NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trushin, Egor; Betzinger, Markus; Blügel, Stefan; Görling, Andreas
2016-08-01
An approach to calculate fundamental band gaps, ionization energies, and electron affinities of periodic electron systems is explored. Starting from total energies obtained with the help of the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation (ACFD) theorem, these physical observables are calculated according to their basic definition by differences of the total energies of the N -, (N -1 ) -, and (N +1 ) -electron system. The response functions entering the ACFD theorem are approximated here by the direct random phase approximation (dRPA). For a set of prototypical semiconductors and insulators it is shown that even with this quite drastic approximation the resulting band gaps are very close to experiment and of a similar quality to those from the computationally more involved G W approximation. By going beyond the dRPA in the future the accuracy of the calculated band gaps may be significantly improved further.
Feller, David
2016-01-01
Benchmark quality adiabatic electron affinities for a collection of atoms and small molecules were obtained with the Feller-Peterson-Dixon composite coupled cluster theory method. Prior applications of this method demonstrated its ability to accurately predict atomization energies/heats of formation for more than 170 molecules. In the current work, the 1-particle expansion involved very large correlation consistent basis sets, ranging up to aug-cc-pV9Z (aug-cc-pV10Z for H and H2), with the goal of minimizing the residual basis set truncation error that must otherwise be approximated with extrapolation formulas. The n-particle expansion begins with coupled cluster calculations through iterative single and double excitations plus a quasiperturbative treatment of "connected" triple excitations (CCSD(T)) pushed to the complete basis set limit followed by CCSDT, CCSDTQ, or CCSDTQ5 corrections. Due to the small size of the systems examined here, it was possible in many cases to extend the n-particle expansion to the full configuration interaction wave function limit. Additional, smaller corrections associated with core/valence correlation, scalar relativity, anharmonic zero point vibrational energies, and non-adiabatic effects were also included. The overall root mean square (RMS) deviation was 0.005 eV (0.12 kcal/mol). This level of agreement was comparable to what was found with molecular heats of formation. A 95% confidence level corresponds to roughly twice the RMS value or 0.01 eV. While the atomic electron affinities are known experimentally to high accuracy, the molecular values are less certain. This contributes to the difficulty of gauging the accuracy of the theoretical results. A limited number of electron affinities were determined with the explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12b method. After extending the VnZ-F12 orbital basis sets with additional diffuse functions, the F12b method was found to accurately reproduce the best F/F(-) value obtained with standard
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feller, David
2016-01-01
Benchmark quality adiabatic electron affinities for a collection of atoms and small molecules were obtained with the Feller-Peterson-Dixon composite coupled cluster theory method. Prior applications of this method demonstrated its ability to accurately predict atomization energies/heats of formation for more than 170 molecules. In the current work, the 1-particle expansion involved very large correlation consistent basis sets, ranging up to aug-cc-pV9Z (aug-cc-pV10Z for H and H2), with the goal of minimizing the residual basis set truncation error that must otherwise be approximated with extrapolation formulas. The n-particle expansion begins with coupled cluster calculations through iterative single and double excitations plus a quasiperturbative treatment of "connected" triple excitations (CCSD(T)) pushed to the complete basis set limit followed by CCSDT, CCSDTQ, or CCSDTQ5 corrections. Due to the small size of the systems examined here, it was possible in many cases to extend the n-particle expansion to the full configuration interaction wave function limit. Additional, smaller corrections associated with core/valence correlation, scalar relativity, anharmonic zero point vibrational energies, and non-adiabatic effects were also included. The overall root mean square (RMS) deviation was 0.005 eV (0.12 kcal/mol). This level of agreement was comparable to what was found with molecular heats of formation. A 95% confidence level corresponds to roughly twice the RMS value or 0.01 eV. While the atomic electron affinities are known experimentally to high accuracy, the molecular values are less certain. This contributes to the difficulty of gauging the accuracy of the theoretical results. A limited number of electron affinities were determined with the explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12b method. After extending the VnZ-F12 orbital basis sets with additional diffuse functions, the F12b method was found to accurately reproduce the best F/F- value obtained with standard
Delgado, Juan C; Selsby, Ronald G
2013-01-01
The ground state configuration of the gas phase cationic dyes pinacyanol chloride and rhodamine B are optimized with HF/6-311 + G(2d,2p) method and basis set. B3PW91/6-311 + G(2df,2p) functional and basis set is used to calculate the Mulliken atom charge distribution, total molecular energy, the dipole moment, the vertical ionization potential, the adiabatic electron affinity and the lowest excited triplet state, the last three as an energy difference between separately calculated open shell and ground states. The triplet and extra electron states are optimized to find the relaxation energy. In the ground state optimization of both dyes the chloride anion migrates to a position near the center of the chromophore. For rhodamine B the benzoidal group turns perpendicular to the chromophore plane. For both dyes, the LUMO is mostly of π character associated with the aromatic part of the molecule containing the chromophore. The highest occupied MOs consist of three almost degenerate eigenvectors involving the chloride anion coordinated with σ electrons in the molecular framework. The fourth highest MO is of π character. For both molecules in the gas phase ionization process the chloride anion loses the significant fraction of electric charge. In electron capture, the excess charge goes mainly on the dye cation. PMID:22891949
Adiabatic cooling of solar wind electrons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandbaek, Ornulf; Leer, Egil
1992-01-01
In thermally driven winds emanating from regions in the solar corona with base electron densities of n0 not less than 10 exp 8/cu cm, a substantial fraction of the heat conductive flux from the base is transfered into flow energy by the pressure gradient force. The adiabatic cooling of the electrons causes the electron temperature profile to fall off more rapidly than in heat conduction dominated flows. Alfven waves of solar origin, accelerating the basically thermally driven solar wind, lead to an increased mass flux and enhanced adiabatic cooling. The reduction in electron temperature may be significant also in the subsonic region of the flow and lead to a moderate increase of solar wind mass flux with increasing Alfven wave amplitude. In the solar wind model presented here the Alfven wave energy flux per unit mass is larger than that in models where the temperature in the subsonic flow is not reduced by the wave, and consequently the asymptotic flow speed is higher.
Communication: Adiabatic and non-adiabatic electron-nuclear motion: Quantum and classical dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albert, Julian; Kaiser, Dustin; Engel, Volker
2016-05-01
Using a model for coupled electronic-nuclear motion we investigate the range from negligible to strong non-adiabatic coupling. In the adiabatic case, the quantum dynamics proceeds in a single electronic state, whereas for strong coupling a complete transition between two adiabatic electronic states takes place. It is shown that in all coupling regimes the short-time wave-packet dynamics can be described using ensembles of classical trajectories in the phase space spanned by electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom. We thus provide an example which documents that the quantum concept of non-adiabatic transitions is not necessarily needed if electronic and nuclear motion is treated on the same footing.
Negative Electron Affinity Mechanism for Diamond Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krainsky, I. L.; Asnin, V. M.
1998-01-01
The energy distribution of the secondary electrons for chemical vacuum deposited diamond films with Negative Electron Affinity (NEA) was investigated. It was found that while for completely hydrogenated diamond surfaces the negative electron affinity peak in the energy spectrum of the secondary electrons is present for any energy of the primary electrons, for partially hydrogenated diamond surfaces there is a critical energy above which the peak is present in the spectrum. This critical energy increases sharply when hydrogen coverage of the diamond surface diminishes. This effect was explained by the change of the NEA from the true type for the completely hydrogenated surface to the effective type for the partially hydrogenated surfaces.
Classical nuclear motion coupled to electronic non-adiabatic transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agostini, Federica; Abedi, Ali; Gross, E. K. U.
2014-12-01
Based on the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function, we have recently proposed a mixed quantum-classical scheme [A. Abedi, F. Agostini, and E. K. U. Gross, Europhys. Lett. 106, 33001 (2014)] to deal with non-adiabatic processes. Here we present a comprehensive description of the formalism, including the full derivation of the equations of motion. Numerical results are presented for a model system for non-adiabatic charge transfer in order to test the performance of the method and to validate the underlying approximations.
Classical nuclear motion coupled to electronic non-adiabatic transitions
Agostini, Federica; Abedi, Ali; Gross, E. K. U.
2014-12-07
Based on the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function, we have recently proposed a mixed quantum-classical scheme [A. Abedi, F. Agostini, and E. K. U. Gross, Europhys. Lett. 106, 33001 (2014)] to deal with non-adiabatic processes. Here we present a comprehensive description of the formalism, including the full derivation of the equations of motion. Numerical results are presented for a model system for non-adiabatic charge transfer in order to test the performance of the method and to validate the underlying approximations.
Non-adiabatic response of relativistic radiation belt electrons to GEM magnetic storms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McAdams, K. L.; Reeves, G. D.
The importance of fully adiabatic effects in the relativistic radiation belt electron response to magnetic storms is poorly characterized due to many difficulties in calculating adiabatic flux response. Using the adiabatic flux model of Kim and Chan [1997a] and Los Alamos National Laboratory geosynchronous satellite data, we examine the relative timing of the adiabatic and non-adiabatic flux responses. In the three storms identified by the GEM community for in depth study, the non-adiabatic energization occurs hours earlier than the adiabatic re-energization. The adiabatic energization can account for only 10-20% of the flux increases in the first recovery stages, and only 1% of the flux increase if there is continuing activity.
Adiabatic perturbation theory of electronic stopping in insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horsfield, Andrew P.; Lim, Anthony; Foulkes, W. M. C.; Correa, Alfredo A.
2016-06-01
A model able to explain the complicated structure of electronic stopping at low velocities in insulating materials is presented. It is shown to be in good agreement with results obtained from time-dependent density-functional theory for the stopping of a channeling Si atom in a Si crystal. If we define the repeat frequency f =v /λ , where λ is the periodic repeat length of the crystal along the direction the channeling atom is traveling, and v is the velocity of the channeling atom, we find that electrons experience a perturbing force that varies in time at integer multiples l of f . This enables electronic excitations at low atom velocity, but their contributions diminish rapidly with increasing values of l . The expressions for stopping power are derived using adiabatic perturbation theory for many-electron systems, and they are then specialized to the case of independent electrons. A simple model for the nonadiabatic matrix elements is described, along with the procedure for determining its parameters.
Semiclassical analysis of the electron-nuclear coupling in electronic non-adiabatic processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agostini, Federica; Min, Seung Kyu; Gross, E. K. U.
2015-10-01
In the context of the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function, the coupling between electrons and nuclei beyond the adiabatic regime is encoded (i) in the time-dependent vector and scalar potentials and (ii) in the electron-nuclear coupling operator. The former appear in the Schroedinger-like equation that drives the evolution of the nuclear degrees of freedom, whereas the latter is responsible for inducing non-adiabatic effects in the electronic evolution equation. As we have devoted previous studies to the analysis of the vector and scalar potentials, in this paper we focus on the properties of the electron-nuclear coupling operator, with the aim of describing a numerical procedure to approximate it within a semiclassical treatment of the nuclear dynamics.
Measurement of the electron affinity of atomic Ce
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felton, Jeremy; Ray, Manisha; Jarrold, Caroline Chick
2014-03-01
Photoelectron spectra of Ce- obtained using both 2.33- and 3.49-eV photon energies resolve numerous transitions between the 4H7/2 (⋯4f 5d2 6s2) anion ground state and excited neutral states, in addition to transitions from excited anion states to the ground and excited neutral states. Building on the theoretical work of O'Malley and Beck [S. M. O'Malley and D. R. Beck, Phys. Rev. A 74, 042509 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevA.74.042509] and the known term energies of Ce excited states, we determined the adiabatic electron affinity of Ce to be 0.570(20) eV, which is lower than previously reported experimental values. The term energy of the lowest-energy excited anion state arising from the ⋯4f 5d 6s2 6p configuration was also determined to be 0.210(20) eV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savoini, P.; Lembege, B.
2006-12-01
Test particle simulations are performed in order to analyze in details the dynamics of transmitted electrons through a supercritical strictly perpendicular collisionless shock. Recent analysis has evidenced three different behavior for the electron population: (i) adiabatic, (ii) over-adiabatic characterized by an increase of the gyrating velocity higher than that expected from the conservation of the magnetic moment and (iii) under- adiabatic characterized by a decrease of this velocity and not predicted by any existing theory. Analysis of individual time particle trajectories is performed and completed by statistics based on different upstream distributions (spherical shell and Maxwellian). The use of a Maxwellian distribution function allows us to speak in term of an electronic temperature and we observe in agreement with experimental datas that as the temperature increases (enlarged Maxwellian distribution function) the number of non-adiabatic transmitted electrons drastically decreases. In addition, our study evidenced that both non-adiabatic populations are coming from the core of the electron distribution. All combined nonstationary and nonuniformity effects have a filtering impact on the relative percentages of adiabatic and over-adiabatic populations, in contrast with under- adiabatic population which is relatively poorly affected.
Benzonitrile: Electron affinity, excited states, and anion solvation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dixon, Andrew R.; Khuseynov, Dmitry; Sanov, Andrei
2015-10-01
We report a negative-ion photoelectron imaging study of benzonitrile and several of its hydrated, oxygenated, and homo-molecularly solvated cluster anions. The photodetachment from the unsolvated benzonitrile anion to the X ˜ 1 A 1 state of the neutral peaks at 58 ± 5 meV. This value is assigned as the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of the valence anion and the upper bound of adiabatic electron affinity (EA) of benzonitrile. The EA of the lowest excited electronic state of benzonitrile, a ˜ 3 A 1 , is determined as 3.41 ± 0.01 eV, corresponding to a 3.35 eV lower bound for the singlet-triplet splitting. The next excited state, the open-shell singlet A ˜ 1 A 1 , is found about an electron-volt above the triplet, with a VDE of 4.45 ± 0.01 eV. These results are in good agreement with ab initio calculations for neutral benzonitrile and its valence anion but do not preclude the existence of a dipole-bound state of similar energy and geometry. The step-wise and cumulative solvation energies of benzonitrile anions by several types of species were determined, including homo-molecular solvation by benzonitrile, hydration by 1-3 waters, oxygenation by 1-3 oxygen molecules, and mixed solvation by various combinations of O2, H2O, and benzonitrile. The plausible structures of the dimer anion of benzonitrile were examined using density functional theory and compared to the experimental observations. It is predicted that the dimer anion favors a stacked geometry capitalizing on the π-π interactions between the two partially charged benzonitrile moieties.
Diestler, D J
2012-03-22
The Born-Oppenheimer (BO) description of electronically adiabatic molecular processes predicts a vanishing electronic flux density (j(e)),
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savoini, Ph.; Lembège, B.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Balikhin, M.
Test particles simulations have been performed in order to analyze quantitatively the non adiabatic heating of electrons crossing the shock front of a planar quasi-perpendicular shock. Profiles of E and B fields are issued from selfconsistent 2D full particle simulations. Results evidence the non adiabatic dynamic of a certain percentage of transmitted electrons and allow to validate the theoritical prediction of Balikhin et al. (1998). Present numerical study is extended to the quantitative statistical approach. Test particles simulations have been performed with drifted electrons crossing homogeneous shock profiles. Both cubes and spherical shell electron velocity distributions have been investigated. Relative nonadiabatic and adiabatic electron heating efficiency is discussed versus initial velocities, pitch angle and shock profile encounter by the electrons. Numerical estimates of the Lyapounov coefficient (velocity volume expansion at crossing) are deduced from simulations and will be compared with theoretical expectations.
Extremely high negative electron affinity of diamond via magnesium adsorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Donnell, K. M.; Edmonds, M. T.; Tadich, A.; Thomsen, L.; Stacey, A.; Schenk, A.; Pakes, C. I.; Ley, L.
2015-07-01
We report large negative electron affinity (NEA) on diamond (100) using magnesium adsorption on a previously oxygen-terminated surface. The measured NEA is up to (-2.01 ±0.05 ) eV, the largest reported negative electron affinity to date. Despite the expected close relationship between the surface chemistry of Mg and Li species on oxygen-terminated diamond, we observe differences in the adsorption properties between the two. Most importantly, a high-temperature annealing step is not required to activate the Mg-adsorbed surface to a state of negative electron affinity. Diamond surfaces prepared by this procedure continue to possess negative electron affinity after exposure to high temperatures, air, and even immersion in water.
Density Functional Study of Structures and Electron Affinities of BrO4F/BrO4F−
Gong, Liangfa; Xiong, Jieming; Wu, Xinmin; Qi, Chuansong; Li, Wei; Guo, Wenli
2009-01-01
The structures, electron affinities and bond dissociation energies of BrO4F/BrO4F− species have been investigated with five density functional theory (DFT) methods with DZP++ basis sets. The planar F-Br…O2…O2 complexes possess 3A′ electronic state for neutral molecule and 4A′ state for the corresponding anion. Three types of the neutral-anion energy separations are the adiabatic electron affinity (EAad), the vertical electron affinity (EAvert), and the vertical detachment energy (VDE). The EAad value predicted by B3LYP method is 4.52 eV. The bond dissociation energies De (BrO4F → BrO4-mF + Om) (m = 1–4) and De− (BrO4F− → BrO4-mF− + Om and BrO4F− → BrO4-mF + Om−) are predicted. The adiabatic electron affinities (EAad) were predicted to be 4.52 eV for F-Br…O2…O2 (3A′←4A′) (B3LYP method). PMID:19742128
The adiabatic limit of the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eich, F. G.; Agostini, Federica
2016-08-01
We propose a procedure to analyze the relation between the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. We define the adiabatic limit as the limit of infinite nuclear mass. To this end, we introduce a unit system that singles out the dependence on the electron-nuclear mass ratio of each term appearing in the equations of the exact factorization. We observe how non-adiabatic effects induced by the coupling to the nuclear motion affect electronic properties and we analyze the leading term, connecting it to the classical nuclear momentum. Its dependence on the mass ratio is tested numerically on a model of proton-coupled electron transfer in different non-adiabatic regimes.
The adiabatic limit of the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function.
Eich, F G; Agostini, Federica
2016-08-01
We propose a procedure to analyze the relation between the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. We define the adiabatic limit as the limit of infinite nuclear mass. To this end, we introduce a unit system that singles out the dependence on the electron-nuclear mass ratio of each term appearing in the equations of the exact factorization. We observe how non-adiabatic effects induced by the coupling to the nuclear motion affect electronic properties and we analyze the leading term, connecting it to the classical nuclear momentum. Its dependence on the mass ratio is tested numerically on a model of proton-coupled electron transfer in different non-adiabatic regimes. PMID:27497542
Gidopoulos, Nikitas I.; Gross, E. K. U.
2014-01-01
A novel treatment of non-adiabatic couplings is proposed. The derivation is based on a theorem by Hunter stating that the wave function of the complete system of electrons and nuclei can be written, without approximation, as a Born–Oppenheimer (BO)-type product of a nuclear wave function, X(R), and an electronic one, ΦR(r), which depends parametrically on the nuclear configuration R. From the variational principle, we deduce formally exact equations for ΦR(r) and X(R). The algebraic structure of the exact nuclear equation coincides with the corresponding one in the adiabatic approximation. The electronic equation, however, contains terms not appearing in the adiabatic case, which couple the electronic and the nuclear wave functions and account for the electron–nuclear correlation beyond the BO level. It is proposed that these terms can be incorporated using an optimized local effective potential. PMID:24516183
On the electron affinity of the oxygen atom
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Langhoff, S. R.; Partridge, H.; Taylor, P. R.
1986-01-01
The electron affinity (EA) of oxygen is computed to be 1.287 eV, using 2p electron full configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions expanded in a 6s5p3d2f Slater-type orbital basis. The best complete active space self-consistent field - multireference CI (CASSCF-MRCI) result including only 2p correlation is 1.263 eV. However, inclusion of 2s intrashell and 2s2p intershell correlation increases the computed EA to 1.290 at the CASSCF-MRCI level. At the full CI basis set limit, the 2s contribution to the electron affinity is estimated to be as large as 0.1 eV. This study clearly establishes the synergistic effect between the higher excitations and basis set completeness on the electron affinity when the 2s electrons are correlated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Shui
2010-10-01
Storm-time radial diffusion of radiation belt electrons with arbitrary pitch angles in a time-varying geomagnetic field is simulated based on our recently developed STEERB code. In particular, the fully adiabatic response of energetic electrons to the variation of geomagnetic field is self-consistently incorporated. Simulation results show that the outward adiabatic transport (instead of outward radial diffusion) is primarily responsible for the main phase depletion of energetic electron fluxes at large pitch angles beyond 5Re (Re is the Earth's radius). However, combined radial diffusion and adiabatic transport contributes insignificantly to the main phase depletion of energetic electron fluxes within 5Re, or the recovery phase enhancement of energetic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt. Moreover, the simulation with both radial diffusion and adiabatic transport shows that the pitch angle distribution of energetic outer zone electrons can evolve from a rounded 90°-peaked distribution to a butterfly-shaped distribution during the main phase, and back to a rounded 90°-peaked distribution during the recovery phase. Such essential changes of pitch angle distribution may further affect the efficiency of other local loss and energization mechanisms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zielinski, A.; Landsman, A. S.
2016-04-01
The validity of the adiabatic approximation in strong field ionization under typical experimental conditions has recently become a topic of great interest. Experimental results have been inconclusive, in part, due to the uncertainty in experimental calibration of intensity. Here we turn to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, where all the laser parameters are known exactly. We find that the centre of the electron momentum distribution (typically used for calibration of elliptically and circularly polarized light) is sensitive to non-adiabatic effects, leading to intensity shifts in experimental data that can significantly affect the interpretation of results. On the other hand, the transverse momentum spread in the plane of polarization is relatively insensitive to such effects, even in the Keldysh parameter regime approaching γ ≈ 3. This suggests the transverse momentum spread in the plane of polarization as a good alternative to the usual calibration method, particularly for experimental investigation of non-adiabatic effects using circularly polarized light.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agostini, Federica; Abedi, Ali; Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Min, Seung Kyu; Maitra, Neepa T.; Gross, E. K. U.
2015-03-01
The Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation allows to visualize the coupled electron-nuclear dynamics in molecular systems as a set of nuclei moving on a single potential energy surface representing the effect of the electrons in a given eigenstate. Many interesting phenomena, however, such as vision or charge separation in organic photovoltaic materials, take place in conditions beyond its range of validity. Nevertheless, the basic construct of the adiabatic treatment, the BO potential energy surfaces, is employed to describe non-adiabatic processes and the full problem is represented in terms of adiabatic states and transitions among them in regions of strong non-adiabatic coupling. But the concept of single potential energy is lost. The alternative point of view arising in the framework of the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function will be presented. A single, time-dependent, potential energy provides the force driving the nuclear motion and is adopted as starting point for the development of quantum-classical approximations to the full quantum mechanical problem.
Electronically non-adiabatic influences in surface chemistry and dynamics.
Wodtke, Alec M
2016-07-01
Electronically nonadiabatic interactions between molecules and metal surfaces are now well known. Evidence is particularly clear from studies of diatomic molecules that molecular vibration can be strongly coupled to electrons of the metal leading to efficient energy transfer between these two kinds of motion. Since molecular vibration is the same motion needed for bond breaking, it is logical to postulate that electronically nonadiabatic influences on surface chemical reaction probabilities would be strong. Still there are few if any examples where such influences have been clearly investigated. This review recounts the evidence for and against the aforementioned postulate emphasizing reacting systems that have yet to receive full attention and where electronically nonadiabatic influence of reaction probabilities might be clearly demonstrated. PMID:27152489
Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Salna, Bridget; Sage, J. Timothy; Champion, Paul M.
2015-03-21
Analytical models describing the temperature dependence of the deep tunneling rate, useful for proton, hydrogen, or hydride transfer in proteins, are developed and compared. Electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic expressions are presented where the donor-acceptor (D-A) motion is treated either as a quantized vibration or as a classical “gating” distribution. We stress the importance of fitting experimental data on an absolute scale in the electronically adiabatic limit, which normally applies to these reactions, and find that vibrationally enhanced deep tunneling takes place on sub-ns timescales at room temperature for typical H-bonding distances. As noted previously, a small room temperature kinetic isotope effect (KIE) does not eliminate deep tunneling as a major transport channel. The quantum approach focuses on the vibrational sub-space composed of the D-A and hydrogen atom motions, where hydrogen bonding and protein restoring forces quantize the D-A vibration. A Duschinsky rotation is mandated between the normal modes of the reactant and product states and the rotation angle depends on the tunneling particle mass. This tunnel-mass dependent rotation contributes substantially to the KIE and its temperature dependence. The effect of the Duschinsky rotation is solved exactly to find the rate in the electronically non-adiabatic limit and compared to the Born-Oppenheimer (B-O) approximation approach. The B-O approximation is employed to find the rate in the electronically adiabatic limit, where we explore both harmonic and quartic double-well potentials for the hydrogen atom bound states. Both the electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic rates are found to diverge at high temperature unless the proton coupling includes the often neglected quadratic term in the D-A displacement from equilibrium. A new expression is presented for the electronically adiabatic tunnel rate in the classical limit for D-A motion that should be useful to experimentalists working
Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Salna, Bridget; Sage, J Timothy; Champion, Paul M
2015-03-21
Analytical models describing the temperature dependence of the deep tunneling rate, useful for proton, hydrogen, or hydride transfer in proteins, are developed and compared. Electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic expressions are presented where the donor-acceptor (D-A) motion is treated either as a quantized vibration or as a classical "gating" distribution. We stress the importance of fitting experimental data on an absolute scale in the electronically adiabatic limit, which normally applies to these reactions, and find that vibrationally enhanced deep tunneling takes place on sub-ns timescales at room temperature for typical H-bonding distances. As noted previously, a small room temperature kinetic isotope effect (KIE) does not eliminate deep tunneling as a major transport channel. The quantum approach focuses on the vibrational sub-space composed of the D-A and hydrogen atom motions, where hydrogen bonding and protein restoring forces quantize the D-A vibration. A Duschinsky rotation is mandated between the normal modes of the reactant and product states and the rotation angle depends on the tunneling particle mass. This tunnel-mass dependent rotation contributes substantially to the KIE and its temperature dependence. The effect of the Duschinsky rotation is solved exactly to find the rate in the electronically non-adiabatic limit and compared to the Born-Oppenheimer (B-O) approximation approach. The B-O approximation is employed to find the rate in the electronically adiabatic limit, where we explore both harmonic and quartic double-well potentials for the hydrogen atom bound states. Both the electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic rates are found to diverge at high temperature unless the proton coupling includes the often neglected quadratic term in the D-A displacement from equilibrium. A new expression is presented for the electronically adiabatic tunnel rate in the classical limit for D-A motion that should be useful to experimentalists working near
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Salna, Bridget; Sage, J. Timothy; Champion, Paul M.
2015-03-01
Analytical models describing the temperature dependence of the deep tunneling rate, useful for proton, hydrogen, or hydride transfer in proteins, are developed and compared. Electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic expressions are presented where the donor-acceptor (D-A) motion is treated either as a quantized vibration or as a classical "gating" distribution. We stress the importance of fitting experimental data on an absolute scale in the electronically adiabatic limit, which normally applies to these reactions, and find that vibrationally enhanced deep tunneling takes place on sub-ns timescales at room temperature for typical H-bonding distances. As noted previously, a small room temperature kinetic isotope effect (KIE) does not eliminate deep tunneling as a major transport channel. The quantum approach focuses on the vibrational sub-space composed of the D-A and hydrogen atom motions, where hydrogen bonding and protein restoring forces quantize the D-A vibration. A Duschinsky rotation is mandated between the normal modes of the reactant and product states and the rotation angle depends on the tunneling particle mass. This tunnel-mass dependent rotation contributes substantially to the KIE and its temperature dependence. The effect of the Duschinsky rotation is solved exactly to find the rate in the electronically non-adiabatic limit and compared to the Born-Oppenheimer (B-O) approximation approach. The B-O approximation is employed to find the rate in the electronically adiabatic limit, where we explore both harmonic and quartic double-well potentials for the hydrogen atom bound states. Both the electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic rates are found to diverge at high temperature unless the proton coupling includes the often neglected quadratic term in the D-A displacement from equilibrium. A new expression is presented for the electronically adiabatic tunnel rate in the classical limit for D-A motion that should be useful to experimentalists working near
ESTIMATION OF ELECTRON AFFINITY BASED ON STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS
Electron affinity for a wide range of organic molecules was calculated from molecular structure using the chemical reactivity models developed in SPARC. hese models are based on fundamental chemical structure theory applied to the prediction of chemical reactivities for organic m...
The adiabatic phase mixing and heating of electrons in Buneman turbulence
Che, H.; Goldstein, M. L.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.
2013-06-15
The nonlinear development of the strong Buneman instability and the associated fast electron heating in thin current layers with Ω{sub e}/ω{sub pe}<1 is explored. Phase mixing of the electrons in wave potential troughs and a rapid increase in temperature are observed during the saturation of the instability. We show that the motion of trapped electrons can be described using a Hamiltonian formalism in the adiabatic approximation. The process of separatrix crossing as electrons are trapped and de-trapped is irreversible and guarantees that the resulting electron energy gain is a true heating process.
The electron affinities of C{sub 3}O and C{sub 4}O
Rienstra-Kiracofe, J.C.; Ellison, G.B.; Hoffman, B.C.; Schaefer, H.F. III
2000-03-23
The authors predict the adiabatic electron affinities of C{sub 3}O and C{sub 4}O based on electronic structure calculations, using a large triple-{zeta} basis set with polarization and diffuse functions (TZ2Pf+diff) with the SCF, CCSD, and CCSD(T) methods as well as with the aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets. The results imply electron affinities for C{sub 3}O and C{sub 4}O; EA(C{sub 3}O) = 0.93 eV {+-} 0.10 and EA(C{sub 4}O) = 2.99 {+-} 0.10. The EA(C{sub 3}O) is 0.41 eV lower than the experimental value of 1.34 {+-} 0.15 eV, while the EA(C{sub 4}O) is 0.94 eV higher than the experimental value of 2.05 {+-} 0.15 eV. Optimized geometries for all species at each level of theory are given, and harmonic vibrational frequencies are reported at the SCF/TZ2Pf+diff and CCSD/aug-cc-pVDZ levels.
Understanding electronically non-adiabatic relaxation dynamics in singlet fission.
Tao, Guohua
2015-01-13
Nonadiabatic relaxation of one singlet state into two triplet states is the key step in singlet fission dynamics, the understandings of which may help design next generation solar cells. In this work we perform the symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) nonadiabatic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation [Cotton and Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2013, 117, 7190; Meyer and Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 1979, 70, 3214] for a model system to study the real-time fission dynamics. The dependence of the nonadiabatic relaxation dynamics on energy levels, electronic couplings, and electronic-phonon couplings has been examined, in comparison with other analytical approximations, such as Förster theory and Marcus theory. Unlike many other methods, the SQC nondiabatic MD simulation approach is able to describe fission dynamics efficiently and accurately enough to provide microscopic insights into singlet fission. PMID:26574200
Dawn-dusk asymmetry and adiabatic dynamic of the radiation belt electrons during magnetic storm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazutin, Leonid L.
2016-09-01
The changes of the latitudinal profiles of outer belt energetic electrons during magnetic storms are mostly explained by the precipitation into the loss cone caused by VLF and EMIC waves or by the scattering into the magnetopause. In present work, energetic electron dynamics during magnetic storm of August 29-30, 2004 we attributed at most to the adiabatic transformation of the magnetic drift trajectories and Dst effect. This conclusion was based on the analysis of dawn-dusk asymmetry of the electron latitudinal profiles measured by low altitude polar orbiter SERVIS-1 and on the coincidence of pre-storm and after-storm profiles of radiation belt electrons and protons.
Isotope shift in the electron affinity of lithium
Bubin, Sergiy; Komasa, Jacek; Stanke, Monika; Adamowicz, Ludwik
2009-12-21
Very accurate electron affinity (EA) calculations of {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li (and {sup {infinity}L}i) have been performed using explicitly correlated Gaussian functions and a variational approach that explicitly includes the nuclear motion in the calculations (i.e., the approach that does not assume the Born-Oppenheimer approximation). The leading relativistic and quantum electrodynamics corrections to the electron affinities were also calculated. The results are the most accurate theoretical values obtained for the studied systems to date. Our best estimates of the {sup 7}Li and {sup 6}Li EAs are 4984.9842(30) and 4984.9015(30) cm{sup -1}, respectively, and of the {sup 7}Li/{sup 6}Li EA isotope shift is 0.0827 cm{sup -1}.
Miller, William H.; Orel, Ann E.
1980-11-01
A classical interpretation of the Dirac-Van Vleck spin version of valence bond theory is used to obtain a classical model for electronic degrees of freedom within the valence bond framework. The approach is illustrated by deriving the explicit forms of the classical Hamiltonians, involving electronic and heavy particle degrees of freedom, for the H-H{sub 2}, F-H{sub 2} , and O-H{sub 2} systems. It is also shown how the initial conditions for both electronic and heavy particle degrees of freedom are chosen to carry out a classical trajectory simulation of collision processes. The attractive feature of this model is that it is as eaaily applicable to electronically non-adiabatic processes as it is to adiabatic ones.
Surface States and Negative Electron Affinity in Polyethylene
Righi, M. C.; Scandolo, S.; Serra, S.; Iarlori, S.; Tosatti, E.; Santoro, G.
2001-08-13
First-principles calculations are used to investigate the electronic properties of the surfaces of polyethylene. The calculations support the experimental evidence of a negative electron affinity, with calculated values of -0.17 eV and -0.10 eV for surfaces with chains perpendicular and parallel to the surface normal, respectively. Both surfaces exhibit a surface state with binding energy -1.2{+-}0.5 eV with respect to the bulk polyethylene conduction band minimum. Implications of these findings on spectroscopy, as well as on the transport and aging properties of polyethylene for high-voltage applications, are discussed.
Electron affinity of cubic boron nitride terminated with vanadium oxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yu; Sun, Tianyin; Shammas, Joseph; Kaur, Manpuneet; Hao, Mei; Nemanich, Robert J.
2015-10-01
A thermally stable negative electron affinity (NEA) for a cubic boron nitride (c-BN) surface with vanadium-oxide-termination is achieved, and its electronic structure was analyzed with in-situ photoelectron spectroscopy. The c-BN films were prepared by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition employing BF3 and N2 as precursors. Vanadium layers of ˜0.1 and 0.5 nm thickness were deposited on the c-BN surface in an electron beam deposition system. Oxidation of the metal layer was achieved by an oxygen plasma treatment. After 650 °C thermal annealing, the vanadium oxide on the c-BN surface was determined to be VO2, and the surfaces were found to be thermally stable, exhibiting an NEA. In comparison, the oxygen-terminated c-BN surface, where B2O3 was detected, showed a positive electron affinity of ˜1.2 eV. The B2O3 evidently acts as a negatively charged layer introducing a surface dipole directed into the c-BN. Through the interaction of VO2 with the B2O3 layer, a B-O-V layer structure would contribute a dipole between the O and V layers with the positive side facing vacuum. The lower enthalpy of formation for B2O3 is favorable for the formation of the B-O-V layer structure, which provides a thermally stable surface dipole and an NEA surface.
Orel, Ann E.; Miller, William H.
1980-11-01
A recently developed classical model for electronically nonadiabatic collision processes is applied to electronic-vibrational energy transfer in a collinear atom~diatom system, A + BC(v=1) + A*+ BC(v=0), which closely resembles Br-H{sub 2}. This classical model, which treats electronic as well as heavy particle (i.e., translation, rotation, and vibration) degrees of freedom by classical mechanics, is found to describe the resonance features in this process reasonably well. The usefulness of the approach is that it allows one to extend standard Monte Carlo classical trajectory methodology to include electronically non-adiabatic processes in a dynamically consistent way,
A dynamical approach to non-adiabatic electron transfers at the bio-inorganic interface.
Zanetti-Polzi, Laura; Corni, Stefano
2016-04-21
A methodology is proposed to investigate electron transfer reactions between redox-active biomolecular systems (e.g. a protein) and inorganic surfaces. The whole system is modelled at the atomistic level using classical molecular dynamics - making an extensive sampling of the system's configurations possible - and the energies associated with the redox-active complex reduction are calculated using a hybrid quantum/classical approach along the molecular dynamics trajectory. The non-adiabaticity is introduced a posteriori using a Monte Carlo approach based on the Landau-Zener theory extended to treat a metal surface. This approach thus allows us to investigate the role of the energy fluctuations, determined by the dynamical evolution of the system, as well as the role of non-adiabaticity in affecting the kinetic rate of the electron transfer reaction. Most notably, it allows us to investigate the two contributions separately, hence achieving a detailed picture of the mechanisms that determine the rate. The analysis of the system configurations also allows us to relate the estimated electronic coupling to the structural and dynamic properties of the system. As a test case, the methodology is here applied to study the electron transfer reaction between cytochrome c and a gold surface. The results obtained explain the different electron transfer rates experimentally measured for two different concentrations of proteins on the electrode surface. PMID:27031179
P. Hartmann; J. Bermuth; D. v. Harrach; J. Hoffmann; S. Kobis; E. Reichert; K. Aulenbacher; J. Schuler; M. Steigerwald
1998-10-27
Even though theoretical estimates predict response times for the photo emission process of electrons from a negative electron affinity GaAs photo emitter in excess of hundreds of picoseconds, recent measurements found electron bunch durations of 40 ps or less. This work presents precise measurements of picosecond electron bunches from a negative affinity bulk GaAs photo cathode and develops a model which explains the measured bunch durations as well as the observed bunch shapes. The bunch shape turns out to be independent from the quantum efficiency of the photo emitter.
Electron affinity of cubic boron nitride terminated with vanadium oxide
Yang, Yu; Sun, Tianyin; Shammas, Joseph; Hao, Mei; Nemanich, Robert J.; Kaur, Manpuneet
2015-10-28
A thermally stable negative electron affinity (NEA) for a cubic boron nitride (c-BN) surface with vanadium-oxide-termination is achieved, and its electronic structure was analyzed with in-situ photoelectron spectroscopy. The c-BN films were prepared by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition employing BF{sub 3} and N{sub 2} as precursors. Vanadium layers of ∼0.1 and 0.5 nm thickness were deposited on the c-BN surface in an electron beam deposition system. Oxidation of the metal layer was achieved by an oxygen plasma treatment. After 650 °C thermal annealing, the vanadium oxide on the c-BN surface was determined to be VO{sub 2}, and the surfaces were found to be thermally stable, exhibiting an NEA. In comparison, the oxygen-terminated c-BN surface, where B{sub 2}O{sub 3} was detected, showed a positive electron affinity of ∼1.2 eV. The B{sub 2}O{sub 3} evidently acts as a negatively charged layer introducing a surface dipole directed into the c-BN. Through the interaction of VO{sub 2} with the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer, a B-O-V layer structure would contribute a dipole between the O and V layers with the positive side facing vacuum. The lower enthalpy of formation for B{sub 2}O{sub 3} is favorable for the formation of the B-O-V layer structure, which provides a thermally stable surface dipole and an NEA surface.
Robust activation method for negative electron affinity photocathodes
Mulhollan, Gregory A.; Bierman, John C.
2011-09-13
A method by which photocathodes(201), single crystal, amorphous, or otherwise ordered, can be surface modified to a robust state of lowered and in best cases negative, electron affinity has been discovered. Conventional methods employ the use of Cs(203) and an oxidizing agent(207), typically carried by diatomic oxygen or by more complex molecules, for example nitrogen trifluoride, to achieve a lowered electron affinity(404). In the improved activation method, a second alkali, other than Cs(205), is introduced onto the surface during the activation process, either by co-deposition, yo-yo, or sporadic or intermittent application. Best effect for GaAs photocathodes has been found through the use of Li(402) as the second alkali, though nearly the same effect can be found by employing Na(406). Suitable photocathodes are those which are grown, cut from boules, implanted, rolled, deposited or otherwise fabricated in a fashion and shape desired for test or manufacture independently supported or atop a support structure or within a framework or otherwise affixed or suspended in the place and position required for use.
Vibrational photodetachment spectroscopy near the electron affinity of S2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrick, J. B.; Yukich, J. N.
2016-02-01
We have conducted laser photodetachment spectroscopy near the detachment threshold of the electron affinity of S2 in a 1.8-T field. The ions are prepared by dissociative electron attachment to carbonyl sulfide. The experiment is conducted in a Penning ion trap and with a narrow-band, tunable, Ti:sapphire laser. A hybrid model for photodetachment in an ion trap is fit to the data using the appropriate Franck-Condon factors. The observations reveal detachment from and to the first few vibrational levels of the anion and the neutral molecule, respectively. Evaporative cooling of the anion ensemble condenses the thermal distribution to the lowest initial vibrational states. The subsequent detachment spectroscopy yields results consistent with a vibrationally cooled anion population.
Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage for improved performance of a cold-atom electron and ion source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sparkes, B. M.; Murphy, D.; Taylor, R. J.; Speirs, R. W.; McCulloch, A. J.; Scholten, R. E.
2016-08-01
We implement high-efficiency coherent excitation to a Rydberg state using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a cold-atom electron and ion source. We achieve an efficiency of 60% averaged over the laser excitation volume with a peak efficiency of 82%, a 1.6 times improvement relative to incoherent pulsed-laser excitation. Using pulsed electric field ionization of the Rydberg atoms we create electron bunches with durations of 250 ps. High-efficiency excitation will increase source brightness, crucial for ultrafast electron diffraction experiments, and coherent excitation to high-lying Rydberg states could allow for the reduction of internal bunch heating and the creation of a high-speed single-ion source.
Karpeshin, F. F.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.
2015-12-15
Special features of the effect of the electron shell on alpha decay that have important experimental implications are studied within the adiabatic approach. The magnitude of the effect is about several tenths of a percent or smaller, depending on the transition energy and on the atomic number. A dominant role of inner shells is shown: more than 80% of the effect is saturated by 1s electrons. This circumstance plays a crucial role for experiments, making it possible to measure this small effect by a difference method in the same storage rings via a comparison of, for example, decay probabilities in bare nuclei and heliumlike ions. The reasons behind the relative success and the applicability limits of the frozen-shell model, which has been used to calculate the effect in question for more than half a century, are analyzed. An interesting experiment aimed at studying charged alpha-particle states is proposed. This experiment will furnish unique information for testing our ideas of the interplay of nonadiabatic and adiabatic processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alijah, Alexander; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav
2015-10-01
Vibrational energies and wave functions of the triplet state of the H3+ ion have been determined. In the calculations, the ground and first excited triplet electronic states are included as well as the most important part of the non-Born-Oppenheimer coupling between them. The diabatization procedure proposed by Longuet-Higgins is then applied to transform the two adiabatic ab initio potential energy surfaces of the triplet-H3+ state into a 2 × 2 diabatic matrix. The diabatization takes into account the effect of the geometrical phase due to the conical intersection between the two adiabatic potential surfaces. The results are compared to the calculation involving only the lowest adiabatic potential energy surface of the triplet-H3+ ion and neglecting the geometrical phase. The energy difference between results with and without the non-adiabatic coupling and the geometrical phase is about one wave number for the lowest vibrational levels.
Hermann, Gunter; Liu, ChunMei; Manz, Jörn; Paulus, Beate; Pérez-Torres, Jhon Fredy; Pohl, Vincent; Tremblay, Jean Christophe
2016-07-14
Recently, adiabatic attosecond charge migration (AACM) has been monitored and simulated for the first time, with application to the oriented iodoacetylene cation where AACM starts from the initial superposition of the ground state (φ0) and an electronic excited state (φ1). Here, we develop the theory for electronic fluxes during AACM in ring-shaped molecules, with application to oriented benzene prepared in the superposition of the ground and first excited singlet states. The initial state and its time evolution are analogous to coherent tunneling where φ0 and φ1 have different meanings; however, they denote the wave functions of the lowest tunneling doublet. This analogy suggests to transfer the theory of electronic fluxes during coherent tunneling to AACM, with suitable modifications which account for (i) the different time scales and (ii) the different electronic states, and which make use of (iii) the preparation of the initial state for AACM by a linearly polarized laser pulse. Application to benzene yields the multidirectional angular electronic flux with a pincer-motion type pattern during AACM: this unequivocal result confirms a previous working hypothesis. Moreover, the theory of AACM allows quantification of the electronic flux; that is, the maximum number of electrons (out of 42) which flow concertedly during AACM in benzene is 6 × 0.08 = 0.48. PMID:27046151
Super-heavy electron material as metallic refrigerant for adiabatic demagnetization cooling
Tokiwa, Yoshifumi; Piening, Boy; Jeevan, Hirale S.; Bud’ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Gegenwart, Philipp
2016-01-01
Low-temperature refrigeration is of crucial importance in fundamental research of condensed matter physics, because the investigations of fascinating quantum phenomena, such as superconductivity, superfluidity, and quantum criticality, often require refrigeration down to very low temperatures. Currently, cryogenic refrigerators with 3He gas are widely used for cooling below 1 K. However, usage of the gas has been increasingly difficult because of the current worldwide shortage. Therefore, it is important to consider alternative methods of refrigeration. We show that a new type of refrigerant, the super-heavy electron metal YbCo2Zn20, can be used for adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration, which does not require 3He gas. This method has a number of advantages, including much better metallic thermal conductivity compared to the conventional insulating refrigerants. We also demonstrate that the cooling performance is optimized in Yb1−xScxCo2Zn20 by partial Sc substitution, with x ~ 0.19. The substitution induces chemical pressure that drives the materials to a zero-field quantum critical point. This leads to an additional enhancement of the magnetocaloric effect in low fields and low temperatures, enabling final temperatures well below 100 mK. This performance has, up to now, been restricted to insulators. For nearly a century, the same principle of using local magnetic moments has been applied for adiabatic demagnetization cooling. This study opens new possibilities of using itinerant magnetic moments for cryogen-free refrigeration. PMID:27626073
Super-heavy electron material as metallic refrigerant for adiabatic demagnetization cooling.
Tokiwa, Yoshifumi; Piening, Boy; Jeevan, Hirale S; Bud'ko, Sergey L; Canfield, Paul C; Gegenwart, Philipp
2016-09-01
Low-temperature refrigeration is of crucial importance in fundamental research of condensed matter physics, because the investigations of fascinating quantum phenomena, such as superconductivity, superfluidity, and quantum criticality, often require refrigeration down to very low temperatures. Currently, cryogenic refrigerators with (3)He gas are widely used for cooling below 1 K. However, usage of the gas has been increasingly difficult because of the current worldwide shortage. Therefore, it is important to consider alternative methods of refrigeration. We show that a new type of refrigerant, the super-heavy electron metal YbCo2Zn20, can be used for adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration, which does not require (3)He gas. This method has a number of advantages, including much better metallic thermal conductivity compared to the conventional insulating refrigerants. We also demonstrate that the cooling performance is optimized in Yb1-x Sc x Co2Zn20 by partial Sc substitution, with x ~ 0.19. The substitution induces chemical pressure that drives the materials to a zero-field quantum critical point. This leads to an additional enhancement of the magnetocaloric effect in low fields and low temperatures, enabling final temperatures well below 100 mK. This performance has, up to now, been restricted to insulators. For nearly a century, the same principle of using local magnetic moments has been applied for adiabatic demagnetization cooling. This study opens new possibilities of using itinerant magnetic moments for cryogen-free refrigeration. PMID:27626073
Two measured completely different electron affinities for atomic Eu?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Msezane, A. Z.; Felfli, Z.
2016-05-01
Recently, the electron affinity (EA) of atomic Eu was measured to be 0.116?eV. This value is in outstanding agreement with the theoretically calculated values using the Regge pole and MCDF-RCI methods. Previously, the EA of Eu was measured to be 1.053 eV. In an attempt to resolve the discrepancy between the two measured values, we have adopted the complex angular momentum (CAM) method and investigated in the electron energy range 0.11 eV
Borovsky, Joseph E; Denton, Michael H
2008-01-01
Using temperature and number-density measurements of the energetic-electron population from multiple spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit, the specific entropy S = T/n{sup 2/3} of the outer electron radiation belt is calculated. Then 955,527 half-hour-long data intervals are statistically analyzed. Local-time and solar-cycle variations in S are examined. The median value of the specific entropy (2.8 x 10{sup 7} eVcm{sup 2}) is much larger than the specific entropy of other particle populations in and around the magnetosphere. The evolution of the specific entropy through high-speed-stream-driven geomagnetic storms and through magnetic-cloud-driven geomagnetic storms is studied using superposed-epoch analysis. For high-speed-stream-driven storms, systematic variations in the entropy associated with electron loss and gain and with radiation-belt heating are observed in the various storm phases. For magnetic-cloud-driven storms, multiple trigger choices for the data superpositions reveal the effects of interplanetary shock arrival, sheath driving, cloud driving, and recovery phase. The specific entropy S = T/n{sup 2/3} is algebraically expressed in terms of the first and second adiabatic invariants of the electrons: this allows a relativistic expression for S in terms of T and n to be derived. For the outer electron radiation belt at geosynchronous orbit, the relativistic corrections to the specific entropy expression are -15%.
Electron distributions upstream of the Comet Halley bow shock - Evidence for adiabatic heating
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larson, D. E.; Anderson, K. A.; Lin, R. P.; Carlson, C. W.; Reme, H.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Neubauer, F. M.
1992-01-01
Three-dimensional plasma electron (22 eV to 30 keV) observations upstream of Comet Halley bow shock, obtained by the RPA-1 COPERNIC (Reme Plasma Analyzer - Complete Positive Ion, Electron and Ram Negative Ion Measurements near Comet Halley) experiment on the Giotto spacecraft are reported. Besides electron distributions typical of the undisturbed solar wind and backstreaming electrons observed when the magnetic field line intersects the cometary bow shock, a new type of distribution, characterized by enhanced low energy (less than 100 eV) flux which peaks at 90-deg pitch angles is found. These are most prominent when the spacecraft is on field lines which pass close to but are not connected to the bow shock. The 90-deg pitch angle electrons appear to have been adiabatically heated by the increase in the magnetic field strength resulting from the compression of the upstream solar wind plasma by the cometary mass loading. A model calculation of this effect which agrees qualitatively with the observed 90-deg flux enhancements is presented.
Dolgounitcheva, O; Díaz-Tinoco, Manuel; Zakrzewski, V G; Richard, Ryan M; Marom, Noa; Sherrill, C David; Ortiz, J V
2016-02-01
Comparison of ab initio electron-propagator predictions of vertical ionization potentials and electron affinities of organic, acceptor molecules with benchmark calculations based on the basis set-extrapolated, coupled cluster single, double, and perturbative triple substitution method has enabled identification of self-energy approximations with mean, unsigned errors between 0.1 and 0.2 eV. Among the self-energy approximations that neglect off-diagonal elements in the canonical, Hartree-Fock orbital basis, the P3 method for electron affinities, and the P3+ method for ionization potentials provide the best combination of accuracy and computational efficiency. For approximations that consider the full self-energy matrix, the NR2 methods offer the best performance. The P3+ and NR2 methods successfully identify the correct symmetry label of the lowest cationic state in two cases, naphthalenedione and benzoquinone, where some other methods fail. PMID:26730459
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krainsky, I. L.; Asnin, V. M.; Mearini, G. T.; Dayton, J. A., Jr.
1996-01-01
Strong negative electron affinity effects have been observed on the surface of as-grown chemical vapor deposited diamond using Secondary Electron Emission. The test samples were randomly oriented and the surface was terminated with hydrogen. The effect appears as an intensive peak in the low energy part of the spectrum of the electron energy distribution and may be described in the model of effective negative electron affinity.
Indium phosphide negative electron affinity photocathodes: Surface cleaning and activation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yun
InP(100) is a very important semi-conductor for many applications. When activated by Cs and oxygen, the InP surface achieves the state of Negative Electron Affinity (NEA) making the Cs+O/InP system a very efficient electron source. Despite many years of study, the chemical cleaning and activation of InP are still not well understood. In our work, we have established an understanding of the basic physics and chemistry for the chemical cleaning and activation of the InP(100) surface. Synchrotron Radiation Photoelectron Spectroscopy is the main technique used in this study because of its high surface sensitivity and ability to identify chemical species present on the surface at each stage of our process. A clean, stoichiometric InP(100) surface is crucial for obtaining high performance of NEA photocathodes. Therefore, the first part of our study focused on the chemical cleaning of InP(100). We found that hydrogen peroxide based solutions alone, originally developed to clean GaAs(100) surfaces and widely used for InP(100), do not result in clean InP(I00) surfaces because oxide is left on the surface. A second cleaning step, which uses acid solutions like HCl or H2SO4, can remove all the oxide and leave a 0.4 ML protective layer of elemental phosphorous on the surface. The elemental phosphorous can be removed by annealing at 330°C and a clean InP(100) surface can be obtained. Cs deposition on InP(100) surface shows clear charge transfer from the Cs ad-atoms to the substrate. When the Cs/InP(100) surface is dosed with oxygen, the charge transfer from the Cs to substrate is reduced and substrate is oxidized. The activation of InP as a NEA photocathode is carried out by an alternating series of steps consisting of Cs deposition and Cs+O co-deposition. Two types of oxygen are found after activation. The first is dissociated oxygen and the other is a di-oxygen species (peroxide or superoxide). The decay of quantum-yield with time and with annealing is studied and changes in
Asymmetry and non-adiabaticity in fragmentation of disulfide bonds upon electron capture.
Gámez, José A; Serrano-Andrés, Luis; Yáñez, Manuel
2010-08-23
Although it has been generally assumed that electron attachment to disulfide derivatives leads to a systematic and significant activation of the S-S bond, we show, by using [CH(3)SSX] (X = CH(3), NH(2), OH, F) derivatives as model compounds, that this is the case only when the X substituents have low electronegativity. Through the use of MP2, QCI and CASPT2 molecular orbital (MO) methods, we elucidate, for the first time, the mechanisms that lead to unimolecular fragmentation of disulfide derivatives after electron attachment. Our theoretical scrutiny indicates that these mechanisms are more intricate than assumed in previous studies. The most stable products, from a thermodynamic viewpoint, correspond to the release of neutral molecules; CH(4), NH(3), H(2)O, and HF. However, the barriers to reach these products depend strongly on the electronegativity of the X substituents. Only for very electronegative substituents, such as OH or F, the loss of H(2)O or HF is the most favorable process, and likely the only one observed. This is possible because of two concomitant factors, 1) the extra electron for [CH(3)SSX](-) (X = OH, F) occupies a sigma*(S-X) MO, which favors the cleavage of the S-X bond, and 2) the activation barriers associated with the hydrogen transfer process to produce H(2)O and HF are rather low. Only when the substituents are less electronegative (X = H, CH(3), NH(2)) the extra electron is located in a sigma*(S-S) orbital and the cleavage of the disulfide bridge becomes the most favorable process. The intimate mechanism associated with the S-S bond dissociation process also depends strongly on the nature of the substituent. For X = H or CH(3) the process is strictly adiabatic, while for X = NH(2) it proceeds through a conical intersection (CI) associated with the charge reorganization necessary to obtain, from a molecular anion with the extra electron delocalized in a sigma*(S-S) antibonding orbital, two fragments with the proper charge localization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamada, Takatoshi; Masuzawa, Tomoaki; Mimura, Hidenori; Okano, Ken
2016-02-01
Hydrogen (H)-terminated surfaces of diamond have attracted significant attention due to their negative electron affinity (NEA), suggesting high-efficiency electron emitters. Combined with n-type doping technique using phosphorus (P) as donors, the unique NEA surface makes diamond a promising candidate for vacuum cold-cathode applications. However, high-electric fields are needed for the electron emission from the n-type doped diamond with NEA. Here we have clarified the electron emission mechanism of field emission from P-doped diamond having NEA utilizing combined ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy/field emission spectroscopy (UPS/FES). An UP spectrum has confirmed the NEA of H-terminated (1 1 1) surface of P-doped diamond. Despite the NEA, electron emission occurs only when electric field at the surface exceeds 4.2 × 106 V cm-1. Further analysis by UPS/FES has revealed that the emitted energy level is shifted, indicating that the electron emission mechanism of n-type diamond having NEA surface does not follow a standard field emission theory, but is dominated by potential barrier formed within the diamond due to upward band bending. The reduction of internal barrier is the key to achieve high-efficiency electron emitters using P-doped diamond with NEA, of which application ranges from high-resolution electron spectroscopy to novel vacuum nanoelectronics devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Predota, Milan; Cummings, Peter T.; Chialvo, Ariel A.
The adiabatic nuclear and electronic sampling method (ANES), originally formulated as an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm for systems with fluctuating charges, is applied to the simulation of a polarizable water model with induced dipole moments. Structural, thermodynamic and dipolar properties obtained by ANES and a newer algorithm, the pair approximation for polarization interaction (PAPI), are compared with full iteration. With the best parameters, the inaccuracy of both approximate methods was found to be comparable with the uncertainty of the full iteration. The PAPI method with iteration radius equal to the second minimum of the oxygen-oxygen correlation function is, depending on the convergence tolerance, 10-15 times faster than the full iteration for 256 molecules, and yields very accurate structure and thermodynamics with deviation about 0.3%. When the iteration radius is increased to the cutoff distance, exact results are recovered at the cost of decreased efficiency. The ANES method with small nuclear displacements proved to inefficiently sample the configurational space. Simulations at low electronic temperatures with large nuclear displacements are inaccurate for up to 100 electronic moves, and increasing this number would make the simulations as slow as the full iteration. The most accurate and efficient adiabatic ANES simulations are those with infinite electronic temperature, large nuclear displacements and 1-10 electronic moves. The extra freedom of induced dipoles in the ANES method at high electronic temperatures modifies the observed dipolar properties; however, the question of whether the dielectric constant is also modified needs further consideration.
