetics examining potential causal factors. Transition to adulthood is an area of growing concern, and professionals and families require guidance on this issue. This article summarizes the proceedings of the Autism Speaks conference on Treating the Whole Person with Autism: Care across the Lifespan. The conference was organized with the intent of providing a forum for both families and professionals to learn about the most current research in the field. Dr. Sue Swedo provides important background information regarding the changes in the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorders. She particularly deals with the concerns of individuals and families that their autism diagnosis may change. Recommendations for genetic testing and its interpretation are provided by Dr. David Miller. His discussion helps make sense of the utility of genetic testing for ASD, along with demonstration of the complexity of determining which genetic factors are doing what and through which pathways. Dr. Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele provides useful background information on how medicines are initially identified and for what purpose and goes on to describe the present and future treatments in pharmacology. Medical issues are addressed by Dr. Paul Carbone, especially the coordination of comprehensive services through the medical home model of care. Dr. Julie Lounds Taylor concludes with guidance on preparation for adulthood, a topic of great importance to families as their child matures and for the professionals who will help guide this transition.

  18. Toward the Autism Motor Signature: Gesture patterns during smart tablet gameplay identify children with autism

    PubMed Central

    Anzulewicz, Anna; Sobota, Krzysztof; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder evident from infancy. Yet, its clinical identification requires expert diagnostic training. New evidence indicates disruption to motor timing and integration may underpin the disorder, providing a potential new computational marker for its early identification. In this study, we employed smart tablet computers with touch-sensitive screens and embedded inertial movement sensors to record the movement kinematics and gesture forces made by 37 children 3–6 years old with autism and 45 age- and gender-matched children developing typically. Machine learning analysis of the children’s motor patterns identified autism with up to 93% accuracy. Analysis revealed these patterns consisted of greater forces at contact and with a different distribution of forces within a gesture, and gesture kinematics were faster and larger, with more distal use of space. These data support the notion disruption to movement is core feature of autism, and demonstrate autism can be computationally assessed by fun, smart device gameplay. PMID:27553971

  19. Toward the Autism Motor Signature: Gesture patterns during smart tablet gameplay identify children with autism.

    PubMed

    Anzulewicz, Anna; Sobota, Krzysztof; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder evident from infancy. Yet, its clinical identification requires expert diagnostic training. New evidence indicates disruption to motor timing and integration may underpin the disorder, providing a potential new computational marker for its early identification. In this study, we employed smart tablet computers with touch-sensitive screens and embedded inertial movement sensors to record the movement kinematics and gesture forces made by 37 children 3-6 years old with autism and 45 age- and gender-matched children developing typically. Machine learning analysis of the children's motor patterns identified autism with up to 93% accuracy. Analysis revealed these patterns consisted of greater forces at contact and with a different distribution of forces within a gesture, and gesture kinematics were faster and larger, with more distal use of space. These data support the notion disruption to movement is core feature of autism, and demonstrate autism can be computationally assessed by fun, smart device gameplay. PMID:27553971

  20. Predictive Validity of Self-Report Questionnaires in the Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizoo, Bram B.; Horwitz, E. H.; Teunisse, J. P.; Kan, C. C.; Vissers, C. T. W. M.; Forceville, E. J. M.; Van Voorst, A. J. P.; Geurts, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    While various screening instruments for autism spectrum disorders are widely used in diagnostic assessments, their psychometric properties have not been simultaneously evaluated in the outpatient setting where these instruments are used most. In this study, we tested the Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised and two short versions of the…

  1. Autism spectrum disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Autism; Autistic disorder; Asperger syndrome; Childhood disintegrative disorder; Pervasive developmental disorder ... to better diagnosis and newer definitions of ASD. Autism spectrum disorder now includes syndromes that used to ...

  2. Iatrogenic autism.

    PubMed

    Hahr, Jung Y

    2013-08-01

    Autism as we know it, is caused iatrogenically and occurs reportedly one in 88 live birth [3]. Now national survey pegs autism prevalence one in 50 school-age children and the incidence is rising much fast in recent years. The author is hypothesizing idiopathic autism is caused by feeding of infant formula. Majorities of formula in the world are milk based and the molecular weight of the cow's milk is much higher than that of human breast milk. These increased solutes contributes to increased osmolality of the environment of the newborn infant, is directly affecting hemodynamics of normal homeostasis of the developing human brain cells. Formula makers fortified new substances in the process of formula making whenever they found previous unknown substances in the breast milk, for past several decades. When those solid substances were added in the process of formula making to make 20 cal/oz of infant formula, this resulted displacing free water in the formula. When new substances were added, same amount of free water has to be displaced from the formula. That is why we are seeing more autism in recent years, compared to previous several decades.

  3. Autism Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Kelly; Sobsey, Dick

    The bibliography contains 392 citations relevant to education and related services for children with autism and their families published between 1983 and 1988. Most of the citations are journal articles but a number of relevant books are also included. Citations are alphabetized by title. An author index (by first author) and a subject index are…

  4. Presentation of depression in autism and Asperger syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Mary E; Barnard, Louise; Pearson, Joanne; Hasan, Reem; O'Brien, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Depression is common in autism and Asperger syndrome, but despite this, there has been little research into this issue. This review considers the current literature on the prevalence, presentation, treatment and assessment of depression in autism and Asperger syndrome. There are diagnostic difficulties when considering depression in autism and Asperger syndrome, as the characteristics of these disorders, such as social withdrawal and appetite and sleep disturbance, are also core symptoms of depression. Impaired verbal and non-verbal communication can mask the symptoms of depression. Symptoms associated with autism and Asperger syndrome such as obsessionality and self-injury may be increased during an episode of depression. There is a clear need to develop specific tools both for diagnostic purposes and for measurement of depression in autism and Asperger syndrome in order to help alleviate the distress caused by this treatable illness.

  5. Plasma Oxytocin in Children with Autism and Its Correlations with Behavioral Parameters in Children and Parents

    PubMed Central

    Husarova, Veronika Marcincakova; Lakatosova, Silvia; Pivovarciova, Anna; Babinska, Katarina; Bakos, Jan; Durdiakova, Jaroslava; Kubranska, Aneta; Ostatnikova, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Objective Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated to play an important role in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) etiology. We aimed to find out the differences in plasma OT levels between children with autism and healthy children, the associations of OT levels with particular autism symptoms and the associations of particular parental autistic traits with their ASD children OT levels. Methods We included 19 boys with autism and 44 healthy age-matched boys. OT levels were analyzed by ELISA method. Children with autism were scored by Childhood Autism Rating Scale and Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI), adjusted research version. Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Systemizing Quotient (SQ) and Empathizing Quotient were completed by parents of children with autism. Results Children with autism had significantly lower plasma OT levels than controls. OT levels positively correlated with ADI Reciprocal Interaction and Communication scores. AQ and SQ of fathers positively correlated with children plasma OT level. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis of OT deficiency in autism. The "paradoxical" associations of OT levels and social skills in children with autism indicate disturbances at various levels of OT system. We first reported associations of OT levels in children with autism and behavioral measures in fathers indicating that OT abnormalities stay between parental autistic traits and autism symptoms in their children. PMID:27081377

  6. Birth order effects on autism symptom domains.

    PubMed

    Reichenberg, Abraham; Smith, Christopher; Schmeidler, James; Silverman, Jeremy M

    2007-03-30

    Autism is predominantly genetically determined. Evidence supports familiality of the main sets of behavioral characteristics that define the syndrome of autism; however, possible non-genetic effects have also been suggested. The present study compared levels of autism symptom domains, as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Interview, and useful phrase speech scores between 106 pairs of first- and second-born siblings from multiply affected families. In addition, the intercorrelations between the measures were compared between siblings. The overall mean repetitive behavior total score was significantly higher (worse) in first-born than in second-born siblings. In contrast, first-born siblings had significantly lower (better) useful phrase speech than their younger siblings. Autism social and non-verbal communication scores were significantly correlated in first- and in second-born siblings. However, there was a significant difference in the coefficients between first- and second-born siblings. Performance on the non-verbal communication domain was also significantly and positively correlated with useful phrase speech score in both first- and second-born siblings. It is unclear at this time whether these results are of biologic origin. Nevertheless, the findings suggest that genetic studies in autism using specific levels of familial autism traits as phenotypes should take into account their intercorrelations and birth order effects embedded in the instrument.

  7. Rigid therapies, rigid minds: italian professionals' perspectives on autism interventions.

    PubMed

    Cascio, M Ariel

    2015-06-01

    Many therapies, interventions, and programs seek to improve outcomes and quality of life for people diagnosed with autism spectrum conditions. This paper addresses Italian professionals' perspectives on a variety of such interventions, including TEACCH, ABA, Defeat Autism Now!, and Doman-Delacato. Drawing on participant-observation and interviews collected in 2012-2013 in a northern region of Italy, it highlights the theme of "rigidity" that appears in professionals' discourses about both the characteristics of people with autism and the potential risks of adhering too strictly to any particular treatment protocol. The co-occurrence of the theme of rigidity across different domains demonstrates a way in which diagnostic characteristics become metaphors for medical practice. This paper proposes that such discursive moves may help bridge the gap between people with autism and people who work with them because a key attribute of people with autism-thinking and/or acting rigidly-is also a potential pitfall for people without autism.

  8. Autism as a disorder of prediction

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Pawan; Kjelgaard, Margaret M.; Gandhi, Tapan K.; Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Cardinaux, Annie L.; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Diamond, Sidney P.; Held, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    A rich collection of empirical findings accumulated over the past three decades attests to the diversity of traits that constitute the autism phenotypes. It is unclear whether subsets of these traits share any underlying causality. This lack of a cohesive conceptualization of the disorder has complicated the search for broadly effective therapies, diagnostic markers, and neural/genetic correlates. In this paper, we describe how theoretical considerations and a review of empirical data lead to the hypothesis that some salient aspects of the autism phenotype may be manifestations of an underlying impairment in predictive abilities. With compromised prediction skills, an individual with autism inhabits a seemingly “magical” world wherein events occur unexpectedly and without cause. Immersion in such a capricious environment can prove overwhelming and compromise one’s ability to effectively interact with it. If validated, this hypothesis has the potential of providing unifying insights into multiple aspects of autism, with attendant benefits for improving diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25288765

  9. Autism as a disorder of prediction.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Pawan; Kjelgaard, Margaret M; Gandhi, Tapan K; Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Cardinaux, Annie L; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Diamond, Sidney P; Held, Richard M

    2014-10-21

    A rich collection of empirical findings accumulated over the past three decades attests to the diversity of traits that constitute the autism phenotypes. It is unclear whether subsets of these traits share any underlying causality. This lack of a cohesive conceptualization of the disorder has complicated the search for broadly effective therapies, diagnostic markers, and neural/genetic correlates. In this paper, we describe how theoretical considerations and a review of empirical data lead to the hypothesis that some salient aspects of the autism phenotype may be manifestations of an underlying impairment in predictive abilities. With compromised prediction skills, an individual with autism inhabits a seemingly "magical" world wherein events occur unexpectedly and without cause. Immersion in such a capricious environment can prove overwhelming and compromise one's ability to effectively interact with it. If validated, this hypothesis has the potential of providing unifying insights into multiple aspects of autism, with attendant benefits for improving diagnosis and therapy.

  10. Gastrointestinal microbiota in children with autism in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Tomova, Aleksandra; Husarova, Veronika; Lakatosova, Silvia; Bakos, Jan; Vlkova, Barbora; Babinska, Katarina; Ostatnikova, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Development of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), including autism, is based on a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Recent data propose the etiopathogenetic role of intestinal microflora in autism. The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in fecal microbiota in children with autism and determine its role in the development of often present gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and possibly other manifestations of autism in Slovakia. The fecal microflora of 10 children with autism, 9 siblings and 10 healthy children was investigated by real-time PCR. The fecal microbiota of autistic children showed a significant decrease of the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and elevation of the amount of Lactobacillus spp. Our results also showed a trend in the incidence of elevated Desulfovibrio spp. in children with autism reaffirmed by a very strong association of the amount of Desulfovibrio spp. with the severity of autism in the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) restricted/repetitive behavior subscale score. The participants in our study demonstrated strong positive correlation of autism severity with the severity of GI dysfunction. Probiotic diet supplementation normalized the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, Desulfovibrio spp. and the amount of Bifidobacterium spp. in feces of autistic children. We did not find any correlation between plasma levels of oxytocin, testosterone, DHEA-S and fecal microbiota, which would suggest their combined influence on autism development. This pilot study suggests the role of gut microbiota in autism as a part of the "gut-brain" axis and it is a basis for further investigation of the combined effect of microbial, genetic, and hormonal changes for development and clinical manifestation of autism.

  11. How Early Do Parent Concerns Predict Later Autism Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Steinfeld, Mary Beth; Hill, Monique M.; Cook, Ian; Hutman, Ted; Macari, Suzanne; Rogers, Sally J.; Sigman, Marian

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between parent concerns about development in the first year and a half of life and later autism diagnostic outcomes. Method Parent concerns about development were collected for infants at high and low risk for autism, using a prospective, longitudinal design. Parents were asked about developmental concerns at study intake and when their infant was 6, 12, and 18 months. Infants were then followed up until 36 months, when diagnostic status was determined. Results By the time their child was 12 months, parents who have an older child with autism reported significantly more concerns in autism spectrum disorders-related areas than parents of children with typical outcomes. These concerns were significantly related to independent measures of developmental status and autism symptoms and helped predict which infants would later be diagnosed with autism or autism spectrum disorders. At 6 months, however, the concerns of parents who have an older child with autism do not predict outcome well. Conclusion Explicitly probing for parent concerns about development is useful for identifying children in need of closer monitoring and surveillance, as recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. PMID:19827218

  12. Autistic Disorder in Patients with Williams-Beuren Syndrome: A Reconsideration of the Williams-Beuren Syndrome Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Tordjman, Sylvie; Anderson, George M.; Botbol, Michel; Toutain, Annick; Sarda, Pierre; Carlier, Michèle; Saugier-Veber, Pascale; Baumann, Clarisse; Cohen, David; Lagneaux, Céline; Tabet, Anne-Claude; Verloes, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Background Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), a rare developmental disorder caused by deletion of contiguous genes at 7q11.23, has been characterized by strengths in socialization (overfriendliness) and communication (excessive talkativeness). WBS has been often considered as the polar opposite behavioral phenotype to autism. Our objective was to better understand the range of phenotypic expression in WBS and the relationship between WBS and autistic disorder. Methodology The study was conducted on 9 French individuals aged from 4 to 37 years old with autistic disorder associated with WBS. Behavioral assessments were performed using Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scales. Molecular characterization of the WBS critical region was performed by FISH. Findings FISH analysis indicated that all 9 patients displayed the common WBS deletion. All 9 patients met ADI-R and ADOS diagnostic criteria for autism, displaying stereotypies and severe impairments in social interaction and communication (including the absence of expressive language). Additionally, patients showed improvement in social communication over time. Conclusions The results indicate that comorbid autism and WBS is more frequent than expected and suggest that the common WBS deletion can result in a continuum of social communication impairment, ranging from excessive talkativeness and overfriendliness to absence of verbal language and poor social relationships. Appreciation of the possible co-occurrence of WBS and autism challenges the common view that WBS represents the opposite behavioral phenotype of autism, and might lead to improved recognition of WBS in individuals diagnosed with autism. PMID:22412832

  13. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Siblings of Indian Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ankur; Juneja, Monica; Mishra, Devendra

    2016-06-01

    This study determined the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in 201 siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders. Siblings were screened using Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers and Social Responsiveness Scale, parent version. Screen-positive siblings were assessed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) criteria. The risk of autism spectrum disorder in siblings was correlated with various familial and disease characteristics of the index case. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in siblings was 4.97%. There was a significant effect of the presence of aggressive behavior, externalizing problems and total problems in the proband, assessed using Childhood Behavior Checklist, and the young age of the father at conception on sibling risk of autism spectrum disorder. Results of our study are in line with previous studies reporting similar prevalence but have also brought up the association with behavioral problems as a possible risk factor. Siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder should be routinely screened, and genetic counseling for this increased risk should be explained to the family.

  14. Motor stereotypies in children with autism and other developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Sylvie; Wang, Cuiling; Salgado, Miran W; Greene, Paul E; Kim, Mimi; Rapin, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to count and characterize the range of stereotypies--repetitive rhythmical, apparently purposeless movements--in developmentally impaired children with and without autism, and to determine whether some types are more prevalent and diagnostically useful in children with autism. We described each motor stereotypy recorded during 15 minutes of archived videos of standardized play sessions in 277 children (209 males, 68 females; mean age 4y 6mo [SD 1y 5mo], range 2y 11mo-8y 1mo), 129 with autistic disorder (DSM-III-R), and 148 cognitively-matched non-autistic developmentally disordered (NADD) comparison children divided into developmental language disorder and non-autism, low IQ (NALIQ) sub-groups. The parts of the body involved and characteristics of all stereotypies were scored blind to diagnosis. More children with autism had stereotypies than the NADD comparison children. Autism and, to a lesser degree, nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) <80, especially in females contributed independently to the occurrence, number, and variety of stereotypies, with non-autistic children without cognitive impairment having the least number of stereotypies and children with autism and low NVIQ the most. Autism contributed independently to gait and hand/finger stereotypies and NVIQ <80 to head/trunk stereotypies. Atypical gazing at fingers and objects was rare but virtually limited to autism. Stereotypies are environmentally modulated movement disorders, some highly suggestive, but not pathognomonic, of autism. Their underlying brain basis and genetic correlates need investigation. PMID:19087102

  15. Predictive validity of self-report questionnaires in the assessment of autism spectrum disorders in adults.

    PubMed

    Sizoo, Bram B; Horwitz, E H; Teunisse, J P; Kan, C C; Vissers, Ctwm; Forceville, Ejm; Van Voorst, Ajp; Geurts, H M

    2015-10-01

    While various screening instruments for autism spectrum disorders are widely used in diagnostic assessments, their psychometric properties have not been simultaneously evaluated in the outpatient setting where these instruments are used most. In this study, we tested the Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised and two short versions of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, the AQ-28 and AQ-10, in 210 patients referred for autism spectrum disorder assessment and in 63 controls. Of the 210 patients, 139 received an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and 71 received another psychiatric diagnosis. The positive predictive values indicate that these tests correctly identified autism spectrum disorder patients in almost 80% of the referred cases. However, the negative predictive values suggest that only half of the referred patients without autism spectrum disorder were correctly identified. The sensitivity and specificity of each of these instruments were much lower than the values reported in the literature. In this study, the sensitivity of the Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised was the highest (73%), and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient short forms had the highest specificity (70% and 72%). Based on the similar area under the curve values, there is no clear preference for any of the three instruments. None of these instruments have sufficient validity to reliably predict a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in outpatient settings. PMID:26088060

  16. Predictive validity of self-report questionnaires in the assessment of autism spectrum disorders in adults.

    PubMed

    Sizoo, Bram B; Horwitz, E H; Teunisse, J P; Kan, C C; Vissers, Ctwm; Forceville, Ejm; Van Voorst, Ajp; Geurts, H M

    2015-10-01

    While various screening instruments for autism spectrum disorders are widely used in diagnostic assessments, their psychometric properties have not been simultaneously evaluated in the outpatient setting where these instruments are used most. In this study, we tested the Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised and two short versions of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, the AQ-28 and AQ-10, in 210 patients referred for autism spectrum disorder assessment and in 63 controls. Of the 210 patients, 139 received an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and 71 received another psychiatric diagnosis. The positive predictive values indicate that these tests correctly identified autism spectrum disorder patients in almost 80% of the referred cases. However, the negative predictive values suggest that only half of the referred patients without autism spectrum disorder were correctly identified. The sensitivity and specificity of each of these instruments were much lower than the values reported in the literature. In this study, the sensitivity of the Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised was the highest (73%), and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient short forms had the highest specificity (70% and 72%). Based on the similar area under the curve values, there is no clear preference for any of the three instruments. None of these instruments have sufficient validity to reliably predict a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in outpatient settings.

  17. [Autism in the first year].

    PubMed

    Paula-Pérez, Isabel; Artigas-Pallarés, Josep

    2014-02-24

    At present autism can be diagnosed with a high degree of reliability between the ages of 18 months and 2 years. Yet, the first symptoms are already present long before the diagnosis is made. This has led to a number of retrospective and prospective studies being conducted with the aim of detecting manifestations that allow a diagnosis to be reached as early as possible. The results of these studies have enabled researchers to detect symptoms that appear between the ages of 6 and 12 months. Although it has been observed that these symptoms are of limited diagnostic interest, they do provide invaluable information for the understanding of autism within the framework of neurodevelopmental disorders because they highlight a pattern of development that is initially common to several different disorders, but which progressively goes on to constitute a specific phenotype.

  18. [Autism: toward a necessary cultural revolution].

    PubMed

    Chamak, Brigitte; Cohen, David

    2003-11-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder of childhood characterised by disturbances in both social interactions and communication as well as stereotyped patterns of activities and behaviour. The increase in estimates of the prevalence of autism has raised the question of an "epidemic" of autism. More active case assessment and changes in diagnostic criteria probably account in large part for such increase. Investigators have attempted to define the neural pathophysiology of autism ever since the hypothesis of "refrigerator mother" as its cause was replaced by the view that it is a developmental disorder of the immature brain. However consensus is yet to be reached concerning the brain regions implicated. Psychoanalysis, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, and genetics propose restricted view of the major issues leaving extensive areas unexplored. Therapeutic approaches induce only partial and uncertain results. There is no cure for autism but substantial evidence indicates that early, intensive, individualised education is beneficial for children. All modern intervention programs for autism affected children share a high degree of environmental structuring and predictability and an extensive individual approach. Autism being a behaviourally defined syndrome, it gave rise to a number of controversies concerning definition, classification, etiopathogenesis and therapeutics. In the 1990s a crisis has occurred in France with a loss of confidence between parents and psychiatrists with a problem concerning the means and ways of care of the autistic individual. The aim of this paper is to point out the different questions raised by autism in order to better understand this syndrome which touches upon essential behaviour-related aspects such as self consciousness, reality perception, the functioning of the thought and communication, as well as the role of hereditary and acquired influences in normal and pathological development.

  19. Spatial clusters of autism births and diagnoses point to contextual drivers of increased prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Mazumdar, Soumya; Winter, Alix; Liu, Ka-Yuet; Bearman, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Autism prevalence has risen dramatically over the past two decades in California. Although often suggested to have been crucial to the rise of autism, environmental and social contextual drivers of diagnosis have not been extensively examined. Identifying the spatial patterning of autism cases at birth and at diagnosis can help clarify which contextual drivers are affecting autism’s rising prevalence. Children with autism not co-morbid with mental retardation served by the California Department of Developmental Services during the period 1992 to 2005 were matched to California’s Birth Master Files. We search for spatial clusters of autism at time of birth and at time of diagnosis using a spatial scan approach that controls for key individual-level risk factors. We then test whether indicators of neighborhood-level diagnostic resources are associated with the diagnostic clusters and assess the extent of clustering by autism symptom severity through a multivariate scan. Finally, we test whether children who move into neighborhoods with higher levels of resources are more likely to receive an autism diagnosis relative to those who do not move with regard to resources. Significant birth and diagnostic clusters of autism are observed independent of key individual-level risk factors. While the clusters overlap, there is a strong positive association between the diagnostic clusters and neighborhood-level diagnostic resources. In addition, children with autism who are higher functioning are more likely to be diagnosed within a cluster than children with autism who are lower functioning. Most importantly, children who move into a neighborhood with more diagnostic resources than their previous residence are more likely to subsequently receive an autism diagnosis than children whose neighborhood resources do not change. We identify birth and diagnostic clusters of autism in California that are independent of individual-level autism risk factors. Our findings implicate a

  20. Toward Brief "Red Flags" for Autism Screening: The Short Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Short Quantitative Checklist in 1,000 Cases and 3,000 Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Frontline health professionals need a "red flag" tool to aid their decision making about whether to make a referral for a full diagnostic assessment for an autism spectrum condition (ASC) in children and adults. The aim was to identify 10 items on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) (Adult, Adolescent, and Child versions) and on the…

  1. Brief report: autism awareness: views from a campus community.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Leigh Ann; Blacher, Jan

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports on a college community's views of the diagnostic characteristics and causes associated with autism spectrum disorders. An anonymous on-line survey of autism knowledge was distributed via campus server university-wide to all undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, and staff. Of the 1,057 surveys completed, 76 % of respondents had more correct answers than neutral and incorrect ones. Respondents who reported that they or someone in their immediate family had autism had significantly more correct responses than other respondents. Demographic variables of respondent sex, age, education, and role at the university independently accounted for significant, though modest, variance in autism knowledge. More accurate and widespread dissemination of information about autism may facilitate a smoother transition for college students who are on the spectrum.

