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Sample records for adiabatic local density

  1. Density functional theory beyond the linear regime: Validating an adiabatic local density approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Helbig, N.; Fuks, J. I.; Verstraete, M. J.; Marques, M. A. L.; Tokatly, I. V.; Rubio, A.

    2011-03-15

    We present a local density approximation (LDA) for one-dimensional (1D) systems interacting via the soft-Coulomb interaction based on quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Results for the ground-state energies and ionization potentials of finite 1D systems show excellent agreement with exact calculations obtained by exploiting the mapping of an N-electron system in d dimensions onto a single electron in Nxd dimensions, properly symmetrized by the Young diagrams. We conclude that 1D LDA is of the same quality as its three-dimensional (3D) counterpart, and we infer conclusions about 3D LDA. The linear and nonlinear time-dependent responses of 1D model systems using LDA, exact exchange, and the exact solution are investigated and show very good agreement in both cases, except for the well-known problem of missing double excitations. Consequently, the 3D LDA is expected to be of good quality beyond the linear response. In addition, the 1D LDA should prove useful in modeling the interaction of atoms with strong laser fields, where this specific 1D model is often used.

  2. Adiabatic approximation for the density matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, Yehuda B.

    1992-05-01

    An adiabatic approximation for the Liouville density-matrix equation which includes decay terms is developed. The adiabatic approximation employs the eigenvectors of the non-normal Liouville operator. The approximation is valid when there exists a complete set of eigenvectors of the non-normal Liouville operator (i.e., the eigenvectors span the density-matrix space), the time rate of change of the Liouville operator is small, and an auxiliary matrix is nonsingular. Numerical examples are presented involving efficient population transfer in a molecule by stimulated Raman scattering, with the intermediate level of the molecule decaying on a time scale that is fast compared with the pulse durations of the pump and Stokes fields. The adiabatic density-matrix approximation can be simply used to determine the density matrix for atomic or molecular systems interacting with cw electromagnetic fields when spontaneous emission or other decay mechanisms prevail.

  3. Adiabatic corrections to density functional theory energies and wave functions.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, José R; Coura, Thiago de O; Diniz, Leonardo G; de Castro, Gustavo; Assafrão, Denise; Heine, Thomas

    2008-09-25

    The adiabatic finite-nuclear-mass-correction (FNMC) to the electronic energies and wave functions of atoms and molecules is formulated for density-functional theory and implemented in the deMon code. The approach is tested for a series of local and gradient corrected density functionals, using MP2 results and diagonal-Born-Oppenheimer corrections from the literature for comparison. In the evaluation of absolute energy corrections of nonorganic molecules the LDA PZ81 functional works surprisingly better than the others. For organic molecules the GGA BLYP functional has the best performance. FNMC with GGA functionals, mainly BLYP, show a good performance in the evaluation of relative corrections, except for nonorganic molecules containing H atoms. The PW86 functional stands out with the best evaluation of the barrier of linearity of H2O and the isotopic dipole moment of HDO. In general, DFT functionals display an accuracy superior than the common belief and because the corrections are based on a change of the electronic kinetic energy they are here ranked in a new appropriate way. The approach is applied to obtain the adiabatic correction for full atomization of alcanes C(n)H(2n+2), n = 4-10. The barrier of 1 mHartree is approached for adiabatic corrections, justifying its insertion into DFT. PMID:18537228

  4. Local entanglement generation in the adiabatic regime

    SciTech Connect

    Cliche, M.; Veitia, Andrzej

    2010-09-15

    We study entanglement generation in a pair of qubits interacting with an initially correlated system. Using time-independent perturbation theory and the adiabatic theorem, we show conditions under which the qubits become entangled as the joint system evolves into the ground state of the interacting theory. We then apply these results to the case of qubits interacting with a scalar quantum field. We study three different variations of this setup; a quantum field subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions, a quantum field interacting with a classical potential, and a quantum field that starts in a thermal state.

  5. Local control of non-adiabatic dissociation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomble, L.; Chenel, A.; Meier, C.; Desouter-Lecomte, M.

    2011-05-01

    We present a theoretical approach which consists of applying the strategy of local control to projectors based on asymptotic scattering states. This allows to optimize final state distributions upon laser excitation in cases where strong non-adiabatic effects are present. The approach, despite being based on a time-local formulation, can take non-adiabatic transitions that appear at later times fully into account and adopt a corresponding control strategy. As an example, we show various dissociation channels of HeH+, a system where the ultrafast dissociation dynamics is determined by strong non-Born-Oppenheimer effects.

  6. Turbulent Density Variations in Non-Adiabatic Interstellar Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higdon, J. C.; Conley, Alex

    1998-05-01

    Analyses of radio scintillation measurements have demonstrated (e.g., Rickett, ARAA, 28, 561, 1990) the existence of ubiquitous turbulent density fluctuations in the interstellar medium. Higdon (ApJ, 309, 342, 1986) and Goldreich and Sridhar (ApJ, 438, 763 1995) have modeled successfully these density variations as entropy structures distorted by convection in anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulent flows. However, the interstellar medium is a heterogeneous non-adiabatic fluid whose thermal properties result ( Field, ApJ, 142, 531 1965) from a balance of heating and cooling rates. The effect of the non-adiabatic nature of interstellar fluids on the properties of turbulent cascades to small scales has not been considered previously. We find that in thermally stable fluids that the required balance of heating and cooling decreases the amplitudes of entropy structures independently of their spatial scale. Consequently, we show that if the time scale for turbulent flows to cascade to small scales is significantly greater than the cooling time of an interstellar fluid, the generation of turbulent denisty density variations at large wave numbers is greatly suppressed. Such results constrain possible values for the turbulent outer scale in models of interstellar turbulent flows.

  7. Exchange-Correlation Functionals via Local Interpolation along the Adiabatic Connection.

    PubMed

    Vuckovic, Stefan; Irons, Tom J P; Savin, Andreas; Teale, Andrew M; Gori-Giorgi, Paola

    2016-06-14

    The construction of density-functional approximations is explored by modeling the adiabatic connection locally, using energy densities defined in terms of the electrostatic potential of the exchange-correlation hole. These local models are more amenable to the construction of size-consistent approximations than their global counterparts. In this work we use accurate input local ingredients to assess the accuracy of a range of local interpolation models against accurate exchange-correlation energy densities. The importance of the strictly correlated electrons (SCE) functional describing the strong coupling limit is emphasized, enabling the corresponding interpolated functionals to treat strong correlation effects. In addition to exploring the performance of such models numerically for the helium and beryllium isoelectronic series and the dissociation of the hydrogen molecule, an approximate analytic model is presented for the initial slope of the local adiabatic connection. Comparisons are made with approaches based on global models, and prospects for future approximations based on the local adiabatic connection are discussed. PMID:27116427

  8. Exchange–Correlation Functionals via Local Interpolation along the Adiabatic Connection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The construction of density-functional approximations is explored by modeling the adiabatic connection locally, using energy densities defined in terms of the electrostatic potential of the exchange–correlation hole. These local models are more amenable to the construction of size-consistent approximations than their global counterparts. In this work we use accurate input local ingredients to assess the accuracy of a range of local interpolation models against accurate exchange–correlation energy densities. The importance of the strictly correlated electrons (SCE) functional describing the strong coupling limit is emphasized, enabling the corresponding interpolated functionals to treat strong correlation effects. In addition to exploring the performance of such models numerically for the helium and beryllium isoelectronic series and the dissociation of the hydrogen molecule, an approximate analytic model is presented for the initial slope of the local adiabatic connection. Comparisons are made with approaches based on global models, and prospects for future approximations based on the local adiabatic connection are discussed. PMID:27116427

  9. Density matrix treatment of non-adiabatic photoinduced electron transfer at a semiconductor surface.

    PubMed

    Micha, David A

    2012-12-14

    Photoinduced electron transfer at a nanostructured surface leads to localized transitions and involves three different types of non-adiabatic couplings: vertical electronic transitions induced by light absorption emission, coupling of electronic states by the momentum of atomic motions, and their coupling due to interactions with electronic density fluctuations and vibrational motions in the substrate. These phenomena are described in a unified way by a reduced density matrix (RDM) satisfying an equation of motion that contains dissipative rates. The RDM treatment is used here to distinguish non-adiabatic phenomena that are localized from those due to interaction with a medium. The fast decay of localized state populations due to electronic density fluctuations in the medium has been treated within the Lindblad formulation of rates. The formulation is developed introducing vibronic states constructed from electron orbitals available from density functional calculations, and from vibrational states describing local atomic displacements. Related ab initio molecular dynamics calculations have provided diabatic momentum couplings between excited electronic states. This has been done in detail for an indirect photoexcitation mechanism of the surface Ag(3)Si(111):H, which leads to long lasting electronic charge separation. The resulting coupled density matrix equations are solved numerically to obtain the population of the final charge-separated state as it changes over time, for several values of the diabatic momentum coupling. New insight and unexpected results are presented here which can be understood in terms of photoinduced non-adiabatic transitions involving many vibronic states. It is found that the population of long lasting charge separation states is larger for smaller momentum coupling, and that their population grows faster for smaller coupling.