Cotton, Stephen J.; Miller, William H.
2013-12-21
A recently described symmetrical windowing methodology [S. J. Cotton and W. H. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 7190 (2013)] for quasi-classical trajectory simulations is applied here to the Meyer-Miller [H.-D. Meyer and W. H. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 3214 (1979)] model for the electronic degrees of freedom in electronically non-adiabatic dynamics. Results generated using this classical approach are observed to be in very good agreement with accurate quantum mechanical results for a variety of test applications, including problems where coherence effects are significant such as the challenging asymmetric spin-boson system.
Gao, Aifang; Liang, Xuli; Li, Luhua; Cui, Jinghua
2013-08-01
The optimized geometries, electron affinities, and dissociation energies of the alkylthio radicals have been determined with the higher level of the Gaussian-3(G3) theory. The geometries are fully optimized and discussed. The reliable adiabatic electron affinities with ZPVE correction have been predicted to be 1.860 eV for the methylthio radical, 1.960 eV for the ethylthio radical, 1.980 and 2.074 eV for the two isomers (n-C3H7S and i-C3H7S) of the propylthio radical, 1.991, 2.133 and 2.013 eV for the three isomers (n-C4H9S, t-C4H9S, and i-C4H9S) of the butylthio radical, and 1.999, 2.147, 2.164, and 2.059 eV for the four isomers (n-C5H11S, b-C5H11S, c-C5H11S, and d-C5H11S) of the pentylthio radical, respectively. These corrected EAad values for the alkylthio radicals are in good agreement with available experiments, and the average absolute error of the G3 method is 0.041 eV. The dissociation energies of S atom from neutral CnH2n+1S (n = 1-5) and S(-) from corresponding anions CnH2n+1S(-) species have also been estimated respectively to examine their relative stabilities. PMID:23636642
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xavier, F. George D.; Kumar, Sanjay
2010-10-01
Ab initio global adiabatic and quasidiabatic potential energy surfaces of lowest four electronic (1-4 A3″) states of the H++O2 system have been computed in the Jacobi coordinates (R,r,γ) using Dunning's cc-pVTZ basis set at the internally contracted multireference (single and double) configuration interaction level of accuracy, which are relevant to the dynamics studies of inelastic vibrational and charge transfer processes observed in the scattering experiments. The computed equilibrium geometry parameters of the bound [HO2]+ ion in the ground electronic state and other parameters for the transition state for the isomerization process, HOO+⇌OOH+ are in good quantitative agreement with those available from the high level ab initio calculations, thus lending credence to the accuracy of the potential energy surfaces. The nonadiabatic couplings between the electronic states have been analyzed in both the adiabatic and quasidiabatic frameworks by computing the nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements and the coupling potentials, respectively. It is inferred that the dynamics of energy transfer processes in the scattering experiments carried out in the range of 9.5-23 eV would involve all the four electronic states.
Teale, A M; De Proft, F; Geerlings, P; Tozer, D J
2014-07-28
The essential aspects of zero-temperature grand-canonical ensemble density-functional theory are reviewed in the context of spin-density-functional theory and are used to highlight the assumption of symmetry between electron addition and subtraction that underlies the corrected Koopmans approach of Tozer and De Proft (TDP) for computing electron affinities. The issue of symmetry is then investigated in a systematic study of atomic electron affinities, comparing TDP affinities with those from a conventional Koopmans evaluation and electronic energy differences. Although it cannot compete with affinities determined from energy differences, the TDP expression yields results that are a significant improvement over those from the conventional Koopmans expression. Key insight into the results from both expressions is provided by an analysis of plots of the electronic energy as a function of the number of electrons, which highlight the extent of symmetry between addition and subtraction. The accuracy of the TDP affinities is closely related to the nature of the orbitals involved in the electron addition and subtraction, being particularly poor in cases where there is a change in principal quantum number, but relatively accurate within a single manifold of orbitals. The analysis is then extended to a consideration of the ground state Mulliken electronegativity and chemical hardness. The findings further emphasize the key role of symmetry in determining the quality of the results. PMID:24406854
Fullerene Cyanation Does Not Always Increase Electron Affinity: Experimental and Theoretical Study
Clikeman, Tyler T.; Deng, Shihu; Popov, Alexey A.; Wang, Xue B.; Strauss, Steven H.; Boltalina, Olga V.
2015-01-01
The electron affinities of C70 derivatives with trifluoromethyl, methyl and cyano groups were studied experimentally and theoretically using low-temperature photoelectron spectroscopy (LT PES) and density functional theory (DFT). The electronic effects of these functional groups were determined and found to be highly dependent on the addition patterns. Substitution of CF3 for CN for the same addition pattern increases the experimental electron affinity by 70 meV per substitution. The synthesis of a new fullerene derivative, C70(CF3)10(CN)2, is reported for the first time
Electron affinities (EAs) and free energies for electron attachment have been calculated for 42 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and related molecules by a variety of theoretical models, including Koopmans' theorem methods and the L1E method from differences in energy between th...
Dupuy, Nicolas; Bouaouli, Samira; Mauri, Francesco Casula, Michele; Sorella, Sandro
2015-06-07
We study the ionization energy, electron affinity, and the π → π{sup ∗} ({sup 1}L{sub a}) excitation energy of the anthracene molecule, by means of variational quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods based on a Jastrow correlated antisymmetrized geminal power (JAGP) wave function, developed on molecular orbitals (MOs). The MO-based JAGP ansatz allows one to rigorously treat electron transitions, such as the HOMO → LUMO one, which underlies the {sup 1}L{sub a} excited state. We present a QMC optimization scheme able to preserve the rank of the antisymmetrized geminal power matrix, thanks to a constrained minimization with projectors built upon symmetry selected MOs. We show that this approach leads to stable energy minimization and geometry relaxation of both ground and excited states, performed consistently within the correlated QMC framework. Geometry optimization of excited states is needed to make a reliable and direct comparison with experimental adiabatic excitation energies. This is particularly important in π-conjugated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, where there is a strong interplay between low-lying energy excitations and structural modifications, playing a functional role in many photochemical processes. Anthracene is an ideal benchmark to test these effects. Its geometry relaxation energies upon electron excitation are of up to 0.3 eV in the neutral {sup 1}L{sub a} excited state, while they are of the order of 0.1 eV in electron addition and removal processes. Significant modifications of the ground state bond length alternation are revealed in the QMC excited state geometry optimizations. Our QMC study yields benchmark results for both geometries and energies, with values below chemical accuracy if compared to experiments, once zero point energy effects are taken into account.
Dupuy, Nicolas; Bouaouli, Samira; Mauri, Francesco; Sorella, Sandro; Casula, Michele
2015-06-01
We study the ionization energy, electron affinity, and the π → π(∗) ((1)La) excitation energy of the anthracene molecule, by means of variational quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods based on a Jastrow correlated antisymmetrized geminal power (JAGP) wave function, developed on molecular orbitals (MOs). The MO-based JAGP ansatz allows one to rigorously treat electron transitions, such as the HOMO → LUMO one, which underlies the (1)La excited state. We present a QMC optimization scheme able to preserve the rank of the antisymmetrized geminal power matrix, thanks to a constrained minimization with projectors built upon symmetry selected MOs. We show that this approach leads to stable energy minimization and geometry relaxation of both ground and excited states, performed consistently within the correlated QMC framework. Geometry optimization of excited states is needed to make a reliable and direct comparison with experimental adiabatic excitation energies. This is particularly important in π-conjugated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, where there is a strong interplay between low-lying energy excitations and structural modifications, playing a functional role in many photochemical processes. Anthracene is an ideal benchmark to test these effects. Its geometry relaxation energies upon electron excitation are of up to 0.3 eV in the neutral (1)La excited state, while they are of the order of 0.1 eV in electron addition and removal processes. Significant modifications of the ground state bond length alternation are revealed in the QMC excited state geometry optimizations. Our QMC study yields benchmark results for both geometries and energies, with values below chemical accuracy if compared to experiments, once zero point energy effects are taken into account. PMID:26049481
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colonna, Nicola; de Gironcoli, Stefano
2014-03-01
We have developed an expression for the electronic correlation energy via the Adiabatic Connection Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem (ACFDT) going beyond the Random-Phase Approximation (RPA) by including exact exchange contribution to the kernel (RPAx). Our derivation is valid and efficient for general systems. It is based on an eigenvalue decomposition of the time dependent response function of the Many Body system in the limit of vanishing coupling constant, evaluated by Density Functional Perturbation Theory. We tested the accuracy of this approximation on the homogeneous electron gas. Within RPAx, the correlation energy of the homogeneous electron gas improves significantly with respect to the RPA results up to densities of the order of rs ~ 10 . However, beyond this value, the RPAx response function becomes pathological and the approximation breaks down. We have also evaluated the dependence of the correlation energy on the spin magnetization of the system. Both RPA an RPAx are in excellent agreement with accurate Quantum Monte Carlo results.
Method for resurrecting negative electron affinity photocathodes after exposure to an oxidizing gas
Mulhollan, Gregory A; Bierman, John C
2012-10-30
A method by which negative electron affinity photocathodes (201), single crystal, amorphous, or otherwise ordered, can be made to recover their quantum yield following exposure to an oxidizing gas has been discovered. Conventional recovery methods employ the use of cesium as a positive acting agent (104). In the improved recovery method, an electron beam (205), sufficiently energetic to generate a secondary electron cloud (207), is applied to the photocathode in need of recovery. The energetic beam, through the high secondary electron yield of the negative electron affinity surface (203), creates sufficient numbers of low energy electrons which act on the reduced-yield surface so as to negate the effects of absorbed oxidizing atoms thereby recovering the quantum yield to a pre-decay value.
Electron affinities for rare gases and some actinides from local-spin-density-functional theory
Guo, Y.; Wrinn, M.C.; Whitehead, M.A. )
1989-12-01
The negative ions of the rare gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn) and some actinides (Pu, Am, Bk, Cf, and Es) have been calculated self-consistently by the generalized exchange local-spin-density-functional theory with self-interaction correction and correlation. The electron affinities were obtained as the differences between the statistical total energies of the negative ions and neutral atoms; the electron affinities were positive around several millirydbergs. Consequently, the negative ions are predicted stable for the rare gases and actinides.
Kubař, Tomáš; Elstner, Marcus
2013-04-28
In this work, a fragment-orbital density functional theory-based method is combined with two different non-adiabatic schemes for the propagation of the electronic degrees of freedom. This allows us to perform unbiased simulations of electron transfer processes in complex media, and the computational scheme is applied to the transfer of a hole in solvated DNA. It turns out that the mean-field approach, where the wave function of the hole is driven into a superposition of adiabatic states, leads to over-delocalization of the hole charge. This problem is avoided using a surface hopping scheme, resulting in a smaller rate of hole transfer. The method is highly efficient due to the on-the-fly computation of the coarse-grained DFT Hamiltonian for the nucleobases, which is coupled to the environment using a QM/MM approach. The computational efficiency and partial parallel character of the methodology make it possible to simulate electron transfer in systems of relevant biochemical size on a nanosecond time scale. Since standard non-polarizable force fields are applied in the molecular-mechanics part of the calculation, a simple scaling scheme was introduced into the electrostatic potential in order to simulate the effect of electronic polarization. It is shown that electronic polarization has an important effect on the features of charge transfer. The methodology is applied to two kinds of DNA sequences, illustrating the features of transfer along a flat energy landscape as well as over an energy barrier. The performance and relative merit of the mean-field scheme and the surface hopping for this application are discussed. PMID:23493847
Miller, William H. Cotton, Stephen J.
2015-04-07
It is noted that the recently developed symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) treatment of the Meyer-Miller (MM) model for the simulation of electronically non-adiabatic dynamics provides a good description of detailed balance, even though the dynamics which results from the classical MM Hamiltonian is “Ehrenfest dynamics” (i.e., the force on the nuclei is an instantaneous coherent average over all electronic states). This is seen to be a consequence of the SQC windowing methodology for “processing” the results of the trajectory calculation. For a particularly simple model discussed here, this is shown to be true regardless of the choice of windowing function employed in the SQC model, and for a more realistic full classical molecular dynamics simulation, it is seen to be maintained correctly for very long time.
Determination of electron affinity of carbonyl radicals by means of negative ion mass spectrometry.
Muftakhov; Vasil'ev; Mazunov
1999-06-01
Appearance energies of [M-H](-) ions from carbonyl compounds R-CO-R' (R,R' = H, CH(3), NH(2), OH) have been measured by means of negative ion mass spectrometry in resonant electron capture mode. Values of electron affinity of the corresponding radicals, CH(2)&dbond;C(X)O, NH&dbond;C(X)O and O&dbond;C(X)O, have been determined. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10407285
Engin, Selma; Sisourat, Nicolas Selles, Patricia; Taïeb, Richard; Carniato, Stéphane
2014-06-21
Raman Chirped Adiabatic Passage (RCAP) is an efficient method to climb the vibrational ladder of molecules. It was shown on the example of fixed-in-space HCl molecule that selective vibrational excitation can thus be achieved by RCAP and that population transfer can be followed by X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy [S. Engin, N. Sisourat, P. Selles, R. Taïeb, and S. Carniato, Chem. Phys. Lett. 535, 192–195 (2012)]. Here, in a more detailed analysis of the process, we investigate the effects of highly excited electronic states and of molecular rotation on the efficiency of RCAP. Furthermore, we propose an alternative spectroscopic way to monitor the transfer by means of X-ray absorption spectra.
Accurate electron affinity of Pb and isotope shifts of binding energies of Pb(.).
Chen, Xiaolin; Ning, Chuangang
2016-08-28
Lead (Pb) was the last element of the group IVA whose electron affinity had a low accuracy around 10 meV before the present work. This was due to the generic threshold photodetachment measurement that cannot extent well below 0.5 eV due to the light source limitation. In the present work, the electron affinity of Pb was determined to be 2877.33(13) cm(-1) or 0.356 743(16) eV for the isotope m = 208. The accuracy was improved by a factor of 500 with respect to the previous laser photodetachment electron spectroscopy. Moreover, remarkable isotope shifts of the binding energy of Pb(-) 6p(3) (4)S3/2 - Pb 6p(2) (3)P2 were observed for m = 206, 207, and 208. PMID:27586918
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verona, C.; Ciccognani, W.; Colangeli, S.; Limiti, E.; Marinelli, Marco; Verona-Rinati, G.
2016-07-01
We report on a comparative study of transfer doping of hydrogenated single crystal diamond surface by insulators featured by high electron affinity, such as Nb2O5, WO3, V2O5, and MoO3. The low electron affinity Al2O3 was also investigated for comparison. Hole transport properties were evaluated in the passivated hydrogenated diamond films by Hall effect measurements, and were compared to un-passivated diamond films (air-induced doping). A drastic improvement was observed in passivated samples in terms of conductivity, stability with time, and resistance to high temperatures. The efficiency of the investigated insulators, as electron accepting materials in hydrogenated diamond surface, is consistent with their electronic structure. These surface acceptor materials generate a higher hole sheet concentration, up to 6.5 × 1013 cm-2, and a lower sheet resistance, down to 2.6 kΩ/sq, in comparison to the atmosphere-induced values of about 1 × 1013 cm-2 and 10 kΩ/sq, respectively. On the other hand, hole mobilities were reduced by using high electron affinity insulator dopants. Hole mobility as a function of hole concentration in a hydrogenated diamond layer was also investigated, showing a well-defined monotonically decreasing trend.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Asnin, V. M.; Krainsky, I. L.
1998-01-01
A fine structure was discovered in the low-energy peak of the secondary electron emission spectra of the diamond surface with negative electron affinity. We studied this structure for the (100) surface of the natural type-IIb diamond crystal. We have found that the low-energy peak consists of a total of four maxima. The relative energy positions of three of them could be related to the electron energy minima near the bottom of the conduction band. The fourth peak, having the lowest energy, was attributed to the breakup of the bulk exciton at the surface during the process of secondary electron emission.
Tiwari, Vivek; Peters, William K.; Jonas, David M.
2013-01-01
The delocalized, anticorrelated component of pigment vibrations can drive nonadiabatic electronic energy transfer in photosynthetic light-harvesting antennas. In femtosecond experiments, this energy transfer mechanism leads to excitation of delocalized, anticorrelated vibrational wavepackets on the ground electronic state that exhibit not only 2D spectroscopic signatures attributed to electronic coherence and oscillatory quantum energy transport but also a cross-peak asymmetry not previously explained by theory. A number of antennas have electronic energy gaps matching a pigment vibrational frequency with a small vibrational coordinate change on electronic excitation. Such photosynthetic energy transfer steps resemble molecular internal conversion through a nested intermolecular funnel. PMID:23267114
Electric Field Cancellation on Quartz by Rb Adsorbate-Induced Negative Electron Affinity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sedlacek, J. A.; Kim, E.; Rittenhouse, S. T.; Weck, P. F.; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Shaffer, J. P.
2016-04-01
We investigate the (0001) surface of single crystal quartz with a submonolayer of Rb adsorbates. Using Rydberg atom electromagnetically induced transparency, we investigate the electric fields resulting from Rb adsorbed on the quartz surface, and measure the activation energy of the Rb adsorbates. We show that the adsorbed Rb induces negative electron affinity (NEA) on the quartz surface. The NEA surface allows low energy electrons to bind to the surface and cancel the electric field from the Rb adsorbates. Our results will be important for integrating Rydberg atoms into hybrid quantum systems, as fundamental probes of atom-surface interactions, and for studies of 2D electron gases bound to surfaces.
Electric Field Cancellation on Quartz by Rb Adsorbate-Induced Negative Electron Affinity.
Sedlacek, J A; Kim, E; Rittenhouse, S T; Weck, P F; Sadeghpour, H R; Shaffer, J P
2016-04-01
We investigate the (0001) surface of single crystal quartz with a submonolayer of Rb adsorbates. Using Rydberg atom electromagnetically induced transparency, we investigate the electric fields resulting from Rb adsorbed on the quartz surface, and measure the activation energy of the Rb adsorbates. We show that the adsorbed Rb induces negative electron affinity (NEA) on the quartz surface. The NEA surface allows low energy electrons to bind to the surface and cancel the electric field from the Rb adsorbates. Our results will be important for integrating Rydberg atoms into hybrid quantum systems, as fundamental probes of atom-surface interactions, and for studies of 2D electron gases bound to surfaces. PMID:27081976
Field-Emission from Chemically Functionalized Diamond Surfaces: Does Electron Affinity Picture Work?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Miyazaki, Takehide; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Okushi, Hideyo; Yamasaki, Satoshi
2014-03-01
By means of the time-dependent density functional electron dynamics, we have revisited the field-emission efficiency of chemically functionalized diamond (100) surfaces. In order to achieve high efficiency and high (chemical) stability, proper chemical species are needed to terminate diamond surfaces. Hydrogen (H) termination is well known to achieve the negative electron affinity (NEA) of diamond surface which indeed enhances field emission performance than that of clean surface with positive electron affinity (PEA). Yet, the durability of H-terminated diamond surface was concerned for long-time operation of the field-emission. Meantime, oxidation, or hydroxyl (OH) termination was considered to achieve chemical stability of the surface but presence of oxygen (O) atom should reduce the emission efficiency. Recently, H- OH-co-terminated surface is reported as NEA and was expected to achieve both emission efficiency and chemical stability. However, our simulation showed that emission efficiency of the H- OH- co-terminated surface is much lower than clean surface with PEA, thus we note that the electron affinity cannot be a unique measure to determine the emission efficiency. In this talk, we introduce necessity of new concept to understand the emission efficiency which needs to know detailed potential profile from bulk to vacuum through surface, which is strongly dependent on the surface chemical functionalization. This work was supported by ALCA project conducted by Japan Science and Technology Agency.
Sevilla, M.D.; Colson, A.O. ); Besler, B. )
1995-01-19
Ab initio molecular orbital calculations of the electron affinities (EAs) and ionization potentials (IPs) of the DNA bases are presented in this work. Comparisons of calculated and experimental values are made for a series of compounds of size and/or structure similar to the DNA bases. Excellent correlations between calculated and experimental values are found for both Koopmans EAs at the 6-31G[sup *] and D95v levels and calculated vertical EAs of the model compounds. Several basis sets are considered: 6-31G[sup *], 6-31+G(d), and D95v. Calculations at 6-31G[sup *] and 6-31+G(d) using both ROHF and ROMP2 theories show a consistent difference between calculated vertical and adiabatic EAs. This allows for a good estimate of DNA base adiabatic EAs. i.e., -0.7, -0.3, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 eV; from the vertical EAs -1.23, -0.74, -0.40, -0.32, and -0.19 eV for G, A, C, T, and U respectively. While EAs must be scaled, we find that Koopmans IPs calculated at the simple 3-21G level predict vertical IPs of the DNA bases with only a 0.15 eV average absolute deviation from the experimentally reported values and calculations at MP2/6-31+G(d)//6-31G[sup *] for the adiabatic ionization potentials of the DNA bases are all within 0.1 eV of experiment. 41 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.
Craciun, Raluca; Long, Rebecca T.; Dixon, David A.; Christe, Karl O.
2010-07-22
High-level electronic structure calculations were used to evaluate reliable, self-consistent thermochemical data sets for the second row transition metal hexafluorides. The electron affinities, heats of formation, first (MF{sub 6} {yields} MF{sub 5} + F) and average M-F bond dissociation energies, and fluoride affinities of MF{sub 6} (MF{sub 6} + F{sup -} {yields} MF{sub 7}{sup -}) and MF{sub 5} (MF{sub 5} + F{sup -} {yields} MF{sub 6}{sup -}) were calculated. The electron affinities are higher than those of the corresponding third row hexafluorides, making them stronger one-electron oxidizers. The calculated electron affinities, in good agreement with the available experimental values, are 4.23 eV for MoF{sub 6}, 5.89 eV for TcF{sub 6}, 7.01 eV for RuF{sub 6}, 6.80 eV for RhF{sub 6}, 7.95 eV for PdF{sub 6}, and 8.89 eV for AgF{sub 6}. The corresponding pentafluorides are also very strong Lewis acids, although their acidities on the pF{sup -} scale are about one unit lower than those of the third row pentafluorides. The performance of a wide range of DFT exchange-correlation functionals was benchmarked by comparing them to our more accurate CCSD(T) results.
Kaku, Hiroki; Inoue, Kanako; Muranaka, Yoshinori; Park, Pyoyun; Ikeda, Kenichi
2015-10-01
Uranyl salts are toxic and radioactive; therefore, several studies have been conducted to screen for substitutes of electron stains. In this regard, the contrast evaluation process is time consuming and the results obtained are inconsistent. In this study, we developed a novel contrast evaluation method using affinity beads and a backscattered electron image (BSEI), obtained using scanning electron microscopy. The contrast ratios of BSEI in each electron stain treatment were correlated with those of transmission electron microscopic images. The affinity beads bound to cell components independently. Protein and DNA samples were enhanced by image contrast treated with electron stains; however, this was not observed for sugars. Protein-conjugated beads showed an additive effect of image contrast when double-stained with lead. However, additive effect of double staining was not observed in DNA-conjugated beads. The varying chemical properties of oligopeptides showed differences in image contrast when treated with each electron stain. This BSEI-based evaluation method not only enables screening for alternate electron stains, but also helps analyze the underlying mechanisms of electron staining of cellular structures. PMID:26199255
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Dongdong; Hou, Yong; Gao, Cheng; Zeng, Jiaolong; Yuan, Jianmin
2016-05-01
In warm dense matter(WDM), the thermal motion energy of a nucleus may be comparable to its coupling energy with the neighbor nuclei and comparable to the valence electronic orbital motion energy. As the much small mass of electrons, the fluctuations of the electron orbitals are almost adiabatic dynamical changes with nuclear motion. The electronic and nuclear structure of warm and dense He and Ar are simulated by using the density functional based molecular dynamics method. The nuclear thermal motion driven adiabatic thermalization of the electron states, depression of the energy band gap and even phase transitions of electron states from insulator to metal are predicted when the nuclear thermal motion energy is comparable to the coupling energy between the neighboring atoms as well as to the valence electronic orbital motion energy. These kind of nuclear thermal motion driven adiabatic electronic states from insulator to metal phase transition occurs at much lower temperatures than the normal thermal collision excitation in low density and high temperature gases.
Cleland, D M; Booth, George H; Alavi, Ali
2011-01-14
For the atoms with Z ≤ 11, energies obtained using the "initiator" extension to full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (i-FCIQMC) come to within statistical errors of the FCIQMC results. As these FCIQMC values have been shown to converge onto FCI results, the i-FCIQMC method allows similar accuracy to be achieved while significantly reducing the scaling with the size of the Slater determinant space. The i-FCIQMC electron affinities of the Z ≤ 11 atoms in the aug-cc-pVXZ basis sets are presented here. In every case, values are obtained to well within chemical accuracy [the mean absolute deviation (MAD) from the relativistically corrected experimental values is 0.41 mE(h)], and significantly improve on coupled cluster with singles, doubles and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] results. Since the only remaining source of error is basis set incompleteness, we have investigated using CCSD(T)-F12 contributions to correct the i-FCIQMC results. By doing so, much faster convergence with respect to basis set size may be achieved for both the electron affinities and the FCIQMC ionization potentials presented in a previous paper. With this F12 correction, the MAD can be further reduced to 0.13 mE(h) for the electron affinities and 0.31 mE(h) for the ionization potentials. PMID:21241085
Non-adiabatic electron-proton couplings in H2 by floating Gaussian method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichikawa, Yuichi; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Yamanouchi, Kaoru
2016-08-01
Time-dependent electron-nuclear wave functions of H2 were described by the floating Gaussian method. The equations of motion for the parameters that specify the wave functions are explicitly derived. By the imaginary time propagation, the ground-state wave functions were obtained. Five high frequency components appearing in the Fourier transformed spectra of the squared inter-particle distances were ascribed to the motion of electrons, and the two lowest frequency components among the five were identified as those representing coupling of the motions of electrons and nuclei.
Monte Carlo charge transport and photoemission from negative electron affinity GaAs photocathodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karkare, Siddharth; Dimitrov, Dimitre; Schaff, William; Cultrera, Luca; Bartnik, Adam; Liu, Xianghong; Sawyer, Eric; Esposito, Teresa; Bazarov, Ivan
2013-03-01
High quantum yield, low transverse energy spread, and prompt response time make GaAs activated to negative electron affinity an ideal candidate for a photocathode in high brightness photoinjectors. Even after decades of investigation, the exact mechanism of electron emission from GaAs is not well understood. Here, photoemission from such photocathodes is modeled using detailed Monte Carlo electron transport simulations. Simulations show a quantitative agreement with the experimental results for quantum efficiency, energy distributions of emitted electrons, and response time without the assumption of any ad hoc parameters. This agreement between simulation and experiment sheds light on the mechanism of electron emission and provides an opportunity to design novel semiconductor photocathodes with optimized performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nunkaew, Jirakan
In this dissertation, I study the structure and dynamics of Rydberg two-electron atoms. Specifically, I study the core polarization effect of the Rydberg electron on the ground state ion of strontium and the autoionization of barium atoms in an external static field in the low field regime. The autoionization studies show that it is possible to measure the contribution to dielectronic recombination (DR) of energetically unresolved high ℓ states by measuring the recombination rate as a function of electric field. I also present the experimental observation that the ejected electrons from autoionizing states in an electric field have a directional preference that depends on the orientation of the Rydberg Stark state wavefunctions. Finally, I present the spectroscopy of the Stark autoionizing states in the low field regime using a high resolution dye-amplified diode laser.
Collective motion of two-electron atom in hyperspherical adiabatic approximation
Mohamed, A. S.; Nikitin, S. I.
2015-03-30
This work is devoted to calculate bound states in the two-electron atoms. The separation of variables has carried out in hyper spherical coordinate system (R, θ, α). Assuming collective motion of the electrons, where the hper angle (α∼π/4) and (θ∼π). The separation of the rotational variables leads to system of differential equations with more simple form as compared with non restricted motion. Energy of doubly excited P{sup e} and D{sup 0} states are calculated semi classically by using quantization condition of Bohr -Somerfield. The results compared with previously published data.
Electron Affinity Calculations for Atoms: Sensitive Probe of Many-Body Effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.
2016-05-01
Electron-electron correlations and core-polarization interactions are crucial for the existence and stability of most negative ions. Therefore, they can be used as a sensitive probe of many-body effects in the calculation of the electron affinities (EAs) of atoms. The importance of relativistic effects in the calculation of the EAs of atoms has recently been assessed to be insignificant up to Z of 85. Here we use the complex angular momentum (CAM) methodology wherein is embedded fully the electron-electron correlations, to investigate core-polarization interactions in low-energy electron elastic scattering from the atoms In, Sn, Eu, Au and At through the calculation of their EAs. For the core-polarization interaction we use the rational function approximation of the Thomas-Fermi potential, which can be analytically continued into the complex plane. The EAs are extracted from the large resonance peaks in the CAM calculated low-energy electron-atom scattering total cross sections and compared with those from measurements and sophisticated theoretical methods. It is concluded that when the electron-electron correlations and core polarization interactions (both major many-body effects) are accounted for adequately the importance of relativity on the calculation of the EAs of atoms can be assessed. Even for the high Z (85) At atom relativistic effects are estimated to contribute a maximum of 3.6% to its EA calculation.
Transition from the adiabatic to the sudden limit in core-electron photoemission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hedin, Lars; Michiels, John; Inglesfield, John
1998-12-01
Experimental results for core-electron photoemission Jk(ω) are often compared with the one-electron spectral function Ac(ɛk-ω), where ω is the photon energy, ɛk is the photoelectron energy, and the optical transition matrix elements are taken as constant. Since Jk(ω) is nonzero only for ɛk>0, we must actually compare it with Ac(ɛk-ω)θ(ɛk). For metals Ac(ω) is known to have a quasiparticle (QP) peak with an asymmetric power-law [theories of Mahan, Nozières, de Dominicis, Langreth, and others (MND)] singularity due to low-energy particle-hole excitations. The QP peak starts at the core-electron energy ɛc, and is followed by an extended satellite (shakeup) structure at smaller ω. For photon energies ω just above threshold, ωth=-ɛc, Ac(ɛk-ω)θ(ɛk) as a function of ɛk (ω constant) is cut just behind the quasiparticle peak, and neither the tail of the MND line nor the plasmon satellites are present. The sudden (high-energy) limit is given by a convolution of Ac(ω) and a loss function, i.e., by the Berglund-Spicer two-step expression. Thus Ac(ω) alone does not give the correct photoelectron spectrum, neither at low nor at high energies. We present an extension of the quantum-mechanical (QM) models developed earlier by Inglesfield, and by Bardyszewski and Hedin to calculate Jk(ω). It includes recoil and damping, as well as shakeup effects and extrinsic losses, is exact in the high-energy limit, and allows calculations of Jk(ω) including the MND line and multiple plasmon losses. The model, which involves electrons coupled to quasibosons, is motivated by detailed arguments. As an illustration we have made quantitative calculations for a semi-infinite jellium with the density of aluminum metal and an embedded atom. The coupling functions (fluctuation potentials) between the electron and the quasibosons are related to the random-phase-approximation dielectric function, and different levels of approximations are evaluated numerically. The differences
Electric field cancellation on quartz by Rb adsorbate-induced negative electron affinity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaffer, James
2016-05-01
We investigate the (0001) surface of single crystal quartz with a submonolayer of Rb adsorbates. Using Rydberg atom electromagnetically induced transparency, we investigate the electric fields resulting from Rb adsorbed on the quartz surface, and measure the activation energy of the Rb adsorbates. We show that the adsorbed Rb induces a negative electron affinity (NEA) on the quartz surface. The NEA surface allows low energy electrons to bind to the surface and cancel the electric field from the Rb adsorbates. Our results are important for integrating Rydberg atoms into hybrid quantum systems and the fundamental study of atom-surface interactions, as well as applications for electrons bound to a 2D surface. This work was supported by the DARPA Quasar program by a Grant through ARO (60181-PH-DRP) and the AFOSR (FA9550-12-1-0282),.
On the electron affinities of the Ca, Sc, Ti and Y atoms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.
1988-01-01
For the Ca, Sc, Ti and Y atoms calculations are performed for the ground states of the neutrals and the ground and several low-lying excited states of the negative ions. Overall the computed electron affinities are in good accord with experiment. The calculations show the rapid stabilization of the 3d orbital relative to the 4p as the nuclear charge increases. The 3F(0) and 3D(0) terms are found to be close in energy in Sc(-) and in Y(-). This confirms earlier speculation that some of the peaks in the photodetachment spectra of Y(-) originate from the bound excited 3F(0) term of Y(-).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yonehara, Takehiro; Takatsuka, Kazuo
2012-12-01
We develop a theory and the method of its application for chemical dynamics in systems, in which the adiabatic potential energy hyper-surfaces (PES) are densely quasi-degenerate to each other in a wide range of molecular geometry. Such adiabatic electronic states tend to couple each other through strong nonadiabatic interactions. Technically, therefore, it is often extremely hard to accurately single out the individual PES in those systems. Moreover, due to the mutual nonadiabatic couplings that may spread wide in space and due to the energy-time uncertainty relation, the notion of the isolated and well-defined potential energy surface should lose the sense. On the other hand, such dense electronic states should offer a very interesting molecular field in which chemical reactions to proceed in characteristic manners. However, to treat these systems, the standard theoretical framework of chemical reaction dynamics, which starts from the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and ends up with quantum nuclear wavepacket dynamics, is not very useful. We here explore this problem with our developed nonadiabatic electron wavepacket theory, which we call the phase-space averaging and natural branching (PSANB) method [T. Yonehara and K. Takatsuka, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 134109 (2008)], 10.1063/1.2987302, or branching-path representation, in which the packets are propagated in time along the non-Born-Oppenheimer branching paths. In this paper, after outlining the basic theory, we examine using a one-dimensional model how well the PSANB method works with such densely quasi-degenerate nonadiabatic systems. To do so, we compare the performance of PSANB with the full quantum mechanical results and those given by the fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH) method, which is known to be one of the most reliable and flexible methods to date. It turns out that the PSANB electron wavepacket approach actually yields very good results with far fewer initial sampling paths. Then we apply the
Li, Qianshu; Li, Guoliang; Xu, Wenguo; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F
2002-02-15
A systematic investigation of Ge2Fn/Ge2Fn- systems was carried out with five density functional theory (DFT) methods in conjunction with DZP++ basis sets. For each compound various structures, including minima, transition states and other energetically low lying stationary points, were optimized. The geometries and relative energies are discussed and compared. Adiabatic electron affinities, vertical electron affinities and anion vertical detachment energies are reported. Three types of dissociation energies pertaining to the global minima for each compound are reported. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the limited available experimental results. Many unusual structural features are predicted for these systems. Neutral Ge2F is predicted to have a bridged C2v structure, while its anion is very floppy, with the bridged structure very slightly favoured. The Ge2F2 molecule is predicted to have the butterfly structure known from experiment for Si2H2, while the Ge2F3- ion has a trans-bent structure. Ge2F3 is predicted to have an unprecedented FGe-F-GeF structure with no Ge-Ge bond, while its anion has a somewhat more conventional monobridged structure, analogous to that of the nonclassical vinyl cation. Neutral Ge2F4 has a dibridged structure of C2h symmetry, while its anion has a trans-bent structure with a very long Ge-Ge bond. The Ge2F5 molecule is doubly bridged and has no Ge-Ge bond, while the anion is of the type F2Ge-F-GeF2, again with no Ge-Ge bond. Ge2F6 has the anticipated ethane structure, as does its anion, but with a very long Ge-Ge bond. The adiabatic electron affinities (EAad) are predicted to be 2.12 (Ge2F), 2.03 (Ge2F2), 2.02 (Ge2F3), 1.64 (Ge2F4), 4.57 (Ge2F5), and 2.66 eV (Ge2F6), respectively, by the BHLYP method, which is regarded as the best method in the present paper for predicting EAs. Comparisons with the analogous C2Fn and Si2Fn systems reveals some interesting trends and differences. For example, while C2F6 will not
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiao, Juntao; Xiao, Dengming; Zhao, Xiaoling; Deng, Yunkun
2016-05-01
It is necessary to find an efficient selection method to pre-analyze the gas electric strength from the perspective of molecule structure and the properties for finding the alternative gases to sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). As the properties of gas are determined by the gas molecule structure, the research on the relationship between the gas molecule structure and the electric strength can contribute to the gas pre-screening and new gas development. In this paper, we calculated the vertical electron affinity, molecule orbits distribution and orbits energy of gas molecules by the means of density functional theory (DFT) for the typical structures of organic gases and compared their electric strengths. By this method, we find part of the key properties of the molecule which are related to the electric strength, including the vertical electron affinity, the lowest unoccupied molecule orbit (LUMO) energy, molecule orbits distribution and negative-ion system energy. We also listed some molecule groups such as unsaturated carbons double bonds (C=C) and carbonitrile bonds (C≡N) which have high electric strength theoretically by this method. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51177101 and 51337006)
Electron affinities of the first-row atoms revisited. Systematic basis sets and wave functions
Kendall, R.A.; Dunning, T.H. Jr. ); Harrison, R.J. )
1992-05-01
The calculation of accurate electron affinities (EAs) of atomic or molecular species is one of the most challenging tasks in quantum chemistry. We describe a reliable procedure for calculating the electron affinity of an atom and present results for hydrogen, boron, carbon, oxygen, and fluorine (hydrogen is included for completeness). This procedure involves the use of the recently proposed correlation-consistent basis sets augmented with functions to describe the more diffuse character of the atomic anion coupled with a straightforward, uniform expansion of the reference space for multireference singles and doubles configuration-interaction (MRSD-CI) calculations. Comparison with previous results and with corresponding full CI calculations are given. The most accurate EAs obtained from the MRSD-CI calculations are (with experimental values in parentheses) hydrogen 0.740 eV (0.754), boron 0.258 (0.277), carbon 1.245 (1.263), oxygen 1.384 (1.461), and fluorine 3.337 (3.401). The EAs obtained from the MR-SDCI calculations differ by less than 0.03 eV from those predicted by the full CI calculations.
Ab initio electron affinity and hyperfine structure constants of ^231Pa:
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dinov, Konstantin D.; Beck, Donald R.
1996-05-01
We have performed valence shell Relativistic Configuration Interaction calculations(Konstantin D. Dinov and Donald R. Beck, Electron affinity and hyperfine structure constants of Pa^-: 7p attachment.) Submitted to Phys. Rev. A for the Electron Affinity (EA) of ^231Pa. Our result of 0.222 eV for the binding energy of the Pa^- 5f^2 6d 7s^2 7p J=6 state is consistent with the experimental yield(X-L. Zhao, M-J. Nadeau, M.A. Garwan, L.R. Kilius and A.E. Litherland, Nuc. Instr. Meth. B 92), 258-64 (1994). Our result for the hyperfine structure constants of Pa^-, is the first available ab initio result. No other bound states were found for the 7p attachment. We didn't find evidence to support possible 5d attachment in this system. This work extends our previous calculations for the Rare Earth negative ions(K.D. Dinov and D.R. Beck, Phys. Rev. A 52) , 2632-37 (1995); K. Dinov and D.R. Beck, Phys. Rev. A 51 (2), 1680-82 (1995); K. Dinov, D.R. Beck and D. Datta, Phys. Rev. A 50 (2), 1144-48 (1994).
Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Mirfasih, Mohammad Hassan; Hasanzadeh, Soheil; Aashuri, Hossein; Simchi, Abdolreza
2016-04-28
During the last decade, solution-processed colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have attracted significant attention for low-cost fabrication of optoelectronic devices. In this study, lead sulfide (PbS) CQDs were synthesized via the hot injection method and the effect of doping elements with low electron affinity, including cadmium, calcium and zinc, on the passivation of trap states was investigated. A red-shift in the luminescence emission was observed by doping through passivation of lead dangling bonds. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements showed that the lifetime of charged carriers was significantly enhanced by cadmium doping (∼80%) which is quite noticeable compared with calcium- and zinc-doped nanocrystals. External quantum efficiency measurements on thin solid films (∼300 nm) prepared by spin coating supported improved lifetime of carriers through passivation of mid-gap trap states. In order to show the potential application of the doping process, bulk heterojunction CQD solar cells were fabricated. It was found that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) was improved up to ∼40%; the highest improvement was observed with the Cd treatment. Finally, density functional theory (DFT) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to study the effect of doping on the density of states. The results showed that doping with low electron affinity metals effectively reduced the deep trap states of PbS QDs. PMID:27075607
Photoemission Study of Cs-NF3 Activated GaAs(100) Negative Electron Affinity Photocathodes
Liu, Z.; Sun, Y.; Peterson, S.; Pianetta, P.
2008-05-28
GaAs based negative electron affinity photocathodes activated with Cs and NF{sub 3} are used as polarized electron sources for linear accelerators. It is generally believed that the activation layer consists of CsF. The activation layers of Cs-NF{sub 3} on GaAs photocathodes are herein investigated using synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-PES). F1s, N1s and other core levels are recorded at photon energies ranging from 70eV to 820eV. Surprisingly, a significant amount of nitrogen is observed in the activation layers. Two distinct species of nitrogen are observed, one of which decreases along with the Fluorine signal as the yield of the photocathode decays with time.
Accurate Electron Affinity of Iron and Fine Structures of Negative Iron ions
Chen, Xiaolin; Luo, Zhihong; Li, Jiaming; Ning, Chuangang
2016-01-01
Ionization potential (IP) is defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron of an atom, while electron affinity (EA) is defined as the amount of energy released when an electron is attached to a neutral atom. Both IP and EA are critical for understanding chemical properties of an element. In contrast to accurate IPs and structures of neutral atoms, EAs and structures of negative ions are relatively unexplored, especially for the transition metal anions. Here, we report the accurate EA value of Fe and fine structures of Fe− using the slow electron velocity imaging method. These measurements yield a very accurate EA value of Fe, 1235.93(28) cm−1 or 153.236(34) meV. The fine structures of Fe− were also successfully resolved. The present work provides a reliable benchmark for theoretical calculations, and also paves the way for improving the EA measurements of other transition metal atoms to the sub cm−1 accuracy. PMID:27138292
Accurate Electron Affinity of Iron and Fine Structures of Negative Iron ions.
Chen, Xiaolin; Luo, Zhihong; Li, Jiaming; Ning, Chuangang
2016-01-01
Ionization potential (IP) is defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron of an atom, while electron affinity (EA) is defined as the amount of energy released when an electron is attached to a neutral atom. Both IP and EA are critical for understanding chemical properties of an element. In contrast to accurate IPs and structures of neutral atoms, EAs and structures of negative ions are relatively unexplored, especially for the transition metal anions. Here, we report the accurate EA value of Fe and fine structures of Fe(-) using the slow electron velocity imaging method. These measurements yield a very accurate EA value of Fe, 1235.93(28) cm(-1) or 153.236(34) meV. The fine structures of Fe(-) were also successfully resolved. The present work provides a reliable benchmark for theoretical calculations, and also paves the way for improving the EA measurements of other transition metal atoms to the sub cm(-1) accuracy. PMID:27138292
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Haitao; Tang, Ke; Li, Yanmin; Su, Chunfang; Zhou, Zhengyu; Wang, Zhizhong
The effect of hydrogen bond interactions on ionization potentials (IPs) and electron affinities (EAs) of thymine-formamide complexes (T-F) have been investigated employing the density functional theory B3LYP at 6-311++G(d, p) basis set level. All complexes experience a geometrical change on either electron detachment or attachment, and the change might be facilitated or hindered according to the strength of the hydrogen-bonding interaction involved. The strength of hydrogen bonds presents an opposite changing trend on the two processes. A more important role that H-bonding interaction plays in the process of electron attachment than in the process of electron detachment can be seen by a comparison of the IPs and EAs of complexes with that of isolated thymine. Futhermore, the EAs of isolated thymine are in good agreement with the experimental values (AEA is 0.79 eV, VEA is -0.29 eV [Wetmore et al., Chem Phys Lett 2000, 322, 129]). The calculated total NPA charge distributions reveal that nearly all the negative charges locate on thymine monomer in the anions and even in the cationic states, there are a few negative charges on thymine monomer. An analysis of dissociation energies predicts the processes T-F+→ T++ F and T-F- → T- + F to be the most energetically favorable for T-F+ and T-F-, respectively. Content:text/plain; charset="UTF-8"
Accurate Electron Affinity of Iron and Fine Structures of Negative Iron ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xiaolin; Luo, Zhihong; Li, Jiaming; Ning, Chuangang
2016-05-01
Ionization potential (IP) is defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron of an atom, while electron affinity (EA) is defined as the amount of energy released when an electron is attached to a neutral atom. Both IP and EA are critical for understanding chemical properties of an element. In contrast to accurate IPs and structures of neutral atoms, EAs and structures of negative ions are relatively unexplored, especially for the transition metal anions. Here, we report the accurate EA value of Fe and fine structures of Fe‑ using the slow electron velocity imaging method. These measurements yield a very accurate EA value of Fe, 1235.93(28) cm‑1 or 153.236(34) meV. The fine structures of Fe‑ were also successfully resolved. The present work provides a reliable benchmark for theoretical calculations, and also paves the way for improving the EA measurements of other transition metal atoms to the sub cm‑1 accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Youngho; Jeon, Sang Ho; Cho, Youngmi; Han, Seungwu
2016-01-01
We investigate the vertical ionization potential (IP) and electron affinity (EA) of organic semiconductors in the solid state that govern the optoelectrical property of organic devices using a fully ab initio way. The present method combines the density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory based on G W approximations. To demonstrate the accuracy of this approach, we carry out calculations on several prototypical organic molecules. Since IP and EA depend on the molecular orientation at the surface, the molecular geometry of the surface is explicitly considered through the slab model. The computed IP and EA are in reasonable and consistent agreements with spectroscopic data on organic surfaces with various molecular arrangements. However, the transport gaps are slightly underestimated in calculations, which can be explained by different screening effects between surface and bulk regions.
Han, W. N.; Yonezawa, K.; Makino, R.; Kato, K.; Hinderhofer, A.; Ueno, N.; Kera, S.; Murdey, R.; Shiraishi, R.; Yoshida, H.; Sato, N.
2013-12-16
Molecular orientation dependences of the ionization energy (IE) and the electron affinity (EA) of diindenoperylene (DIP) films were studied by using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and inverse photoemission spectroscopy. The molecular orientation was controlled by preparing the DIP films on graphite and SiO{sub 2} substrates. The threshold IE and EA of DIP thin films were determined to be 5.81 and 3.53 eV for the film of flat-lying DIP orientation, respectively, and 5.38 and 3.13 eV for the film of standing DIP orientation, respectively. The result indicates that the IE and EA for the flat-lying film are larger by 0.4 eV and the frontier orbital states shift away from the vacuum level compared to the standing film. This rigid energy shift is ascribed to a surface-electrostatic potential produced by the intramolecular polar bond (>C{sup −}-H{sup +}) for standing orientation and π-electron tailing to vacuum for flat-lying orientation.
Electron Affinity of Phenyl-C61-Butyric Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM)
Larson, Bryon W.; Whitaker, James B.; Wang, Xue B.; Popov, Alexey A.; Rumbles, Garry; Kopidakis, Nikos; Strauss, Steven H.; Boltalina, Olga V.
2013-07-25
The gas-phase electron affinity (EA) of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), one of the best-performing electron acceptors in organic photovoltaic devices, is measured by lowtemperature photoelectron spectroscopy for the first time. The obtained value of 2.63(1) eV is only ca. 0.05 eV lower than that of C60 (2.68(1) eV), compared to a 0.09 V difference in their E1/2 values measured in this work by cyclic voltammetry. Literature E(LUMO) values for PCBM that are typically estimated from cyclic voltammetry, and commonly used as a quantitative measure of acceptor properties, are dispersed over a wide range between -4.3 and -3.62 eV; the reasons for such a huge discrepancy are analyzed here, and the protocol for reliable and consistent estimations of relative fullerene-based acceptor strength in solution is proposed.
Intra-cavity photodetachment microscopy and the electron affinity of germanium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bresteau, D.; Babilotte, Ph; Drag, C.; Blondel, C.
2015-06-01
A beam of Ge- ions produced by a cesium sputtering ion source is photodetached, in the presence of an electric field, inside a linear optical cavity injected with a single mode ring Ti:Sa laser. The laser wavenumber can be set either above the highest 3{{P}2} fine-structure excitation threshold or just above the 3{{P}1}, intermediate fine-structure threshold of the 3P ground-term of Ge I. A single-electron interferogram is produced, according to the principles of photodetachment microscopy, which contains both photoelectron energies produced by the two opposite wave vectors contained in the optical cavity. This makes the Doppler-free measurement of the photodetachment threshold even more direct than with the usual double-spot photodetachment microscopy method, at the expense of some reduction of the contrast in the interferograms. Both methods concur in producing a revised value of the electron affinity of germanium: 994 220.6 (10) {{m}-1}, or 1.232 6764 (12) eV, one order of magnitude more precise and significantly smaller than the last measured value 994 249 (12) {{m}-1}, or 1.232 712 (15) eV. This new technique can be applied to weaker detachment thresholds or p-wave detachment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.; Sokolovski, D.
2008-05-01
The near-threshold electron attachment in Au and Pt atoms is investigated as Regge resonances using our recent Regge-pole methodology [1] together with a Thomas-Fermi potential which incorporates the crucial core-polarization interaction. The resultant stable negative ion states are found to have the discernable characteristic of very small imaginary parts of the Regge poles, which translates into long-lived resonances. The near-threshold electron elastic total cross sections for both Au and Pt are characterized by multiple resonances from which we extract the electron affinity (EA) values through the scrutiny of the imaginary part of the relevant complex angular momentum. For Au^- and Pt^- the extracted binding energies of 2.262 eV and 2.163 eV, respectively, are in excellent agreement with the most recently measured EA values for Au [2] and Pt [3]. Ramsauer-Townsend minima, shape resonances and the Wigner threshold behavior are identified in both Au^- and Pt^- ions.[1] D. Sokolovski et al, Phys. Rev. A 76, 012705 (2007)[2] H. Hotop and W. C. Lineberger, J. Chem. Ref. Data 14, 731 (1985)[3] R. C. Bilodeau et al, Phys. Rev. A 61, 012505 (1999)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Msezane, A. Z.; Felfli, Z.; Sokolovski, D.
2008-05-01
The recent Regge-pole methodology has been employed together with a Thomas-Fermi type potential which incorporates the vital core-polarization interaction to investigate the near-threshold electron attachment in Au and Pt as Regge resonances. The resultant stable negative ion states are found to have the discernible characteristic of very small imaginary parts of the Regge poles, which translate into long-lived resonances. The near-threshold electron elastic total cross sections are characterized by multiple resonances from which we extract the electron affinity (EA) values through the scrutiny of the imaginary part of the relevant complex angular momentum. For the Au- and Pt- negative ions the extracted binding energies of 2.262 eV and 2.163 eV, respectively are in excellent agreement with the most recently measured EA values for Au and Pt. Ramsauer-Townsend minima, shape resonances and the Wigner threshold behaviour are identified in both Au- and Pt- ions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Kazuto; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Sato, Naoki
2015-08-01
Ionization energy and electron affinity in organic solids are understood in terms of a single molecule perturbed by solid-state effects such as polarization energy, band dispersion, and molecular orientation as primary factors. However, no work has been done to determine the individual contributions experimentally. In this work, the electron affinities of thin films of pentacene and perfluoropentacene with different molecular orientations are determined to a precision of 0.1 eV using low-energy inverse photoemission spectroscopy. Based on the precisely determined electron affinities in the solid state together with the corresponding data of the ionization energies and other energy parameters, we quantitatively evaluate the contribution of these effects. It turns out that the bandwidth as well as the polarization energy contributes to the ionization energy and electron affinity in the solid state while the effect of the surface dipole is at most a few eV and does not vary with the molecular orientation. As a result, we conclude that the molecular orientation dependence of the ionization energy and electron affinity of organic solids originates from the orientation-dependent polarization energy in the film.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, H.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Richard, R. L.; Schriver, D.; El-Alaoui, M.; Walker, R. J.
2013-12-01
We investigate the spatial evolution of energetic electron distribution functions in the near-Earth plasma sheet associated with earthward propagating dipolarization fronts by using in situ observations as well as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and large scale kinetic (LSK) simulations. We have investigated two substorms, one on February 15, 2008 and the other on August 15, 2001. The February 15 event was observed by one of the THEMIS spacecraft at X_{GSM} -10RE, while the August 15 event was observed by Cluster at X -18RE. Both the MHD and LSK simulation results are compared to these spacecraft observations. Earthward propagating dipolarization fronts are found in both the observations and the MHD simulations, which exhibit very different magnetotail configurations, with contrasting flows, magnetic reconnection configuration, and plasma sheet structure. Electron LSK simulations were performed by using the time-varying magnetic and electric fields from the global MHD simulations. For the February 15, 2008 event, the electrons were launched near X = -20 RE with a thermal energy of 1 keV and for August 15, 2001 event, they were launched at 4 keV near X = -22 RE. These electrons undergo both non-adiabatic acceleration near the magnetotail reconnection region and adiabatic acceleration as they propagate earthward from the launch region. We compute the electron distribution functions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field at different locations between X = -18 RE and X = -10 RE in the plasma sheet. We find that for the February 15, 2008 event, reconnection is localized with a narrow region of high-speed flows ( 300 km/s). For this event the distribution functions show mainly f(v_perp) > f(v_par) ("par" and "perp" correspond to parallel and perpendicular to magnetic field). On August 15, 2001, there is a neutral line extending across the tail with relatively low-speed flows ( 100 km/s). For this event the distribution functions show mainly f(v_par) > f(v_perp). The
Spectral response variation of a negative-electron-affinity photocathode in the preparation process
Liu Lei; Du Yujie; Chang Benkang; Yunsheng Qian
2006-08-20
In order to research the spectral response variation of a negative electron affinity (NEA) photocathode in the preparation process, we have done two experiments on a transmission-type GaAs photocathode.First, an automatic spectral response recording system is described, which is used to take spectral response curves during the activation procedure of the photocathode. By this system, the spectral response curves of a GaAs:Cs-Ophotocathode measured in situ are presented. Then, after the cathode is sealed with a microchannel plate and a fluorescence screen into the image tube, we measure the spectral response of the tube by another measurement instrument. By way of comparing and analyzing these curves, we can find the typical variation in spectral-responses.The reasons for the variation are discussed. Based on these curves, spectral matching factors of a GaAs cathode for green vegetation and rough concrete are calculated. The visual ranges of night-vision goggles under specific circumstances are estimated. The results show that the spectral response of the NEA photocathode degraded in the sealing process, especially at long wavelengths. The variation has also influenced the whole performance of the intensifier tube.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chanlek, N.; Herbert, J. D.; Jones, R. M.; Jones, L. B.; Middleman, K. J.; Militsyn, B. L.
2015-09-01
In this paper we report the first time demonstration under extremely high vacuum (XHV) conditions of the influence of O2, CO2, CO, N2, H2 and CH4 on the quantum efficiency (QE) of negative electron affinity (NEA) gallium arsenide (GaAs) photocathodes activated with Cs and NF3. The photocathodes were exposed to a small quantity (<0.25 Langmuirs) of each gas species under test in a vacuum chamber with a typical base pressure of 1.5× {{10}-11} mbar, thereby minimising the influence of the residual gas in the photocathode response. It was found that exposure to N2, H2 and CH4 does not affect the QE of the photocathodes, whereas exposure to O2 and CO2 lead to a substantial reduction in the QE of the photocathodes. Only small degradation in the QE under CO exposure was observed. Compared to those activated with Cs and O2 in our previous study [1], photocathodes activated with Cs and NF3 are more stable, especially under exposure to CO.