  2. Outcomes in adult life among siblings of individuals with autism.

    PubMed

    Howlin, Patricia; Moss, Philippa; Savage, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Little is known about adult siblings of individuals with autism. We report on cognitive, social and mental health outcomes in 87 adult siblings (mean age 39 years). When younger all had been assessed either as being "unaffected" by autism (n = 69) or as meeting criteria for the "Broader Autism Phenotype" (BAP, n = 18). As adults, all scored within the average range on tests of intelligence, numeracy and literacy. "Unaffected" siblings were functioning well in terms of jobs, independence and social relationships. Levels of social relationships and employment were significantly lower in the BAP group; autism traits and mental health problems were significantly higher. The data suggest that the "broader autism phenotype" is a meaningful concept but more sensitive diagnostic measures are required.

  3. Autism traits in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Yolanda C.; Hinkley, Leighton B. N.; Bukshpun, Polina; Strominger, Zoe A.; Wakahiro, Mari L. J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Jeremy, Rita J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have numerous etiologies, including structural brain malformations such as agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We sought to directly measure the occurrence of autism traits in a cohort of individuals with AgCC and to investigate the neural underpinnings of this association. We screened a large AgCC cohort (n = 106) with the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and found that 45% of children, 35% of adolescents, and 18% of adults exceeded the predetermined autism-screening cut-off. Interestingly, performance on the AQ’s imagination domain was inversely correlated with magnetoencephalography measures of resting-state functional connectivity in the right superior temporal gyrus. Individuals with AgCC should be screened for ASD and disorders of the corpus callosum should be considered in autism diagnostic evaluations as well. PMID:23054201

  4. Recent Advances in Understanding and Managing Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Germain, Blair; Eppinger, Melissa A; Mostofsky, Stewart H; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Maria, Bernard L

    2015-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorder in children is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by difficulties with social communication and behavior. Growing scientific evidence in addition to clinical practice has led the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) to categorize several disorders into the broader category of autism spectrum disorder. As more is learned about how autism spectrum disorder manifests, progress has been made toward better clinical management including earlier diagnosis, care, and when specific interventions are required. The 2014 Neurobiology of Disease in Children symposium, held in conjunction with the 43rd annual meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to (1) describe the clinical concerns involving diagnosis and treatment, (2) review the current status of understanding in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder, (3) discuss clinical management and therapies for autism spectrum disorder, and (4) define future directions of research. The article summarizes the presentations and includes an edited transcript of question-and-answer sessions.

  5. γ-band abnormalities as markers of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Donald C; Wilson, Lisa B

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a behaviorally diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder with no current biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity. γ-band abnormalities have been reported in many studies of autism spectrum disorders. γ-band activity is associated with perceptual and cognitive functions that are compromised in autism. Some γ-band deficits have also been seen in unaffected first-degree relatives, suggesting heritability of these findings. This review covers the published literature on γ abnormalities in autism, the proposed mechanisms underlying the deficits and the potential for translation into new treatments. Although the utility of γ-band metrics as diagnostic biomarkers is currently limited, such changes in autism are also useful as endophenotypes, for evaluating potential neural mechanisms, and for use as surrogate markers of treatment response to interventions.

  6. Comparison of scores on the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale for children with low functioning autism, high functioning autism, Asperger's disorder, ADHD, and typical development.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L; Murray, Michael J; Morrow, Jill D; Yurich, Kirsten K L; Mahr, Fauzia; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Bouder, James N; Petersen, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    Reliability and validity for three autism instruments were compared for 190 children with low functioning autism (LFA), 190 children with high functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (HFA), 76 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 64 typical children. The instruments were the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder (designed for children with LFA and HFA), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for children with LFA, and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale (GADS). For children with LFA or ADHD, classification accuracy was 100% for the Checklist and 98% for the CARS clinician scores. For children with HFA or ADHD, classification accuracy was 99% for the Checklist and 93% for the GADS clinician scores. Clinician-parent diagnostic agreement was high (90% Checklist, 90% CARS, and 84% GADS).

  7. Psychophysical Assessment of Timing in Individuals With Autism

    PubMed Central

    Allman, Melissa J.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Wearden, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Perception of time, in the seconds to minutes range, is not well characterized in autism. The required interval timing system (ITS) develops at the same stages during infancy as communication, social reciprocity, and other cognitive and behavioral functions. The authors used two versions of a temporal bisection procedure to study the perception of duration in individuals with autism and observed quantifiable differences and characteristic patterns in participants’ timing functions. Measures of timing performance correlated with certain autism diagnostic and intelligence scores, and parents described individuals with autism as having a poor sense of time. The authors modeled the data to provide a relative assessment of ITS function in these individuals. The implications of these results for the understanding of autism are discussed. PMID:21381951

  8. Gamma-band abnormalities as markers of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Donald C.; Wilson, Lisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Autism is a behaviorally diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder with no current biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity. Gamma-band abnormalities have been reported in many studies of autism spectrum disorders. Gamma-band activity is associated with perceptual and cognitive functions that are compromised in autism. Some gamma-band deficits have also been seen in unaffected first-degree relatives, suggesting heritability of these findings. This review covers the published literature on gamma abnormalities in autism, the proposed mechanisms underlying the deficits, and the potential for translation into new treatments. Although the utility of gamma-band metrics as diagnostic biomarkers is currently limited, such changes in autism are also useful as endophenotypes, for evaluating potential neural mechanisms, and for use as surrogate markers of treatment response to interventions. PMID:24712425

  9. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much attention was focused on individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised that were useful to evaluate the aggressive behavior. We have not found any association between aggressive behavior (other-aggression and self-aggression) and the absence of language or low IQ in children with ASD. Thus, the degree of severity of autism is probably the most important risk factor for this behavior. PMID:27336016

  10. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much attention was focused on individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised that were useful to evaluate the aggressive behavior. We have not found any association between aggressive behavior (other-aggression and self-aggression) and the absence of language or low IQ in children with ASD. Thus, the degree of severity of autism is probably the most important risk factor for this behavior. PMID:27336016

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental disabilities that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral ... for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities. More E-mail Your Friends "Children with autism ...

  12. The pathophysiology of autism.

    PubMed

    Compart, Pamela J

    2013-11-01

    Autism has been classically defined by its behavioral symptoms. Traditional medical research has focused on genetic or intrinsic brain-based causes of autism. While both of these are important, additional research has focused on the underlying disordered biochemistry seen in many individuals with autism. Many of these biomedical factors are amenable to treatment. This article will review the main pathophysiologic factors seen in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

  13. Roses for Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaino, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses Roses for Autism, a program that provides training, guidance and employment opportunities for older students and adults on the autistic spectrum. Roses for Autism tackles one of the biggest challenges currently facing the autism community--a disproportionally high unemployment rate that hovers around 88 percent. Although a…

  14. Faces of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Kimberly R.; Dunn, Amy; Conn, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    The number of children diagnosed with autism is rapidly increasing. While autism is not a new disability, many families are still embarking on unforeseen journeys with their children. The autism spectrum has broadened, and with increased awareness in recent years, it is undetermined which aspect has the greatest impact on the increasing numbers.…

  15. What Is Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Martin E.; Block, Vickie E.; Halliday, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the reader to autism. The article begins with a definition of autism. This will be followed by a discussion of possible causes of autism as well as common characteristics associated with the disorder. (Contains 1 table.)

  16. The promising trajectory of autism therapeutics discovery.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jill L; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2014-07-01

    Pharmacological interventions for neurodevelopmental disorders are increasingly tractable. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects approximately 1% of the population. Currently, the standard of care is early behavioral therapy. No approved medical treatments for the diagnostic symptoms are available. Strong evidence for genetic causes of autism implicates proteins that mediate synaptic transmission and structure. Mouse models with targeted mutations in these synaptic genes display behavioral symptoms relevant to the social communication abnormalities and repetitive behaviors that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD), along with biological abnormalities in synaptic physiology and morphology. As we discuss here, promising pharmacological targets, emerging from the mouse model studies, are now being pursued in early clinical trials. Thus, a high-prevalence disorder that was previously considered to be medically untreatable is now moving into the therapeutic arena.

  17. Enhanced Visual Search in Infancy Predicts Emerging Autism Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Gliga, Teodora; Bedford, Rachael; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bolton, Patrick; Cheung, Celeste; Davies, Kim; Liew, Michelle; Fernandes, Janice; Gammer, Issy; Maris, Helen; Salomone, Erica; Pasco, Greg; Pickles, Andrew; Ribeiro, Helena; Tucker, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Summary In addition to core symptoms, i.e., social interaction and communication difficulties and restricted and repetitive behaviors, autism is also characterized by aspects of superior perception [1]. One well-replicated finding is that of superior performance in visual search tasks, in which participants have to indicate the presence of an odd-one-out element among a number of foils [2–5]. Whether these aspects of superior perception contribute to the emergence of core autism symptoms remains debated [4, 6]. Perceptual and social interaction atypicalities could reflect co-expressed but biologically independent pathologies, as suggested by a “fractionable” phenotype model of autism [7]. A developmental test of this hypothesis is now made possible by longitudinal cohorts of infants at high risk, such as of younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Around 20% of younger siblings are diagnosed with autism themselves [8], and up to another 30% manifest elevated levels of autism symptoms [9]. We used eye tracking to measure spontaneous orienting to letter targets (O, S, V, and +) presented among distractors (the letter X; Figure 1). At 9 and 15 months, emerging autism symptoms were assessed using the Autism Observation Scale for Infants (AOSI; [10]), and at 2 years of age, they were assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; [11]). Enhanced visual search performance at 9 months predicted a higher level of autism symptoms at 15 months and at 2 years. Infant perceptual atypicalities are thus intrinsically linked to the emerging autism phenotype. PMID:26073135

  18. Assessing early implementation of state autism insurance mandates.

    PubMed

    Baller, Julia Berlin; Barry, Colleen L; Shea, Kathleen; Walker, Megan M; Ouellette, Rachel; Mandell, David S

    2016-10-01

    In the United States, health insurance coverage for autism spectrum disorder treatments has been historically limited. In response, as of 2015, 40 states and Washington, DC, have passed state autism insurance mandates requiring many health plans in the private insurance market to cover autism diagnostic and treatment services. This study examined five states' experiences implementing autism insurance mandates. Semi-structured, key-informant interviews were conducted with 17 participants representing consumer advocacy organizations, provider organizations, and health insurance companies. Overall, participants thought that the mandates substantially affected the delivery of autism services. While access to autism treatment services has increased as a result of implementation of state mandates, states have struggled to keep up with the demand for services. Participants provided specific information about barriers and facilitators to meeting this demand. Understanding of key informants' perceptions about states' experiences implementing autism insurance mandates is useful for other states considering adopting or expanding mandates or other policies to expand access to autism treatment services.

  19. Epidemiology and early identification of autism: research challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Charman, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders may be as high as 60 per 10000, considerably greater than the long-accepted figure of 5 per 10 000 for classic autism. Increased recognition, the broadening of the diagnostic concept and methodological differences across studies may account for most or all of the apparent increase in prevalence, although this cannot be quantified. In addition to the implications for families and services, these conceptual changes will affect the scientific study of autism. At present, case definition is reliant on the behavioural and developmental picture alone. Because the behavioural phenotype of autism and the broader autism spectrum disorders includes individuals with different ultimate aetiologies, even when biological or genetic markers are found they will not be present in all individuals with the phenotype. The fact that autism is not a unitary 'disorder' presents a significant challenge to genetic, biological, neurological and psychological research. Progress has recently been made in the earlier identification of autism both through screening programmes and by increased understanding and enhanced surveillance. This offers an opportunity to better understand the early developmental course of autism and may provide additional clues to the underlying pathology. PMID:14521185

  20. Assessing early implementation of state autism insurance mandates

    PubMed Central

    Baller, Julia Berlin; Barry, Colleen L; Shea, Kathleen; Walker, Megan M; Ouellette, Rachel; Mandell, David S

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, health insurance coverage for autism spectrum disorder treatments has been historically limited. In response, as of 2015, 40 states and Washington, DC, have passed state autism insurance mandates requiring many health plans in the private insurance market to cover autism diagnostic and treatment services. This study examined five states’ experiences implementing autism insurance mandates. Semi-structured, key-informant interviews were conducted with 17 participants representing consumer advocacy organizations, provider organizations, and health insurance companies. Overall, participants thought that the mandates substantially affected the delivery of autism services. While access to autism treatment services has increased as a result of implementation of state mandates, states have struggled to keep up with the demand for services. Participants provided specific information about barriers and facilitators to meeting this demand. Understanding of key informants’ perceptions about states’ experiences implementing autism insurance mandates is useful for other states considering adopting or expanding mandates or other policies to expand access to autism treatment services. PMID:26614401

  1. Comparison of DSM-III-R and childhood autism rating scale diagnoses of autism.

    PubMed

    Van Bourgondien, M E; Marcus, L M; Schopler, E

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the issue of whether DSM-III-R (American Psychological Association [APA], 1987) over- or underdiagnoses autism by comparing this diagnostic system to a well-established objective measure of diagnosis, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). A secondary goal was to determine which of the 16 criteria are the best discriminators of autism. DSM-III-R, CARS, and clinical diagnoses of 138 consecutive admissions to a statewide program for the diagnosis and treatment of autistic and related communication-handicapped individuals (Division TEACCH in North Carolina) were compared. Results indicated a generally high degree of agreement on the diagnosis of autism using the three systems. Within this treatment-oriented program, the CARS and clinical ratings diagnosed a greater number of cases as autistic than did the DSM-III-R criteria, suggesting that DSM-III-R slightly underdiagnosed autism. The criteria that most strongly related to the diagnosis of autism regardless of the system were lack of awareness of others, abnormal social play, an impaired ability to make friends, abnormal nonverbal communication, stereotypic body movements, and restricted range of interests. PMID:1483973

  2. Longitudinal Study of Symptom Severity and Language in Minimally Verbal Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurm, Audrey; Manwaring, Stacy S.; Swineford, Lauren; Farmer, Cristan

    2015-01-01

    Background: A significant minority of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are considered "minimally verbal" due to language development stagnating at a few words. Recent developments allow for the severity of ASD symptoms to be examined using Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Social Affect (SA) and Restricted and…

  3. Female Autism Phenotypes Investigated at Different Levels of Language and Developmental Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Yamini J.; O'Rourke, Julia A.; Yatchmink, Yvette; Viscidi, Emma W.; Jones, Richard N.; Morrow, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in clinical symptoms between females and males with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across three verbal ability groups (nonverbal, phrase and fluent speech), based on which Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule module was administered to 5723 individuals in four research datasets. In the Simons Simplex…

  4. Why We Should Study the Broader Autism Phenotype in Typically Developing Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Oriane; Chouinard, Philippe A.

    2016-01-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a term applied to individuals with personality and cognitive traits that are similar to but milder than those observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Subtle autistic traits in the core diagnostic domains of social communication and rigid behavior were described in family members of people with an ASD even…

  5. "On the Sidelines": Access to Autism-Related Services in the West Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dababnah, Sarah; Bulson, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    We examined access to autism-related services among Palestinians (N = 24) raising children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the West Bank. Using qualitative methods, we identified five primary interview themes. Poor screening, diagnostic, and psychoeducational practices were prevalent, as parents reported service providers minimized parental…

  6. Qualitative or Quantitative Differences between Asperger's Disorder and Autism? Historical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, James Ladell

    2009-01-01

    The histories of autism and Asperger's Disorder (AD), based on original contributions by Kanner and Asperger, are reviewed in relation to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Their original articles appear to have influenced the distinction between AD and autism made in the DSM-IV. Based on up-to-date empirical research, however, it appears that AD and…

  7. Cultural Adaptation and Translation of Outreach Materials on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinker, Roy R.; Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Ahmann, Chloe; Beidas, Rinad S.; Lagman, Adrienne; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to connect with families and influence treatment trajectories, outreach materials should address cultural perceptions of the condition, its causes, and post-diagnostic care. This paper describes the cultural adaptation and translation of the Autism Speaks First 100 Days Kit into Korean for the purpose of improving autism spectrum disorder…

  8. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Phenomenology in Cornelia de Lange and Cri du Chat Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Joanna F.; Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Kaur, Gurmeash; Jephcott, Lesley; Cornish, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder characteristics have not been evaluated in Cornelia de Lange and Cri du Chat syndromes using robust assessments. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Social Communication Questionnaire were administered to 34 participants with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and a comparison group of 23 participants with Cri du Chat…

  9. Emergence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children from Simplex Families: Relations to Parental Perceptions of Etiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goin-Kochel, Robin P.; Mire, Sarah S.; Dempsey, Allison G.

    2015-01-01

    Current research describes a four-category scheme of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) onset: early, regressive, plateau, delay + regression. To replicate prevalence of different onset types, ASD onset (per the "Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised") was examined in a large North American sample; for a subset, parents' causal beliefs were…

  10. Assessment of Pretend Play in Prader-Willi Syndrome: A Direct Comparison to Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyga, Olena; Russ, Sandra; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E.; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including pervasive social deficits. While play impairments in ASD are well documented, play abilities in PWS have not been evaluated. Fourteen children with PWS and ten children with ASD were administered the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)…

  11. Experiences of Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Survey of Professionals in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Claire L.; Goddard, Lorna; Hill, Elisabeth L.; Henry, Lucy A.; Crane, Laura

    2016-01-01

    To date, research exploring experiences of diagnosing autism spectrum disorder has largely focused on parental perspectives. In order to obtain a more complete account of the autism spectrum disorder diagnostic process, it is essential that the views and experiences of professionals are heard. In this study, 116 multidisciplinary professionals…

  12. Understanding One's Own Emotions in Cognitively-Able Preadolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Itzchak, Esther; Abutbul, Shira; Bela, Hadas; Shai, Tom; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2016-01-01

    There are still no straightforward answers as to whether understanding one's own emotions is impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluated the perception of one's own different emotions, based on the relevant section of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule Module 3 test. Forty boys, aged 8-11 years, 20 diagnosed with ASD…

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorders in the DSM-V: Better or Worse than the DSM-IV?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith; Gillberg, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V-committee has recently published proposed diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorders. We examine these criteria in some detail. We believe that the DSM-committee has overlooked a number of important issues, including social imagination, diagnosis in infancy and adulthood, and the possibility that girls and women with autism may…

  14. Predicting Improvement in Social-Communication Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Retrospective Treatment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Kanne, Stephen M.; Miles, Judith H.

    2012-01-01

    Data from 1433 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) participating in the Simons Simplex Collection were examined to (1) investigate change in social-communication symptoms, and (2) examine predictors of improvement, particularly community-based treatments. Measures included the "Autism Diagnostic Interview--Revised"…

  15. Relationship Satisfaction, Parenting Stress, and Depression in Mothers of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitlauf, Amy S.; Vehorn, Alison C.; Taylor, Julie L.; Warren, Zachary E.

    2014-01-01

    Mothers of children with autism report higher levels of depression than mothers of children with other developmental disabilities. We explored the relations between child characteristics of diagnostic severity and problem behaviors, parenting stress, relationship quality, and depressive symptoms in 70 mothers of young children with autism. We…

  16. Perception of Emotions from Facial Expressions in High-Functioning Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Daniel P.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Impairment in social communication is one of the diagnostic hallmarks of autism spectrum disorders, and a large body of research has documented aspects of impaired social cognition in autism, both at the level of the processes and the neural structures involved. Yet one of the most common social communicative abilities in everyday life, the…

  17. Latent Class Analysis of Early Developmental Trajectory in Baby Siblings of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landa, Rebecca J.; Gross, Alden L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Bauman, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Background: Siblings of children with autism (sibs-A) are at increased genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and milder impairments. To elucidate diversity and contour of early developmental trajectories exhibited by sibs-A, regardless of diagnostic classification, latent class modeling was used. Methods: Sibs-A (N = 204) were assessed…

  18. Repetitive Behavior Profiles in Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Mikle; Ozonoff, Sally; McMahon, William M.

    2005-01-01

    Although repetitive behaviors are a core diagnostic domain for autism spectrum disorders, research in this area has been neglected. This study had two major aims (1) to provide a detailed characterization of repetitive behaviors in individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS), high-functioning autism (HFA), and typically developing controls (TD); and…

  19. Autism Overview: What We Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This fact sheet offers broad information about autism and answers some of the more common questions that parents and families often have about the disorder. The following questions are answered in this document: (1) What is autism?; (2) What causes autism?; (3) How many people have autism?; (4) Is autism more common in certain groups of people?;…

  20. Autism: A review for family physicians.

    PubMed

    Karande, Sunil

    2006-05-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by qualitative impairments in social interaction and communication, with restricted, repetitive, stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities. These behaviors manifest along a wide spectrum and commence before 36 months of age. Diagnosis of autism is made by ascertaining whether the child's specific behaviors meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Revised criteria. Its etiology is still unclear but recent studies suggest that genetics plays a major role in conferring susceptibility. Recent neuroimaging research studies indicate that autism may be caused by atypical functioning in the central nervous system, particularly in the limbic system: amygdala and hippocampus. In a third of autistic children, loss of language and/or social skills occurs during the second year of life, usually between 15 and 21 months of age. Comorbidity with mental retardation, epilepsy, disruptive behaviors and learning difficulty is not uncommon. Although there is currently no known cure for autism there is evidence to suggest that early intervention therapy can improve functioning of autistic children. Judicious use of psychotropic drugs is necessary to manage associated aggression, hyperactivity, self-mutilation, temper tantrums; but drugs are not a substitute for behavioral and educational interventions. The family physician can play an important role in detecting autism early, coordinating its assessment and treatment, counseling the parents and classroom teacher, and monitoring the child's progress on a long term basis. PMID:16733293

  1. Autism spectrum disorder reclassified: a second look at the 1980s Utah/UCLA Autism Epidemiologic Study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Judith S; Bilder, Deborah; Farley, Megan; Coon, Hilary; Pinborough-Zimmerman, Judith; Jenson, William; Rice, Catherine E; Fombonne, Eric; Pingree, Carmen B; Ritvo, Edward; Ritvo, Riva-Ariella; McMahon, William M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to re-examine diagnostic data from a state-wide autism prevalence study (n = 489) conducted in the 1980s to investigate the impact of broader diagnostic criteria on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) case status. Sixty-four (59 %) of the 108 originally "Diagnosed Not Autistic" met the current ASD case definition. The average IQ estimate in the newly identified group (IQ = 35.58; SD = 23.01) was significantly lower than in the original group (IQ = 56.19 SD = 21.21; t = 5.75; p < .0001). Today's diagnostic criteria applied to participants ascertained in the 1980s identified more cases of autism with intellectual disability. The current analysis puts this historic work into context and highlights differences in ascertainment between epidemiological studies performed decades ago and those of today.

  2. Autism research and services for young children: history, progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Travis

    2013-03-01

    For three decades after Leo Kanner's first clinical description, research progress in understanding and treating autism was minimal but since the late 1960s the growth of autism discoveries has been exponential, with a remarkable number of new findings published over the past two decades, in particular. These advances were made possible first by the discovery and dissemination of early intensive behavioural intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism that created the impetus for earlier accurate diagnosis. Other factors influencing the rapid growth in autism research were the first accepted diagnostic test for autism, the Autism Diagnostic Interview and Observation Schedule (ADI and ADOS). Developments in brain imaging and genetic technology combined to create a fuller understanding of the heterogeneity of autism, its multiple aetiologies, very early onset and course, and strategies for treatment. For a significant proportion of children with autism, it appears EIBI may be capable of promoting brain connectivity in specific cerebral areas, which is one of autism's underlying challenges. Disagreements about the most appropriate early intervention approach between developmental and behavioural psychologists have been unproductive and not contributed to advancing the field. Naturalistic behavioural and structured discrete trial methods are being integrated with developmental strategies with promising outcomes. Over these past 30 years, young people with autism have gone from receiving essentially no proactive treatment, resulting in lives languishing in institutions, to today, when half of children receiving EIBI treatment subsequently participate in regular classrooms alongside their peers. The future has entirely changed for young people with autism. Autism has become an eminently treatable condition. The time is overdue to set aside philosophical quarrels regarding theories of child development and apply what we know for the benefit of children with autism

  3. Recent advances in autism research as reflected in DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lord, Catherine; Bishop, Somer L

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a selective review of advances in scientific knowledge about autism spectrum disorder (ASD), using DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition) diagnostic criteria as a framework for the discussion. We review literature that prompted changes to the organization of ASD symptoms and diagnostic subtypes in DSM-IV, and we examine the rationale for new DSM-5 specifiers, modifiers, and severity ratings as well as the introduction of the diagnosis of social (pragmatic) communication disorder. Our goal is to summarize and critically consider the contribution of clinical psychology research, along with that of other disciplines, to the current conceptualization of ASD.