  10. Meta-GGA-based adiabatic time-dependent density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, Vladimir; Vignale, Giovanni

    2012-02-01

    The local-density approximation (LDA) to the ground-state density functional theory (DFT) is well known to allow for a generalization to the time-dependent case [1]. The assumption of the adiabaticity of the process greatly simplifies the theory. The further extension of the time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) to the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is trivial. Here we address lifting the adiabatic TDDFT to the third rung of the ``Jacobs ladder'' [2] : We work out the kinetic energy density dependent (meta-GGA) TDDFT formalism. The new theory possesses remarkable properties not present in LDA and GGA: (i) It is non-local with respect to the particle density; (ii) In the case of bulk semiconductors, it supports the 1/q^2 singularity of the exchange-correlation kernel, where q is the wave-vector, the latter being important to reproduce the excitonic effect. We also present illustrative calculations of the optical absorption in semiconductors [3]. [4pt] [1] A. Zangwill and P. Soven, Phys. Rev. A, 21, 1561 (1980).[0pt] [2] J. Tao, J. P. Perdew, V. N. Staroverov, and G. E. Scuseria, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 146401 (2003).[0pt] [3] V. U. Nazarov and G. Vignale, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 216402(2011).

  11. Analysis of double-hybrid density functionals along the adiabatic connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaton, Yann; Franck, Odile; Teale, Andrew M.; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2013-07-01

    We present a graphical analysis of the adiabatic connections underlying double-hybrid density-functional methods that employ second-order perturbation theory. Approximate adiabatic connection formulae relevant to the construction of these functionals are derived and compared directly with those calculated using accurate ab initio methods. The discontinuous nature of the approximate adiabatic integrands is emphasised, the discontinuities occurring at interaction strengths which mark the transitions between regions that are: (i) described predominantly by second-order perturbation theory; (ii) described by a mixture of density-functional and second-order perturbation theory contributions; and (iii) described purely by density-functional theory. Numerical examples are presented for a selection of small molecular systems and van der Waals dimers. The impacts of commonly used approximations in each of the three sections of the adiabatic connection are discussed along with possible routes for the development of improved double-hybrid methodologies.

  12. The local mass density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    An improved mass-luminosity relation for faint main-sequence stars derived from recently revised masses for some faint double stars is presented. The total local mass density is increased to nearly 0.2 solar masses per cu pc. This estimate is as large as the mass density required by Oort's (1965) dynamical analysis of stellar motions perpendicular to the galactic plane if the mass is concentrated in a narrow layer.

  13. Exchange-correlation functionals from a local interpolation along the adiabatic connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuckovic, Stefan; Irons, Tom; Teale, Andrew; Savin, Andreas; Gori-Giorgi, Paola

    We use the adiabatic connection formalism to construct a density functional by doing an interpolation between the weak and the strong coupling regime. Combining the information from the two limits, we are able to construct an exchange-correlation (xc) density functional free of the bias towards weakly correlated system, which is present in the majority of approximate xc functionals. Previous attempts in doing the interpolation between the two regimes, such as the interaction strength interpolation (ISI), had a fundamental flaw: the lack of size-consistency, as the corresponding functional depends non-linearly on the global (integrated over all space) ingredients. To recover size-consistency in such a framework, we move from the global to local quantities. We use the energy densities as local quantities in the gauge of the electrostatic potential of the xc hole. We use the ``strictly-correlated electrons'' (SCE) approach to compute the energy densities in the strong-coupling limit and the Lieb maximization algorithm to extract the energy densities from the low-coupling regime. We then test the accuracy of the local interpolation schemes by using the nearly exact local energy densities. In this talk I am going to present our results with the emphasis on strongly correlated systems.

  14. Localization and adiabatic pumping in a generalized Aubry-André-Harper model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangli; Ghosh, Somnath; Chong, Y. D.

    2015-01-01

    A generalization of the Aubry-André-Harper (AAH) model is developed, containing a tunable phase shift between on-site and off-diagonal modulations. A localization transition can be induced by varying just this phase, keeping all other model parameters constant. The complete localization phase diagram is obtained. Unlike the original AAH model, the generalized model can exhibit a transition between topologically trivial band structures and topologically nontrivial band structures containing protected boundary states. These boundary states can be pumped across the system by adiabatic variations in the phase shift parameter. The model can also be used to demonstrate the phenomenon of adiabatic pumping breakdown due to localization.

  15. Local T2 measurement employing longitudinal Hadamard encoding and adiabatic inversion pulses in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashaee, S.; Newling, B.; Balcom, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Band selective adiabatic inversion radio frequency pulses were employed for multi-slice T2 distribution measurements in porous media samples. Multi-slice T2 measurement employing longitudinal Hadamard encoding has an inherent sensitivity advantage over slice-by-slice local T2 measurements. The slice selection process is rendered largely immune to B1 variation by employing hyperbolic secant adiabatic inversion pulses, which simultaneously invert spins in several well-defined slices. While Hadamard encoding is well established for local spectroscopy, the current work is the first use of Hadamard encoding for local T2 measurement.

  16. Examining the specific entropy (density of adiabatic invariants) of the outer electron radiation belt

    SciTech Connect

    Borovsky, Joseph E; Denton, Michael H

    2008-01-01

    Using temperature and number-density measurements of the energetic-electron population from multiple spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit, the specific entropy S = T/n{sup 2/3} of the outer electron radiation belt is calculated. Then 955,527 half-hour-long data intervals are statistically analyzed. Local-time and solar-cycle variations in S are examined. The median value of the specific entropy (2.8 x 10{sup 7} eVcm{sup 2}) is much larger than the specific entropy of other particle populations in and around the magnetosphere. The evolution of the specific entropy through high-speed-stream-driven geomagnetic storms and through magnetic-cloud-driven geomagnetic storms is studied using superposed-epoch analysis. For high-speed-stream-driven storms, systematic variations in the entropy associated with electron loss and gain and with radiation-belt heating are observed in the various storm phases. For magnetic-cloud-driven storms, multiple trigger choices for the data superpositions reveal the effects of interplanetary shock arrival, sheath driving, cloud driving, and recovery phase. The specific entropy S = T/n{sup 2/3} is algebraically expressed in terms of the first and second adiabatic invariants of the electrons: this allows a relativistic expression for S in terms of T and n to be derived. For the outer electron radiation belt at geosynchronous orbit, the relativistic corrections to the specific entropy expression are -15%.

  17. Quasi-classical theory of electronic flux density in electronically adiabatic molecular processes.

    PubMed

    Diestler, D J

    2012-11-26

    The standard Born-Oppenheimer (BO) description of electronically adiabatic molecular processes predicts a vanishing electronic flux density (EFD). A previously proposed "coupled-channels" theory permits the extraction of the EFD from the BO wave function for one-electron diatomic systems, but attempts at generalization to many-electron polyatomic systems are frustrated by technical barriers. An alternative "quasi-classical" approach, which eliminates the explicit quantum dynamics of the electrons within a classical framework, yet retains the quantum character of the nuclear motion, appears capable of yielding EFDs for arbitrarily complex systems. Quasi-classical formulas for the EFD in simple systems agree with corresponding coupled-channels formulas. Results of the application of the new quasi-classical formula for the EFD to a model triatomic system indicate the potential of the quasi-classical scheme to elucidate the dynamical role of electrons in electronically adiabatic processes in more complex multiparticle systems.

  18. Non-adiabatic current densities, transitions, and power absorbed by a molecule in a time-dependent electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Anirban; Hunt, Katharine L. C.

    2015-07-01

    The energy of a molecule subject to a time-dependent perturbation separates completely into adiabatic and non-adiabatic terms, where the adiabatic term reflects the adjustment of the ground state to the perturbation, while the non-adiabatic term accounts for the transition energy [A. Mandal and K. L. C. Hunt, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 164109 (2012)]. For a molecule perturbed by a time-dependent electromagnetic field, in this work, we show that the expectation value of the power absorbed by the molecule is equal to the time rate of change of the non-adiabatic term in the energy. The non-adiabatic term is given by the transition probability to an excited state k, multiplied by the transition energy from the ground state to k, and then summed over the excited states. The expectation value of the power absorbed by the molecule is derived from the integral over space of the scalar product of the applied electric field and the non-adiabatic current density induced in the molecule by the field. No net power is absorbed due to the action of the applied electric field on the adiabatic current density. The work done on the molecule by the applied field is the time integral of the power absorbed. The result established here shows that work done on the molecule by the applied field changes the populations of the molecular states.

  19. Coupled-channels quantum theory of electronic flux density in electronically adiabatic processes: fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Diestler, D J

    2012-03-22

    The Born-Oppenheimer (BO) description of electronically adiabatic molecular processes predicts a vanishing electronic flux density (j(e)), =1/2∫dR[Δ(b) (x;R) - Δ(a) (x;R)] even though the electrons certainly move in response to the movement of the nuclei. This article, the first of a pair, proposes a quantum-mechanical "coupled-channels" (CC) theory that allows the approximate extraction of j(e) from the electronically adiabatic BO wave function . The CC theory is detailed for H(2)(+), in which case j(e) can be resolved into components associated with two channels α (=a,b), each of which corresponds to the "collision" of an "internal" atom α (proton a or b plus electron) with the other nucleus β (proton b or a). The dynamical role of the electron, which accommodates itself instantaneously to the motion of the nuclei, is submerged in effective electronic probability (population) densities, Δ(α), associated with each channel (α). The Δ(α) densities are determined by the (time-independent) BO electronic energy eigenfunction, which depends parametrically on the configuration of the nuclei, the motion of which is governed by the usual BO nuclear Schrödinger equation. Intuitively appealing formal expressions for the electronic flux density are derived for H(2)(+).