Knight, Joseph W; Wang, Xiaopeng; Gallandi, Lukas; Dolgounitcheva, Olga; Ren, Xinguo; Ortiz, J Vincent; Rinke, Patrick; Körzdörfer, Thomas; Marom, Noa
2016-02-01
The performance of different GW methods is assessed for a set of 24 organic acceptors. Errors are evaluated with respect to coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] reference data for the vertical ionization potentials (IPs) and electron affinities (EAs), extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. Additional comparisons are made to experimental data, where available. We consider fully self-consistent GW (scGW), partial self-consistency in the Green's function (scGW0), non-self-consistent G0W0 based on several mean-field starting points, and a "beyond GW" second-order screened exchange (SOSEX) correction to G0W0. We also describe the implementation of the self-consistent Coulomb hole with screened exchange method (COHSEX), which serves as one of the mean-field starting points. The best performers overall are G0W0+SOSEX and G0W0 based on an IP-tuned long-range corrected hybrid functional with the former being more accurate for EAs and the latter for IPs. Both provide a balanced treatment of localized vs delocalized states and valence spectra in good agreement with photoemission spectroscopy (PES) experiments. PMID:26731609
Stanke, Monika; Kedziera, Dariusz; Bubin, Sergiy; Adamowicz, Ludwik
2007-10-01
Explicitly correlated Gaussian functions have been used to perform very accurate variational calculations for the ground states of (7)Li and (7)Li(-). The nuclear motion has been explicitly included in the calculations (i.e., they have been done without assuming the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation). An approach based on the analytical energy gradient calculated with respect to the Gaussian exponential parameters was employed. This led to a noticeable improvement of the previously determined variational upper bound to the nonrelativistic energy of Li(-). The Li energy obtained in the calculations matches those of the most accurate results obtained with Hylleraas functions. The finite-mass (non-BO) wave functions were used to calculate the alpha(2) relativistic corrections (alpha=1c). With those corrections and the alpha(3) and alpha(4) corrections taken from Pachucki and Komasa [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 204304 (2006)], the electron affinity (EA) of (7)Li was determined. It agrees very well with the most recent experimental EA. PMID:17919011
Second order effects in RCI calculations of La^-, Ce^- and Lu^- electron affinities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Malley, Steven M.; Beck, Donald R.
2000-06-01
Recent improvements in the relativistic configuration interaction method have relied upon identifying problem configurations that exhibit losses of energy contribution between consecutive stages of the calculations. These losses occur due to the differential pulling away of the manifold of interest as it is more fully correlated. To recoup some of these losses we add second order effects by including excitations from the problem configurations which are also important first order contributors to the energies of the levels of interest. Three recent studies of the rare earths La^- (S. M. O'Malley and D. R. Beck, Phys. Rev. A 60), 2558 (1999), Ce^- (S. M. O'Malley and D. R. Beck, Phys. Rev. A, in press) and Lu^- (S. M. O'Malley and D. R. Beck, submitted to Phys. Rev. A) have indicated increases in electron affinities over previous estimates by Vosko et al. (S. H. Vosko, J. B. Lagowski, I. L. Mayer and J. A. Chevary, Phys. Rev. A 43), 6389 (1991) and S. H. Vosko and J. A. Chevary, J. Phys. B 26, 873 (1993) and our own group (K. Dinov, D. R. Beck, and D. Datta, Phys. Rev. A 50), 1144 (1994) on the order of 100 meV, primarily due to inclusion of this second order correlation.
Spectral response variation of a negative-electron-affinity photocathode in the preparation process.
Liu, Lei; Du, Yujie; Chang, Benkang; Yunsheng, Qian
2006-08-20
In order to research the spectral response variation of a negative electron affinity (NEA) photocathode in the preparation process, we have done two experiments on a transmission-type GaAs photocathode. First, an automatic spectral response recording system is described, which is used to take spectral response curves during the activation procedure of the photocathode. By this system, the spectral response curves of a GaAs:Cs-O photocathode measured in situ are presented. Then, after the cathode is sealed with a microchannel plate and a fluorescence screen into the image tube, we measure the spectral response of the tube by another measurement instrument. By way of comparing and analyzing these curves, we can find the typical variation in spectral-responses. The reasons for the variation are discussed. Based on these curves, spectral matching factors of a GaAs cathode for green vegetation and rough concrete are calculated. The visual ranges of night-vision goggles under specific circumstances are estimated. The results show that the spectral response of the NEA photocathode degraded in the sealing process, especially at long wavelengths. The variation has also influenced the whole performance of the intensifier tube. PMID:16892108
Collisional destruction of circular Rydberg states by atoms with small electron affinities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironchuk, Elena S.; Narits, Alexander A.; Lebedev, Vladimir S.
2014-12-01
The results of theoretical studies of interaction between neutral targets with small electron affinities and Rydberg atoms in circular states are reported. The cross sections of collisional destruction of such states due to the resonant quenching mechanism are calculated on the basis of the semiclassical theory of nonadiabatic transitions between the ionic and Rydberg covalent terms of a quasimolecule combined with recently developed technique for exact evaluation of matrix elements. We obtain the basic formula for the square of the coupling parameter involving Rydberg nlm-state with the given values of the principal, orbital, and magnetic quantum numbers. It is employed for the derivation of explicit expressions for transitions from circular states applicable in cases of s- and p-states of negative ion temporarily formed during a collision of atoms. Numerical calculations are carried out for thermal collisions of Li∗ and Na∗ atoms with Ca(4s2) and Sr(5s2). We explore n-, l-, m-, and velocity-dependences of the cross sections and analyze orientation effects in such collisions. Cross sections of resonant quenching for circular states (l = | m | = n - 1) are shown to be much smaller than those for states with small l values and typically two times lower than for nearly-circular states (l = n - 1) averaged over m.
Zhuravlev, A. G.; Savchenko, M. L.; Paulish, A. G.; Alperovich, V. L.; Scheibler, H. E.; Jaroshevich, A. S.
2013-12-04
The dosage dependences of surface band bending and effective electron affinity under cesium deposition on the Ga-rich GaAs(001) surface, along with the relaxation of these electronic properties after switching off the Cs source are experimentally studied by means of modified photoreflectance spectroscopy and photoemission quantum yield spectroscopy. At small Cs coverages, below half of a monolayer, additional features in the dosage dependence and subsequent downward relaxation of the photoemission current are determined by the variations of band bending. At coverages above half of a monolayer the upward relaxation of the photocurrent is caused supposedly by the decrease of the electron affinity due to restructuring in the nonequilibrium cesium overlayer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zi; Bevan, Kirk H.
2016-01-01
In the present work, we study the effects of the electronic relaxation of semicore levels on polaron activation energies and dynamics. Within the framework of adiabatic ab initio theory, we utilize both static transition state theory and molecular dynamics methods for an in-depth study of polaronic hopping in delithiated LiFePO4 (FePO4). Our results show that electronic relaxation of semicore states is significant in FePO4, resulting in a lower activation barrier and kinetics that is one to two orders faster compared to the result of calculations that do not incorporate semicore states. In general, the results suggest that the relaxation of states far below the Fermi energy could dramatically impact the ab initio polaronic barrier estimates for many transition metal oxides and phosphates.
Kittell, Aaron W.; Camenisch, Theodore G.; Ratke, Joseph J.; Sidabras, Jason W.; Hyde, James S.
2011-01-01
A continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum is typically displayed as the first harmonic response to the application of 100 kHz magnetic field modulation, which is used to enhance sensitivity by reducing the level of 1/f noise. However, magnetic field modulation of any amplitude causes spectral broadening and sacrifices EPR spectral intensity by at least a factor of two. In the work presented here, a CW rapid-scan spectroscopic technique that avoids these compromises and also provides a means of avoiding 1/f noise is developed. This technique, termed non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) EPR, consists of repetitively sweeping the polarizing magnetic field in a linear manner over a spectral fragment with a small coil at a repetition rate that is sufficiently high that receiver noise, microwave phase noise, and environmental microphonics, each of which has 1/f characteristics, are overcome. Nevertheless, the rate of sweep is sufficiently slow that adiabatic responses are avoided and the spin system is always close to thermal equilibrium. The repetitively acquired spectra from the spectral fragment are averaged. Under these conditions, undistorted pure absorption spectra are obtained without broadening or loss of signal intensity. A digital filter such as a moving average is applied to remove high frequency noise, which is approximately equivalent in bandwidth to use of an integrating time constant in conventional field modulation with lock-in detection. Nitroxide spectra at L- and X-band are presented. PMID:21741868
Patrick, Christopher E. Thygesen, Kristian S.
2015-09-14
We present calculations of the correlation energies of crystalline solids and isolated systems within the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation formulation of density-functional theory. We perform a quantitative comparison of a set of model exchange-correlation kernels originally derived for the homogeneous electron gas (HEG), including the recently introduced renormalized adiabatic local-density approximation (rALDA) and also kernels which (a) satisfy known exact limits of the HEG, (b) carry a frequency dependence, or (c) display a 1/k{sup 2} divergence for small wavevectors. After generalizing the kernels to inhomogeneous systems through a reciprocal-space averaging procedure, we calculate the lattice constants and bulk moduli of a test set of 10 solids consisting of tetrahedrally bonded semiconductors (C, Si, SiC), ionic compounds (MgO, LiCl, LiF), and metals (Al, Na, Cu, Pd). We also consider the atomization energy of the H{sub 2} molecule. We compare the results calculated with different kernels to those obtained from the random-phase approximation (RPA) and to experimental measurements. We demonstrate that the model kernels correct the RPA’s tendency to overestimate the magnitude of the correlation energy whilst maintaining a high-accuracy description of structural properties.
Cotton, Stephen J; Miller, William H
2016-03-01
In a recent series of papers, it has been illustrated that a symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) windowing model applied to the Meyer-Miller (MM) classical vibronic Hamiltonian provides an excellent description of a variety of electronically non-adiabatic benchmark model systems for which exact quantum results are available for comparison. In this paper, the SQC/MM approach is used to treat energy transfer dynamics in site-exciton models of light-harvesting complexes, and in particular, the well-known 7-state Fenna-Mathews-Olson (FMO) complex. Again, numerically "exact" results are available for comparison, here via the hierarchical equation of motion (HEOM) approach of Ishizaki and Fleming, and it is seen that the simple SQC/MM approach provides very reasonable agreement with the previous HEOM results. It is noted, however, that unlike most (if not all) simple approaches for treating these systems, because the SQC/MM approach presents a fully atomistic simulation based on classical trajectory simulation, it places no restrictions on the characteristics of the thermal baths coupled to each two-level site, e.g., bath spectral densities (SD) of any analytic functional form may be employed as well as discrete SD determined experimentally or from MD simulation (nor is there any restriction that the baths be harmonic), opening up the possibility of simulating more realistic variations on the basic site-exciton framework for describing the non-adiabatic dynamics of photosynthetic pigment complexes. PMID:26761191
Calculation of the electron affinities of the second row atoms: Al--Cl
Woon, D.E.; Dunning, T.H. Jr. )
1993-09-01
The electron affinities (EAs) of aluminum through chlorine have been calculated with multireference single and double excitation configuration interaction calculations (MRSD-CI) with the augmented correlation consistent basis sets of Woon and Dunning [J. Chem. Phys. [bold 98], 1358 (1993)]. The orbital space for the complete active space (CAS) wave functions is systematically expanded beyond the Hartree--Fock wave function by inclusion of additional [ital s], [ital p], and [ital d] orbitals. This approach provides a well balanced treatment of the neutral and ionic charge states and led to accurate EAs for hydrogen and the first row atoms [R. A. Kendall, T. H. Dunning, Jr., and R. J. Harrison, J. Chem. Phys. [bold 96], 6796 (1992)]. The best MRSD-CI values for the EAs (in eV) of the second row atoms are Al, 0.440; Si, 1.413; P, 0.689; S, 2.023; and Cl, 3.606. Inclusion of spin--orbit effects in the calculated EAs yields (experimental values in parentheses): Al, 0.437 (0.441); Si, 1.395 (1.385); P, 0.700 (0.746); S, 2.019 (2.077); and Cl, 3.570 (3.613). The amenability of the correlation consistent basis sets for extrapolating to the complete basis set limit has also been exploited in this work. The neutral and anion energies are extrapolated separately in order to account for the different convergence rates in the energies of the two species. The extrapolated values of the EAs, including an empirical spin--orbit correction, are Al, 0.438; Si, 1.395; P, 0.713; S, 2.047; and Cl, 3.596. Additional calculations suggest that the remaining error is a measure of the residual imbalance in the MRSD-CI treatments of the neutral and anion. Extrapolated EAs for the first row atoms are also reported.
Computational study on the negative electron affinities of NO2 -.(H2O)n clusters (n=0-30).
Ejsing, Anne Marie; Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen
2007-04-21
Here we report negative electron affinities of NO(2)(-).(H2O)n clusters (n=0-30) obtained from density functional theory calculations and a simple correction to Koopmans' theorem. The method relies on the calculation of the detachment energy of the monoanion and its highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies, and explicit calculations on the dianion itself are avoided. A good agreement with resonances in the cross section for neutral production in electron scattering experiments is found for n=0, 1, and 2. We find several isomeric structures of NO(2)(-).(H2O)2 of similar energy that elucidate the interplay between water-water and ion-water interactions. The topology is predicted to influence the electron affinity by 0.5 and 0.4 eV for NO(2)(-).(H2O) and NO(2)(-).(H2O)2, respectively. The electron affinity of larger clusters is shown to follow a (n+delta)-1/3 dependence, where delta=3 represents the number of water molecules that in volume, could replace NO(2) (-). PMID:17461632
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodrich, C. C.; Scudder, J. D.
1984-01-01
The adiabatic energy gain of electrons in the stationary electric and magnetic field structure of collisionless shock waves was examined analytically in reference to conditions of the earth's bow shock. The study was performed to characterize the behavior of electrons interacting with the cross-shock potential. A normal incidence frame (NIF) was adopted in order to calculate the reversible energy change across a time stationary shock, and comparisons were made with predictions made by the de Hoffman-Teller (HT) model (1950). The electron energy gain, about 20-50 eV, is demonstrated to be consistent with a 200-500 eV potential jump in the bow shock quasi-perpendicular geometry. The electrons lose energy working against the solar wind motional electric field. The reversible energy process is close to that modeled by HT, which predicts that the motional electric field vanishes and the electron energy gain from the electric potential is equated to the ion energy loss to the potential.
Petrič, Andrej; Johnson, Scott A.; Pham, Hung V.; Li, Ying; Čeh, Simon; Golobič, Amalija; Agdeppa, Eric D.; Timbol, Gerald; Liu, Jie; Keum, Gyochang; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Kepe, Vladimir; Houk, Kendall N.; Barrio, Jorge R.
2012-01-01
The positron-emission tomography (PET) probe 2-(1-[6-[(2-fluoroethyl)(methyl)amino]-2-naphthyl]ethylidene) (FDDNP) is used for the noninvasive brain imaging of amyloid-β (Aβ) and other amyloid aggregates present in Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. A series of FDDNP analogs has been synthesized and characterized using spectroscopic and computational methods. The binding affinities of these molecules have been measured experimentally and explained through the use of a computational model. The analogs were created by systematically modifying the donor and the acceptor sides of FDDNP to learn the structural requirements for optimal binding to Aβ aggregates. FDDNP and its analogs are neutral, environmentally sensitive, fluorescent molecules with high dipole moments, as evidenced by their spectroscopic properties and dipole moment calculations. The preferred solution-state conformation of these compounds is directly related to the binding affinities. The extreme cases were a nonplanar analog t-butyl-FDDNP, which shows low binding affinity for Aβ aggregates (520 nM Ki) in vitro and a nearly planar tricyclic analog cDDNP, which displayed the highest binding affinity (10 pM Ki). Using a previously published X-ray crystallographic model of 1,1-dicyano-2-[6-(dimethylamino)naphthalen-2-yl]propene (DDNP) bound to an amyloidogenic Aβ peptide model, we show that the binding affinity is inversely related to the distortion energy necessary to avoid steric clashes along the internal surface of the binding channel. PMID:23012452
Kotelnikov, A I; Ortega, J M; Medvedev, E S; Psikha, B L; Garcia, D; Mathis, P
2002-05-15
The broad set of nonexponential electron transfer (ET) kinetics in reaction centers (RC) from Rhodopseudomonas sulfoviridis in temperature range 297-40 K are described within a mixed adiabatic/nonadiabatic model. The key point of the model is the combination of Sumi-Marcus and Rips-Jortner approaches which can be represented by the separate contributions of temperature-independent vibrational (v) and temperature-dependent diffusive (d) coordinates to the preexponential factor, to the free energy of reaction DeltaG=DeltaG(v)+DeltaG(d)(T) and to the reorganization energy lambda=lambda(v)+lambda(d)(T). The broad distribution of protein dielectric relaxation times along the diffusive coordinate is considered within the Davidson-Cole formalism. PMID:12009432
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saheer, V. C.; Kumar, Sanjay
2016-01-01
The global ground and first three excited electronic state adiabatic as well as the corresponding quasidiabatic potential energy surfaces is reported as a function of nuclear geometries in the Jacobi coordinates ( R → , r → , γ ) using Dunning's cc-pVTZ basis set at the internally contracted multi-reference (single and double) configuration interaction level of accuracy. Nonadiabatic couplings, arising out of relative motion of proton and the vibrational motion of CO, are also reported in terms of coupling potentials. The quasidiabatic potential energy surfaces and the coupling potentials have been obtained using the ab initio procedure [Simah et al., J. Chem. Phys. 111, 4523 (1999)] for the purpose of dynamics studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panda, C. D.; O'Leary, B. R.; West, A. D.; Baron, J.; Hess, P. W.; Hoffman, C.; Kirilov, E.; Overstreet, C. B.; West, E. P.; DeMille, D.; Doyle, J. M.; Gabrielse, G.
2016-05-01
Experimental searches for the electron electric-dipole moment (EDM) probe new physics beyond the standard model. The current best EDM limit was set by the ACME Collaboration [Science 343, 269 (2014), 10.1126/science.1248213], constraining time-reversal symmetry (T ) violating physics at the TeV energy scale. ACME used optical pumping to prepare a coherent superposition of ThO H3Δ1 states that have aligned electron spins. Spin precession due to the molecule's internal electric field was measured to extract the EDM. We report here on an improved method for preparing this spin-aligned state of the electron by using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). We demonstrate a transfer efficiency of 75 %±5 % , representing a significant gain in signal for a next-generation EDM experiment. We discuss the particularities of implementing STIRAP in systems such as ours, where molecular ensembles with large phase-space distributions are transferred via weak molecular transitions with limited laser power and limited optical access.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ladner, D. R.; Martinez-Galarce, D. S.; McCammon, D.
2006-04-01
An X-ray detection instrument to be flown on a sounding rocket experiment (the Advanced Technology Solar Spectroscopic Imager - ATSSI) for solar physics observations is being developed by the Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory (LMSAL). The detector is a novel class of microcalorimeter, a superconducting Transition-Edge Sensor (TES), that coupled with associated SQUID and feedback electronics requires high temperature stability at ~70 mK to resolve the energy of absorbed X-ray photons emitted from the solar corona. The cooling system incorporates an existing Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) developed at the University of Wisconsin (UW), which was previously flown to study the diffuse cosmic X-ray background. The Si thermistor detectors for that project required 130 K shielded JFET electronic components that are much less sensitive to the external field of the ADR solenoid than are the 1st (~70 mK) and 2nd (~2 K) SQUID stages used with TESs for solar observations. Modification of the Wisconsin ADR design, including TES focal plane and electronics re-positioning, therefore requires a tradeoff between the existing ADR solenoid nulling coil geometry and a low mass passive solenoid shield, while preserving the vibration isolation features of the existing design. We have developed models to accurately compute the magnetic field with and without shielding or nulling coils at critical locations to guide the re-design of the detector subsystem. The models and their application are described.
Hoye, Robert L Z; Chua, Matthew R; Musselman, Kevin P; Li, Guangru; Lai, May-Ling; Tan, Zhi-Kuang; Greenham, Neil C; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L; Friend, Richard H; Credgington, Dan
2015-02-25
Fluorene-free perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with low turn-on voltages, higher luminance and sharp, color-pure electroluminescence are obtained by replacing the F8 electron injector with ZnO, which is directly deposited onto the CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite using spatial atmospheric atomic layer deposition. The electron injection barrier can also be reduced by decreasing the ZnO electron affinity through Mg incorporation, leading to lower turn-on voltages. PMID:25573086
High-Affinity Proton Donors Promote Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer by Samarium Diiodide.
Chciuk, Tesia V; Anderson, William R; Flowers, Robert A
2016-05-10
The relationship between proton-donor affinity for Sm(II) ions and the reduction of two substrates (anthracene and benzyl chloride) was examined. A combination of spectroscopic, thermochemical, and kinetic studies show that only those proton donors that coordinate or chelate strongly to Sm(II) promote anthracene reduction through a PCET process. These studies demonstrate that the combination of Sm(II) ions and water does not provide a unique reagent system for formal hydrogen atom transfer to substrates. PMID:27061351
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Lingling; Qu, Yizhi; Liu, Chunhua; Wang, Jianguo; Buenker, Robert J.
2012-03-01
An ab initio multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (CI) study is carried out for the ground and excited electronic states of alkali-hydride cations (LiH+, NaH+, KH+, RbH+, and CsH+). For all alkali-metal atoms, the first inner-shell and valence electrons (nine active electrons, three for Li) are considered explicitly in the ab initio self-consistent-field and CI calculations. The adiabatic potential energy curves, radial and rotational couplings are calculated and presented. Short-range (˜3 a.u.) potential wells produced by the excitation of the inner-shell electrons are found. The depths of the inner potential wells are much greater than those of the outer wells for the CsH+ system. The computed spectroscopic constants for the long-range potential well of the 2 2Σ+ state are very close to the available theoretical and experimental data. The electronic states of alkali-hydrogen cations are also compared with each other, it is found that the positions of the potential wells shift to larger internuclear distances gradually, and the depths of these potential wells become greater with increasing alkali-metal atomic number. The relationships between structures of the radial coupling matrix elements and the avoiding crossings of the potential curves are analyzed. From NaH+ to CsH+, radial coupling matrix elements display more and more complex structures due to the gradual decrease of energy separations for avoided crossings. Finally, the behavior of some rotational couplings is also shown.
Liu, Jinfeng; He, Xiao; Zhang, John Z H
2013-06-24
Docking programs that use scoring functions to estimate binding affinities of small molecules to biological targets are widely applied in drug design and drug screening with partial success. But accurate and efficient scoring functions for protein-ligand binding affinity still present a grand challenge to computational chemists. In this study, the polarized protein-specific charge model (PPC) is incorporated into the molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) method to rescore the binding poses of some protein-ligand complexes, for which docking programs, such as Autodock, could not predict their binding modes correctly. Different sampling techniques (single minimized conformation and multiple molecular dynamics (MD) snapshots) are used to test the performance of MM/PBSA combined with the PPC model. Our results show the availability and effectiveness of this approach in correctly ranking the binding poses. More importantly, the bridging water molecules are found to play an important role in correctly determining the protein-ligand binding modes. Explicitly including these bridging water molecules in MM/PBSA calculations improves the prediction accuracy significantly. Our study sheds light on the importance of both bridging water molecules and the electronic polarization in the development of more reliable scoring functions for predicting molecular docking and protein-ligand binding affinity. PMID:23651068
Use of a high electron-affinity molybdenum dithiolene complex to p-dope hole-transport layers.
Qi, Yabing; Sajoto, Tissa; Barlow, Stephen; Kim, Eung-Gun; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Marder, Seth R; Kahn, Antoine
2009-09-01
Experimental and theoretical results are presented on the electronic structure of molybdenum tris[1,2-bis(trifluoromethyl) ethane-1,2-dithiolene] (Mo(tfd)(3)), a high electron-affinity organometallic complex that constitutes a promising candidate as a p-dopant for organic molecular semiconductors. The electron affinity of the compound, determined via inverse photoemission spectroscopy, is 5.6 eV, which is 0.4 eV larger than that of the commonly used p-dopant F(4)-TCNQ. The LUMO level of Mo(tfd)(3) is calculated to be delocalized over the whole molecule, which is expected to lead to low pinning potential. Efficient p-doping of a standard hole transport material (alpha-NPD) is demonstrated via measurements of Fermi level shifts and enhanced conductivity in alpha-NPD:1% Mo(tfd)(3). Rutherford backscattering measurements show good stability of the three-dimensional Mo(tfd)(3) molecule in the host matrix with respect to diffusion. PMID:19678703
Kurashov, V N; Lovyagina, E R; Shkolnikov, D Yu; Solntsev, M K; Mamedov, M D; Semin, B K
2009-12-01
In the manganese-depleted photosystem II (PSII[-Mn]) preparations, oxidation of exogenous electron donors is carried out through the high-affinity (HA) and the low-affinity (LA) sites. This paper investigates the LA oxidation site in the PSII(-Mn) preparations where the HA, Mn-binding site was blocked with ferric cations [[11] B.K. Semin, M.L. Ghirardi, M. Seibert, Blocking of electron donation by Mn(II) to Y(Z)(*) following incubation of Mn-depleted photosystem II membranes with Fe(II) in the light, Biochemistry 41 (2002) 5854-5864.]. In blocked (PSII[-Mn,+Fe]) preparations electron donation by Mn(II) cations to Y(Z)(*) was not detected at Mn(II) concentration 10 microM (corresponds to K(m) for Mn(II) oxidation at the HA site), but detected at Mn concentration 100 microM (corresponds to K(m) for the LA site) by fluorescence measurements. Comparison of pH-dependencies of electron donation by Mn(II) through the HA and the LA sites revealed the similar pK(a) equal to 6.8. Comparison of K(m) for diphenylcarbazide (DPC) oxidation at the LA site and K(d) for A(T) thermoluminescence band suppression by DPC in PSII(-Mn,+Fe) samples suggests that there is relationship between the LA site and A(T) band formation. The role of D1-His190 as an oxidant of exogenous electron donors at the LA site is discussed. In contrast to electrogenic electron transfer from Mn(II) at the HA site to Y(Z)(*), photovoltage due to Mn(II) oxidation in iron-blocked PSII(-Mn) core particles was not detected. PMID:19616503
Chang, Zhiwei; Li, Jiguang; Dong, Chenzhong
2010-12-30
Multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method was employed to calculate the first five ionization potentials, electron affinities, resonance excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and radii for the element Uus and its homologue At. Main valence correlation effects were taken into account. The Breit interaction and QED effects were also estimated. The uncertainties of calculated IPs, EAs, and IR for Uus and At were reduced through an extrapolation procedure. The good consistency with available experimental and other theoretical values demonstrates the validity of the present results. These theoretical data therefore can be used to predict some unknown physicochemical properties of element Uus, Astatine, and their compounds. PMID:21141866
Lin, Lin; Yang, Jucai
2015-06-01
The structures and energies of copper-doped small silicon clusters CuSi n (n = 4-10) and their anions were investigated systematically using CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ-DK//MP2/6-31G(2df,p), G4//MP2/6-31G(2df,p), and the B3LYP/6-311+G* basis set. The performance of the methods used for the prediction of energetic and thermodynamic properties was evaluated. Comparing experimental [Xu et al. (2012) J Chem Phys 136:104308] and theoretical calculations, it was concluded that the CCSD(T) results are very accurate and exhibit the best performance; the mean absolute deviation from experimental data was 0.043 eV. The excellent agreement of vertical detachment energy (VDE) between experimental results and CCSD(T) calculations indicates that the ground state structures of CuSi n (-) (n = 4-10) presented in this paper are reliable. For CuSi10, assigning 2.90±0.08 eV to the experimental adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) and 3.90±0.08 eV to the VDE is more reasonable than to 3.46±0.08 eV and 3.62±0.08 eV, respectively, based on the CCSD(T) calculations and the previous photoelectron spectrum of CuSi10 (-) (Xu et al., op. cit.). The AEAs of CuSi n (n = 4-10), excluding CuSi7, are in excellent agreement with experimental data, showing that the ground state structures of CuSi n (n = 4-6, 8-10) reported in this paper are reliable. CuSi10 is suggested to be the smallest endohedral ground state structure. However, adding an additional electron to CuSi10 pulls out the Cu atom from the center location, forming an exohedral ground state structure of CuSi10 (-). The charge transfer and dissociation energy of Cu from CuSi n and their anions determined to examine the nature of bonding and their relative stabilities. PMID:26003428
Kittell, Aaron W.; Hustedt, Eric J.; Hyde, James S.
2014-01-01
Site-directed spin-labeling electron paramagnetic resonance (SDSL EPR) provides insight into the local structure and motion of a spin probe strategically attached to a molecule. When a second spin is introduced to the system, macromolecular information can be obtained through measurement of inter-spin distances either by continuous wave (CW) or pulsed electron double resonance (ELDOR) techniques. If both methodologies are considered, inter-spin distances of 8 to 80 Å can be experimentally determined. However, there exists a region at the upper limit of the conventional X-band (9.5 GHz) CW technique and the lower limit of the four-pulse double electron-electron resonance (DEER) experiment where neither method is particularly reliable. The work presented here utilizes L-band (1.9 GHz) in combination with non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) EPR to address this opportunity by increasing the upper limit of the CW technique. Because L-band linewidths are three to seven times narrower than those at X-band, dipolar broadenings that are small relative to the X-band inhomogeneous linewidth become observable, but the signal loss due to the frequency dependence of the Boltzmann factor, has made L-band especially challenging. NARS has been shown to increase sensitivity by a factor of five, and overcomes much of this loss, making L-band distance determination more feasible [1]. Two different systems are presented and distances of 18–30 Å have been experimentally determined at physiologically relevant temperatures. Measurements are in excellent agreement with a helical model and values determined by DEER. PMID:22750251
Cotton, Stephen J; Miller, William H
2015-12-17
A recent series of papers has shown that a symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) windowing procedure applied to the Meyer-Miller (MM) classical vibronic Hamiltonian provides a very good treatment of electronically nonadiabatic processes in a variety of benchmark model systems, including systems that exhibit strong quantum coherence effects and some which other approximate approaches have difficulty in describing correctly. In this paper, a different classical electronic Hamiltonian for the treatment of electronically nonadiabatic processes is proposed (and "quantized" via the SQC windowing approach), which maps the dynamics of F coupled electronic states to a set of F spin-(1)/2 degrees of freedom (DOF), similar to the Fermionic spin model described by Miller and White (J. Chem. Phys. 1986, 84, 5059). It is noted that this spin-mapping (SM) Hamiltonian is an exact Hamiltonian if treated as a quantum mechanical (QM) operator-and thus QM'ly equivalent to the MM Hamiltonian-but that an analytically distinct classical analogue is obtained by replacing the QM spin-operators with their classical counterparts. Due to their analytic differences, a practical comparison is then made between the MM and SM Hamiltonians (when quantized with the SQC technique) by applying the latter to many of the same benchmark test problems successfully treated in our recent work with the SQC/MM model. We find that for every benchmark problem the MM model provides (slightly) better agreement with the correct quantum nonadiabatic transition probabilities than does the new SM model. This is despite the fact that one might expect, a priori, a more natural description of electronic state populations (occupied versus unoccupied) to be provided by DOF with only two states, i.e., spin-(1)/2 DOF, rather than by harmonic oscillator DOF which have an infinite manifold of states (though only two of these are ever occupied). PMID:26299361
Capturing enveloped viruses on affinity grids for downstream cryo-electron microscopy applications
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Electron microscopy cryo-electron microscopy and cryo-electron tomography are essential techniques used for characterizing basic virus morphology and determining the three-dimensional structure of viruses. Enveloped viruses, which contain an outer lipoprotein coat, constitute the largest group of pa...
Adiabatic potential-energy curves of long-range Rydberg molecules: Two-electron R -matrix approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarana, Michal; Čurík, Roman
2016-01-01
We introduce a computational method developed for study of long-range molecular Rydberg states of such systems that can be approximated by two electrons in a model potential of the atomic cores. Only diatomic molecules are considered. The method is based on a two-electron R -matrix approach inside a sphere centered on one of the atoms. The wave function is then connected to a Coulomb region outside the sphere via a multichannel version of the Coulomb Green's function. This approach is put into a test by its application to a study of Rydberg states of the hydrogen molecule for internuclear distances R from 20 to 400 bohrs and energies corresponding to n from 3 to 22. The results are compared with previous quantum chemical calculations (lower quantum numbers n ) and computations based on contact-potential models (higher quantum numbers n ).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, L.
2013-12-01
By removing the influences of 'magnetopause shadowing' (r0>6.6RE) and geomagnetic activities, we investigated statistically the responses of magnetic field and relativistic (>0.5MeV) electrons at geosynchronous orbit to 201 interplanetary perturbations during 6 years from 2003 (solar maximum) to 2008 (solar minimum). The statistical results indicate that during geomagnetically quiet times (HSYM ≥-30nT, and AE<200nT), ~47.3% changes in the geosynchronous magnetic field and relativistic electron fluxes are caused by the combined actions of the enhancement of solar wind dynamic pressure (Pd) and the southward turning of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) (ΔPd>0.4 nPa, and IMF Bz<0 nT), and only ~18.4% changes are due to single dynamic pressure increase (ΔPd >0.4 nPa, but IMF Bz>0 nT), and ~34.3% changes are due to single southward turning of IMF (IMF Bz<0 nT, but |ΔPd|<0.4 nPa). Although the responses of magnetic field and relativistic electrons to the southward turning of IMF are weaker than their responses to the dynamic pressure increase, the southward turning of IMF can cause the dawn-dusk asymmetric perturbations that the magnetic field and the relativistic electrons tend to increase on the dawnside (LT~00:00-12:00) but decrease on the duskside (LT~13:00-23:00). Furthermore, the variation of relativistic electron fluxes is adiabatically controlled by the magnitude and elevation angle changes of magnetic field during the single IMF southward turnings. However, the variation of relativistic electron fluxes is independent of the change in magnetic field in some compression regions during the enhancement of solar wind dynamic pressure (including the single pressure increases and the combined external perturbations), indicating that nonadiabatic dynamic processes of relativistic electrons occur there. Acknowledgments. This work is supported by NSFC (grants 41074119 and 40604018). Liuyuan Li is grateful to the staffs working for the data from GOES 8-12 satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korona, Tatiana
2012-02-01
A possibility to calculate electron affinities (EAs) by a software devised for electron excitations is exploited to examine the accuracy of a partly local EA-EOM-CCSD method. In the proposed approach local approximations are applied to the ground-state coupled cluster wave function, while the EAs themselves are obtained in a full configurational space. The results of a numerical test for 14 molecules show that already with standard local settings the method reproduces the nonlocal EAs with the average error of 0.009 eV. Since the EA-EOM step of the calculation requires less computational resources than the computation of the CCSD ground state, the proposed hybrid approach can become a valuable tool for obtaining the EAs for molecules, which are too large for a canonical CCSD calculation, but still small enough for the EA-EOM step to be performed in a nonlocal way.
First- and second-electron affinities of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} isomers
Zettergren, Henning; Alcami, Manuel; Martin, Fernando
2007-10-15
We present density functional theory calculations of C{sub 60}{sup q-} and C{sub 70}{sup q-} (q=0-2) isomers that contain zero to three pairs of adjacent pentagons. The first- and second-electron affinities for the archetype structures of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} are close to the experimental results, while isomers with pentagon adjacencies have significantly higher values. The results are rationalized in view of the numbers and locations of pentagon adjacencies in the fullerene cages and the spherical aromaticity for the magic number C{sub 70}{sup 2-} with a closed (l=5) electronic shell in the spherical gas model.
Crystal, J.; Friesner, R.A.
2000-03-23
Ionization potentials (IP) and electron affinities (EA) are calculated for bacteriopheophytin (BPh) and bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) in the photosynthetic reaction center utilizing density functional methods implemented in a parallel version of the JAGUAR electronic structure code. These quantities are studied as a function of basis set size and molecular geometry. The results indicate the necessity of using large basis sets with diffuse functions in order to obtain reliable IP and EA in the gas phase. The relative reduction potentials of BChl and BPh in dimethylformamide solution are also calculated and compared with experimental results. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is obtained when ligand binding of solvent molecules to the central Mg atom of BNhl is incorporated in the calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Guo-Zhu; Wang, Lai-Sheng
2015-12-01
Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) is widely used as an electron acceptor to form highly conducting organic charge-transfer solids. Surprisingly, the electron affinity (EA) of TCNQ is not well known and has never been directly measured. Here, we report vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) of the TCNQ- anion produced using electrospray and cooled in a cryogenic ion trap. Photoelectron spectrum taken at 354.7 nm represents the detachment transition from the ground state of TCNQ- to that of neutral TCNQ with a short vibrational progression. The EA of TCNQ is measured accurately to be 3.383 ± 0.001 eV (27 289 ± 8 cm-1), compared to the 2.8 ± 0.1 eV value known in the literature and measured previously using collisional ionization technique. In addition, six vibrational peaks are observed in the photoelectron spectrum, yielding vibrational frequencies for three totally symmetric modes of TCNQ. Two-photon PES via a bound electronic excited state of TCNQ- at 3.100 eV yields a broad low kinetic energy peak due to fast internal conversion to vibrationally excited levels of the anion ground electronic state. The high EA measured for TCNQ underlies its ability as a good electron acceptor.
Zhu, Guo-Zhu; Wang, Lai-Sheng
2015-12-14
Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) is widely used as an electron acceptor to form highly conducting organic charge-transfer solids. Surprisingly, the electron affinity (EA) of TCNQ is not well known and has never been directly measured. Here, we report vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) of the TCNQ{sup −} anion produced using electrospray and cooled in a cryogenic ion trap. Photoelectron spectrum taken at 354.7 nm represents the detachment transition from the ground state of TCNQ{sup −} to that of neutral TCNQ with a short vibrational progression. The EA of TCNQ is measured accurately to be 3.383 ± 0.001 eV (27 289 ± 8 cm{sup −1}), compared to the 2.8 ± 0.1 eV value known in the literature and measured previously using collisional ionization technique. In addition, six vibrational peaks are observed in the photoelectron spectrum, yielding vibrational frequencies for three totally symmetric modes of TCNQ. Two-photon PES via a bound electronic excited state of TCNQ{sup −} at 3.100 eV yields a broad low kinetic energy peak due to fast internal conversion to vibrationally excited levels of the anion ground electronic state. The high EA measured for TCNQ underlies its ability as a good electron acceptor.
Wireless adiabatic power transfer
Rangelov, A.A.; Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y.; Vitanov, N.V.
2011-03-15
Research Highlights: > Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. > The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.
Zhang, Qibin; Tang, Ning; Brock, Jonathan W.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Ames, Jennifer M.; Baynes, John; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.
2007-06-01
Non-enzymatic glycation of peptides and proteins by D-glucose has important implications in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, particularly in the development of diabetic complications. However, no effective high-throughput methods exist for identifying proteins containing this low abundance post-translational modification in bottom-up proteomic studies. In this report, phenylboronate affinity chromatography was used in a two-step enrichment scheme to selectively isolate first glycated proteins and then glycated, tryptic peptides from human serum glycated in vitro. Enriched peptides were subsequently analyzed by alternating electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry. It was observed that ETD fragmentation mode resulted in a significantly higher number of glycated peptide identifications (87.6% of all identified peptides) versus CID mode (17.0% of all identified peptides), when utilizing dual glycation enrichment on both the protein and peptide level. This study illustrates that phenylboronate affinity chromatography coupled with LC-MS/MS with ETD as the fragmentation mode is an efficient approach for analyses of glycated proteins and can have broad applications in studies of diabetes mellitus.
Gallandi, Lukas; Marom, Noa; Rinke, Patrick; Körzdörfer, Thomas
2016-02-01
The performance of non-empirically tuned long-range corrected hybrid functionals for the prediction of vertical ionization potentials (IPs) and electron affinities (EAs) is assessed for a set of 24 organic acceptor molecules. Basis set-extrapolated coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] calculations serve as a reference for this study. Compared to standard exchange-correlation functionals, tuned long-range corrected hybrid functionals produce highly reliable results for vertical IPs and EAs, yielding mean absolute errors on par with computationally more demanding GW calculations. In particular, it is demonstrated that long-range corrected hybrid functionals serve as ideal starting points for non-self-consistent GW calculations. PMID:26731340
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Daiki; Nishitani, Tomohiro; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi
2016-05-01
A thin p-type InGaN with a negative electron affinity (NEA) surface was used to measure the relaxation time of a surface charge limit (SCL) by irradiating rectangular laser beam pulses at changing time interval. The p-type InGaN film was grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and the NEA activation was performed after the sample was heat cleaned. 13 nC per pulse with 10 ms width was obtained from the InGaN photocathode. The current decreased exponentially from the beginning of the pulse. The initial current value after the laser irradiation decreased with the time interval. As a result, the SCL relaxation time was estimated through the InGaN photocathode measurements at 100 ms.
Su, Neil Qiang; Xu, Xin
2016-05-10
Recently, we have developed an integration approach for the calculations of ionization potentials (IPs) and electron affinities (EAs) of molecular systems at the level of second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) (Su, N. Q.; Xu, X. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 11, 4677, 2015), where the full MP2 energy gradient with respect to the orbital occupation numbers was derived but only at integer occupations. The theory is completed here to cover the fractional occupation systems, such that Slater's transition state concept can be used to have accurate predictions of IPs and EAs. Antisymmetrized Goldstone diagrams have been employed for interpretations and better understanding of the derived equations, where two additional rules were introduced in the present work specifically for hole or particle lines with fractional occupation numbers. PMID:27010405
Adiabatically driven Brownian pumps.
Rozenbaum, Viktor M; Makhnovskii, Yurii A; Shapochkina, Irina V; Sheu, Sheh-Yi; Yang, Dah-Yen; Lin, Sheng Hsien
2013-07-01
We investigate a Brownian pump which, being powered by a flashing ratchet mechanism, produces net particle transport through a membrane. The extension of the Parrondo's approach developed for reversible Brownian motors [Parrondo, Phys. Rev. E 57, 7297 (1998)] to adiabatically driven pumps is given. We demonstrate that the pumping mechanism becomes especially efficient when the time variation of the potential occurs adiabatically fast or adiabatically slow, in perfect analogy with adiabatically driven Brownian motors which exhibit high efficiency [Rozenbaum et al., Phys. Rev. E 85, 041116 (2012)]. At the same time, the efficiency of the pumping mechanism is shown to be less than that of Brownian motors due to fluctuations of the number of particles in the membrane. PMID:23944411
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xiaolin; Ning, Chuangang
2016-05-01
The high-resolution photoelectron spectra of C o- were obtained via the slow-electron velocity-map imaging method. The electron affinity of cobalt element was determined to be 5341.45 (37 ) c m-1 or 662.256(46) meV. The fine structure of C o- was well resolved. The fine-structure intervals C o-(F34) -C o-(F33) and C o-(F34) -C o-(F32) were found to be 920.9 (6 ) c m-1 and 1550.3 (9 ) c m-1 , respectively. The accuracy was improved by a factor of more than ten with respect to the previous laser photodetachment threshold measurement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engel, D.; Klews, M.; Wunner, G.
2009-02-01
and to provide a program which allows users to calculate as comprehensively as possible energies, wavelengths, and oscillator strengths of medium-Z atoms and ions up to Z=26 in neutron star magnetic field strengths. Obviously, the method for achieving this goal must be highly efficient since for the calculation of synthetic spectra data of many thousands or even millions of atomic transitions may be required. Solution method: As in previous work on the problem (cf. [3,7]) we exploit the fact that a strong magnetic field results in an approximate decoupling of the dynamics of the electrons parallel and perpendicular to the field. In this adiabatic approximation the single-particle wave functions take the form: ψ(ρ,φ,z)=ϕ(ρ,φ)ṡP(z), where ϕ(ρ,φ) are Landau wave functions, describing the (fast) motion perpendicular to the field, and the P(z) are the longitudinal wave functions, describing the (slow) bound motion along the direction of the field. The spins of the electrons are all aligned antiparallel to the magnetic field and need not be accounted for explicitly. The total N-electron wave function is constructed as a Slater determinant of the single-particle wave functions, and the unknown longitudinal wave functions are determined from the Hartree-Fock equations, which follow from inserting the total N-electron wave function into Schrödinger's variational principle for the total energy. The novel feature of our approach [8] is to use finite-element and B-spline techniques to solve the Hartree-Fock equations for atoms in strong magnetic fields. This is accomplished through the following steps: 1) decomposition of the z-axis into finite elements with quadratically widening element borders; 2) sixth-order B-spline expansion of the single-particle wave functions on the individual finite elements; 3) formulation of the variational principle equivalent to the Hartree-Fock equations in terms of the expansion coefficients. This leads to a simple system of linear
Parallelizable adiabatic gate teleportation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakago, Kosuke; Hajdušek, Michal; Nakayama, Shojun; Murao, Mio
2015-12-01
To investigate how a temporally ordered gate sequence can be parallelized in adiabatic implementations of quantum computation, we modify adiabatic gate teleportation, a model of quantum computation proposed by Bacon and Flammia [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 120504 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.120504], to a form deterministically simulating parallelized gate teleportation, which is achievable only by postselection. We introduce a twisted Heisenberg-type interaction Hamiltonian, a Heisenberg-type spin interaction where the coordinates of the second qubit are twisted according to a unitary gate. We develop parallelizable adiabatic gate teleportation (PAGT) where a sequence of unitary gates is performed in a single step of the adiabatic process. In PAGT, numeric calculations suggest the necessary time for the adiabatic evolution implementing a sequence of L unitary gates increases at most as O (L5) . However, we show that it has the interesting property that it can map the temporal order of gates to the spatial order of interactions specified by the final Hamiltonian. Using this property, we present a controlled-PAGT scheme to manipulate the order of gates by a control qubit. In the controlled-PAGT scheme, two differently ordered sequential unitary gates F G and G F are coherently performed depending on the state of a control qubit by simultaneously applying the twisted Heisenberg-type interaction Hamiltonians implementing unitary gates F and G . We investigate why the twisted Heisenberg-type interaction Hamiltonian allows PAGT. We show that the twisted Heisenberg-type interaction Hamiltonian has an ability to perform a transposed unitary gate by just modifying the space ordering of the final Hamiltonian implementing a unitary gate in adiabatic gate teleportation. The dynamics generated by the time-reversed Hamiltonian represented by the transposed unitary gate enables deterministic simulation of a postselected event of parallelized gate teleportation in adiabatic
Craciun, Raluca; Picone, Desiree; Long, Rebecca T.; Li, Shenggang; Dixon, David A.; Peterson, Kirk A.; Christe, Karl O.
2010-02-01
High level electronic structure calculations were used to evaluate reliable, self-consistent thermochemical data sets for the third row transitionmetal hexafluorides. The electron affinities, heats of formation, first (MF₆ → MF₅ + F) and average M-F bond dissociation energies, and fluoride affinities of MF₆ (MF₆ + F⁻→ MF₇ ⁻) and MF₅ (MF₅ + F⁻→ MF₆ ⁻) were calculated. The electron affinities which are a direct measure for the oxidizer strength increase monotonically from WF₆ to AuF₆, with PtF₆ and AuF₆ being extremely powerful oxidizers. The inclusion of spin orbit corrections is necessary to obtain the correct qualitative order for the electron affinities. The calculated electron affinities increase with increasing atomic number, are in good agreement with the available experimental values, and are as follows: WF₆ (3.15 eV), ReF₆ (4.58 eV), OsF₆ (5.92 eV), IrF₆ (5.99 eV), PtF₆ (7.09 eV), and AuF₆ (8.20 eV). A wide range of density functional theory exchange-correlation functionals were also evaluated, and only three gave satisfactory results. The corresponding pentafluorides are extremely strong Lewis acids, with OsF₅, IrF₅, PtF₅, and AuF₅ significantly exceeding the acidity of SbF₅. The optimized geometries of the corresponding MF₇⁻ anions for W through Ir are classical MF₇⁻ anions with M-F bonds; however, for PtF₇⁻ and AuF₇⁻ non-classical anions were found with a very weak external F-F bond between an MF₆⁻ fragment and a fluorine atom. These two anions are text book examples for “superhalogens” and can serve as F atom sources under very mild conditions, explaining the ability of PtF₆ to convert NF₃ to NF₄⁺, ClF₅ to ClF₆⁺, and Xe to XeF⁺ and why Bartlett failed to observe XePtF₆ as the reaction product of the PtF₆/Xe reaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engel, D.; Klews, M.; Wunner, G.
2009-02-01
and to provide a program which allows users to calculate as comprehensively as possible energies, wavelengths, and oscillator strengths of medium-Z atoms and ions up to Z=26 in neutron star magnetic field strengths. Obviously, the method for achieving this goal must be highly efficient since for the calculation of synthetic spectra data of many thousands or even millions of atomic transitions may be required. Solution method: As in previous work on the problem (cf. [3,7]) we exploit the fact that a strong magnetic field results in an approximate decoupling of the dynamics of the electrons parallel and perpendicular to the field. In this adiabatic approximation the single-particle wave functions take the form: ψ(ρ,φ,z)=ϕ(ρ,φ)ṡP(z), where ϕ(ρ,φ) are Landau wave functions, describing the (fast) motion perpendicular to the field, and the P(z) are the longitudinal wave functions, describing the (slow) bound motion along the direction of the field. The spins of the electrons are all aligned antiparallel to the magnetic field and need not be accounted for explicitly. The total N-electron wave function is constructed as a Slater determinant of the single-particle wave functions, and the unknown longitudinal wave functions are determined from the Hartree-Fock equations, which follow from inserting the total N-electron wave function into Schrödinger's variational principle for the total energy. The novel feature of our approach [8] is to use finite-element and B-spline techniques to solve the Hartree-Fock equations for atoms in strong magnetic fields. This is accomplished through the following steps: 1) decomposition of the z-axis into finite elements with quadratically widening element borders; 2) sixth-order B-spline expansion of the single-particle wave functions on the individual finite elements; 3) formulation of the variational principle equivalent to the Hartree-Fock equations in terms of the expansion coefficients. This leads to a simple system of linear
Wang, Xue B.; Fu, Qiang; Yang, Jinlong
2010-09-02
Hydroxyl substituted phenoxide, o-, m-, p- HO(C6H4)O– and the corresponding neutral radicals are important species, in particularly, the p- isomer pair is directly involved in the proton-coupled electron transfer in biological photosynthetic centers. Here we report the first spectroscopic study of these species in the gas phase by means of low-temperature photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and ab initio calculations. Vibrationally resolved PES spectra were obtained at 70 K and several photon energies for each anion, directly yielding electron affinity (EA) and electronic structure information of the corresponding hydroxyphenoxyl radical. The EAs are found to vary with OH positions, from 1.990 ± 0.010 eV (p-) to 2.315 ± 0.010 (o-) and 2.330 ± 0.010 (m-). Theoretical calculations were carried out to identify the optimized molecular structures for both anions and neutral radicals. The electron binding energies and excited state energies were also calculated to compare with experimental data. Excellent agreement is found between calculations and experiments. Molecular orbital analyses indicate strong OH anti-bonding interaction with the phenoxide moiety for o- as well as p- isomers, whereas such interaction is largely missing for the m- anion. The variance of EAs among three isomers is interpreted primarily due to the interplay between two competing factors: the OH anti-bonding interaction and H-bonding stabilization (existed only in the o- anion).
Adiabatic cooling of antiprotons.
Gabrielse, G; Kolthammer, W S; McConnell, R; Richerme, P; Kalra, R; Novitski, E; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Sefzick, T; Zielinski, M; Fitzakerley, D; George, M C; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Müllers, A; Walz, J
2011-02-18
Adiabatic cooling is shown to be a simple and effective method to cool many charged particles in a trap to very low temperatures. Up to 3×10(6) p are cooled to 3.5 K-10(3) times more cold p and a 3 times lower p temperature than previously reported. A second cooling method cools p plasmas via the synchrotron radiation of embedded e(-) (with many fewer e(-) than p in preparation for adiabatic cooling. No p are lost during either process-a significant advantage for rare particles. PMID:21405511
Adiabatic Cooling of Antiprotons
Gabrielse, G.; Kolthammer, W. S.; McConnell, R.; Richerme, P.; Kalra, R.; Novitski, E.; Oelert, W.; Grzonka, D.; Sefzick, T.; Zielinski, M.; Fitzakerley, D.; George, M. C.; Hessels, E. A.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.; Muellers, A.; Walz, J.
2011-02-18
Adiabatic cooling is shown to be a simple and effective method to cool many charged particles in a trap to very low temperatures. Up to 3x10{sup 6} p are cooled to 3.5 K--10{sup 3} times more cold p and a 3 times lower p temperature than previously reported. A second cooling method cools p plasmas via the synchrotron radiation of embedded e{sup -} (with many fewer e{sup -} than p) in preparation for adiabatic cooling. No p are lost during either process--a significant advantage for rare particles.
Adiabatically implementing quantum gates
Sun, Jie; Lu, Songfeng Liu, Fang
2014-06-14
We show that, through the approach of quantum adiabatic evolution, all of the usual quantum gates can be implemented efficiently, yielding running time of order O(1). This may be considered as a useful alternative to the standard quantum computing approach, which involves quantum gates transforming quantum states during the computing process.
Beste, Ariana; Vazquez-Mayagoitia, Alvaro; Ortiz, J. Vincent
2013-01-01
A direct method (D-Delta-MBPT(2)) to calculate second-order ionization potentials (IPs), electron affinities (EAs), and excitation energies is developed. The Delta-MBPT(2) method is defined as the correlated extension of the Delta-HF method. Energy differences are obtained by integrating the energy derivative with respect to occupation numbers over the appropriate parameter range. This is made possible by writing the second-order energy as a function of the occupation numbers. Relaxation effects are fully included at the SCF level. This is in contrast to linear response theory, which makes the D-Delta-MBPT(2) applicable not only to single excited but also higher excited states. We show the relationship of the D-Delta-MBPT(2) method for IPs and EAs to a second-order approximation of the effective Fock-space coupled-cluster Hamiltonian and a second-order electron propagator method. We also discuss the connection between the D-Delta-MBPT(2) method for excitation energies and the CIS-MP2 method. Finally, as a proof of principle, we apply our method to calculate ionization potentials and excitation energies of some small molecules. For IPs, the Delta-MBPT(2) results compare well to the second-order solution of the Dyson equation. For excitation energies, the deviation from EOM-CCSD increases when correlation becomes more important. When using the numerical integration technique, we encounter difficulties that prevented us from reaching the Delta-MBPT(2) values. Most importantly, relaxation beyond the Hartree Fock level is significant and needs to be included in future research.
Entanglement and adiabatic quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahrensmeier, D.
2006-06-01
Adiabatic quantum computation provides an alternative approach to quantum computation using a time-dependent Hamiltonian. The time evolution of entanglement during the adiabatic quantum search algorithm is studied, and its relevance as a resource is discussed.
Gamallo, P; Defazio, P; Akpinar, S; Petrongolo, C
2012-08-16
We present the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) quantum mechanical (QM) dynamics of the CH decay (d) CH(X2Π) + H(2S) → C(3P) + H2(X1Σ(g)(+)) and of the H exchange reaction (e) CH(X2Π) + H′(2S) → CH′(X2Π) + H(2S) on the CH2 X̃3A″ adiabatic potential energy surface (PES) of Harding et al. (J. Phys. Chem. 1993, 97, 5472). A thorough analysis of the correlation diagram of the four lowest CH2 electronic states, as well as Renner-Teller and spin–orbit nonadiabatic test calculations on the X̃3A″, ã1A′, and b̃1A″ coupled PESs, validate the X̃3A″ BO results, confirming that these reactions occur essentially on the uncoupled X̃3A″ ground surface. We consider the CH molecule in the ground vibrational state and in the four lowest rotational states j0. Thus, we obtain initial-state resolved reaction probabilities, cross sections, and rate constants by propagating coupled-channel real wave packets and performing flux analyses. If J is the total angular momentum quantum number and K is its projection along the body-fixed z axis, CH + H gives essentially the C + H2 products via a barrierless K-inhibited insertion, CH2 resonances at low J, and large cross sections near the threshold. These cross sections decrease strongly with collision energy and depend slightly on j0. On the other hand, the small cross sections obtained for the (e) channel are nearly independent of energy. From initial-state resolved rate constants and Boltzmann populations at temperature T, we obtain QM thermal rate constants from 100 to 400 K: at 300 K, k(d) = (9.57 ± 0.96) × 10(-11) and k(e) = (1.41 ± 0.14) × 10(-11) cm(3) s(-1) for (d) and (e) reactions, respectively. The k(d) value is in good agreement with previous quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) results on the same PES, but it is larger than that observed at 297 K by a factor of 7. On the contrary, and in agreement with the small role of CH2 excited electronic states, X̃3A″ QCT and experimental rate constants agree at high
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gray, Gary R.
1980-01-01
Presents selected recent advances in immobilization chemistry which have important connections to affinity chromatography. Discusses ligand immobilization and support modification. Cites 51 references. (CS)
Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule
Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek
2014-12-14
A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10{sup −12} at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H{sub 2}, HD, HT, D{sub 2}, DT, and T{sub 2} has been determined. For the ground state of H{sub 2} the estimated precision is 3 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup −1}, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.
Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek
2014-12-01
A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10-12 at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, and T2 has been determined. For the ground state of H2 the estimated precision is 3 × 10-7 cm-1, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.
Fu, Qiang; Yang, Jinlong; Wang, Xue B.