  4. Essential versus complex autism: definition of fundamental prognostic subtypes.

    PubMed

    Miles, J H; Takahashi, T N; Bagby, S; Sahota, P K; Vaslow, D F; Wang, C H; Hillman, R E; Farmer, J E

    2005-06-01

    Heterogeneity within the autism diagnosis obscures the genetic basis of the disorder and impedes our ability to develop effective treatments. We found that by using two readily available tests, autism can be divided into two subgroups, "essential autism" and "complex autism," with different outcomes and recurrence risks. Complex autism consists of individuals in whom there is evidence of some abnormality of early morphogenesis, manifested by either significant dysmorphology or microcephaly. The remainder have "essential autism." From 1995 to 2001, 260 individuals who met DSM-IV criteria for autistic disorder were examined. Five percent (13/260) were microcephalic and 16% (41/260) had significant physical anomalies. Individually, each trait predicted a poorer outcome. Together they define the "complex autism" subgroup, comprising 20% (46/233) of the total autism population. Individuals with complex autism have lower IQs (P=0.006), more seizures (P=0.0008), more abnormal EEGs (46% vs. 30%), more brain abnormalities by MRI (28% vs. 13%). Everyone with an identifiable syndrome was in the complex group. Essential autism defines the more heritable group with higher sib recurrence (4% vs. 0%), more relatives with autism (20% vs. 9%), and higher male to female ratio (6.5:1 vs. 3.2:1). Their outcome was better with higher IQs (P=0.02) and fewer seizures (P=0.0008). They were more apt to develop autism with a regressive onset (43% vs. 23%, P=0.02). Analysis of the features predictive of poor outcome (IQ<55, functionally non-verbal) showed that microcephaly was 100% specific but only 14% sensitive; the presence of physical anomalies was 86% specific and 34% sensitive. The two tests combined yielded 87% specificity, 47% sensitivity, and an odds ratio of 4.8:1 for poor outcome. Separating essential from complex autism should be the first diagnostic step for children with autism spectrum disorders as it allows better prognostication and counseling. Definition of more homogeneous

  5. Social Responsiveness Scale-aided analysis of the clinical impact of copy number variations in autism.

    PubMed

    van Daalen, Emma; Kemner, Chantal; Verbeek, Nienke E; van der Zwaag, Bert; Dijkhuizen, Trijnie; Rump, Patrick; Houben, Renske; van 't Slot, Ruben; de Jonge, Maretha V; Staal, Wouter G; Beemer, Frits A; Vorstman, Jacob A S; Burbach, J Peter H; van Amstel, Hans Kristian Ploos; Hochstenbach, Ron; Brilstra, Eva H; Poot, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Recent array-based studies have detected a wealth of copy number variations (CNVs) in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Since CNVs also occur in healthy individuals, their contributions to the patient's phenotype remain largely unclear. In a cohort of children with symptoms of ASD, diagnosis of the index patient using ADOS-G and ADI-R was performed, and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) was administered to the index patients, both parents, and all available siblings. CNVs were identified using SNP arrays and confirmed by FISH or array CGH. To evaluate the clinical significance of CNVs, we analyzed three families with multiple affected children (multiplex) and six families with a single affected child (simplex) in which at least one child carried a CNV with a brain-transcribed gene. CNVs containing genes that participate in pathways previously implicated in ASD, such as the phosphoinositol signaling pathway (PIK3CA, GIRDIN), contactin-based networks of cell communication (CNTN6), and microcephalin (MCPH1) were found not to co-segregate with ASD phenotypes. In one family, a loss of CNTN5 co-segregated with disease. This indicates that most CNVs may by themselves not be sufficient to cause ASD, but still may contribute to the phenotype by additive or epistatic interactions with inherited (transmitted) mutations or non-genetic factors. Our study extends the scope of genome-wide CNV profiling beyond de novo CNVs in sporadic patients and may aid in uncovering missing heritability in genome-wide screening studies of complex psychiatric disorders. PMID:21837366

  6. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: What Does Self-Report with the OCI-R Tell Us?

    PubMed

    Cadman, Tim; Spain, Debbie; Johnston, Patrick; Russell, Ailsa; Mataix-Cols, David; Craig, Michael; Deeley, Quinton; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Clodagh; Gillan, Nicola; Wilson, C Ellie; Mendez, Maria; Ecker, Christine; Daly, Eileen; Findon, James; Glaser, Karen; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the symptom profile of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals who have autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is also unknown whether self-report questionnaires are useful in measuring OCD in ASD. We sought to describe the symptom profiles of adults with ASD, OCD, and ASD + OCD using the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), and to assess the utility of the OCI-R as a screening measure in a high-functioning adult ASD sample. Individuals with ASD (n = 171), OCD (n = 108), ASD + OCD (n = 54) and control participants (n = 92) completed the OCI-R. Individuals with ASD + OCD reported significantly higher levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than those with ASD alone. OCD symptoms were not significantly correlated with core ASD repetitive behaviors as measured on the ADI-R or ADOS-G. The OCI-R showed good psychometric properties and corresponded well with clinician diagnosis of OCD. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested cut-offs for OCI-R Total and Checking scores that discriminated well between ASD + versus -OCD, and fairly well between ASD-alone and OCD-alone. OCD manifests separately from ASD and is characterized by a different profile of repetitive thoughts and behaviors. The OCI-R appears to be useful as a screening tool in the ASD adult population.

  7. Inflectional morphology in high-functioning autism: Evidence for speeded grammatical processing

    PubMed Central

    Walenski, Matthew; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Autism is characterized by language and communication deficits. We investigated grammatical and lexical processes in high-functioning autism by contrasting the production of regular and irregular past-tense forms. Boys with autism and typically-developing control boys did not differ in accuracy or error rates. However, boys with autism were significantly faster than controls at producing rule-governed past-tenses (slip-slipped, plim-plimmed, bring-bringed), though not lexically-dependent past-tenses (bring-brought, squeeze-squeezed, splim-splam). This pattern mirrors previous findings from Tourette syndrome attributed to abnormalities of frontal/basal-ganglia circuits that underlie grammar. We suggest a similar abnormality underlying language in autism. Importantly, even when children with autism show apparently normal language (e.g., in accuracy or with diagnostic instruments), processes and/or brain structures subserving language may be atypical in the disorder. PMID:25342962

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents with Fragile X Syndrome: Within-Syndrome Differences and Age-Related Changes

    PubMed Central

    McDuffie, Andrea; Abbeduto, Leonard; Lewis, Pamela; Kim, Jee-Seon; Kover, Sara T.; Weber, Ann; Brown, W. Ted

    2010-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised was used to examine diagnostic profiles and age-related changes in autism symptoms for a group of verbal children and adolescents with FXS, with and without autism. After controlling for nonverbal IQ, statistically significant between-group differences for lifetime and current autism symptoms were found for the Communication and Restricted Interests/Repetitive Behaviors domains, but not the Reciprocal Social Interaction domain. Effect sizes for differences in Reciprocal Social Interaction also were smaller than effect sizes for the other domains with one exception. Overall, severity of autism symptoms improved with age for all participants, with the least improvement noted for Restricted Interests and Repetitive Behaviors. FMRP did not account for unique variance in autism symptoms over and above nonverbal IQ. PMID:20567604

  9. Autism and learning disability.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Gregory; Pearson, Joanne

    2004-06-01

    In this article a short overview is given of the relationship between autism and learning disability. Autism exists with any level of intelligence, but many individuals with autism suffer also from learning disability. Although both disorders show overlap in some behaviours they are different in many aspects. Are they distinct syndromes which influence each other, or do they belong to a broad spectrum of a condition?

  10. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and autism: a comprehensive comparison.

    PubMed

    Paul, Lynn K; Corsello, Christina; Kennedy, Daniel P; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-06-01

    The corpus callosum, with its ∼200 million axons, remains enigmatic in its contribution to cognition and behaviour. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a congenital condition in which the corpus callosum fails to develop; such individuals exhibit localized deficits in non-literal language comprehension, humour, theory of mind and social reasoning. These findings together with parent reports suggest that behavioural and cognitive impairments in subjects with callosal agenesis may overlap with the profile of autism spectrum disorders, particularly with respect to impairments in social interaction and communication. To provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis, we directly compared a group of 26 adults with callosal agenesis to a group of 28 adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder but no neurological abnormality. All participants had full-scale intelligence quotient scores >78 and groups were matched on age, handedness, and gender ratio. Using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule together with current clinical presentation to assess autistic symptomatology, we found that 8/26 (about a third) of agenesis subjects presented with autism. However, more formal diagnosis additionally involving recollective parent-report measures regarding childhood behaviour showed that only 3/22 met complete formal criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (parent reports were unavailable for four subjects). We found no relationship between intelligence quotient and autism symptomatology in callosal agenesis, nor evidence that the presence of any residual corpus callosum differentiated those who exhibited current autism spectrum symptoms from those who did not. Relative to the autism spectrum comparison group, parent ratings of childhood behaviour indicated children with agenesis were less likely to meet diagnostic criteria for autism, even for those who met autism spectrum criteria as adults, and even though there was no group difference in parent report of current

  11. Environmental Enrichment as a Therapy for Autism: A Clinical Trial Replication and Extension

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Cynthia C.; Donnelly, Joseph H.; Steinberg-Epstein, Robin; Leon, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Based on work done in animal models showing that autism-like symptoms are ameliorated following exposure to an enriched sensorimotor environment, we attempted to develop a comparable therapy for children with autism. In an initial randomized controlled trial, children with autism who received sensorimotor enrichment at home for six months had significant improvements in both their cognitive ability and the severity of their autism symptoms (Woo & Leon, 2013). We now report the outcomes of a similar randomized controlled trial in which children with autism, aged 3-6 years old, were randomly assigned to groups that received either daily sensorimotor enrichment, administered by their parents, along with standard care, or they received standard care alone. After six months, enriched children showed statistically significant gains in their IQ scores, a decline in their atypical sensory responses, and an improvement in their receptive language performance, compared to controls. Furthermore, after six months of enrichment therapy, 21% of the children who initially had been given an autism classification, using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, improved to the point that, although they remained on the autism spectrum, they no longer met the criteria for classic autism. None of the standard care controls reached an equivalent level of improvement. Finally, the outcome measures for children who received only a subset of sensory stimuli were similar to those receiving the full complement of enrichment exercises. Sensorimotor enrichment therapy therefore appears to be a cost-effective means of treating a range of symptoms for children with autism. PMID:26052790

  12. Environmental enrichment as a therapy for autism: A clinical trial replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Woo, Cynthia C; Donnelly, Joseph H; Steinberg-Epstein, Robin; Leon, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Based on work done in animal models showing that autism-like symptoms are ameliorated following exposure to an enriched sensorimotor environment, we attempted to develop a comparable therapy for children with autism. In an initial randomized controlled trial, children with autism who received sensorimotor enrichment at home for 6 months had significant improvements in both their cognitive ability and the severity of their autism symptoms (Woo & Leon, 2013). We now report the outcomes of a similar randomized controlled trial in which children with autism, 3 to 6 years old, were randomly assigned to groups that received either daily sensorimotor enrichment, administered by their parents, along with standard care, or they received standard care alone. After 6 months, enriched children showed statistically significant gains in their IQ scores, a decline in their atypical sensory responses, and an improvement in their receptive language performance, compared to controls. Furthermore, after 6 months of enrichment therapy, 21% of the children who initially had been given an autism classification, using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, improved to the point that, although they remained on the autism spectrum, they no longer met the criteria for classic autism. None of the standard care controls reached an equivalent level of improvement. Finally, the outcome measures for children who received only a subset of sensory stimuli were similar to those receiving the full complement of enrichment exercises. Sensorimotor enrichment therapy therefore appears to be a cost-effective means of treating a range of symptoms for children with autism.

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in relation to autism and developmental delay: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used widely and in increasing amounts in the U.S. over the last few decades. PBDEs and their metabolites cross the placenta and studies in rodents demonstrate neurodevelopmental toxicity from prenatal exposures. PBDE exposures occur both via breastfeeding and hand-to-mouth activities in small children. Methods Participants were 100 children from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risk from Genetics and the Environment) Study, a case-control epidemiologic investigation of children with autism/autism spectrum disorder, with developmental delay and from the general population. Diagnoses of autism were confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised, and of developmental delay using the Mullen's Scales of Early Learning and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Typically developing controls were those with no evidence of delay, autism, or autism spectrum disorder. Eleven PBDE congeners were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from serum specimens collected after children were assessed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between plasma PBDEs and autism. Results Children with autism/autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay were similar to typically developing controls for all PBDE congeners, but levels were high for all three groups. Conclusions Plasma samples collected post-diagnosis in this study may not represent early life exposures due to changes in diet and introduction of new household products containing PBDEs. Studies with direct measurements of prenatal or infant exposures are needed to assess the possible causal role for these compounds in autism spectrum disorders. PMID:21205326

  14. Approach to autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patrick F.; Thomas, Roger E.; Lee, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-V), and to develop an approach to managing ASD using the CanMEDS– Family Medicine (CanMEDS-FM) framework. Sources of information The DSM-V from the American Psychiatric Association, published in May 2013, provides new diagnostic criteria for ASD. The College of Family Physicians of Canada’s CanMEDS-FM framework provides a blueprint that can guide the complex management of ASD. We used data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to determine the prevalence of ASD, and we used the comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis completed by the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for their guidelines on ASD to assess the evidence for more than 100 interventions. Main message The prevalence of ASD was 1 in 88 in 2008 in the United States according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The ASD classification in the fourth edition of the DSM included autism, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder, and childhood disintegrative disorder. The new DSM-V revision incorporates all these disorders into one ASD umbrella term with different severity levels. The management of ASD is complex and requires a multidisciplinary team effort and continuity of care. The CanMEDS-FM roles provide a framework for management. Conclusion Family physicians are the key leaders of the multidisciplinary care team for ASD, and the CanMEDS-FM framework provides a comprehensive guide to help manage a child with ASD and to help the child’s family. PMID:25971758

  15. Infancy, autism, and the emergence of a socially disordered body.

    PubMed

    Hollin, Gregory J S; Pilnick, Alison

    2015-10-01

    Twenty academic psychologists and neuroscientists, with an interest in autism and based within the United Kingdom, were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 on a variety of topics related to the condition. Within these qualitative interviews researchers often argued that there had been a 'turn to infancy' since the beginning of the 21st century with focus moving away from the high functioning adolescent and towards the pre-diagnostic infant deemed to be 'at risk' of autism. The archetypal research of this type is the 'infant sibs' study whereby infants with an elder sibling already diagnosed with autism are subjected to a range of tests, the results of which are examined only once it becomes apparent whether that infant has autism. It is claimed in this paper that the turn to infancy has been facilitated by two phenomena; the autism epidemic of the 1990s and the emergence of various methodological techniques, largely although not exclusively based within neuroscience, which seek to examine social disorder in the absence of comprehension or engagement on the part of the participant: these are experiments done to participants rather than with them. Interviewees claimed that these novel methods allowed researchers to see a 'real' autism that lay 'behind' methodology. That claim is disputed here and instead it is argued that these emerging methodologies other various phenomena, reorienting the social abnormality believed typical of autism away from language and meaning and towards the body. The paper concludes by suggesting that an attempt to draw comparisons between the symptoms of autism in infant populations and adults with the condition inevitably leads to a somaticisation of autism.

  16. Lay beliefs about autism spectrum disorder among the general public and childcare providers.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Gwen E; Locke, Kenneth D

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a survey of beliefs about autism among the general public in the United States and Canada (n = 823) and among individuals working in childcare facilities in the state of Idaho (n = 176). Results included the following. Almost all respondents correctly believed that autism's primary causes are genetic and neurological (not parenting, drugs, or current diet), that it can be identified in early childhood, and that helpful interventions exist. Respondents generally distinguished diagnostic from non-diagnostic traits, but approximately half incorrectly labeled constant squirming as diagnostic and difficulties in making friends as non-diagnostic. College graduates and childcare workers were more likely to have learned about autism in professional/academic settings and to correctly recognize diagnostic traits. Of concern, 10% of respondents considered vaccinations to be among the two main causes of autism. Accurate public understanding of autism spectrum disorders can facilitate early identification and effective intervention; our results suggest that efficient channels for conveying accurate information include broadcast and online media (from which the general public, especially members of ethnic minority groups, were most likely to learn about autism), and professional development courses for childcare providers.

  17. Experiences of diagnosing autism spectrum disorder: A survey of professionals in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Claire L; Goddard, Lorna; Hill, Elisabeth L; Henry, Lucy A; Crane, Laura

    2016-10-01

    To date, research exploring experiences of diagnosing autism spectrum disorder has largely focused on parental perspectives. In order to obtain a more complete account of the autism spectrum disorder diagnostic process, it is essential that the views and experiences of professionals are heard. In this study, 116 multidisciplinary professionals involved in diagnosing autism spectrum disorder in the United Kingdom completed an online questionnaire exploring their experiences and opinions of three key areas of service: accessibility, the diagnostic process and post-diagnostic support. Although professionals were largely satisfied with service accessibility, around 40% of services were failing to provide timely assessments. Standardised diagnostic tools were perceived as helpful and were used consistently, but concerns were raised about their validity in detecting atypical autism spectrum disorder presentations (e.g. females). Several challenges regarding giving autism spectrum disorder diagnoses were reported; these included making sure caregivers understood the diagnosis, pitching information at the correct level and managing distress. Furthermore, the practice of 'upgrading' to a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in uncertain or complex cases was reported by many, albeit infrequently, and reasons for this varied widely. Professionals expressed dissatisfaction with post-diagnostic provision, especially onward and long-term support options. They also felt that service improvements were required across populations and across the three key areas of service.

  18. Primary care for children with autism.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Paul S; Farley, Megan; Davis, Toby

    2010-02-15

    The earliest sign of autism in children is the delayed attainment of social skill milestones, including joint attention, social orienting, and pretend play. Language impairment is a common, but less specific, sign of autism. Repetitive behaviors and restricted interests may not be noted until after social skill and communication impairments are exhibited. Physicians should perform developmental surveillance at all well-child visits, and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends administering an autism-specific screening tool at the 18- and 24-month visits. A referral for comprehensive diagnostic evaluation is appropriate if concerns arise from surveillance, screening, or parental observations. The goals of long-term management are to maximize functional independence and community engagement, minimize maladaptive behaviors, and provide family and caregiver support. Physicians play an important role in coordinating care through an interdisciplinary team; referring families for specialized services; and treating children's associated conditions, including sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal problems, anxiety, and hyperactivity. Autism is a lifelong condition, but early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment can improve the prognosis, whereas associated medical conditions, psychiatric conditions, and intellectual disability can worsen the prognosis. PMID:20148499

  19. Primary care for children with autism.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Paul S; Farley, Megan; Davis, Toby

    2010-02-15

    The earliest sign of autism in children is the delayed attainment of social skill milestones, including joint attention, social orienting, and pretend play. Language impairment is a common, but less specific, sign of autism. Repetitive behaviors and restricted interests may not be noted until after social skill and communication impairments are exhibited. Physicians should perform developmental surveillance at all well-child visits, and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends administering an autism-specific screening tool at the 18- and 24-month visits. A referral for comprehensive diagnostic evaluation is appropriate if concerns arise from surveillance, screening, or parental observations. The goals of long-term management are to maximize functional independence and community engagement, minimize maladaptive behaviors, and provide family and caregiver support. Physicians play an important role in coordinating care through an interdisciplinary team; referring families for specialized services; and treating children's associated conditions, including sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal problems, anxiety, and hyperactivity. Autism is a lifelong condition, but early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment can improve the prognosis, whereas associated medical conditions, psychiatric conditions, and intellectual disability can worsen the prognosis.

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorders as a Qualitatively Distinct Category from Typical Behavior in a Large, Clinically Ascertained Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Sinclair, Leslie; Kubu, Cynthia S.; Law, Paul; Rezai, Ali; Constantino, John N.; Eng, Charis

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluated the hypothesis that autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are best represented as a discrete category distinct from typical behavior within autism-affected families. The latent structure, categorical versus dimensional, of ASDs informs future diagnostic revisions, clinical assessment, and the design of future research. Data…

  1. Exploring the Agreement between Questionnaire Information and DSM-IV Diagnoses of Comorbid Psychopathology in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjevik, Elen; Sandstad, Berit; Andreassen, Ole A.; Myhre, Anne M.; Sponheim, Eili

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are often comorbid with other psychiatric symptoms and disorders. However, identifying psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorders is challenging. We explored how a questionnaire, the Child Behavior Check List, agreed with a "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth…

  2. The Mental Health of Individuals Referred for Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adulthood: A Clinic Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ailsa J.; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Wilson, Ellie; Gillan, Nicola; Brown, Cordelia; Robertson, Dene M.; Craig, Michael C.; Deeley, Quinton; Zinkstok, Janneke; Johnston, Kate; McAlonan, Grainne M.; Spain, Deborah; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing awareness of autism spectrum disorders has increased the demand for diagnostic services in adulthood. High rates of mental health problems have been reported in young people and adults with autism spectrum disorder. However, sampling and methodological issues mean prevalence estimates and conclusions about specificity in psychiatric…

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorders According to "DSM-IV-TR" and Comparison with "DSM-5" Draft Criteria: An Epidemiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Kielinen, Marko; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Jussila, Katja; Ebeling, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Joseph, Robert M.; Moilanen, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The latest definitions of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) were specified in "DSM-IV-TR" in 2000. "DSM-5" criteria are planned for 2013. Here, we estimated the prevalence of ASDs and autism according to "DSM-IV-TR," clarified confusion concerning diagnostic criteria, and evaluated "DSM-5" draft criteria for ASD posted by the American…

  4. A Scale to Assist the Diagnosis of Autism and Asperger's Disorder in Adults (RAADS): A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward R.; Guthrie, Donald; Yuwiler, Arthur; Ritvo, Max Joseph; Weisbender, Leo

    2008-01-01

    An empirically based 78 question self-rating scale based on DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria was developed to assist clinicians' diagnosis of adults with autism and Asperger's Disorder-the Ritvo Autism and Asperger's Diagnostic Scale (RAADS). It was standardized on 17 autistic and 20 Asperger's Disorder and 57 comparison subjects. Both autistic and…

  5. Predicting Developmental Status from 12 to 24 Months in Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Preliminary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macari, Suzanne L.; Campbell, Daniel; Gengoux, Grace W.; Saulnier, Celine A.; Klin, Ami J.; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    The study examined whether performance profiles on individual items of the Toddler Module of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule at 12 months are associated with developmental status at 24 months in infants at high and low risk for developing Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A nonparametric decision-tree learning algorithm identified sets of…

  6. Interest Level in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorder Predicts Rate of Verbal, Nonverbal, and Adaptive Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2?years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill…

  7. Investigating the Cross-Cultural Validity of "DSM-5" Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from Finnish and UK Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandy, William; Charman, Tony; Puura, Kaija; Skuse, David

    2014-01-01

    The recent "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition" ("DSM-5") reformulation of autism spectrum disorder has received empirical support from North American and UK samples. Autism spectrum disorder is an increasingly global diagnosis, and research is needed to discover how well it generalises beyond…

  8. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Psychosocial Quality-of-Life Questionnaire for Individuals with Autism and Related Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Leslie A.; Reyes, Charina; Embacher, Rebecca A.; Speer, Leslie L.; Roizen, Nancy; Frazier, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Child and Family Quality of Life scale, a measure of psychosocial quality of life in those with autism and related developmental disorders. Parents of 212 children suspected of autism spectrum disorder completed the Child and Family Quality of Life prior to a diagnostic evaluation. Results…

  9. Immunological Treatments for Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Sudhir

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses research findings that indicate immunological abnormalities in children with autism, including the dysregulation of the immune system, and concludes that there are sufficient data to suggest a role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of autism. Various biological therapies are analyzed, including intravenous…

  10. Chromosomal Disorders and Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on chromosomal aberrations in autism, especially possible gene markers. It notes that Chromosome 15 and numerical and structural abnormalities of the sex chromosomes have been most frequently reported as related to the genesis of autism. (Author/DB)

  11. The Coherence of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, R. Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of opinion that we should view autism as fractionable into different, largely independent sets of clinical features. The alternative view is that autism is a coherent syndrome in which principal features of the disorder stand in intimate developmental relationship with each other. Studies of congenitally blind children…

  12. Early Childhood Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchionne, Anne

    The author traces autism from recognition of the disability by E. Bleuler in 1906 to the present, noting changes, similarities, and differences in the copious amont of research. After a poem by Neil Diamond and a glossary of terms, the author describes the views on autism held by E. Bleuler, L. Kanner, L. Bender, M. Mahler, F. Kallmann, B.…

  13. Navigating Autism's Swirling Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Juliet E.

    2012-01-01

    The unique challenges presented by children with autism can quickly overwhelm unprepared teachers. Educators need direction on how to begin to understand and address the behavioral problems and social communication needs of children with autism. They require practical techniques that can be incorporated during naturally occurring instructional…

  14. Autism and Congenital Blindness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, R. Peter; Lee, Anthony; Brown, Rachel

    1999-01-01

    This study compared a group of nine children (ages 3 to 8) with congenital blindness and an autism-like syndrome with nine sighted children. Children with autism had more severe abnormalities in terms of their relationships with people and emotional expressions, and were more impaired in the area of pretend play. (CR)

  15. Autism and Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Autism and dyslexia are wrongly classified as childhood disorders: They are lifelong and therefore have to be studied in adults as well as in children. Individual variability is enormous, and, as a result, behavioral diagnosis remains problematic. The study of the underlying cognitive abilities in autism and dyslexia has acted as a gateway for the emergence of developmental cognitive neuroscience. PMID:25076978

  16. Detecting Autism Spectrum Disorders in the General Practitioner's Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Tongerloo, Michelle A. M. M.; Bor, Hans H. J.; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L. M.