  20. Statistical mechanics of Roskilde liquids: Configurational adiabats, specific heat contours, and density dependence of the scaling exponent

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Nicholas P.; Bøhling, Lasse; Veldhorst, Arno A.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2013-11-14

    We derive exact results for the rate of change of thermodynamic quantities, in particular, the configurational specific heat at constant volume, C{sub V}, along configurational adiabats (curves of constant excess entropy S{sub ex}). Such curves are designated isomorphs for so-called Roskilde liquids, in view of the invariance of various structural and dynamical quantities along them. The slope of the isomorphs in a double logarithmic representation of the density-temperature phase diagram, γ, can be interpreted as one third of an effective inverse power-law potential exponent. We show that in liquids where γ increases (decreases) with density, the contours of C{sub V} have smaller (larger) slope than configurational adiabats. We clarify also the connection between γ and the pair potential. A fluctuation formula for the slope of the C{sub V}-contours is derived. The theoretical results are supported with data from computer simulations of two systems, the Lennard-Jones fluid, and the Girifalco fluid. The sign of dγ/dρ is thus a third key parameter in characterizing Roskilde liquids, after γ and the virial-potential energy correlation coefficient R. To go beyond isomorph theory we compare invariance of a dynamical quantity, the self-diffusion coefficient, along adiabats and C{sub V}-contours, finding it more invariant along adiabats.

  1. Statistical mechanics of Roskilde liquids: configurational adiabats, specific heat contours, and density dependence of the scaling exponent.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Nicholas P; Bøhling, Lasse; Veldhorst, Arno A; Schrøder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2013-11-14

    We derive exact results for the rate of change of thermodynamic quantities, in particular, the configurational specific heat at constant volume, CV, along configurational adiabats (curves of constant excess entropy Sex). Such curves are designated isomorphs for so-called Roskilde liquids, in view of the invariance of various structural and dynamical quantities along them. The slope of the isomorphs in a double logarithmic representation of the density-temperature phase diagram, γ, can be interpreted as one third of an effective inverse power-law potential exponent. We show that in liquids where γ increases (decreases) with density, the contours of CV have smaller (larger) slope than configurational adiabats. We clarify also the connection between γ and the pair potential. A fluctuation formula for the slope of the CV-contours is derived. The theoretical results are supported with data from computer simulations of two systems, the Lennard-Jones fluid, and the Girifalco fluid. The sign of dγ∕dρ is thus a third key parameter in characterizing Roskilde liquids, after γ and the virial-potential energy correlation coefficient R. To go beyond isomorph theory we compare invariance of a dynamical quantity, the self-diffusion coefficient, along adiabats and CV-contours, finding it more invariant along adiabats.

  2. The local dark matter density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, J. I.

    2014-06-01

    I review current efforts to measure the mean density of dark matter near the Sun. This encodes valuable dynamical information about our Galaxy and is also of great importance for ‘direct detection’ dark matter experiments. I discuss theoretical expectations in our current cosmology; the theory behind mass modelling of the Galaxy; and I show how combining local and global measures probes the shape of the Milky Way dark matter halo and the possible presence of a ‘dark disc’. I stress the strengths and weaknesses of different methodologies and highlight the continuing need for detailed tests on mock data—particularly in the light of recently discovered evidence for disequilibria in the Milky Way disc. I collate the latest measurements of ρdm and show that, once the baryonic surface density contribution Σb is normalized across different groups, there is remarkably good agreement. Compiling data from the literature, I estimate Σb = 54.2 ± 4.9 M⊙pc-2, where the dominant source of uncertainty is in the H i gas contribution. Assuming this contribution from the baryons, I highlight several recent measurements of ρdm in order of increasing data complexity and prior, and, correspondingly, decreasing formal error bars. Comparing these measurements with spherical extrapolations from the Milky Way’s rotation curve, I show that the Milky Way is consistent with having a spherical dark matter halo at R0 ˜ 8 kpc. The very latest measures of ρdm based on ˜10 000 stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey appear to favour little halo flattening at R0, suggesting that the Galaxy has a rather weak dark matter disc, with a correspondingly quiescent merger history. I caution, however, that this result hinges on there being no large systematics that remain to be uncovered in the SDSS data, and on the local baryonic surface density being Σb ˜ 55 M⊙pc-2. I conclude by discussing how the new Gaia satellite will be transformative. We will obtain much tighter

  3. Spatial Symmetries of the Local Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Rohozinski, S.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, Witold

    2010-01-01

    Spatial symmetries of the densities appearing in the nuclear Density Functional Theory are discussed. General forms of the local densities are derived by using methods of construction of isotropic tensor fields. The spherical and axial cases are considered.

  4. Density-matrix-spectroscopic algorithm for excited-state adiabatic surfaces and molecular dynamics of a protonated Schiff base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiper, E. V.; Chernyak, V.; Tretiak, S.; Mukamel, S.

    1999-05-01

    Excited-state potentials of a short protonated Schiff base cation which serves as a model for the photoisomerization of retinal are computed by combining a semi-empirical ground-state adiabatic surface with excitation energies obtained using the time-dependent coupled electronic oscillator (CEO) approach. Excited-state molecular dynamic simulation of the in-plane motion of cis-C5H6NH2+ following impulsive optical excitation reveals a dominating 1754 cm-1 π-conjugation mode. A new molecular dynamics algorithm is proposed which resembles the Car-Parinello ground-state technique and is based on the adiabatic propagation of the ground-state single-electron density matrix and the collective electronic modes along the trajectory.

  5. Quasi-Adiabatic Quantum Computing Treated with c-Numbers Using the Local-Field Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaru, Tatsuya

    2016-03-01

    A computational method called the local-field response method is proposed, where spins evolve by responding to an effective field consisting of gradually decreasing external fields and spin-spin interactions, similarly to what is carried out in adiabatic quantum computing (AQC). This method is partly quantum-mechanical. That is, spins are treated as classical variables, but the response function of the spins to the effective field is determined a priori by referring to a quantum-mechanical calculation that was carried out for similar problems. This novel response function improves the performance of the ground state being maintained in the time evolution compared with the case without a priori information. The performance is numerically checked in an eight-qubit system by solving random-interaction problems of finding their ground states. The false probability decreases by about half as a result of using a priori information. The operation of this method is classical, but it has a quantum-mechanical advantage through a priori information. This method is practically useful because obtaining a complete quantum system is difficult as it stands.

  6. Excited-state nuclear forces on adiabatic potential-energy surfaces by time-dependent density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruyama, Jun; Suzuki, Takahiro; Hu, Chunping; Watanabe, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple and computationally efficient method to calculate excited-state nuclear forces on adiabatic potential-energy surfaces (APES) from linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory within a real-space framework. The Casida ansatz, which has been validated for computing first-order nonadiabatic couplings in previous studies, was applied to the calculation of the excited-state forces. Our method is validated by the consistency of results in the lower excited states, which reproduce well those obtained by the numerical derivative of each APES. We emphasize the usefulness of this technique by demonstrating the excited-state molecular-dynamics simulation.

  7. Spectroscopic imaging and spatial localization using adiabatic pulses and applications to detect transmural metabolite distribution in the canine heart.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, P M; Merkle, H; Sublett, E; Hendrich, K; Lew, B; Path, G; From, A H; Bache, R J; Garwood, M; Uğurbil, K

    1989-04-01

    Adiabatic pulses have been employed in spectroscopic imaging and relaxation rate measurements at 4.7 T to demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining spectroscopic data from the complete sensitive volume of a surface coil using the surface coil as a transmitter and receiver. With conventional B1 sensitive pulses, spectroscopic localization or imaging techniques, such as chemical-shift imaging, yield resonance intensities that are distorted severely as a function of space, and maximal signal is detected from a small region within the complete sensitive volume of the coil. With adiabatic pulses, however, this problem is eliminated completely. In addition, a new method of spatial localization is introduced. This method, referred to as FLAX-ISIS, is a derivative of longitudinally modulated Fourier series window and ISIS approaches and utilizes adiabatic inversion and excitation pulses. The method allows construction of localized spectra for multiple regions along the surface coil axis by postacquisition data manipulation of a single set of free induction decays. These techniques were applied to the study of the myocardium using an implanted surface coil in an instrumented closed-chest canine model and in an open-chest preparation. The results demonstrate that one-dimensional techniques are adequate for transmural detection of metabolites provided signal origin is restricted to a column perpendicular to the left ventricle wall. PMID:2755331