2011-03-30
Electron affinities (EAs) and electronic structures of benzoquinone molecules (BQs) play a vital role in a wide range of applications involving these molecules from biological photosynthesis to energy conversion processes. In this article, we report a systematic spectroscopic probe on the electronic structures and EAs of all three isomers (o-, m-, and p- BQs) employing photodetachment photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and ab initio electronic structure calculations. PES spectra of three radical anions (BQ^{•-}) were taken with different photon energies and at low temperature in order to accurately determine the EAs and probe ground as well as the excited states of the corresponding neutral molecules. Similar spectral pattern was observed in the o- and p- BQ^{•-} spectra, each revealing a broad ground state feature and a large band gap, followed by well-resolved excited states peaks. The EAs of o- and p- BQ are determined to be 1.90, 1.85 eV, and singlet-triplet band gaps to be 1.68, and 2.32 eV, respectively. In contrast, the spectrum of m- BQ^{•-} is distinctly different from its two congeners, with no clear band gap and a much higher EA (2.89 eV). Accompanying theoretical calculations confirm experimental EAs and band gaps, and further unravel a triplet ground state for m-BQ in contrast to singlet ground states for o- and p- isomers. The diradical nature of m-BQ, consistent with its non-Kekulé structure, is primarily responsible for the observed high EA and also explains its nonexistence in bulk materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balabanov, Nikolai B.; Peterson, Kirk A.
2006-08-01
Recently developed correlation consistent basis sets for the first row transition metal elements Sc-Zn have been utilized to determine complete basis set (CBS) scalar relativistic electron affinities, ionization potentials, and 4s23dn -2-4s1dn -1 electronic excitation energies with single reference coupled cluster methods [CCSD(T), CCSDT, and CCSDTQ] and multireference configuration interaction with three reference spaces: 3d4s, 3d4s4p, and 3d4s4p3d'. The theoretical values calculated with the highest order coupled cluster techniques at the CBS limit, including extrapolations to full configuration interaction, are well within 1kcal/mol of the corresponding experimental data. For the early transition metal elements (Sc-Mn) the internally contracted multireference averaged coupled pair functional method yielded excellent agreement with experiment; however, the atomic properties for the late transition metals (Mn-Zn) proved to be much more difficult to describe with this level of theory, even with the largest reference function of the present work.
Non-adiabatic resonant conversion of solar neutrinos in three generations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, C. W.; Nussinov, S.; Sze, W. K.
1987-02-01
The survival probability of solar electron neutrinos after non-adiabatic passage through the resonance-oscillation region in the Sun is discussed for the case of three generations. A method to calculate three-generation Landau-Zener transition probabilities between adiabatic states is described. We also discuss how the Landua-Zener probability is modified in the extreme non-adiabatic case.
Adiabatic topological quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cesare, Chris; Landahl, Andrew J.; Bacon, Dave; Flammia, Steven T.; Neels, Alice
2015-07-01
Topological quantum computing promises error-resistant quantum computation without active error correction. However, there is a worry that during the process of executing quantum gates by braiding anyons around each other, extra anyonic excitations will be created that will disorder the encoded quantum information. Here, we explore this question in detail by studying adiabatic code deformations on Hamiltonians based on topological codes, notably Kitaev's surface codes and the more recently discovered color codes. We develop protocols that enable universal quantum computing by adiabatic evolution in a way that keeps the energy gap of the system constant with respect to the computation size and introduces only simple local Hamiltonian interactions. This allows one to perform holonomic quantum computing with these topological quantum computing systems. The tools we develop allow one to go beyond numerical simulations and understand these processes analytically.
Golibrzuch, Kai; Shirhatti, Pranav R.; Kandratsenka, Alexander; Wodtke, Alec M.; Bartels, Christof; Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen 37077 ; Rahinov, Igor; Auerbach, Daniel J.; Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen 37077; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106
2014-01-28
We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of NO(v = 3 → 3, 2, 1) scattering from a Au(111) surface at incidence translational energies ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 eV. Experimentally, molecular beam–surface scattering is combined with vibrational overtone pumping and quantum-state selective detection of the recoiling molecules. Theoretically, we employ a recently developed first-principles approach, which employs an Independent Electron Surface Hopping (IESH) algorithm to model the nonadiabatic dynamics on a Newns-Anderson Hamiltonian derived from density functional theory. This approach has been successful when compared to previously reported NO/Au scattering data. The experiments presented here show that vibrational relaxation probabilities increase with incidence energy of translation. The theoretical simulations incorrectly predict high relaxation probabilities at low incidence translational energy. We show that this behavior originates from trajectories exhibiting multiple bounces at the surface, associated with deeper penetration and favored (N-down) molecular orientation, resulting in a higher average number of electronic hops and thus stronger vibrational relaxation. The experimentally observed narrow angular distributions suggest that mainly single-bounce collisions are important. Restricting the simulations by selecting only single-bounce trajectories improves agreement with experiment. The multiple bounce artifacts discovered in this work are also present in simulations employing electronic friction and even for electronically adiabatic simulations, meaning they are not a direct result of the IESH algorithm. This work demonstrates how even subtle errors in the adiabatic interaction potential, especially those that influence the interaction time of the molecule with the surface, can lead to an incorrect description of electronically nonadiabatic vibrational energy transfer in molecule-surface collisions.
Bazzani, A.; Turchetti, G.; Benedetti, C.; Rambaldi, S.; Servizi, G.
2005-06-08
In a high intensity circular accelerator the synchrotron dynamics introduces a slow modulation in the betatronic tune due to the space-charge tune depression. When the transverse motion is non-linear due to the presence of multipolar effects, resonance islands move in the phase space and change their amplitude. This effect introduces the trapping and detrapping phenomenon and a slow diffusion in the phase space. We apply the neo-adiabatic theory to describe this diffusion mechanism that can contribute to halo formation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhenkui; Dai, Ying; Yu, Lin; Guo, Meng; Huang, Baibiao; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan
2012-02-01
In light of the established differences between the quantum confinement effect and the electron affinities between hydrogen-passivated C and Si quantum dots, we carried out theoretical investigations on SiC quantum dots, with surfaces uniformly terminated by C-H or Si-H bonds, to explore the role of surface terminations on these two aspects. Surprisingly, it was found that the quantum confinement effect is present (or absent) in the highest occupied (or lowest unoccupied) molecular orbital of the SiC quantum dots regardless of their surface terminations. Thus, the quantum confinement effect related to the energy gap observed experimentally (Phys. Rev. Lett., 2005, 94, 026102) is contributed to by the size-dependence of the highest occupied states; the absence of quantum confinement in the lowest unoccupied states is in contrary to the usual belief based on hydrogen-passivated C quantum dots. However, the cause of the absence of the quantum confinement in C nanodots is not transferable to SiC. We propose a model that provides a clear explanation for all findings on the basis of the nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor interactions between the valence atomic p-orbital in the frontier occupied/unoccupied states. We also found that the electron affinities of the SiC quantum dots, which closely depend on the surface environments, are negative for the C-H termination and positive for the Si-H termination. The prediction of negative electron affinities in SiC quantum dots by simple C-H termination indicates a promising application for these materials in electron-emitter devices. Our model predicts that GeC quantum dots with hydrogen passivation exhibit similar features to SiC quantum dots and our study confirms the crucial role that the surface environment plays in these nanoscale systems.In light of the established differences between the quantum confinement effect and the electron affinities between hydrogen-passivated C and Si quantum dots, we carried out
Adiabatic Quantum Simulation of Quantum Chemistry
Babbush, Ryan; Love, Peter J.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2014-01-01
We show how to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm directly to the quantum computation of molecular properties. We describe a procedure to map electronic structure Hamiltonians to 2-body qubit Hamiltonians with a small set of physically realizable couplings. By combining the Bravyi-Kitaev construction to map fermions to qubits with perturbative gadgets to reduce the Hamiltonian to 2-body, we obtain precision requirements on the coupling strengths and a number of ancilla qubits that scale polynomially in the problem size. Hence our mapping is efficient. The required set of controllable interactions includes only two types of interaction beyond the Ising interactions required to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm to combinatorial optimization problems. Our mapping may also be of interest to chemists directly as it defines a dictionary from electronic structure to spin Hamiltonians with physical interactions. PMID:25308187
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landahl, Andrew
2012-10-01
Quantum computers promise to exploit counterintuitive quantum physics principles like superposition, entanglement, and uncertainty to solve problems using fundamentally fewer steps than any conventional computer ever could. The mere possibility of such a device has sharpened our understanding of quantum coherent information, just as lasers did for our understanding of coherent light. The chief obstacle to developing quantum computer technology is decoherence--one of the fastest phenomena in all of physics. In principle, decoherence can be overcome by using clever entangled redundancies in a process called fault-tolerant quantum error correction. However, the quality and scale of technology required to realize this solution appears distant. An exciting alternative is a proposal called ``adiabatic'' quantum computing (AQC), in which adiabatic quantum physics keeps the computer in its lowest-energy configuration throughout its operation, rendering it immune to many decoherence sources. The Adiabatic Quantum Architectures In Ultracold Systems (AQUARIUS) Grand Challenge Project at Sandia seeks to demonstrate this robustness in the laboratory and point a path forward for future hardware development. We are building devices in AQUARIUS that realize the AQC architecture on up to three quantum bits (``qubits'') in two platforms: Cs atoms laser-cooled to below 5 microkelvin and Si quantum dots cryo-cooled to below 100 millikelvin. We are also expanding theoretical frontiers by developing methods for scalable universal AQC in these platforms. We have successfully demonstrated operational qubits in both platforms and have even run modest one-qubit calculations using our Cs device. In the course of reaching our primary proof-of-principle demonstrations, we have developed multiple spinoff technologies including nanofabricated diffractive optical elements that define optical-tweezer trap arrays and atomic-scale Si lithography commensurate with placing individual donor atoms with
Geometry of the Adiabatic Theorem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lobo, Augusto Cesar; Ribeiro, Rafael Antunes; Ribeiro, Clyffe de Assis; Dieguez, Pedro Ruas
2012-01-01
We present a simple and pedagogical derivation of the quantum adiabatic theorem for two-level systems (a single qubit) based on geometrical structures of quantum mechanics developed by Anandan and Aharonov, among others. We have chosen to use only the minimum geometric structure needed for the understanding of the adiabatic theorem for this case.…
Wen, Hui; Hou, Gaolei; Huang, Wei; Govind, Niranjan; Wang, Xue B.
2011-11-14
This report details a photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) investigation on electron affinities (EAs) and electronic structures of several atmospherically relevant higher bromine and iodine oxide molecules in the gas phase. PES spectra of BrO{sub 2}{sup -} and IO{sub 2}{sup -} were recorded at 12 K and four photon energies--355 nm/3.496 eV, 266 nm/4.661 eV, 193 nm/6.424 eV, and 157 nm/7.867 eV--while BrO{sub 3}{sup -}, IO{sub 3}{sup -}, and IO{sub 4}{sup -} were studied at 193 and 157 nm only due to their expected high electron binding energies. Spectral features corresponding to transitions from the anion ground state to the ground and excited states of the neutral are unraveled and resolved for each species. For the first time, EAs of these bromine and iodine oxides are experimentally determined (except for IO{sub 2}) to be 2.515 {+-} 0.010 (BrO{sub 2}), 2.575 {+-} 0.010 (IO{sub 2}), 4.60 {+-} 0.05 (BrO{sub 3}), 4.70 {+-} 0.05 (IO{sub 3}), and 6.05 {+-} 0.05 eV (IO{sub 4}). Three low-lying excited states with their respective excitation energies are obtained for BrO{sub 2} [1.69 (A {sup 2}B2), 1.79 (B {sup 2}A{sub 1}), 1.99 eV (C {sup 2}A{sub 2})], BrO{sub 3} [0.7 (A {sup 2}A{sub 2}), 1.6 (B {sup 2}E), 3.1 eV (C {sup 2}E)], and IO{sub 3} [0.60 (A {sup 2}A{sub 2}), 1.20 (B {sup 2}E), {approx}3.0 eV (C {sup 2}E)], whereas six excited states of IO{sub 2} are determined with the respective excitation energies of 1.63 (A {sup 2}B{sub 2}), 1.73 (B {sup 2}A{sub 1}), 1.83 (C {sup 2}A{sub 2}), 4.23 (D {sup 2}A{sub 1}), 4.63 (E {sup 2}B{sub 2}), and 5.23 eV (F {sup 2}B{sub 1}). Periodate possesses a very high electron binding energy. Only one excited state feature with 0.95 eV excitation energy is shown in the 157 nm spectrum. The obtained EAs and low-lying excited state information are compared with available theoretical calculations and discussed with their atmospheric implications.
Sun, Haitao; Ryno, Sean; Zhong, Cheng; Ravva, Mahesh Kumar; Sun, Zhenrong; Körzdörfer, Thomas; Brédas, Jean-Luc
2016-06-14
We propose a new methodology for the first-principles description of the electronic properties relevant for charge transport in organic molecular crystals. This methodology, which is based on the combination of a nonempirical, optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functional with the polarizable continuum model, is applied to a series of eight representative molecular semiconductor crystals. We show that it provides ionization energies, electron affinities, and transport gaps in very good agreement with experimental values, as well as with the results of many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation at a fraction of the computational costs. Hence, this approach represents an easily applicable and computationally efficient tool to estimate the gas-to-crystal phase shifts of the frontier-orbital quasiparticle energies in organic electronic materials. PMID:27183355
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardas, D.; Kellogg, E.; Murray, S.; Enck, R., Jr.
1978-01-01
A description is presented of the results of tests on an X-ray photomultiplier containing a negative electron affinity (NEA) photocathode. This device makes it possible to investigate the response of the NEA photocathode to X-rays of various energies. The obtained data provide a basis for the determination of the photoelectron yield and energy resolution of the considered photocathode as a function of energy in the range from 0.8 to 3 keV. The investigation demonstrates the feasibility of using an NEA III-V photocathode for the detection of soft X-rays.
Adiabatic heating in impulsive solar flares
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maetzler, C.; Bai, T.; Crannell, C. J.; Frost, K. J.
1978-01-01
A study is made of adiabatic heating in two impulsive solar flares on the basis of dynamic X-ray spectra in the 28-254 keV range, H-alpha, microwave, and meter-wave radio observations. It is found that the X-ray spectra of the events are like those of thermal bremsstrahlung from single-temperature plasmas in the 10-60 keV range if photospheric albedo is taken into account. The temperature-emission correlation indicates adiabatic compression followed by adiabatic expansion and that the electron distribution remains isotropic. H-alpha data suggest compressive energy transfer. The projected areas and volumes of the flares are estimated assuming that X-ray and microwave emissions are produced in a single thermal plasma. Electron densities of about 10 to the 9th/cu cm are found for homogeneous, spherically symmetric sources. It is noted that the strong self-absorption of hot-plasma gyrosynchrotron radiation reveals low magnetic field strengths.
Schio, Luca; Alagia, Michele; Dias, Antonio A; Falcinelli, Stefano; Zhaunerchyk, Vitali; Lee, Edmond P F; Mok, Daniel K W; Dyke, John M; Stranges, Stefano
2016-07-14
In this work, hydrogen peroxide has been studied with threshold photoelectron (TPE) spectroscopy and photoelectron (PE) spectroscopy. The TPE spectrum has been recorded in the 10.0-21.0 eV ionization energy region, and the PE spectrum has been recorded at 21.22 eV photon energy. Five bands have been observed which have been assigned on the basis of UCCSD(T)-F12/VQZ-F12 and IP-EOM CCSD calculations. Vibrational structure has only been resolved in the TPE spectrum of the first band, associated with the X̃(2)Bg H2O2(+) ← X̃(1)A H2O2 ionization, on its low energy side. This structure is assigned with the help of harmonic Franck-Condon factor calculations that use the UCCSD(T)-F12a/VQZ-F12 computed adiabatic ionization energy (AIE), and UCCSD(T)-F12a/VQZ-F12 computed equilibrium geometric parameters and harmonic vibrational frequencies for the H2O2 X̃(1)A state and the H2O2(+) X̃(2)Bg state. These calculations show that the main vibrational structure on the leading edge of the first TPE band is in the O-O stretching mode (ω3) and the HOOH deformation mode (ω4), and comparison of the simulated spectrum to the experimental spectrum gives the first AIE of H2O2 as (10.685 ± 0.005) eV and ω4 = (850 ± 30) and ω3 = (1340 ± 30) cm(-1) in the X̃(2)Bg state of H2O2(+). Contributions from ionization of vibrationally excited levels in the torsion mode have been identified in the TPE spectrum of the first band and the need for a vibrationally resolved TPE spectrum from vibrationally cooled molecules, as well as higher level Franck-Condon factors than performed in this work, is emphasized. PMID:27045948
Adiabatic state preparation study of methylene
Veis, Libor Pittner, Jiří
2014-06-07
Quantum computers attract much attention as they promise to outperform their classical counterparts in solving certain type of problems. One of them with practical applications in quantum chemistry is simulation of complex quantum systems. An essential ingredient of efficient quantum simulation algorithms are initial guesses of the exact wave functions with high enough fidelity. As was proposed in Aspuru-Guzik et al. [Science 309, 1704 (2005)], the exact ground states can in principle be prepared by the adiabatic state preparation method. Here, we apply this approach to preparation of the lowest lying multireference singlet electronic state of methylene and numerically investigate preparation of this state at different molecular geometries. We then propose modifications that lead to speeding up the preparation process. Finally, we decompose the minimal adiabatic state preparation employing the direct mapping in terms of two-qubit interactions.
Lauricella, T.L.; Pescatore, J.A. Jr.; Reiter, R.C.; Stevenson, R.D.; Stevenson, G.R.
1988-06-16
Electron spin resonance experiments have shown that the solution affinities of both benzoquinone (BQ) and benzophenone (BZO) in liquid ammonia are diminished when a /sup 13/C replaces the /sup 12/C in the carbonyl position. For the reaction *R + R/sup .-/ reversible *R/sup .-/ + R, where *R represents the /sup 13/C-substituted material (either BZO-13C or BQ-13C), the equilibrium constants (K/sub eq/) are 0.80 and 0.50 at -75/sup 0/ C for the BQ and BZO systems, respectively. The reduction of radioactive samples of benzophenone (mixtures of BZO and BZO-14C, /sup 14/C substitution at the carbonyl carbon) with deficient amounts of sodium metal in liquid ammonia followed by removal of the ammonia leaves a solid mixture of benzophenone and benzophenone ketyl. Sublimation of the neutral benzophenone from the anion radical salt produces benzophenone that is enhanced in radioactivity relative to the starting BZO/BZO-14C mixture. This enhancement in radioactivity is consistent with the equilibrium constant again being less than unity when *R represents the /sup 14/C-substituted benzophenone. In contrast to these results, substitution of the oxygen atom with /sup 17/O results in an increase in the relative solution electron affinity. This is explained in terms of the increase in bonding involving the oxygen upon reduction, due to ion association.
Richard, Ryan M; Marshall, Michael S; Dolgounitcheva, O; Ortiz, J V; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Marom, Noa; Sherrill, C David
2016-02-01
In designing organic materials for electronics applications, particularly for organic photovoltaics (OPV), the ionization potential (IP) of the donor and the electron affinity (EA) of the acceptor play key roles. This makes OPV design an appealing application for computational chemistry since IPs and EAs are readily calculable from most electronic structure methods. Unfortunately reliable, high-accuracy wave function methods, such as coupled cluster theory with single, double, and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] in the complete basis set (CBS) limit are too expensive for routine applications to this problem for any but the smallest of systems. One solution is to calibrate approximate, less computationally expensive methods against a database of high-accuracy IP/EA values; however, to our knowledge, no such database exists for systems related to OPV design. The present work is the first of a multipart study whose overarching goal is to determine which computational methods can be used to reliably compute IPs and EAs of electron acceptors. This part introduces a database of 24 known organic electron acceptors and provides high-accuracy vertical IP and EA values expected to be within ±0.03 eV of the true non-relativistic, vertical CCSD(T)/CBS limit. Convergence of IP and EA values toward the CBS limit is studied systematically for the Hartree-Fock, MP2 correlation, and beyond-MP2 coupled cluster contributions to the focal point estimates. PMID:26731487
Chen, Zhanghui; Jiang, Xiangwei; Dong, Shan; Li, Jingbo Li, Shushen; Wang, Linwang
2014-01-13
Energy distribution and angular distribution of the photoelectrons from InP photocathodes are investigated using a precise Monte Carlo model. It is found that Γ-valley electrons contribute to the first peak of the energy distribution curve, but the second peak is contributed by both Γ-valley and L-valley electrons rather than only L-valley electrons. L valley electrons are shown to have a smaller angular spread than Γ-valley electrons, which is attributed to the much higher potential energy of L-valley minimum. The further simulation indicates that the performance of InP photocathodes can be improved by increasing the hole concentration or decreasing the temperature, but the activation layer thickness variation only has very slight influence on either energy or angular distribution.
Guest, G.E.; Dandl, R.A.; Miller, R.L.
1989-01-17
The Plasma Electron Microwave Source (PEMS) concept is a relativistic-electron plasma confined in a magnetic-mirror device. The stored energy is transformed into microwaves through amplification of whistler waves that can be launched externally for amplifier operation or generated spontaneously for oscillator operation. The anisotropy of the hot-electron temperature governs the maximum plasma energy density that can be stored, the amplification rates, and the saturated power level of the unstable whistler waves. This report summarizes the results of theoretical studies of (1) the critical aspects of hot-electron plasmas generated by ECH techniques, such as the Upper Off-Resonant Heating pioneered by Dandl in the ELMO series of experiments; and, (2) the spatial amplification rates of unstable whistler waves in these plasmas. It is shown that a substantial fraction of the energy stored in a hot-electron plasma can be transformed into repetitive pulses of microwave power by employing the PEMS approach, with typical values of gain, about 40db and bandwidth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datta, Debasis
Systematic inclusion of many-body effects in open d and f subshell atoms has long been known as a formidable challenge in atomic structure theory. Due to the presence of competing relativistic effects in such systems, an appropriate theoretical approach needs to incorporate electron correlation within the framework of the Special Theory of Relativity. To this aim, the Relativistic Configuration Interaction methodology as developed by Beck and others has been extended and applied to multi-reference situations in ((n - 1)d + ns) ^{rm N} type valence configurations. Specific focus has been on the hyperfine structure and electron affinity studies of the transition metal ions and the rare earths respectively. Energies and magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine structure constants of all the fifteen Zr II (4d + 5s)^3 J = 0.5, 1.5 levels and the twenty one Nb II (4d + 5s)^4 J = 2 levels have been determined with unprecedented accuracies. The average errors in energy are 0.087 eV and 0.050 eV for Zr II J = 3/2 & 1/2 respectively while that for the ten bottom levels of Nb II J = 2 is 0.055 eV. For the levels known experimentally, the corresponding errors in magnetic dipole hyperfine structure constants are 9.2%, 31.8% and 3.8%. Quite a few of the many-body hyperfine constant values exhibit striking improvements over the Multi-Configurational Dirac Fock values. A new value of nuclear quadrupole moment has also been predicted for Zr II. In all cases certain previous level assignments have been corrected and five previously unknown levels have been identified in Nb II. The rigorous systematics of the many-body effects important for the energy level and hyperfine structure of these systems has been presented including core-valence and core-core effects. Contrary to the conventional wisdom and theoretical predictions of the last decade, the attachment of an f electron has been discarded as the most likely mechanism for the formation of Lanthanide and Actinide negative
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry
1989-01-01
The molecular structure of both the neutral and negatively charged diatomic and triatomic systems containing the Cu, Ag, and Au metals are determined from ab initio calculations. For the neutral triatomic systems, the lowest energy structure is found to be triangular. The relative stability of the 2A1 and 2B2 structures can be predicted simply by knowing the constituent diatomic bond distances and atomic electron affinities (EAs). The lowest energy structure is linear for all of the negative ions. For anionic clusters containing Au, the Au atom(s) preferentially occupy the terminal position(s). The EAs of the heteronuclear systems can be predicted relatively accurately from a weighted average of the corresponding homonuclear systems. Although the theoretical EAs are systematically too small, accurate predictions for the EAs of the triatomics are obtained by uniformly scaling the ab initio results using the accurate experimental EA values available for the atoms and homonuclear diatomics.
Experimental breaking of an adiabatic invariant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Notte, J.; Fajans, J.; Chu, R.; Wurtele, J. S.
1993-06-01
When a cylindrical pure electron plasma is displaced from the center of the trap, it performs a bulk circular orbital motion known as the l=1 diocotron mode. The slow application of a perturbing potential to a patch on the trap wall distorts the orbit into a noncircular closed path. Experiments and a simple theoretical model indicate that the area by the loop is an adiabatic invariant. Detailed studies are made of the breaking of the invariant when perturbations are rapidly applied. When the perturbation is applied with discontinuous time derivatives, the invariant breaking greatly exceeds the predictions of the standard theory for smooth perturbations.
[Bond selective chemistry beyond the adiabatic approximation
Butler, L.J.
1993-02-28
The adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface approximation is not valid for reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between electronic states of reacting species plays a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. This research program initially studies this coupling in (1) selective C-Br bond fission in 1,3- bromoiodopropane, (2) C-S:S-H bond fission branching in CH[sub 3]SH, and (3) competition between bond fission channels and H[sub 2] elimination in CH[sub 3]NH[sub 2].
Bond selective chemistry beyond the adiabatic approximation
Butler, L.J.
1993-12-01
One of the most important challenges in chemistry is to develop predictive ability for the branching between energetically allowed chemical reaction pathways. Such predictive capability, coupled with a fundamental understanding of the important molecular interactions, is essential to the development and utilization of new fuels and the design of efficient combustion processes. Existing transition state and exact quantum theories successfully predict the branching between available product channels for systems in which each reaction coordinate can be adequately described by different paths along a single adiabatic potential energy surface. In particular, unimolecular dissociation following thermal, infrared multiphoton, or overtone excitation in the ground state yields a branching between energetically allowed product channels which can be successfully predicted by the application of statistical theories, i.e. the weakest bond breaks. (The predictions are particularly good for competing reactions in which when there is no saddle point along the reaction coordinates, as in simple bond fission reactions.) The predicted lack of bond selectivity results from the assumption of rapid internal vibrational energy redistribution and the implicit use of a single adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface for the reaction. However, the adiabatic approximation is not valid for the reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between the electronic states of the reacting species play a a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. The work described below investigated the central role played by coupling between electronic states in polyatomic molecules in determining the selective branching between energetically allowed fragmentation pathways in two key systems.
Adiabatic connection at negative coupling strengths
Seidl, Michael; Gori-Giorgi, Paola
2010-01-15
The adiabatic connection of density functional theory (DFT) for electronic systems is generalized here to negative values of the coupling strength alpha (with attractive electrons). In the extreme limit alpha->-infinity a simple physical solution is presented and its implications for DFT (as well as its limitations) are discussed. For two-electron systems (a case in which the present solution can be calculated exactly), we find that an interpolation between the limit alpha->-infinity and the opposite limit of infinitely strong repulsion (alpha->+infinity) yields a rather accurate estimate of the second-order correlation energy E{sub c}{sup GL2}[rho] for several different densities rho, without using virtual orbitals. The same procedure is also applied to the Be isoelectronic series, analyzing the effects of near degeneracy.
Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics with complex quantum trajectories. II. The adiabatic representation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamstein, Noa; Tannor, David J.
2012-12-01
We present a complex quantum trajectory method for treating non-adiabatic dynamics. Each trajectory evolves classically on a single electronic surface but with complex position and momentum. The equations of motion are derived directly from the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, and the population exchange arises naturally from amplitude-transfer terms. In this paper the equations of motion are derived in the adiabatic representation to complement our work in the diabatic representation [N. Zamstein and D. J. Tannor, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A517 (2012)], 10.1063/1.4739845. We apply our method to two benchmark models introduced by John Tully [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 1061 (1990)], 10.1063/1.459170, and get very good agreement with converged quantum-mechanical calculations. Specifically, we show that decoherence (spatial separation of wavepackets on different surfaces) is already contained in the equations of motion and does not require ad hoc augmentation.
Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics with complex quantum trajectories. II. The adiabatic representation
Zamstein, Noa; Tannor, David J.
2012-12-14
We present a complex quantum trajectory method for treating non-adiabatic dynamics. Each trajectory evolves classically on a single electronic surface but with complex position and momentum. The equations of motion are derived directly from the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, and the population exchange arises naturally from amplitude-transfer terms. In this paper the equations of motion are derived in the adiabatic representation to complement our work in the diabatic representation [N. Zamstein and D. J. Tannor, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A517 (2012)]. We apply our method to two benchmark models introduced by John Tully [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 1061 (1990)], and get very good agreement with converged quantum-mechanical calculations. Specifically, we show that decoherence (spatial separation of wavepackets on different surfaces) is already contained in the equations of motion and does not require ad hoc augmentation.
Adiabatic evolution of plasma equilibrium
Grad, H.; Hu, P. N.; Stevens, D. C.
1975-01-01
A new theory of plasma equilibrium is introduced in which adiabatic constraints are specified. This leads to a mathematically nonstandard structure, as compared to the usual equilibrium theory, in which prescription of pressure and current profiles leads to an elliptic partial differential equation. Topologically complex configurations require further generalization of the concept of adiabaticity to allow irreversible mixing of plasma and magnetic flux among islands. Matching conditions across a boundary layer at the separatrix are obtained from appropriate conservation laws. Applications are made to configurations with planned islands (as in Doublet) and accidental islands (as in Tokamaks). Two-dimensional, axially symmetric, helically symmetric, and closed line equilibria are included. PMID:16578729
Excess Electron Localization in Solvated DNA Bases
Smyth, Maeve; Kohanoff, Jorge
2011-06-10
We present a first-principles molecular dynamics study of an excess electron in condensed phase models of solvated DNA bases. Calculations on increasingly large microsolvated clusters taken from liquid phase simulations show that adiabatic electron affinities increase systematically upon solvation, as for optimized gas-phase geometries. Dynamical simulations after vertical attachment indicate that the excess electron, which is initially found delocalized, localizes around the nucleobases within a 15 fs time scale. This transition requires small rearrangements in the geometry of the bases.
Hou, Gao-Lei; Li, Lei-Jiao; Li, Shu-Hui; Sun, Zhong-Ming; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Xue-Bin
2016-07-28
Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy shows interesting regioisomer-specific electron affinities (EAs) of 2,5- and 7,23-para-adducts of C70 [(ArCH2)2C70] (Ar = Ph, o-, m-, and p-BrC6H4). Their EA values are larger than that of C70 by 5-150 meV with the 2,5-polar adducts' EAs being higher than their corresponding 7,23-equatorial counterparts, exhibiting appreciable EA tunable ranges and regioisomeric specificity. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reproduce both the experimental EA values and EA trends very well. PMID:27375165
Han, Sungmin; Kim, Heejin; Kim, Jaehoon; Jung, Yousung
2015-07-14
As a new class of magnetic materials, metal-organic framework (MOF) has received a significant attention due to their functionality and porosity that can provide diverse magnetic phenomena by utilizing host-guest chemistry. For Fe-MOF-74, we here find using density functional calculations that the O2 and C2H4 adsorptions result in the ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) orderings along the 1D chain of an hexagonal MOF framework, respectively, while their adsorption energies, pi-complexation, and geometrical changes are all similar upon binding. We reveal that this different magnetism behavior is attributed to the different electronic effects, where the adsorbed O2 greatly withdraws a minor spin electron from the Fe centers. The latter significant back donation opens a new channel for superexchange interactions that can enhance the FM coupling between Fe centers, where the strength of calculated intrachain FM coupling constrant (Jin) in O2 adsorbed Fe-MOF-74 is more than 10 times enhanced compared to bare Fe-MOF-74. This prediction suggests a possibility for the conceptual usage of Fe-MOF-74 as a gas sensor based on its magnetic changes caused by the adsorbed gases. Furthermore, the suggested mechanism might be used to control the magnetic properties of MOFs using the guest molecules, although concrete strategies to enhance such magnetic interactions to be used in practical applications would require further significant investigation. PMID:26061285
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Saikat; Adhikari, Satrajit
2014-08-01
We calculate the adiabatic potential energy surfaces (PESs) and the non-adiabatic coupling terms (NACTs) for the excited electronic states of K3 cluster by MRCI approach using MOLPRO. The NACTs are adapted with molecular symmetry to assign appropriate IREPs so that the elements of the Hamiltonian matrix are totally symmetric. We incorporate those NACTs into three-state adiabatic-to-diabatic transformation (ADT) equations to obtain ADT angles for constructing continuous, single-valued, smooth and symmetric diabatic Hamiltonian matrix, where its elements are fitted with analytic functions. Finally, we demonstrate that the dressed diabatic and adiabatic-via-dressed diabatic PECs show prominent topological effect over dressed adiabatic curves.
Pressure Oscillations in Adiabatic Compression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stout, Roland
2011-01-01
After finding Moloney and McGarvey's modified adiabatic compression apparatus, I decided to insert this experiment into my physical chemistry laboratory at the last minute, replacing a problematic experiment. With insufficient time to build the apparatus, we placed a bottle between two thick textbooks and compressed it with a third textbook forced…
Adiabatic dynamics of magnetic vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papanicolaou, N.
1994-03-01
We formulate a reasonably detailed adiabatic conjecture concerning the dynamics of skew deflection of magnetic vortices in a field gradient, which is expected to be valid at sufficiently large values of the winding number. The conjecture is consistent with the golden rule used to describe the dynamics of realistic magnetic bubbles and is verified here numerically within the 2-D isotropic Heisenberg model.
Transitionless driving on adiabatic search algorithm
Oh, Sangchul; Kais, Sabre
2014-12-14
We study quantum dynamics of the adiabatic search algorithm with the equivalent two-level system. Its adiabatic and non-adiabatic evolution is studied and visualized as trajectories of Bloch vectors on a Bloch sphere. We find the change in the non-adiabatic transition probability from exponential decay for the short running time to inverse-square decay in asymptotic running time. The scaling of the critical running time is expressed in terms of the Lambert W function. We derive the transitionless driving Hamiltonian for the adiabatic search algorithm, which makes a quantum state follow the adiabatic path. We demonstrate that a uniform transitionless driving Hamiltonian, approximate to the exact time-dependent driving Hamiltonian, can alter the non-adiabatic transition probability from the inverse square decay to the inverse fourth power decay with the running time. This may open up a new but simple way of speeding up adiabatic quantum dynamics.
Transitionless driving on adiabatic search algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Sangchul; Kais, Sabre
2014-12-01
We study quantum dynamics of the adiabatic search algorithm with the equivalent two-level system. Its adiabatic and non-adiabatic evolution is studied and visualized as trajectories of Bloch vectors on a Bloch sphere. We find the change in the non-adiabatic transition probability from exponential decay for the short running time to inverse-square decay in asymptotic running time. The scaling of the critical running time is expressed in terms of the Lambert W function. We derive the transitionless driving Hamiltonian for the adiabatic search algorithm, which makes a quantum state follow the adiabatic path. We demonstrate that a uniform transitionless driving Hamiltonian, approximate to the exact time-dependent driving Hamiltonian, can alter the non-adiabatic transition probability from the inverse square decay to the inverse fourth power decay with the running time. This may open up a new but simple way of speeding up adiabatic quantum dynamics.
Transitionless driving on adiabatic search algorithm.
Oh, Sangchul; Kais, Sabre
2014-12-14
We study quantum dynamics of the adiabatic search algorithm with the equivalent two-level system. Its adiabatic and non-adiabatic evolution is studied and visualized as trajectories of Bloch vectors on a Bloch sphere. We find the change in the non-adiabatic transition probability from exponential decay for the short running time to inverse-square decay in asymptotic running time. The scaling of the critical running time is expressed in terms of the Lambert W function. We derive the transitionless driving Hamiltonian for the adiabatic search algorithm, which makes a quantum state follow the adiabatic path. We demonstrate that a uniform transitionless driving Hamiltonian, approximate to the exact time-dependent driving Hamiltonian, can alter the non-adiabatic transition probability from the inverse square decay to the inverse fourth power decay with the running time. This may open up a new but simple way of speeding up adiabatic quantum dynamics. PMID:25494733
Studies in Chaotic adiabatic dynamics
Jarzynski, C.
1994-01-01
Chaotic adiabatic dynamics refers to the study of systems exhibiting chaotic evolution under slowly time-dependent equations of motion. In this dissertation the author restricts his attention to Hamiltonian chaotic adiabatic systems. The results presented are organized around a central theme, namely, that the energies of such systems evolve diffusively. He begins with a general analysis, in which he motivates and derives a Fokker-Planck equation governing this process of energy diffusion. He applies this equation to study the {open_quotes}goodness{close_quotes} of an adiabatic invariant associated with chaotic motion. This formalism is then applied to two specific examples. The first is that of a gas of noninteracting point particles inside a hard container that deforms slowly with time. Both the two- and three-dimensional cases are considered. The results are discussed in the context of the Wall Formula for one-body dissipation in nuclear physics, and it is shown that such a gas approaches, asymptotically with time, an exponential velocity distribution. The second example involves the Fermi mechanism for the acceleration of cosmic rays. Explicit evolution equations are obtained for the distribution of cosmic ray energies within this model, and the steady-state energy distribution that arises when this equation is modified to account for the injection and removal of cosmic rays is discussed. Finally, the author re-examines the multiple-time-scale approach as applied to the study of phase space evolution under a chaotic adiabatic Hamiltonian. This leads to a more rigorous derivation of the above-mentioned Fokker-Planck equation, and also to a new term which has relevance to the problem of chaotic adiabatic reaction forces (the forces acting on slow, heavy degrees of freedom due to their coupling to light, fast chaotic degrees).
Spatial adiabatic passage: a review of recent progress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menchon-Enrich, R.; Benseny, A.; Ahufinger, V.; Greentree, A. D.; Busch, Th; Mompart, J.
2016-07-01
Adiabatic techniques are known to allow for engineering quantum states with high fidelity. This requirement is currently of large interest, as applications in quantum information require the preparation and manipulation of quantum states with minimal errors. Here we review recent progress on developing techniques for the preparation of spatial states through adiabatic passage, particularly focusing on three state systems. These techniques can be applied to matter waves in external potentials, such as cold atoms or electrons, and to classical waves in waveguides, such as light or sound.
Spatial adiabatic passage: a review of recent progress.
Menchon-Enrich, R; Benseny, A; Ahufinger, V; Greentree, A D; Busch, Th; Mompart, J
2016-07-01
Adiabatic techniques are known to allow for engineering quantum states with high fidelity. This requirement is currently of large interest, as applications in quantum information require the preparation and manipulation of quantum states with minimal errors. Here we review recent progress on developing techniques for the preparation of spatial states through adiabatic passage, particularly focusing on three state systems. These techniques can be applied to matter waves in external potentials, such as cold atoms or electrons, and to classical waves in waveguides, such as light or sound. PMID:27245462
Report: Affinity Chromatography.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walters, Rodney R.
1985-01-01
Supports, affinity ligands, immobilization, elution methods, and a number of applications are among the topics considered in this discussion of affinity chromatography. An outline of the basic principles of affinity chromatography is included. (JN)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Liang; Ping, Chen; De-Gang, Zhao; De-Sheng, Jiang; Zhi-Juan, Zhao; Zong-Shun, Liu; Jian-Jun, Zhu; Jing, Yang; Wei, Liu; Xiao-Guang, He; Xiao-Jing, Li; Xiang, Li; Shuang-Tao, Liu; Hui, Yang; Li-Qun, Zhang; Jian-Ping, Liu; Yuan-Tao, Zhang; Guo-Tong, Du
2016-05-01
We have investigated the electron affinity of Si-doped AlN films (N Si = 1.0 × 1018–1.0 × 1019 cm‑3) with thicknesses of 50, 200, and 400 nm, synthesized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) under low pressure on the n-type (001)6H–SiC substrates. The positive and small electron affinity of AlN films was observed through the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) analysis, where an increase in electron affinity appears with the thickness of AlN films increasing, i.e., 0.36 eV for the 50-nm-thick one, 0.58 eV for the 200-nm-thick one, and 0.97 eV for the 400-nm-thick one. Accompanying the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis on the surface contaminations, it suggests that the difference of electron affinity between our three samples may result from the discrepancy of surface impurity contaminations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61574135, 61574134, 61474142, 61474110, 61377020, 61376089, 61223005, and 61321063), the One Hundred Person Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Basic Research Project of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20130362).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujimura, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Akio; Makihara, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Seiichi
2016-08-01
An evaluation method for the energy level of the valence band (VB) top from the vacuum level (VL) for metals, dielectrics, and semiconductors from the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is presented for the accurate determination of the energy band diagram for materials of interest. In this method, the VB top can be determined by the energy difference between the onset of VB signals and the cut-off energy for secondary photoelectrons by considering the X-ray excitation energy (hν). The energy level of the VB top for three kinds of Si-based materials (H-terminated Si, wet-cleaned 4H-SiC, and thermally grown SiO2) has been investigated by XPS under monochromatized Al Kα radiation (hν = 1486.6 eV). We have also demonstrated the determination of the electron affinity for the samples by this measurement technique in combination with the measured and reported energy bandgaps (E g).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, S. P.; Lahiri, S. C.
2008-06-01
TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) formed deep red 1:1 CT complexes with chromogenic agents like isopropylamine, ethylenediamine, bis(3-aminopropyl)amine and tetraethylenepentamine in DMSO. The complexes were also observed in solvents like methanol, acetone, etc. when the amines were present in large excess. The isopropylamine, complex showed three absorption peaks (at 378, 532 and 629 nm) whereas higher amines showed four peaks (at 370, 463, 532 and 629 nm). The peak at 463 nm vanished rapidly. The peak of the complexes near 530 nm required about 8-10 min to develop and the complexes were stable for about an hour but the peak slowly shifted towards 500 nm and the complexes were found to be stable for more than 24 h. The evidence of complex formation was obtained from distinct spots in HPTLC plates and from the shifts in frequencies and formation of new peaks in FTIR spectra. The peaks near 460 nm (transient) and 530 nm may be due to Janovsky reaction but could not be established. The extinction coefficients of the complexes were determined directly which enabled the accurate determination of the association constants KDA with TNT and amines in stoichiometric ratios. The results were verified using iterative method. The quantfication of TNT was made using ɛ value of the complex with ethylenediamine. The vertical electron affinity ( EA) of TNT was calculated using the method suggested by Mulliken.
Robust adiabatic sum frequency conversion.
Suchowski, Haim; Prabhudesai, Vaibhav; Oron, Dan; Arie, Ady; Silberberg, Yaron
2009-07-20
We discuss theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the robustness of the adiabatic sum frequency conversion method. This technique, borrowed from an analogous scheme of robust population transfer in atomic physics and nuclear magnetic resonance, enables the achievement of nearly full frequency conversion in a sum frequency generation process for a bandwidth up to two orders of magnitude wider than in conventional conversion schemes. We show that this scheme is robust to variations in the parameters of both the nonlinear crystal and of the incoming light. These include the crystal temperature, the frequency of the incoming field, the pump intensity, the crystal length and the angle of incidence. Also, we show that this extremely broad bandwidth can be tuned to higher or lower central wavelengths by changing either the pump frequency or the crystal temperature. The detailed study of the properties of this converter is done using the Landau-Zener theory dealing with the adiabatic transitions in two level systems. PMID:19654679
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlaf, R.; Lang, O.; Pettenkofer, C.; Jaegermann, W.
1999-03-01
The occurrence of quantum dipoles at layered materials semiconductor heterointerfaces was investigated by photoemission spectroscopy (PES). Due to the unique properties of layered compounds the prepared interfaces are essentially free of the structural problems known from the usually investigated heterosystems composed of III-V, IV or II-VI materials allowing the detailed investigation of electronic phenomena at the interfaces. We investigated heterostructures composed of epitaxial layers of SnS2 and SnSe2 on different single crystalline layered chalcogenide substrates (WSe2, MoS2, MoTe2, and GaSe). The epilayers were grown by van der Waals epitaxy (vdWe) on the (0001) plane of the substrate crystals. For every system the valence band offset was determined by careful evaluation of the PES data as a function of the film thickness. Using published values for the band gaps and the experimentally determined work functions and surface potentials the band lineup for each system was determined. The band offsets of all systems were found to differ from the prediction of the electron affinity rule (EAR) by a small systematic deviation which was related to the occurrence of localized quantum dipoles at the interface. This deviation can be expressed as a linear charge transfer correction term added to the original EAR. This corrected EAR is still a linear rule allowing the assignment of "characteristic energies" to each material for the calculation of the band offset. We could demonstrate that the error margin of the corrected EAR lies well within the experimental error of PES experiments, thus proving the general applicability of linear laws for the determination of the band offset in absence of structural dipoles.
Adiabaticity in open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venuti, Lorenzo Campos; Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.; Zanardi, Paolo
2016-03-01
We provide a rigorous generalization of the quantum adiabatic theorem for open systems described by a Markovian master equation with time-dependent Liouvillian L (t ) . We focus on the finite system case relevant for adiabatic quantum computing and quantum annealing. Adiabaticity is defined in terms of closeness to the instantaneous steady state. While the general result is conceptually similar to the closed-system case, there are important differences. Namely, a system initialized in the zero-eigenvalue eigenspace of L (t ) will remain in this eigenspace with a deviation that is inversely proportional to the total evolution time T . In the case of a finite number of level crossings, the scaling becomes T-η with an exponent η that we relate to the rate of the gap closing. For master equations that describe relaxation to thermal equilibrium, we show that the evolution time T should be long compared to the corresponding minimum inverse gap squared of L (t ) . Our results are illustrated with several examples.
Arbitrary Amplitude DIA and DA Solitary Waves in Adiabatic Dusty Plasmas
Mamun, A. A.; Jahan, N.; Shukla, P. K.
2008-10-15
The dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) as well as the dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves (SWs) in an adiabatic dusty plasma are investigated by the pseudo-potential approach which is valid for arbitrary amplitude SWs. The role of the adiabaticity of electrons and ions in modifying the basic features (polarity, speed, amplitude and width) of arbitrary amplitude DIA and DA SWs are explicitly examined. It is found that the effects of the adiabaticity of electrons and ions significantly modify the basic features (polarity, speed, amplitude and width) of the DIA and DA SWs. The implications of our results in space and laboratory dusty plasmas are briefly discussed.
Nonadiabatic quantum Liouville and master equations in the adiabatic basis
Jang, Seogjoo
2012-12-14
A compact form of nonadiabatic molecular Hamiltonian in the basis of adiabatic electronic states and nuclear position states is presented. The Hamiltonian, which includes both the first and the second derivative couplings, is Hermitian and thus leads to a standard expression for the quantum Liouville equation for the density operator. With the application of a projection operator technique, a quantum master equation for the diagonal components of the density operator is derived. Under the assumption that nuclear states are much more short ranged compared to electronic states and assuming no singularity, a semi-adiabatic approximation is invoked, which results in expressions for the nonadiabatic molecular Hamiltonian and the quantum Liouville equation that are much more amenable to advanced quantum dynamics calculation. The semi-adiabatic approximation is also applied to a resonance energy transfer system consisting of a donor and an acceptor interacting via Coulomb terms, and explicit detailed expressions for exciton-bath Hamiltonian including all the non-adiabatic terms are derived.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dafa
2016-05-01
The adiabatic theorem was proposed about 90 years ago and has played an important role in quantum physics. The quantitative adiabatic condition constructed from eigenstates and eigenvalues of a Hamiltonian is a traditional tool to estimate adiabaticity and has proven to be the necessary and sufficient condition for adiabaticity. However, recently the condition has become a controversial subject. In this paper, we list some expressions to estimate the validity of the adiabatic approximation. We show that the quantitative adiabatic condition is invalid for the adiabatic approximation via the Euclidean distance between the adiabatic state and the evolution state. Furthermore, we deduce general necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of the adiabatic approximation by different definitions.
Geometric Adiabatic Transport in Quantum Hall States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klevtsov, S.; Wiegmann, P.
2015-08-01
We argue that in addition to the Hall conductance and the nondissipative component of the viscous tensor, there exists a third independent transport coefficient, which is precisely quantized. It takes constant values along quantum Hall plateaus. We show that the new coefficient is the Chern number of a vector bundle over moduli space of surfaces of genus 2 or higher and therefore cannot change continuously along the plateau. As such, it does not transpire on a sphere or a torus. In the linear response theory, this coefficient determines intensive forces exerted on electronic fluid by adiabatic deformations of geometry and represents the effect of the gravitational anomaly. We also present the method of computing the transport coefficients for quantum Hall states.
Geometric Adiabatic Transport in Quantum Hall States.
Klevtsov, S; Wiegmann, P
2015-08-21
We argue that in addition to the Hall conductance and the nondissipative component of the viscous tensor, there exists a third independent transport coefficient, which is precisely quantized. It takes constant values along quantum Hall plateaus. We show that the new coefficient is the Chern number of a vector bundle over moduli space of surfaces of genus 2 or higher and therefore cannot change continuously along the plateau. As such, it does not transpire on a sphere or a torus. In the linear response theory, this coefficient determines intensive forces exerted on electronic fluid by adiabatic deformations of geometry and represents the effect of the gravitational anomaly. We also present the method of computing the transport coefficients for quantum Hall states. PMID:26340197
Sliding seal materials for adiabatic engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lankford, J.
1985-01-01
The sliding friction coefficients and wear rates of promising carbide, oxide, and nitride materials were measured under temperature, environmental, velocity, loading conditions that are representative of the adiabatic engine environment. In order to provide guidance needed to improve materials for this application, the program stressed fundamental understanding of the mechanisms involved in friction and wear. Microhardness tests were performed on the candidate materials at elevated temperatures, and in atmospheres relevant to the piston seal application, and optical and electron microscopy were used to elucidate the micromechanisms of wear following wear testing. X-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate interface/environment interactions which seemed to be important in the friction and wear process. Electrical effects in the friction and wear processes were explored in order to evaluate the potential usefulness of such effects in modifying the friction and wear rates in service. However, this factor was found to be of negligible significance in controlling friction and wear.
Quantum and classical non-adiabatic dynamics of Li_{2}^{+}Ne photodissociation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pouilly, Brigitte; Monnerville, Maurice; Zanuttini, David; Gervais, Benoît
2015-01-01
The 3D photodissociation dynamics of Li2+Ne system is investigated by quantum calculations using the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method and by classical simulations with the trajectory surface hopping (TSH) approach. Six electronic states of A’ symmetry and two states of A” symmetry are involved in the process. Couplings in the excitation region and two conical intersections in the vicinity of the Franck-Condon zone control the non-adiabatic nuclear dynamics. A diabatic representation including all the states and the couplings is determined. Diabatic and adiabatic populations calculated for initial excitation to pure diabatic and adiabatic states lead to a clear understanding of the mechanisms governing the non-adiabatic photodissociation process. The classical and quantum photodissociation cross-sections for absorption in two adiabatic states of the A’ symmetry are calculated. A remarkable agreement between quantum and classical results is obtained regarding the populations and the absorption cross-sections.
Jing, Linhong; Nash, John J.
2009-01-01
The factors that control the reactivities of aryl radicals toward hydrogen-atom donors were studied by using a dual-cell Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT – ICR). Hydrogen-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies for two substrates, cyclohexane and isopropanol, were measured for twenty-three structurally different, positively-charged aryl radicals, which included dehydrobenzenes, dehydronaphthalenes, dehydropyridines, and dehydro(iso)quinolines. A logarithmic correlation was found between the hydrogen-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies and the (calculated) vertical electron affinities (EA) of the aryl radicals. Transition state energies calculated for three of the aryl radicals with isopropanol were found to correlate linearly with their (calculated) EAs. No correlation was found between the hydrogen-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies and the (calculated) enthalpy changes for the reactions. Measurement of the reaction efficiencies for the reactions of several different hydrogen-atom donors with a few selected aryl radicals revealed a logarithmic correlation between the hydrogen-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies and the vertical ionization energies (IE) of the hydrogen-atom donors, but not the lowest homolytic X – H (X = heavy atom) bond dissociation energies of the hydrogen-atom donors. Examination of the hydrogen-atom abstraction reactions of twenty-nine different aryl radicals and eighteen different hydrogen-atom donors showed that the reaction efficiency increases (logarithmically) as the difference between the IE of the hydrogen-atom donor and the EA of the aryl radical decreases. This dependence is likely to result from the increasing polarization, and concomitant stabilization, of the transition state as the energy difference between the neutral and ionic reactants decreases. Thus, the hydrogen-atom abstraction reaction efficiency for an aryl radical can be “tuned” by structural changes that influence either
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wójcik, P.; Zegrodnik, M.; Rzeszotarski, B.; Adamowski, J.
2016-09-01
The tunneling conductance through the half-metal/conical magnet/superconductor (HM/CM/SC) junctions is investigated with the use of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations in the framework of Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism. Due to the spin band separation in the HM, the conductance in the subgap region is mainly determined by the anomalous Andreev reflection, the probability of which strongly depends on the spin transmission in the CM layer. We show that the spins of electrons injected from the HM can be transmitted through the CM to the SC either adiabatically or non-adiabatically depending on the period of the spatial modulation of the exchange field. We find that the conductance in the subgap region oscillates as a function of the CM layer thickness wherein the oscillations transform from the irregular pattern in the non-adiabatic regime to the regular one in the adiabatic regime. For both adiabatic and non-adiabatic transport regimes the conductance is studied over a broad range of parameters determining the spiral magnetization in the CM. We find that in the non-adiabatic regime, the decrease of the exchange field amplitude in the CM leads to the emergence of the conductance peak for the particular CM thickness in agreement with recent experiments.
Adiabatic Wankel type rotary engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kamo, R.; Badgley, P.; Doup, D.
1988-01-01
This SBIR Phase program accomplished the objective of advancing the technology of the Wankel type rotary engine for aircraft applications through the use of adiabatic engine technology. Based on the results of this program, technology is in place to provide a rotor and side and intermediate housings with thermal barrier coatings. A detailed cycle analysis of the NASA 1007R Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engine was performed which concluded that applying thermal barrier coatings to the rotor should be successful and that it was unlikely that the rotor housing could be successfully run with thermal barrier coatings as the thermal stresses were extensive.
Adiabatic nonlinear waves with trapped particles. II. Wave dispersion
Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.
2012-01-15
A general nonlinear dispersion relation is derived in a nondifferential form for an adiabatic sinusoidal Langmuir wave in collisionless plasma, allowing for an arbitrary distribution of trapped electrons. The linear dielectric function is generalized, and the nonlinear kinetic frequency shift {omega}{sub NL} is found analytically as a function of the wave amplitude a. Smooth distributions yield {omega}{sub NL}{proportional_to}{radical}(a), as usual. However, beam-like distributions of trapped electrons result in different power laws, or even a logarithmic nonlinearity, which are derived as asymptotic limits of the same dispersion relation. Such beams are formed whenever the phase velocity changes, because the trapped distribution is in autoresonance and thus evolves differently from the passing distribution. Hence, even adiabatic {omega}{sub NL}(a) is generally nonlocal.
Energy-Efficient and Secure S-Box circuit using Symmetric Pass Gate Adiabatic Logic
Kumar, Dinesh; Mohammad, Azhar; Singh, Vijay; Perumalla, Kalyan S
2016-01-01
Differential Power Analysis (DPA) attack is considered to be a main threat while designing cryptographic processors. In cryptographic algorithms like DES and AES, S-Box is used to indeterminate the relationship between the keys and the cipher texts. However, S-box is prone to DPA attack due to its high power consumption. In this paper, we are implementing an energy-efficient 8-bit S-Box circuit using our proposed Symmetric Pass Gate Adiabatic Logic (SPGAL). SPGAL is energy-efficient as compared to the existing DPAresistant adiabatic and non-adiabatic logic families. SPGAL is energy-efficient due to reduction of non-adiabatic loss during the evaluate phase of the outputs. Further, the S-Box circuit implemented using SPGAL is resistant to DPA attacks. The results are verified through SPICE simulations in 180nm technology. SPICE simulations show that the SPGAL based S-Box circuit saves upto 92% and 67% of energy as compared to the conventional CMOS and Secured Quasi-Adiabatic Logic (SQAL) based S-Box circuit. From the simulation results, it is evident that the SPGAL based circuits are energy-efficient as compared to the existing DPAresistant adiabatic and non-adiabatic logic families. In nutshell, SPGAL based gates can be used to build secure hardware for lowpower portable electronic devices and Internet-of-Things (IoT) based electronic devices.
Adiabatic trapping in coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic waves
Shah, H. A.; Ali, Z.; Masood, W.
2013-03-15
In the present work, we have discussed the effects of adiabatic trapping of electrons on obliquely propagating Alfven waves in a low {beta} plasma. Using the two potential theory and employing the Sagdeev potential approach, we have investigated the existence of arbitrary amplitude coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic solitary waves in both the sub and super Alfvenic cases. The results obtained have been analyzed and presented graphically and can be applied to regions of space where the low {beta} assumption holds true.