    2012-01-01

    It takes considerable time before Autism Spectrum Disorders are diagnosed. Validated diagnostic instruments are available, but not applicable to primary healthcare. By means of a case-control study we investigated whether there were differences in presented complaints and referral patterns between children with ASD (n = 49) and a control group of…

  17. Who Benefits from Early Intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itzchak, Esther Ben; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2011-01-01

    Research in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) described individual differences in response to intervention. This study explored child and parental characteristics at baseline that predict outcomes in adaptive skills and acquisition of cognitive gains. Seventy-eight children aged 15-35 months diagnosed with ASD by standardized diagnostic tools were…

  18. Sleep Problems and Symptomology in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.; Gilliam, James E.; Apodaca, Daniel D.; Lopez-Wagner, Muriel C.; Castillo, Melissa M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to further our understanding of the relationship between children's specific sleep difficulties and the diagnostic criteria for autism and, thereby, to inform the development of sleep treatment approaches tailored for individual children. Parents, participating in research that is part of a center-based…

  19. Language Assessment and Development in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyster, Rhiannon J.; Kadlec, Mary Beth; Carter, Alice; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2008-01-01

    One of the primary diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is the presence of a language delay or impairment. Children with ASD are now being identified at significantly younger ages, and prior research has consistently found that early language skills in this population are heterogeneous and an important predictor…

  20. Autism: A Review of Biological Bases, Assessment, and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volker, Martin A.; Lopata, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The number of children classified with autism in US schools has risen sharply over the past decade. School psychologists are being called upon with increasing frequency to assist in the identification, assessment, and treatment of these children. The diagnostic complexities and heterogeneity of the disorder make dealing effectively with this…

  1. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, David S.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study investigating rates and types of comorbid mental disorder evident in adolescents and young adults with autism. A sample of 84 young people (M = 19.5 years, SD = 4.6) with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association,…

  2. Unpacking the Complex Nature of the Autism Epidemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Helen; Dixon, Glenys; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Bourke, Jenny; Aiberti, Karina; Nassar, Natasha; Bower, Carol; Glasson, Emma J.

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of autism spectrum disorders is unknown but there are claims of increasing prevalence in many countries. Despite more than a decade of epidemiological investigation, it is still unclear whether the rising trend in prevalence reflects a true increase or changes in diagnostic trends and improvements in case ascertainment. This paper…

  3. Stereotypes of autism

    PubMed Central

    Draaisma, Douwe

    2009-01-01

    In their landmark papers, both Kanner and Asperger employed a series of case histories to shape clinical insight into autistic disorders. This way of introducing, assessing and representing disorders has disappeared from today's psychiatric practice, yet it offers a convincing model of the way stereotypes may build up as a result of representations of autism. Considering that much of what society at large learns on disorders on the autism spectrum is produced by representations of autism in novels, TV-series, movies or autobiographies, it will be of vital importance to scrutinize these representations and to check whether or not they are, in fact, misrepresenting autism. In quite a few cases, media representations of talent and special abilities can be said to have contributed to a harmful divergence between the general image of autism and the clinical reality of the autistic condition. PMID:19528033

  4. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brieber, Sarah; Neufang, Susanne; Bruning, Nicole; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Fink, Gereon R.; Konrad, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two distinct neurodevelopmental diseases, they share behavioural, neuropsychological and neurobiological characteristics. For the identification of endophenotypes across diagnostic categories, further investigations of phenotypic overlap…

  5. Identifying the lost generation of adults with autism spectrum conditions.

    PubMed

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-11-01

    Autism spectrum conditions comprise a set of early-onset neurodevelopmental syndromes with a prevalence of 1% across all ages. First diagnosis in adulthood has finally become recognised as an important clinical issue due to the increasing awareness of autism, broadening of diagnostic criteria, and the introduction of the spectrum concept. Thus, the idea of a lost generation of people who were previously excluded from a diagnosis of classic autism has arisen. Making a first diagnosis of autism spectrum conditions in adults can be challenging for practical reasons (eg, no person to provide a developmental history), developmental reasons (eg, the acquisition of learnt or camouflaging strategies), and clinical reasons (eg, high frequency of co-occurring disorders). The diagnostic process includes referral, screening, interviews with informants and patients, and functional assessments. In delineating differential diagnoses, true comorbidities, and overlapping behaviour with other psychiatric diagnoses, particular attention should be paid to anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, psychosis, personality disorders, and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Possible misdiagnosis, especially in women, should be explored. The creation of supportive, accepting, and autism-friendly social and physical environments is important and requires a coordinated effort across agencies and needs support from government policies. PMID:26544750

  6. Identifying the lost generation of adults with autism spectrum conditions.

    PubMed

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-11-01

    Autism spectrum conditions comprise a set of early-onset neurodevelopmental syndromes with a prevalence of 1% across all ages. First diagnosis in adulthood has finally become recognised as an important clinical issue due to the increasing awareness of autism, broadening of diagnostic criteria, and the introduction of the spectrum concept. Thus, the idea of a lost generation of people who were previously excluded from a diagnosis of classic autism has arisen. Making a first diagnosis of autism spectrum conditions in adults can be challenging for practical reasons (eg, no person to provide a developmental history), developmental reasons (eg, the acquisition of learnt or camouflaging strategies), and clinical reasons (eg, high frequency of co-occurring disorders). The diagnostic process includes referral, screening, interviews with informants and patients, and functional assessments. In delineating differential diagnoses, true comorbidities, and overlapping behaviour with other psychiatric diagnoses, particular attention should be paid to anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, psychosis, personality disorders, and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Possible misdiagnosis, especially in women, should be explored. The creation of supportive, accepting, and autism-friendly social and physical environments is important and requires a coordinated effort across agencies and needs support from government policies.

  7. Stereotypy in Autism: The Importance of Function

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Allison B.; Schreibman, Laura

    2008-01-01

    We argue for the utility of a functional definition of stereotypy based on evidence of both sensory automatic and socially mediated reinforcement contingencies in the occurrence of stereotypy in children with autism. A predetermined sensory function of stereotypy is often invoked in the behavioral literature and the term "self-stimulatory behavior" is commonly misused as interchangeable with "stereotypy." We discuss evidence for a variety of potential functional properties of stereotypy. Diagnostic definitions are reviewed and support for both sensory and social functions is outlined. We argue that stereotypies should be described and categorized according to their function, rather than form. Furthermore, treatment decisions should be based on a functional interpretation of stereotypy, which acknowledges its operant and heterogeneous quality in autism. PMID:19122856

  8. Soy Infant Formula and Seizures in Children with Autism: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Westmark, Cara J.

    2014-01-01

    Seizures are a common phenotype in many neurodevelopmental disorders including fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome and autism. We hypothesized that phytoestrogens in soy-based infant formula were contributing to lower seizure threshold in these disorders. Herein, we evaluated the dependence of seizure incidence on infant formula in a population of autistic children. Medical record data were obtained on 1,949 autistic children from the SFARI Simplex Collection. An autism diagnosis was determined by scores on the ADI-R and ADOS exams. The database included data on infant formula use, seizure incidence, the specific type of seizure exhibited and IQ. Soy-based formula was utilized in 17.5% of the study population. Females comprised 13.4% of the subjects. There was a 2.6-fold higher rate of febrile seizures [4.2% versus 1.6%, OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3–5.3], a 2.1-fold higher rate of epilepsy comorbidity [3.6% versus 1.7%, OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1–4.7] and a 4-fold higher rate of simple partial seizures [1.2% versus 0.3%, OR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.0–23] in the autistic children fed soy-based formula. No statistically significant associations were found with other outcomes including: IQ, age of seizure onset, infantile spasms and atonic, generalized tonic clonic, absence and complex partial seizures. Limitations of the study included: infant formula and seizure data were based on parental recall, there were significantly less female subjects, and there was lack of data regarding critical confounders such as the reasons the subjects used soy formula, age at which soy formula was initiated and the length of time on soy formula. Despite these limitations, our results suggest that the use of soy-based infant formula may be associated with febrile seizures in both genders and with a diagnosis of epilepsy in males in autistic children. Given the lack of data on critical confounders and the retrospective nature of the study, a prospective study is required to

  9. Replicated linear association between DUF1220 copy number and severity of social impairment in autism.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Searles Quick, V B; Sikela, J M

    2015-06-01

    Sequences encoding DUF1220 protein domains exhibit an exceptional human-specific increase in copy number and have been associated with several phenotypes related to brain size. Autism is a highly heritable and heterogeneous condition characterized behaviorally by social and communicative impairments, and increased repetitive and stereotyped behavior. Given the accelerated brain growth pattern observed in many individuals with autism, and the association between DUF1220 subtype CON1 copy number and brain size, we previously investigated associations between CON1 copy number and autism-related symptoms. We determined that CON1 copy number increase is associated with increasing severity of all three behavioral features of autism. The present study sought to replicate these findings in an independent population (N = 166). Our results demonstrate a replication of the linear relationship between CON1 copy number and the severity of social impairment in individuals with autism as measured by Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised Social Diagnostic Score, such that with each additional copy of CON1 Social Diagnostic Score increased 0.24 points (SE = 0.11, p = 0.036). We also identified an analogous trend between CON1 copy number and Communicative Diagnostic Score, but did not replicate the relationship between CON1 copy number and Repetitive Behavior Diagnostic Score. Interestingly, these associations appear to be most pronounced in multiplex children. These results, representing the first replication of a gene dosage relationship with the severity of a primary symptom of autism, lend further support to the possibility that the same protein domain family implicated in the evolutionary expansion of the human brain may also be involved in autism severity. PMID:25758905

  10. The diagnosis of autism in community pediatric settings: does advanced training facilitate practice change?

    PubMed

    Swanson, Amy R; Warren, Zachary E; Stone, Wendy L; Vehorn, Alison C; Dohrmann, Elizabeth; Humberd, Quentin

    2014-07-01

    The increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorder and documented benefits of early intensive intervention have created a need for flexible systems for determining eligibility for autism-specific services. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a training program designed to enhance autism spectrum disorder identification and assessment within community pediatric settings across the state. Twenty-seven pediatric providers participated in regional trainings across a 3.5-year period. Trainings provided clinicians with strategies for conducting relatively brief within-practice interactive assessments following positive autism spectrum disorder screenings. Program evaluation was measured approximately 1.5 years following training through (a) clinician self-reports of practice change and (b) blind diagnostic verification of a subset of children assessed. Pediatric providers participating in the training reported significant changes in screening and consultation practices following training, with a reported 85% increase in diagnostic identification of children with autism spectrum disorder within their own practice setting. In addition, substantial agreement (86%-93%) was found between pediatrician diagnostic judgments and independent, comprehensive blinded diagnostic evaluations. Collaborative training methods that allow autism spectrum disorder identification within broader community pediatric settings may help translate enhanced screening initiatives into more effective and efficient diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Oxytocin Treatment, Circuitry, and Autism: A Critical Review of the Literature Placing Oxytocin Into the Autism Context.

    PubMed

    Guastella, Adam J; Hickie, Ian B

    2016-02-01

    Observed impairment in reciprocal social interaction is a diagnostic hallmark of autism spectrum disorders. There is no effective medical treatment for these problems. Psychological treatments remain costly, time intensive, and developmentally sensitive for efficacy. In this review, we explore the potential of oxytocin-based therapies for social impairments in autism. Evidence shows that acute oxytocin administration improves numerous markers critical to the social circuitry underlying social deficits in autism. Oxytocin may optimize these circuits and enhance reward, motivation, and learning to improve therapeutic outcomes. Despite this, the current evidence of therapeutic benefit from extended oxytocin treatment remains very limited. We highlight complexity in crossing from the laboratory to the autism clinical setting in evaluation of this therapeutic. We discuss a clinical trial approach that provides optimal opportunity for therapeutic response by using personalized methods that better target specific circuitry to define who will obtain benefit, at what stage of development, and the optimal delivery approach for circuitry manipulation. For the autism field, the therapeutic challenges will be resolved by a range of treatment strategies, including greater focus on specific interventions, such as oxytocin, that have a strong basis in the fundamental neurobiology of social behavior. More sophisticated and targeted clinical trials utilizing such approaches are now required, placing oxytocin into the autism context.

  12. Autism in toddlers: can observation in preschool yield the same information as autism assessment in a specialised clinic?

    PubMed

    Westman Andersson, Gunilla; Miniscalco, Carmela; Johansson, Ulrika; Gillberg, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We wanted to know whether preschool observation of children suspected of suffering from autism can provide the same information about core autism symptoms as the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) performed in a clinic. Forty 2-4-year-old children (9 girls, 31 boys), referred for assessment of suspected autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. The symptom areas covered by the ADOS algorithm were scored by an education specialist after free-field observation of each child in the preschool without using the prescribed ADOS materials. The ADOS was then completed in a clinic setting by examiners blind to the preschool results. Excellent agreement across results obtained at the two different types/settings of observations was found. The only significant difference found was with regard to spontaneous initiation of joint attention. The present study does not address the issue of whether or not one of the methods used is superior to the other when it comes to determining the "true" level of "autism problems" in these children. However, it is of interest that free-field preschool observation of children with suspected autism using a structured checklist yields very similar information as that obtained at ADOS assessment performed in a clinic setting.

  13. Autism and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination: controversy laid to rest?

    PubMed

    DeStefano, F; Chen, R T

    2001-01-01

    It has been suggested that vaccination, particularly with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, may be related to the development of autism. The main evidence for a possible association is that the prevalence of autism has been increasing at the same time that infant vaccination coverage has increased, and that in some cases there is an apparent temporal association in which autistic characteristics are first noted shortly after vaccination. Although the prevalence of autism and similar disorders appears to have increased recently, it is not clear if this is an actual increase or the result of increased recognition and changes in diagnostic criteria. The apparent onset of autism in close proximity to vaccination may be a coincidental temporal association. The clinical evidence in support of an association derives from a series of 12 patients with inflammatory bowel conditions and regressive developmental disorders, mostly autism. The possibility that measles vaccine may cause autism through a persistent bowel infection has generated much interest, since it provides a possible biological mechanism. Epidemiological studies, however, have not found an association between MMR vaccination and autism. The epidemiological findings are consistent with current understanding of the pathogenesis of autism, which has a strong genetic component and in which the neurological defects probably occur early in embryonic development. It seems unlikely that a vaccination that is given after birth could cause autism. A minority of cases of autism may have onset after 1 year of age (regressive autism), but the single epidemiological study that included such cases did not find an association with MMR vaccination. Currently, the weight of the available epidemiological and related evidence does not support a causal association between MMR vaccine, or any other vaccine or vaccine constituent, and autism.

  14. What Is Available for Case Identification in Autism Research in Mainland China?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Xiang; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Matthews, Fiona E.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about research on Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) in mainland China. The few available studies in mainland China have shown the screening and diagnostic instruments for ASC used in mainland China were different from the West. Literature on screening and diagnostic instruments and criteria were reviewed and current available…

  15. Autoantibodies against neuronal progenitors in sera from children with autism.

    PubMed

    Mazur-Kolecka, Bozena; Cohen, Ira L; Gonzalez, Maripaz; Jenkins, Edmund C; Kaczmarski, Wojciech; Brown, W Ted; Flory, Michael; Frackowiak, Janusz

    2014-04-01

    The pathological role of autoantibodies in development of CNS disorders is a new idea with growing interest among neuroscientists. The involvement of autoimmune response in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been suggested by the presence of multiple brain-specific autoantibodies in children with ASD and in their mothers. The possibility of the effect of autoimmunity on neurogenesis and postnatal brain plasticity has not been determined. The presence of autoantibodies against human neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) stimulated for neuronal differentiation in culture was tested in sera from children with autism (n=20) and age-matched controls (n=18) by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Immunoreactivity against multiple NPCs proteins of molecular sizes of approximately 55 kDa, 105 kDa, 150 kDa, and 210 kDa in sera from individuals with autism had a higher incidence and was stronger than in control sera which immunoreacted mainly with a 150 kDa protein. The sera from children with autism immunoreacted the strongest with NPCs expressing neuronal markers Tuj1 and doublecortin, but not astrocyte marker GFAP. The epitopes recognized by antibodies from sera were not human-specific because they detected also NPCs in situ in murine hippocampus. The autoimmune reactions against NPCs suggest an impaired tolerance to neural antigens in autism. These autoantibodies may be symptomatic for autism and furthermore, their presence suggests that autoimmunity may affect postnatal neuronal plasticity particularly after impairment of blood-brain barrier. Future studies will determine the diagnostic value of the presence of autoantibodies in autism and the therapeutic value of prevention of autoimmunity in autism. PMID:23838310

  16. The mental health of individuals referred for assessment of autism spectrum disorder in adulthood: A clinic report.

    PubMed

    Russell, Ailsa J; Murphy, Clodagh M; Wilson, Ellie; Gillan, Nicola; Brown, Cordelia; Robertson, Dene M; Craig, Michael C; Deeley, Quinton; Zinkstok, Janneke; Johnston, Kate; McAlonan, Grainne M; Spain, Deborah; Murphy, Declan Gm

    2016-07-01

    Growing awareness of autism spectrum disorders has increased the demand for diagnostic services in adulthood. High rates of mental health problems have been reported in young people and adults with autism spectrum disorder. However, sampling and methodological issues mean prevalence estimates and conclusions about specificity in psychiatric co-morbidity in autism spectrum disorder remain unclear. A retrospective case review of 859 adults referred for assessment of autism spectrum disorder compares International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision diagnoses in those that met criteria for autism spectrum disorder (n = 474) with those that did not (n = 385). Rates of psychiatric diagnosis (>57%) were equivalent across both groups and exceeded general population rates for a number of conditions. The prevalence of anxiety disorders, particularly obsessive compulsive disorder, was significantly higher in adults with autism spectrum disorder than adults without autism spectrum disorder. Limitations of this observational clinic study, which may impact generalisability of the findings, include the lack of standardised structured psychiatric diagnostic assessments by assessors blind to autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and inter-rater reliability. The implications of this study highlight the need for careful consideration of mental health needs in all adults referred for autism spectrum disorder diagnosis.

  17. Kurt Goldstein on autism; exploring a person-centered style of psychiatric thought.

    PubMed

    Verhoeff, Berend

    2016-04-01

    Autism research is facing profound difficulties. The lack of clinically valuable translations from the biomedical and neurosciences, the variability and heterogeneity of the diagnostic category, and the lack of control over the 'autism epidemic,' are among the most urgent problems facing autism today. Instead of encouraging the prevailing tendency to intensify neurobiological research on the nature of autism, I argue for an exploration of alternative disease concepts. One conceivable alternative framework for understanding disease and those we have come to call autistic, can be found in the work of neurologist Kurt Goldstein (1878-1965). His person-centered approach provides radically new ways to investigate and intervene with the behavior we are accustomed to explain by the elusive entity called autism.

  18. A two-year longitudinal MRI study of the corpus callosum in autism.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Thomas W; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Minshew, Nancy J; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2012-11-01

    A growing body of literature has identified size reductions of the corpus callosum (CC) in autism. However, to our knowledge, no published studies have reported on the growth of CC volumes in youth with autism. Volumes of the total CC and its sub-divisions were obtained from 23 male children with autism and 23 age- and gender-matched controls at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Persistent reductions in total CC volume were observed in participants with autism relative to controls. Only the rostral body subdivision showed a normalization of size over time. Persistent reductions are consistent with the diagnostic stability and life-long impairment observed in many individuals with autism. Multi-modal imaging studies are needed to identify specific fiber tracks contributing to CC reductions.

  19. Diagnostic assessment in a sample of autistic and developmentally impaired adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fombonne, E

    1992-12-01

    A sample of 43 autistic and developmentally impaired adolescents were assessed with the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI), DSM-III-R criteria, and the clinician's diagnosis. DSM-III-R criteria for autism have low specificity and agree poorly with the other two definitions. Detailed results of the ADI are provided that confirm the usefulness and discriminant validity of this semi-structured diagnostic interview in a sample of very retarded autistic subjects.

  20. Kids' Quest: Autism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basketball Player  Return to Steps Movies and Books Here are some books about Kids and people ... people living with Asperger's. Different Like Me: My Book of Autism Heroes by Jennifer Elder Publisher: Jessica ...

  1. Autism Screening and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... A. Autism from 2 to 9 years of age. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Jun;63(6):694-701. Related Pages Child Development Developmental Disabilities "Learn the Signs. Act Early." Campaign CDC's National Center on Birth Defects and ...

  2. [Autism and neuropsychology].

    PubMed

    Labruyère, Nelly; Sonie, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    In neuropsychology, the deficiencies associated with autism are generally classed into three areas: social cognition, executive functioning and central coherence. Autistic people however have singular capacities, notably with regard to their perceptual processing focused on details.

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... IDDs) NICHD News and Spotlights Resources to Help Families and Physicians Spot Early Signs of Autism Selected NICHD Research Advances of 2015 Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes All related news Home ...

  4. Advances in autism.

    PubMed

    Geschwind, Daniel H

    2009-01-01

    Autism is a common childhood neurodevelopmental disorder with strong genetic liability. It is not a unitary entity but a clinical syndrome, with variable deficits in social behavior and language, restrictive interests, and repetitive behaviors. Recent advances in the genetics of autism emphasize its etiological heterogeneity, with each genetic susceptibility locus accounting for only a small fraction of cases or having a small effect. Therefore, it is not surprising that no unifying structural or neuropathological features have been conclusively identified. Given the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), approaches based on studying heritable components of the disorder, or endophenotypes, such as language or social cognition, provide promising avenues for genetic and neurobiological investigations. Early intensive behavioral and cognitive interventions are efficacious in many cases, but autism does not remit in the majority of children. Therefore, development of targeted therapies based on pathophysiologically and etiologically defined subtypes of ASD remains an important and achievable goal of current research. PMID:19630577

  5. Clinical Assessment and Management of Toddlers With Suspected Autism Spectrum Disorder: Insights From Studies of High-Risk Infants

    PubMed Central

    Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan; Lord, Catherine; Rogers, Sally; Carter, Alice; Carver, Leslie; Chawarska, Kasia; Constantino, John; Dawson, Geraldine; Dobkins, Karen; Fein, Deborah; Iverson, Jana; Klin, Ami; Landa, Rebecca; Messinger, Daniel; Ozonoff, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Stone, Wendy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2010-01-01

    With increased public awareness of the early signs and recent American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations that all 18- and 24-month-olds be screened for autism spectrum disorders, there is an increasing need for diagnostic assessment of very young children. However, unique challenges exist in applying current diagnostic guidelines for autism spectrum disorders to children under the age of 2 years. In this article, we address challenges related to early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of autism spectrum disorders in this age group. We provide a comprehensive review of findings from recent studies on the early development of children with autism spectrum disorders, summarizing current knowledge on early signs of autism spectrum disorders, the screening properties of early detection tools, and current best practice for diagnostic assessment of autism spectrum disorders before 2 years of age. We also outline principles of effective intervention for children under the age of 2 with suspected/confirmed autism spectrum disorders. It is hoped that ongoing studies will provide an even stronger foundation for evidence-based diagnostic and intervention approaches for this critically important age group. PMID:19403506

  6. Buried by Autism: Older Parents' Perceptions of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Monique; Balandin, Susan; Togher, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored older parents' perceptions of their adult sons and daughters with autism in order to gain insights into how parents' beliefs about autism may influence their coping. Narrative analysis of in-depth interviews held with 16 parents aged 60 years and older of adults with autism revealed that these parents perceived that…

  7. The Relationship Between the Childhood Autism Rating Scale: Second Edition and Clinical Diagnosis Utilizing the DSM-IV-TR and the DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Tamara; Meyer, Allison T; Van Bourgondien, Mary E

    2016-10-01

    The Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition (CARS2; 2010) includes two rating scales; the CARS2-Standard Version (CARS2-ST) and the newly developed CARS2-High Functioning Version (CARS2-HF). To assess the diagnostic agreement between the CARS2 and DSM-IV-TR versus DSM-5 criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), clinicians at community based centers of the University of North Carolina TEACCH Autism Program rated participants seen for a diagnostic evaluation on symptoms of autism using both the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria and either the CARS2-HF or the CARS2-ST. Findings suggest that overall, the diagnostic agreement of the CARS2 remains high across DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for autism.