  8. Locality of correlation in density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Burke, Kieron; Cancio, Antonio; Gould, Tim; Pittalis, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    The Hohenberg-Kohn density functional was long ago shown to reduce to the Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation in the non-relativistic semiclassical (or large-Z) limit for all matter, i.e., the kinetic energy becomes local. Exchange also becomes local in this limit. Numerical data on the correlation energy of atoms support the conjecture that this is also true for correlation, but much less relevant to atoms. We illustrate how expansions around a large particle number are equivalent to local density approximations and their strong relevance to density functional approximations. Analyzing highly accurate atomic correlation energies, we show that EC → -AC ZlnZ + BCZ as Z → ∞, where Z is the atomic number, AC is known, and we estimate BC to be about 37 mhartree. The local density approximation yields AC exactly, but a very incorrect value for BC, showing that the local approximation is less relevant for the correlation alone. This limit is a benchmark for the non-empirical construction of density functional approximations. We conjecture that, beyond atoms, the leading correction to the local density approximation in the large-Z limit generally takes this form, but with BC a functional of the TF density for the system. The implications for the construction of approximate density functionals are discussed. PMID:27497544

  9. Locality of correlation in density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Kieron; Cancio, Antonio; Gould, Tim; Pittalis, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    The Hohenberg-Kohn density functional was long ago shown to reduce to the Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation in the non-relativistic semiclassical (or large-Z) limit for all matter, i.e., the kinetic energy becomes local. Exchange also becomes local in this limit. Numerical data on the correlation energy of atoms support the conjecture that this is also true for correlation, but much less relevant to atoms. We illustrate how expansions around a large particle number are equivalent to local density approximations and their strong relevance to density functional approximations. Analyzing highly accurate atomic correlation energies, we show that EC → -AC ZlnZ + BCZ as Z → ∞, where Z is the atomic number, AC is known, and we estimate BC to be about 37 mhartree. The local density approximation yields AC exactly, but a very incorrect value for BC, showing that the local approximation is less relevant for the correlation alone. This limit is a benchmark for the non-empirical construction of density functional approximations. We conjecture that, beyond atoms, the leading correction to the local density approximation in the large-Z limit generally takes this form, but with BC a functional of the TF density for the system. The implications for the construction of approximate density functionals are discussed.

  10. Locality of correlation in density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Burke, Kieron; Cancio, Antonio; Gould, Tim; Pittalis, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    The Hohenberg-Kohn density functional was long ago shown to reduce to the Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation in the non-relativistic semiclassical (or large-Z) limit for all matter, i.e., the kinetic energy becomes local. Exchange also becomes local in this limit. Numerical data on the correlation energy of atoms support the conjecture that this is also true for correlation, but much less relevant to atoms. We illustrate how expansions around a large particle number are equivalent to local density approximations and their strong relevance to density functional approximations. Analyzing highly accurate atomic correlation energies, we show that EC → -AC ZlnZ + BCZ as Z → ∞, where Z is the atomic number, AC is known, and we estimate BC to be about 37 mhartree. The local density approximation yields AC exactly, but a very incorrect value for BC, showing that the local approximation is less relevant for the correlation alone. This limit is a benchmark for the non-empirical construction of density functional approximations. We conjecture that, beyond atoms, the leading correction to the local density approximation in the large-Z limit generally takes this form, but with BC a functional of the TF density for the system. The implications for the construction of approximate density functionals are discussed.

  11. Local Eigenvalue Density for General MANOVA Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdős, László; Farrell, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    We consider random n× n matrices of the form where X and Y have independent entries with zero mean and variance one. These matrices are the natural generalization of the Gaussian case, which are known as MANOVA matrices and which have joint eigenvalue density given by the third classical ensemble, the Jacobi ensemble. We show that, away from the spectral edge, the eigenvalue density converges to the limiting density of the Jacobi ensemble even on the shortest possible scales of order 1/ n (up to log n factors). This result is the analogue of the local Wigner semicircle law and the local Marchenko-Pastur law for general MANOVA matrices.

  12. Coupled-channels quantum theory of electronic flux density in electronically adiabatic processes: application to the hydrogen molecule ion.

    PubMed

    Diestler, D J; Kenfack, A; Manz, J; Paulus, B

    2012-03-22

    This article presents the results of the first quantum simulations of the electronic flux density (j(e)) by the "coupled-channels" (CC) theory, the fundamentals of which are presented in the previous article [Diestler, D. J. J. Phys. Chem. A 2012, DOI: 10.1021/jp207843z]. The principal advantage of the CC scheme is that it employs exclusively standard methods of quantum chemistry and quantum dynamics within the framework of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA). The CC theory goes beyond the BOA in that it yields a nonzero j(e) for electronically adiabatic processes, in contradistinction to the BOA itself, which always gives j(e) = 0. The CC is applied to oriented H(2)(+) vibrating in the electronic ground state ((2)Σ(g)(+)), for which the nuclear and electronic flux densities evolve on a common time scale of about 22 fs per vibrational period. The system is chosen as a touchstone for the CC theory, because it is the only one for which highly accurate flux densities have been calculated numerically without invoking the BOA [Barth et al, Chem. Phys. Lett. 2009, 481, 118]. Good agreement between CC and accurate results supports the CC approach, another advantage of which is that it allows a transparent interpretation of the temporal and spatial properties of j(e).

  13. Entropy density of an adiabatic relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate star

    SciTech Connect

    Khaidir, Ahmad Firdaus; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Yusof, Norhasliza

    2015-04-24

    Inspired by recent works, we investigate how the thermodynamics parameters (entropy, temperature, number density, energy density, etc) of Bose-Einstein Condensate star scale with the structure of the star. Below the critical temperature in which the condensation starts to occur, we study how the entropy behaves with varying temperature till it reaches its own stability against gravitational collapse and singularity. Compared to photon gases (pressure is described by radiation) where the chemical potential, μ is zero, entropy of photon gases obeys the Stefan-Boltzmann Law for a small values of T while forming a spiral structure for a large values of T due to general relativity. The entropy density of Bose-Einstein Condensate is obtained following the similar sequence but limited under critical temperature condition. We adopt the scalar field equation of state in Thomas-Fermi limit to study the characteristics of relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate under varying temperature and entropy. Finally, we obtain the entropy density proportional to (σT{sup 3}-3T) which obeys the Stefan-Boltzmann Law in ultra-relativistic condition.

  14. Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in 239Pu(n ,f ) in the adiabatic nuclear energy density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnier, D.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.; Verrière, M.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r process to fuel cycle optimization for nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data are available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. Purpose: In this work, we calculate the pre-neutron emission charge and mass distributions of the fission fragments formed in the neutron-induced fission of 239Pu using a microscopic method based on nuclear density functional theory (DFT). Methods: Our theoretical framework is the nuclear energy density functional (EDF) method, where large-amplitude collective motion is treated adiabatically by using the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). In practice, the TDGCM is implemented in two steps. First, a series of constrained EDF calculations map the configuration and potential-energy landscape of the fissioning system for a small set of collective variables (in this work, the axial quadrupole and octupole moments of the nucleus). Then, nuclear dynamics is modeled by propagating a collective wave packet on the potential-energy surface. Fission fragment distributions are extracted from the flux of the collective wave packet through the scission line. Results: We find that the main characteristics of the fission charge and mass distributions can be well reproduced by existing energy functionals even in two-dimensional collective spaces. Theory and experiment agree typically within two mass units for the position of the asymmetric peak. As expected, calculations are sensitive to the structure of the initial state and the prescription for the collective inertia. We emphasize that results are also sensitive to the continuity of the collective landscape near scission. Conclusions: Our analysis confirms

  15. Local-density-driven clustered star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmentier, G.; Pfalzner, S.

    2013-01-01

    Context. A positive power-law trend between the local surface densities of molecular gas, Σgas, and young stellar objects, Σ ⋆ , in molecular clouds of the solar neighbourhood has recently been identified. How it relates to the properties of embedded clusters, in particular to the recently established radius-density relation, has so far not been investigated. Aims: We model the development of the stellar component of molecular clumps as a function of time and initial local volume density. Our study provides a coherent framework able to explain both the molecular-cloud and embedded-cluster relations quoted above. Methods: We associate the observed volume density gradient of molecular clumps to a density-dependent free-fall time. The molecular clump star formation history is obtained by applying a constant star formation efficiency per free-fall time, ɛff. Results: For the volume density profiles typical of observed molecular clumps (i.e. power-law slope ≃ -1.7), our model gives a star-gas surface-density relation of the form Σ⋆ ∝ Σgas2, which agrees very well with the observations. Taking the case of a molecular clump of mass M0 ≃ 104 M⊙ and radius R ≃ 6 pc experiencing star formation during 2 Myr, we derive what star formation efficiency per free-fall time matches the normalizations of the observed and predicted (Σ ⋆ , Σgas) relations best. We find ɛff ≃ 0.1. We show that the observed growth of embedded clusters, embodied by their radius-density relation, corresponds to a surface density threshold being applied to developing star-forming regions. The consequences of our model in terms of cluster survivability after residual star-forming gas expulsion are that, owing to the locally high star formation efficiency in the inner part of star-forming regions, global star formation efficiency as low as 10% can lead to the formation of bound gas-free star clusters.