The molecular symmetry adapted non - adiabatic coupling terms and diabatic Hamiltonian matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Saikat; Bandyopadhyay, Sudip; Paul, Amit Kumar; Adhikari, Satrajit
2013-04-01
We calculate the adiabatic Potential Energy Surfaces (PESs) and the Non - Adiabatic Coupling Terms (NACTs) for the excited electronic states (22 E' and 12 A'1) of Na3 cluster at the MRCI level by using ab initio quantum chemistry package (MOLPRO), where the NACTs are adapted with Molecular Symmetry (MS) by employing appropriate Irreducible Representations (IREPs). Such terms are incorporated into the Adiabatic to Diabatic Transformation (ADT) equations to obtain the ADT angles to construct the continuous, single - valued, symmetric and smooth 3 × 3 diabatic Hamiltonian matrix.
Degenerate adiabatic perturbation theory: Foundations and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rigolin, Gustavo; Ortiz, Gerardo
2014-08-01
We present details and expand on the framework leading to the recently introduced degenerate adiabatic perturbation theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 170406 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.170406], and on the formulation of the degenerate adiabatic theorem, along with its necessary and sufficient conditions [given in Phys. Rev. A 85, 062111 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.062111]. We start with the adiabatic approximation for degenerate Hamiltonians that paves the way to a clear and rigorous statement of the associated degenerate adiabatic theorem, where the non-Abelian geometric phase (Wilczek-Zee phase) plays a central role to its quantitative formulation. We then describe the degenerate adiabatic perturbation theory, whose zeroth-order term is the degenerate adiabatic approximation, in its full generality. The parameter in the perturbative power-series expansion of the time-dependent wave function is directly associated to the inverse of the time it takes to drive the system from its initial to its final state. With the aid of the degenerate adiabatic perturbation theory we obtain rigorous necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics. Finally, to illustrate the power and wide scope of the methodology, we apply the framework to a degenerate Hamiltonian, whose closed-form time-dependent wave function is derived exactly, and also to other nonexactly solvable Hamiltonians whose solutions are numerically computed.
Shortcut to adiabatic gate teleportation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, Alan C.; Silva, Raphael D.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.
2016-01-01
We introduce a shortcut to the adiabatic gate teleportation model of quantum computation. More specifically, we determine fast local counterdiabatic Hamiltonians able to implement teleportation as a universal computational primitive. In this scenario, we provide the counterdiabatic driving for arbitrary n -qubit gates, which allows to achieve universality through a variety of gate sets. Remarkably, our approach maps the superadiabatic Hamiltonian HSA for an arbitrary n -qubit gate teleportation into the implementation of a rotated superadiabatic dynamics of an n -qubit state teleportation. This result is rather general, with the speed of the evolution only dictated by the quantum speed limit. In particular, we analyze the energetic cost for different Hamiltonian interpolations in the context of the energy-time complementarity.
Quantum gates with controlled adiabatic evolutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hen, Itay
2015-02-01
We introduce a class of quantum adiabatic evolutions that we claim may be interpreted as the equivalents of the unitary gates of the quantum gate model. We argue that these gates form a universal set and may therefore be used as building blocks in the construction of arbitrary "adiabatic circuits," analogously to the manner in which gates are used in the circuit model. One implication of the above construction is that arbitrary classical boolean circuits as well as gate model circuits may be directly translated to adiabatic algorithms with no additional resources or complexities. We show that while these adiabatic algorithms fail to exhibit certain aspects of the inherent fault tolerance of traditional quantum adiabatic algorithms, they may have certain other experimental advantages acting as quantum gates.
On a Nonlinear Model in Adiabatic Evolutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Jie; Lu, Song-Feng
2016-08-01
In this paper, we study a kind of nonlinear model of adiabatic evolution in quantum search problem. As will be seen here, for this problem, there always exists a possibility that this nonlinear model can successfully solve the problem, while the linear model can not. Also in the same setting, when the overlap between the initial state and the final stare is sufficiently large, a simple linear adiabatic evolution can achieve O(1) time efficiency, but infinite time complexity for the nonlinear model of adiabatic evolution is needed. This tells us, it is not always a wise choice to use nonlinear interpolations in adiabatic algorithms. Sometimes, simple linear adiabatic evolutions may be sufficient for using. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61402188 and 61173050. The first author also gratefully acknowledges the support from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 2014M552041
Adiabatic corrections to density functional theory energies and wave functions.
Mohallem, José R; Coura, Thiago de O; Diniz, Leonardo G; de Castro, Gustavo; Assafrão, Denise; Heine, Thomas
2008-09-25
The adiabatic finite-nuclear-mass-correction (FNMC) to the electronic energies and wave functions of atoms and molecules is formulated for density-functional theory and implemented in the deMon code. The approach is tested for a series of local and gradient corrected density functionals, using MP2 results and diagonal-Born-Oppenheimer corrections from the literature for comparison. In the evaluation of absolute energy corrections of nonorganic molecules the LDA PZ81 functional works surprisingly better than the others. For organic molecules the GGA BLYP functional has the best performance. FNMC with GGA functionals, mainly BLYP, show a good performance in the evaluation of relative corrections, except for nonorganic molecules containing H atoms. The PW86 functional stands out with the best evaluation of the barrier of linearity of H2O and the isotopic dipole moment of HDO. In general, DFT functionals display an accuracy superior than the common belief and because the corrections are based on a change of the electronic kinetic energy they are here ranked in a new appropriate way. The approach is applied to obtain the adiabatic correction for full atomization of alcanes C(n)H(2n+2), n = 4-10. The barrier of 1 mHartree is approached for adiabatic corrections, justifying its insertion into DFT. PMID:18537228
Highly parallel implementation of non-adiabatic Ehrenfest molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanai, Yosuke; Schleife, Andre; Draeger, Erik; Anisimov, Victor; Correa, Alfredo
2014-03-01
While the adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approximation tremendously lowers computational effort, many questions in modern physics, chemistry, and materials science require an explicit description of coupled non-adiabatic electron-ion dynamics. Electronic stopping, i.e. the energy transfer of a fast projectile atom to the electronic system of the target material, is a notorious example. We recently implemented real-time time-dependent density functional theory based on the plane-wave pseudopotential formalism in the Qbox/qb@ll codes. We demonstrate that explicit integration using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme is very suitable for modern highly parallelized supercomputers. Applying the new implementation to systems with hundreds of atoms and thousands of electrons, we achieved excellent performance and scalability on a large number of nodes both on the BlueGene based ``Sequoia'' system at LLNL as well as the Cray architecture of ``Blue Waters'' at NCSA. As an example, we discuss our work on computing the electronic stopping power of aluminum and gold for hydrogen projectiles, showing an excellent agreement with experiment. These first-principles calculations allow us to gain important insight into the the fundamental physics of electronic stopping.
Steady-state coherent transfer by adiabatic passage.
Huneke, Jan; Platero, Gloria; Kohler, Sigmund
2013-01-18
We propose steady-state electron transport based on coherent transfer by adiabatic passage (CTAP) in a linearly arranged triple quantum dot with leads attached to the outer dots. Its main feature is repeated steering of single electrons from the first dot to the last dot without relevant occupation of the middle dot. The coupling to leads enables a steady-state current, whose shot noise is significantly suppressed provided that the CTAP protocol performs properly. This represents an indication for the direct transfer between spatially separated dots and, thus, may resolve the problem of finding experimental evidence for the nonoccupation of the middle dot. PMID:23373941
Adiabatic Compression of Oxygen: Real Fluid Temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barragan, Michelle; Wilson, D. Bruce; Stoltzfus, Joel M.
2000-01-01
The adiabatic compression of oxygen has been identified as an ignition source for systems operating in enriched oxygen atmospheres. Current practice is to evaluate the temperature rise on compression by treating oxygen as an ideal gas with constant heat capacity. This paper establishes the appropriate thermodynamic analysis for the common occurrence of adiabatic compression of oxygen and in the process defines a satisfactory equation of state (EOS) for oxygen. It uses that EOS to model adiabatic compression as isentropic compression and calculates final temperatures for this system using current approaches for comparison.
Heating and cooling in adiabatic mixing process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Jing; Cai, Zi; Zou, Xu-Bo; Guo, Guang-Can
2010-12-01
We study the effect of interaction on the temperature change in the process of adiabatic mixing of two components of Fermi gases using the real-space Bogoliubov-de Gennes method. We find that in the process of adiabatic mixing, the competition between the adiabatic expansion and the attractive interaction makes it possible to cool or heat the system depending on the strength of the interaction and the initial temperature of the system. The changes of the temperature in a bulk system and in a trapped system are investigated.
Piezoelectric control of the mobility of a domain wall driven by adiabatic and non-adiabatic torques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Ranieri, E.; Roy, P. E.; Fang, D.; Vehsthedt, E. K.; Irvine, A. C.; Heiss, D.; Casiraghi, A.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Jungwirth, T.; Wunderlich, J.
2013-09-01
The rich internal degrees of freedom of magnetic domain walls make them an attractive complement to electron charge for exploring new concepts of storage, transport and processing of information. Here we use the tunable internal structure of a domain wall in a perpendicularly magnetized GaMnAsP/GaAs ferromagnetic semiconductor and demonstrate devices in which piezoelectrically controlled magnetic anisotropy yields up to 500% mobility variations for an electrical-current-driven domain wall. We observe current-induced domain wall motion over a wide range of current-pulse amplitudes and report a direct observation and the piezoelectric control of the Walker breakdown separating two regimes with different mobilities. Our work demonstrates that in spin-orbit-coupled ferromagnets with weak extrinsic domain wall pinning, the piezoelectric control allows one to experimentally assess the upper and lower boundaries of the characteristic ratio of adiabatic and non-adiabatic spin-transfer torques in the current-driven domain wall motion.
Multisurface Adiabatic Reactive Molecular Dynamics.
Nagy, Tibor; Yosa Reyes, Juvenal; Meuwly, Markus
2014-04-01
Adiabatic reactive molecular dynamics (ARMD) simulation method is a surface-crossing algorithm for modeling chemical reactions in classical molecular dynamics simulations using empirical force fields. As the ARMD Hamiltonian is time dependent during crossing, it allows only approximate energy conservation. In the current work, the range of applicability of conventional ARMD is explored, and a new multisurface ARMD (MS-ARMD) method is presented, implemented in CHARMM and applied to the vibrationally induced photodissociation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in the gas phase. For this, an accurate global potential energy surface (PES) involving 12 H2SO4 and 4 H2O + SO3 force fields fitted to MP2/6-311G++(2d,2p) reference energies is employed. The MS-ARMD simulations conserve total energy and feature both intramolecular H-transfer reactions and water elimination. An analytical treatment of the dynamics in the crossing region finds that conventional ARMD can approximately conserve total energy for limiting cases. In one of them, the reduced mass of the system is large, which often occurs for simulations of solvated biomolecular systems. On the other hand, MS-ARMD is a general approach for modeling chemical reactions including gas-phase, homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic catalytic reactions while conserving total energy in atomistic simulations. PMID:26580356
Adiabatic limits on Riemannian Heisenberg manifolds
Yakovlev, A A
2008-02-28
An asymptotic formula is obtained for the distribution function of the spectrum of the Laplace operator, in the adiabatic limit for the foliation defined by the orbits of an invariant flow on a compact Riemannian Heisenberg manifold. Bibliography: 21 titles.
Experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schraft, Daniel; Halfmann, Thomas; Genov, Genko T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.
2013-12-01
We report an experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage (CAP) for robust and efficient manipulation of two-level systems. The technique represents a altered version of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), driven by composite sequences of radiation pulses with appropriately chosen phases. We implement CAP with radio-frequency pulses to invert (i.e., to rephase) optically prepared spin coherences in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. We perform systematic investigations of the efficiency of CAP and compare the results with conventional π pulses and RAP. The data clearly demonstrate the superior features of CAP with regard to robustness and efficiency, even under conditions of weakly fulfilled adiabaticity. The experimental demonstration of composite sequences to support adiabatic passage is of significant relevance whenever a high efficiency or robustness of coherent excitation processes need to be maintained, e.g., as required in quantum information technology.
An Adiabatic Architecture for Linear Signal Processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vollmer, M.; Götze, J.
2005-05-01
Using adiabatic CMOS logic instead of the more traditional static CMOS logic can lower the power consumption of a hardware design. However, the characteristic differences between adiabatic and static logic, such as a four-phase clock, have a far reaching influence on the design itself. These influences are investigated in this paper by adapting a systolic array of CORDIC devices to be implemented adiabatically. We present a means to describe adiabatic logic in VHDL and use it to define the systolic array with precise timing and bit-true calculations. The large pipeline bubbles that occur in a naive version of this array are identified and removed to a large degree. As an example, we demonstrate a parameterization of the CORDIC array that carries out adaptive RLS filtering.
General conditions for quantum adiabatic evolution
Comparat, Daniel
2009-07-15
Adiabaticity occurs when, during its evolution, a physical system remains in the instantaneous eigenstate of the Hamiltonian. Unfortunately, existing results, such as the quantum adiabatic theorem based on a slow down evolution [H({epsilon}t),{epsilon}{yields}0], are insufficient to describe an evolution driven by the Hamiltonian H(t) itself. Here we derive general criteria and exact bounds, for the state and its phase, ensuring an adiabatic evolution for any Hamiltonian H(t). As a corollary, we demonstrate that the commonly used condition of a slow Hamiltonian variation rate, compared to the spectral gap, is indeed sufficient to ensure adiabaticity but only when the Hamiltonian is real and nonoscillating (for instance, containing exponential or polynomial but no sinusoidal functions)
Adiabatic invariance of oscillons/I -balls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Takeda, Naoyuki
2015-11-01
Real scalar fields are known to fragment into spatially localized and long-lived solitons called oscillons or I -balls. We prove the adiabatic invariance of the oscillons/I -balls for a potential that allows periodic motion even in the presence of non-negligible spatial gradient energy. We show that such a potential is uniquely determined to be the quadratic one with a logarithmic correction, for which the oscillons/I -balls are absolutely stable. For slightly different forms of the scalar potential dominated by the quadratic one, the oscillons/I -balls are only quasistable, because the adiabatic charge is only approximately conserved. We check the conservation of the adiabatic charge of the I -balls in numerical simulation by slowly varying the coefficient of logarithmic corrections. This unambiguously shows that the longevity of oscillons/I -balls is due to the adiabatic invariance.
Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics by accelerated semiclassical Monte Carlo
White, Alexander J.; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N.; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry
2015-07-07
Non-adiabatic dynamics, where systems non-radiatively transition between electronic states, plays a crucial role in many photo-physical processes, such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, and photoisomerization. Methods for the simulation of non-adiabatic dynamics are typically either numerically impractical, highly complex, or based on approximations which can result in failure for even simple systems. Recently, the Semiclassical Monte Carlo (SCMC) approach was developed in an attempt to combine the accuracy of rigorous semiclassical methods with the efficiency and simplicity of widely used surface hopping methods. However, while SCMC was found to be more efficient than other semiclassical methods, it is not yet as efficientmore » as is needed to be used for large molecular systems. Here, we have developed two new methods: the accelerated-SCMC and the accelerated-SCMC with re-Gaussianization, which reduce the cost of the SCMC algorithm up to two orders of magnitude for certain systems. In many cases shown here, the new procedures are nearly as efficient as the commonly used surface hopping schemes, with little to no loss of accuracy. This implies that these modified SCMC algorithms will be of practical numerical solutions for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics in realistic molecular systems.« less
Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics by accelerated semiclassical Monte Carlo
White, Alexander J.; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N.; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry
2015-07-07
Non-adiabatic dynamics, where systems non-radiatively transition between electronic states, plays a crucial role in many photo-physical processes, such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, and photoisomerization. Methods for the simulation of non-adiabatic dynamics are typically either numerically impractical, highly complex, or based on approximations which can result in failure for even simple systems. Recently, the Semiclassical Monte Carlo (SCMC) approach was developed in an attempt to combine the accuracy of rigorous semiclassical methods with the efficiency and simplicity of widely used surface hopping methods. However, while SCMC was found to be more efficient than other semiclassical methods, it is not yet as efficient as is needed to be used for large molecular systems. Here, we have developed two new methods: the accelerated-SCMC and the accelerated-SCMC with re-Gaussianization, which reduce the cost of the SCMC algorithm up to two orders of magnitude for certain systems. In many cases shown here, the new procedures are nearly as efficient as the commonly used surface hopping schemes, with little to no loss of accuracy. This implies that these modified SCMC algorithms will be of practical numerical solutions for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics in realistic molecular systems.
Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics by accelerated semiclassical Monte Carlo
White, Alexander J.; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N.; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry
2015-07-07
Non-adiabatic dynamics, where systems non-radiatively transition between electronic states, plays a crucial role in many photo-physical processes, such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, and photoisomerization. Methods for the simulation of non-adiabatic dynamics are typically either numerically impractical, highly complex, or based on approximations which can result in failure for even simple systems. Recently, the Semiclassical Monte Carlo (SCMC) approach was developed in an attempt to combine the accuracy of rigorous semiclassical methods with the efficiency and simplicity of widely used surface hopping methods. However, while SCMC was found to be more efficient than other semiclassical methods, it is not yet as efficient as is needed to be used for large molecular systems. Here, we have developed two new methods: the accelerated-SCMC and the accelerated-SCMC with re-Gaussianization, which reduce the cost of the SCMC algorithm up to two orders of magnitude for certain systems. In most cases shown here, the new procedures are nearly as efficient as the commonly used surface hopping schemes, with little to no loss of accuracy. This implies that these modified SCMC algorithms will be of practical numerical solutions for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics in realistic molecular systems.
Symmetry of the Adiabatic Condition in the Piston Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anacleto, Joaquim; Ferreira, J. M.
2011-01-01
This study addresses a controversial issue in the adiabatic piston problem, namely that of the piston being adiabatic when it is fixed but no longer so when it can move freely. It is shown that this apparent contradiction arises from the usual definition of adiabatic condition. The issue is addressed here by requiring the adiabatic condition to be…
Semiclassical quantization of bound and quasistationary states beyond the adiabatic approximation
Benderskii, V.A.; Vetoshkin, E.V.; Kats, E.I.
2004-06-01
We examine one important (and previously overlooked) aspect of well-known crossing diabatic potentials or Landau-Zener (LZ) problem. We derive the semiclassical quantization rules for the crossing diabatic potentials with localized initial and localized or delocalized final states, in the intermediate energy region, when all four adiabatic states are coupled and should be taken into account. We found all needed connection matrices and present the following analytical results: (i) in the tunneling region, the splittings of vibrational levels are represented as a product of the splitting in the lower adiabatic potential and the nontrivial function depending on the Massey parameter; (ii) in the overbarrier region, we find specific resonances between the levels in the lower and in the upper adiabatic potentials and, in that condition, independent quantizations rules are not correct; (iii) for the delocalized final states (decay lower adiabatic potential), we describe quasistationary states and calculate the decay rate as a function of the adiabatic coupling; and (iv) for the intermediate energy regions, we calculate the energy level quantization, which can be brought into a compact form by using either adiabatic or diabatic basis set (in contrast to the previous results found in the Landau diabatic basis). Applications of the results may concern the various systems; e.g., molecules undergoing conversion of electronic states, radiationless transitions, or isomerization reactions.
Graph isomorphism and adiabatic quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane
2014-02-01
In the graph isomorphism (GI) problem two N-vertex graphs G and G' are given and the task is to determine whether there exists a permutation of the vertices of G that preserves adjacency and transforms G →G'. If yes, then G and G' are said to be isomorphic; otherwise they are nonisomorphic. The GI problem is an important problem in computer science and is thought to be of comparable difficulty to integer factorization. In this paper we present a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of GI and which also provides an approach to determining all automorphisms of a given graph. We show how the GI problem can be converted to a combinatorial optimization problem that can be solved using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate the algorithm's quantum dynamics and show that it correctly (i) distinguishes nonisomorphic graphs; (ii) recognizes isomorphic graphs and determines the permutation(s) that connect them; and (iii) finds the automorphism group of a given graph G. We then discuss the GI quantum algorithm's experimental implementation, and close by showing how it can be leveraged to give a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of the NP-complete subgraph isomorphism problem. The computational complexity of an adiabatic quantum algorithm is largely determined by the minimum energy gap Δ (N) separating the ground and first-excited states in the limit of large problem size N ≫1. Calculating Δ (N) in this limit is a fundamental open problem in adiabatic quantum computing, and so it is not possible to determine the computational complexity of adiabatic quantum algorithms in general, nor consequently, of the specific adiabatic quantum algorithms presented here. Adiabatic quantum computing has been shown to be equivalent to the circuit model of quantum computing, and so development of adiabatic quantum algorithms continues to be of great interest.
Adiabatic response and quantum thermoelectrics for ac-driven quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ludovico, María Florencia; Battista, Francesca; von Oppen, Felix; Arrachea, Liliana
2016-02-01
We generalize the theory of thermoelectrics to include coherent electron systems under adiabatic ac driving, accounting for quantum pumping of charge and heat, as well as for the work exchanged between the electron system and driving potentials. We derive the relevant response coefficients in the adiabatic regime and show that they obey generalized Onsager reciprocity relations. We analyze the consequences of our generalized thermoelectric framework for quantum motors, generators, heat engines, and heat pumps, characterizing them in terms of efficiencies and figures of merit. We illustrate these concepts in a model for a quantum pump.
Special Report: Affinity Chromatography.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parikh, Indu; Cuatrecasas, Pedro
1985-01-01
Describes the nature of affinity chromatography and its use in purifying enzymes, studying cell interactions, exploring hormone receptors, and other areas. The potential the technique may have in treating disease is also considered. (JN)
Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage through permanent dipole moment transitions
Niu Yingyu; Wang Rong; Qiu Minghui
2010-04-15
The rovibrational dynamics of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) through permanent dipole moment transitions are investigated theoretically using a time-dependent quantum wave packet method for the ground electronic state of an HF molecule. The two basic STIRAP processes, {Lambda} and ladder systems, are simulated. The calculated results show that nearly 100% of the population can be transferred to the target state. Besides the interested transitions, the pulses can induce other transitions which affect the dynamics of STIRAP. The final populations of the initial and target states depend on delay time.
Symmetry-Protected Quantum Adiabatic Transistors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williamson, Dominic J.; Bartlett, Stephen D.
2014-03-01
An essential development in the history of computing was the invention of the transistor as it allowed logic circuits to be implemented in a robust and modular way. The physical characteristics of semiconductor materials were the key to building these devices. We aim to present an analogous development for quantum computing by showing that quantum adiabatic transistors (as defined by Flammia et al.) are built upon the essential qualities of symmetry-protected (SP) quantum ordered phases in one dimension. Flammia et al. and Renes et al. have demonstrated schemes for universal adiabatic quantum computation using quantum adiabatic transistors described by interacting spin chain models with specifically chosen Hamiltonian terms. We show that these models can be understood as specific examples of the generic situation in which all SP phases lead to quantum computation on encoded edge degrees of freedom by adiabatically traversing a symmetric phase transition into a trivial symmetric phase. This point of view is advantageous as it allows us to readily see that the computational properties of a quantum adiabatic transistor arise from a phase of matter rather than due to carefully tuned interactions.
Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbara, Thomas M.
2016-04-01
A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging.
Adiabatic approximation for the density matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Band, Yehuda B.
1992-05-01
An adiabatic approximation for the Liouville density-matrix equation which includes decay terms is developed. The adiabatic approximation employs the eigenvectors of the non-normal Liouville operator. The approximation is valid when there exists a complete set of eigenvectors of the non-normal Liouville operator (i.e., the eigenvectors span the density-matrix space), the time rate of change of the Liouville operator is small, and an auxiliary matrix is nonsingular. Numerical examples are presented involving efficient population transfer in a molecule by stimulated Raman scattering, with the intermediate level of the molecule decaying on a time scale that is fast compared with the pulse durations of the pump and Stokes fields. The adiabatic density-matrix approximation can be simply used to determine the density matrix for atomic or molecular systems interacting with cw electromagnetic fields when spontaneous emission or other decay mechanisms prevail.
Extensive Adiabatic Invariants for Nonlinear Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giorgilli, Antonio; Paleari, Simone; Penati, Tiziano
2012-09-01
We look for extensive adiabatic invariants in nonlinear chains in the thermodynamic limit. Considering the quadratic part of the Klein-Gordon Hamiltonian, by a linear change of variables we transform it into a sum of two parts in involution. At variance with the usual method of introducing normal modes, our constructive procedure allows us to exploit the complete resonance, while keeping the extensive nature of the system. Next we construct a nonlinear approximation of an extensive adiabatic invariant for a perturbation of the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger model. The fluctuations of this quantity are controlled via Gibbs measure estimates independent of the system size, for a large set of initial data at low specific energy. Finally, by numerical calculations we show that our adiabatic invariant is well conserved for times much longer than predicted by our first order theory, with fluctuation much smaller than expected according to standard statistical estimates.
Anderson localization makes adiabatic quantum optimization fail
Altshuler, Boris; Krovi, Hari; Roland, Jérémie
2010-01-01
Understanding NP-complete problems is a central topic in computer science (NP stands for nondeterministic polynomial time). This is why adiabatic quantum optimization has attracted so much attention, as it provided a new approach to tackle NP-complete problems using a quantum computer. The efficiency of this approach is limited by small spectral gaps between the ground and excited states of the quantum computer’s Hamiltonian. We show that the statistics of the gaps can be analyzed in a novel way, borrowed from the study of quantum disordered systems in statistical mechanics. It turns out that due to a phenomenon similar to Anderson localization, exponentially small gaps appear close to the end of the adiabatic algorithm for large random instances of NP-complete problems. This implies that unfortunately, adiabatic quantum optimization fails: The system gets trapped in one of the numerous local minima. PMID:20616043
Lee, Dong-Ick; Sun, Yun; Lu, Zhi; Sun, Shiyu; Pianetta, Piero; /SLAC, SSRL
2007-10-15
Energy distribution of the photoelectrons from InP(100) photocathodes are investigated with a photon energy range from 0.62eV to 2.76eV. When the photon energy is less than 1.8eV, only electrons emitted from the Gamma valley are observed in the energy distribution curves (EDC). At higher photon energies, electrons from the L valley are observed. The angular dependence of the electron energy distributions of InP and GaAs photocathodes are studied and compared. The electrons emitted from the L valley have a larger angular spread than the ones from the Gamma valley due to the larger effective mass of the L valley minimum.
Spontaneous emission in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage
Ivanov, P. A.; Vitanov, N. V.; Bergmann, K.
2005-11-15
This work explores the effect of spontaneous emission on the population transfer efficiency in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). The approach uses adiabatic elimination of weakly coupled density matrix elements in the Liouville equation, from which a very accurate analytic approximation is derived. The loss of population transfer efficiency is found to decrease exponentially with the factor {omega}{sub 0}{sup 2}/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the spontaneous emission rate and {omega}{sub 0} is the peak Rabi frequency. The transfer efficiency increases with the pulse delay and reaches a steady value. For large pulse delay and large spontaneous emission rate STIRAP degenerates into optical pumping.
Adiabatic Hyperspherical Analysis of Realistic Nuclear Potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daily, K. M.; Kievsky, Alejandro; Greene, Chris H.
2015-12-01
Using the hyperspherical adiabatic method with the realistic nuclear potentials Argonne V14, Argonne V18, and Argonne V18 with the Urbana IX three-body potential, we calculate the adiabatic potentials and the triton bound state energies. We find that a discrete variable representation with the slow variable discretization method along the hyperradial degree of freedom results in energies consistent with the literature. However, using a Laguerre basis results in missing energy, even when extrapolated to an infinite number of basis functions and channels. We do not include the isospin T = 3/2 contribution in our analysis.
On black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Qing-Quan; Han, Yan
2012-12-01
In this Letter, we obtain the black hole spectroscopy by combining the black hole property of adiabaticity and the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. This velocity is obtained in the tunneling framework. In particular, we declare, if requiring canonical invariance, the adiabatic invariant quantity should be of the covariant form Iadia = ∮pi dqi. Using it, the horizon area of a Schwarzschild black hole is quantized independently of the choice of coordinates, with an equally spaced spectroscopy always given by ΔA = 8 π lp2 in the Schwarzschild and Painlevé coordinates.
Complexity of the Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hen, Itay
2013-01-01
The Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm (QAA) has been proposed as a mechanism for efficiently solving optimization problems on a quantum computer. Since adiabatic computation is analog in nature and does not require the design and use of quantum gates, it can be thought of as a simpler and perhaps more profound method for performing quantum computations that might also be easier to implement experimentally. While these features have generated substantial research in QAA, to date there is still a lack of solid evidence that the algorithm can outperform classical optimization algorithms.
Adiabatic approximation for nucleus-nucleus scattering
Johnson, R.C.
2005-10-14
Adiabatic approximations to few-body models of nuclear scattering are described with emphasis on reactions with deuterons and halo nuclei (frozen halo approximation) as projectiles. The different ways the approximation should be implemented in a consistent theory of elastic scattering, stripping and break-up are explained and the conditions for the theory's validity are briefly discussed. A formalism which links few-body models and the underlying many-body system is outlined and the connection between the adiabatic and CDCC methods is reviewed.
Abu-Hasanayn, F.; Goldman, A.S.; Krogh-Jespersen, K.
1994-10-26
Ab initio electronic structure calculations are used to study substituent effects in Vaska-type complexes, trans-IrL{sub 2}(CO)X (1-X) (X = F, Cl, Br, I, CN, H, CH{sub 3}, SiH{sub 3}, OH, and SH; L = PH{sub 3}). Both the electron affinity and the ionization potential of 1-X are computed to increase upon descending the halogen series of complexes, which indicates, surprisingly, that the complexes with more electronegative halogens are more difficult to reduce and easier to oxidize. The computed electron affinity trend is consistent with the half-wave reduction potential trend known for 1-X (L = PPh{sub 3}; X = F, Cl, Br, and I). Computed carbonyl stretch frequencies for 1-X are greater than experimental values (L = PPh{sub 3}), but observed trends are well reproduced. The redox and spectroscopic trends are discussed in terms of the substituent effects on the electronic structure of 1-X, particularly as revealed in the molecular orbital energy level diagrams of these complexes. The reaction energy for H{sub 2} addition to 1-X, leading to the cis,trans-(H){sub 2}IrL{sub 2}(CO)X (2-X) product, has been computed. After electron correlation effects are included (MP4(SDTQ)), the reaction enthalpy computed for 1-CI is {minus}18.4 kcal/mol (L = PH{sub 3}) as compared to a reported experimental value of {minus}14 kcal/mol (L = PPh{sub 3}). Compared with available experimental data, the electronic effects of L(L = PH{sub 3}, NH{sub 3}, or AsH{sub 3}) and X on the thermodynamics of the H{sub 2} addition reaction are accurately reproduced by the model calculations at all levels of theory (HF and MPn). Formation of the hypothetical products cis,trans- and trans,trans-(H){sub 2}IrL{sub 2}(CO)X(2-X and 3-X) (X = BH{sub 2}, NH{sub 2}, and PH{sub 2}) is used to demonstrate that {pi}-acceptor substituents promote the H{sub 2} addition reaction to 1-X while {pi}-donor substituents disfavor addition.
Sliding Seal Materials for Adiabatic Engines, Phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lankford, J.; Wei, W.
1986-01-01
An essential task in the development of the heavy-duty adiabatic diesel engine is identification and improvements of reliable, low-friction piston seal materials. In the present study, the sliding friction coefficients and wear rates of promising carbide, oxide, and nitride materials were measured under temperature, environmental, velocity, and loading conditions that are representative of the adiabatic engine environment. In addition, silicon nitride and partially stabilized zirconia disks were ion implanted with TiNi, Ni, Co, and Cr, and subsequently run against carbide pins, with the objective of producing reduced friction via solid lubrication at elevated temperature. In order to provide guidance needed to improve materials for this application, the program stressed fundamental understanding of the mechanisms involved in friction and wear. Electron microscopy was used to elucidate the micromechanisms of wear following wear testing, and Auger electron spectroscopy was used to evaluate interface/environment interactions which seemed to be important in the friction and wear process. Unmodified ceramic sliding couples were characterized at all temperatures by friction coefficients of 0.24 and above. The coefficient at 800 C in an oxidizing environment was reduced to below 0.1, for certain material combinations, by the ion implanation of TiNi or Co. This beneficial effect was found to derive from lubricious Ti, Ni, and Co oxides.
Adiabatic Compression in a Fire Syringe.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hayn, Carl H.; Baird, Scott C.
1985-01-01
Suggests using better materials in fire syringes to obtain more effective results during demonstrations which show the elevation in temperature upon a very rapid (adiabatic) compression of air. Also describes an experiment (using ignition temperatures) which introduces students to the use of thermocouples for high temperature measurements. (DH)
Apparatus to Measure Adiabatic and Isothermal Processes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lamb, D. W.; White, G. M.
1996-01-01
Describes a simple manual apparatus designed to serve as an effective demonstration of the differences between isothermal and adiabatic processes for the general or elementary physics student. Enables students to verify Boyle's law for slow processes and identify the departure from this law for rapid processes and can also be used to give a clear…
The dynamic instability of adiabatic blast waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.
1991-01-01
Adiabatic blastwaves, which have a total energy injected from the center E varies as t(sup q) and propagate through a preshock medium with a density rho(sub E) varies as r(sup -omega) are described by a family of similarity solutions. Previous work has shown that adiabatic blastwaves with increasing or constant postshock entropy behind the shock front are susceptible to an oscillatory instability, caused by the difference between the nature of the forces on the two sides of the dense shell behind the shock front. This instability sets in if the dense postshock layer is sufficiently thin. The stability of adiabatic blastwaves with a decreasing postshock entropy is considered. Such blastwaves, if they are decelerating, always have a region behind the shock front which is subject to convection. Some accelerating blastwaves also have such region, depending on the values of q, omega, and gamma where gamma is the adiabatic index. However, since the shock interface stabilizes dynamically induced perturbations, blastwaves become convectively unstable only if the convective zone is localized around the origin or a contact discontinuity far from the shock front. On the other hand, the contact discontinuity of accelerating blastwaves is subject to a strong Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The frequency spectra of the nonradial, normal modes of adiabatic blastwaves have been calculated. The results have been applied to the shocks propagating through supernovae envelopes. It is shown that the metal/He and He/H interfaces are strongly unstable against the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. This instability will induce mixing in supernovae envelopes. In addition the implications of this work for the evolution of planetary nebulae is discussed.
Adiabatic circuits: converter for static CMOS signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, J.; Amirante, E.; Bargagli-Stoffi, A.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.
2003-05-01
Ultra low power applications can take great advantages from adiabatic circuitry. In this technique a multiphase system is used which consists ideally of trapezoidal voltage signals. The input signals to be processed will often come from a function block realized in static CMOS. The static rectangular signals must be converted for the oscillating multiphase system of the adiabatic circuitry. This work shows how to convert the input signals to the proposed pulse form which is synchronized to the appropriate supply voltage. By means of adder structures designed for a 0.13µm technology in a 4-phase system there will be demonstrated, which additional circuits are necessary for the conversion. It must be taken into account whether the data arrive in parallel or serial form. Parallel data are all in one phase and therefore it is advantageous to use an adder structure with a proper input stage, e.g. a Carry Lookahead Adder (CLA). With a serial input stage it is possible to read and to process four signals during one cycle due to the adiabatic 4-phase system. Therefore input signals with a frequency four times higher than the adiabatic clock frequency can be used. This reduces the disadvantage of the slow clock period typical for adiabatic circuits. By means of an 8 bit Ripple Carry Adder (8 bit RCA) the serial reading will be introduced. If the word width is larger than 4 bits the word can be divided in 4 bit words which are processed in parallel. This is the most efficient way to minimize the number of input lines and pads. At the same time a high throughput is achieved.
The dynamic instability of adiabatic blast waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.
1991-02-01
Adiabatic blastwaves, which have a total energy injected from the center E varies as tq and propagate through a preshock medium with a density rhoE varies as r-omega are described by a family of similarity solutions. Previous work has shown that adiabatic blastwaves with increasing or constant postshock entropy behind the shock front are susceptible to an oscillatory instability, caused by the difference between the nature of the forces on the two sides of the dense shell behind the shock front. This instability sets in if the dense postshock layer is sufficiently thin. The stability of adiabatic blastwaves with a decreasing postshock entropy is considered. Such blastwaves, if they are decelerating, always have a region behind the shock front which is subject to convection. Some accelerating blastwaves also have such region, depending on the values of q, omega, and gamma where gamma is the adiabatic index. However, since the shock interface stabilizes dynamically induced perturbations, blastwaves become convectively unstable only if the convective zone is localized around the origin or a contact discontinuity far from the shock front. On the other hand, the contact discontinuity of accelerating blastwaves is subject to a strong Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The frequency spectra of the nonradial, normal modes of adiabatic blastwaves have been calculated. The results have been applied to the shocks propagating through supernovae envelopes. It is shown that the metal/He and He/H interfaces are strongly unstable against the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. This instability will induce mixing in supernovae envelopes. In addition the implications of this work for the evolution of planetary nebulae is discussed.
The dynamic instability of adiabatic blastwaves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.
1990-05-01
Adiabatic blastwaves, which have a total energy injected from the center E varies as t(sup q) and propagate through a preshock medium with a density rho(sub E) varies as r(sup -omega) are described by a family of similarity solutions. Previous work has shown that adiabatic blastwaves with increasing or constant postshock entropy behind the shock front are susceptible to an oscillatory instability, caused by the difference between the nature of the forces on the two sides of the dense shell behind the shock front. This instability sets in if the dense postshock layer is sufficiently thin. The stability of adiabatic blastwaves with a decreasing postshock entropy is considered. Such blastwaves, if they are decelerating, always have a region behind the shock front which is subject to convection. Some accelerating blastwaves also have such region, depending on the values of q, omega, and gamma where gamma is the adiabatic index. However, since the shock interface stabilizes dynamically induced perturbations, blastwaves become convectively unstable only if the convective zone is localized around the origin or a contact discontinuity far from the shock front. On the other hand, the contact discontinuity of accelerating blastwaves is subject to a strong Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The frequency spectra of the nonradial, normal modes of adiabatic blastwaves have been calculated. The results have been applied to the shocks propagating through supernovae envelopes. It is shown that the metal/He and He/H interfaces are strongly unstable against the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. This instability will induce mixing in supernovae envelopes. In addition the implications of this work for the evolution of planetary nebulae is discussed.
Adiabatic burst evaporation from bicontinuous nanoporous membranes
Ichilmann, Sachar; Rücker, Kerstin; Haase, Markus; Enke, Dirk
2015-01-01
Evaporation of volatile liquids from nanoporous media with bicontinuous morphology and pore diameters of a few 10 nm is an ubiquitous process. For example, such drying processes occur during syntheses of nanoporous materials by sol–gel chemistry or by spinodal decomposition in the presence of solvents as well as during solution impregnation of nanoporous hosts with functional guests. It is commonly assumed that drying is endothermic and driven by non-equilibrium partial pressures of the evaporating species in the gas phase. We show that nearly half of the liquid evaporates in an adiabatic mode involving burst-like liquid-to-gas conversions. During single adiabatic burst evaporation events liquid volumes of up to 107 μm3 are converted to gas. The adiabatic liquid-to-gas conversions occur if air invasion fronts get unstable because of the built-up of high capillary pressures. Adiabatic evaporation bursts propagate avalanche-like through the nanopore systems until the air invasion fronts have reached new stable configurations. Adiabatic cavitation bursts thus compete with Haines jumps involving air invasion front relaxation by local liquid flow without enhanced mass transport out of the nanoporous medium and prevail if the mean pore diameter is in the range of a few 10 nm. The results reported here may help optimize membrane preparation via solvent-based approaches, solution-loading of nanopore systems with guest materials as well as routine use of nanoporous membranes with bicontinuous morphology and may contribute to better understanding of adsorption/desorption processes in nanoporous media. PMID:25926406
Protecting and accelerating adiabatic passage with time-delayed pulse sequences.
Sampedro, Pablo; Chang, Bo Y; Sola, Ignacio R
2016-05-21
Using numerical simulations of two-photon electronic absorption with femtosecond pulses in Na2 we show that: (i) it is possible to avoid the characteristic saturation or dumped Rabi oscillations in the yield of absorption by time-delaying the laser pulses; (ii) it is possible to accelerate the onset of adiabatic passage by using the vibrational coherence starting in a wave packet; and (iii) it is possible to prepare the initial wave packet in order to achieve full state-selective transitions with broadband pulses. The findings can be used, for instance, to achieve ultrafast adiabatic passage by light-induced potentials and understand its intrinsic robustness. PMID:27125342
Adiabatic evolution of an irreversible two level system
Kvitsinsky, A.; Putterman, S. )
1991-05-01
The adiabatic dynamics of a two level atom with spontaneous decay is studied. The existence of a complex adiabatic phase shift is established: The real part being the usual Berry's phase. A closed-form expression for this phase and the adiabatic transition amplitudes is obtained. Incorporation of a finite preparation time for the initial state yields a new asymptotic form for the adiabatic transition amplitudes which is significantly different from the standard Landau--Zener--Dykhne formula.
Broadband electrically detected magnetic resonance using adiabatic pulses.
Hrubesch, F M; Braunbeck, G; Voss, A; Stutzmann, M; Brandt, M S
2015-05-01
We present a broadband microwave setup for electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) based on microwave antennae with the ability to apply arbitrarily shaped pulses for the excitation of electron spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of spin ensembles. This setup uses non-resonant stripline structures for on-chip microwave delivery and is demonstrated to work in the frequency range from 4 MHz to 18 GHz. π pulse times of 50 ns and 70 μs for ESR and NMR transitions, respectively, are achieved with as little as 100 mW of microwave or radiofrequency power. The use of adiabatic pulses fully compensates for the microwave magnetic field inhomogeneity of the stripline antennae, as demonstrated with the help of BIR4 unitary rotation pulses driving the ESR transition of neutral phosphorus donors in silicon and the NMR transitions of ionized phosphorus donors as detected by electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR). PMID:25828243
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xu, Y. J.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Wilson, John W.
1989-01-01
A simple formula for the transition probability for electron exchange between unlike ions and atoms is established within the adiabatic approximation by employing the Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) method. The formula also involves an adiabatic parameter, introduced by Massey, and thus the difficulties arising from the internal energy defect and the adiabatic approximation are avoided. Specific reactions Li(+++) + H to Li(++) + H(+) and Be(4+) + H to Be(3+) + H(+) are considered as examples. The calculated capture cross section results of the present work are compared with the experimental data and with the calculation of other authors over the velocity range of 10(7) cm/sec to 10(8) cm/sec.
Dust-acoustic solitary waves in a four-component adiabatic magnetized dusty plasma
Akhter, T. Mannan, A.; Mamun, A. A.
2013-07-15
Theoretical investigation has been made on obliquely propagating dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves (SWs) in a magnetized dusty plasma which consists of non-inertial adiabatic electron and ion fluids, and inertial negatively as well as positively charged adiabatic dust fluids. The reductive perturbation method has been employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equation which admits a solitary wave solution for small but finite amplitude limit. It has been shown that the basic features (speed, height, thickness, etc.) of such DA solitary structures are significantly modified by adiabaticity of plasma fluids, opposite polarity dust components, and the obliqueness of external magnetic field. The SWs have been changed from compressive to rarefactive depending on the value of {mu} (a parameter determining the number of positive dust present in this plasma model). The present investigation can be of relevance to the electrostatic solitary structures observed in various dusty plasma environments (viz. cometary tails, upper mesosphere, Jupiter's magnetosphere, etc.)
Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing
Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan -Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.
2015-01-28
We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ_{+}/σ_{-} orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. As a result, for reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of ^{133}Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in < 10 μs with error probability on the order of 10^{-3}.
Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing
Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan -Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.
2015-01-28
We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ+/σ- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces actingmore » on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. As a result, for reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in < 10 μs with error probability on the order of 10-3.« less
AB INITIO SIMULATIONS FOR MATERIAL PROPERTIES ALONG THE JUPITER ADIABAT
French, Martin; Becker, Andreas; Lorenzen, Winfried; Nettelmann, Nadine; Bethkenhagen, Mandy; Redmer, Ronald; Wicht, Johannes
2012-09-15
We determine basic thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen-helium-water mixtures for the extreme conditions along Jupiter's adiabat via ab initio simulations, which are compiled in an accurate and consistent data set. In particular, we calculate the electrical and thermal conductivity, the shear and longitudinal viscosity, and diffusion coefficients of the nuclei. We present results for associated quantities like the magnetic and thermal diffusivity and the kinematic shear viscosity along an adiabat that is taken from a state-of-the-art interior structure model. Furthermore, the heat capacities, the thermal expansion coefficient, the isothermal compressibility, the Grueneisen parameter, and the speed of sound are calculated. We find that the onset of dissociation and ionization of hydrogen at about 0.9 Jupiter radii marks a region where the material properties change drastically. In the deep interior, where the electrons are degenerate, many of the material properties remain relatively constant. Our ab initio data will serve as a robust foundation for applications that require accurate knowledge of the material properties in Jupiter's interior, e.g., models for the dynamo generation.
Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids
Koshelev, N.A.
2011-04-01
The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models.
Mourik, T. van; Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Peterson, K.A.
2000-03-23
The potential energy surfaces of the HCO{sup x} (x = +1, 0, -1) species near their equilibrium geometries have been calculated employing coupled cluster methods with augmented correlation consistent basis sets. The equilibrium structures, vibrational frequencies, zero point energies, and dissociation energies were computed for all three species. Valence-electron CCSD(T) calculations with the aug-cc-pV5Z basis set predict CH bond dissociation energies, D{sub 0}, of 140.3 kcal/mol for HCO{sup +}, 14.0 kcal/mol for HCO, and 4.5 kcal/mol for HCO{sup {minus}}, in good agreement with experiment (140.1 {+-} 1, 13.9--14.3, and 5.2 {+-} 0.2 kcal/mol, respectively). The same calculations predict the electron affinity, EA{sub 0}, and ionization potential, IP{sub 0}, of HCO to be 7.7 and 187.3 kcal/mol; these values are within 0.5 kcal/mol of the measured values. Inclusion of core-valence correlation corrections has only a minor effect on the calculated energetics.
Adiabatic Far Field Sub-Diffraction Imaging
Cang, Hu; Salandrino, Alessandro; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang
2015-01-01
The limited resolution of a conventional optical imaging system stems from the fact that the fine feature information of an object is carried by evanescent waves, which exponentially decay in space thus cannot reach the imaging plane. We introduce here a new concept of adiabatic lens, which utilizes a geometrically conformal surface to mediate the interference of slowly decompressed electromagnetic waves at far field to form images. The decompression is satisfying an adiabatic condition, and by bridging the gap between far field and near field, it allows far field optical systems to project an image of the near field features directly. Using these designs, we demonstrated the magnification can be up to 20 times and it is possible to achieve sub-50nm imaging resolution in visible. Our approach provides a means to extend the domain of geometrical optics to a deep sub-wavelength scale. PMID:26258769
Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory.
Acconcia, Thiago V; Bonança, Marcus V S; Deffner, Sebastian
2015-10-01
A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. With the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found-quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. Finally, we propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts to adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times. PMID:26565209
Arbitrary qudit gates by adiabatic passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rousseaux, B.; Guérin, S.; Vitanov, N. V.
2013-03-01
We derive an adiabatic technique that implements the most general SU(d) transformation in a quantum system of d degenerate states, featuring a qudit. This technique is based on the factorization of the SU(d) transformation into d generalized quantum Householder reflections, each of which is implemented by a two-shot stimulated Raman adiabatic passage with appropriate static phases. The energy of the lasers needed to synthesize a single Householder reflection is shown to be remarkably constant as a function of d. This technique is directly applicable to a linear trapped ion system with d+1 ions. We implement the quantum Fourier transform numerically in a qudit with d=4 (defined as a quartit) as an example.
Trapped Ion Quantum Computation by Adiabatic Passage
Feng Xuni; Wu Chunfeng; Lai, C. H.; Oh, C. H.
2008-11-07
We propose a new universal quantum computation scheme for trapped ions in thermal motion via the technique of adiabatic passage, which incorporates the advantages of both the adiabatic passage and the model of trapped ions in thermal motion. Our scheme is immune from the decoherence due to spontaneous emission from excited states as the system in our scheme evolves along a dark state. In our scheme the vibrational degrees of freedom are not required to be cooled to their ground states because they are only virtually excited. It is shown that the fidelity of the resultant gate operation is still high even when the magnitude of the effective Rabi frequency moderately deviates from the desired value.
Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis
2014-12-01
Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.
Quantum adiabatic evolution with energy degeneracy levels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qi
2016-01-01
A classical-kind phase-space formalism is developed to address the tiny intrinsic dynamical deviation from what is predicted by Wilczek-Zee theorem during quantum adiabatic evolution on degeneracy levels. In this formalism, the Hilbert space and the aggregate of degenerate eigenstates become the classical-kind phase space and a high-dimensional subspace in the phase space, respectively. Compared with the previous analogous study by a different method, the current result is qualitatively different in that the first-order deviation derived here is always perpendicular to the degeneracy subspace. A tripod-scheme Hamiltonian with two degenerate dark states is employed to illustrate the adiabatic deviation with degeneracy levels.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian
2015-10-01
A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. With the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. Finally, we propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts to adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.
Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall
Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.
2014-12-22
Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are storedmore » in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.« less
Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall
Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.
2014-12-22
Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory
Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian
2015-10-23
A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts to adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory
Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian
2015-10-23
A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts tomore » adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.« less
Adiabatic Quantization of Andreev Quantum Billiard Levels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silvestrov, P. G.; Goorden, M. C.; Beenakker, C. W.
2003-03-01
We identify the time T between Andreev reflections as a classical adiabatic invariant in a ballistic chaotic cavity (Lyapunov exponent λ), coupled to a superconductor by an N-mode constriction. Quantization of the adiabatically invariant torus in phase space gives a discrete set of periods Tn, which in turn generate a ladder of excited states ɛnm=(m+1/2)πℏ/Tn. The largest quantized period is the Ehrenfest time T0=λ-1ln(N. Projection of the invariant torus onto the coordinate plane shows that the wave functions inside the cavity are squeezed to a transverse dimension W/(N), much below the width W of the constriction.
Pulse sequences in photoassociation via adiabatic passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xuan; Dupre, William; Parker, Gregory A.
2012-07-01
We perform a detailed study of pulse sequences in a photoassociation via adiabatic passage (PAP) process to transfer population from an ensemble of ultracold atomic clouds to a vibrationally cold molecular state. We show that an appreciable final population of ultracold NaCs molecules can be achieved with optimized pulses in either the ‘counter-intuitive’ (tP > tS) or ‘intuitive’ (tP < tS) PAP pulse sequences, with tP and tS denoting the temporal centers of the pump and Stokes pulses, respectively. By investigating the dependence of the reactive yield on pulse sequences, in a wide range of tP-tS, we show that there is not a fundamental preference to either pulse sequence in a PAP process. We explain this no-sequence-preference phenomenon by analyzing a multi-bound model so that an analogy can be drawn to the conventional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage.
Adiabatic charging of nickel-hydrogen batteries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lurie, Chuck; Foroozan, S.; Brewer, Jeff; Jackson, Lorna
1995-01-01
Battery management during prelaunch activities has always required special attention and careful planning. The transition from nickel-cadium to nickel-hydrogen batteries, with their high self discharge rate and lower charge efficiency, as well as longer prelaunch scenarios, has made this aspect of spacecraft battery management even more challenging. The AXAF-I Program requires high battery state of charge at launch. The use of active cooling, to ensure efficient charging, was considered and proved to be difficult and expensive. Alternative approaches were evaluated. Optimized charging, in the absence of cooling, appeared promising and was investigated. Initial testing was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the 'Adiabatic Charging' approach. Feasibility was demonstrated and additional testing performed to provide a quantitative, parametric data base. The assumption that the battery is in an adiabatic environment during prelaunch charging is a conservative approximation because the battery will transfer some heat to its surroundings by convective air cooling. The amount is small compared to the heat dissipated during battery overcharge. Because the battery has a large thermal mass, substantial overcharge can occur before the cells get too hot to charge efficiently. The testing presented here simulates a true adiabatic environment. Accordingly the data base may be slightly conservative. The adiabatic charge methodology used in this investigation begins with stabilizing the cell at a given starting temperature. The cell is then fully insulated on all sides. Battery temperature is carefully monitored and the charge terminated when the cell temperature reaches 85 F. Charging has been evaluated with starting temperatures from 55 to 75 F.
Advanced Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators for Continuous Cooling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chu, Paul C. W.
2004-01-01
The research at Houston was focused on optimizing the design of superconducting magnets for advanced adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs), assessing the feasibility of using high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets in ADRs in the future, and developing techniques to deposit HTS thin and thick films on high strength, low thermal conductivity substrates for HTS magnet leads. Several approaches have been tested for the suggested superconducting magnets.
Computer Code For Turbocompounded Adiabatic Diesel Engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Assanis, D. N.; Heywood, J. B.
1988-01-01
Computer simulation developed to study advantages of increased exhaust enthalpy in adiabatic turbocompounded diesel engine. Subsytems of conceptual engine include compressor, reciprocator, turbocharger turbine, compounded turbine, ducting, and heat exchangers. Focus of simulation of total system is to define transfers of mass and energy, including release and transfer of heat and transfer of work in each subsystem, and relationship among subsystems. Written in FORTRAN IV.
Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes. II - Adiabatic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montesinos, Benjamin; Thomas, John H.
1989-01-01
This paper extends the study of steady siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes surrounded by field-free gas to the case of adiabatic flows. The basic equations governing steady adiabatic siphon flows in a thin, isolated magnetic flux tube are summarized, and qualitative features of adiabatic flows in elevated, arched flux tubes are discussed. The equations are then cast in nondimensional form and the results of numerical computations of adiabatic siphon flows in arched flux tubes are presented along with comparisons between isothermal and adiabatic flows. The effects of making the interior of the flux tube hotter or colder than the surrounding atmosphere at the upstream footpoint of the arch is considered. In this case, is it found that the adiabatic flows are qualitatively similar to the isothermal flows, with adiabatic cooling producing quantitative differences. Critical flows can produce a bulge point in the rising part of the arch and a concentration of magnetic flux above the bulge point.
De Ranieri, E; Roy, P E; Fang, D; Vehsthedt, E K; Irvine, A C; Heiss, D; Casiraghi, A; Campion, R P; Gallagher, B L; Jungwirth, T; Wunderlich, J
2013-09-01
The rich internal degrees of freedom of magnetic domain walls make them an attractive complement to electron charge for exploring new concepts of storage, transport and processing of information. Here we use the tunable internal structure of a domain wall in a perpendicularly magnetized GaMnAsP/GaAs ferromagnetic semiconductor and demonstrate devices in which piezoelectrically controlled magnetic anisotropy yields up to 500% mobility variations for an electrical-current-driven domain wall. We observe current-induced domain wall motion over a wide range of current-pulse amplitudes and report a direct observation and the piezoelectric control of the Walker breakdown separating two regimes with different mobilities. Our work demonstrates that in spin-orbit-coupled ferromagnets with weak extrinsic domain wall pinning, the piezoelectric control allows one to experimentally assess the upper and lower boundaries of the characteristic ratio of adiabatic and non-adiabatic spin-transfer torques in the current-driven domain wall motion. PMID:23749266
Random matrix model of adiabatic quantum computing
Mitchell, David R.; Adami, Christoph; Lue, Waynn; Williams, Colin P.
2005-05-15
We present an analysis of the quantum adiabatic algorithm for solving hard instances of 3-SAT (an NP-complete problem) in terms of random matrix theory (RMT). We determine the global regularity of the spectral fluctuations of the instantaneous Hamiltonians encountered during the interpolation between the starting Hamiltonians and the ones whose ground states encode the solutions to the computational problems of interest. At each interpolation point, we quantify the degree of regularity of the average spectral distribution via its Brody parameter, a measure that distinguishes regular (i.e., Poissonian) from chaotic (i.e., Wigner-type) distributions of normalized nearest-neighbor spacings. We find that for hard problem instances - i.e., those having a critical ratio of clauses to variables - the spectral fluctuations typically become irregular across a contiguous region of the interpolation parameter, while the spectrum is regular for easy instances. Within the hard region, RMT may be applied to obtain a mathematical model of the probability of avoided level crossings and concomitant failure rate of the adiabatic algorithm due to nonadiabatic Landau-Zener-type transitions. Our model predicts that if the interpolation is performed at a uniform rate, the average failure rate of the quantum adiabatic algorithm, when averaged over hard problem instances, scales exponentially with increasing problem size.
Aspects of adiabatic population transfer and control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demirplak, Mustafa
This thesis explores two different questions. The first question we answer is how to restore a given population transfer scenario given that it works efficiently in the adiabatic limit but fails because of lack of intensity and/or short duration. We derive a very simple algorithm to do this and apply it to both toy and realistic models. Two results emerge from this study. While the mathematical existence of the programme is certain it might not always be physically desirable. The restoration of adiabaticity is phase sensitive. The second question that is answered in this thesis is not how to invent new control paradigms, but rather what would happen to them in the presence of stochastic perturbers. We first use a phenomenological model to study the effect of stochastic dephasing on population transfer by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. The results of this Monte Carlo calculation are qualitatively explained with a perturbation theoretical result in the dressed state basis. The reliability of our phenomenological model is questioned through a more rigorous hybrid quantal-classical simulation of controlled population transfer in HCl in Ar.