  8. Update on autism and vaccines.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Lewis, Shannon

    2010-06-01

    As the rate of autism spectrum disorders rises, parents are searching for answers. In this article, a small study that fueled the belief in an association between autism and vaccines is reviewed, and the scientific evidence regarding the relationship between autism and vaccines is explored. PMID:20506968

  9. The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Robert S. E.; Losh, Molly; Parlier, Morgan; Reznick, J. Steven; Piven, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The broad autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of personality and language characteristics that reflect the phenotypic expression of the genetic liability to autism, in non-autistic relatives of autistic individuals. These characteristics are milder but qualitatively similar to the defining features of autism. A new instrument designed to measure the…

  10. Autism: Clinical and Research Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accardo, Pasquale J., Ed.; Magnusen, Christy, Ed.; Capute, Arnold J., Ed.

    This text examines the characteristics that define autism: impairments in communication; abnormal social development; and clinically significant odd behaviors. Specific chapters include: (1) Neural Mechanisms in Autism (Andrew W. Zimmerman and Barry Gordon); (2) Epidemiology of Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Current…

  11. Autism Overview: What We Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is one of many federal agencies working to understand autism. The NICHD supports and conducts research on what causes autism, how many people have autism, how best to treat…

  12. Autism spectrum disorder profile in neurofibromatosis type I.

    PubMed

    Garg, Shruti; Plasschaert, Ellen; Descheemaeker, Mie-Jef; Huson, Susan; Borghgraef, Martine; Vogels, Annick; Evans, D Gareth; Legius, Eric; Green, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant single-gene disorder, in which the co-occurrence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has attracted considerable research interest recently with prevalence estimates of 21-40%. However, detailed characterization of the ASD behavioral phenotype in NF1 is still lacking. This study characterized the phenotypic profile of ASD symptomatology presenting in 4-16 year old children with NF1 (n = 36) using evidence from parent-rated Social Responsiveness Scale and researcher autism diagnostic observation Scale-2. Compared to IQ-matched reference groups of children with autism and ASD, the NF1 profile shows overall similarity but improved eye contact, less repetitive behaviors and better language skills.

  13. Comorbidity of intellectual disability confounds ascertainment of autism: implications for genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Polyak, Andrew; Kubina, Richard M; Girirajan, Santhosh

    2015-10-01

    While recent studies suggest a converging role for genetic factors towards risk for nosologically distinct disorders including autism, intellectual disability (ID), and epilepsy, current estimates of autism prevalence fail to take into account the impact of comorbidity of these disorders on autism diagnosis. We aimed to assess the effect of comorbidity on the diagnosis and prevalence of autism by analyzing 11 years (2000-2010) of special education enrollment data on approximately 6.2 million children per year. We found a 331% increase in the prevalence of autism from 2000 to 2010 within special education, potentially due to a diagnostic recategorization from frequently comorbid features such as ID. The decrease in ID prevalence equaled an average of 64.2% of the increase of autism prevalence for children aged 3-18 years. The proportion of ID cases potentially undergoing recategorization to autism was higher (P = 0.007) among older children (75%) than younger children (48%). Some US states showed significant negative correlations between the prevalence of autism compared to that of ID while others did not, suggesting state-specific health policy to be a major factor in categorizing autism. Further, a high frequency of autistic features was observed when individuals with classically defined genetic syndromes were evaluated for autism using standardized instruments. Our results suggest that current ascertainment practices are based on a single facet of autism-specific clinical features and do not consider associated comorbidities that may confound diagnosis. Longitudinal studies with detailed phenotyping and deep molecular genetic analyses are necessary to completely understand the cause of this complex disorder.

  14. Autism unravelled conference--'the biology of autism--unravelled'.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, P

    2001-07-01

    Autism is a heterogeneous condition, currently with no single explanation for all of these findings presented at this conference. What conferences like this offer us, however, are possible courses of new research and the subsequent development of intervention strategies, both orthodox (pharmacological) and perhaps slightly unorthodox. Aside from the social and emotional issues for both the person with autism and their family, it has been estimated that the cost to the UK for lifetime care of one person with autism is approximately pounds sterling 3 million. With the possibility of an epidemic of autism, is it not time to begin looking at the biomedical factors behind autism spectrum disorders more closely?

  15. Addressing the Issue of Fractionation in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Commentary on Brunsdon and Happé, Frazier et al., Hobson and Mandy et al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It seems decidedly odd that after more than half a century of both research and clinical experience with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), there continue to be arguments on the nature of autism. "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition" ["DSM-5"; American Psychiatric Association (APA), 2013] has not…

  16. The Relationship between the "Childhood Autism Rating Scale: Second Edition" and Clinical Diagnosis Utilizing the DSM-IV-TR and the DSM-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Tamara; Meyer, Allison T.; Van Bourgondien, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    "The Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition" (CARS2; 2010) includes two rating scales; the CARS2-Standard Version (CARS2-ST) and the newly developed CARS2-High Functioning Version (CARS2-HF). To assess the diagnostic agreement between the CARS2 and DSM-IV-TR versus DSM-5 criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), clinicians at…

  17. Autistic Features in a Total Population of 7-9-Year-Old Children Assessed by the ASSQ (Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posserud, Maj-Britt; Lundervold, Astri J.; Gillberg, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of autism is reported to be on the rise worldwide. Change of diagnostic criteria and a broadening of the concept of autism have been mentioned as contributing factors. Further studies of general populations are needed. The present study assessed the distribution of autistic features in a total population of children 7-9…

  18. Stability and Change in Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis from Age 3 to Middle Childhood in a High-Risk Sibling Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Jessica; Bryson, Susan E.; Smith, Isabel M.; Roberts, Wendy; Roncadin, Caroline; Szatmari, Peter; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence on autism spectrum disorder emergence comes from longitudinal high-risk samples (i.e. younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder). Diagnostic stability to age 3 is very good when diagnosed as early as 18-24 months, but sensitivity is weaker, and relatively little is known beyond toddlerhood. We examined…

  19. Brief Report: Best Discriminators for Identifying Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder at an 18-Month Health Check-Up in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamio, Yoko; Haraguchi, Hideyuki; Stickley, Andrew; Ogino, Kazuo; Ishitobi, Makoto; Takahashi, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    To determine the best discriminative items for identifying young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we conducted a secondary analysis using longitudinal cohort data that included the Japanese version of the 23-item modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT-JV). M-CHAT-JV data at 18 months of age and diagnostic information…

  20. Commentary: Glass Half Full or Half Empty? Testing Social Communication Interventions for Young Children with Autism--Reflections on Landa, Holman, O'Neill, and Stuart (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charman, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Impairments in social communication are the core diagnostic features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the past two decades findings from important clinical research studies have translated into improvements in understanding and practice, for example leading to a reduction in the age at which autism is commonly first recognised and diagnosed…

  1. Autism Advocacy: A Network Striving for Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itkonen, Tiina; Ream, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this exploratory case study, we examine the rise of autism on the policy agenda and the new generation of autism advocacy. We focus especially on interconnections between the rhetoric about autism in the media and the emergence and political effectiveness of Autism Speaks, the nation's largest autism advocacy group. We portray how…

  2. Somatic Overgrowth Predisposes to Seizures in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brachini, Francesca; Apicella, Fabio; Cosenza, Angela; Ferrari, Anna Rita; Guerrini, Renzo; Muratori, Filippo; Romano, Maria Francesca; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Tancredi, Raffaella; Sicca, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Background Comorbidity of Autism Spectrum Disorders with seizures or abnormal EEG (Autism-Epilepsy Phenotype) suggests shared pathomechanisms, and might be a starting point to identify distinct populations within the clinical complexity of the autistic spectrum. In this study, we tried to assess whether distinct subgroups, having distinctive clinical hallmarks, emerge from this comorbid condition. Methods Two-hundred and six individuals with idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorders were subgrouped into three experimental classes depending on the presence of seizures and EEG abnormalities. Neurobehavioral, electroclinical and auxological parameters were investigated to identify differences among groups and features which increase the risk of seizures. Our statistical analyses used ANOVA, post-hoc multiple comparisons, and the Chi-squared test to analyze continuous and categorical variables. A correspondence analysis was also used to decompose significant Chi-squared and reduce variables dimensions. Results The high percentage of children with seizures (28.2% of our whole cohort) and EEG abnormalities (64.1%) confirmed that the prevalence of epilepsy in Autism Spectrum Disorders exceeds that of the general population. Seizures were associated with severe intellectual disability, and not with autism severity. Interestingly, tall stature (without macrocephaly) was significantly associated with EEG abnormalities or later onset seizures. However, isolated macrocephaly was equally distributed among groups or associated with early onset seizures when accompanied by tall stature. Conclusions Tall stature seems to be a phenotypic “biomarker” of susceptibility to EEG abnormalities or late epilepsy in Autism Spectrum Disorders and, when concurring with macrocephaly, predisposes to early onset seizures. Growth pattern might act as an endophenotypic marker in Autism-Epilepsy comorbidity, delineating distinct pathophysiological subtypes and addressing personalized diagnostic work

  3. Immunological findings in autism.

    PubMed

    Cohly, Hari Har Parshad; Panja, Asit

    2005-01-01

    The immunopathogenesis of autism is presented schematically in Fig. 1. Two main immune dysfunctions in autism are immune regulation involving pro-inflammatory cytokines and autoimmunity. Mercury and an infectious agent like the measles virus are currently two main candidate environmental triggers for immune dysfunction in autism. Genetically immune dysfunction in autism involves the MHC region, as this is an immunologic gene cluster whose gene products are Class I, II, and III molecules. Class I and II molecules are associated with antigen presentation. The antigen in virus infection initiated by the virus particle itself while the cytokine production and inflammatory mediators are due to the response to the putative antigen in question. The cell-mediated immunity is impaired as evidenced by low numbers of CD4 cells and a concomitant T-cell polarity with an imbalance of Th1/Th2 subsets toward Th2. Impaired humoral immunity on the other hand is evidenced by decreased IgA causing poor gut protection. Studies showing elevated brain specific antibodies in autism support an autoimmune mechanism. Viruses may initiate the process but the subsequent activation of cytokines is the damaging factor associated with autism. Virus specific antibodies associated with measles virus have been demonstrated in autistic subjects. Environmental exposure to mercury is believed to harm human health possibly through modulation of immune homeostasis. A mercury link with the immune system has been postulated due to the involvement of postnatal exposure to thimerosal, a preservative added in the MMR vaccines. The occupational hazard exposure to mercury causes edema in astrocytes and, at the molecular level, the CD95/Fas apoptotic signaling pathway is disrupted by Hg2+. Inflammatory mediators in autism usually involve activation of astrocytes and microglial cells. Proinflammatory chemokines (MCP-1 and TARC), and an anti-inflammatory and modulatory cytokine, TGF-beta1, are consistently

  4. A case of autism and uniparental disomy of chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Wassink, Thomas H; Losh, Molly; Frantz, Rebecca S; Vieland, Veronica J; Goedken, Rhinda; Piven, Joseph; Sheffield, Val C

    2005-07-01

    We report a male child with autism found to have maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 1. The child met diagnostic criteria for the three symptom domains of autism: language impairment, deficient social communication and excessively rigid and repetitive behaviours. He also had a variety of features often associated with autism, including mild mental retardation, small head circumference, hyperactivity, poor fine motor skills, slightly dysmorphic facial features and a heightened interest in olfactory stimulation. His brother, who did not have chromosome 1 UPD, was also autistic. The mother, but not the father, had a history of psychiatric illness and a number of personality and social traits similar to the core features of autism. The discovery of the cytogenetic abnormality was made during the course of a genome-wide linkage screen, wherein genotypes at 6 out of 17 chromosome 1 markers were non-Mendelian and all transmissions were consistent with UPD. Further genotyping (a total of 54 markers) revealed alternating regions of heterodisomy and isodisomy. Whereas chromosome 1 UPD has not been shown to cause disease by effects on imprinting, numerous reports exist of the abnormality unmasking recessive disease-causing mutations. In agreement with this, one of the regions of isodisomy overlaps an emerging chromosome 1 region of interest in autism located at 150-160 Mb.

  5. A Case of Autism with Ring Chromosome 14

    PubMed Central

    Tajeran, Massoumeh; Baghbani, Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh-Nazarabadi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Autism is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder that manifests in early childhood. Although the etiology is unknown yet but, new hypothesis focused on identifying the key genes related to autism may elucidate its etiology. The main objective of the present study was to verify the value of karyotyping in autistic children and identifying association between chromosome abnormalities and autism. Methods We examined the peripheral blood lymphocytes cell culture for cytogenetic alterations by GTG-banding technique. The investigation was carried out on 50 autistic patients referred by Pediatric neurologist to Cytogenetic Laboratory in Khorasan-e-razavi Province, Iran. Results Using GTG-banding technique, the chromosome analysis of patients identified an unbalanced male karyotype with a r (14) in all 50 metaphaseswere examined. Conclusion Since structural abnormalities may have a critical role in the etiology of autism, according to the region where is affected and number of related genes, therefore an outcome with wide spectrum of clinical manifestations could be expected. Furthermore by considering of recent study, the results indicated that there is an association between chromosome 14 with brain development and neurological disorders, but, in conclusion, it could not be suggested that in order to postulate cytogenetic testing in idiopathic autism patients, specifically screening for chromosome 14 which might has diagnostic value. PMID:26171345

  6. Altered tactile processing in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli, Teresa; Bellesheim, Katherine; Tommerdahl, Mark; Holden, Jameson M; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph D

    2016-06-01

    Although tactile reactivity issues are commonly reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Less feed-forward inhibition has been proposed as a potential mechanism for some symptoms of ASD. We tested static and dynamic tactile thresholds as a behavioral proxy of feed-forward inhibition in 42 children (21 children with ASD and 21 typically developing [TD] children). Subthreshold conditioning typically raises the dynamic detection threshold, thus comparison of the dynamic to the static threshold generates a metric that predicts gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mediated feed-forward inhibition. Children with ASD had marginally higher static thresholds and a significantly lower ratio between thresholds as compared with TD children. The lower ratio, only seen in children with ASD, might be indicative of less inhibition. Static thresholds were correlated with autism spectrum quotient scores, indicating the higher the tactile threshold, the more ASD traits. The amount of feed-forward inhibition (ratio between dynamic/static) was negatively correlated with autism diagnostic observation schedule repetitive behavior scores, meaning the less inhibition the more ASD symptoms. In summary, children with ASD showed altered tactile processing compared with TD children; thus measuring static and dynamic thresholds could be a potential biomarker for ASD and might be useful for prediction of treatment response with therapeutics, including those that target the GABAergic system. Autism Res 2016, 9: 616-620. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Interest level in 2-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder predicts rate of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2 years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition to the age of 3 years. A total of 70 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, mean age of 21.9 months, were scored using Interest Level Scoring for Autism, quantifying toddlers’ interest in toys, social routines, and activities that could serve as reinforcers in an intervention. Adaptive level and mental age were measured concurrently (Time 1) and again after a mean of 16.3 months of treatment (Time 2). Interest Level Scoring for Autism score, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule score, adaptive age equivalent, verbal and nonverbal mental age, and intensity of intervention were entered into regression models to predict rates of skill acquisition. Interest level at Time 1 predicted subsequent acquisition rate of adaptive skills (R2 = 0.36) and verbal mental age (R2 = 0.30), above and beyond the effects of Time 1 verbal and nonverbal mental ages and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. Interest level at Time 1 also contributed (R2 = 0.30), with treatment intensity, to variance in development of nonverbal mental age. PMID:25398893

  8. Autism and Clostridium tetani.

    PubMed

    Bolte, E R

    1998-08-01

    Autism is a severe developmental disability believed to have multiple etiologies. This paper outlines the possibility of a subacute, chronic tetanus infection of the intestinal tract as the underlying cause for symptoms of autism observed in some individuals. A significant percentage of individuals with autism have a history of extensive antibiotic use. Oral antibiotics significantly disrupt protective intestinal microbiota, creating a favorable environment for colonization by opportunistic pathogens. Clostridium tetani is an ubiquitous anaerobic bacillus that produces a potent neurotoxin. Intestinal colonization by C. tetani, and subsequent neurotoxin release, have been demonstrated in laboratory animals which were fed vegetative cells. The vagus nerve is capable of transporting tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) and provides a route of ascent from the intestinal tract to the CNS. This route bypasses TeNT's normal preferential binding sites in the spinal cord, and therefore the symptoms of a typical tetanus infection are not evident. Once in the brain, TeNT disrupts the release of neurotransmitters by the proteolytic cleavage of synaptobrevin, a synaptic vesicle membrane protein. This inhibition of neurotransmitter release would explain a wide variety of behavioral deficits apparent in autism. Lab animals injected in the brain with TeNT have exhibited many of these behaviors. Some children with autism have also shown a significant reduction in stereotyped behaviors when treated with antimicrobials effective against intestinal clostridia. When viewed as sequelae to a subacute, chronic tetanus infection, many of the puzzling abnormalities of autism have a logical basis. A review of atypical tetanus cases, and strategies to test the validity of this paper's hypothesis, are included. PMID:9881820

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Mitochondrial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Form Controls Autism Cancel Submit Search The CDC Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... with a mitochondrial disease: may also have an autism spectrum disorder, may have some of the symptoms/signs of ...

  10. Desulfovibrio species are potentially important in regressive autism.

    PubMed

    Finegold, Sydney M

    2011-08-01

    Autism is a complex disorder with no specific diagnostic test so the disease is defined by its characteristics including cognitive defects, social, communication and behavioral problems, repetitive behaviors, unusual sensitivity to stimuli such as noise, restricted interests, and self stimulation. The incidence of this disease has increased remarkably in recent years and was 110/10,000 children (∼1%) in multiple areas of the US in 2007. The financial burden on families and communities is enormous. In terms of predisposing factors, heredity plays a role in some subjects, but it is clear that environmental factors are also important. Environmental toxins can affect the immune system adversely. Intestinal bacteria are recognized by a few investigators as potentially important and we have proposed that certain antimicrobial drugs may be a key factor in modifying the intestinal bacterial flora adversely, selecting out potentially harmful bacteria that are normally suppressed by an intact normal intestinal flora. We had felt that clostridia in the gut might be involved in autism because they are virulent organisms and spore-formers; spores would resist antibacterial agents so that when antibiotics were discontinued the spores would germinate and by toxin production or another mechanism lead to autism. However, a recent study of ours employing the powerful pyrosequencing technique on stools of subjects with regressive autism showed that Desulfovibrio was more common in autistic subjects than in controls. We subsequently confirmed this with pilot cultural and real-time PCR studies and found siblings of autistic children had counts of Desulfovibrio that were intermediate, suggesting possible spread of the organism in the family environment. Desulfovibrio is an anaerobic bacillus that does not produce spores but is nevertheless resistant to aerobic and other adverse conditions by other mechanisms and is commonly resistant to certain antimicrobial agents (such as

  11. Differentiating between Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Developmental Disabilities in Children Who Failed a Screening Instrument for ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventola, Pamela; Kleinman, Jamie; Pandey, Juhi; Wilson, Leandra; Esser, Emma; Boorstein, Hilary; Dumont-Mathieu, Thyde; Marshia, Gail; Barton, Marianne; Hodgson, Sarah; Green, James; Volkmar, Fred; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Babitz, Tammy; Robins, Diana; Fein, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    This study compared behavioral presentation of toddlers with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and toddlers with global developmental delay (DD) or developmental language disorder (DLD) who display some characteristics of ASD using the diagnostic algorithm items from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Generic (ADOS), the Childhood Autism…

  12. Association between Severity of Behavioral Phenotype and Comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Patricia A.; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association," 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity…

  13. Maternal exposure to childhood abuse is associated with elevated risk of autism

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Lyall, Kristen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Context Adverse perinatal circumstances have been associated with increased risk of autism. Women exposed to childhood abuse experience more adverse perinatal circumstances than women unexposed, but whether abuse is associated with autism in offspring is unknown. Objective To determine whether maternal exposure to childhood abuse is associated with risk of autism, and whether possible increased risk is accounted for by higher prevalence of adverse perinatal circumstances among abused women, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use, intimate partner abuse, prior abortion, pregnancy less than 37 weeks, low birth weight, alcohol use, and smoking during pregnancy. Design and Setting Nurses’ Health Study II, a population-based longitudinal cohort of 116,430 women. Patients or Other Participants Participants with data on childhood abuse and child’s autism status (97% White). Controls were randomly selected from among children of women who did not report autism in offspring (N mothers of children with autism = 451; N mothers of children without autism=52,498). Main Outcome Measure Autism spectrum disorder, assessed by maternal report, validated with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised in a subsample. Results Exposure to abuse was associated with increased risk of autism in children in a monotonically increasing fashion. The highest level of abuse was associated with the greatest prevalence of autism (1.8% versus 0.7% in women not abused, P = 0.005) and the greatest risk for autism adjusted for demographic factors (risk ratio=3.7, 95% confidence interval=2.3, 5.8). All adverse perinatal circumstances were more prevalent in women abused except low birth weight. Adjusted for perinatal factors, the association of maternal abuse with autism was slightly attenuated (highest level of abuse, risk ratio = 3.0, 95% confidence interval=1.9, 4.9). Conclusions We identify an intergenerational association between childhood

  14. Epigenetics and Autism

    PubMed Central

    Millis, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    This review identifies mechanisms for altering DNA-histone interactions of cell chromatin to upregulate or downregulate gene expression that could serve as epigenetic targets for therapeutic interventions in autism. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) can phosphorylate histone H3 at T6. Aided by protein kinase Cβ1, the DNMT lysine-specific demethylase-1 prevents demethylation of H3 at K4. During androgen-receptor-(AR-) dependent gene activation, this sequence may produce AR-dependent gene overactivation which may partly explain the male predominance of autism. AR-dependent gene overactivation in conjunction with a DNMT mechanism for methylating oxytocin receptors could produce high arousal inputs to the amygdala resulting in aberrant socialization, a prime characteristic of autism. Dysregulation of histone methyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs) associated with low activity of methyl CpG binding protein-2 at cytosine-guanine sites in genes may reduce the capacity for condensing chromatin and silencing genes in frontal cortex, a site characterized by decreased cortical interconnectivity in autistic subjects. HDAC1 inhibition can overactivate mRNA transcription, a putative mechanism for the increased number of cerebral cortical columns and local frontal cortex hyperactivity in autistic individuals. These epigenetic mechanisms underlying male predominance, aberrant social interaction, and low functioning frontal cortex may be novel targets for autism prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:24151554

  15. Deafness and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Diane D.

    2008-01-01

    At the most basic level, autism is a neurological disorder that most likely involves a distinct abnormality in brain structure and affects a child's abilities in two areas: communication and social development. It also is marked by repetitive or stereotypical behavior. Because of the variability in the causes of deafness as well as…

  16. Rethinking Language in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton; Shankey, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we invite a rethinking of traditional perspectives of language in autism. We advocate a theoretical reappraisal that offers a corrective to the dominant and largely tacitly held view that language, in its essence, is a referential system and a reflection of the individual's cognition. Drawing on scholarship in Conversation…

  17. Biophysical Bases of Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.; Eyde, Donna R.

    1979-01-01

    The article reviews a variety of biophysical variables which contribute to autism or autistic symptoms, and discusses the nature and manifestations of these psychobiological variables in terms of the need for individual yet comprehensive educational interventions and family support services. (DLS)

  18. Autism and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Devnani, Preeti A; Hegde, Anaita U

    2015-01-01

    "Autism Spectrum Disorders" (ASDs) are neurodevelopment disorders and are characterized by persistent impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication. Sleep problems in ASD, are a prominent feature that have an impact on social interaction, day to day life, academic achievement, and have been correlated with increased maternal stress and parental sleep disruption. Polysomnography studies of ASD children showed most of their abnormalities related to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep which included decreased quantity, increased undifferentiated sleep, immature organization of eye movements into discrete bursts, decreased time in bed, total sleep time, REM sleep latency, and increased proportion of stage 1 sleep. Implementation of nonpharmacotherapeutic measures such as bedtime routines and sleep-wise approach is the mainstay of behavioral management. Treatment strategies along with limited regulated pharmacotherapy can help improve the quality of life in ASD children and have a beneficial impact on the family. PubMed search was performed for English language articles from January 1995 to January 2015. Following key words: Autism spectrum disorder, sleep disorders and autism, REM sleep and autism, cognitive behavioral therapy, sleep-wise approach, melatonin and ASD were used. Only articles reporting primary data relevant to the above questions were included. PMID:26962332

  19. Sensational Stars with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Karen; Miller, Lucy Jane

    2008-01-01

    Sensory processing refers to the way the brain takes incoming sensory messages, converts them into meaningful messages, then makes a response. If the responses are disorganized or inappropriate given the sensory input, sensory processing disorder (SPD) may co-exist with autism. If a child has an occasional atypical response to sensation, he or she…

  20. Autism and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.; Yazdgerdi, Sasha

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the Center for Disease Control released the findings of a study estimating that 1 in 88 children in the U. S. has been identified with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) representing a 78% increase over the last decade. The study also reports that Hispanic and African-American children represent the largest increase. An increasing number…

  1. Multicultural Issues in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyches, Tina Taylor; Wilder, Lynn K.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Obiakor, Festus E.; Algozzine, Bob

    2004-01-01

    The professional literature provides ample evidence that individuals with autism exhibit a myriad of unusual social, communication, and behavioral patterns of interactions that present challenges to their families and service providers. However, there is a dearth of quality works on multicultural issues regarding autistic spectrum disorders. In…

  2. Autism, oxytocin and interoception

    PubMed Central

    Quattrocki, E.; Friston, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by profound social and verbal communication deficits, stereotypical motor behaviors, restricted interests, and cognitive abnormalities. Autism affects approximately 1% of children in developing countries. Given this prevalence, identifying risk factors and therapeutic interventions are pressing objectives—objectives that rest on neurobiologically grounded and psychologically informed theories about the underlying pathophysiology. In this article, we review the evidence that autism could result from a dysfunctional oxytocin system early in life. As a mediator of successful procreation, not only in the reproductive system, but also in the brain, oxytocin plays a crucial role in sculpting socio-sexual behavior. Formulated within a (Bayesian) predictive coding framework, we propose that oxytocin encodes the saliency or precision of interoceptive signals and enables the neuronal plasticity necessary for acquiring a generative model of the emotional and social ‘self.’ An aberrant oxytocin system in infancy could therefore help explain the marked deficits in language and social communication – as well as the sensory, autonomic, motor, behavioral, and cognitive abnormalities – seen in autism. PMID:25277283

  3. Urinary Compounds in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcorn, A.; Berney, T.; Bretherton, K.; Mills, M.; Savery, D.; Shattock, P.