  16. Local spin analyses using density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, Bayileyegn; Peralta, Juan

    Local spin analysis is a valuable technique in computational investigations magnetic interactions on mono- and polynuclear transition metal complexes, which play vital roles in catalysis, molecular magnetism, artificial photosynthesis, and several other commercially important materials. The relative size and complex electronic structure of transition metal complexes often prohibits the use of multi-determinant approaches, and hence, practical calculations are often limited to single-determinant methods. Density functional theory (DFT) has become one of the most successful and widely used computational tools for the electronic structure study of complex chemical systems; transition metal complexes in particular. Within the DFT formalism, a more flexible and complete theoretical modeling of transition metal complexes can be achieved by considering noncollinear spins, in which the spin density is 'allowed to' adopt noncollinear structures in stead of being constrained to align parallel/antiparallel to a universal axis of magnetization. In this meeting, I will present local spin analyses results obtained using different DFT functionals. Local projection operators are used to decompose the expectation value of the total spin operator; first introduced by Clark and Davidson.

  17. Local density fluctuations and hyperuniformity in quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oğuz, Erdal Celal; Torquato, Salvatore

    2015-03-01

    Local density fluctuations in many-body systems are of fundamental importance throughout various scientific disciplines, including physics, materials science, number theory and biology. In a point pattern, let the variance associated with the number of points contained in a spherical window of radius R be denoted by σ2 (R) . Hyperuniform point patterns in d dimensions do not possess infinite-wavelength fluctuations or, equivalently, possess a number variance that grows more slowly than the window volume, i.e., Rd. Hyperuniform systems include all infinite periodic structures, aperiodic quasicrystals, and some special disordered systems. Previous investigations showed that the number variance for large R in hyperuniform systems serves as a useful metric to rank order systems according to the degree to which large-scale density fluctuations are suppressed. In this work, we investigate the number variance of two-dimensional quasicrystals with a variety of different rotational symmetries. We study how the number variance depends on the rotational symmetry and local isomorphism class of the quasicrystal. We compare these results to a number of different periodic systems as well as disordered hyperuniform systems. ECO acknowledges the support from the German Research Foundation (DFG).

  18. Limits on the local dark matter density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbari, Silvia; Read, Justin I.; Lake, George

    2011-09-01

    We revisit systematics in determining the local dark matter density ρdm from the vertical motion of stars in the solar neighbourhood. Using a simulation of a Milky Way like galaxy, we determine the data quality required to detect ρdm at its expected local value. We introduce a new method for recovering ρdm that uses moments of the Jeans equations, combined with a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique, to marginalize over the unknown parameters. Given sufficiently good data, we show that our method can recover the correct local dark matter density even in the face of disc inhomogeneities, non-isothermal tracers and a non-separable distribution function. We illustrate the power of our technique by applying it to Hipparcos data. We first make the assumption that the A- and F-star tracer populations are isothermal. This recovers ρdm= 0.003+0.009- 0.007 M⊙ pc-3 (ρdm= 0.11+0.34- 0.27 GeV cm-3, with 90 per cent confidence), consistent with previous determinations. However, the vertical dispersion profile of these tracers is poorly known. If we assume instead a non-isothermal profile similar to that of the blue disc stars from SDSS DR-7 recently measured, we obtain a fit with a very similar χ2 value, but with ρdm= 0.033+0.008- 0.009 M⊙ pc-3 (ρdm= 1.25+0.30- 0.34 GeV cm-3 with 90 per cent confidence). This highlights that it is vital to measure the vertical dispersion profile of the tracers to recover an unbiased estimate of ρdm.

  19. Statistical density modification using local pattern matching

    DOEpatents

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2007-01-23

    A computer implemented method modifies an experimental electron density map. A set of selected known experimental and model electron density maps is provided and standard templates of electron density are created from the selected experimental and model electron density maps by clustering and averaging values of electron density in a spherical region about each point in a grid that defines each selected known experimental and model electron density maps. Histograms are also created from the selected experimental and model electron density maps that relate the value of electron density at the center of each of the spherical regions to a correlation coefficient of a density surrounding each corresponding grid point in each one of the standard templates. The standard templates and the histograms are applied to grid points on the experimental electron density map to form new estimates of electron density at each grid point in the experimental electron density map.

  20. Constructing diabatic states from adiabatic states: Extending generalized Mulliken-Hush to multiple charge centers with Boys localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subotnik, Joseph E.; Yeganeh, Sina; Cave, Robert J.; Ratner, Mark A.

    2008-12-01

    This article shows that, although Boys localization is usually applied to single-electron orbitals, the Boys method itself can be applied to many electron molecular states. For the two-state charge-transfer problem, we show analytically that Boys localization yields the same charge-localized diabatic states as those found by generalized Mulliken-Hush theory. We suggest that for future work in electron transfer, where systems have more than two charge centers, one may benefit by using a variant of Boys localization to construct diabatic potential energy surfaces and extract electronic coupling matrix elements. We discuss two chemical examples of Boys localization and propose a generalization of the Boys algorithm for creating diabatic states with localized spin density that should be useful for Dexter triplet-triplet energy transfer.

  1. Constructing diabatic states from adiabatic states: extending generalized Mulliken-Hush to multiple charge centers with boys localization.

    PubMed

    Subotnik, Joseph E; Yeganeh, Sina; Cave, Robert J; Ratner, Mark A

    2008-12-28

    This article shows that, although Boys localization is usually applied to single-electron orbitals, the Boys method itself can be applied to many electron molecular states. For the two-state charge-transfer problem, we show analytically that Boys localization yields the same charge-localized diabatic states as those found by generalized Mulliken-Hush theory. We suggest that for future work in electron transfer, where systems have more than two charge centers, one may benefit by using a variant of Boys localization to construct diabatic potential energy surfaces and extract electronic coupling matrix elements. We discuss two chemical examples of Boys localization and propose a generalization of the Boys algorithm for creating diabatic states with localized spin density that should be useful for Dexter triplet-triplet energy transfer.

  2. Microstructural characteristics of adiabatic shear localization in a metastable beta titanium alloy deformed at high strain rate and elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Hongyi; Zeng, Weidong; Wang, Gui; Kent, Damon; Dargusch, Matthew

    2015-04-15

    The microstructural evolution and grain refinement within adiabatic shear bands in the Ti6554 alloy deformed at high strain rates and elevated temperatures have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy. No stress drops were observed in the corresponding stress–strain curve, indicating that the initiation of adiabatic shear bands does not lead to the loss of load capacity for the Ti6554 alloy. The outer region of the shear bands mainly consists of cell structures bounded by dislocation clusters. Equiaxed subgrains in the core area of the shear band can be evolved from the subdivision of cell structures or reconstruction and transverse segmentation of dislocation clusters. It is proposed that dislocation activity dominates the grain refinement process. The rotational recrystallization mechanism may operate as the kinetic requirements for it are fulfilled. The coexistence of different substructures across the shear bands implies that the microstructural evolution inside the shear bands is not homogeneous and different grain refinement mechanisms may operate simultaneously to refine the structure. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The microstructure within the adiabatic shear band was characterized by TEM. • No stress drops were observed in the corresponding stress–strain curve. • Dislocation activity dominated the grain refinement process. • The kinetic requirements for rotational recrystallization mechanism were fulfilled. • Different grain refinement mechanisms operated simultaneously to refine the structure.

  3. Measure the local dark matter density with LAMOST spectroscopic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Xia, Qiran; Mao, Shude

    2016-08-01

    The local dark matter density plays the key role in the distribution of the dark matter halo near the Galactic disk. It will also answer whether a dark matter disk exists in the Milky Way. We measure the local dark matter density with LAMOST observed stars located at around the north Galactic pole. The selection effects of the observations are well considered and corrected. We find that the derived DM density, which is around 0.0159+0.0047 -0.0057 M ⊙ pc-3 providing a flat local rotation curve.

  4. Adiabatic effects in the dynamics of Langmuir solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Astrelin, V.T.; Breizman, B.N.; Sedlacek, Z.; Jungwirth, K.

    1988-06-01

    The adiabatic slowness with which the plasma density profile is reconstructed from localized in large-amplitude Langmuir solitons is characteristic of such solitons. Several examples making use of this feature in the description of the soliton dynamics are given. Specifically, long-lived states in the form of composite solitons ar found. Additional limitations are found on the interaction of solitons with each other and with sound waves. The effect of the adiabatic nature on the formation of solitons from free plasmons is discussed.

  5. The dynamic instability of adiabatic blast waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.

    1991-01-01

    Adiabatic blastwaves, which have a total energy injected from the center E varies as t(sup q) and propagate through a preshock medium with a density rho(sub E) varies as r(sup -omega) are described by a family of similarity solutions. Previous work has shown that adiabatic blastwaves with increasing or constant postshock entropy behind the shock front are susceptible to an oscillatory instability, caused by the difference between the nature of the forces on the two sides of the dense shell behind the shock front. This instability sets in if the dense postshock layer is sufficiently thin. The stability of adiabatic blastwaves with a decreasing postshock entropy is considered. Such blastwaves, if they are decelerating, always have a region behind the shock front which is subject to convection. Some accelerating blastwaves also have such region, depending on the values of q, omega, and gamma where gamma is the adiabatic index. However, since the shock interface stabilizes dynamically induced perturbations, blastwaves become convectively unstable only if the convective zone is localized around the origin or a contact discontinuity far from the shock front. On the other hand, the contact discontinuity of accelerating blastwaves is subject to a strong Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The frequency spectra of the nonradial, normal modes of adiabatic blastwaves have been calculated. The results have been applied to the shocks propagating through supernovae envelopes. It is shown that the metal/He and He/H interfaces are strongly unstable against the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. This instability will induce mixing in supernovae envelopes. In addition the implications of this work for the evolution of planetary nebulae is discussed.