Non-adiabatic effect on quantum pumping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uchiyama, Chikako
2014-03-01
We study quantum pumping for an anharmonic junction model which interacts with two kinds of bosonic environments. We provide an expression for the quantum pumping under a piecewise modulation of environmental temperatures with including non-adiabatic effect under Markovian approximation. The obtained formula is an extension of the one expressed with the geometrical phase(Phys. Rev. Lett. 104,170601 (2010)). This extension shows that the quantum pumping depends on the initial condition of the anharmonic junction just before the modulation, as well as the characteristic environmental parameters such as interaction strength and cut-off frequencies of spectral density other than the conditions of modulation. We clarify that the pumping current including non-adiabatic effect can be larger than that under the adiabatic condition. This means that we can find the optimal condition of the current by adjusting these parameters. (The article has been submitted as http://arxiv.org/submit/848201 and will be appeared soon.) This work is supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (KAKENHI 25287098).
An adiabatic approximation for grain alignment theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberge, W. G.
1997-10-01
The alignment of interstellar dust grains is described by the joint distribution function for certain `internal' and `external' variables, where the former describe the orientation of the axes of a grain with respect to its angular momentum, J, and the latter describe the orientation of J relative to the interstellar magnetic field. I show how the large disparity between the dynamical time-scales of the internal and external variables - which is typically 2-3 orders of magnitude - can be exploited to simplify calculations of the required distribution greatly. The method is based on an `adiabatic approximation' which closely resembles the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in quantum mechanics. The adiabatic approximation prescribes an analytic distribution function for the `fast' dynamical variables and a simplified Fokker-Planck equation for the `slow' variables which can be solved straightforwardly using various techniques. These solutions are accurate to O(epsilon), where epsilon is the ratio of the fast and slow dynamical time-scales. As a simple illustration of the method, I derive an analytic solution for the joint distribution established when Barnett relaxation acts in concert with gas damping. The statistics of the analytic solution agree with the results of laborious numerical calculations which do not exploit the adiabatic approximation.
An Adiabatic Approximation for Grain Alignment Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberge, W. G.
1997-12-01
The alignment of interstellar dust grains is described by the joint distribution function for certain ``internal'' and ``external'' variables, where the former describe the orientation of a grain's axes with respect to its angular momentum, J, and the latter describe the orientation of J relative to the interstellar magnetic field. I show how the large disparity between the dynamical timescales of the internal and external variables--- which is typically 2--3 orders of magnitude--- can be exploited to greatly simplify calculations of the required distribution. The method is based on an ``adiabatic approximation'' which closely resembles the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in quantum mechanics. The adiabatic approximation prescribes an analytic distribution function for the ``fast'' dynamical variables and a simplified Fokker-Planck equation for the ``slow'' variables which can be solved straightforwardly using various techniques. These solutions are accurate to cal {O}(epsilon ), where epsilon is the ratio of the fast and slow dynamical timescales. As a simple illustration of the method, I derive an analytic solution for the joint distribution established when Barnett relaxation acts in concert with gas damping. The statistics of the analytic solution agree with the results of laborious numerical calculations which do not exploit the adiabatic approximation.
Kinetically constrained ring-polymer molecular dynamics for non-adiabatic chemical reactions.
Menzeleev, Artur R; Bell, Franziska; Miller, Thomas F
2014-02-14
We extend ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) to allow for the direct simulation of general, electronically non-adiabatic chemical processes. The kinetically constrained (KC) RPMD method uses the imaginary-time path-integral representation in the set of nuclear coordinates and electronic states to provide continuous equations of motion that describe the quantized, electronically non-adiabatic dynamics of the system. KC-RPMD preserves the favorable properties of the usual RPMD formulation in the position representation, including rigorous detailed balance, time-reversal symmetry, and invariance of reaction rate calculations to the choice of dividing surface. However, the new method overcomes significant shortcomings of position-representation RPMD by enabling the description of non-adiabatic transitions between states associated with general, many-electron wavefunctions and by accurately describing deep-tunneling processes across asymmetric barriers. We demonstrate that KC-RPMD yields excellent numerical results for a range of model systems, including a simple avoided-crossing reaction and condensed-phase electron-transfer reactions across multiple regimes for the electronic coupling and thermodynamic driving force. PMID:24527896
Kinetically constrained ring-polymer molecular dynamics for non-adiabatic chemical reactions
Menzeleev, Artur R.; Bell, Franziska; Miller, Thomas F.
2014-02-14
We extend ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) to allow for the direct simulation of general, electronically non-adiabatic chemical processes. The kinetically constrained (KC) RPMD method uses the imaginary-time path-integral representation in the set of nuclear coordinates and electronic states to provide continuous equations of motion that describe the quantized, electronically non-adiabatic dynamics of the system. KC-RPMD preserves the favorable properties of the usual RPMD formulation in the position representation, including rigorous detailed balance, time-reversal symmetry, and invariance of reaction rate calculations to the choice of dividing surface. However, the new method overcomes significant shortcomings of position-representation RPMD by enabling the description of non-adiabatic transitions between states associated with general, many-electron wavefunctions and by accurately describing deep-tunneling processes across asymmetric barriers. We demonstrate that KC-RPMD yields excellent numerical results for a range of model systems, including a simple avoided-crossing reaction and condensed-phase electron-transfer reactions across multiple regimes for the electronic coupling and thermodynamic driving force.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Xiaolei; Yarkony, David R.
2016-01-01
We have recently introduced a diabatization scheme, which simultaneously fits and diabatizes adiabatic ab initio electronic wave functions, Zhu and Yarkony J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024112 (2014). The algorithm uses derivative couplings in the defining equations for the diabatic Hamiltonian, Hd, and fits all its matrix elements simultaneously to adiabatic state data. This procedure ultimately provides an accurate, quantifiably diabatic, representation of the adiabatic electronic structure data. However, optimizing the large number of nonlinear parameters in the basis functions and adjusting the number and kind of basis functions from which the fit is built, which provide the essential flexibility, has proved challenging. In this work, we introduce a procedure that combines adiabatic state and diabatic state data to efficiently optimize the nonlinear parameters and basis function expansion. Further, we consider using direct properties based diabatizations to initialize the fitting procedure. To address this issue, we introduce a systematic method for eliminating the debilitating (diabolical) singularities in the defining equations of properties based diabatizations. We exploit the observation that if approximate diabatic data are available, the commonly used approach of fitting each matrix element of Hd individually provides a starting point (seed) from which convergence of the full Hd construction algorithm is rapid. The optimization of nonlinear parameters and basis functions and the elimination of debilitating singularities are, respectively, illustrated using the 1,2,3,41A states of phenol and the 1,21A states of NH3, states which are coupled by conical intersections.
Rotation-vibrational states of H3+ and the adiabatic approximation.
Alijah, Alexander; Hinze, Juergen
2006-11-15
We discuss recent progress in the calculation and identification of rotation-vibrational states of H3+ at intermediate energies up to 13,000 cm(-1). Our calculations are based on the potential energy surface of Cencek et al. which is of sub-microhartree accuracy. As this surface includes diagonal adiabatic and relativistic corrections to the fixed nuclei electronic energies, the remaining discrepancies between our calculated and experimental data should be due to the neglect of non-adiabatic coupling to excited electronic states in the calculations. To account for this, our calculated energy values were adjusted empirically by a simple correction formula. Based on our understanding of the adiabatic approximation, we suggest two new approaches to account for the off-diagonal adiabatic correction, which should work; however, they have not been tested yet for H3+. Theoretical predictions made for the above-barrier energy region of recent experimental interest are accurate to 0.35 cm(-1) or better. PMID:17015396
Do biomolecular ion-motive ATPase work as adiabatic pumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astumian, Raymond Dean
2001-03-01
Biomolecular ion pumps use chemical energy to pump ions from low to high chemical potential across a biological membrane. Experiments show that the chemical energy can be substituted by an external oscillating or stochastically fluctuating electric field. This result can be interpreted analogously to a mechanism for an adiabatic electron pump originally suggested by Thouless (PRB 27: 6083 (1983)) in which two system parameters are modulated out of phase with one another. In our model, internal relaxations of the protein (at least two with different time scales) provide a mechanism for transforming a single ac or stochastically fluctuating external signal into a two phase shifted outputs. For a sinusoidally oscillating electric field, the frequency response for the Sodium-Potassium ATPase for both sodium and rubidium (an analog of potassium) can be fit using a very simple expression with only one fit parameter. These results show how biomolecular pumps can be modelled at the mesoscopic level of detail.
Delplace, Vianney; Obermeyer, Jaclyn; Shoichet, Molly S
2016-07-26
The use of hydrogels for therapeutic delivery is a burgeoning area of investigation. These water-swollen polymer matrices are ideal platforms for localized drug delivery that can be further combined with specific ligands or nanotechnologies to advance the controlled release of small-molecule drugs and proteins. Due to the advantage of hydrophobic, electrostatic, or specific extracellular matrix interactions, affinity-based strategies can overcome burst release and challenges associated with encapsulation. Future studies will provide innovative binding tools, truly stimuli-responsive systems, and original combinations of emerging technologies to control the release of therapeutics spatially and temporally. Local drug delivery can be achieved by directly injecting a therapeutic to its site of action and is advantageous because off-target effects associated with systemic delivery can be minimized. For prolonged benefit, a vehicle that provides sustained drug release is required. Hydrogels are versatile platforms for localized drug release, owing to the large library of biocompatible building blocks from which they can be formed. Injectable hydrogel formulations that gel quickly in situ and provide sustained release of therapeutics are particularly advantageous to minimize invasiveness. The incorporation of polymers, ligands or nanoparticles that have an affinity for the therapeutic of interest improve control over the release of small-molecule drugs and proteins from hydrogels, enabling spatial and temporal control over the delivery. Such affinity-based strategies can overcome drug burst release and challenges associated with protein instability, allowing more effective therapeutic molecule delivery for a range of applications from therapeutic contact lenses to ischemic tissue regeneration. PMID:27403513
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, K.; Lahiri, S. C.
2011-09-01
1,3-Dinitrobenzene formed colored 1:1 complexes with aliphatic amines (chromogenic agents) like isopropylamine,ethylenediamine, tetraethylenepentamine and bis(3-aminopropyl)amine in DMSO having absorption maxima at 563 nm, 584 nm, 580.5 nm and 555 nm respectively. The complexes were stable for more than 24 h. The accurate association constants KAD and other thermodynamic parameters were determined with D and A usually in stoichiometric ratios. But in case of m-DNB and bis(3-aminopropyl)amine, the association constants KAD and the thermodynamic parameters were also determined using Benesi-Hildebrand equation to show the variations of KAD under different conditions. Δ G° values were found to be negative in all cases resulting from exothermic enthalpy changes and favourable entropy changes. The energies of transition for the CT complexes hνCT found experimentally were considerably different from the energies of transition (from HOMO of donor to LUMO of acceptor) calculated using AM1 but the differences were considerably reduced using DFT calculations. The vertical electron affinity of m-DNB was calculated using the method suggested by Mulliken. However, no FTIR measurements of the complexes could be made due to experimental limitations.
Morphometric affinities of gigantopithecus.
Gelvin, B R
1980-11-01
Multivariate analyses, supplemented by univariate statistical methods, of measurements from mandibular tooth crown dimensions and the mandible of Gigantopithecus blacki, G. bilaspurensis, Plio-Plelstocene hominids, Homo erectus, and seven Neogene ape species from the genera Proconsul, Sivapithecus, Ouranopithecus, and Dryopithecus were used to assess the morphometric affinities of Gigantopithecus. The results show that Gigantopithecus displays affinities to Ouranopithecus and to the hominids, particularly the Plio-Plelstocene hominids, rather than to the apes. Ouranopithecus demonstrated dental resemblances to G. bilaspurensis and the Plio-Pleistocene hominids but mandibular similarities to the apes. Results of analyses of tooth and mandibular shape indices, combined with multivariate distance and temporal relationships, suggest that Ouranopithecus is a more likely candidate for Gigantopithecus ancestry than is Silvapithecus indicus. Shape and allometric differences between G. bilaspurensis and the robust australopithecines weaken the argument for an ancestral-descendant relationship between these groups. The results support the hypothesis that Gigantopithecus is an extinct side branch of the Hominidae. PMID:7468790
Phase avalanches in near-adiabatic evolutions
Vertesi, T.; Englman, R.
2006-02-15
In the course of slow, nearly adiabatic motion of a system, relative changes in the slowness can cause abrupt and high magnitude phase changes, ''phase avalanches,'' superimposed on the ordinary geometric phases. The generality of this effect is examined for arbitrary Hamiltonians and multicomponent (>2) wave packets and is found to be connected (through the Blaschke term in the theory of analytic signals) to amplitude zeros in the lower half of the complex time plane. Motion on a nonmaximal circle on the Poincare-sphere suppresses the effect. A spectroscopic transition experiment can independently verify the phase-avalanche magnitudes.
Adiabatic chaos in the spin orbit problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benettin, Giancarlo; Guzzo, Massimiliano; Marini, Valerio
2008-05-01
We provide evidences that the angular momentum of a symmetric rigid body in a spin orbit resonance can perform large scale chaotic motions on time scales which increase polynomially with the inverse of the oblateness of the body. This kind of irregular precession appears as soon as the orbit of the center of mass is non-circular and the angular momentum of the body is far from the principal directions with minimum (maximum) moment of inertia. We also provide a quantitative explanation of these facts by using the theory of adiabatic invariants, and we provide numerical applications to the cases of the 1:1 and 1:2 spin orbit resonances.
Adiabatic passage in the presence of noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noel, T.; Dietrich, M. R.; Kurz, N.; Shu, G.; Wright, J.; Blinov, B. B.
2012-02-01
We report on an experimental investigation of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP) in a trapped barium ion system. RAP is implemented on the transition from the 6S1/2 ground state to the metastable 5D5/2 level by applying a laser at 1.76 μm. We focus on the interplay of laser frequency noise and laser power in shaping the effectiveness of RAP, which is commonly assumed to be a robust tool for high-efficiency population transfer. However, we note that reaching high state transfer fidelity requires a combination of small laser linewidth and large Rabi frequency.
Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for space use
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Serlemitsos, A. T.; Warner, B. A.; Castles, S.; Breon, S. R.; San Sebastian, M.; Hait, T.
1990-01-01
An Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) for space use is under development at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The breadboard ADR operated at 100 mK for 400 minutes. Some significant changes to that ADR, designed to eliminate shortcomings revealed during tests, are reported. To increase thermal contact, the ferric ammonium sulfate crystals were grown directly on gold-plated copper wires which serve as the thermal bus. The thermal link to the X-ray sensors was also markedly improved. To speed up the testing required to determine the best design parameters for the gas gap heat switch, the new heat switch has a modular design and is easy to disassemble.
An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for infrared bolometers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Britt, R. D.; Richards, P. L.
1981-01-01
Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators have been built and installed in small portable liquid helium cryostats to test the feasibility of this method of cooling infrared bolometric detectors to temperatures below 0.3 K. Performance has been achieved which suggests that bolometer temperatures of 0.2 K can be maintained for periods of approximately 60 hours. Applications to sensitive infrared detection from ground-based telescopes and space satellites are discussed. Design data are given which permit the evaluation of refrigerator performance for a variety of design parameters.
Generalized Ramsey numbers through adiabatic quantum optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranjbar, Mani; Macready, William G.; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank
2016-06-01
Ramsey theory is an active research area in combinatorics whose central theme is the emergence of order in large disordered structures, with Ramsey numbers marking the threshold at which this order first appears. For generalized Ramsey numbers r(G, H), the emergent order is characterized by graphs G and H. In this paper we: (i) present a quantum algorithm for computing generalized Ramsey numbers by reformulating the computation as a combinatorial optimization problem which is solved using adiabatic quantum optimization; and (ii) determine the Ramsey numbers r({{T}}m,{{T}}n) for trees of order m,n = 6,7,8 , most of which were previously unknown.
Decoherence in a scalable adiabatic quantum computer
Ashhab, S.; Johansson, J. R.; Nori, Franco
2006-11-15
We consider the effects of decoherence on Landau-Zener crossings encountered in a large-scale adiabatic-quantum-computing setup. We analyze the dependence of the success probability--i.e., the probability for the system to end up in its new ground state--on the noise amplitude and correlation time. We determine the optimal sweep rate that is required to maximize the success probability. We then discuss the scaling of decoherence effects with increasing system size. We find that those effects can be important for large systems, even if they are small for each of the small building blocks.
Local entanglement generation in the adiabatic regime
Cliche, M.; Veitia, Andrzej
2010-09-15
We study entanglement generation in a pair of qubits interacting with an initially correlated system. Using time-independent perturbation theory and the adiabatic theorem, we show conditions under which the qubits become entangled as the joint system evolves into the ground state of the interacting theory. We then apply these results to the case of qubits interacting with a scalar quantum field. We study three different variations of this setup; a quantum field subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions, a quantum field interacting with a classical potential, and a quantum field that starts in a thermal state.
Semin, Boris K; Seibert, Michael
2004-06-01
Flash-probe fluorescence spectroscopy was used to compare the pH dependence of charge recombination between Y(Z)(*) and Q(a)(-) in Mn-depleted, photosystem II membranes [PSII(-Mn)] and in membranes with the high-affinity (HA(Z)) Mn-binding site blocked by iron [PSII(-Mn,+Fe); Semin, B. K., Ghirardi, M. L., and Seibert, M. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 5854-5864]. The apparent half-time for fluorescence decay (t(1/2)) in PSII(-Mn) increased from 9 ms at pH 4.4 to 75 ms at pH 9.0 [with an apparent pK (pK(app)) of 7.1]. The actual fluorescence decay kinetics can be fit to one exponential component at pH <6.0 (t(1/2) = 9.5 ms), but it requires an additional component at pH >6.0 (t(1/2) = 385 ms). Similar measurements with PSII(-Mn,+Fe) membranes show that iron binding has little effect on the maximum and minimum t(1/2) values measured at alkaline and acidic pHs but that it does shift the pK(app) from 7.1 to 6.1 toward the more acidic pK(app) value typical of intact membranes. Light-induced Fe(II) blocking of the PSII(-Mn) membrane is accompanied by a decrease in buffer Fe(II) concentration. This decrease was not the result of Fe(II) binding, but rather of its oxidation at two sites, the HA(Z) site and the low-affinity site. Mössbauer spectroscopy at 80 K on PSII(-Mn,+Fe) samples, prepared under conditions providing the maximal blocking effect but minimizing the amount of nonspecifically bound iron cations, supports this conclusion since this method detected only Fe(III) cations bound to the membranes. Correlation of the kinetics of Fe(II) oxidation with the blocking parameters showed that blocking occurs after four to five Fe(II) cations were oxidized at the HA(Z) site. In summary, the blocking of the HA(Z) Mn-binding site by iron in PSII(-Mn) membranes not only prevents the access of exogenous donors to Y(Z) but also partially restores the properties of the hydrogen bond net found in intact PS(II), which in turn controls the rate of electron transport to Y(Z). PMID
Interaction between electron-affinic sensitizers.
McNally, J. N.; de Ronde, J.
1978-01-01
Measurements of effect of pairs of the sensitizers PNAP, misonidazole and oxygen have shown that if one sensitizer is giving an enhancement ratio (ER) of about 1.6 or less and the other is giving a larger ER, the combination behaves as if only the latter is present. There is only an additive effect of the two if they both give ERs less than 1.6 or greater than 1.6. These results show that at low concentrations sensitizers only act on damage associated with the "fast component" of the oxygen effect. This could result from interaction with two distinct species, or there could be only one critical species formed initially but more than one step by which it could be converted to a lethal form. PMID:277264
Witzel, Wayne M.; Montaño, Inès; Muller, Richard P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.
2015-08-19
In this study, we present a strategy for producing multiqubit gates that promise high fidelity with minimal tuning requirements. Our strategy combines gap protection from the adiabatic theorem with dynamical decoupling in a complementary manner. Energy-level transition errors are protected by adiabaticity and remaining phase errors are mitigated via dynamical decoupling. This is a powerful way to divide and conquer the various error channels. In order to accomplish this without violating a no-go theorem regarding black-box dynamically corrected gates [Phys. Rev. A 80, 032314 (2009)], we require a robust operating point (sweet spot) in control space where the qubits interactmore » with little sensitivity to noise. There are also energy gap requirements for effective adiabaticity. We apply our strategy to an architecture in Si with P donors where we assume we can shuttle electrons between different donors. Electron spins act as mobile ancillary qubits and P nuclear spins act as long-lived data qubits. This system can have a very robust operating point where the electron spin is bound to a donor in the quadratic Stark shift regime. High fidelity single qubit gates may be performed using well-established global magnetic resonance pulse sequences. Single electron-spin preparation and measurement has also been demonstrated. Putting this all together, we present a robust universal gate set for quantum computation.« less
Witzel, Wayne; Montano, Ines; Muller, Richard P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.
2015-08-19
In this paper, we present a strategy for producing multiqubit gates that promise high fidelity with minimal tuning requirements. Our strategy combines gap protection from the adiabatic theorem with dynamical decoupling in a complementary manner. Energy-level transition errors are protected by adiabaticity and remaining phase errors are mitigated via dynamical decoupling. This is a powerful way to divide and conquer the various error channels. In order to accomplish this without violating a no-go theorem regarding black-box dynamically corrected gates [Phys. Rev. A 80, 032314 (2009)], we require a robust operating point (sweet spot) in control space where the qubits interactmore » with little sensitivity to noise. There are also energy gap requirements for effective adiabaticity. We apply our strategy to an architecture in Si with P donors where we assume we can shuttle electrons between different donors. Electron spins act as mobile ancillary qubits and P nuclear spins act as long-lived data qubits. Furthermore, this system can have a very robust operating point where the electron spin is bound to a donor in the quadratic Stark shift regime. High fidelity single qubit gates may be performed using well-established global magnetic resonance pulse sequences. Single electron-spin preparation and measurement has also been demonstrated. Thus, putting this all together, we present a robust universal gate set for quantum computation.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Witzel, Wayne M.; Montaño, Inès; Muller, Richard P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.
2015-08-01
We present a strategy for producing multiqubit gates that promise high fidelity with minimal tuning requirements. Our strategy combines gap protection from the adiabatic theorem with dynamical decoupling in a complementary manner. Energy-level transition errors are protected by adiabaticity and remaining phase errors are mitigated via dynamical decoupling. This is a powerful way to divide and conquer the various error channels. In order to accomplish this without violating a no-go theorem regarding black-box dynamically corrected gates [Phys. Rev. A 80, 032314 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.80.032314], we require a robust operating point (sweet spot) in control space where the qubits interact with little sensitivity to noise. There are also energy gap requirements for effective adiabaticity. We apply our strategy to an architecture in Si with P donors where we assume we can shuttle electrons between different donors. Electron spins act as mobile ancillary qubits and P nuclear spins act as long-lived data qubits. This system can have a very robust operating point where the electron spin is bound to a donor in the quadratic Stark shift regime. High fidelity single qubit gates may be performed using well-established global magnetic resonance pulse sequences. Single electron-spin preparation and measurement has also been demonstrated. Putting this all together, we present a robust universal gate set for quantum computation.
Witzel, Wayne; Montano, Ines; Muller, Richard P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.
2015-08-19
In this paper, we present a strategy for producing multiqubit gates that promise high fidelity with minimal tuning requirements. Our strategy combines gap protection from the adiabatic theorem with dynamical decoupling in a complementary manner. Energy-level transition errors are protected by adiabaticity and remaining phase errors are mitigated via dynamical decoupling. This is a powerful way to divide and conquer the various error channels. In order to accomplish this without violating a no-go theorem regarding black-box dynamically corrected gates [Phys. Rev. A 80, 032314 (2009)], we require a robust operating point (sweet spot) in control space where the qubits interact with little sensitivity to noise. There are also energy gap requirements for effective adiabaticity. We apply our strategy to an architecture in Si with P donors where we assume we can shuttle electrons between different donors. Electron spins act as mobile ancillary qubits and P nuclear spins act as long-lived data qubits. Furthermore, this system can have a very robust operating point where the electron spin is bound to a donor in the quadratic Stark shift regime. High fidelity single qubit gates may be performed using well-established global magnetic resonance pulse sequences. Single electron-spin preparation and measurement has also been demonstrated. Thus, putting this all together, we present a robust universal gate set for quantum computation.
Witzel, Wayne M.; Montaño, Inès; Muller, Richard P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.
2015-08-19
In this study, we present a strategy for producing multiqubit gates that promise high fidelity with minimal tuning requirements. Our strategy combines gap protection from the adiabatic theorem with dynamical decoupling in a complementary manner. Energy-level transition errors are protected by adiabaticity and remaining phase errors are mitigated via dynamical decoupling. This is a powerful way to divide and conquer the various error channels. In order to accomplish this without violating a no-go theorem regarding black-box dynamically corrected gates [Phys. Rev. A 80, 032314 (2009)], we require a robust operating point (sweet spot) in control space where the qubits interact with little sensitivity to noise. There are also energy gap requirements for effective adiabaticity. We apply our strategy to an architecture in Si with P donors where we assume we can shuttle electrons between different donors. Electron spins act as mobile ancillary qubits and P nuclear spins act as long-lived data qubits. This system can have a very robust operating point where the electron spin is bound to a donor in the quadratic Stark shift regime. High fidelity single qubit gates may be performed using well-established global magnetic resonance pulse sequences. Single electron-spin preparation and measurement has also been demonstrated. Putting this all together, we present a robust universal gate set for quantum computation.
Geometry of an adiabatic passage at a level crossing
Cholascinski, Mateusz
2005-06-15
We discuss adiabatic quantum phenomena at a level crossing. Given a path in the parameter space which passes through a degeneracy point, we find a criterion which determines whether the adiabaticity condition can be satisfied. For paths that can be traversed adiabatically we also derive a differential equation which specifies the time dependence of the system parameters, for which transitions between distinct energy levels can be neglected. We also generalize the well-known geometric connections to the case of adiabatic paths containing arbitrarily many level-crossing points and degenerate levels.
Geometrical representation of sum frequency generation and adiabatic frequency conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suchowski, Haim; Oron, Dan; Arie, Ady; Silberberg, Yaron
2008-12-01
We present a geometrical representation of the process of sum frequency generation in the undepleted pump approximation, in analogy with the known optical Bloch equations. We use this analogy to propose a technique for achieving both high efficiency and large bandwidth in sum frequency conversion using the adiabatic inversion scheme. The process is analogous with rapid adiabatic passage in NMR, and adiabatic constraints are derived in this context. This adiabatic frequency conversion scheme is realized experimentally using an aperiodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) device, where we achieved high efficiency signal-to-idler conversion over a bandwidth of 140nm .
On the Role of Prior Probability in Adiabatic Quantum Algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Jie; Lu, Songfeng; Yang, Liping
2016-03-01
In this paper, we study the role of prior probability on the efficiency of quantum local adiabatic search algorithm. The following aspects for prior probability are found here: firstly, only the probabilities of marked states affect the running time of the adiabatic evolution; secondly, the prior probability can be used for improving the efficiency of the adiabatic algorithm; thirdly, like the usual quantum adiabatic evolution, the running time for the case of multiple solution states where the number of marked elements are smaller enough than the size of the set assigned that contains them can be significantly bigger than that of the case where the assigned set only contains all the marked states.
Quantum Adiabatic Algorithms and Large Spin Tunnelling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boulatov, A.; Smelyanskiy, V. N.
2003-01-01
We provide a theoretical study of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm with different evolution paths proposed in this paper. The algorithm is applied to a random binary optimization problem (a version of the 3-Satisfiability problem) where the n-bit cost function is symmetric with respect to the permutation of individual bits. The evolution paths are produced, using the generic control Hamiltonians H (r) that preserve the bit symmetry of the underlying optimization problem. In the case where the ground state of H(0) coincides with the totally-symmetric state of an n-qubit system the algorithm dynamics is completely described in terms of the motion of a spin-n/2. We show that different control Hamiltonians can be parameterized by a set of independent parameters that are expansion coefficients of H (r) in a certain universal set of operators. Only one of these operators can be responsible for avoiding the tunnelling in the spin-n/2 system during the quantum adiabatic algorithm. We show that it is possible to select a coefficient for this operator that guarantees a polynomial complexity of the algorithm for all problem instances. We show that a successful evolution path of the algorithm always corresponds to the trajectory of a classical spin-n/2 and provide a complete characterization of such paths.
Nonadiabatic Transitions in Adiabatic Rapid Passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, T.; Miao, X.; Metcalf, H.
2006-05-01
Optical forces much larger than the ordinary radiative force can be achieved on a two-level atom by multiple repetitions of adiabatic rapid passage sweeps with counterpropagating light beams. Chirped light pulses drive the atom-laser system up a ladder of dressed state energy sheets on sequential trajectories, thereby decreasing the atomic kinetic energy. Nonadiabatic transitions between the energy sheets must be avoided for this process to be effective. We have calculated the nonadiabatic transition probability for various chirped light pulses numerically. These results were compared to the first Demkov-Kunike model and the well-known Landau-Zener model. In addition, an analytical form of the nonadiabatic transition probability has been found for linearly chirped pulses and an approximate form for generic symmetric finite-time pulses has been found for the entire parameter space using the technique of unitary integration. From this, the asymptotic transition probability in the adiabatic limit was derived. T. Lu, X. Miao, and H. Metcalf, Phys., Rev. A 71 061405(R) (2005). Yu. Demkov and M. Kunike, Vestn. Leningr. Univ. Fis. Khim., 16, 39 (1969); K.-A. Suominen and B. Garraway, Phys. Rev. A45, 374 (1992)
Effect of the Heat Pipe Adiabatic Region.
Brahim, Taoufik; Jemni, Abdelmajid
2014-04-01
The main motivation of conducting this work is to present a rigorous analysis and investigation of the potential effect of the heat pipe adiabatic region on the flow and heat transfer performance of a heat pipe under varying evaporator and condenser conditions. A two-dimensional steady-state model for a cylindrical heat pipe coupling, for both regions, is presented, where the flow of the fluid in the porous structure is described by Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model which accounts for the boundary and inertial effects. The model is solved numerically by using the finite volumes method, and a fortran code was developed to solve the system of equations obtained. The results show that a phase change can occur in the adiabatic region due to temperature gradient created in the porous structure as the heat input increases and the heat pipe boundary conditions change. A recirculation zone may be created at the condenser end section. The effect of the heat transfer rate on the vapor radial velocities and the performance of the heat pipe are discussed. PMID:24895467
Inertial effects in adiabatically driven flashing ratchets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozenbaum, Viktor M.; Makhnovskii, Yurii A.; Shapochkina, Irina V.; Sheu, Sheh-Yi; Yang, Dah-Yen; Lin, Sheng Hsien
2014-05-01
We study analytically the effect of a small inertial correction on the properties of adiabatically driven flashing ratchets. Parrondo's lemma [J. M. R. Parrondo, Phys. Rev. E 57, 7297 (1998), 10.1103/PhysRevE.57.7297] is generalized to include the inertial term so as to establish the symmetry conditions allowing directed motion (other than in the overdamped massless case) and to obtain a high-temperature expansion of the motion velocity for arbitrary potential profiles. The inertial correction is thus shown to enhance the ratchet effect at all temperatures for sawtooth potentials and at high temperatures for simple potentials described by the first two harmonics. With the special choice of potentials represented by at least the first three harmonics, the correction gives rise to the motion reversal in the high-temperature region. In the low-temperature region, inertia weakens the ratchet effect, with the exception of the on-off model, where diffusion is important. The directed motion adiabatically driven by potential sign fluctuations, though forbidden in the overdamped limit, becomes possible due to purely inertial effects in neither symmetric nor antisymmetric potentials, i.e., not for commonly used sawtooth and two-sinusoid profiles.
Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.
2016-06-01
We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.
Adiabatic Mass Loss Model in Binary Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, H. W.
2012-07-01
Rapid mass transfer process in the interacting binary systems is very complicated. It relates to two basic problems in the binary star evolution, i.e., the dynamically unstable Roche-lobe overflow and the common envelope evolution. Both of the problems are very important and difficult to be modeled. In this PhD thesis, we focus on the rapid mass loss process of the donor in interacting binary systems. The application to the criterion of dynamically unstable mass transfer and the common envelope evolution are also included. Our results based on the adiabatic mass loss model could be used to improve the binary evolution theory, the binary population synthetic method, and other related aspects. We build up the adiabatic mass loss model. In this model, two approximations are included. The first one is that the energy generation and heat flow through the stellar interior can be neglected, hence the restructuring is adiabatic. The second one is that he stellar interior remains in hydrostatic equilibrium. We model this response by constructing model sequences, beginning with a donor star filling its Roche lobe at an arbitrary point in its evolution, holding its specific entropy and composition profiles fixed. These approximations are validated by the comparison with the time-dependent binary mass transfer calculations and the polytropic model for low mass zero-age main-sequence stars. In the dynamical time scale mass transfer, the adiabatic response of the donor star drives it to expand beyond its Roche lobe, leading to runaway mass transfer and the formation of a common envelope with its companion star. For donor stars with surface convection zones of any significant depth, this runaway condition is encountered early in mass transfer, if at all; but for main sequence stars with radiative envelopes, it may be encountered after a prolonged phase of thermal time scale mass transfer, so-called delayed dynamical instability. We identify the critical binary mass ratio for the
Adiabatic quantum pump in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon junction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lin
2015-11-01
The adiabatic electron transport is theoretically studied in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) junction with two time-dependent pumping electric fields. By modeling a ZGNR p-n junction and applying the Keldysh Green’s function method, we find that a pumped charge current is flowing in the device at a zero external bias, which mainly comes from the photon-assisted tunneling process and the valley selection rule in an even-chain ZGNR junction. The pumped charge current and its ON and OFF states can be efficiently modulated by changing the system parameters such as the pumping frequency, the pumping phase difference, and the Fermi level. A ferromagnetic ZGNR device is also studied to generate a pure spin current and a fully polarized spin current due to the combined spin pump effect and the valley valve effect. Our finding might pave the way to manipulate the degree of freedom of electrons in a graphene-based electronic device. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 110704033), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK2010416), and the Natural Science Foundation for Colleges and Universities in Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. 13KJB140005).
Adiabatic nanofocusing: spectroscopy, transport and imaging investigation of the nano world
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giugni, A.; Allione, M.; Torre, B.; Das, G.; Francardi, M.; Moretti, M.; Malerba, M.; Perozziello, G.; Candeloro, P.; Di Fabrizio, E.
2014-11-01
Adiabatic compression plays a fundamental role in the realization of localized enhanced electromagnetic field hot spots, it provides the possibility to focus at nanoscale optical excitation. It differs from the well-known lightning rod effect since it is based on the lossless propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) up to a nano-sized metal tip where the energy density is largely enhanced. Here we discuss two important applications of adiabatic compression: Raman and hot electron spectroscopy at nanometric resolution. The underlying phenomena are the conversion of SPPs into photons or hot electrons. New scanning probe spectroscopy techniques along with experimental results are discussed. We foresee that these techniques will play a key role in relating the functional and structural properties of matter at the nanoscale.
Ultrafast hydrogen migration in acetylene cation driven by non-adiabatic effects.
Madjet, Mohamed El-Amine; Li, Zheng; Vendrell, Oriol
2013-03-01
Non-adiabatic dynamics of the acetylene cation is investigated using mixed quantum-classical dynamics based on trajectory surface hopping. To describe the non-adiabatic effects, two surface hopping methods are used, namely, Tully's fewest switches and Landau-Zener surface hopping. Similarities and differences between the results based on those two methods are discussed. We find that the photoionization of acetylene into the first excited state A(2)Σg(+) drives the molecule from the linear structure to a trans-bent structure. Through a conical intersection the acetylene cation can relax back to either the ground state of acetylene or vinylidene. We conclude that hydrogen migration always takes place after non-radiative electronic relaxation to the ground state of the monocation. Based on the analysis of correlation functions we identify coherent oscillations between acetylene and vinylidene with a period of about 70 fs after the electronic relaxation. PMID:23485298
Non-adiabatic dynamics close to conical intersections and the surface hopping perspective.
Malhado, João Pedro; Bearpark, Michael J; Hynes, James T
2014-01-01
Conical intersections play a major role in the current understanding of electronic de-excitation in polyatomic molecules, and thus in the description of photochemistry and photophysics of molecular systems. This article reviews aspects of the basic theory underlying the description of non-adiabatic transitions at conical intersections, with particular emphasis on the important case when the dynamics of the nuclei are treated classically. Within this classical nuclear motion framework, the main aspects of the surface hopping methodology in the conical intersection context are presented. The emerging picture from this treatment is that of electronic transitions around conical intersections dominated by the interplay of the nuclear velocity and the derivative non-adiabatic coupling vector field. PMID:25485263
Non-adiabatic dynamics close to conical intersections and the surface hopping perspective
Malhado, João Pedro; Bearpark, Michael J.; Hynes, James T.
2014-01-01
Conical intersections play a major role in the current understanding of electronic de-excitation in polyatomic molecules, and thus in the description of photochemistry and photophysics of molecular systems. This article reviews aspects of the basic theory underlying the description of non-adiabatic transitions at conical intersections, with particular emphasis on the important case when the dynamics of the nuclei are treated classically. Within this classical nuclear motion framework, the main aspects of the surface hopping methodology in the conical intersection context are presented. The emerging picture from this treatment is that of electronic transitions around conical intersections dominated by the interplay of the nuclear velocity and the derivative non-adiabatic coupling vector field. PMID:25485263
VUV generation by adiabatically expanded and excited by a DC electrical discharge Argon gas
Pipergias, K.; Yasemidis, D.; Reppa, E.; Pentaris, D.; Efthimiopoulos, T.; Merlemis, N.; Giannetas, V.
2010-11-10
We investigate the emission of Argon (Ar) gas which is adiabatically expanded through a nozzle and excited using a DC electrical discharge. Because of the expansion and the electronic excitation, Ar dimers and clusters are formed, which give radiation in the second (2nd) and in the third (3rd) continua of Ar, centered at about 126 and 254 nm respectively. We particularly focus our study on the 2nd continuum, in order to develop a laser at this wavelength.
Multiple coupled landscapes and non-adiabatic dynamics with applications to self-activating genes.
Chen, Cong; Zhang, Kun; Feng, Haidong; Sasai, Masaki; Wang, Jin
2015-11-21
Many physical, chemical and biochemical systems (e.g. electronic dynamics and gene regulatory networks) are governed by continuous stochastic processes (e.g. electron dynamics on a particular electronic energy surface and protein (gene product) synthesis) coupled with discrete processes (e.g. hopping among different electronic energy surfaces and on and off switching of genes). One can also think of the underlying dynamics as the continuous motion on a particular landscape and discrete hoppings among different landscapes. The main difference of such systems from the intra-landscape dynamics alone is the emergence of the timescale involved in transitions among different landscapes in addition to the timescale involved in a particular landscape. The adiabatic limit when inter-landscape hoppings are fast compared to continuous intra-landscape dynamics has been studied both analytically and numerically, but the analytical treatment of the non-adiabatic regime where the inter-landscape hoppings are slow or comparable to continuous intra-landscape dynamics remains challenging. In this study, we show that there exists mathematical mapping of the dynamics on 2(N) discretely coupled N continuous dimensional landscapes onto one single landscape in 2N dimensional extended continuous space. On this 2N dimensional landscape, eddy current emerges as a sign of non-equilibrium non-adiabatic dynamics and plays an important role in system evolution. Many interesting physical effects such as the enhancement of fluctuations, irreversibility, dissipation and optimal kinetics emerge due to non-adiabaticity manifested by the eddy current illustrated for an N = 1 self-activator. We further generalize our theory to the N-gene network with multiple binding sites and multiple synthesis rates for discretely coupled non-equilibrium stochastic physical and biological systems. PMID:26455835
Coverage dependent non-adiabaticity of CO on a copper surface
Omiya, Takuma; Arnolds, Heike
2014-12-07
We have studied the coverage-dependent energy transfer dynamics between hot electrons and CO on Cu(110) with femtosecond visible pump, sum frequency probe spectroscopy. We find that transients of the C–O stretch frequency display a red shift, which increases from 3 cm{sup −1} at 0.1 ML to 9 cm{sup −1} at 0.77 ML. Analysis of the transients reveals that the non-adiabatic coupling between the adsorbate vibrational motion and the electrons becomes stronger with increasing coverage. This trend requires the frustrated rotational mode to be the cause of the non-adiabatic behavior, even for relatively weak laser excitation of the adsorbate. We attribute the coverage dependence to both an increase in the adsorbate electronic density of states and an increasingly anharmonic potential energy surface caused by repulsive interactions between neighboring CO adsorbates. This work thus reveals adsorbate-adsorbate interactions as a new way to control adsorbate non-adiabaticity.
Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baker, K. L.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J. L.; Jones, O. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Landen, O. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Weber, C. R.; Haan, S. W.; Döppner, T. D.; Dixit, S.; Giraldez, E.; Hamza, A. V.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Kroll, J. J.; Lafortune, K. N.; MacGowan, B. J.; Moody, J. D.; Nikroo, A.; Widmayer, C. C.
2015-05-01
Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform for both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. This approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures.
Quantum adiabatic algorithm for factorization and its experimental implementation.
Peng, Xinhua; Liao, Zeyang; Xu, Nanyang; Qin, Gan; Zhou, Xianyi; Suter, Dieter; Du, Jiangfeng
2008-11-28
We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm capable of factorizing numbers, using fewer qubits than Shor's algorithm. We implement the algorithm in a NMR quantum information processor and experimentally factorize the number 21. In the range that our classical computer could simulate, the quantum adiabatic algorithm works well, providing evidence that the running time of this algorithm scales polynomially with the problem size. PMID:19113467
Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion
Baker, K. L.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J. L.; Jones, O. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Landen, O. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Weber, C. R.; Haan, S. W.; Döppner, T. D.; Dixit, S.; Hamza, A. V.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Kroll, J. J.; and others
2015-05-15
Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform for both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. This approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures.
Kinetic Theory Derivation of the Adiabatic Law for Ideal Gases.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sobel, Michael I.
1980-01-01
Discusses how the adiabatic law for ideal gases can be derived from the assumption of a Maxwell-Boltzmann (or any other) distribution of velocities--in contrast to the usual derivations from thermodynamics alone, and the higher-order effect that leads to one-body viscosity. An elementary derivation of the adiabatic law is given. (Author/DS)
The Adiabatic Invariance of the Action Variable in Classical Dynamics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wells, Clive G.; Siklos, Stephen T. C.
2007-01-01
We consider one-dimensional classical time-dependent Hamiltonian systems with quasi-periodic orbits. It is well known that such systems possess an adiabatic invariant which coincides with the action variable of the Hamiltonian formalism. We present a new proof of the adiabatic invariance of this quantity and illustrate our arguments by means of…
Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions
Pawlak, Mariusz; Shagam, Yuval; Narevicius, Edvardas; Moiseyev, Nimrod
2015-08-21
We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment {sup 4}He(1s2s {sup 3}S) + HD(1s{sup 2}) → {sup 4}He(1s{sup 2}) + HD{sup +}(1s) + e{sup −} [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings.
Quantum Adiabatic Optimization and Combinatorial Landscapes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Knysh, S.; Morris, R. D.
2003-01-01
In this paper we analyze the performance of the Quantum Adiabatic Evolution (QAE) algorithm on a variant of Satisfiability problem for an ensemble of random graphs parametrized by the ratio of clauses to variables, gamma = M / N. We introduce a set of macroscopic parameters (landscapes) and put forward an ansatz of universality for random bit flips. We then formulate the problem of finding the smallest eigenvalue and the excitation gap as a statistical mechanics problem. We use the so-called annealing approximation with a refinement that a finite set of macroscopic variables (verses only energy) is used, and are able to show the existence of a dynamic threshold gamma = gammad, beyond which QAE should take an exponentially long time to find a solution. We compare the results for extended and simplified sets of landscapes and provide numerical evidence in support of our universality ansatz.
An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for SIRTF
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Timbie, P. T.; Bernstein, G. M.; Richards, P. L.
1989-01-01
An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) has been proposed to cool bolometric infrared detectors on the multiband imaging photometer of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). One such refrigerator has been built which uses a ferric ammonium alum salt pill suspended by nylon threads in a 3-T solenoid. The resonant modes of this suspension are above 100 Hz. The heat leak to the salt pill is less than 0.5 microW. The system has a hold time at 0.1K of more than 12 h. The cold stage temperature is regulated with a feedback loop that controls the magnetic field. A second, similar refrigerator is being built at a SIRTF prototype to fly on a ballon-borne telescope. It will use a ferromagnetic shield. The possibility of using a high-Tc solenoid-actuated heat switch is also discussed.
Design of a spaceworthy adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Serlemitsos, A. T.; Kunes, E.; Sansebastian, M.
1992-01-01
A spaceworthy adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) under development at NASA-Goddard is presented. A baseline model heat switch was tested extensively with an on/off ratio of about 10,000 and a parasitic heat leak of 10 micro-W. Data obtained from the breadboard models were used to design an ADR with improved structural integrity. The core of the ADR is the salt pill which consists of the paramagnetic salt crystal and the thermal bus. When a magnetic field is applied to the salt it forces the alignment of the magnetic moments, thereby decreasing the entropy of the salt. Preliminary tests results showed a net crystal mass of 680 g instead of the expected 740 g, which indicate that there are gaps in the salt pill. A partial fix was accomplished by sealing helium gas in the salt pill at a pressure of 2 bar, which improved the thermal contact during salt magnetization, at about 2 K.
Differential topology of adiabatically controlled quantum processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jonckheere, Edmond A.; Rezakhani, Ali T.; Ahmad, Farooq
2013-03-01
It is shown that in a controlled adiabatic homotopy between two Hamiltonians, H 0 and H 1, the gap or "anti-crossing" phenomenon can be viewed as the development of cusps and swallow tails in the region of the complex plane where two critical value curves of the quadratic map associated with the numerical range of H 0 + i H 1 come close. The "near crossing" in the energy level plots happens to be a generic situation, in the sense that a crossing is a manifestation of the quadratic numerical range map being unstable in the sense of differential topology. The stable singularities that can develop are identified and it is shown that they could occur near the gap, making those singularities of paramount importance. Various applications, including the quantum random walk, are provided to illustrate this theory.
Reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices
Takeuchi, N.; Yamanashi, Y.; Yoshikawa, N.
2014-01-01
Reversible computing has been studied since Rolf Landauer advanced the argument that has come to be known as Landauer's principle. This principle states that there is no minimum energy dissipation for logic operations in reversible computing, because it is not accompanied by reductions in information entropy. However, until now, no practical reversible logic gates have been demonstrated. One of the problems is that reversible logic gates must be built by using extremely energy-efficient logic devices. Another difficulty is that reversible logic gates must be both logically and physically reversible. Here we propose the first practical reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices and experimentally demonstrate the logical and physical reversibility of the gate. Additionally, we estimate the energy dissipation of the gate, and discuss the minimum energy dissipation required for reversible logic operations. It is expected that the results of this study will enable reversible computing to move from the theoretical stage into practical usage. PMID:25220698
Entropy in Adiabatic Regions of Convection Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanner, Joel D.; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre
2016-05-01
One of the largest sources of uncertainty in stellar models is caused by the treatment of convection in stellar envelopes. One-dimensional stellar models often make use of the mixing length or equivalent approximations to describe convection, all of which depend on various free parameters. There have been attempts to rectify this by using 3D radiative-hydrodynamic simulations of stellar convection, and in trying to extract an equivalent mixing length from the simulations. In this Letter, we show that the entropy of the deeper, adiabatic layers in these simulations can be expressed as a simple function of {log}g and {log}{T}{{eff}}, which holds potential for calibrating stellar models in a simple and more general manner.
Symmetry-protected adiabatic quantum transistors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williamson, Dominic J.; Bartlett, Stephen D.
2015-05-01
Adiabatic quantum transistors (AQT) allow quantum logic gates to be performed by applying a large field to a quantum many-body system prepared in its ground state, without the need for local control. The basic operation of such a device can be viewed as driving a spin chain from a symmetry-protected (SP) phase to a trivial phase. This perspective offers an avenue to generalize the AQT and to design several improvements. The performance of quantum logic gates is shown to depend only on universal symmetry properties of a SP phase rather than any fine tuning of the Hamiltonian, and it is possible to implement a universal set of logic gates in this way by combining several different types of SP matter. Such SP AQTs are argued to be robust to a range of relevant noise processes.
Number Partitioning via Quantum Adiabatic Computation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Toussaint, Udo; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We study both analytically and numerically the complexity of the adiabatic quantum evolution algorithm applied to random instances of combinatorial optimization problems. We use as an example the NP-complete set partition problem and obtain an asymptotic expression for the minimal gap separating the ground and exited states of a system during the execution of the algorithm. We show that for computationally hard problem instances the size of the minimal gap scales exponentially with the problem size. This result is in qualitative agreement with the direct numerical simulation of the algorithm for small instances of the set partition problem. We describe the statistical properties of the optimization problem that are responsible for the exponential behavior of the algorithm.
Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions.
Pawlak, Mariusz; Shagam, Yuval; Narevicius, Edvardas; Moiseyev, Nimrod
2015-08-21
We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment (4)He(1s2s (3)S) + HD(1s(2)) → (4)He(1s(2)) + HD(+)(1s) + e(-) [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings. PMID:26298122
Adiabatically-tapered fiber mode multiplexers.
Yerolatsitis, S; Gris-Sánchez, I; Birks, T A
2014-01-13
Simple all-fiber three-mode multiplexers were made by adiabatically merging three dissimilar single-mode cores into one multimode core. This was achieved by collapsing air holes in a photonic crystal fiber and (in a separate device) by fusing and tapering separate telecom fibers in a fluorine-doped silica capillary. In each case the LP01 mode and both LP11 modes were individually excited from three separate input cores, with losses below 0.3 and 0.7 dB respectively and mode purities exceeding 10 dB. Scaling to more modes is challenging, but would be assisted by using single-mode fibers with a smaller ratio of cladding to core diameter. PMID:24515021
The HAWC and SAFIRE Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tuttle, Jim; Shirron, Peter; DiPirro, Michael; Jackson, Michael; Behr, Jason; Kunes, Evan; Hait, Tom; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The High-Resolution Airborne Wide-band Camera (HAWC) and Submillimeter and Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) are far-infrared experiments which will fly on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) aircraft. HAWC's detectors will operate at 0.2 Kelvin, while those of SAFIRE will be at 0.1 Kelvin. Each instrument will include an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to cool its detector stage from the liquid helium bath temperature (HAWC's at 4.2 Kelvin and SAFIRE's pumped to about 1.3 Kelvin) to its operating temperature. Except for the magnets used to achieve the cooling and a slight difference in the heat switch design, the two ADRs are nearly identical. We describe the ADR design and present the results of performance testing.
Kittell, Aaron W.; Hyde, James S.
2015-01-01
Non-adiabatic rapid passage (NARS) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was introduced by Kittell, A.W., Camenisch, T.G., Ratke, J.J. Sidabras, J.W., Hyde, J.S., 2011 as a general purpose technique to collect the pure absorption response. The technique has been used to improve sensitivity relative to sinusoidal magnetic field modulation, increase the range of inter-spin distances that can be measured under near physiological conditions, and enhance spectral resolution in copper (II) spectra. In the present work, the method is extended to CW microwave power saturation of spin-labeled T4 Lysozyme (T4L). As in the cited papers, rapid triangular sweep of the polarizing magnetic field was superimposed on slow sweep across the spectrum. Adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) effects were encountered in samples undergoing very slow rotational diffusion as the triangular magnetic field sweep rate was increased. The paper reports results of variation of experimental parameters at the interface of adiabatic and non-adiabatic rapid sweep conditions. Comparison of the forward (up) and reverse (down) triangular sweeps is shown to be a good indicator of the presence of rapid passage effects. Spectral turning points can be distinguished from spectral regions between turning points in two ways: differential microwave power saturation and differential passage effects. Oxygen accessibility data are shown under NARS conditions that appear similar to conventional field modulation data. However, the sensitivity is much higher, permitting, in principle, experiments at substantially lower protein concentrations. Spectral displays were obtained that appear sensitive to rotational diffusion in the range of rotational correlation times of 10−3 to 10−7 s in a manner that is analogous to saturation transfer spectroscopy. PMID:25917132
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kittell, Aaron W.; Hyde, James S.
2015-06-01
Non-adiabatic rapid passage (NARS) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was introduced by Kittell et al. (2011) as a general purpose technique to collect the pure absorption response. The technique has been used to improve sensitivity relative to sinusoidal magnetic field modulation, increase the range of inter-spin distances that can be measured under near physiological conditions (Kittell et al., 2012), and enhance spectral resolution in copper (II) spectra (Hyde et al., 2013). In the present work, the method is extended to CW microwave power saturation of spin-labeled T4 Lysozyme (T4L). As in the cited papers, rapid triangular sweep of the polarizing magnetic field was superimposed on slow sweep across the spectrum. Adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) effects were encountered in samples undergoing very slow rotational diffusion as the triangular magnetic field sweep rate was increased. The paper reports results of variation of experimental parameters at the interface of adiabatic and non-adiabatic rapid sweep conditions. Comparison of the forward (up) and reverse (down) triangular sweeps is shown to be a good indicator of the presence of rapid passage effects. Spectral turning points can be distinguished from spectral regions between turning points in two ways: differential microwave power saturation and differential passage effects. Oxygen accessibility data are shown under NARS conditions that appear similar to conventional field modulation data. However, the sensitivity is much higher, permitting, in principle, experiments at substantially lower protein concentrations. Spectral displays were obtained that appear sensitive to rotational diffusion in the range of rotational correlation times of 10-3 to 10-7 s in a manner that is analogous to saturation transfer spectroscopy.
Kittell, Aaron W; Hyde, James S
2015-06-01
Non-adiabatic rapid passage (NARS) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was introduced by Kittell et al. (2011) as a general purpose technique to collect the pure absorption response. The technique has been used to improve sensitivity relative to sinusoidal magnetic field modulation, increase the range of inter-spin distances that can be measured under near physiological conditions (Kittell et al., 2012), and enhance spectral resolution in copper (II) spectra (Hyde et al., 2013). In the present work, the method is extended to CW microwave power saturation of spin-labeled T4 Lysozyme (T4L). As in the cited papers, rapid triangular sweep of the polarizing magnetic field was superimposed on slow sweep across the spectrum. Adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) effects were encountered in samples undergoing very slow rotational diffusion as the triangular magnetic field sweep rate was increased. The paper reports results of variation of experimental parameters at the interface of adiabatic and non-adiabatic rapid sweep conditions. Comparison of the forward (up) and reverse (down) triangular sweeps is shown to be a good indicator of the presence of rapid passage effects. Spectral turning points can be distinguished from spectral regions between turning points in two ways: differential microwave power saturation and differential passage effects. Oxygen accessibility data are shown under NARS conditions that appear similar to conventional field modulation data. However, the sensitivity is much higher, permitting, in principle, experiments at substantially lower protein concentrations. Spectral displays were obtained that appear sensitive to rotational diffusion in the range of rotational correlation times of 10(-3) to 10(-7) s in a manner that is analogous to saturation transfer spectroscopy. PMID:25917132
An integrated programming and development environment for adiabatic quantum optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Humble, T. S.; McCaskey, A. J.; Bennink, R. S.; Billings, J. J.; DʼAzevedo, E. F.; Sullivan, B. D.; Klymko, C. F.; Seddiqi, H.
2014-01-01
Adiabatic quantum computing is a promising route to the computational power afforded by quantum information processing. The recent availability of adiabatic hardware has raised challenging questions about how to evaluate adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO) programs. Processor behavior depends on multiple steps to synthesize an adiabatic quantum program, which are each highly tunable. We present an integrated programming and development environment for AQO called Jade Adiabatic Development Environment (JADE) that provides control over all the steps taken during program synthesis. JADE captures the workflow needed to rigorously specify the AQO algorithm while allowing a variety of problem types, programming techniques, and processor configurations. We have also integrated JADE with a quantum simulation engine that enables program profiling using numerical calculation. The computational engine supports plug-ins for simulation methodologies tailored to various metrics and computing resources. We present the design, integration, and deployment of JADE and discuss its potential use for benchmarking AQO programs by the quantum computer science community.