    2004-01-01

    Although earlier claims to identify specific compounds in the urine of people with autism had been discredited, it was subsequently suggested that there might be biochemical characteristics that were specific to early childhood, particularly in those who also did not have a severe degree of intellectual disability This study was to establish…

  4. Autism and art.

    PubMed

    James, Ioan

    2010-01-01

    The link between mild forms of autism and artistic creativity is suggested by a number of individual cases. Here those of a well-known composer, Béla Bártok, and a famous visual artist, Andy Warhol, are considered. PMID:20375530

  5. Autism from the Inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandin, Temple

    2007-01-01

    Temple Grandin, a university professor and award-winning livestock designer with autism, describes how thinking, for her, means processing a series of photorealistic mental images. Thinking in pictures, according to Grandin, is the only possible mode of thinking for many autistic people: Others think with sound patterns, visual patterns, or long…

  6. Early Diagnosis of Autism: Current Status of the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT-Parts 1, 2, and 3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of early intervention for very young children with autism are now well established. Hand and hand with these interventions is the necessity of psychometrically sound diagnostic tools. Not only should these tools be instrumental in differentiating developmentally delayed and other at risk infants. These measures should also be…

  7. Social engagement with parents in 11-month-old siblings at high and low genetic risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Susan B; Leezenbaum, Nina B; Mahoney, Amanda S; Day, Taylor N; Schmidt, Emily N

    2015-11-01

    Infant siblings of children with an autism spectrum disorder are at heightened genetic risk to develop autism spectrum disorder. We observed high risk (n = 35) and low risk (n = 27) infants at 11 months during free play with a parent. Children were assessed for autism spectrum disorder in toddlerhood. High-risk infants with a later diagnosis (n = 10) were less socially engaged with their parents than were low-risk infants. Parent behavior during play did not vary by group. Within the high-risk group, ratings of social reciprocity at 11 months predicted Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule severity scores at follow-up, suggesting that systematic observations of parent-infant play may be a useful addition to early assessments of emerging autism spectrum disorder.

  8. Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder: reconciling the syndrome, its diverse origins, and variation in expression.

    PubMed

    Constantino, John N; Charman, Tony

    2016-03-01

    Recent discoveries about the pathogenesis and symptom structure of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are challenging traditional nosology and driving efforts to reconceptualise the diagnosis of autism, a goal made all the more pressing by new prospects for early identification, targeted intervention, and personalised-medicine approaches to specific autistic syndromes. Recognition that ASD represents the severe end of a continuous distribution of social communication abilities in the general population has stimulated attempts to standardise the measurement of autistic traits and to set appropriate clinical thresholds for diagnosis. Over the next decade, rapid advances in our understanding of symptom structure and the diversity of causes of ASD could be incorporated into the next evolution in the diagnosis of autism, with important implications for research, clinical practice, public health, and policy. As differential effects of personalised therapies are identified in relation to specific causes of autism, the benefits of an updated diagnostic nosology will translate into the delivery of more effective care for patients.

  9. Performance of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders on the Dimension-Change Card Sort Task

    PubMed Central

    Radonovich, Krestin J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Lam, Kristen S. L.; Holtzclaw, Tia N.; Bodfish, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders have been conceptualized to reflect impaired executive functions. In the present study, we investigated the performance of 6–17-year-old children with and without an autism spectrum disorder on a dimension-change card sort task that explicitly indicated sorting rules on every trial. Diagnostic groups did not differ in speed of responses after the first rule switch or in speed or accuracy on blocks with mixed versus single sort rules. However, performance of the ASD group was significantly slower and less accurate overall than the typically-developing group. Furthermore, within the ASD group, poorer DCCS task performance did not predict more severe autism symptoms. Implications for the executive dysfunction theory of autism are discussed. PMID:19890707

  10. Broader Autism Phenotype in Siblings of Children with ASD—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pisula, Ewa; Ziegart-Sadowska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Although less pronounced, social, cognitive, and personality characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be present in people who do not meet ASD diagnostic criteria, especially in first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD. Research on these characteristics, referred to as broader autism phenotype (BAP), provides valuable data on potential expressions of autism-specific deficits in the context of family relations. This paper offers a review of research on BAP in siblings of individuals with ASD, focusing on reports regarding social, communication, and cognitive deficits, published from 1993 to 2014. The studies are divided into two groups based on participants’ age: papers on preschool and older siblings of individuals with ASD; and publications on infants at risk for ASD. On the basis of this review, suggestions are offered for further research and its significance for our understanding of the genetic determinants of autism. PMID:26068453

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Epilepsy: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

    PubMed

    Jeste, Shafali Spurling; Tuchman, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy commonly co-occur. In this review, we consider some unresolved questions regarding the temporal relationship, causal mechanisms, and clinical stratification of this comorbidity, highlighting throughout the interplay between autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, and intellectual disability. We present data on the clinical characterization of children with autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy, discussing distinctive phenotypes in children with this comorbidity. Although some distinctive clinical features emerge, this comorbidity also informs convergent pathways in genetic variants that cause synaptic dysfunction. We then move beyond diagnostic categorization and consider the extent to which electrophysiology as a quantitative biomarker may help guide efforts in clinical stratification and outcome prediction. Epilepsy, and atypical electrophysiological patterns, in autism spectrum disorder may inform the definition of biologically meaningful subgroups within the spectrum that, in turn, can shed light on potential targets for intervention.

  12. Promoting imitation in young children with autism: a comparison of reciprocal imitation training and video modeling.

    PubMed

    Cardon, Teresa A; Wilcox, M Jeanne

    2011-05-01

    The inability to imitate is a salient diagnostic marker for autism. It has been suggested that for children with autism, imitation may be a prerequisite skill that can assist in the development of various skills. Using a multiple baseline design across subjects, the purpose of this research was to determine if two interventions, reciprocal imitation training and video modeling were effective in promoting imitation acquisition in young children with autism. Six boys were matched across various features (i.e., age, language, autism severity) and randomly placed in a treatment condition. Results indicated that all six participants increased their imitation skills to varying degrees in both conditions, and imitation maintained and generalized at higher than baseline levels post treatment.

  13. A scale to assist the diagnosis of autism and Asperger's disorder in adults (RAADS): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward R; Guthrie, Donald; Yuwiler, Arthur; Ritvo, Max Joseph; Weisbender, Leo

    2008-02-01

    An empirically based 78 question self-rating scale based on DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria was developed to assist clinicians' diagnosis of adults with autism and Asperger's Disorder-the Ritvo Autism and Asperger's Diagnostic Scale (RAADS). It was standardized on 17 autistic and 20 Asperger's Disorder and 57 comparison subjects. Both autistic and Asperger's groups scored significantly higher than comparison groups with no overlap; sensitivity, specificity, and content validity equaled one. Cronbach's alpha coefficients of internal consistency of three subscales were satisfactory. Gender, age, and diagnostic categories were not significantly associated factors. The RAADS can be administered and scored in less than an hour and may be useful as a clinical scale to assist identification of autism and Asperger's Disorder in adults. The RAADS does not distinguish between autism and Asperger's Disorder.

  14. Improved Diagnostic Validity of the ADOS Revised Algorithms: A Replication Study in an Independent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterling, Iris; Roos, Sascha; de Bildt, Annelies; Rommelse, Nanda; de Jonge, Maretha; Visser, Janne; Lappenschaar, Martijn; Swinkels, Sophie; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Buitelaar, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Gotham et al. ("2007") proposed revised algorithms for the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) with improved diagnostic validity. The aim of the current study was to replicate predictive validity, factor structure, and correlations with age and verbal and nonverbal IQ of the ADOS revised algorithms for Modules 1 and 2 in a…

  15. Brief Report: Sensorimotor Gating in Idiopathic Autism and Autism Associated with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuhas, Jennifer; Cordeiro, Lisa; Tassone, Flora; Ballinger, Elizabeth; Schneider, Andrea; Long, James M.; Ornitz, Edward M.; Hessl, David

    2011-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) may useful for exploring the proposed shared neurobiology between idiopathic autism and autism caused by FXS. We compared PPI in four groups: typically developing controls (n = 18), FXS and autism (FXS+A; n = 15), FXS without autism spectrum disorder (FXS-A; n = 17), and idiopathic autism (IA; n = 15). Relative to…

  16. Behavioural and Cognitive Phenotypes in Idiopathic Autism versus Autism Associated with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissanayake, Cheryl; Bui, Quang; Bulhak-Paterson, Danuta; Huggins, Richard; Loesch, Danuta Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In order to better understand the underlying biological mechanism/s involved in autism, it is important to investigate the cognitive and behavioural phenotypes associated with idiopathic autism (autism without a known cause) and comorbid autism (autism associated with known genetic/biological disorders such as fragile X syndrome).…

  17. Association between severity of behavioral phenotype and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Rao, Patricia A; Landa, Rebecca J

    2014-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is sometimes comorbid with autism spectrum disorder. In the current study, we examined rates of parent-reported clinically significant symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in school-aged children (4-8 years) with autism spectrum disorder, most of whom were first enrolled in our research protocols as toddlers. Results revealed that children with autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had lower cognitive functioning, more severe social impairment, and greater delays in adaptive functioning than children with autism spectrum disorder only. Implications for clinical practice include the need to assess for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms at an early age in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Research is needed to determine efficacious interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to optimize outcomes.

  18. Molecular Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Hyonmin; Deirmengian, Carl A.; Hickok, Noreen J.; Morrison, Tiffany N.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic infections are complex conditions that require immediate diagnosis and accurate identification of the causative organisms to facilitate appropriate management. Conventional methodologies for diagnosis of these infections sometimes lack accuracy or sufficient rapidity. Current molecular diagnostics are an emerging area of bench-to-bedside research in orthopaedic infections. Examples of promising molecular diagnostics include measurement of a specific biomarker in the synovial fluid, polymerase chain reaction–based detection of bacterial genes, and metabolomic determination of responses to orthopaedic infection. PMID:25808967

  19. The Neuropsychological Profile of Autism and The Broad Autism Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Losh, Molly; Adolphs, Ralph; Poe, Michele D.; Couture, Shannon; Penn, David; Baranek, Grace T.; Piven, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Context There now exist multiple reports of a constellation of language, personality, and social-behavioral features present among relatives that mirror the symptom domains of autism, but much milder in expression. Studies of this ‘broad autism phenotype’ (BAP) may provide a potentially important, complementary approach for detecting the genes causing autism and defining associated neural circuitry, by identifying more refined phenotypes which can be measured quantitatively in both affected and unaffected individuals, and which are tied to functioning in particular regions of the brain. Objective To gain insights into neuropsychological features that index genetic liability to autism. Design Case-control. Setting General community. Participants Thirty-eight high-functioning individuals with autism and parents of autistic individuals, both with and without the BAP (N=83), as well as control groups. Main Outcome Measures A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tasks tapping social cognition, executive function, and global/local processing strategies (central coherence). Results Both individuals with autism and parents with the BAP differed from controls on measures of social cognition, with performance in the other two domains more similar to controls. Conclusions Data suggest that the social cognitive domain may be an important target for linking phenotype to cognitive process to brain structure in autism, and may ultimately provide insights into genes involved in autism. PMID:19414711

  20. Autism cornered: network analyses reveal mechanisms of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Auffray, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Despite a wealth of behavioral, cognitive, biological, and genetic studies, the causes of autism have remained largely unknown. In their recent work, Snyder and colleagues (Li et al, 2014) use a systems biology approach and shed light on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying autism, thus opening novel avenues for understanding the disease and developing potential treatments. PMID:25549969

  1. Middle School Students' Knowledge of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jonathan M.; Barger, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Authors examined 1,015 middle school students' knowledge of autism using a single item of prior awareness and a 10-item Knowledge of Autism (KOA) scale. The KOA scale was designed to assess students' knowledge of the course, etiology, and symptoms associated with autism. Less than half of students (46.1%) reported having heard of autism; however,…

  2. Brady, Our Firstborn Son, Has Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh-Kennedy, Mei

    2008-01-01

    Autism awareness is spreading like wildfire. Diagnoses have increased at an astounding rate. The statistic most often quoted is that 1 child in 150 has autism. As if the high rate of autism diagnoses were not worrisome enough, many doctors are not properly trained, or kept up to date, on how to detect autism at the earliest possible age. In many…

  3. Increasing Autism Prevalence in Metropolitan New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-01-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder,…

  4. Validity of the social communication questionnaire in adults with intellectual disabilities and suspected autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Sappok, Tanja; Diefenbacher, Albert; Gaul, Isabell; Bölte, Sven

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the validity of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) to identify autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 151 adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Germany. Sensitivities and specificities for ASD were 98/47% for the SCQ-current version and 92/22% for the SCQ-lifetime version. Sensitivities and specificities were increased to 89/66% and 78/48% by adjusting the recommended cut-points. The SCQ-current score correlated with the Scale for Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Mentally Retarded Persons and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, whereas the SCQ-lifetime score correlated with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. Our findings support the use of the SCQ-current version for ASD screening in adults with ID, although the SCQ-lifetime version should be used with caution in this population.

  5. Sex/Gender Differences and Autism: Setting the Scene for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Auyeung, Bonnie; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objective The relationship between sex/gender differences and autism has attracted a variety of research ranging from clinical and neurobiological to etiological, stimulated by the male bias in autism prevalence. Findings are complex and do not always relate to each other in a straightforward manner. Distinct but interlinked questions on the relationship between sex/gender differences and autism remain underaddressed. To better understand the implications from existing research and to help design future studies, we propose a 4-level conceptual framework to clarify the embedded themes. Method We searched PubMed for publications before September 2014 using search terms “‘sex OR gender OR females’ AND autism.” A total of 1,906 articles were screened for relevance, along with publications identified via additional literature reviews, resulting in 329 articles that were reviewed. Results Level 1, “Nosological and diagnostic challenges,” concerns the question, “How should autism be defined and diagnosed in males and females?” Level 2, “Sex/gender-independent and sex/gender-dependent characteristics,” addresses the question, “What are the similarities and differences between males and females with autism?” Level 3, “General models of etiology: liability and threshold,” asks the question, “How is the liability for developing autism linked to sex/gender?” Level 4, “Specific etiological–developmental mechanisms,” focuses on the question, “What etiological–developmental mechanisms of autism are implicated by sex/gender and/or sexual/gender differentiation?” Conclusions Using this conceptual framework, findings can be more clearly summarized, and the implications of the links between findings from different levels can become clearer. Based on this 4-level framework, we suggest future research directions, methodology, and specific topics in sex/gender differences and autism. PMID:25524786

  6. Rethinking language in autism.

    PubMed

    Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton; Shankey, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we invite a rethinking of traditional perspectives of language in autism. We advocate a theoretical reappraisal that offers a corrective to the dominant and largely tacitly held view that language, in its essence, is a referential system and a reflection of the individual's cognition. Drawing on scholarship in Conversation Analysis and linguistic anthropology, we present a multidimensional view of language, showing how it also functions as interactional accomplishment, social action, and mode of experience. From such a multidimensional perspective, we revisit data presented by other researchers that include instances of prototypical features of autistic speech, giving them a somewhat different-at times complementary, at times alternative-interpretation. In doing so, we demonstrate that there is much at stake in the view of language that we as researchers bring to our analysis of autistic speech. Ultimately, we argue that adopting a multidimensional view of language has wide ranging implications, deepening our understanding of autism's core features and developmental trajectory.

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Mark; Swift, Kathie

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are collectively the most commonly diagnosed pediatric neurodevelopmental condition. ASDs include autism, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Rett syndrome and Asperger disorder. ASD is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction and may involve developmental delays and seizure disorders. Recent parent-reported diagnosis of ASD in the United States put it at higher levels (1:91) than previously thought, with its diagnosis in boys occurring 4 to 5 times more frequently than in girls (1:58).1 CDC estimates are currently 1:110;1 up from 1:150 in 2007.2 Annual medical expenditures for those affected are generally four to six times greater than for those without ASD.1 While twin studies demonstrate that genetics play a significant role in ASD, the impact of environment should not be underestimated, given the approximate 20-fold increase in incidence over the last 20 years.3 PMID:24278834

  8. The Foundations of Autism:

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    Summary While the origins of child psychiatry in Britain can be traced to the interwar period, contemporary concepts and methodological approaches to pathological mental development in children were not created until the 1950s and 1960s. It was at this time that one of the most salient and lasting diagnoses in child psychiatry, autism, was established through a network of intellectual, institutional, and legal changes in Britain. This article argues that the work of child psychiatrists at the Maudsley Hospital was central in driving these changes and uses archival sources from this hospital, along with other legal and intellectual sources, to explore attempts to conceptualize pathological thought in infants in the 1950s and 1960s. When the first epidemiological study of autism was published in 1966, this finally established the autistic child as a scientific, demographic, and social reality in Britain. PMID:24976162

  9. Maternal autoantibodies in autism.

    PubMed

    Braunschweig, Daniel; Van de Water, Judy

    2012-06-01

    As epidemiologic studies continue to note a striking increase in rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis around the world, the lack of identified causative agents in most cases remains a major hindrance to the development of treatment and prevention strategies. Published observations of immune system abnormalities in ASD have increased recently, with several groups identifying fetal protein reactive IgG antibodies in plasma from mothers of children with autism. Furthermore, other gestational immune parameters, including maternal infection and dysregulated cytokine signaling, have been found to be associated with ASD in some cases. While detailed pathogenic mechanisms remain to be determined, the hypothesis that some cases of ASD may be influenced, or even caused, by maternal fetal brain-reactive antibodies or other in utero immune-related exposures is an active area of investigation. This article reviews the current literature in this area and proposes several directions for future research.

  10. Autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kara; Hyman, Mark; Swift, Kathie

    2012-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are collectively the most commonly diagnosed pediatric neurodevelopmental condition. ASDs include autism, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Rett syndrome and Asperger disorder. ASD is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction and may involve developmental delays and seizure disorders. Recent parent-reported diagnosis of ASD in the United States put it at higher levels (1:91) than previously thought, with its diagnosis in boys occurring 4 to 5 times more frequently than in girls (1:58).(1) CDC estimates are currently 1:110;(1) up from 1:150 in 2007.(2) Annual medical expenditures for those affected are generally four to six times greater than for those without ASD.(1) While twin studies demonstrate that genetics play a significant role in ASD, the impact of environment should not be underestimated, given the approximate 20-fold increase in incidence over the last 20 years.(3.)

  11. Biomarkers in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Goldani, Andre A. S.; Downs, Susan R.; Widjaja, Felicia; Lawton, Brittany; Hendren, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex, heterogeneous disorders caused by an interaction between genetic vulnerability and environmental factors. In an effort to better target the underlying roots of ASD for diagnosis and treatment, efforts to identify reliable biomarkers in genetics, neuroimaging, gene expression, and measures of the body’s metabolism are growing. For this article, we review the published studies of potential biomarkers in autism and conclude that while there is increasing promise of finding biomarkers that can help us target treatment, there are none with enough evidence to support routine clinical use unless medical illness is suspected. Promising biomarkers include those for mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and immune function. Genetic clusters are also suggesting the potential for useful biomarkers. PMID:25161627

  12. Mnesic imbalance: a cognitive theory about autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Munguía, Miguel Ángel

    2008-01-01

    Autism is characterized by impairments in social interaction, communicative capacity and behavioral flexibility. Some cognitive theories can be useful for finding a relationship between these irregularities and the biological mechanisms that may give rise to this disorder. Among such theories are mentalizing deficit, weak central coherence and executive dysfunction, but none of them has been able to explain all three diagnostic symptoms of autism. These cognitive disorders may be related among themselves by faulty learning, since several research studies have shown that the brains of autistic individuals have abnormalities in the cerebellum, which plays a role in procedural learning. In keeping with this view, one may postulate the possibility that declarative memory replaces faulty procedural memory in some of its functions, which implies making conscious efforts in order to perform actions that are normally automatic. This may disturb cognitive development, resulting in autism symptoms. Furthermore, this mnesic imbalance is probably involved in all autism spectrum disorders. In the present work, this theory is expounded, including preliminary supporting evidence. PMID:18925971

  13. Test Review: E. Schopler, M. E. Van Bourgondien, G. J. Wellman, & S. R. Love "Childhood Autism Rating Scale" (2nd Ed.). Los Angeles, CA--Western Psychological Services, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Chelsea A.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews Childhood Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition (CARS2), a useful tool for supporting the diagnostic process and for forming intervention recommendations once a diagnosis has been made. CARS2 consists of three rating forms designed to identify symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Published in 2010, the CARS2…

  14. Material Voices: Intermediality and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimingham, Melissa; Shaughnessy, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Autism continues to be regarded enigmatically; a community that is difficult to access due to perceived disruptions of interpersonal connectedness. Through detailed observations of two children participating in the Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project "Imagining Autism: Drama, Performance and Intermediality as Interventions for…

  15. Sleep Disorders, Epilepsy, and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malow, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe the clinical data linking autism with sleep and epilepsy and to discuss the impact of treating sleep disorders in children with autism either with or without coexisting epileptic seizures. Studies are presented to support the view that sleep is abnormal in individuals with autistic spectrum…

  16. Examining Sensory Quadrants in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sensory quadrants in autism based on Dunn's Theory of Sensory Processing. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to 103 age- and gender-matched community…

  17. Inner Speech Impairments in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Background: Three experiments investigated the role of inner speech deficit in cognitive performances of children with autism. Methods: Experiment 1 compared children with autism with ability-matched controls on a verbal recall task presenting pictures and words. Experiment 2 used pictures for which the typical names were either single syllable or…

  18. Dietary methanol and autism.

    PubMed

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted.

  19. Understanding Autism in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ballerini, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person's being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The “condition of possibility” of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as “loss” and “void.” I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this “void.” PMID:22645417

  20. Early Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Stability and Change in Clinical Diagnosis and Symptom Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Whitney; Swineford, Lauren B.; Nottke, Charly; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) appears to be stable in children as young as age three, few studies have explored stability of a diagnosis in younger children. Predictive value of diagnostic tools for toddlers and patterns of symptom change are important considerations for clinicians making early diagnoses. Most…

  1. Brain Hyper-Reactivity to Auditory Novel Targets in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomot, Marie; Belmonte, Matthew K.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Bernard, Frederic A.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Although communication and social difficulties in autism have received a great deal of research attention, the other key diagnostic feature, extreme repetitive behaviour and unusual narrow interests, has been addressed less often. Also known as "resistance to change" this may be related to atypical processing of infrequent, novel stimuli. This can…

  2. Traditional and Atypical Presentations of Anxiety in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Kendall, Philip C.; Berry, Leandra; Souders, Margaret C.; Franklin, Martin E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Miller, Judith; Herrington, John

    2014-01-01

    We assessed anxiety consistent (i.e., "traditional") and inconsistent (i.e., "atypical") with diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM) definitions in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Differential relationships between traditional anxiety, atypical anxiety, child characteristics, anxiety predictors and ASD-symptomology were…

  3. A Comparison of Autism Prevalence Trends in Denmark and Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parner, Erik T.; Thorsen, Poul; Dixon, Glenys; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen; Nassar, Natasha; Bourke, Jenny; Bower, Carol; Glasson, Emma J.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence statistics for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) vary widely across geographical boundaries. Some variation can be explained by diagnostic methods, case ascertainment and age at diagnosis. This study compared prevalence statistics for two distinct geographical regions, Denmark and Western Australia, both of which have had population-based…

  4. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Arranging and Ordering by Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Nicole M.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Schlichenmeyer, Kevin; Stocco, Corey S.