  6. Introducing constricted variational density functional theory in its relaxed self-consistent formulation (RSCF-CV-DFT) as an alternative to adiabatic time dependent density functional theory for studies of charge transfer transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Krykunov, Mykhaylo; Seth, Mike; Ziegler, Tom

    2014-05-14

    We have applied the relaxed and self-consistent extension of constricted variational density functional theory (RSCF-CV-DFT) for the calculation of the lowest charge transfer transitions in the molecular complex X-TCNE between X = benzene and TCNE = tetracyanoethylene. Use was made of functionals with a fixed fraction (α) of Hartree-Fock exchange ranging from α = 0 to α = 0.5 as well as functionals with a long range correction (LC) that introduces Hartree-Fock exchange for longer inter-electronic distances. A detailed comparison and analysis is given for each functional between the performance of RSCF-CV-DFT and adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. It is shown that in this particular case, all functionals afford the same reasonable agreement with experiment for RSCF-CV-DFT whereas only the LC-functionals afford a fair agreement with experiment using TDDFT. We have in addition calculated the CT transition energy for X-TCNE with X = toluene, o-xylene, and naphthalene employing the same functionals as for X = benzene. It is shown that the calculated charge transfer excitation energies are in as good agreement with experiment as those obtained from highly optimized LC-functionals using adiabatic TDDFT. We finally discuss the relation between the optimization of length separation parameters and orbital relaxation in the RSCF-CV-DFT scheme.

  7. Local mammographic density as a predictor of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Mayu; Harkness, Elaine F.; Chen, Xin; Moschidis, Emmanouil; Bydder, Megan; Gadde, Soujanya; Lim, Yit Y.; Maxwell, Anthony J.; Evans, Gareth D.; Howell, Anthony; Stavrinos, Paula; Wilson, Mary; Astley, Susan M.

    2015-03-01

    High overall mammographic density is associated with both an increased risk of developing breast cancer and the risk of cancer being masked. We compared local density at cancer sites in diagnostic images with corresponding previous screening mammograms (priors), and matched controls. VolparaTM density maps were obtained for 54 mammograms showing unilateral breast cancer and their priors which had been previously read as normal. These were each matched to 3 controls on age, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy usage, body mass index and year of prior. Local percent density was computed in 15mm square regions at lesion sites and similar locations in the corresponding images. Conditional logistic regression was used to predict case-control status. In diagnostic and prior images, local density was increased at the lesion site compared with the opposite breast (medians 21.58%, 9.18%, p<0.001 diagnostic; 18.82%, 9.45%, p <0.001 prior). Women in the highest tertile of local density in priors were more likely to develop cancer than those in the lowest tertile (OR 42.09, 95% CI 5.37-329.94). Those in the highest tertile of VolparaTM gland volume were also more likely to develop cancer (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.30-6.42). Local density is increased where cancer will develop compared with corresponding regions in the opposite breast and matched controls, and its measurement could enhance computer-aided mammography.

  8. Adiabatic topological quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesare, Chris; Landahl, Andrew J.; Bacon, Dave; Flammia, Steven T.; Neels, Alice

    2015-07-01

    Topological quantum computing promises error-resistant quantum computation without active error correction. However, there is a worry that during the process of executing quantum gates by braiding anyons around each other, extra anyonic excitations will be created that will disorder the encoded quantum information. Here, we explore this question in detail by studying adiabatic code deformations on Hamiltonians based on topological codes, notably Kitaev's surface codes and the more recently discovered color codes. We develop protocols that enable universal quantum computing by adiabatic evolution in a way that keeps the energy gap of the system constant with respect to the computation size and introduces only simple local Hamiltonian interactions. This allows one to perform holonomic quantum computing with these topological quantum computing systems. The tools we develop allow one to go beyond numerical simulations and understand these processes analytically.

  9. Localized density matrix minimization and linear-scaling algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Rongjie; Lu, Jianfeng

    2016-06-01

    We propose a convex variational approach to compute localized density matrices for both zero temperature and finite temperature cases, by adding an entry-wise ℓ1 regularization to the free energy of the quantum system. Based on the fact that the density matrix decays exponentially away from the diagonal for insulating systems or systems at finite temperature, the proposed ℓ1 regularized variational method provides an effective way to approximate the original quantum system. We provide theoretical analysis of the approximation behavior and also design convergence guaranteed numerical algorithms based on Bregman iteration. More importantly, the ℓ1 regularized system naturally leads to localized density matrices with banded structure, which enables us to develop approximating algorithms to find the localized density matrices with computation cost linearly dependent on the problem size.

  10. The multi-configurational adiabatic electron transfer theory and its invariance under transformations of charge density basis functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilevsky, M. V.; Chudinov, G. E.; Newton, M. D.

    1994-02-01

    The continuum multi-configurational dynamical theory of electron transfer (ET) reactions in a chemical solute immersed in a polar solvent is developed. The solute wave function is represented as a CI expansion. The corresponding decomposition of the solute charge density generates a set of dynamical variables, the discrete medium coordinates. A new expression for the free energy surface in terms of these coordinates is derived. The stochastic equations of motion derived earlier are shown to be invariant under unitary transformations of orbitals used to build the CI expansion provided the latter is complete over the corresponding orbital subspace, and also under general linear transformations of the bases employed in expanding the charge density. The interrelation between the present general treatment and the reduced theory applied previously in terms of the two-level ET model is investigated. Finally, the explicit expression for the screening potential of medium electrons is derived in the electronic Born-Oppenheimer approximation (fast (slow) electronic timescale for solvent (solute)). The theory leads to a self-consistent scheme for practical calculations of rate constants for ET reactions involving complex solutes. Illustrative test calculations for two-level ET systems are presented, and the importance of proper boundary conditions for realistic molecular cavities is demonstrated.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the polarized radio emission of the adiabatic SNRs in ISM with nonuniform distribution of density and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruk, Oleh; Bandiera, Rino; Beshley, Vasyl; Orlando, Salvatore; Miceli, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Polarized radio emission has been mapped with great details in several Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs). The polarization of synchrotron emission contains a wealth of information but has not yet been exploited to the extent it deserves. We have developed a numerical method to model the maps of the Stokes parameters for SNRs during their adiabatic phase of evolution, in either a uniform or a non-uniform environment. The method consists in the following steps. 1. A 3-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamical structure of the SNR is simulated, taking into account the interstellar magnetic field, and a possible gradient of the ISM density and/or of the ambient magnetic field. 2. The acceleration of particles at the forward shock and their evolution downstream are modelled. 3. The generation and dissipation of the turbulent component of magnetic field has been calculated everywhere in the SNR, taking into account its interaction with the accelerated particles. 4. Our generalization of the classical synchrotron theory, to include both the ordered and the disordered components of magnetic field, is used to model the emission. 5. The internal Faraday rotation of the polarization plane is considered. 6. Finally, 2-D maps are derived, for different orientations of the SNR with respect to the observer. We present details of the model, as well as some results of the numerical simulations.

  12. Beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation: a treatment of electronic flux density in electronically adiabatic molecular processes.

    PubMed

    Diestler, D J

    2013-06-01

    Intuition suggests that a molecular system in the electronic ground state Φ0 should exhibit an electronic flux density (EFD) in response to the motion of its nuclei. If that state is described by the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA), however, a straightforward calculation of the EFD yields zero, since the electrons are in a stationary state, regardless of the state of the nuclear motion. Here an alternative pathway to a nonzero EFD from a knowledge of only the BOA ground-state wave function is proposed. Via perturbation theory a complete set of approximate vibronic eigenfunctions of the whole Hamiltonian is generated. If the complete non-BOA wave function is expressed in the basis of these vibronic eigenfunctions, the ground-state contribution to the EFD is found to involve a summation over excited states. Evaluation of this sum through the so-called "average excitation energy approximation" produces a nonzero EFD. An explicit formula for the EFD for the prototypical system, namely, oriented H2+ vibrating in the electronic ground state, is derived.

  13. Local density maxima - Progenitors of structure. [of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Y.; Shaham, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beginning with a short review of the observational data and of some previous theoretical ideas and numerical simulations, the question is addressed of how the large-scale structure that emerges around local density maxima depends on the nature of the primordial density perturbations field. The density contrast profile around local maxima is given, to a good approximation, by the primordial two-point correlation function. The mean number density of objects of a given core mass is calculated as a function of the primordial power spectrum, p(k). In an open universe, rich clusters should have halos steeper than galactic haloes. The observed structure is found to be consistent with omega-sub-zero less than 1.0 and n = -1.

  14. Local and Total Density Measurements in Ice Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Broughton, Howard; Sims, James J.; Bleeze, Brian; Gaines, Vatanna

    2005-01-01

    Preliminary measurements of local and total densities inside ice shapes were obtained from ice shapes grown in the NASA Glenn Research Tunnel for a range of glaze ice, rime ice, and mixed phase ice conditions on a NACA 0012 airfoil at 0 angle of attack. The ice shapes were removed from the airfoil and a slice of ice 3 mm thick was obtained using a microtome. The resulting samples were then x-rayed to obtain a micro-radiography, the film was digitized, and image processing techniques were used to extract the local and total density values.