An Integrated Development Environment for Adiabatic Quantum Programming
Humble, Travis S; McCaskey, Alex; Bennink, Ryan S; Billings, Jay Jay; D'Azevedo, Eduardo; Sullivan, Blair D; Klymko, Christine F; Seddiqi, Hadayat
2014-01-01
Adiabatic quantum computing is a promising route to the computational power afforded by quantum information processing. The recent availability of adiabatic hardware raises the question of how well quantum programs perform. Benchmarking behavior is challenging since the multiple steps to synthesize an adiabatic quantum program are highly tunable. We present an adiabatic quantum programming environment called JADE that provides control over all the steps taken during program development. JADE captures the workflow needed to rigorously benchmark performance while also allowing a variety of problem types, programming techniques, and processor configurations. We have also integrated JADE with a quantum simulation engine that enables program profiling using numerical calculation. The computational engine supports plug-ins for simulation methodologies tailored to various metrics and computing resources. We present the design, integration, and deployment of JADE and discuss its use for benchmarking adiabatic quantum programs.
Affinity chromatography: a historical perspective.
Hage, David S; Matsuda, Ryan
2015-01-01
Affinity chromatography is one of the most selective and versatile forms of liquid chromatography for the separation or analysis of chemicals in complex mixtures. This method makes use of a biologically related agent as the stationary phase, which provides an affinity column with the ability to bind selectively and reversibly to a given target in a sample. This review examines the early work in this method and various developments that have lead to the current status of this technique. The general principles of affinity chromatography are briefly described as part of this discussion. Past and recent efforts in the generation of new binding agents, supports, and immobilization methods for this method are considered. Various applications of affinity chromatography are also summarized, as well as the influence this field has played in the creation of other affinity-based separation or analysis methods. PMID:25749941
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yarkony, David
2015-03-01
The construction of fit single state potential energy surfaces (PESs), analytic representations of ab initio electronic energies and energy gradients, is now well established. These single state PESs, which are essential for accurate quantum dynamics and have found wide application in more approximate quasi-classical treatments, have revolutionized adiabatic dynamics. The situation for nonadiabatic processes involving dissociative and large amplitude motion is less sanguine. In these cases, compared to single electronic state dynamics, both the electronic structure data and the representation are more challenging to determine. We describe the recent development and applications of algorithms that enable description of multiple adiabatic electronic potential energy surfaces coupled by conical intersections in their full dimensionality using coupled quasi-diabatic states. These representations are demonstrably quasi-diabatic, provide accurate representations of conical intersection seams and can smooth out the discontinuities in electronic structure energies due to changing active orbital spaces that routinely afflict global multistate representations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Hilal; Khan, Shakeel; Khan, Wasi; Nongjai, Razia; Khan, Imran
2014-11-01
We have systematically investigated structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Fe doped La0.33Sr0.67MnO3 manganites synthesized through solid-state reaction-route. All the samples are found to have rhombohedral crystal structure. The crystallite sizes obtained by XRD data are much smaller than the average grain size obtained by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Temperature dependent resistivity data were fitted using Mott's variable-range hopping (VRH) and small polaron hopping (SPH) models for obtaining different parameters. The adiabatic SPH conduction mechanism is followed almost for both samples in the absence of magnetic field but a switching from adiabatic to non-adiabatic SPH conduction mechanism is found in the presence of magnetic field. Temperature dependent magnetization (M-T) measurements confirm the decrease in Curie-temperature (TC) with Fe doping. Both the samples exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at 10 K and 300 K with a small hysteresis loop and low coercivity.
ElSohly, Adel M; Tschumper, Gregory S; Crocombe, Richard A; Wang, Jih Tzong; Williams, Ffrancon
2005-08-01
High-resolution ESR spectra of the ground-state negative ions of hexafluorocyclopropane (c-C3F6*-), octafluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8*-), and decafluorocyclopentane (c-C5F10*-) are reported and their isotropic 19F hyperfine coupling constants (hfcc) of 198.6 +/- 0.4 G, 147.6 +/- 0.4 G, and 117.9 +/- 0.4 G, respectively, are in inverse ratio to the total number of fluorine atoms per anion. Together with the small value of 5.2 +/- 0.4 G determined for the isotropic 13C hfcc of c-C4F8*-, these results indicate that in each case the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) is delocalized over the equivalent fluorines and possesses a nodal plane through the carbon atoms of a time-averaged D(nh) structure. A series of quantum chemical computations were carried out to further characterize these anions and their neutral counterparts. Both the B3LYP density functional and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) indicate that c-C3F6*- adopts a D(3h) geometry and a (2)A2'' ground electronic state, that c-C4F8*- adopts a D(4h) geometry and a (2)A2u ground electronic state, and that c-C5F10*- adopts a C(s) structure and a (2)A' electronic state. Moreover, the 19F hyperfine coupling constants computed with the MP2 method and a high quality triple-zeta basis set are within 1% of the experimental values. Also, the values computed for the 13C hfcc of c-C4F8*- are consistent with the experimental value of 5.2 G. Therefore, in keeping with the ESR results, these negative ions derived from first-row elements can be characterized as pi* species. In addition, the hypervalency of these perfluorocycloalkane radical anions has been clarified. PMID:16045345
Conical Intersections Between Vibrationally Adiabatic Surfaces in Methanol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dawadi, Mahesh B.; Perry, David S.
2014-06-01
The discovery of a set of seven conical intersections (CI's) between vibrationally adiabatic surfaces in methanol is reported. The intersecting surfaces represent the energies of the two asymmetric CH stretch vibrations, νb{2} and νb{9}, regarded as adiabatic functions of the torsional angle, γ, and COH bend angle, ρ. One conical intersection, required by symmetry, is located at the C3v geometry where the COH group is linear (ρ = 0°); the other six are in eclipsed conformations with ρ = 62° and 94°. The three CI's at ρ = 62° are close to the equilibrium geometry (ρ = 71.4°), within the zero-point amplitude of the COH bending vibration. CI's between electronic surfaces have long been recognized as crucial conduits for ultrafast relaxation, and recently Hamm, and Stock have shown that vibrational CI's may also provide a mechanism for ultrafast vibrational relaxation. The ab initio data reported here are well described by an extended Zwanziger and Grant model for E ⊗ e Jahn-Teller systems in which Renner-Teller coupling is also active. However, in the present case, the distortion ρ from C3v symmetry is much larger than is typical in the Jahn-Teller coupling of electronic surfaces and accordingly higher-order terms in ρ are required. The present results are also consistent with the two-state model of Xu et al. The cusp-like features, which they found along the internal-rotation path, are explained in the context of the present work in terms of proximity to the CI's. The presence of multiple CI's near the torsional minimum energy path impacts the role of geometric phase in this three-fold internal-rotor system. When the dimensionality of the low-frequency space is extended to include the CO bond length as well as γ and ρ, the individual CI's become seams of CI's. It is shown that the CI's at ρ = 62° and 94° lie along the same seam of CI's in this higher dimensional space. P. Hamm and G. Stock, Phys. Rev. Lett., 109, 173201, (2012) P. Hamm, and G
Non-adiabatic perturbations in Ricci dark energy model
Karwan, Khamphee; Thitapura, Thiti E-mail: nanodsci2523@hotmail.com
2012-01-01
We show that the non-adiabatic perturbations between Ricci dark energy and matter can grow both on superhorizon and subhorizon scales, and these non-adiabatic perturbations on subhorizon scales can lead to instability in this dark energy model. The rapidly growing non-adiabatic modes on subhorizon scales always occur when the equation of state parameter of dark energy starts to drop towards -1 near the end of matter era, except that the parameter α of Ricci dark energy equals to 1/2. In the case where α = 1/2, the rapidly growing non-adiabatic modes disappear when the perturbations in dark energy and matter are adiabatic initially. However, an adiabaticity between dark energy and matter perturbations at early time implies a non-adiabaticity between matter and radiation, this can influence the ordinary Sachs-Wolfe (OSW) effect. Since the amount of Ricci dark energy is not small during matter domination, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect is greatly modified by density perturbations of dark energy, leading to a wrong shape of CMB power spectrum. The instability in Ricci dark energy is difficult to be alleviated if the effects of coupling between baryon and photon on dark energy perturbations are included.
Wilken, F.; Bauer, D.
2006-11-17
The ionization of a one-dimensional model helium atom in short laser pulses using time-dependent density-functional theory is investigated. We calculate ionization probabilities as a function of laser intensity by approximating the correlation function of the system adiabatically with an explicit dependence on the fractional number of bound electrons. For the correlation potential we take the derivative discontinuity at integer numbers of bound electrons explicitly into account. This approach reproduces ionization probabilities from the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, in particular, the so-called knee due to nonsequential ionization.
Dynamics of Charged Particles in an Adiabatic Thermal Beam Equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chiping; Wei, Haofei
2010-11-01
Charged-particle motion is studied in the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of a well-matched, intense charged-particle beam and an applied periodic solenoidal magnetic focusing field. The beam is assumed to be in a state of adiabatic thermal equilibrium. The phase space is analyzed and compared with that of the well-known Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV)-type beam equilibrium. It is found that the widths of nonlinear resonances in the adiabatic thermal beam equilibrium are narrower than those in the KV-type beam equilibrium. Numerical evidence is presented, indicating almost complete elimination of chaotic particle motion in the adiabatic thermal beam equilibrium.
Complete population inversion of Bose particles by an adiabatic cycle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Atushi; Cheon, Taksu
2016-04-01
We show that an adiabatic cycle excites Bose particles confined in a one-dimensional box. During the adiabatic cycle, a wall described by a δ-shaped potential is applied and its strength and position are slowly varied. When the system is initially prepared in the ground state, namely, in the zero-temperature equilibrium state, the adiabatic cycle brings all Bosons into the first excited one-particle state, leaving the system in a nonequilibrium state. The absorbed energy during the cycle is proportional to the number of Bosons.
Dephasing effects on stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in tripod configurations
Lazarou, C.; Vitanov, N. V.
2010-09-15
We present an analytic description of the effects of dephasing processes on stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a tripod quantum system. To this end, we develop an effective two-level model. Our analysis makes use of the adiabatic approximation in the weak dephasing regime. An effective master equation for a two-level system formed by two dark states is derived, where analytic solutions are obtained by utilizing the Demkov-Kunike model. From these, it is found that the fidelity for the final coherent superposition state decreases exponentially for increasing dephasing rates. Depending on the pulse ordering and for adiabatic evolution, the pulse delay can have an inverse effect.
Design of the PIXIE Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark Oliver; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan J.; Li, Xiaoyi; DiPirro, Michael
2012-01-01
The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is a proposed mission to densely map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. It will operate in a scanning mode from a sun-synchronous orbit, using low temperature detectors (at 0.1 K) and located inside a teslescope that is cooled to approximately 2.73 K - to match the background temperature. A mechanical cryocooler operating at 4.5 K establishes a low base temperature from which two adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) assemblies will cool the telescope and detectors. To achieve continuous scanning capability, the ADRs must operate continuously. Complicating the design are two factors: 1) the need to systematically vary the temperature of various telescope components in order to separate the small polarization signal variations from those that may arise from temperature drifts and changing gradients within the telescope, and 2) the orbital and monthly variations in lunar irradiance into the telescope barrels. These factors require the telescope ADR to reject quasi-continuous heat loads of 2-3 millwatts, while maintaining a peak heat reject rate of less than 12 milliwatts. The detector heat load at 0.1 K is comparatively small at 1-2 microwatts. This paper will describe the 3-stage and 2-stage continuous ADRs that will be used to meet the cooling power and temperature stability requirements of the PIXIE detectors and telescope.
Design of the PIXIE adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan J.; Li, Xiaoyi; DiPirro, Michael J.
2012-04-01
The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is a proposed mission to densely map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. It will operate in a scanning mode from a sun-synchronous orbit, using low temperature detectors (at 0.1 K) and located inside a telescope that is cooled to approximately 2.73 K - to match the background temperature. A mechanical cryocooler operating at 4.5 K establishes a low base temperature from which two adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) assemblies will cool the telescope and detectors. To achieve continuous scanning capability, the ADRs must operate continuously. Complicating the design are two factors: (1) the need to systematically vary the temperature of various telescope components in order to separate the small polarization signal variations from those that may arise from temperature drifts and changing gradients within the telescope, and (2) the orbital and monthly variations in lunar irradiance into the telescope barrels. These factors require the telescope ADR to reject quasi-continuous heat loads of 2-3 mW, while maintaining a peak heat reject rate of less than 12 mW. The detector heat load at 0.1 K is comparatively small at 1-2 μW. This paper will describe the 3-stage and 2-stage continuous ADRs that will be used to meet the cooling power and temperature stability requirements of the PIXIE detectors and telescope.
Graph isomorphism and adiabatic quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane
2014-03-01
In the Graph Isomorphism (GI) problem two N-vertex graphs G and G' are given and the task is to determine whether there exists a permutation of the vertices of G that preserves adjacency and maps G --> G'. If yes (no), then G and G' are said to be isomorphic (non-isomorphic). The GI problem is an important problem in computer science and is thought to be of comparable difficulty to integer factorization. We present a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of GI, and which provides a novel approach to determining all automorphisms of a graph. The algorithm converts a GI instance to a combinatorial optimization problem that can be solved using adiabatic quantum evolution. Numerical simulation of the algorithm's quantum dynamics shows that it correctly distinguishes non-isomorphic graphs; recognizes isomorphic graphs; and finds the automorphism group of a graph. We also discuss the algorithm's experimental implementation and show how it can be leveraged to solve arbitrary instances of the NP-Complete Sub-Graph Isomorphism problem.
Adiabatic Quantum Computation with Neutral Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biedermann, Grant
2013-03-01
We are implementing a new platform for adiabatic quantum computation (AQC)[2] based on trapped neutral atoms whose coupling is mediated by the dipole-dipole interactions of Rydberg states. Ground state cesium atoms are dressed by laser fields in a manner conditional on the Rydberg blockade mechanism,[3,4] thereby providing the requisite entangling interactions. As a benchmark we study a Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) problem whose solution is found in the ground state spin configuration of an Ising-like model. In collaboration with Lambert Parazzoli, Sandia National Laboratories; Aaron Hankin, Center for Quantum Information and Control (CQuIC), University of New Mexico; James Chin-Wen Chou, Yuan-Yu Jau, Peter Schwindt, Cort Johnson, and George Burns, Sandia National Laboratories; Tyler Keating, Krittika Goyal, and Ivan Deutsch, Center for Quantum Information and Control (CQuIC), University of New Mexico; and Andrew Landahl, Sandia National Laboratories. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories
Adiabatic Quantum Algorithm for Search Engine Ranking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garnerone, Silvano; Zanardi, Paolo; Lidar, Daniel A.
2012-06-01
We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm for generating a quantum pure state encoding of the PageRank vector, the most widely used tool in ranking the relative importance of internet pages. We present extensive numerical simulations which provide evidence that this algorithm can prepare the quantum PageRank state in a time which, on average, scales polylogarithmically in the number of web pages. We argue that the main topological feature of the underlying web graph allowing for such a scaling is the out-degree distribution. The top-ranked log(n) entries of the quantum PageRank state can then be estimated with a polynomial quantum speed-up. Moreover, the quantum PageRank state can be used in “q-sampling” protocols for testing properties of distributions, which require exponentially fewer measurements than all classical schemes designed for the same task. This can be used to decide whether to run a classical update of the PageRank.
Adiabatic nonlinear waves with trapped particles. III. Wave dynamics
Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.
2012-01-15
The evolution of adiabatic waves with autoresonant trapped particles is described within the Lagrangian model developed in Paper I, under the assumption that the action distribution of these particles is conserved, and, in particular, that their number within each wavelength is a fixed independent parameter of the problem. One-dimensional nonlinear Langmuir waves with deeply trapped electrons are addressed as a paradigmatic example. For a stationary wave, tunneling into overcritical plasma is explained from the standpoint of the action conservation theorem. For a nonstationary wave, qualitatively different regimes are realized depending on the initial parameter S, which is the ratio of the energy flux carried by trapped particles to that carried by passing particles. At S < 1/2, a wave is stable and exhibits group velocity splitting. At S > 1/2, the trapped-particle modulational instability (TPMI) develops, in contrast with the existing theories of the TPMI yet in agreement with the general sideband instability theory. Remarkably, these effects are not captured by the nonlinear Schroedinger equation, which is traditionally considered as a universal model of wave self-action but misses the trapped-particle oscillation-center inertia.
Decoherence in current induced forces: Application to adiabatic quantum motors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández-Alcázar, Lucas J.; Bustos-Marún, Raúl A.; Pastawski, Horacio M.
2015-08-01
Current induced forces are not only related with the discrete nature of electrons but also with its quantum character. It is natural then to wonder about the effect of decoherence. Here, we develop the theory of current induced forces including dephasing processes and we apply it to study adiabatic quantum motors (AQMs). The theory is based on Büttiker's fictitious probe model, which here is reformulated for this particular case. We prove that it accomplishes the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We also show that, in spite of decoherence, the total work performed by the current induced forces remains equal to the pumped charge per cycle times the voltage. We find that decoherence affects not only the current induced forces of the system but also its intrinsic friction and noise, modifying in a nontrivial way the efficiency of AQMs. We apply the theory to study an AQM inspired by a classical peristaltic pump where we surprisingly find that decoherence can play a crucial role by triggering its operation. Our results can help to understand how environmentally induced dephasing affects the quantum behavior of nanomechanical devices.
Lo, Po-Kam; Lau, Kai-Chung
2014-04-01
The ionization energy (IE), electron affinity (EA), and heats of formation (ΔH°f0/ΔH°f298) for cyclopentadienyl radical, cation, and anion, C5H5/C5H5(+)/C5H5(-), have been calculated by wave function-based ab initio CCSDT/CBS approach, which involves approximation to complete basis set (CBS) limit at coupled-cluster level with up to full triple excitations (CCSDT). The zero-point vibrational energy correction, core-valence electronic correction, scalar relativistic effect, and higher-order corrections beyond the CCSD(T) wave function are included in these calculations. The allylic [C5H5((2)A2)] and dienylic [C5H5((2)B1)] forms of cyclopentadienyl radical are considered: the ground state structure exists in the dienyl form and it is about 30 meV more stable than the allylic structure. Both structures are lying closely and are interconvertible along the normal mode of b2 in-plane vibration. The CCSDT/CBS predictions (in eV) for IE[C5H5(+)((3)A1')←C5H5((2)B1)] = 8.443, IE[C5H5(+)((1)A1)←C5H5((2)B1)] = 8.634 and EA[C5H5(-)((1)A1')←C5H5((2)B1)] = 1.785 are consistent with the respective experimental values of 8.4268 ± 0.0005, 8.6170 ± 0.0005, and 1.808 ± 0.006, obtained from photoelectron spectroscopic measurements. The ΔH°f0/ΔH°f298's (in kJ/mol) for C5H5/C5H5(+)/C5H5(-) have also been predicted by the CCSDT/CBS method: ΔH°f0/ΔH°f298[C5H5((2)B1)] = 283.6/272.0, ΔH°f0/ΔH°f298[C5H5(+)((3)A1')] = 1098.2/1086.9, ΔH°f0/ΔH°f298[C5H5(+)((1)A1)] = 1116.6/1106.0, and ΔH°f0/ΔH°f298[C5H5(-)((1)A1')] = 111.4/100.0. The comparisons between the CCSDT/CBS predictions and the experimental values suggest that the CCSDT/CBS procedure is capable of predicting reliable IE(C5H5)'s and EA(C5H5) with uncertainties of ± 17 and ± 23 meV, respectively. PMID:24621131
Photodetachment of Isolated Bicarbonate Anion: Electron Binding Energy of HCO3-
Wang, Xue B.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.
2011-04-29
We report the first direct photodetachment photoelectron spectroscopy of HCO3 in the gas phase under low temperature conditions. The observed photoelectron spectra are complicated due to excitations of manifolds in both vibrational and electronic states. A long and single vibrational progression with a frequency of 530 ± 20 cm-1 is partially resolved in the threshold of the T=20 K, 266 nm spectrum. The adiabatic electron detachment energy (ADE) of HCO3, or in other words the electron affinity (EA) of neutral HCO3, is experimentally determined from the (0-0) transition to be 3.680 ± 0.015 eV. High-level ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T) level of theory produce an anharmonic frequency of 546 cm-1 for HCO3 and a value of 3.62 eV for the (0,0) transition, both in excellent agreement with the experimentally determined values.
Adiabaticity and spectral splits in collective neutrino transformations
Raffelt, Georg G.; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.
2007-12-15
Neutrinos streaming off a supernova core transform collectively by neutrino-neutrino interactions, leading to 'spectral splits' where an energy E{sub split} divides the transformed spectrum sharply into parts of almost pure but different flavors. We present a detailed description of the spectral-split phenomenon which is conceptually and quantitatively understood in an adiabatic treatment of neutrino-neutrino effects. Central to this theory is a self-consistency condition in the form of two sum rules (integrals over the neutrino spectra that must equal certain conserved quantities). We provide explicit analytic and numerical solutions for various neutrino spectra. We introduce the concept of the adiabatic reference frame and elaborate on the relative adiabatic evolution. Violating adiabaticity leads to the spectral split being 'washed out'. The sharpness of the split appears to be represented by a surprisingly universal function.
Acceleration of adiabatic quantum dynamics in electromagnetic fields
Masuda, Shumpei; Nakamura, Katsuhiro
2011-10-15
We show a method to accelerate quantum adiabatic dynamics of wave functions under electromagnetic field (EMF) by developing the preceding theory [Masuda and Nakamura, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 466, 1135 (2010)]. Treating the orbital dynamics of a charged particle in EMF, we derive the driving field which accelerates quantum adiabatic dynamics in order to obtain the final adiabatic states in any desired short time. The scheme is consolidated by describing a way to overcome possible singularities in both the additional phase and driving potential due to nodes proper to wave functions under EMF. As explicit examples, we exhibit the fast forward of adiabatic squeezing and transport of excited Landau states with nonzero angular momentum, obtaining the result consistent with the transitionless quantum driving applied to the orbital dynamics in EMF.
Adiabatic and isocurvature perturbation projections in multi-field inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gordon, Chris; Saffin, Paul M.
2013-08-01
Current data are in good agreement with the predictions of single field inflation. However, the hemispherical asymmetry, seen in the cosmic microwave background data, may hint at a potential problem. Generalizing to multi-field models may provide one possible explanation. A useful way of modeling perturbations in multi-field inflation is to investigate the projection of the perturbation along and perpendicular to the background fields' trajectory. These correspond to the adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations. However, it is important to note that in general there are no corresponding adiabatic and isocurvature fields. The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between a field redefinition and a perturbation projection. We provide a detailed derivation of the evolution of the isocurvature perturbation to show that no assumption of an adiabatic or isocurvature field is needed. We also show how this evolution equation is consistent with the field covariant evolution equations for the adiabatic perturbation in the flat field space limit.
Startup of the RFP in a quasi-adiabatic mode
Caramana, E.J.
1980-01-01
The equations describing the purely adiabatic formation of the reversed-field pinch are solved. This method of formation in principle remedies the problem of flux consumption during the startup phase of this device.
Ultrafast stimulated Raman parallel adiabatic passage by shaped pulses
Dridi, G.; Guerin, S.; Hakobyan, V.; Jauslin, H. R.; Eleuch, H.
2009-10-15
We present a general and versatile technique of population transfer based on parallel adiabatic passage by femtosecond shaped pulses. Their amplitude and phase are specifically designed to optimize the adiabatic passage corresponding to parallel eigenvalues at all times. We show that this technique allows the robust adiabatic population transfer in a Raman system with the total pulse area as low as 3{pi}, corresponding to a fluence of one order of magnitude below the conventional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage process. This process of short duration, typically picosecond and subpicosecond, is easily implementable with the modern pulse shaper technology and opens the possibility of ultrafast robust population transfer with interesting applications in quantum information processing.
Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of tunneling in quantum adiabatic optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brady, Lucas T.; van Dam, Wim
2016-03-01
We explore to what extent path-integral quantum Monte Carlo methods can efficiently simulate quantum adiabatic optimization algorithms during a quantum tunneling process. Specifically we look at symmetric cost functions defined over n bits with a single potential barrier that a successful quantum adiabatic optimization algorithm will have to tunnel through. The height and width of this barrier depend on n , and by tuning these dependencies, we can make the optimization algorithm succeed or fail in polynomial time. In this article we compare the strength of quantum adiabatic tunneling with that of path-integral quantum Monte Carlo methods. We find numerical evidence that quantum Monte Carlo algorithms will succeed in the same regimes where quantum adiabatic optimization succeeds.
Electron attachment to the cytosine-centered DNA single strands: does base stacking matter?
Gu, Jiande; Wang, Jing; Leszczynski, Jerzy
2012-02-01
Electron attachment to the trimer of nucleotide, dGpdCpdG, has been investigated by a quantum mechanical approach at a reliable level of theory. The study of the electron attached dGpdCpdG species demonstrates that cytosine contained DNA single strands have a strong tendency to capture low-energy electrons and to form electronically stable cytosine-centered radical anions. The comparative study of the model molecules pdCpdG and dGpdCp reveals that base stacking has little contribution to the adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) of cytosine in DNA single strands. Additionally, the base-base stacking does not affect the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of the cytosine-centered radicals. Intrastrand H-bonding is found to be critical in increasing the values of the AEA and VDE. However, base-base stacking is revealed to be important in enlarging the vertical electron affinity (VEA) of cytosine. The electron attachment to the cytosine moiety intensifies the intrastrand H-bonding between the neighboring G and C bases. This process disrupts the base-base stacking interaction in the radical anion of dGpdCpdG. PMID:22225006
Nonadiabatic transitions in finite-time adiabatic rapid passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, T.; Miao, X.; Metcalf, H.
2007-06-01
To apply the adiabatic rapid passage process repetitively [T. Lu, X. Miao, and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. A 71, 061405(R) (2005)], the nonadiabatic transition probability of a two-level atom subject to chirped light pulses over a finite period of time needs to be calculated. Using a unitary first-order perturbation method in the rotating adiabatic frame, an approximate formula has been derived for such transition probabilities in the entire parameter space of the pulses.
Realization of adiabatic Aharonov-Bohm scattering with neutrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sjöqvist, Erik; Almquist, Martin; Mattsson, Ken; Gürkan, Zeynep Nilhan; Hessmo, Björn
2015-11-01
The adiabatic Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect is a manifestation of the Berry phase acquired when some slow variables take a planar spin around a loop. While the effect has been observed in molecular spectroscopy, direct measurement of the topological phase shift in a scattering experiment has been elusive in the past. Here, we demonstrate an adiabatic AB effect by explicit simulation of the dynamics of unpolarized very slow neutrons that scatter on a long straight current-carrying wire.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity for non-Hermitian systems
Ibanez, S.; Martinez-Garaot, S.; Torrontegui, E.; Muga, J. G.; Chen Xi
2011-08-15
Adiabatic processes driven by non-Hermitian, time-dependent Hamiltonians may be sped up by generalizing inverse engineering techniques based on counter-diabatic (transitionless driving) algorithms or on dynamical invariants. We work out the basic theory and examples described by two-level Hamiltonians: the acceleration of rapid adiabatic passage with a decaying excited level and of the dynamics of a classical particle on an expanding harmonic oscillator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Yun-Tak; Higashi, Yoichi; Chan, Ching-Kit; Han, Jung Hoon
2016-08-01
The Lang-Firsov Hamiltonian, a well-known solvable model of interacting fermion-boson system with sideband features in the fermion spectral weight, is generalized to have the time-dependent fermion-boson coupling constant. We show how to derive the two-time Green's function for the time-dependent problem in the adiabatic limit, defined as the slow temporal variation of the coupling over the characteristic oscillator period. The idea we use in deriving the Green's function is akin to the use of instantaneous basis states in solving the adiabatic evolution problem in quantum mechanics. With such "adiabatic Green's function" at hand we analyze the transient behavior of the spectral weight as the coupling is gradually tuned to zero. Time-dependent generalization of a related model, the spin-boson Hamiltonian, is analyzed in the same way. In both cases the sidebands arising from the fermion-boson coupling can be seen to gradually lose their spectral weights over time. Connections of our solution to the two-dimensional Dirac electrons coupled to quantized photons are discussed.
Exchange–Correlation Functionals via Local Interpolation along the Adiabatic Connection
2016-01-01
The construction of density-functional approximations is explored by modeling the adiabatic connection locally, using energy densities defined in terms of the electrostatic potential of the exchange–correlation hole. These local models are more amenable to the construction of size-consistent approximations than their global counterparts. In this work we use accurate input local ingredients to assess the accuracy of a range of local interpolation models against accurate exchange–correlation energy densities. The importance of the strictly correlated electrons (SCE) functional describing the strong coupling limit is emphasized, enabling the corresponding interpolated functionals to treat strong correlation effects. In addition to exploring the performance of such models numerically for the helium and beryllium isoelectronic series and the dissociation of the hydrogen molecule, an approximate analytic model is presented for the initial slope of the local adiabatic connection. Comparisons are made with approaches based on global models, and prospects for future approximations based on the local adiabatic connection are discussed. PMID:27116427
Exchange-Correlation Functionals via Local Interpolation along the Adiabatic Connection.
Vuckovic, Stefan; Irons, Tom J P; Savin, Andreas; Teale, Andrew M; Gori-Giorgi, Paola
2016-06-14
The construction of density-functional approximations is explored by modeling the adiabatic connection locally, using energy densities defined in terms of the electrostatic potential of the exchange-correlation hole. These local models are more amenable to the construction of size-consistent approximations than their global counterparts. In this work we use accurate input local ingredients to assess the accuracy of a range of local interpolation models against accurate exchange-correlation energy densities. The importance of the strictly correlated electrons (SCE) functional describing the strong coupling limit is emphasized, enabling the corresponding interpolated functionals to treat strong correlation effects. In addition to exploring the performance of such models numerically for the helium and beryllium isoelectronic series and the dissociation of the hydrogen molecule, an approximate analytic model is presented for the initial slope of the local adiabatic connection. Comparisons are made with approaches based on global models, and prospects for future approximations based on the local adiabatic connection are discussed. PMID:27116427
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Döppner, T.; Casey, D. T.; Baker, K. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Bachmann, B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bond, E.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Dixit, S. N.; Edwards, M. J.; Gharibyan, N.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A. V.; Hatarik, R.; Hurricane, O. A.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Jones, O. S.; Kerbel, G. D.; Kroll, J. J.; Lafortune, K. N.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; Marinak, M. M.; MacGowan, B. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Patel, M.; Patel, P. K.; Perkins, L. J.; Sayre, D. B.; Sepke, S. M.; Spears, B. K.; Tommasini, R.; Weber, C. R.; Widmayer, C. C.; Yeamans, C.; Giraldez, E.; Hoover, D.; Nikroo, A.; Hohenberger, M.; Gatu Johnson, M.
2016-05-01
A series of indirectly driven capsule implosions has been performed on the National Ignition Facility to assess the relative contributions of ablation-front instability growth vs. fuel compression on implosion performance. Laser pulse shapes for both low and high-foot pulses were modified to vary ablation-front growth and fuel adiabat, separately and controllably. Three principal conclusions are drawn from this study: (1) It is shown that reducing ablation-front instability growth in low-foot implosions results in a substantial (3-10X) increase in neutron yield with no loss of fuel compression. (2) It is shown that reducing the fuel adiabat in high-foot implosions results in a significant (36%) increase in fuel compression together with a small (10%) increase in neutron yield. (3) Increased electron preheat at higher laser power in high-foot implosions, however, appears to offset the gain in compression achieved by adiabat-shaping at lower power. These results taken collectively bridge the space between the higher compression low-foot results and the higher yield high-foot results.
Semiclassical Monte Carlo: A first principles approach to non-adiabatic molecular dynamics
White, Alexander J.; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N.; Wang, Ruixi; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry
2014-11-14
Modeling the dynamics of photophysical and (photo)chemical reactions in extended molecular systems is a new frontier for quantum chemistry. Many dynamical phenomena, such as intersystem crossing, non-radiative relaxation, and charge and energy transfer, require a non-adiabatic description which incorporate transitions between electronic states. Additionally, these dynamics are often highly sensitive to quantum coherences and interference effects. Several methods exist to simulate non-adiabatic dynamics; however, they are typically either too expensive to be applied to large molecular systems (10's-100's of atoms), or they are based on ad hoc schemes which may include severe approximations due to inconsistencies in classical and quantum mechanics. We present, in detail, an algorithm based on Monte Carlo sampling of the semiclassical time-dependent wavefunction that involves running simple surface hopping dynamics, followed by a post-processing step which adds little cost. The method requires only a few quantities from quantum chemistry calculations, can systematically be improved, and provides excellent agreement with exact quantum mechanical results. Here we show excellent agreement with exact solutions for scattering results of standard test problems. Additionally, we find that convergence of the wavefunction is controlled by complex valued phase factors, the size of the non-adiabatic coupling region, and the choice of sampling function. These results help in determining the range of applicability of the method, and provide a starting point for further improvement.
Semiclassical Monte Carlo: A first principles approach to non-adiabatic molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Alexander J.; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N.; Wang, Ruixi; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry
2014-11-01
Modeling the dynamics of photophysical and (photo)chemical reactions in extended molecular systems is a new frontier for quantum chemistry. Many dynamical phenomena, such as intersystem crossing, non-radiative relaxation, and charge and energy transfer, require a non-adiabatic description which incorporate transitions between electronic states. Additionally, these dynamics are often highly sensitive to quantum coherences and interference effects. Several methods exist to simulate non-adiabatic dynamics; however, they are typically either too expensive to be applied to large molecular systems (10's-100's of atoms), or they are based on ad hoc schemes which may include severe approximations due to inconsistencies in classical and quantum mechanics. We present, in detail, an algorithm based on Monte Carlo sampling of the semiclassical time-dependent wavefunction that involves running simple surface hopping dynamics, followed by a post-processing step which adds little cost. The method requires only a few quantities from quantum chemistry calculations, can systematically be improved, and provides excellent agreement with exact quantum mechanical results. Here we show excellent agreement with exact solutions for scattering results of standard test problems. Additionally, we find that convergence of the wavefunction is controlled by complex valued phase factors, the size of the non-adiabatic coupling region, and the choice of sampling function. These results help in determining the range of applicability of the method, and provide a starting point for further improvement.
Takahashi, K.; Sawamura, S.; Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Bartels, D. M.; Jonah, C. D.; Chemistry; Hokkaido Univ.
2002-01-10
Transient absorption spectra following ionization of supercritical CO{sub 2} have been investigated using the pulse radiolysis technique. Absorption spectra measured from 400 to 800 nm suggest that at least two transient species absorb. We have previously reported that one species is (CO{sub 2}){sub 2}{sup +}. In the near UV region, we observed a transient species of which the lifetime and reactivity are different from the dimer cation. We assign this species to a dimer anion, (CO{sub 2}){sub 2}{sup -}, or an anion-molecule complex, (CO{sub 2}{sup -})(CO{sub 2}){sub x}. Comparison with the photobleaching of CO{sub 2} anion clusters in solid rare gas matrixes and their reactivity with H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} confirm the assignment. Theoretical calculations, in which solvation is taken into account, are consistent with these assignments. It is well-established that the adiabatic electron affinity of CO{sub 2} is negative, but the adiabatic electron affinity of CO{sub 2} dimer has been calculated to be 0.89 eV for D2d symmetry (CO{sub 2}){sub 2}{sup -} in the gas phase. The calculations predict that CO{sub 2}{sup -} in a model continuum solvent is stable to autodetachment.
Semin, Boris K; Lovyagina, Elena R; Timofeev, Kirill N; Ivanov, Ilya I; Rubin, Andrei B; Seibert, Michael
2005-07-19
Incubation of Mn-depleted PSII membranes [PSII(-Mn)] with Fe(II) is accompanied by the blocking of Y(Z)(*) at the high-affinity Mn-binding site to exogenous electron donors [Semin et al. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 5854-5864] and a shift of the pK(app) of the hydrogen bond partner for Y(Z) (base B) from 7.1 to 6.1 [Semin, B. K., and Seibert, M. (2004) Biochemistry 43, 6772-6782]. Here we calculate activation energies (E(a)) for Y(Z)(*) reduction in PSII(-Mn) and Fe-blocked PSII(-Mn) samples [PSII(-Mn, +Fe)] from temperature dependencies of the rate constants of the fast and slow components of the flash-probe fluorescence decay kinetics. At pH < pK(app) (e.g., 5.5), the decays are fit with one (fast) component in both types of samples, and E(a) is equal to 42.2 +/- 2.9 kJ/mol in PSII(-Mn) and 46.4 +/- 3.3 kJ/mol in PSII(-Mn, +Fe) membranes. At pH > pK(app), the decay kinetics exhibit an additional slow component in PSII(-Mn, +Fe) membranes (E(a) = 36.1 +/- 7.5 kJ/mol), which is much lower than the E(a) of the corresponding component observed for Y(Z)(*) reduction in PSII(-Mn) samples (48.1 +/- 1.7 kJ/mol). We suggest that the above difference results from the formation of a strong low barrier hydrogen bond (LBHB) between Y(Z) and base B in PSII(-Mn, +Fe) samples. To confirm this, Fe-blocking was performed in D(2)O to insert D(+), which has an energetic barrier distinct from H(+), into the LBHB. Measurement of the pH effects on the rates of Y(Z)(*) reduction in PSII(-Mn, +Fe) samples blocked in D(2)O shows a shift of the pK(app) from 6.1 to 7.6, and an increase in the E(a) of the slow component. This approach was also used to measure the stability of the Y(Z)(*) EPR signal at various temperatures in both kinds of membranes. In PSII(-Mn) membranes, the freeze-trapped Y(Z)(*) radical is stable below 190 K, but half of the Y(Z)(*) EPR signal disappears after a 1-min incubation when the sample is warmed to 253 K. In PSII(-Mn, +Fe) samples, the trapped Y(Z)(*) radical is
Taple-top imaging of the non-adiabatically driven isomerization in the acetylene cation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beaulieu, Samuel; Ibrahim, Heide; Wales, Benji; Schmidt, Bruno E.; Thiré, Nicolas; Bisson, Éric; Hebeisen, Christoph T.; Wanie, Vincent; Giguere, Mathieu; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Sanderson, Joe; Schuurman, Michael S.; Légaré, François
2014-05-01
One of the primary goals of modern ultrafast science is to follow nuclear and electronic evolution of molecules as they undergo a photo-chemical reaction. Most of the interesting dynamics phenomena in molecules occur when an electronically excited state is populated. When the energy difference between electronic ground and excited states is large, Free Electron Laser (FEL) and HHG-based VUV sources were, up to date, the only light sources able to efficiently initiate those non-adiabatic dynamics. We have developed a simple table-top approach to initiate those rich dynamics via multiphoton absorption. As a proof of principle, we studied the ultrafast isomerization of the acetylene cation. We have chosen this model system for isomerization since the internal conversion mechanism which leads to proton migration is still under debate since decades. Using 266 nm multiphoton absorption as a pump and 800 nm induced Coulomb Explosion as a probe, we have shoot the first high-resolution molecular movie of the non-adiabatically driven proton migration in the acetylene cation. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with high level ab initio trajectory simulations.
Acoustic solitary waves in dusty and/or multi-ion plasmas with cold, adiabatic, and hot constituents
Verheest, Frank; Hellberg, Manfred A.; Kourakis, Ioannis
2008-11-15
Large nonlinear acoustic waves are discussed in a four-component plasma, made up of two superhot isothermal species, and two species with lower thermal velocities, being, respectively, adiabatic and cold. First a model is considered in which the isothermal species are electrons and ions, while the cooler species are positive and/or negative dust. Using a Sagdeev pseudopotential formalism, large dust-acoustic structures have been studied in a systematic way, to delimit the compositional parameter space in which they can be found, without restrictions on the charges and masses of the dust species and their charge signs. Solitary waves can only occur for nonlinear structure velocities smaller than the adiabatic dust thermal velocity, leading to a novel dust-acoustic-like mode based on the interplay between the two dust species. If the cold and adiabatic dust are oppositely charged, only solitary waves exist, having the polarity of the cold dust, their parameter range being limited by infinite compression of the cold dust. However, when the charges of the cold and adiabatic species have the same sign, solitary structures are limited for increasing Mach numbers successively by infinite cold dust compression, by encountering the adiabatic dust sonic point, and by the occurrence of double layers. The latter have, for smaller Mach numbers, the same polarity as the charged dust, but switch at the high Mach number end to the opposite polarity. Typical Sagdeev pseudopotentials and solitary wave profiles have been presented. Finally, the analysis has nowhere used the assumption that the dust would be much more massive than the ions and hence, one or both dust species can easily be replaced by positive and/or negative ions and the conclusions will apply to that plasma model equally well. This would cover a number of different scenarios, such as, for example, very hot electrons and ions, together with a mix of adiabatic ions and dust (of either polarity) or a very hot electron
Overview of affinity tags for protein purification.
Kimple, Michelle E; Sondek, John
2004-09-01
Addition of an affinity tag is a useful method for differentiating recombinant proteins expressed in bacterial and eukaryotic expression systems from the background of total cellular proteins, and for detecting protein-protein interactions. This overview describes the historical basis for the development of affinity tags, affinity tags that are commonly used today, how to choose an appropriate affinity tag for a particular purpose, and several recently developed affinity tag technologies that may prove useful in the near future. PMID:18429272
Overview of affinity tags for protein purification.
Kimple, Michelle E; Brill, Allison L; Pasker, Renee L
2013-01-01
Addition of an affinity tag is a useful method for differentiating recombinant proteins expressed in bacterial and eukaryotic expression systems from the background of total cellular proteins, as well as for detecting protein-protein interactions. This overview describes the historical basis for the development of affinity tags, affinity tags that are commonly used today, how to choose an appropriate affinity tag for a particular purpose, and several recently developed affinity tag technologies that may prove useful in the near future. PMID:24510596
Butler, L.J.
1993-02-28
The adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface approximation is not valid for reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between electronic states of reacting species plays a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. This research program initially studies this coupling in (1) selective C-Br bond fission in 1,3- bromoiodopropane, (2) C-S:S-H bond fission branching in CH{sub 3}SH, and (3) competition between bond fission channels and H{sub 2} elimination in CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}.
BLF-SSH polarons coupled to acoustic phonons in the adiabatic limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandler, Carl J.; Marsiglio, F.
2014-12-01
We survey polaron formation in the Barisić-Labbé-Friedel and Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (BLF-SSH) model using acoustic phonons in the adiabatic limit. Multiple different numerical optimization routines and strong-coupling analytical calculations are used to find a robust ground-state energy for a wide range of coupling strengths. The electronic configuration and accompanying ionic distortions of the polaron were determined, as well as a nonzero critical coupling strength for polaron formation in two and three dimensions.
Non-adiabatic effects on the optical response of driven systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fregoso, Benjamin M.; Kolodrubetz, Michael; Moore, Joel
Periodically driven systems have received renewed interest due to their capacity to engineer non-trivial effective Hamiltonians. A characteristic of such systems is how they respond to weak periodicity-breaking drive, as for example when a laser is pulsed instead of continuous wave. We develop semi-classical equations of motion of a wave packet in the presence of electric and magnetic fields which are turned on non-adiabatically. We then show the emergence of significant corrections to electronic collective excitations and optical responses of topological insulator surface states, Weyl metals and semiconductor mono-chalcogenides.
Affine Contractions on the Plane
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.
2007-01-01
Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.…
Quantifying Affinity among Chinese Dialects.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheng, Chin-Chuan
A study of the relationships between Chinese dialects based on a quantitative measure of dialect affinity is summarized. First, tone values in all the dialect localities available in the early 1970s were used to calculate the dialectal differences in terms of tone height with respect to the "yin and yang" split. In the late 1970s, calculations of…
Adiabatic condition and the quantum hitting time of Markov chains
Krovi, Hari; Ozols, Maris; Roland, Jeremie
2010-08-15
We present an adiabatic quantum algorithm for the abstract problem of searching marked vertices in a graph, or spatial search. Given a random walk (or Markov chain) P on a graph with a set of unknown marked vertices, one can define a related absorbing walk P{sup '} where outgoing transitions from marked vertices are replaced by self-loops. We build a Hamiltonian H(s) from the interpolated Markov chain P(s)=(1-s)P+sP{sup '} and use it in an adiabatic quantum algorithm to drive an initial superposition over all vertices to a superposition over marked vertices. The adiabatic condition implies that, for any reversible Markov chain and any set of marked vertices, the running time of the adiabatic algorithm is given by the square root of the classical hitting time. This algorithm therefore demonstrates a novel connection between the adiabatic condition and the classical notion of hitting time of a random walk. It also significantly extends the scope of previous quantum algorithms for this problem, which could only obtain a full quadratic speedup for state-transitive reversible Markov chains with a unique marked vertex.
Adiabatic approximation in time-dependent reduced-density-matrix functional theory
Requist, Ryan; Pankratov, Oleg
2010-04-15
With the aim of describing real-time electron dynamics, we introduce an adiabatic approximation for the equation of motion of the one-body reduced density matrix (one-matrix). The eigenvalues of the one-matrix, which represent the occupation numbers of single-particle orbitals, are obtained from the constrained minimization of the instantaneous ground-state energy functional rather than from their dynamical equations. The performance of the approximation vis-a-vis nonadiabatic effects is assessed in real-time simulations of a two-site Hubbard model. Due to Landau-Zener-type transitions, the system evolves into a nonstationary state with persistent oscillations in the observables. The amplitude of the oscillations displays a strongly nonmonotonic dependence on the strength of the electron-electron interaction and the rate of variation of the external potential. We interpret an associated resonance behavior in the phase of the oscillations in terms of 'scattering' with spectator energy levels. To clarify the motivation for the minimization condition, we derive a sequence of energy functionals E{sub v}{sup (n)}, for which the corresponding sequence of minimizing one-matrices is asymptotic to the exact one-matrix in the adiabatic limit.
Habershon, Scott
2013-09-14
We introduce a new approach for calculating quantum time-correlation functions and time-dependent expectation values in many-body thermal systems; both electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic cases can be treated. Our approach uses a path integral simulation to sample an initial thermal density matrix; subsequent evolution of this density matrix is equivalent to solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, which we perform using a linear expansion of Gaussian wavepacket basis functions which evolve according to simple classical-like trajectories. Overall, this methodology represents a formally exact approach for calculating time-dependent quantum properties; by introducing approximations into both the imaginary-time and real-time propagations, this approach can be adapted for complex many-particle systems interacting through arbitrary potentials. We demonstrate this method for the spin Boson model, where we find good agreement with numerically exact calculations. We also discuss future directions of improvement for our approach with a view to improving accuracy and efficiency.
Theoretical proton affinity and fluoride affinity of nerve agent VX.
Bera, Narayan C; Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji; Viggiano, Al A
2010-12-23
Proton affinity and fluoride affinity of nerve agent VX at all of its possible sites were calculated at the RI-MP2/cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/6-31G* and RI-MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/6-31+G* levels, respectively. The protonation leads to various unique structures, with H(+) attached to oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur atoms; among which the nitrogen site possesses the highest proton affinity of -ΔE ∼ 251 kcal/mol, suggesting that this is likely to be the major product. In addition some H(2), CH(4) dissociation as well as destruction channels have been found, among which the CH(4) + [Et-O-P(═O)(Me)-S-(CH(2))(2)-N(+)(iPr)═CHMe] product and the destruction product forming Et-O-P(═O)(Me)-SMe + CH(2)═N(+)(iPr)(2) are only 9 kcal/mol less stable than the most stable N-protonated product. For fluoridization, the S-P destruction channel to give Et-O-P(═O)(Me)(F) + [S-(CH(2))(2)-N-(iPr)(2)](-) is energetically the most favorable, with a fluoride affinity of -ΔE ∼ 44 kcal. Various F(-) ion-molecule complexes are also found, with the one having F(-) interacting with two hydrogen atoms in different alkyl groups to be only 9 kcal/mol higher than the above destruction product. These results suggest VX behaves quite differently from surrogate systems. PMID:21117653
Integrated polarization rotator/converter by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage.
Xiong, Xiao; Zou, Chang-Ling; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2013-07-15
We proposed a polarization rotator inspired by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage model from quantum optics, which is composed of a signal waveguide and an ancillary waveguide. The two orthogonal modes in signal waveguide and the oblique mode in ancillary waveguide form a Λ-type three-level system. By controlling the width of signal waveguide and the gap between two waveguides, adiabatic conversion between two orthogonal modes can be realized in the signal waveguide. With such adiabatic passage, polarization conversion is completed within 150 μm length, with the efficiencies over 99% for both conversions between horizontal polarization and vertical polarization. In addition, such a polarization rotator is quite robust against fabrication error, allowing a wide range of tolerances for the rotator geometric parameters. Our work is not only significative to photonic simulations of coherent quantum phenomena with engineered photonic waveguides, but also enlightens the practical applications of these phenomena in optical device designs. PMID:23938558
Adiabatic compressibility of myoglobin. Effect of axial ligand and denaturation.
Leung, W P; Cho, K C; Lo, Y M; Choy, C L
1986-03-01
An ultrasonic technique has been employed to study the adiabatic compressibility of three metmyoglobin derivatives (aquomet-, fluoromet- and azidometmyoglobin) at neutral pH, and aquometmyoglobin as a function of pH in the frequency range of 1-10 MHz at 20 degrees C. No difference was observed in the adiabatic compressibility of the various derivatives. This indicates that the binding of different axial ligands to myoglobin does not affect significantly the conformational fluctuations of the protein. The finding is consistent with the results of the hydrogen exchange rate experiment, indicating that both types of measurements are useful for the study of protein dynamics. Upon acid-induced denaturation, the adiabatic compressibility of myoglobin drops from 5.3 X 10(-12) cm2/dyn to 0.5 X 10(-12) cm2/dyn. Plausible reasons for such a decrease are discussed. PMID:3947645
Effect of dephasing on stimulated Raman adiabatic passage
Ivanov, P.A.; Vitanov, N.V.; Bergmann, K.
2004-12-01
This work explores the effect of phase relaxation on the population transfer efficiency in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). The study is based on the Liouville equation, which is solved analytically in the adiabatic limit. The transfer efficiency of STIRAP is found to decrease exponentially with the dephasing rate; this effect is stronger for shorter pulse delays and weaker for larger delays, since the transition time is found to be inversely proportional to the pulse delay. Moreover, it is found that the transfer efficiency of STIRAP in the presence of dephasing does not depend on the peak Rabi frequencies at all, as long as they are sufficiently large to enforce adiabatic evolution; hence increasing the field intensity cannot reduce the dephasing losses. It is shown also that for any dephasing rate, the final populations of the initial state and the intermediate state are equal. For strong dephasing all three populations tend to (1/3)
Interaction-induced adiabatic cooling for antiferromagnetism in optical lattices
Dare, A.-M.; Raymond, L.; Albinet, G.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.
2007-08-01
In the experimental context of cold-fermion optical lattices, we discuss the possibilities to approach the pseudogap or ordered phases by manipulating the scattering length or the strength of the laser-induced lattice potential. Using the two-particle self-consistent approach, as well as quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we provide isentropic curves for the two- and three-dimensional Hubbard models at half-filling. These quantitative results are important for practical attempts to reach the ordered antiferromagnetic phase in experiments on optical lattices of two-component fermions. We find that adiabatically turning on the interaction in two dimensions to cool the system is not very effective. In three dimensions, adiabatic cooling to the antiferromagnetic phase can be achieved in such a manner, although the cooling efficiency is not as high as initially suggested by dynamical mean-field theory. Adiabatic cooling by turning off the repulsion beginning at strong coupling is possible in certain cases.
Adiabatic Quantum Programming: Minor Embedding With Hard Faults
Klymko, Christine F; Sullivan, Blair D; Humble, Travis S
2013-01-01
Adiabatic quantum programming defines the time-dependent mapping of a quantum algorithm into the hardware or logical fabric. An essential programming step is the embedding of problem-specific information into the logical fabric to define the quantum computational transformation. We present algorithms for embedding arbitrary instances of the adiabatic quantum optimization algorithm into a square lattice of specialized unit cells. Our methods are shown to be extensible in fabric growth, linear in time, and quadratic in logical footprint. In addition, we provide methods for accommodating hard faults in the logical fabric without invoking approximations to the original problem. These hard fault-tolerant embedding algorithms are expected to prove useful for benchmarking the adiabatic quantum optimization algorithm on existing quantum logical hardware. We illustrate this versatility through numerical studies of embeddabilty versus hard fault rates in square lattices of complete bipartite unit cells.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity in a time-dependent box
Campo, A. del; Boshier, M. G.
2012-01-01
A method is proposed to drive an ultrafast non-adiabatic dynamics of an ultracold gas trapped in a time-dependent box potential. The resulting state is free from spurious excitations associated with the breakdown of adiabaticity, and preserves the quantum correlations of the initial state up to a scaling factor. The process relies on the existence of an adiabatic invariant and the inversion of the dynamical self-similar scaling law dictated by it. Its physical implementation generally requires the use of an auxiliary expulsive potential. The method is extended to a broad family of interacting many-body systems. As illustrative examples we consider the ultrafast expansion of a Tonks-Girardeau gas and of Bose-Einstein condensates in different dimensions, where the method exhibits an excellent robustness against different regimes of interactions and the features of an experimentally realizable box potential. PMID:22970340
Pressure sensitivity of adiabatic shear banding in metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanina, E.; Rittel, D.; Rosenberg, Z.
2007-01-01
Adiabatic shear banding (ASB) is a dynamic failure mode characterized by large plastic strains in a narrow localized band. ASB occurs at high strain rates (ɛ˙⩾103s-1), under adiabatic conditions leading to a significant temperature rise inside the band [H. Tresca, Annales du Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers 4, (1879); Y. L. Bai and B. Dodd, Adiabatic Shear Localization-Occurrence, Theories, and Applications (Pergamon, Oxford, 1992); M. A. Meyers, Dynamic Behavior of Materials (Wiley, New York, 1994).; and J. J. Lewandowski and L. M. Greer, Nat. Mater. 5, 15 (2006)]. Large hydrostatic pressures are experienced in many dynamic applications involving ASB formation (e.g., ballistic penetration, impact, and machining). The relationship between hydrostatic pressure and ASB development remains an open question, although its importance has been often noted. This letter reports original experimental results indicating a linear relationship between the (normalized) dynamic deformation energy and the (normalized) hydrostatic pressure.
Adiabatic quantum programming: minor embedding with hard faults
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klymko, Christine; Sullivan, Blair D.; Humble, Travis S.
2013-11-01
Adiabatic quantum programming defines the time-dependent mapping of a quantum algorithm into an underlying hardware or logical fabric. An essential step is embedding problem-specific information into the quantum logical fabric. We present algorithms for embedding arbitrary instances of the adiabatic quantum optimization algorithm into a square lattice of specialized unit cells. These methods extend with fabric growth while scaling linearly in time and quadratically in footprint. We also provide methods for handling hard faults in the logical fabric without invoking approximations to the original problem and illustrate their versatility through numerical studies of embeddability versus fault rates in square lattices of complete bipartite unit cells. The studies show that these algorithms are more resilient to faulty fabrics than naive embedding approaches, a feature which should prove useful in benchmarking the adiabatic quantum optimization algorithm on existing faulty hardware.
Non-adiabatic dynamics around a conical intersection with surface-hopping coupled coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Humeniuk, Alexander; Mitrić, Roland
2016-06-01
A surface-hopping extension of the coupled coherent states-method [D. Shalashilin and M. Child, Chem. Phys. 304, 103-120 (2004)] for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics with quantum effects of the nuclei is put forward. The time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the motion of the nuclei is solved in a moving basis set. The basis set is guided by classical trajectories, which can hop stochastically between different electronic potential energy surfaces. The non-adiabatic transitions are modelled by a modified version of Tully's fewest switches algorithm. The trajectories consist of Gaussians in the phase space of the nuclei (coherent states) combined with amplitudes for an electronic wave function. The time-dependent matrix elements between different coherent states determine the amplitude of each trajectory in the total multistate wave function; the diagonal matrix elements determine the hopping probabilities and gradients. In this way, both interference effects and non-adiabatic transitions can be described in a very compact fashion, leading to the exact solution if convergence with respect to the number of trajectories is achieved and the potential energy surfaces are known globally. The method is tested on a 2D model for a conical intersection [A. Ferretti, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 5517 (1996)], where a nuclear wavepacket encircles the point of degeneracy between two potential energy surfaces and interferes with itself. These interference effects are absent in classical trajectory-based molecular dynamics but can be fully incorpo rated if trajectories are replaced by surface hopping coupled coherent states.
Non-adiabatic dynamics around a conical intersection with surface-hopping coupled coherent states.