    2012-01-01

    Of the diagnostic features of autism, relatively little research has been devoted to restricted and repetitive behavior, particularly topographically complex forms of restricted and repetitive behavior such as rigidity in routines or compulsive-like behavior (e.g., arranging objects in patterns or rows). Like vocal or motor stereotypy,…

  5. Acute Pain Experience in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David J.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder, a number of clinically important comorbid complaints, including sensory abnormalities, are also discussed. One difference often noted in these accounts is hyposensitivity to pain; however, evidence for this is limited. The purpose of the current review therefore was to examine…

  6. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Do Not Help Support DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder Category

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Janssen, Joost; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aims to determine whether or not structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data support the DSM-5 proposal of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic category, and whether or not classical DSM-IV autistic disorder (AD) and Asperger syndrome (AS) categories should be subsumed into it. The most replicated sMRI findings…

  7. Influence of Reporting Effects on the Association between Maternal Depression and Child Autism Spectrum Disorder Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Teresa; Boyle, Michael; Georgiades, Katholiki; Georgiades, Stelios; Thompson, Ann; Duku, Eric; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Smith, Isabel; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Szatmari, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maximizing measurement accuracy is an important aim in child development assessment and research. Parents are essential informants in the diagnostic process, and past research suggests that certain parental characteristics may influence how they report information about their children. This has not been studied in autism spectrum…

  8. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Medicine Today and in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Luke

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the role and future of medicine and medically oriented interventions for children and youth with autism spectrum disorder. Included in the discussion are the diagnostic issues and medication treatments available currently and those that will become available in the new millennium. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  9. Internal Model Deficits Impair Joint Action in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoit, Astrid M. B.; van Schie, Hein T.; Riem, Madelon; Meulenbroek, Ruud G. J.; Newman-Norlund, Roger D.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine I. E.; Bekkering, Harold; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative differences in social interaction and communication are diagnostic hallmarks in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study investigated the hypothesis that impaired social interaction in ASD reflects a deficit to internally model the behavior of a co-actor. Children and adolescents with ASD and matched controls performed a…

  10. How Will DSM-5 Affect Autism Diagnosis? A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulage, Kristine M.; Smaldone, Arlene M.; Cohn, Elizabeth G.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explore policy implications. We identified 418 studies; 14 met inclusion criteria. Studies consistently reported decreases in ASD diagnosis (range 7.3-68.4%) using DSM-5…

  11. Can Asperger's Disorder Be Differentiated from Autism Using "DSM-IV" Criteria?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Patti Ann; Mayes, Susan D.; Rhodes, Robert L.; Waldo, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Parents of 26 children with diagnoses of Asperger's disorder completed a symptom checklist to determine whether the children met "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition, Text Revision" ("DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria for Asperger's disorder, autism, or pervasive developmental disorder…

  12. Validity of "DSM-IV" Syndromes in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecavalier, Luc; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Devincent, Carla J.; Houts, Carrie R.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior and emotional problems are often present in very young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) but their nosology has been the object of scant empirical attention. The objective of this study was to assess the construct validity of select "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM)"--defined syndromes (ADHD, ODD,…

  13. Otitis Media and Related Complications among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Daniel J.; Susi, Apryl; Erdie-Lalena, Christine R.; Gorman, Gregory; Hisle-Gorman, Elizabeth; Rajnik, Michael; Elrod, Marilisa; Nylund, Cade M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) symptoms can be masked by communication deficits, common to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We sought to evaluate the association between ASD and otitis media. Using ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes, we performed a retrospective case-cohort study comparing AOM, and otitis-related diagnoses among children with and…

  14. Differences in Autism Symptoms between Minority and Non-Minority Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tek, Saime; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about whether early symptom presentation differs in toddlers with ASD from ethnic minority versus non-minority backgrounds. Within a treatment study for toddlers with ASD, we compared 19 minority to 65 Caucasian children and their parents on variables obtained from the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, Autism Diagnostic Observation…

  15. Factor Structure for Autism Spectrum Disorders with Toddlers Using DSM-IV and DSM-5 Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.

    2014-01-01

    With the publication of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition", autism spectrum disorders are defined by two symptom clusters (social communication and restricted/repetitive behaviors) instead of the current three clusters. The current study examined the structure of the Baby and Infant Screen for…

  16. Quantifying Narrative Ability in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Computational Linguistic Analysis of Narrative Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losh, Molly; Gordon, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by serious difficulties with the social use of language, along with impaired social functioning and ritualistic/repetitive behaviors (American Psychiatric Association in "Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5," 5th edn. American Psychiatric Association,…

  17. Sex Differences in Internalizing Problems during Adolescence in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Tasha M.; Winter-Messiers, Mary Ann; Gibson, Brandon; Schmidt, Alexandra M.; Herr, Cynthia M.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that the double hit conferred by sex and diagnosis increases the risk for internalizing disorders in adolescent females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In a sample of 32 adolescents with ASD and 32 controls, we examined the effects of sex, diagnostic factors, and developmental stages on depression and anxiety. A 3-way…

  18. Research on Screening and Diagnosis in Autism: A Work in Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristol-Power, Marie M.; Spinella, Giovanna

    1999-01-01

    This article summarizes results of a 1998 conference which reviewed research on screening and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders and identifies promising areas of research especially the search for the ultimate diagnostic indicator, infant screening and diagnosis, the role of sensory-motor disorders, diagnosis of co-occurring disorders,…

  19. The Role of Prenatal, Obstetric and Neonatal Factors in the Development of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Linda; Fell, Deshayne B.; Shea, Sarah; Armson, B. Anthony; Allen, Alexander C.; Bryson, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a linked database cohort study of infants born between 1990 and 2002 in Nova Scotia, Canada. Diagnoses of autism were identified from administrative databases with relevant diagnostic information to 2005. A factor representing genetic susceptibility was defined as having an affected sibling or a mother with a history of a psychiatric…

  20. How Does Relaxing the Algorithm for Autism Affect DSM-V Prevalence Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Williams, Lindsey W.

    2012-01-01

    Although it is still unclear what causes autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), over time researchers and clinicians have become more precise with detecting and diagnosing ASD. Many diagnoses, however, are based on the criteria established within the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM"); thus, any change in these diagnostic…

  1. Medication Treatment Outcomes for School-Aged Children Diagnosed with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, John S.; Brinkman, Tara; Majewicz-Hefley, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies on the prevalence of autism indicate that approximately 1 in 200 children meet diagnostic criteria, significantly greater than rates reported just a decade ago (Blanchard, Gurka, & Blackman, 2006). Concurrently, biomedical treatments including psychotropic medication have been used with increased frequency to treat children…

  2. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder: Who Will Get a DSM-5 Diagnosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Rachel G.; Carrington, Sarah J.; Le Couteur, Ann; Gould, Judith; Wing, Lorna; Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Leekam, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Introduction of proposed criteria for DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has raised concerns that some individuals currently meeting diagnostic criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD; DSM-IV-TR/ICD- 10) will not qualify for a diagnosis under the proposed changes. To date, reports of sensitivity and specificity of the new…

  3. A Comprehensive Profile of Decoding and Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Sabine V.; Mann, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined intake data from 384 participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a comparison group of 100 participants with dyslexia on nine standardized measures of decoding and comprehension. Although diagnostic groups were based on parental reports and could not be verified independently, we were able to observe…

  4. Increasing Communication Skills: A Case Study of a Man with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Vision Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, S. Brian; Casey, Laura Baylot; Cea, Clayton R.; Bicard, David F.; Bicard, Sara E.

    2012-01-01

    According to the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, APA, 2000), autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impairments in social and communicative behaviors with great variations in ability, depending on developmental level, intelligence, and chronological…

  5. Long-Term Aripiprazole in Youth with Developmental Disabilities Including Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellings, Jessica A.; Boehm, Danna; Yeh, Hung Wen; Butler, Merlin G.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed clinic charts of 21 children and adolescents with developmental disabilities including autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated consecutively with aripiprazole (ARI) for irritability and severe challenging behaviors. Data extracted include age, sex, and race; level of intellectual disability (ID); "Diagnostic and…

  6. Secretin as a Treatment for Autism: A Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, Barbara E.; Carr, James E.

    2004-01-01

    Secretin is used in the United States for diagnosis of pancreatic gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction and disease. Repeated therapeutic use has not been approved. Widespread interest in secretin as a treatment for autism followed media reports of behavioral improvements in an autistic child who received the hormone during a GI diagnostic procedure.…

  7. [The problems of diagnosis and correction of autism in children (an example of Asperger's syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Iovchuk, N M; Severnyĭ, A A

    2014-01-01

    Based on the analysis of literature and own clinical experience, we discuss diagnostic issues of early autistic disorders in children. Main differential-diagnostic signs that permit to differentiate mild forms of autism in childhood diagnosed as Asperger's syndrome from childhood schizophrenia, residual organic CNS damage, circular affective disorders are described. Cases of Asperger's syndrome followed up for many years and recommendations for social and psychological adaptation of children and adolescents with Asperger's syndrome in different age periods are presented.

  8. Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Strategies that Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Clarissa

    2009-01-01

    Five types of autism are recognized under autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The author discusses the major characteristics associated with autism and offers some simple strategies for helping children with autism function in preschool settings.

  9. Ultrasound and autism: association, link, or coincidence?

    PubMed

    Abramowicz, Jacques S

    2012-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) affect an estimated 1% of children in the United States. The etiology is probably multifactorial, including genetic components and exposure to infections, toxins, and other environmental factors, particularly unfavorable perinatal and neonatal conditions. There has been an increase in the frequency of diagnosis of ASDs over the last 20 years with a parallel increase in the use of obstetric diagnostic ultrasound, with prenatal ultrasound exposure mentioned as the possible main etiology for autism "epidemics." Central nervous system alterations have been described in ASDs, and certain similar changes have been described in animals after exposure to ultrasound. However, analysis of in utero exposure in humans has failed to show harmful effects in neonates or children, particularly in school performance, attention disorders, and behavioral changes. There is no independently confirmed peer-reviewed published evidence that a cause-effect relationship exists between in utero exposure to clinical ultrasound and development of ASDs in childhood. Ultrasound is a form of energy with effects in the tissues it traverses, and its use should be restricted to medical indications, by trained professionals, for as short a period and as low an intensity as compatible with accurate diagnosis.

  10. A computational perspective on autism.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Ari; Patterson, Jaclyn Sky; Angelaki, Dora E

    2015-07-28

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests as a heterogeneous set of social, cognitive, motor, and perceptual symptoms. This system-wide pervasiveness suggests that, rather than narrowly impacting individual systems such as affection or vision, autism may broadly alter neural computation. Here, we propose that alterations in nonlinear, canonical computations occurring throughout the brain may underlie the behavioral characteristics of autism. One such computation, called divisive normalization, balances a neuron's net excitation with inhibition reflecting the overall activity of the neuronal population. Through neural network simulations, we investigate how alterations in divisive normalization may give rise to autism symptomatology. Our findings show that a reduction in the amount of inhibition that occurs through divisive normalization can account for perceptual consequences of autism, consistent with the hypothesis of an increased ratio of neural excitation to inhibition (E/I) in the disorder. These results thus establish a bridge between an E/I imbalance and behavioral data on autism that is currently absent. Interestingly, our findings implicate the context-dependent, neuronal milieu as a key factor in autism symptomatology, with autism reflecting a less "social" neuronal population. Through a broader discussion of perceptual data, we further examine how altered divisive normalization may contribute to a wide array of the disorder's behavioral consequences. These analyses show how a computational framework can provide insights into the neural basis of autism and facilitate the generation of falsifiable hypotheses. A computational perspective on autism may help resolve debates within the field and aid in identifying physiological pathways to target in the treatment of the disorder.

  11. A computational perspective on autism

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Ari; Patterson, Jaclyn Sky; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests as a heterogeneous set of social, cognitive, motor, and perceptual symptoms. This system-wide pervasiveness suggests that, rather than narrowly impacting individual systems such as affection or vision, autism may broadly alter neural computation. Here, we propose that alterations in nonlinear, canonical computations occurring throughout the brain may underlie the behavioral characteristics of autism. One such computation, called divisive normalization, balances a neuron’s net excitation with inhibition reflecting the overall activity of the neuronal population. Through neural network simulations, we investigate how alterations in divisive normalization may give rise to autism symptomatology. Our findings show that a reduction in the amount of inhibition that occurs through divisive normalization can account for perceptual consequences of autism, consistent with the hypothesis of an increased ratio of neural excitation to inhibition (E/I) in the disorder. These results thus establish a bridge between an E/I imbalance and behavioral data on autism that is currently absent. Interestingly, our findings implicate the context-dependent, neuronal milieu as a key factor in autism symptomatology, with autism reflecting a less “social” neuronal population. Through a broader discussion of perceptual data, we further examine how altered divisive normalization may contribute to a wide array of the disorder’s behavioral consequences. These analyses show how a computational framework can provide insights into the neural basis of autism and facilitate the generation of falsifiable hypotheses. A computational perspective on autism may help resolve debates within the field and aid in identifying physiological pathways to target in the treatment of the disorder. PMID:26170299

  12. Global Prevalence of Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Elsabbagh, Mayada; Divan, Gauri; Koh, Yun-Joo; Kim, Young Shin; Kauchali, Shuaib; Marcín, Carlos; Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Patel, Vikram; Paula, Cristiane S; Wang, Chongying; Yasamy, Mohammad Taghi; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We provide a systematic review of epidemiological surveys of autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) worldwide. A secondary aim was to consider the possible impact of geographic, cultural/ethnic, and socioeconomic factors on prevalence estimates and on clinical presentation of PDD. Based on the evidence reviewed, the median of prevalence estimates of autism spectrum disorders was 62/10 000. While existing estimates are variable, the evidence reviewed does not support differences in PDD prevalence by geographic region nor of a strong impact of ethnic/cultural or socioeconomic factors. However, power to detect such effects is seriously limited in existing data sets, particularly in low-income countries. While it is clear that prevalence estimates have increased over time and these vary in different neighboring and distant regions, these findings most likely represent broadening of the diagnostic concets, diagnostic switching from other developmental disabilities to PDD, service availability, and awareness of autistic spectrum disorders in both the lay and professional public. The lack of evidence from the majority of the world's population suggests a critical need for further research and capacity building in low- and middle-income countries. Autism Res 2012, 5: 160–179. © 2012 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22495912

  13. Fungal Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Thomas R.; Wickes, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical to effective treatment. There are many impediments to diagnosis such as a diminishing number of clinical mycologists, cost, time to result, and requirements for sensitivity and specificity. In addition, fungal diagnostics must meet the contrasting needs presented by the increasing diversity of fungi found in association with the use of immunosuppressive agents in countries with high levels of medical care and the need for diagnostics in resource-limited countries where large numbers of opportunistic infections occur in patients with AIDS. Traditional approaches to diagnosis include direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, culture, and serology. Emerging technologies include molecular diagnostics and antigen detection in clinical samples. Innovative new technologies that use molecular and immunoassay platforms have the potential to meet the needs of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical environments. PMID:24692193

  14. Brief report: autistic symptoms, developmental regression, mental retardation, epilepsy, and dyskinesias in CNS folate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Paolo; Peters, Sarika U; Del Gaudio, Daniela; Sahoo, Trilochan; Hyland, Keith; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Hopkin, Robert J; Peach, Elizabeth; Min, Sang Hee; Goldman, David; Roa, Benjamin; Bacino, Carlos A; Scaglia, Fernando

    2008-07-01

    We studied seven children with CNS folate deficiency (CFD). All cases exhibited psychomotor retardation, regression, cognitive delay, and dyskinesia; six had seizures; four demonstrated neurological abnormalities in the neonatal period. Two subjects had profound neurological abnormalities that precluded formal behavioral testing. Five subjects received ADOS and ADI-R testing and met diagnostic criteria for autism or autism spectrum disorders. They exhibited difficulties with transitions, insistence on sameness, unusual sensory interests, and repetitive behaviors. Those with the best language skills largely used repetitive phrases. No mutations were found in folate transporter or folate enzyme genes. These findings demonstrate that autistic features are salient in CFD and suggest that a subset of children with developmental regression, mental retardation, seizures, dyskinesia, and autism may have CNS folate abnormalities. PMID:18027081

  15. Brief Report: Autistic Symptoms, Developmental Regression, Mental Retardation, Epilepsy, and Dyskinesias in CNS Folate Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Paolo; Peters, Sarika U.; del Gaudio, Daniela; Sahoo, Trilochan; Hyland, Keith; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Hopkin, Robert J.; Peach, Elizabeth; Min, Sang Hee; Goldman, David; Roa, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    We studied seven children with CNS folate deficiency (CFD). All cases exhibited psychomotor retardation, regression, cognitive delay, and dyskinesia; six had seizures; four demonstrated neurological abnormalities in the neonatal period. Two subjects had profound neurological abnormalities that precluded formal behavioral testing. Five subjects received ADOS and ADI-R testing and met diagnostic criteria for autism or autism spectrum disorders. They exhibited difficulties with transitions, insistence on sameness, unusual sensory interests, and repetitive behaviors. Those with the best language skills largely used repetitive phrases. No mutations were found in folate transporter or folate enzyme genes. These findings demonstrate that autistic features are salient in CFD and suggest that a subset of children with developmental regression, mental retardation, seizures, dyskinesia, and autism may have CNS folate abnormalities. PMID:18027081

  16. Diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Morris, Peter; Perkins, Alan

    2012-04-21

    Physical techniques have always had a key role in medicine, and the second half of the 20th century in particular saw a revolution in medical diagnostic techniques with the development of key imaging instruments: x-ray imaging and emission tomography (nuclear imaging and PET), MRI, and ultrasound. These techniques use the full width of the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma rays to radio waves, and sound. In most cases, the development of a medical imaging device was opportunistic; many scientists in physics laboratories were experimenting with simple x-ray images within the first year of the discovery of such rays, the development of the cyclotron and later nuclear reactors created the opportunity for nuclear medicine, and one of the co-inventors of MRI was initially attempting to develop an alternative to x-ray diffraction for the analysis of crystal structures. What all these techniques have in common is the brilliant insight of a few pioneering physical scientists and engineers who had the tenacity to develop their inventions, followed by a series of technical innovations that enabled the full diagnostic potential of these instruments to be realised. In this report, we focus on the key part played by these scientists and engineers and the new imaging instruments and diagnostic procedures that they developed. By bringing the key developments and applications together we hope to show the true legacy of physics and engineering in diagnostic medicine. PMID:22516558

  17. Diagnostic Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    Diagnostic imaging lets doctors look inside your body for clues about a medical condition. A variety of machines and techniques can create pictures of the structures and activities inside your body. The type of imaging your doctor uses depends on your symptoms and ...

  18. Quantifying narrative ability in autism spectrum disorder: a computational linguistic analysis of narrative coherence.

    PubMed

    Losh, Molly; Gordon, Peter C

    2014-12-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by serious difficulties with the social use of language, along with impaired social functioning and ritualistic/repetitive behaviors (American Psychiatric Association in Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5, 5th edn. American Psychiatric Association, Arlington, 2013). While substantial heterogeneity exists in symptom expression, impairments in language discourse skills, including narrative (or storytelling), are universally observed in autism (Tager-Flusberg et al. in Handbook on autism and pervasive developmental disorders, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 335-364, 2005). This study applied a computational linguistic tool, Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), to objectively characterize narrative performance in high-functioning individuals with autism and typically-developing controls, across two different narrative contexts that differ in the interpersonal and cognitive demands placed on the narrator. Results indicated that high-functioning individuals with autism produced narratives comparable in semantic content to those produced by controls when narrating from a picture book, but produced narratives diminished in semantic quality in a more demanding narrative recall task. This pattern is similar to that detected from analyses of hand-coded picture book narratives in prior research, and extends findings to an additional narrative context that proves particularly challenging for individuals with autism. Results are discussed in terms of the utility of LSA as a quantitative, objective, and efficient measure of narrative ability.

  19. Convulsing toward the pathophysiology of autism.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, Roberto; Moshé, Solomon L; Rapin, Isabelle

    2009-02-01

    The autisms and epilepsies are heterogeneous disorders that have diverse etiologies and pathologies. The severity of impairment and of symptoms associated with autism or with particular epilepsy syndromes reflects focal or global, structurally abnormal or dysfunctional neuronal networks. The complex relationship between autism and epilepsy, as reflected in the autism-epilepsy phenotype, provides a bridge to further knowledge of shared neuronal networks that can account for both the autisms and the epilepsies. Although epilepsy is not a causal factor for autism, increased understanding of common genetic and molecular biological mechanisms of the autism-epilepsy phenotype has provided insight into the pathophysiology of the autisms. The autism-epilepsy phenotype provides a novel model to the study of interventions that may have a positive modulating effects on social cognitive outcome.

  20. Subregional differences in intrinsic amygdala hyperconnectivity and hypoconnectivity in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kleinhans, Natalia M; Reiter, Maya A; Neuhaus, Emily; Pauley, Greg; Martin, Nathalie; Dager, Stephen; Estes, Annette

    2016-07-01

    The amygdala is a complex structure with distinct subregions and dissociable functional networks. The laterobasal subregion of the amygdala is hypothesized to mediate the presentation and severity of autism symptoms, although very little data are available regarding amygdala dysfunction at the subregional level. In this study, we investigated the relationship between abnormal amygdalar intrinsic connectivity, autism symptom severity, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. We collected resting state fMRI data on 31 high functioning adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder and 38 typically developing (TD) controls aged 14-45. Twenty-five participants with ASD and 28 TD participants were included in the final analyses. ASD participants were administered the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Adult participants were administered the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Functional connectivity analyses were conducted from three amygdalar subregions: centromedial (CM), laterobasal (LB) and superficial (SF). In addition, correlations with the behavioral measures were tested in the adult participants. In general, the ASD group showed significantly decreased connectivity from the LB subregion and increased connectivity from the CM and SF subregions compared to the TD group. We found evidence that social symptoms are primarily associated with under-connectivity from the LB subregion whereas over-connectivity and under-connectivity from the CM, SF and LB subregions are related to co-morbid depression and anxiety in ASD, in brain regions that were distinct from those associated with social dysfunction, and in different patterns than were observed in mildly symptomatic TD participants. Our findings provide new evidence for functional subregional differences in amygdala pathophysiology in ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 760-772. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  1. Subregional differences in intrinsic amygdala hyperconnectivity and hypoconnectivity in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kleinhans, Natalia M; Reiter, Maya A; Neuhaus, Emily; Pauley, Greg; Martin, Nathalie; Dager, Stephen; Estes, Annette

    2016-07-01

    The amygdala is a complex structure with distinct subregions and dissociable functional networks. The laterobasal subregion of the amygdala is hypothesized to mediate the presentation and severity of autism symptoms, although very little data are available regarding amygdala dysfunction at the subregional level. In this study, we investigated the relationship between abnormal amygdalar intrinsic connectivity, autism symptom severity, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. We collected resting state fMRI data on 31 high functioning adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder and 38 typically developing (TD) controls aged 14-45. Twenty-five participants with ASD and 28 TD participants were included in the final analyses. ASD participants were administered the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Adult participants were administered the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Functional connectivity analyses were conducted from three amygdalar subregions: centromedial (CM), laterobasal (LB) and superficial (SF). In addition, correlations with the behavioral measures were tested in the adult participants. In general, the ASD group showed significantly decreased connectivity from the LB subregion and increased connectivity from the CM and SF subregions compared to the TD group. We found evidence that social symptoms are primarily associated with under-connectivity from the LB subregion whereas over-connectivity and under-connectivity from the CM, SF and LB subregions are related to co-morbid depression and anxiety in ASD, in brain regions that were distinct from those associated with social dysfunction, and in different patterns than were observed in mildly symptomatic TD participants. Our findings provide new evidence for functional subregional differences in amygdala pathophysiology in ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 760-772. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A model for the induction of autism in the ecosystem of the human body: the anatomy of a modern pandemic?