  15. High density three-dimensional localization microscopy across large volumes

    PubMed Central

    Legant, Wesley R.; Shao, Lin; Grimm, Jonathan B.; Brown, Timothy A.; Milkie, Daniel E.; Avants, Brian B.; Lavis, Luke D.; Betzig, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Extending three-dimensional (3D) single molecule localization microscopy away from the coverslip and into thicker specimens will greatly broaden its biological utility. However, localizing molecules in 3D with high precision in such samples, while simultaneously achieving the extreme labeling densities required for high resolution of densely crowded structures is challenging due to the limitations both of conventional imaging modalities and of conventional labeling techniques. Here, we combine lattice light sheet microscopy with newly developed, freely diffusing, cell permeable chemical probes with targeted affinity towards either DNA, intracellular membranes, or the plasma membrane. We use this combination to perform high localization precision, ultra-high labeling density, multicolor localization microscopy in samples up to 20 microns thick, including dividing cells and the neuromast organ of a zebrafish embryo. We also demonstrate super-resolution correlative imaging with protein specific photoactivable fluorophores, providing a mutually compatible, single platform alternative to correlative light-electron microscopy over large volumes. PMID:26950745

  16. Local density variation of gold nanoparticles in aquatic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, F.; Shirazian, F.; Shahsavari, R.; Khoei, A. R.

    2016-10-01

    Gold (Au) nanoparticles are widely used in diagnosing cancer, imaging, and identification of therapeutic methods due to their particular quantum characteristics. This research presents different types of aqueous models and potentials used in TIP3P, to study the effect of the particle size and density of Au clusters in aquatic environments; so it can be useful to facilitate future investigation of the interaction of proteins with Au nanoparticles. The EAM potential is used to model the structure of gold clusters. It is observed that in the systems with identical gold/water density and different cluster radii, gold particles are distributed in aqueous environment almost identically. Thus, Au particles have identical local densities, and the root mean square displacement (RMSD) increases with a constant slope. However in systems with constant cluster radii and different gold/water densities, Au particle dispersion increases with density; as a result, the local density decreases and the RMSD increases with a larger slope. In such systems, the larger densities result in more blunted second peaks in gold-gold radial distribution functions, owing to more intermixing of the clusters and less FCC crystalline features at longer range, a mechanism that is mediated by the competing effects of gold-water and gold-gold interactions.

  17. Non-local crime density estimation incorporating housing information

    PubMed Central

    Woodworth, J. T.; Mohler, G. O.; Bertozzi, A. L.; Brantingham, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Given a discrete sample of event locations, we wish to produce a probability density that models the relative probability of events occurring in a spatial domain. Standard density estimation techniques do not incorporate priors informed by spatial data. Such methods can result in assigning significant positive probability to locations where events cannot realistically occur. In particular, when modelling residential burglaries, standard density estimation can predict residential burglaries occurring where there are no residences. Incorporating the spatial data can inform the valid region for the density. When modelling very few events, additional priors can help to correctly fill in the gaps. Learning and enforcing correlation between spatial data and event data can yield better estimates from fewer events. We propose a non-local version of maximum penalized likelihood estimation based on the H1 Sobolev seminorm regularizer that computes non-local weights from spatial data to obtain more spatially accurate density estimates. We evaluate this method in application to a residential burglary dataset from San Fernando Valley with the non-local weights informed by housing data or a satellite image. PMID:25288817

  18. Localized electron heating and density peaking in downstream helicon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Barada, K. K.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Ghosh, J.; Bora, D.

    2015-06-01

    Localized electron temperature and density peaking at different axial locations in the downstream helicon plasma have been observed in a linear helicon device with both geometrical and magnetic expansion. The discharge is produced with an m=+1 right helical antenna powered by a RF source operating at 13.56 MHz. Axial wave field measurement shows the presence of damped helicon waves with standing wave character folded into it even at low densities (˜ {{10}16} m-3 ). The measured helicon wavelength is just about twice the antenna length and the phase velocity ≤ft({{v}p}\\right) is almost the speed required for electron impact ionization. These experimental observations strongly advocate the Landau damping heating and density production by the helicon waves, particularly in low density plasma such as ours. The electron temperature maximizes at 35-45 cm away from the antenna center in our experiments indicating a local source of heating at those locations. Different mechanisms responsible for this additional heating at a particular spatial location have been discussed for their possible roles. Further downstream from the location of the maximum electron temperature, a density peak located 55-65 cm away from the antenna is observed. This downstream density peaking can be explained through pressure balance in the system.

  19. Local Density Approximation Exchange-correlation Free-energy Functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasiev, Valentin; Sjostrom, Travis; Dufty, James; Trickey, S. B.

    2014-03-01

    Restricted path integral Monte-Carlo (RPIMC) simulation data for the homogeneous electron gas at finite temperatures are used to fit the exchange-correlation free energy as a function of the density and temperature. Together with a new finite- T spin-polarization interpolation, this provides the local spin density approximation (LSDA) for the exchange-correlation free-energy functional required by finite- T density functional theory. We discuss and compare different methods of fitting to the RPIMC data. The new function reproduces the RPIMC data in the fitting range of Wigner-Seitz radius and temperature, satisfies correct high-density, low- and high- T asymptotic limits and is applicable beyond the range of fitting data. Work supported by U.S. Dept. of Energy, grant DE-SC0002139 and by the DOE Office of Fusion Sciences (FES).

  20. Comments on the locality in density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, Ingvar; Salomonson, Sten

    2003-05-01

    The 'locality hypothesis' in density-functional theory (DFT), implying that the functional derivative is equivalent to a multiplicative local function, forms the basis of models of Kohn-Sham type. This has been generally accepted by the community since the advent of the model, and has later been formally proved for a large class of functionals. The hypothesis has recently been questioned by Nesbet [Phys. Rev. A 58, R12 (1998) and Phys. Rev. A 65, 010502 (2001)], who claims that it fails for the kinetic-energy functional for a system with more than two noninteracting electrons with a nondegenerate ground state. This conclusion has been questioned by Gal [Phys. Rev. A 62, 044501 (2000)] and by Holas and March [Phys. Rev. A 64, 016501 (2001)]. We claim that the arguments of Nesbet are incorrect, since the orbital functional used for the kinetic energy is not a unique functional of the total density in the domain of unnormalized orbitals. We have demonstrated that with a proper definition of the kinetic energy, which is a unique density functional also in the unnormalized region, the derivative can be represented by a single local multiplicative function for all v-representable densities. Therefore, we consider the controversy connected with the issue raised by Nesbet as resolved. We believe that the proof of the differentiability given here can be extended to larger groups of DFT functionals, and works along these lines are in progress.

  1. Determining the local dark matter density with LAMOST data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Qiran; Liu, Chao; Mao, Shude; Song, Yingyi; Zhang, Lan; Long, R. J.; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Wu, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Measurement of the local dark matter density plays an important role in both Galactic dynamics and dark matter direct detection experiments. However, the estimated values from previous works are far from agreeing with each other. In this work, we provide a well-defined observed sample with 1427 G- and K-type main-sequence stars from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fibre Spectroscopic Telescope spectroscopic survey, taking into account selection effects, volume completeness, and the stellar populations. We apply a vertical Jeans equation method containing a single exponential stellar disc, a razor thin gas disc, and a constant dark matter density distribution to the sample, and obtain a total surface mass density of 78.7 ^{+3.9}_{-4.7} M_{{⊙}} pc^{-2} up to 1 kpc and a local dark matter density of 0.018± 0.0054 M_{{⊙}} pc^{-3}. We find that the sampling density (i.e. number of stars per unit volume) of the spectroscopic data contributes to about two-third of the uncertainty in the estimated values. We discuss the effect of the tilt term in the Jeans equation and find it has little impact on our measurement. Other issues, such as a non-equilibrium component due to perturbations and contamination by the thick-disc population, are also discussed.

  2. Density functionals not based on the electron gas: local-density approximation for a Luttinger liquid.

    PubMed

    Lima, N A; Silva, M F; Oliveira, L N; Capelle, K

    2003-04-11

    By shifting the reference system for the local-density approximation (LDA) from the electron gas to other model systems, one obtains a new class of density functionals, which by design account for the correlations present in the chosen reference system. This strategy is illustrated by constructing an explicit LDA for the one-dimensional Hubbard model. While the traditional ab initio LDA is based on a Fermi liquid (the three-dimensional interacting electron gas), this one is based on a Luttinger liquid. First applications to inhomogeneous Hubbard models, including one containing a localized impurity, are reported.

  3. Density functionals not based on the electron gas: local-density approximation for a Luttinger liquid.

    PubMed

    Lima, N A; Silva, M F; Oliveira, L N; Capelle, K

    2003-04-11

    By shifting the reference system for the local-density approximation (LDA) from the electron gas to other model systems, one obtains a new class of density functionals, which by design account for the correlations present in the chosen reference system. This strategy is illustrated by constructing an explicit LDA for the one-dimensional Hubbard model. While the traditional ab initio LDA is based on a Fermi liquid (the three-dimensional interacting electron gas), this one is based on a Luttinger liquid. First applications to inhomogeneous Hubbard models, including one containing a localized impurity, are reported. PMID:12731934

  4. Local thermodynamic mapping for effective liquid density-functional theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyrlidis, Agathagelos; Brown, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The structural-mapping approximation introduced by Lutsko and Baus (1990) in the generalized effective-liquid approximation is extended to include a local thermodynamic mapping based on a spatially dependent effective density for approximating the solid phase in terms of the uniform liquid. This latter approximation, called the local generalized effective-liquid approximation (LGELA) yields excellent predictions for the free energy of hard-sphere solids and for the conditions of coexistence of a hard-sphere fcc solid with a liquid. Moreover, the predicted free energy remains single valued for calculations with more loosely packed crystalline structures, such as the diamond lattice. The spatial dependence of the weighted density makes the LGELA useful in the study of inhomogeneous solids.