Humeniuk, Alexander; Mitrić, Roland
2016-06-21
A surface-hopping extension of the coupled coherent states-method [D. Shalashilin and M. Child, Chem. Phys. 304, 103-120 (2004)] for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics with quantum effects of the nuclei is put forward. The time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the motion of the nuclei is solved in a moving basis set. The basis set is guided by classical trajectories, which can hop stochastically between different electronic potential energy surfaces. The non-adiabatic transitions are modelled by a modified version of Tully's fewest switches algorithm. The trajectories consist of Gaussians in the phase space of the nuclei (coherent states) combined with amplitudes for an electronic wave function. The time-dependent matrix elements between different coherent states determine the amplitude of each trajectory in the total multistate wave function; the diagonal matrix elements determine the hopping probabilities and gradients. In this way, both interference effects and non-adiabatic transitions can be described in a very compact fashion, leading to the exact solution if convergence with respect to the number of trajectories is achieved and the potential energy surfaces are known globally. The method is tested on a 2D model for a conical intersection [A. Ferretti, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 5517 (1996)], where a nuclear wavepacket encircles the point of degeneracy between two potential energy surfaces and interferes with itself. These interference effects are absent in classical trajectory-based molecular dynamics but can be fully incorpo rated if trajectories are replaced by surface hopping coupled coherent states. PMID:27334155
Non Adiabatic Evolution of Elliptical Galaxies by Dynamical Friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arena, S. E.; Bertin, G.; Liseikina, T.; Pegoraro, F.
2007-05-01
Many astrophysical problems, ranging from structure formation in cosmology to dynamics of elliptical galaxies, refer to slow processes of evolution of essentially collisionless self-gravitating systems. In order to determine the relevant quasi-equilibrium configuration at time t from given initial conditions, it is often argued that such slow evolution may be approximated in terms of adiabatic evolution, for the calculation of which efficient semi--analytical techniques are available. Here we focus on the slow process of evolution, induced by dynamical friction of a host stellar system on a minority component of "satellites", to determine to what extent an adiabatic description might be applied. The study is realized by means of N--body simulations of the evolution of the total system (the stellar system plus the minority component), in a controlled numerical environment. In particular, we compare the evolution from initial to final configurations of the system subject to dynamical friction with that of the same system evolved adiabatically (in the absence of dynamical friction). We consider two classes of galaxy models characterized by significantly different density and pressure anisotropy profiles. We demonstrate that, for the examined process, the evolution driven by dynamical friction is significantly different from the adiabatic case, not only quantitatively, but also qualitatively. The two classes of galaxy models considered in this investigation exhibit generally similar trends in evolution, with one exception: concentrated models reach a final total density profile, in the internal region, shallower than the initial one, while galaxy models with a broad core show the opposite behaviour. The evolution of elliptical galaxies induced by dynamical friction is a slow process but it is not adiabatic. The results of our investigation should be taken as a warning against the indiscriminate use of adiabatic growth prescriptions in studies of the structure of
Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian; Makhov, Dmitry V; Tretiak, Sergei; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V
2016-04-21
Photoinduced dynamics of electronic and vibrational unidirectional energy transfer between meta-linked building blocks in a phenylene ethynylene dendrimer is simulated using a multiconfigurational Ehrenfest in time-dependent diabatic basis (MCE-TDDB) method, a new variant of the MCE approach developed by us for dynamics involving multiple electronic states with numerous abrupt crossings. Excited-state energies, gradients and non-adiabatic coupling terms needed for dynamics simulation are calculated on-the-fly using the Collective Electron Oscillator (CEO) approach. A comparative analysis of our results obtained using MCE-TDDB, the conventional Ehrenfest method and the surface-hopping approach with and without decoherence corrections is presented. PMID:27004611
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorofeev, Dmitry L.; Elfimov, Sergei V.; Zon, Boris A.
2012-02-01
This paper is dedicated to the implementation of a generalized approach for calculating quantum defects in high Rydberg states of polar molecules with an account for the dipole moment of the molecular core and l uncoupling of the Rydberg electron. Adiabatic (Born-Oppenheimer) and nonadiabatic (inverse Born-Oppenheimer) regions of the spectrum are considered. The nonadiabatic case with a nonzero projection of the core momentum on the core axis is considered and is illustrated by the example of the SO molecule.
Adiabatic invariants, diffusion and acceleration in rigid body dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borisov, Alexey V.; Mamaev, Ivan S.
2016-03-01
The onset of adiabatic chaos in rigid body dynamics is considered. A comparison of the analytically calculated diffusion coefficient describing probabilistic effects in the zone of chaos with a numerical experiment is made. An analysis of the splitting of asymptotic surfaces is performed and uncertainty curves are constructed in the Poincaré-Zhukovsky problem. The application of Hamiltonian methods to nonholonomic systems is discussed. New problem statements are given which are related to the destruction of an adiabatic invariant and to the acceleration of the system (Fermi's acceleration).
Adiabatic Rosen-Zener interferometry with ultracold atoms
Fu Libin; Ye Defa; Lee Chaohong; Zhang Weiping; Liu Jie
2009-07-15
We propose a time-domain 'interferometer' based on double-well ultracold atoms through a so-called adiabatic Rosen-Zener process, that is, the barrier between two wells is ramped down slowly, held for a while, and then ramped back. After the adiabatic Rosen-Zener process, we count the particle population in each well. We find that the final occupation probability shows nice interference fringes. The fringe pattern is sensitive to the initial state as well as the intrinsic parameters of the system such as interatomic interaction or energy bias between two wells. The underlying mechanism is revealed and possible applications are discussed.
Quantum dynamics by the constrained adiabatic trajectory method
Leclerc, A.; Jolicard, G.; Guerin, S.; Killingbeck, J. P.
2011-03-15
We develop the constrained adiabatic trajectory method (CATM), which allows one to solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation constraining the dynamics to a single Floquet eigenstate, as if it were adiabatic. This constrained Floquet state (CFS) is determined from the Hamiltonian modified by an artificial time-dependent absorbing potential whose forms are derived according to the initial conditions. The main advantage of this technique for practical implementation is that the CFS is easy to determine even for large systems since its corresponding eigenvalue is well isolated from the others through its imaginary part. The properties and limitations of the CATM are explored through simple examples.
Speeding up Adiabatic Quantum State Transfer by Using Dressed States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baksic, Alexandre; Ribeiro, Hugo; Clerk, Aashish A.
2016-06-01
We develop new pulse schemes to significantly speed up adiabatic state transfer protocols. Our general strategy involves adding corrections to an initial control Hamiltonian that harness nonadiabatic transitions. These corrections define a set of dressed states that the system follows exactly during the state transfer. We apply this approach to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage protocols and show that a suitable choice of dressed states allows one to design fast protocols that do not require additional couplings, while simultaneously minimizing the occupancy of the "intermediate" level.
Gravitational Chern-Simons and the adiabatic limit
McLellan, Brendan
2010-12-15
We compute the gravitational Chern-Simons term explicitly for an adiabatic family of metrics using standard methods in general relativity. We use the fact that our base three-manifold is a quasiregular K-contact manifold heavily in this computation. Our key observation is that this geometric assumption corresponds exactly to a Kaluza-Klein Ansatz for the metric tensor on our three-manifold, which allows us to translate our problem into the language of general relativity. Similar computations have been performed by Guralnik et al.[Ann. Phys. 308, 222 (2008)], although not in the adiabatic context.
Adiabatic fluctuations from cosmic strings in a contracting universe
Brandenberger, Robert H.; Takahashi, Tomo; Yamaguchi, Masahide E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp
2009-07-01
We show that adiabatic, super-Hubble, and almost scale invariant density fluctuations are produced by cosmic strings in a contracting universe. An essential point is that isocurvature perturbations produced by topological defects such as cosmic strings on super-Hubble scales lead to a source term which seeds the growth of curvature fluctuations on these scales. Once the symmetry has been restored at high temperatures, the isocurvature seeds disappear, and the fluctuations evolve as adiabatic ones in the expanding phase. Thus, cosmic strings may be resurrected as a mechanism for generating the primordial density fluctuations observed today.
Quantum Adiabatic Pumping by Modulating Tunnel Phase in Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taguchi, Masahiko; Nakajima, Satoshi; Kubo, Toshihiro; Tokura, Yasuhiro
2016-08-01
In a mesoscopic system, under zero bias voltage, a finite charge is transferred by quantum adiabatic pumping by adiabatically and periodically changing two or more control parameters. We obtained expressions for the pumped charge for a ring of three quantum dots (QDs) by choosing the magnetic flux penetrating the ring as one of the control parameters. We found that the pumped charge shows a steplike behavior with respect to the variance of the flux. The value of the step heights is not universal but depends on the trajectory of the control parameters. We discuss the physical origin of this behavior on the basis of the Fano resonant condition of the ring.
Non-adiabatic and adiabatic transitions at level crossing with decay: two- and three-level systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kenmoe, M. B.; Mkam Tchouobiap, S. E.; Kenfack Sadem, C.; Tchapda, A. B.; Fai, L. C.
2015-03-01
We investigate the Landau-Zener (LZ) like dynamics of decaying two- and three-level systems with decay rates {{Γ }1} and {{Γ }2} for levels with minimum and maximum spin projection. Non-adiabatic and adiabatic transition probabilities are calculated from diabatic and adiabatic bases for two- and three-level systems. We extend the familiar two-level model of atoms with decay from the excited state out of the system into the hierarchy of three-level models which can be solved analytically or computationally in a non-perturbative manner. Exact analytical solutions are obtained within the framework of an extended form of the proposed procedure which enables to take into account all possible initial moments rather than large negative time {{t}0}=-∞ as in standard LZ problems. We elucidate the applications of our results from a unified theoretical basis that numerically analyzes the dynamics of a system as probed by experiments.
Lectin affinity chromatography of glycolipids
Torres, B.V.; Smith, D.F.
1987-05-01
Since glycolipids (GLs) are either insoluble or form mixed micelles in water, lectin affinity chromatography in aqueous systems has not been applied to their separation. They have overcome this problem by using tetrahydrofuran (THF) in the mobile phase during chromatography. Affinity columns prepared with the GalNAc-specific Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) and equilibrated in THF specifically bind the (/sup 3/H)oligosaccharide derived from Forssman GL indicating that the immobilized HPA retained its carbohydrate-binding specificity in this solvent. Intact Forssman GL was bound by the HPA-column equilibrated in THF and was specifically eluted with 0.1 mg/ml GalNAc in THF. Purification of the Forssman GL was achieved when a crude lipid extract of sheep erythrocyte membranes was applied to the HPA-column in THF. Non-specifically bound GLs were eluted from the column using a step gradient of aqueous buffer in THF, while the addition of GalNAc was required to elute the specifically bound GLs. Using this procedure the A-active GLs were purified from a crude lipid extract of type A human erythrocytes in a single chromatographic step. The use of solvents that maintain carbohydrate-binding specificity and lipid solubility will permit the application of affinity chromatography on immobilized carbohydrate-binding proteins to intact GLs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Kawabata, Hiroshi
2014-06-01
numerical mass balance calculation model for the adiabatic melting of a dry to hydrous peridotite has been programmed in order to simulate the trace element compositions of basalts from mid-ocean ridges, back-arc basins, ocean islands, and large igneous provinces. The Excel spreadsheet-based calculator, Hydrous Adiabatic Mantle Melting Simulator version 1 (HAMMS1) uses (1) a thermodynamic model of fractional adiabatic melting of mantle peridotite, with (2) the parameterized experimental melting relationships of primitive to depleted mantle sources in terms of pressure, temperature, water content, and degree of partial melting. The trace element composition of the model basalt is calculated from the accumulated incremental melts within the adiabatic melting regime, with consideration for source depletion. The mineralogic mode in the primitive to depleted source mantle in adiabat is calculated using parameterized experimental results. Partition coefficients of the trace elements of mantle minerals are parameterized to melt temperature mostly from a lattice strain model and are tested using the latest compilations of experimental results. The parameters that control the composition of trace elements in the model are as follows: (1) mantle potential temperature, (2) water content in the source mantle, (3) depth of termination of adiabatic melting, and (4) source mantle depletion. HAMMS1 enables us to obtain the above controlling parameters using Monte Carlo fitting calculations and by comparing the calculated basalt compositions to primary basalt compositions. Additionally, HAMMS1 compares melting parameters with a major element model, which uses petrogenetic grids formulated from experimental results, thus providing better constraints on the source conditions.
Characterization of adiabatic shear bands in AM60B magnesium alloy under ballistic impact
Zou, D.L.; Zhen, L. Xu, C.Y.; Shao, W.Z.
2011-05-15
Adiabatic shear bands in Mg alloy under ballistic impact at a velocity of 0.5 km.s{sup -1} were characterized by means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and indenter technique. The results show that adiabatic shear bands were formed around the impacted crater, and the deformed and transformed bands were distinguished by etching colors in metallographic observation. TEM observation shows that the deformed bands were composed of the elongated grains and high density dislocations, while the transformed bands composed of the ultrafine and equiaxed grains were confirmed. In initial stage, the severe localized plastic deformation led to the formation of elongated grains in the deformed bands. With localized strain increasing, the severe localized deformation assisted with the plastic temperature rising led to the severe deformation grains evolved into the ultrafine and equiaxed grains, while the deformed bands were developed into transformed bands. The formation of the ultrafine and equiaxed grains in the transformed bands should be attributed to the twinning-induced rotational dynamic recrystallization mechanism. High microhardness in the bands was obtained because of the strain hardening, grain refining and content concentration. - Research Highlights: {yields} Deformed and transformed bands are found in Mg alloy under ballistic impact. {yields} The microstructures in the deformed and transformed bands are characterized. {yields} The evolution process of the microstructure in the bands is discussed.
CVRQD ab initio ground-state adiabatic potential energy surfaces for the water molecule.
Barletta, Paolo; Shirin, Sergei V; Zobov, Nikolai F; Polyansky, Oleg L; Tennyson, Jonathan; Valeev, Edward F; Császár, Attila G
2006-11-28
The high accuracy ab initio adiabatic potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the ground electronic state of the water molecule, determined originally by Polyansky et al. [Science 299, 539 (2003)] and called CVRQD, are extended and carefully characterized and analyzed. The CVRQD potential energy surfaces are obtained from extrapolation to the complete basis set of nearly full configuration interaction valence-only electronic structure computations, augmented by core, relativistic, quantum electrodynamics, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. We also report ab initio calculations of several quantities characterizing the CVRQD PESs, including equilibrium and vibrationally averaged (0 K) structures, harmonic and anharmonic force fields, harmonic vibrational frequencies, vibrational fundamentals, and zero-point energies. They can be considered as the best ab initio estimates of these quantities available today. Results of first-principles computations on the rovibrational energy levels of several isotopologues of the water molecule are also presented, based on the CVRQD PESs and the use of variational nuclear motion calculations employing an exact kinetic energy operator given in orthogonal internal coordinates. The variational nuclear motion calculations also include a simplified treatment of nonadiabatic effects. This sophisticated procedure to compute rovibrational energy levels reproduces all the known rovibrational levels of the water isotopologues considered, H(2) (16)O, H(2) (17)O, H(2) (18)O, and D(2) (16)O, to better than 1 cm(-1) on average. Finally, prospects for further improvement of the ground-state adiabatic ab initio PESs of water are discussed. PMID:17144700
Ionization of the hydrogen atom in strong magnetic fields. Beyond the adiabatic approximation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potekhin, A. Y.; Pavlov, G. G.; Ventura, J.
1997-01-01
High magnetic fields in neutron stars, B~10^11^-10^13^G, substantially modify the properties of atoms and their interaction with radiation. In particular, the photoionization cross section becomes anisotropic and polarization dependent, being strongly reduced when the radiation is polarized perpendicular to the field. In a number of previous works based on the adiabatic approximation the conclusion was drawn that this transverse cross section vanishes for frequencies ω smaller than the electron cyclotron frequency ω_c_=eB/(m_e_c). In other works (which employed a different form of the interaction operator) appreciable finite values were obtained, ~σ_0gamma^-1^ near the photoionization threshold, where σ_0_ is the cross section without magnetic field, and γ=B/(2.35x10^9^G). Since it is the transverse cross section which determines the properties of radiation emitted from neutron star atmospheres, an adequate interpretation of the neutron star thermal-like radiation requires a resolution of this controversy. In the present work we calculate the atomic wave functions for both discrete and continuum states by solving the coupled channel equations allowing the admixture between different Landau levels, which provides much higher accuracy than the adiabatic approximation. This enables us to resolve the above contradiction in favour of the finite transverse cross sections at ω<ω_c_. Moreover, for any form of the interaction operator the non-adiabatic corrections appear to be substantial for frequencies ω> 0.3ω_c_. The non-adiabatic treatment of the continuum includes coupling between closed and open channels, which leads to the autoionization of quasi-bound energy levels associated with the electron cyclotron (Landau) excitations and gives rise to Beutler-Fano resonances of the photoionization cross section. We calculate the autoionization widths of these quasi-bound levels and compare them with the radiative widths. The correlation of the open channels is
Adiabatic quantum computing with phase modulated laser pulses
Goswami, Debabrata
2005-01-01
Implementation of quantum logical gates for multilevel systems is demonstrated through decoherence control under the quantum adiabatic method using simple phase modulated laser pulses. We make use of selective population inversion and Hamiltonian evolution with time to achieve such goals robustly instead of the standard unitary transformation language. PMID:17195865
Does temperature increase or decrease in adiabatic decompression of magma?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kilinc, A. I.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Khan, T.
2011-12-01
We have modeled adiabatic decompression of an andesitic and a basaltic magma as an isentropic process using the Melts algorithm. Our modeling shows that during adiabatic decompression temperature of andesitic magma increases but temperature of basaltic magma decreases. In an isentropic process entropy is constant so change of temperature with pressure can be written as dT/dP=T (dV/dT)/Cp where T (dV/dT)/Cp is generally positive. If delta P is negative so is delta T. In general, in the absence of phase change, we expect the temperature to decrease with adiabatic decompression. The effect of crystallization is to turn a more entropic phase (liquid) into a less entropic phase (solid), which must be compensated by raising the temperature. If during adiabatic decompression there is small amount or no crystallization, T (dV/dT)/Cp effect which lowers the temperature overwhelms the small amount of crystallization, which raises the temperature, and overall system temperature decreases.
A Kinetic Study of the Adiabatic Polymerization of Acrylamide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomson, R. A. M.
1986-01-01
Discusses theory, procedures, and results for an experiment which demonstrates the application of basic physics to chemical problems. The experiment involves the adiabatic process, in which polymerization carried out in a vacuum flask is compared to the theoretical prediction of the model with the temperature-time curve obtained in practice. (JN)
The flat Grothendieck-Riemann-Roch theorem without adiabatic techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Man-Ho
2016-09-01
In this paper we give a simplified proof of the flat Grothendieck-Riemann-Roch theorem. The proof makes use of the local family index theorem and basic computations of the Chern-Simons form. In particular, it does not involve any adiabatic limit computation of the reduced eta-invariant.
Fast Quasi-Adiabatic Gas Cooling: An Experiment Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oss, S.; Gratton, L. M.; Calza, G.; Lopez-Arias, T.
2012-01-01
The well-known experiment of the rapid expansion and cooling of the air contained in a bottle is performed with a rapidly responsive, yet very cheap thermometer. The adiabatic, low temperature limit is approached quite closely and measured with our apparatus. A straightforward theoretical model for this process is also presented and discussed.…
Failure of geometric electromagnetism in the adiabatic vector Kepler problem
Anglin, J.R.; Schmiedmayer, J.
2004-02-01
The magnetic moment of a particle orbiting a straight current-carrying wire may precess rapidly enough in the wire's magnetic field to justify an adiabatic approximation, eliminating the rapid time dependence of the magnetic moment and leaving only the particle position as a slow degree of freedom. To zeroth order in the adiabatic expansion, the orbits of the particle in the plane perpendicular to the wire are Keplerian ellipses. Higher-order postadiabatic corrections make the orbits precess, but recent analysis of this 'vector Kepler problem' has shown that the effective Hamiltonian incorporating a postadiabatic scalar potential ('geometric electromagnetism') fails to predict the precession correctly, while a heuristic alternative succeeds. In this paper we resolve the apparent failure of the postadiabatic approximation, by pointing out that the correct second-order analysis produces a third Hamiltonian, in which geometric electromagnetism is supplemented by a tensor potential. The heuristic Hamiltonian of Schmiedmayer and Scrinzi is then shown to be a canonical transformation of the correct adiabatic Hamiltonian, to second order. The transformation has the important advantage of removing a 1/r{sup 3} singularity which is an artifact of the adiabatic approximation.
When an Adiabatic Irreversible Expansion or Compression Becomes Reversible
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anacleto, Joaquim; Ferreira, J. M.; Soares, A. A.
2009-01-01
This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the concepts of a "reversible process" and "entropy". For this purpose, an adiabatic irreversible expansion or compression is analysed, by considering that an ideal gas is expanded (compressed), from an initial pressure P[subscript i] to a final pressure P[subscript f], by being placed in…
Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit.
Barends, R; Shabani, A; Lamata, L; Kelly, J; Mezzacapo, A; Las Heras, U; Babbush, R; Fowler, A G; Campbell, B; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z; Chiaro, B; Dunsworth, A; Jeffrey, E; Lucero, E; Megrant, A; Mutus, J Y; Neeley, M; Neill, C; O'Malley, P J J; Quintana, C; Roushan, P; Sank, D; Vainsencher, A; Wenner, J; White, T C; Solano, E; Neven, H; Martinis, John M
2016-06-01
Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable. PMID:27279216
Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barends, R.; Shabani, A.; Lamata, L.; Kelly, J.; Mezzacapo, A.; Heras, U. Las; Babbush, R.; Fowler, A. G.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Lucero, E.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J. Y.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; O’Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Solano, E.; Neven, H.; Martinis, John M.
2016-06-01
Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable.
The density temperature and the dry and wet virtual adiabats
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bartlo, J.; Betts, Alan K.
1991-01-01
A density temperature is introduced to represent virtual temperature and potential temperature on thermodynamic diagrams. This study reviews how the dry and wet virtual adiabats can be used to represent stability and air parcel density for unsaturated and cloudy air, and present formula and tabulations.
Adiabatic single scan two-dimensional NMR spectrocopy.
Pelupessy, Philippe
2003-10-01
New excitation schemes, based on the use adiabatic pulses, for single scan two-dimensional NMR experiments (Frydman et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 2002, 99, 15 858-15 862) are introduced. The advantages are discussed. Applications in homo- and heteronuclear experiments are presented. PMID:14519020
SIMULATION OF CONTINUOUS-CONTACT SEPARATION PROCESSES: MULTICOMPONENT, ADIABATIC ABSORPTION
A new algorithm has been developed for the steady-state simulation of multicomponent, adiabatic absorption in packed columns. The system of differential model equations that describe the physical absorption process is reduced to algebraic equations by using a finite difference me...
Equations for Adiabatic but Rotational Steady Gas Flows without Friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schaefer, Manfred
1947-01-01
This paper makes the following assumptions: 1) The flowing gases are assumed to have uniform energy distribution. ("Isoenergetic gas flows," that is valid with the same constants for the the energy equation entire flow.) This is correct, for example, for gas flows issuing from a region of constant pressure, density, temperature, end velocity. This property is not destroyed by compression shocks because of the universal validity of the energy law. 2) The gas behaves adiabatically, not during the compression shock itself but both before and after the shock. However, the adiabatic equation (p/rho(sup kappa) = C) is not valid for the entire gas flow with the same constant C but rather with an appropriate individual constant for each portion of the gas. For steady flows, this means that the constant C of the adiabatic equation is a function of the stream function. Consequently, a gas that has been flowing "isentropically",that is, with the same constant C of the adiabatic equation throughout (for example, in origination from a region of constant density, temperature, and velocity) no longer remains isentropic after a compression shock if the compression shock is not extremely simple (wedge shaped in a two-dimensional flow or cone shaped in a rotationally symmetrical flow). The solution of nonisentropic flows is therefore an urgent necessity.
Divalent cation affinity sites in Paramecium aurelia.
Fisher, G; Kaneshiro, E S; Peters, P D
1976-05-01
Sites with high calcium affinity in Paramecium aurelia were identified by high calcium (5 mM) fixation and electron microscope methods. Electron-opaque deposits were observed on the cytoplasmic side of surface membranes, particularly at the basal regions of cilia and trichocyst-pellicle fusion sites. Deposits were also observed on some smooth cytomembranes, within the axoneme of cilia, and on basal bodies. The divalent cations, Mg2+, Mn2+, Sr2+, Ni2+, Ba2+, and Zn2+, could be substituted for Ca2+ in the procedure. Deposits were larger with 5 mM Sr2+. Ba2+, and Mn2+ at ciliary transverse plates and the terminal plate of basal bodies. Microprobe analysis showed that Ca and C1 were concentrated within deposits. In some analyses, S and P were detected in deposits. Also, microprobe analysis of 5 mM Mn2+-fixed P. aurelia showed that those deposits were enriched in Mn and C1 and sometimes enriched in P. Deposits were seen only when the ciliates were actively swimming at the time of fixation. Locomotory mutants having defective membrane Ca-gating mechanisms and ciliates fixed while exhibiting ciliary reversal showed no obvious differences in deposition pattern and intensity. Possible correlations between electron-opaque deposits and the locations of intramembranous particles seen by freeze-fracture studied, as well as sites where fibrillar material associate with membranes are considered. The possibility that the action sites of calcium and other divalent cations were identified is discussed. PMID:1262398
Ab initio adiabatic and diabatic potential-energy curves of the LiH molecule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boutalib, A.; Gadéa, F. X.
1992-07-01
For nearly all states below the ionic limit [i.e., Li(2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d, 4s, and 4p)+H] we perform the first adiabatic and diabatic studies. This treatment involves a nonempirical pseudopotential for Li and a full configuration-interaction treatment of the valence-electron system. Core-valence correlation is taken into account according to a core-polarization-potential method. We present an analysis of the diabatic curves and introduce appropriate small corrections accounting for basis-set limitations. For the low-lying states, our vibrational level spacings and spectroscopic constants are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data and with the best all-electron results. Experimental suggestions are given for the higher states.
The exact forces on classical nuclei in non-adiabatic charge transfer.
Agostini, Federica; Abedi, Ali; Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Min, Seung Kyu; Maitra, Neepa T; Gross, E K U
2015-02-28
The decomposition of electronic and nuclear motion presented in Abedi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 123002 (2010)] yields a time-dependent potential that drives the nuclear motion and fully accounts for the coupling to the electronic subsystem. Here, we show that propagation of an ensemble of independent classical nuclear trajectories on this exact potential yields dynamics that are essentially indistinguishable from the exact quantum dynamics for a model non-adiabatic charge transfer problem. We point out the importance of step and bump features in the exact potential that are critical in obtaining the correct splitting of the quasiclassical nuclear wave packet in space after it passes through an avoided crossing between two Born-Oppenheimer surfaces and analyze their structure. Finally, an analysis of the exact potentials in the context of trajectory surface hopping is presented, including preliminary investigations of velocity-adjustment and the force-induced decoherence effect. PMID:25725727
The exact forces on classical nuclei in non-adiabatic charge transfer
Agostini, Federica; Abedi, Ali; Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Min, Seung Kyu; Gross, E. K. U.; Maitra, Neepa T.
2015-02-28
The decomposition of electronic and nuclear motion presented in Abedi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 123002 (2010)] yields a time-dependent potential that drives the nuclear motion and fully accounts for the coupling to the electronic subsystem. Here, we show that propagation of an ensemble of independent classical nuclear trajectories on this exact potential yields dynamics that are essentially indistinguishable from the exact quantum dynamics for a model non-adiabatic charge transfer problem. We point out the importance of step and bump features in the exact potential that are critical in obtaining the correct splitting of the quasiclassical nuclear wave packet in space after it passes through an avoided crossing between two Born-Oppenheimer surfaces and analyze their structure. Finally, an analysis of the exact potentials in the context of trajectory surface hopping is presented, including preliminary investigations of velocity-adjustment and the force-induced decoherence effect.
The exact forces on classical nuclei in non-adiabatic charge transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agostini, Federica; Abedi, Ali; Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Min, Seung Kyu; Maitra, Neepa T.; Gross, E. K. U.
2015-02-01
The decomposition of electronic and nuclear motion presented in Abedi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 123002 (2010)] yields a time-dependent potential that drives the nuclear motion and fully accounts for the coupling to the electronic subsystem. Here, we show that propagation of an ensemble of independent classical nuclear trajectories on this exact potential yields dynamics that are essentially indistinguishable from the exact quantum dynamics for a model non-adiabatic charge transfer problem. We point out the importance of step and bump features in the exact potential that are critical in obtaining the correct splitting of the quasiclassical nuclear wave packet in space after it passes through an avoided crossing between two Born-Oppenheimer surfaces and analyze their structure. Finally, an analysis of the exact potentials in the context of trajectory surface hopping is presented, including preliminary investigations of velocity-adjustment and the force-induced decoherence effect.
Immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography.
Yip, T T; Hutchens, T W
1992-01-01
Immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) (1,2) is also referred to as metal chelate chromatography, metal ion interaction chromatography, and ligand-exchange chromatography. We view this affinity separation technique as an intermediate between highly specific, high-affinity bioaffinity separation methods, and wider spectrum, low-specificity adsorption methods, such as ion exchange. The IMAC stationary phases are designed to chelate certain metal ions that have selectivity for specific groups (e.g., His residues) in peptides (e.g., 3-7) and on protein surfaces (8-13). The number of stationary phases that can be synthesized for efficient chelation of metal ions is unlimited, but the critical consideration is that there must be enough exposure of the metal ion to interact with the proteins, preferably in a biospecific manner. Several examples are presented in Fig. 1. The challenge to produce new immobilized chelating groups, including protein surface metal-binding domains (14,15) is being explored continuously. Table 1 presents a list of published procedures for the synthesis and use of stationary phases with immobilized chelating groups. This is by no means exhaustive, and is intended only to give an idea of the scope and versatility of IMAC. Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of several types of immobilized metal-chelating groups, including, iminodiacetate (IDA), tris(carboxymethyl) ethylenediamine (TED), and the metal-binding peptides (GHHPH)(n)G (where n = 1,2,3, and 5) (14,15). Table 1 Immobilized Chelating Groups and Metal Ions Used for Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Chromatography Chelating group Suitable metal ions Reference Commercial source Immodiacetate Transitional1,2 Pharmacia LKB Pierce Sigma Boehringer Mannheim TosoHaas 2-Hydroxy-3[N-(2- pyrtdylmethyl) glycme]propyl Transitional3 Not available ?-Alky1 mtrilo triacetic acid Transitional4 Not available Carboxymethylated asparhc acid Ca(II)13 Not available Tris (carboxy- methyl) ethylene Diamme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ide, Yoshihiro; Yamanouchi, Kaoru
2015-12-01
We first calculate the ground-state molecular wave function of 1D model H2 molecule by solving the coupled equations of motion formulated in the extended multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) method by the imaginary time propagation. From the comparisons with the results obtained by the Born-Huang (BH) expansion method as well as with the exact wave function, we observe that the memory size required in the extended MCTDHF method is about two orders of magnitude smaller than in the BH expansion method to achieve the same accuracy for the total energy. Second, in order to provide a theoretical means to understand dynamical behavior of the wave function, we propose to define effective adiabatic potential functions and compare them with the conventional adiabatic electronic potentials, although the notion of the adiabatic potentials is not used in the extended MCTDHF approach. From the comparison, we conclude that by calculating the effective potentials we may be able to predict the energy differences among electronic states even for a time-dependent system, e.g., time-dependent excitation energies, which would be difficult to be estimated within the BH expansion approach.
Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ide, Yoshihiro; Yamanouchi, Kaoru
2015-12-31
We first calculate the ground-state molecular wave function of 1D model H{sub 2} molecule by solving the coupled equations of motion formulated in the extended multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) method by the imaginary time propagation. From the comparisons with the results obtained by the Born-Huang (BH) expansion method as well as with the exact wave function, we observe that the memory size required in the extended MCTDHF method is about two orders of magnitude smaller than in the BH expansion method to achieve the same accuracy for the total energy. Second, in order to provide a theoretical means to understand dynamical behavior of the wave function, we propose to define effective adiabatic potential functions and compare them with the conventional adiabatic electronic potentials, although the notion of the adiabatic potentials is not used in the extended MCTDHF approach. From the comparison, we conclude that by calculating the effective potentials we may be able to predict the energy differences among electronic states even for a time-dependent system, e.g., time-dependent excitation energies, which would be difficult to be estimated within the BH expansion approach.
Structural and electronic properties of Sb{sub n} (n=2-10) clusters using density-functional theory
Zhou Xiaolan; Zhao Jijun; Chen Xiaoshuang; Lu Wei
2005-11-15
Using a density-functional calculation within the generalized gradient approximation, we have investigated the structural and electronic properties of antimony clusters. The lowest-energy structures of neutral and anionic Sb{sub n} clusters up to n=10 were determined and compared with those of light-element group-V clusters (As{sub n},P{sub n}). The size dependence of binding energies, gaps between lowest-unoccupied and highest-occupied molecular orbitals, second-order difference of total energies, and adiabatic electron affinities (EAs) of Sb{sub n} clusters were discussed. Even-odd oscillation as well as magic-number behavior at Sb{sub 4} were observed. Qualitative agreement was found between theoretical and experimental EAs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acharya, Shree Ram; Baral, Nisha; Turkowski, Volodymyr; Rahman, Talat S.
2015-03-01
We apply Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT) to calculate the non-adiabatic (frequency-dependent) exchange-correlation kernel for the three-dimensional Hubbard model. We analyze the dependence of the kernel on the electron doping, local Coulomb repulsion and frequency by using three different impurity solvers: Hubbard-I, Iterative Perturbation Theory (IPT) and Continuous-Time Quantum Monte Carlo (CT-QMC). From the calculated data, we obtain approximate analytical expressions for the kernel. We apply the exact numerical and analytical kernels to study the non-equilibrium response of the system for applied ultrafast laser pulse. We demonstrate that the non-adiabaticity of the kernel plays an important role in the system response; in particular, leading to new excited-states involved in the system dynamics. Work supported in part by DOE Grant No. DOE-DE-FG02-07ER46354.
Indian craniometric variability and affinities.
Raghavan, Pathmanathan; Bulbeck, David; Pathmanathan, Gayathiri; Rathee, Suresh Kanta
2013-01-01
Recently published craniometric and genetic studies indicate a predominantly indigenous ancestry of Indian populations. We address this issue with a fuller coverage of Indian craniometrics than any done before. We analyse metrical variability within Indian series, Indians' sexual dimorphism, differences between northern and southern Indians, index-based differences of Indian males from other series, and Indians' multivariate affinities. The relationship between a variable's magnitude and its variability is log-linear. This relationship is strengthened by excluding cranial fractions and series with a sample size less than 30. Male crania are typically larger than female crania, but there are also shape differences. Northern Indians differ from southern Indians in various features including narrower orbits and less pronounced medial protrusion of the orbits. Indians resemble Veddas in having small crania and similar cranial shape. Indians' wider geographic affinities lie with "Caucasoid" populations to the northwest, particularly affecting northern Indians. The latter finding is confirmed from shape-based Mahalanobis-D distances calculated for the best sampled male and female series. Demonstration of a distinctive South Asian craniometric profile and the intermediate status of northern Indians between southern Indians and populations northwest of India confirm the predominantly indigenous ancestry of northern and especially southern Indians. PMID:24455409
Indian Craniometric Variability and Affinities
Raghavan, Pathmanathan; Bulbeck, David; Pathmanathan, Gayathiri; Rathee, Suresh Kanta
2013-01-01
Recently published craniometric and genetic studies indicate a predominantly indigenous ancestry of Indian populations. We address this issue with a fuller coverage of Indian craniometrics than any done before. We analyse metrical variability within Indian series, Indians' sexual dimorphism, differences between northern and southern Indians, index-based differences of Indian males from other series, and Indians' multivariate affinities. The relationship between a variable's magnitude and its variability is log-linear. This relationship is strengthened by excluding cranial fractions and series with a sample size less than 30. Male crania are typically larger than female crania, but there are also shape differences. Northern Indians differ from southern Indians in various features including narrower orbits and less pronounced medial protrusion of the orbits. Indians resemble Veddas in having small crania and similar cranial shape. Indians' wider geographic affinities lie with “Caucasoid” populations to the northwest, particularly affecting northern Indians. The latter finding is confirmed from shape-based Mahalanobis-D distances calculated for the best sampled male and female series. Demonstration of a distinctive South Asian craniometric profile and the intermediate status of northern Indians between southern Indians and populations northwest of India confirm the predominantly indigenous ancestry of northern and especially southern Indians. PMID:24455409
Vibrational coherences in charge-transfer dyes: A non-adiabatic picture
Sissa, Cristina; Delchiaro, Francesca; Di Maiolo, Francesco
2014-10-28
Essential-state models efficiently describe linear and nonlinear spectral properties of different families of charge-transfer chromophores. Here, the essential-state machinery is applied to the calculation of the early-stage dynamics after ultrafast (coherent) excitation of polar and quadrupolar chromophores. The fully non-adiabatic treatment of coupled electronic and vibrational motion allows for a reliable description of the dynamics of these intriguing systems. In particular, the proposed approach is reliable even when the adiabatic and harmonic approximations do not apply, such as for quadrupolar dyes that show a multistable, broken-symmetry excited state. Our approach quite naturally leads to a clear picture for a dynamical Jahn-Teller effect in these systems. The recovery of symmetry due to dynamical effects is however disrupted in polar solvents where a static symmetry lowering is observed. More generally, thermal disorder in polar solvents is responsible for dephasing phenomena, damping the coherent oscillations with particularly important effects in the case of polar dyes.
Vibrational coherences in charge-transfer dyes: A non-adiabatic picture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sissa, Cristina; Delchiaro, Francesca; Di Maiolo, Francesco; Terenziani, Francesca; Painelli, Anna
2014-10-01
Essential-state models efficiently describe linear and nonlinear spectral properties of different families of charge-transfer chromophores. Here, the essential-state machinery is applied to the calculation of the early-stage dynamics after ultrafast (coherent) excitation of polar and quadrupolar chromophores. The fully non-adiabatic treatment of coupled electronic and vibrational motion allows for a reliable description of the dynamics of these intriguing systems. In particular, the proposed approach is reliable even when the adiabatic and harmonic approximations do not apply, such as for quadrupolar dyes that show a multistable, broken-symmetry excited state. Our approach quite naturally leads to a clear picture for a dynamical Jahn-Teller effect in these systems. The recovery of symmetry due to dynamical effects is however disrupted in polar solvents where a static symmetry lowering is observed. More generally, thermal disorder in polar solvents is responsible for dephasing phenomena, damping the coherent oscillations with particularly important effects in the case of polar dyes.
Kaminsky, S. M.; Richards, F. M.
1992-01-01
The partial specific volume and adiabatic compressibility were determined at several temperatures for oxidized and reduced Escherichia coli thioredoxin. Oxidized thioredoxin had a partial specific volume of 0.785-0.809 mL/g at the observed upper limit for all proteins whereas the partial specific volume of reduced thioredoxin was 0.745-0.755 mL/g, a value in the range found for a majority of proteins. The adiabatic compressibility of oxidized thioredoxin was also much larger (9.8-18 x 10(-12) cm2 dyne-1) than that of the reduced protein (3.8-7.3 x 10(-12)). Apart from the region immediately around the small disulfide loop, the structures of the oxidized (X-ray, crystal) and reduced protein (nuclear magnetic resonance, solution) are reported to be very similar. It would appear that alterations in the solvent layer in contact with the protein surface must play a major role in producing these large changes in the apparent specific volumes and compressibilities in this system. Some activities of thioredoxin require the reduced structure but are not electron transfer reactions. The large changes in physical parameters reported here suggest the possibility of a reversible metabolic control function for the SS bond. PMID:1304879
Necessary and sufficient condition for quantum adiabatic evolution by unitary control fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhen-Yu; Plenio, Martin B.
2016-05-01
We decompose the quantum adiabatic evolution as the products of gauge invariant unitary operators and obtain the exact nonadiabatic correction in the adiabatic approximation. A necessary and sufficient condition that leads to adiabatic evolution with geometric phases is provided, and we determine that in the adiabatic evolution, while the eigenstates are slowly varying, the eigenenergies and degeneracy of the Hamiltonian can change rapidly. We exemplify this result by the example of the adiabatic evolution driven by parametrized pulse sequences. For driving fields that are rotating slowly with the same average energy and evolution path, fast modulation fields can have smaller nonadiabatic errors than obtained under the traditional approach with a constant amplitude.
Gu, Jiande; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F
2007-10-21
To elucidate electron attachment induced damage in the DNA double helix, electron attachment to the 2'-deoxyribonucleoside pair dG:dC has been studied with the reliably calibrated B3LYP/DZP++ theoretical approach. The exploration of the potential energy surface of the neutral and anionic dG:dC pairs predicts a positive electron affinity for dG:dC [0.83 eV for adiabatic electron affinity (EAad) and 0.16 eV for vertical electron affinity (VEA)]. The substantial increases in the electron affinity of dG:dC (by 0.50 eV for EAad and 0.23 eV for VEA) compared to those of the dC nucleoside suggest that electron attachment to DNA double helices should be energetically favored with respect to the single strands. Most importantly, electron attachment to the dC moiety in the dG:dC pair is found to be able to trigger the proton transfer in the dG:dC- pair, surprisingly resulting in the lower energy distonic anionic complex d(G-H)-:d(C+H).. The negative charge for the latter system is located on the base of dC in the dG:dC- pair, while it is transferred to d(G-H) in d(G-H)-:d(C+H)., accompanied by the proton transfer from N1(dG) to N3(dC). The low energy barrier (2.4 kcal/mol) for proton transfer from dG to dC- suggests that the distonic d(G-H)-:d(C+H). pair should be one of the important intermediates in the process of electron attachment to DNA double helices. The formation of the neutral nucleoside radical d(C+H). is predicted to be the direct result of electron attachment to the DNA double helices. Since the neutral radical d(C+H). nucleotide is the key element in the formation of this DNA lesion, electron attachment might be one of the important factors that trigger the formation of abasic sites in DNA double helices. PMID:17949223
Experimental implementation of adiabatic passage between different topological orders.
Peng, Xinhua; Luo, Zhihuang; Zheng, Wenqiang; Kou, Supeng; Suter, Dieter; Du, Jiangfeng
2014-08-22
Topological orders are exotic phases of matter existing in strongly correlated quantum systems, which are beyond the usual symmetry description and cannot be distinguished by local order parameters. Here we report an experimental quantum simulation of the Wen-plaquette spin model with different topological orders in a nuclear magnetic resonance system, and observe the adiabatic transition between two Z(2) topological orders through a spin-polarized phase by measuring the nonlocal closed-string (Wilson loop) operator. Moreover, we also measure the entanglement properties of the topological orders. This work confirms the adiabatic method for preparing topologically ordered states and provides an experimental tool for further studies of complex quantum systems. PMID:25192080
Adiabatic and diabatic process of sum frequency conversion.
Liqing, Ren; Yongfang, Li; Baihong, Li; Lei, Wang; Zhaohua, Wang
2010-09-13
Based on the dressed state formalism, we obtain the adiabatic criterion of the sum frequency conversion. We show that this constraint restricts the energy conversion between the two dressed fields, which are superpositions of the signal field and the sum frequency field. We also show that the evolution of the populations of the dressed fields, which in turn describes the conversion of light photons from the seed frequency to the sum frequency during propagation through the nonlinear crystal. Take the quasiphased matched (QPM) scheme as an example, we calculate the expected bandwidth of the frequency conversion process, and its dependence on the length of the crystal. We demonstrate that the evolutionary patterns of the sum frequency field's energy are similar to the Fresnel diffraction of a light field. We finally show that the expected bandwidth can be also deduced from the evolution of the adiabaticity of the dressed fileds. PMID:20940935
On the off-stoichiometric peaking of adiabatic flame temperature
Law, C.K.; Lu, T.F.; Makino, A.
2006-06-15
The characteristic rich shifting of the maximum adiabatic flame temperature from the stoichiometric value for mixtures of hydrocarbon and air is demonstrated to be caused by product dissociation and hence reduced amount of heat release. Since the extent of dissociation is greater on the lean side as a result of the stoichiometry of dissociated products, the peaking occurs on the rich side. The specific heat per unit mass of the mixture is shown to increase monotonically with increasing fuel concentration, and as such tends to shift the peak toward the lean side. It is further shown that this is the cause for the lean shifting of the adiabatic flame temperature of oxidizer-enriched mixtures of N{sub m}H{sub n} and F{sub 2} and of NH{sub 3} and O{sub 2}, with various amounts of inert dilution, even though their maximum heat release still peaks on the rich side. (author)
Microscopic expression for heat in the adiabatic basis.
Polkovnikov, Anatoli
2008-11-28
We derive a microscopic expression for the instantaneous diagonal elements of the density matrix rho(nn)(t) in the adiabatic basis for an arbitrary time-dependent process in a closed Hamiltonian system. If the initial density matrix is stationary (diagonal) then this expression contains only squares of absolute values of matrix elements of the evolution operator, which can be interpreted as transition probabilities. We then derive the microscopic expression for the heat defined as the energy generated due to transitions between instantaneous energy levels. If the initial density matrix is passive [diagonal with rho(nn)(0) monotonically decreasing with energy] then the heat is non-negative in agreement with basic expectations of thermodynamics. Our findings also can be used for systematic expansion of various observables around the adiabatic limit. PMID:19113464
Non-adiabatic dynamics of molecules in optical cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kowalewski, Markus; Bennett, Kochise; Mukamel, Shaul
2016-02-01
Strong coupling of molecules to the vacuum field of micro cavities can modify the potential energy surfaces thereby opening new photophysical and photochemical reaction pathways. While the influence of laser fields is usually described in terms of classical field, coupling to the vacuum state of a cavity has to be described in terms of dressed photon-matter states (polaritons) which require quantized fields. We present a derivation of the non-adiabatic couplings for single molecules in the strong coupling regime suitable for the calculation of the dressed state dynamics. The formalism allows to use quantities readily accessible from quantum chemistry codes like the adiabatic potential energy surfaces and dipole moments to carry out wave packet simulations in the dressed basis. The implications for photochemistry are demonstrated for a set of model systems representing typical situations found in molecules.
Fastest Effectively Adiabatic Transitions for a Collection of Harmonic Oscillators.
Boldt, Frank; Salamon, Peter; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz
2016-05-19
We discuss fastest effectively adiabatic transitions (FEATs) for a collection of noninteracting harmonic oscillators with shared controllable real frequencies. The construction of such transitions is presented for given initial and final equilibrium states, and the dependence of the minimum time control on the interval of achievable frequencies is discussed. While the FEAT times and associated FEAT processes are important in their own right as optimal controls, the FEAT time is an added feature which provides a measure of the quality of a shortcut to adiabaticity (STA). The FEAT time is evaluated for a previously reported experiment, wherein a cloud of Rb atoms is cooled following a STA recipe that took about twice as long as the FEAT speed limit, a time efficiency of 50%. PMID:26811863
Ultrafast adiabatic manipulation of slow light in a photonic crystal
Kampfrath, T.; Kuipers, L.; Beggs, D. M.; White, T. P.; Krauss, T. F.; Melloni, A.
2010-04-15
We demonstrate by experiment and theory that a light pulse propagating through a Si-based photonic-crystal waveguide is adiabatically blueshifted when the refractive index of the Si is reduced on a femtosecond time scale. Thanks to the use of slow-light modes, we are able to shift a 1.3-ps pulse at telecom frequencies by 0.3 THz with an efficiency as high as 80% in a waveguide as short as 19{mu}m. An analytic theory reproduces the experimental data excellently, which shows that adiabatic dynamics are possible even on the femtosecond time scale as long as the external stimulus conserves the spatial symmetry of the system.
Adiabatic tapered optical fiber fabrication in two step etching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chenari, Z.; Latifi, H.; Ghamari, S.; Hashemi, R. S.; Doroodmand, F.
2016-01-01
A two-step etching method using HF acid and Buffered HF is proposed to fabricate adiabatic biconical optical fiber tapers. Due to the fact that the etching rate in second step is almost 3 times slower than the previous droplet etching method, terminating the fabrication process is controllable enough to achieve a desirable fiber diameter. By monitoring transmitted spectrum, final diameter and adiabaticity of tapers are deduced. Tapers with losses about 0.3 dB in air and 4.2 dB in water are produced. The biconical fiber taper fabricated using this method is used to excite whispering gallery modes (WGMs) on a microsphere surface in an aquatic environment. So that they are suitable to be used in applications like WGM biosensors.
Fluctuations of work in nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems.
Suomela, S; Salmilehto, J; Savenko, I G; Ala-Nissila, T; Möttönen, M
2015-02-01
We extend the quantum jump method to nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems in a way that allows for an accurate account of the external driving in the system-environment interaction. Using this framework, we construct the corresponding trajectory-dependent work performed on the system and derive the integral fluctuation theorem and the Jarzynski equality for nearly adiabatic driving. We show that such identities hold as long as the stochastic dynamics and work variable are consistently defined. We numerically study the emerging work statistics for a two-level quantum system and find that the conventional diabatic approximation is unable to capture some prominent features arising from driving, such as the continuity of the probability density of work. Our results reveal the necessity of using accurate expressions for the drive-dressed heat exchange in future experiments probing jump time distributions. PMID:25768477
The adiabatic motion of charged dust grains in rotating magnetospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Northrop, T. G.; Hill, J. R.
1983-01-01
Adiabatic equations of motion are derived for the micrometer-sized dust grains detected in the Jovian and Saturn magnetospheres by the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. The adiabatic theory of charged particle motion is extended to the case of variable grain charge. Attention is focused on the innermost and outermost limits to the grain orbit evolution, with all orbits tending to become circular with time. The parameters such as the center equation of motion, the drift velocity, and the parallel equation of motion are obtained for grains in a rotating magnetosphere. Consideration is given to the effects of periodic grain charge-discharge, which are affected by the ambient plasma properties and the grain plasma velocity. The charge-discharge process at the gyrofrequency is determined to eliminate the invariance of the magnetic moment and cause the grain to exhibit radial movement. The magnetic moment increases or decreases as a function of the gyrophase of the charge variation.
Adiabatic Berry phase in an atom-molecule conversion system
Fu Libin; Liu Jie
2010-11-15
We investigate the Berry phase of adiabatic quantum evolution in the atom-molecule conversion system that is governed by a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. We find that the Berry phase consists of two parts: the usual Berry connection term and a novel term from the nonlinearity brought forth by the atom-molecule coupling. The total geometric phase can be still viewed as the flux of the magnetic field of a monopole through the surface enclosed by a closed path in parameter space. The charge of the monopole, however, is found to be one third of the elementary charge of the usual quantized monopole. We also derive the classical Hannay angle of a geometric nature associated with the adiabatic evolution. It exactly equals minus Berry phase, indicating a novel connection between Berry phase and Hannay angle in contrast to the usual derivative form.
Adiabatic creation of atomic squeezing in dark states versus decoherences
Gong, Z. R.; Sun, C. P.; Wang Xiaoguang
2010-07-15
We study the multipartite correlations of the multiatom dark states, which are characterized by the atomic squeezing beyond the pairwise entanglement. It is shown that, in the photon storage process with atomic ensemble via the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) mechanism, the atomic squeezing and the pairwise entanglement can be created by adiabatically manipulating the Rabi frequency of the classical light field on the atomic ensemble. We also consider the sudden death for the atomic squeezing and the pairwise entanglement under various decoherence channels. An optimal time for generating the greatest atomic squeezing and pairwise entanglement is obtained by studying in detail the competition between the adiabatic creation of quantum correlation in the atomic ensemble and the decoherence that we describe with three typical decoherence channels.
Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poulin, E.; Demier, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.
1984-01-01
Steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat which projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks were studied. Steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance were analyzed. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state of the art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. The costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with aftercooling with the same total output were compared, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increase initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability are considered and the cost and performance of advanced systes are evaluated.
Engineering adiabaticity at an avoided crossing with optimal control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chasseur, T.; Theis, L. S.; Sanders, Y. R.; Egger, D. J.; Wilhelm, F. K.
2015-04-01
We investigate ways to optimize adiabaticity and diabaticity in the Landau-Zener model with nonuniform sweeps. We show how diabaticity can be engineered with a pulse consisting of a linear sweep augmented by an oscillating term. We show that the oscillation leads to jumps in populations whose value can be accurately modeled using a model of multiple, photon-assisted Landau-Zener transitions, which generalizes work by Wubs et al. [New J. Phys. 7, 218 (2005)], 10.1088/1367-2630/7/1/218. We extend the study on diabaticity using methods derived from optimal control. We also show how to preserve adiabaticity with optimal pulses at limited time, finding a nonuniform quantum speed limit.
Adiabatic Tip-Plasmon Focusing for Nano-Raman Spectroscopy
Berweger, Samuel; Atkin, Joanna M.; Olmon, Robert L.; Raschke, Markus Bernd
2010-12-16
True nanoscale optical spectroscopy requires the efficient delivery of light for a spatially nanoconfined excitation. We utilize adiabatic plasmon focusing to concentrate an optical field into the apex of a scanning probe tip of {approx}10 nm in radius. The conical tips with the ability for two-stage optical mode matching of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) grating-coupling and the adiabatic propagating SPP conversion into a localized SPP at the tip apex represent a special optical antenna concept for far-field transduction into nanoscale excitation. The resulting high nanofocusing efficiency and the spatial separation of the plasmonic grating coupling element on the tip shaft from the near-field apex probe region allows for true background-free nanospectroscopy. As an application, we demonstrate tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) of surface molecules with enhanced contrast and its extension into the near-IR with 800 nm excitation.
Adiabatic far-field sub-diffraction imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cang, Hu; Salandrino, Alessandro; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang
2015-08-01
The limited resolution of a conventional optical imaging system stems from the fact that the fine feature information of an object is carried by evanescent waves, which exponentially decays in space and thus cannot reach the imaging plane. We introduce here an adiabatic lens, which utilizes a geometrically conformal surface to mediate the interference of slowly decompressed electromagnetic waves at far field to form images. The decompression is satisfying an adiabatic condition, and by bridging the gap between far field and near field, it allows far-field optical systems to project an image of the near-field features directly. Using these designs, we demonstrated the magnification can be up to 20 times and it is possible to achieve sub-50 nm imaging resolution in visible. Our approach provides a means to extend the domain of geometrical optics to a deep sub-wavelength scale.
Affine hypersurfaces with parallel difference tensor relative to affine α-connection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Cece
2014-12-01
Li and Zhang (2014) studied affine hypersurfaces of R n + 1 with parallel difference tensor relative to the affine α-connection ∇ (α), and characterized the generalized Cayley hypersurfaces by K n - 1 ≠ 0 and ∇ (α) K = 0 for some nonzero constant α, where the affine α-connection ∇ (α) of information geometry was introduced on affine hypersurface. In this paper, by a slightly different method we continue to study affine hypersurfaces with ∇ (α) K = 0, if α = 0 we further assume that the Pick invariant vanishes and affine metric is of constant sectional curvature. It is proved that they are either hyperquadrics or improper affine hypersphere with flat indefinite affine metric, the latter can be locally given as a graph of a polynomial of at most degree n + 1 with constant Hessian determinant. In particular, if the affine metric is definite, Lorentzian, or its negative index is 2, we complete the classification of such hypersurfaces.
Adiabaticity and gravity theory independent conservation laws for cosmological perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romano, Antonio Enea; Mooij, Sander; Sasaki, Misao
2016-04-01
We carefully study the implications of adiabaticity for the behavior of cosmological perturbations. There are essentially three similar but different definitions of non-adiabaticity: one is appropriate for a thermodynamic fluid δPnad, another is for a general matter field δPc,nad, and the last one is valid only on superhorizon scales. The first two definitions coincide if cs2 = cw2 where cs is the propagation speed of the perturbation, while cw2 = P ˙ / ρ ˙ . Assuming the adiabaticity in the general sense, δPc,nad = 0, we derive a relation between the lapse function in the comoving slicing Ac and δPnad valid for arbitrary matter field in any theory of gravity, by using only momentum conservation. The relation implies that as long as cs ≠cw, the uniform density, comoving and the proper-time slicings coincide approximately for any gravity theory and for any matter field if δPnad = 0 approximately. In the case of general relativity this gives the equivalence between the comoving curvature perturbation Rc and the uniform density curvature perturbation ζ on superhorizon scales, and their conservation. This is realized on superhorizon scales in standard slow-roll inflation. We then consider an example in which cw =cs, where δPnad = δPc,nad = 0 exactly, but the equivalence between Rc and ζ no longer holds. Namely we consider the so-called ultra slow-roll inflation. In this case both Rc and ζ are not conserved. In particular, as for ζ, we find that it is crucial to take into account the next-to-leading order term in ζ's spatial gradient expansion to show its non-conservation, even on superhorizon scales. This is an example of the fact that adiabaticity (in the thermodynamic sense) is not always enough to ensure the conservation of Rc or ζ.
Geometric Phase for Adiabatic Evolutions of General Quantum States
Wu, Biao; Liu, Jie; Niu, Qian; Singh, David J
2005-01-01
The concept of a geometric phase (Berry's phase) is generalized to the case of noneigenstates, which is applicable to both linear and nonlinear quantum systems. This is particularly important to nonlinear quantum systems, where, due to the lack of the superposition principle, the adiabatic evolution of a general state cannot be described in terms of eigenstates. For linear quantum systems, our new geometric phase reduces to a statistical average of Berry's phases. Our results are demonstrated with a nonlinear two-level model.