    PubMed Central

    Bilbo, Staci D.; Nevison, Cynthia D.; Parker, William

    2015-01-01

    Background The field of autism research is currently divided based on a fundamental question regarding the nature of autism: Some are convinced that autism is a pandemic of modern culture, with environmental factors at the roots. Others are convinced that the disease is not pandemic in nature, but rather that it has been with humanity for millennia, with its biological and neurological underpinnings just now being understood. Objective In this review, two lines of reasoning are examined which suggest that autism is indeed a pandemic of modern culture. First, given the widely appreciated derailment of immune function by modern culture, evidence that autism is strongly associated with aberrant immune function is examined. Second, evidence is reviewed indicating that autism is associated with ‘triggers’ that are, for the most part, a construct of modern culture. In light of this reasoning, current epidemiological evidence regarding the incidence of autism, including the role of changing awareness and diagnostic criteria, is examined. Finally, the potential role of the microbial flora (the microbiome) in the pathogenesis of autism is discussed, with the view that the microbial flora is a subset of the life associated with the human body, and that the entire human biome, including both the microbial flora and the fauna, has been radically destabilized by modern culture. Conclusions It is suggested that the unequivocal way to resolve the debate regarding the pandemic nature of autism is to perform an experiment: monitor the prevalence of autism after normalizing immune function in a Western population using readily available approaches that address the well-known factors underlying the immune dysfunction in that population. PMID:25634608

  3. Autism and Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), and Rett’s Disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiologic characteristics compared to Rett’s Disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews relevant research and clinical information relevant to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  4. Brief Report: Interrater Reliability of Clinical Diagnosis and DSM-IV Criteria for Autistic Disorder: Results of the DSM-IV Autism Field Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klin, Ami; Lang, Jason; Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the inter-rater reliability of clinician-assigned diagnosis of autism using or not using the criteria specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV). For experienced raters there was little difference in reliability in the two conditions. However, a clinically significant improvement in diagnostic reliability…

  5. Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Autism and Fragile X Syndrome: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Klusek, Jessica; Roberts, Jane E.; Losh, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significance of efforts to understand the biological basis of autism, progress in this area has been hindered, in part, by the considerable heterogeneity in the disorder. Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a monogenic condition associated with high risk for autism, may pave the way for the dissection of biological heterogeneity within idiopathic autism. This paper adopts a cross-syndrome biomarker approach to evaluate potentially overlapping profiles of cardiac arousal dysregulation (and broader autonomic dysfunction) in autism and FXS. Approaches such as this, aimed at delineating shared mechanisms across genetic syndromes, hold great potential for improving diagnostic precision, promoting earlier identification, and uncovering key systems that can be targeted in pharmaceutical/behavioral interventions. Biomarker approaches may be vital to deconstructing complex psychiatric disorders, and are currently promoted as such by major research initiatives such as the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). Evidence reviewed here supports physiological dysregulation in a subset of individuals with autism, as evidenced by patterns of hyperarousal and dampened parasympathetic vagal tone, which overlap with the well-documented physiological profile of FXS. Moreover, there is growing support for a link between aberrant cardiac activity and core deficits associated with autism, such as communication and social impairment. The delineation of physiological mechanisms common to autism and FXS could lend insight into relationships between genetic etiology and behavioral endstates, highlighting FMR1 as a potential candidate gene. Research gaps and potential pitfalls are discussed to inform timely, well-controlled biomarker research that will ultimately promote better diagnosis and treatment of autism and associated conditions. PMID:25420222

  6. Examining restricted and repetitive behaviors in young children with autism spectrum disorder during two observational contexts.

    PubMed

    Stronach, Sheri; Wetherby, Amy M

    2014-02-01

    This prospective study of the FIRST WORDS® Project examined restricted and repetitive behaviors in a sample of 55 toddlers at a mean age of 20 months who were later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Restricted and repetitive behaviors were coded using the Repetitive Movement and Restricted Interest Scales in two video-recorded observation methods-structured sampling procedures in a clinic and naturalistic everyday activities at home. Measures of restricted and repetitive behaviors were higher in the clinic setting than in the home observation, especially for behaviors involving object use. Repetitive movements with objects in the clinic predicted nonverbal developmental scores and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule social affect scores at later follow-up. In contrast, repetitive movements with objects at home significantly predicted later Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule restricted and repetitive behaviors scores. These results support the utility of the Repetitive Movement and Restricted Interest Scales to detect restricted and repetitive behaviors in toddlers and suggest that observations of restricted and repetitive behaviors in clinic and home settings may provide unique and important diagnostic information for improving early detection of autism spectrum disorder.

  7. Autism spectrum disorders in the DSM-V: better or worse than the DSM-IV?

    PubMed

    Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith; Gillberg, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V-committee has recently published proposed diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorders. We examine these criteria in some detail. We believe that the DSM-committee has overlooked a number of important issues, including social imagination, diagnosis in infancy and adulthood, and the possibility that girls and women with autism may continue to go unrecognised or misdiagnosed under the new manual. We conclude that a number of changes need to be made in order that the DSM-V-criteria might be used reliably and validly in clinical practice and research.

  8. Redefining autism spectrum disorder using DSM-5: the implications of the proposed DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Young, Robyn L; Rodi, Melissa L

    2014-04-01

    A number of changes were made to pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) in the recently released diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (APA, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, American Psychiatric Publishing, Arlington, VA, 2013). Of the 210 participants in the present study who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for a PDD [i.e., autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)], only 57.1% met DSM-5 criteria (specificity = 1.0) for autism spectrum disorder when criteria were applied concurrently during diagnostic assessment. High-functioning individuals (i.e., Asperger's disorder and PDD-NOS) were less likely to meet DSM-5 criteria than those with autistic disorder. A failure to satisfy all three criteria in the social-communication domain was the most common reason for exclusion (39%). The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:24057130

  9. Visual integration in autism

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Danielle; Ropar, Danielle; Allen, Harriet A.

    2015-01-01

    Atypical integration is a topic of debate in the autism literature. Some theories suggest that altered perception in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is due to a failure to integrate information from meaningful context into the final percept, whereas others suggest that integration of low-level features is impaired. Empirical research which forms the basis for these theories has failed to account for higher-level influences not inherent in the stimuli (i.e., instructions and goals) and assess integration at both lower and higher perceptual levels within the same task. Here, we describe how perceived expectations and goals of a task can modulate the processing of low-level visual input via the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We then go on to illustrate how future research might assess the relative contribution of both low and high-level processes using the same paradigm. We conclude by recommending that when results appear conflicting, consideration of the relative strength of low-level input vs. feedback or high-level processes may prove helpful. Importantly, research in this area needs to more broadly consider the various influences on perception, and find better ways to assess the contributions of early and later visual processes. PMID:26190994

  10. What's new in autism?

    PubMed

    Steyaert, Jean G; De la Marche, Wouter

    2008-10-01

    This review on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) focusses on recent insights in the clinical picture, such as continuity of the phenotype and the concept of broader phenotype, on epidemiology and on clinical issues relevant to physicians, including new methods for early screening and diagnosis, psychiatric and somatic co-morbidity, and the expansion of so-called complementary and alternative treatments. ASD is a disorder with mainly genetic causes and recent insights show that a variety of genetic mechanisms may be involved, i.e. single gene disorders, copy number variations and polygenic mechanisms. Technological advances in genetics have lead to a number of promising findings, which, together with other lines of fundamental research, suggest that ASD may be a disorder of connectivity in the brain, at least in a subgroup of patients. It is possible that part of the genetic load in autism actually reflects gene-environment interaction, but there is no evidence for purely environmental causes in a substantial number of cases. Clinical research suggests that ASD may be a multi-system disorder in at least a subgroup of subjects, affecting the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract, the immune system and perhaps other systems. Behavioural treatments remain the cornerstone of management, and are mainly aimed at stimulation of the domains of impaired development and reducing secondary behaviours. These treatments are constantly being refined, but the main progress in this area may be the increase of research on effectiveness.

  11. Endocannabinoid Signaling in Autism.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Persico, Antonio; Battista, Natalia; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex behavioral condition with onset during early childhood and a lifelong course in the vast majority of cases. To date, no behavioral, genetic, brain imaging, or electrophysiological test can specifically validate a clinical diagnosis of ASD. However, these medical procedures are often implemented in order to screen for syndromic forms of the disorder (i.e., autism comorbid with known medical conditions). In the last 25 years a good deal of information has been accumulated on the main components of the "endocannabinoid (eCB) system", a rather complex ensemble of lipid signals ("endocannabinoids"), their target receptors, purported transporters, and metabolic enzymes. It has been clearly documented that eCB signaling plays a key role in many human health and disease conditions of the central nervous system, thus opening the avenue to the therapeutic exploitation of eCB-oriented drugs for the treatment of psychiatric, neurodegenerative, and neuroinflammatory disorders. Here we present a modern view of the eCB system, and alterations of its main components in human patients and animal models relevant to ASD. This review will thus provide a critical perspective necessary to explore the potential exploitation of distinct elements of eCB system as targets of innovative therapeutics against ASD.

  12. Learning About Autism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A medical essay written in 1923 pointed out the fallacy of blaming a chronic illness on the name of a disease. The focus of treatment should be the individual, not the disease. With a focus on options based on the individuality of each patient, I ask a simple two-part question: Does my patient need to avoid or be rid of substances and/or to be provided with substances that would favor nature's impulse toward healing? In my academic training as a physician, I learned that a clinically effective stance favored an optimistic intent combined with the objective application of my skills—refined though the practice of listening, prescribing, and observing outcome. My understanding of autism has rested on a foundation of the individuality of every living thing, the rhythmicity of life, and the balance that characterizes healthy systems. The first autistic child I examined struck me with a nonverbal message: “I am in here; see me.” The recognition of the role of bacterial toxins amplified my notion that a general disorder of the microbiome underlies the loss of immune tolerance that accompanies the global state of sensitivity found in individuals in the autism spectrum. Depletion of organisms that have populated the human gut since before the dawn of our species arises as the most recent elevation of my learning curve. PMID:24416707

  13. Learning about autism.

    PubMed

    Baker, Sidney M

    2013-11-01

    A medical essay written in 1923 pointed out the fallacy of blaming a chronic illness on the name of a disease. The focus of treatment should be the individual, not the disease. With a focus on options based on the individuality of each patient, I ask a simple two-part question: Does my patient need to avoid or be rid of substances and/or to be provided with substances that would favor nature's impulse toward healing? In my academic training as a physician, I learned that a clinically effective stance favored an optimistic intent combined with the objective application of my skills-refined though the practice of listening, prescribing, and observing outcome. My understanding of autism has rested on a foundation of the individuality of every living thing, the rhythmicity of life, and the balance that characterizes healthy systems. The first autistic child I examined struck me with a nonverbal message: "I am in here; see me." The recognition of the role of bacterial toxins amplified my notion that a general disorder of the microbiome underlies the loss of immune tolerance that accompanies the global state of sensitivity found in individuals in the autism spectrum. Depletion of organisms that have populated the human gut since before the dawn of our species arises as the most recent elevation of my learning curve.

  14. Stem Cell Therapy for Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ichim, Thomas E; Solano, Fabio; Glenn, Eduardo; Morales, Frank; Smith, Leonard; Zabrecky, George; Riordan, Neil H

    2007-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions whose incidence is reaching epidemic proportions, afflicting approximately 1 in 166 children. Autistic disorder, or autism is the most common form of ASD. Although several neurophysiological alterations have been associated with autism, immune abnormalities and neural hypoperfusion appear to be broadly consistent. These appear to be causative since correlation of altered inflammatory responses, and hypoperfusion with symptology is reported. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are in late phases of clinical development for treatment of graft versus host disease and Crohn's Disease, two conditions of immune dysregulation. Cord blood CD34+ cells are known to be potent angiogenic stimulators, having demonstrated positive effects in not only peripheral ischemia, but also in models of cerebral ischemia. Additionally, anecdotal clinical cases have reported responses in autistic children receiving cord blood CD34+ cells. We propose the combined use of MSC and cord blood CD34+cells may be useful in the treatment of autism. PMID:17597540

  15. Communication Unbound: Autism and Praxis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biklen, Douglas

    1990-01-01

    This case study describes Rosemary Crossley's facilitated communication method, which enables certain autistic people to communicate via an electronic device. Controversies surrounding the method and challenges to assumptions about autism are explored. (SK)

  16. Microcephaly and Macrocephaly in Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fombonne, Eric; Roge, Bernadette; Claverie, Jacques; Courty, Stephanie; Fremolle, Jeanne

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of data from 126 children with autism found macrocephaly (head circumstance microcephaly (head circumference <3rd centile) was found in 15.1%. Microcephaly was significantly associated with the presence of medical disorders. (Author/DB)

  17. Stem cell therapy for autism.

    PubMed

    Ichim, Thomas E; Solano, Fabio; Glenn, Eduardo; Morales, Frank; Smith, Leonard; Zabrecky, George; Riordan, Neil H

    2007-06-27

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions whose incidence is reaching epidemic proportions, afflicting approximately 1 in 166 children. Autistic disorder, or autism is the most common form of ASD. Although several neurophysiological alterations have been associated with autism, immune abnormalities and neural hypoperfusion appear to be broadly consistent. These appear to be causative since correlation of altered inflammatory responses, and hypoperfusion with symptology is reported. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are in late phases of clinical development for treatment of graft versus host disease and Crohn's Disease, two conditions of immune dysregulation. Cord blood CD34+ cells are known to be potent angiogenic stimulators, having demonstrated positive effects in not only peripheral ischemia, but also in models of cerebral ischemia. Additionally, anecdotal clinical cases have reported responses in autistic children receiving cord blood CD34+ cells. We propose the combined use of MSC and cord blood CD34+cells may be useful in the treatment of autism.

  18. Autism spectrum disorders as a qualitatively distinct category from typical behavior in a large, clinically ascertained sample.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Thomas W; Youngstrom, Eric A; Sinclair, Leslie; Kubu, Cynthia S; Law, Paul; Rezai, Ali; Constantino, John N; Eng, Charis

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluated the hypothesis that autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are best represented as a discrete category distinct from typical behavior within autism-affected families. The latent structure, categorical versus dimensional, of ASDs informs future diagnostic revisions, clinical assessment, and the design of future research. Data were obtained from Interactive Autism Network, a registry that preferentially recruits families with at least one ASD-affected child. Caregivers reported autism symptoms for affected and unaffected children using the Social Responsiveness Scale and Social Communication Questionnaire. Taxometric and latent variable models examined whether dimensional or categorical models best fit the data. Taxometric and latent variable model comparisons consistently indicated two-group mixtures for all indicator sets, even in participants designated as unaffected by caregivers. The identified category was associated with external indicators of disability, supporting its validity. Results indicated that ASD is best characterized as a category, distinct from typical behavior within ASD-affected families.

  19. Unexpected subthreshold autism spectrum in a 25-year-old male stalker hospitalized for delusional disorder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, Liliana; Dalle Luche, Riccardo; Cerliani, Corrado; Bertelloni, Carlo Antonio; Gesi, Camilla; Carmassi, Claudia

    2015-08-01

    This paper highlights the clinical challenges faced when assessing patients with stalking behaviors with psychotic disorders, suggesting the need for an accurate assessment of adult autism spectrum symptoms. A 25-year-old man with a diagnosis of delusional disorder, erotomanic type, was hospitalized for acute psychotic symptoms occurred in the framework of a repeated stalking behavior towards his ex girlfriend. When assessed for adult autism spectrum symptoms upon an accurate clinical evaluation, he reported elevated scores in the mentalizing deficit and social anxiety domains by means of the 14 item Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale (RAADS-14). Authors discuss a possible role of adult (subthreshold) autism spectrum symptoms, generally disregarded in adult psychiatry, on the type of psychotic features and stalking behavior developed that may help for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26031384

  20. Unexpected subthreshold autism spectrum in a 25-year-old male stalker hospitalized for delusional disorder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, Liliana; Dalle Luche, Riccardo; Cerliani, Corrado; Bertelloni, Carlo Antonio; Gesi, Camilla; Carmassi, Claudia

    2015-08-01

    This paper highlights the clinical challenges faced when assessing patients with stalking behaviors with psychotic disorders, suggesting the need for an accurate assessment of adult autism spectrum symptoms. A 25-year-old man with a diagnosis of delusional disorder, erotomanic type, was hospitalized for acute psychotic symptoms occurred in the framework of a repeated stalking behavior towards his ex girlfriend. When assessed for adult autism spectrum symptoms upon an accurate clinical evaluation, he reported elevated scores in the mentalizing deficit and social anxiety domains by means of the 14 item Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale (RAADS-14). Authors discuss a possible role of adult (subthreshold) autism spectrum symptoms, generally disregarded in adult psychiatry, on the type of psychotic features and stalking behavior developed that may help for appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Chromatographic techniques coupled with mass spectrometry for the determination of organic acids in the study of autism.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Zurawicz, Ewa; Jóźwik, Jagoda

    2014-08-01

    Chromatographic methods find application in the diagnostics and prognosis of diseases. They are used in finding new biomarkers, which may result in early medical intervention. Early diagnosis and intervention are especially important in the case of diseases of unknown etiology. One of these is autism. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe impairment in reciprocal social interaction and communication and a pattern of repetitive or stereotyped behavior. Organic acids are intermediate metabolites of all major groups of organic cellular components and can play a role in the pathogenesis of autism. This review presents information about abnormal levels of some organic acids observed in the urine of children with autism and determination of acids with the use of chromatographic techniques. 342 literature sources on frequency (2005-2012) of the use of chromatographic methods in the determination of organic compounds in various body fluids were searched.

  2. Mercury and autism: accelerating evidence?

    PubMed

    Mutter, Joachim; Naumann, Johannes; Schneider, Rainer; Walach, Harald; Haley, Boyd

    2005-10-01

    The causes of autism and neurodevelopmental disorders are unknown. Genetic and environmental risk factors seem to be involved. Because of an observed increase in autism in the last decades, which parallels cumulative mercury exposure, it was proposed that autism may be in part caused by mercury. We review the evidence for this proposal. Several epidemiological studies failed to find a correlation between mercury exposure through thimerosal, a preservative used in vaccines, and the risk of autism. Recently, it was found that autistic children had a higher mercury exposure during pregnancy due to maternal dental amalgam and thimerosal-containing immunoglobulin shots. It was hypothesized that children with autism have a decreased detoxification capacity due to genetic polymorphism. In vitro, mercury and thimerosal in levels found several days after vaccination inhibit methionine synthetase (MS) by 50%. Normal function of MS is crucial in biochemical steps necessary for brain development, attention and production of glutathione, an important antioxidative and detoxifying agent. Repetitive doses of thimerosal leads to neurobehavioral deteriorations in autoimmune susceptible mice, increased oxidative stress and decreased intracellular levels of glutathione in vitro. Subsequently, autistic children have significantly decreased level of reduced glutathione. Promising treatments of autism involve detoxification of mercury, and supplementation of deficient metabolites.

  3. [Immunogenetic aspects of autism. Review].

    PubMed

    Pardo-Govea, Tatiana; Solís-Añez, Ernesto

    2009-09-01

    Autism is a generalized or pervasive developmental disorder that affects about five in ten thousand children worldwide (5/10.000). In Maracaibo the incidence is 1.1/1000, with a ratio of male/female, 4:1. The autistic disorder is defined entirely based on the impairment in three areas: 1) Impairment of social interaction, 2) Impairment in communication and 3) Stereotyped and repetitive behavior. Autism is a disorder with a large genetic component and a oligogenic inheritance model has been proposed. Quantitative and qualitative disturbances of certain components of the immune system in patients with autism have been used as endophenotype, one of the strategies used to identify candidate genes for susceptibility to autism. On the other hand the hypersensitivity to specific groups of foods such as casein and gluten has become clear, which has led to the postulation of immunogenetics theories in autism, which mainly involve genes of the histocompatibility major complex. Although it has not been confirmed that immunogenetics factors could be involved in the etiopathogenesis of autism, several studies have shown the influence of the complex Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) HLA DR4, DR13, DR11, A2 and others genes in the clinical status, risk and therapeutic response of some psychiatric disorders. The lack of literature demands a greater number of studies related to different ethnic groups and the participation of HLA, as well as the importance of this complex in the pathogenesis of psychiatric illness. PMID:19961061

  4. DSM-5 and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs): an opportunity for identifying ASD subtypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The heterogeneous clinical presentations of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) poses a significant challenge for sample characterization and limits the interpretability and replicability of research studies. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for ASD, with its dimensional approach, may be a useful framework to increase the homogeneity of research samples. In this review, we summarize the revisions to the diagnostic criteria for ASD, briefly highlight the literature supporting these changes, and illustrate how DSM-5 can improve sample characterization and provide opportunities for researchers to identify possible subtypes within ASD. PMID:23675638

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Related Topics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Q: Do vaccines cause autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? A: Many studies that have looked at whether there is a relationship between vaccines and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, the studies continue to show ...

  6. Hearing Test May Predict Autism Risk Sooner

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160181.html Hearing Test May Predict Autism Risk Sooner: Study Researchers identify inner-ear problem ... may help identify young children at risk for autism before they're old enough to speak, a ...

  7. Change in Autism Core Symptoms with Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachor, Ditza A.; Ben-Itzchak, Esther; Rabinovich, Ana-Lia; Lahat, Eli

    2007-01-01

    It is still debated what is the best early intervention approach for autism. This study compared two intervention approaches, Eclectic-Developmental (ED) and Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) in very young children with autism/autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Nineteen children received ED intervention, using combination of methods. Twenty children…

  8. Developing Undergraduate Coursework in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Tracy Loye; Dimitriou, Francine; Turko, Kristine; McPartland, James

    2014-01-01

    With rates of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) continuing to rise alongside improvements in early identification and treatment, service providers are in great demand. Providing undergraduate students with opportunities for education and applied experiences with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can help fill a valuable niche in the autism community.…

  9. School Integration of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiduc, Lavinia

    2009-01-01

    We consider that children with autism are invisible in contemporary Romanian society; there is even a lack of statistical data regarding children with autism in Romania. In this paper we emphasize how important it is for the education of children with autism to integrate in the school community. First we present the characteristics of children…

  10. Missouri Autism Resource Guide. Fall 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    This resource guide provides information on organizations, publications, legislation, and other resources relating to autism. Sections include: (1) commonly used disability acronyms and definitions; (2) the educational definition of autism; (3) the medical definition of autism; (4) special education offices and special services of the Missouri…

  11. Test Review: Autism Spectrum Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simek, Amber N.; Wahlberg, Andrea C.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Autism Spectrum Rating Scales (ASRS) which are designed to measure behaviors in children between the ages of 2 and 18 that are associated with disorders on the autism spectrum as rated by parents/caregivers and/or teachers. The rating scales include items related to behaviors associated with Autism, Asperger's Disorder, and…

  12. Toward a Developmental Neurobiology of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polleux, Franck; Lauder, Jean M.

    2004-01-01

    Autism is a complex, behaviorally defined, developmental brain disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 1,000. It is now clear that autism is not a disease, but a syndrome with a strong genetic component. The etiology of autism is poorly defined both at the cellular and the molecular levels. Based on the fact that seizure activity is…

  13. Why Autism Must Be Taken Apart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterhouse, Lynn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although accumulated evidence has demonstrated that autism is found with many varied brain dysfunctions, researchers have tried to find a single brain dysfunction that would provide neurobiological validity for autism. However, unitary models of autism brain dysfunction have not adequately addressed conflicting evidence, and efforts to find a…

  14. Navajo and Autism: The Beauty of Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapp, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    With so much unknown about autism, the disability tends to reflect the sociocultural preconceptions people project onto it. The predominant narrative in Western society of autism as a "disease" within the medical model contrasts with the more positive, empowering view of autism as a "difference" in the social model and neurodiversity movement.…

  15. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  16. Low Endogenous Neural Noise in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Greg; Plaisted-Grant, Kate

    2015-01-01

    "Heuristic" theories of autism postulate that a single mechanism or process underpins the diverse psychological features of autism spectrum disorder. Although no such theory can offer a comprehensive account, the parsimonious descriptions they provide are powerful catalysts to autism research. One recent proposal holds that…

  17. Children Grow Up: Autism in Adolescents & Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Kathleen; Griesman, Brenda

    The booklet examines issues associated with autism in adolescents and adults. Teenagers with autism exhibit behaviors not unlike their nondisabled peers, and standard definitions of the syndrome may not be relevant at that age. Brief articles explore the range of emotions families may encounter with a young adult or adult who has autism, typical…

  18. Elderly with Autism: Executive Functions and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Vissers, Marlies E.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive autism research is mainly focusing on children and young adults even though we know that autism is a life-long disorder and that healthy aging already has a strong impact on cognitive functioning. We compared the neuropsychological profile of 23 individuals with autism and 23 healthy controls (age range 51-83 years). Deficits were…

  19. Color Perception in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Anna; Sowden, Paul; Burley, Rachel; Notman, Leslie; Alder, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether color perception is atypical in children with autism. In experiment 1, accuracy of color memory and search was compared for children with autism and typically developing children matched on age and non-verbal cognitive ability. Children with autism were significantly less accurate at color memory and search than…

  20. Grammaticality Judgments in Autism: Deviance or Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Bennetto, Loisa

    2009-01-01

    Language in autism has been the subject of intense interest, because communication deficits are central to the disorder, and because autism serves as an arena for testing theories of language acquisition. High-functioning older children with autism are often considered to have intact grammatical abilities, despite pragmatic impairments. Given the…