  5. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in rapidly heated high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J.

    2014-06-15

    Emission spectra and the dynamics of high energy density plasmas created by optical and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) depend on the populations of atomic levels. Calculations of plasma emission and ionization may be simplified by assuming Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), where populations are given by the Saha-Boltzmann equation. LTE can be achieved at high densities when collisional processes are much more significant than radiative processes, but may not be valid if plasma conditions change rapidly. A collisional-radiative model has been used to calculate the times taken by carbon and iron plasmas to reach LTE at varying densities and heating rates. The effect of different energy deposition methods, as well as Ionization Potential Depression are explored. This work shows regimes in rapidly changing plasmas, such as those created by optical lasers and FELs, where the use of LTE is justified, because timescales for plasma changes are significantly longer than the times needed to achieve an LTE ionization balance.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR HAVING LOCALIZED AREAS OF HIGH THERMAL NEUTRON DENSITIES

    DOEpatents

    Newson, H.W.

    1958-06-01

    A nuclear reactor for the irradiation of materials designed to provide a localized area of high thermal neutron flux density in which the materials to be irradiated are inserted is described. The active portion of the reactor is comprised of a cubicle graphite moderator of about 25 feet in length along each axis which has a plurality of cylindrical channels for accommodatirg elongated tubular-shaped fuel elements. The fuel elements have radial fins for spacing the fuel elements from the channel walls, thereby providing spaces through which a coolant may be passed, and also to serve as a heatconductirg means. Ducts for accommnodating the sample material to be irradiated extend through the moderator material perpendicular to and between parallel rows of fuel channels. The improvement is in the provision of additional fuel element channels spaced midway between 2 rows of the regular fuel channels in the localized area surrounding the duct where the high thermal neutron flux density is desired. The fuel elements normally disposed in the channels directly adjacent the duct are placed in the additional channels, and the channels directly adjacent the duct are plugged with moderator material. This design provides localized areas of high thermal neutron flux density without the necessity of providing additional fuel material.

  7. Local density of states and scanning tunneling currents in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ling; Peres, Nuno; Tsai, Shan-Wen

    2010-03-01

    Graphene consists of an atom-thick layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, and its low-energy electronic excitations are well described as massless Dirac fermions with spin half and an additional pseudospin degree of freedom. We study local properties of graphene with isolated impurities (diagonal and non-diagonal impurity potential) such as the local electronic spectra and real-space and k-space local density of state (LDOS) maps. Using a multimode description for an scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip, we calculate STM currents and find that strong resonances in the LDOS at finite energies lead to the presence of steps in the STM current and suppression of the Fano factor. [Ref: N. M. R. Peres, L. Yang, and S.-W. Tsai, New J. Phys. 11, 095007, (2009)

  8. Possible density dependent local variations in the IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavila, Indulekha; George, Babitha

    2015-08-01

    Variations in the IMF have been reported within open clusters (signifying mass segregation), between globular clusters, within galaxies and between galaxies. Most stars are considered to form in a clustered mode. However, the surface density of YSO's shows a wide range and it is also considered that stars form in the clustered mode only at the peaks of the surface density. The bound cluster formation efficiency in galaxies is observed to be correlated with the Star Formation Rate density which itself is seen to be correlated with the gas surface density by the Kennicutt Schmidt law.Observationally, dense cores in molecular clouds - which go on to produce stars - have a mass spectrum that is broadly consistent with a Salpeter slope of -1.35 at the high mass end. In simulations of clouds with Gaussian fluctuations it is seen that the mass spectrum of peaks which collapse are approximately log-normal, peaking roughly at the average Jeans' mass in the cloud. We explore a possible way in which the IMF could depend on the local gas density. The extent of the variations that can be caused by such a dependence is explored. The IMFs of the sample clusters that are generated are compared with the IMFs of observed clusters and also against radial trends reported in galaxies.

  9. Local Available Potential Energy in Simulations of Stratified Turbulence with Uniform and Non-uniform Ambient Density Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portwood, Gavin; de Bruyn Kops, Stephen; Turbulence Simulation Laboratory Team

    2015-11-01

    In stratified flows, the maximum amount of potential energy that can be converted to kinetic energy is the difference between the potential energy in the instantaneous flow and that in the flow if the fluid parcels were adiabatically sorted to produce the lowest energy configuration. Lorentz (1955) defines this global quantity as available potential energy (APE). Holliday and McIntyre (1981) introduces the concept of local available potential energy (Ea) associated with a fluid parcel, and Molemaker and McWilliams (2010) develop the transport for this quantity for a viscous, Boussinesq fluid. Here, we characterize Ea in simulations of a vortex street with uniform and non-uniform stabilizing ambient density gradients. In pseudo-spectral direct numerical simulations resolved on up to 4096 × 2048 × 2048 grid points, we find that the majority of APE is due to fluid parcels displaced a small distance, relative to the buoyancy length scale, from their locations in the sorted density field. By computing each term in the transport equation for Ea, we observe by how much Ea of a fluid parcel changes in time due to local dipycnal mixing, and by how much global mixing alters the position of the local parcel in the sorted density field. This work is funded by DoD HPCMP though Frontier Project FPCFD-FY14-007 and the Office of Naval Research via grant N00014-15-1-2248.

  10. Gene flow in maize fields with different local pollen densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goggi, A. Susana; Lopez-Sanchez, Higinio; Caragea, Petrutza; Westgate, Mark; Arritt, Raymond; Clark, Craig A.

    2007-08-01

    The development of maize ( Zea mays L.) varieties as factories of pharmaceutical and industrial compounds has renewed interest in controlling pollen dispersal. The objective of this study was to compare gene flow into maize fields of different local pollen densities under the same environmental conditions. Two fields of approximately 36 ha were planted with a nontransgenic, white hybrid, in Ankeny, Iowa, USA. In the center of both fields, a 1-ha plot of a yellow-seeded stacked RR/Bt transgenic hybrid was planted as a pollen source. Before flowering, the white receiver maize of one field was detasseled in a 4:1 ratio to reduce the local pollen density (RPD). The percentage of outcross in the field with RPD was 42.2%, 6.3%, and 1.3% at 1, 10, and 35 m from the central plot, respectively. The percentage of outcross in the white maize with normal pollen density (NPD) was 30.1%, 2.7%, and 0.4%, respectively, at these distances. At distances greater than 100 m, the outcross frequency decreased below 0.1 and 0.03% in the field with RPD and NPD, respectively. A statistical model was used to compare pollen dispersal based on observed outcross percentages. The likelihood ratio test confirmed that the models of outcrossing in the two fields were significantly different ( P is practically 0). Results indicated that when local pollen is low, the incoming pollen has a competitive advantage and the level of outcross is significantly greater than when the local pollen is abundant.

  11. Range Separation and Local Hybridization in Density Functional Theory†

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Thomas M.; Janesko, Benjamin G.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2016-01-01

    Kohn–Sham density functional theory has become a standard method for modeling energetic, spectroscopic, and chemical reactivity properties of large molecules and solids. Density functional theory provides a rigorous theoretical framework for modeling the many-body exchange-correlation effects that dominate the computational cost of traditional wave function approaches. The advent of hybrid exchange-correlation functionals which incorporate a fraction of nonlocal exact exchange has solidified the prominence of density functional theory within computational chemistry. Hybrids provide accurate treatments of properties such as thermochemistry and molecular geometry. But they also exhibit some rather spectacular failures, and often contain multiple empirical parameters. This article reviews our work on developing novel exchange-correlation functionals that build upon the successes of global hybrids. We focus on more flexible functional forms, including local and range-separated hybrid functionals, constructed to obey known exact constraints and (ideally) to incorporate a minimum of empirical parametrization. The article places our work within the context of some other new approximate density functionals and discusses prospects for future work. PMID:19006280

  12. Hole localization in molecular crystals from hybrid density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Sai, Na; Barbara, Paul F; Leung, Kevin

    2011-06-01

    We use first-principles computational methods to examine hole trapping in organic molecular crystals. We present a computational scheme based on the tuning of the fraction of exact exchange in hybrid density functional theory to eliminate the many-electron self-interaction error. With small organic molecules, we show that this scheme gives accurate descriptions of ionization and dimer dissociation. We demonstrate that the excess hole in perfect molecular crystals forms self-trapped molecular polarons. The predicted absolute ionization potentials of both localized and delocalized holes are consistent with experimental values.

  13. The local density of optical states of a metasurface.

    PubMed

    Lunnemann, Per; Koenderink, A Femius

    2016-01-01

    While metamaterials are often desirable for near-field functions, such as perfect lensing, or cloaking, they are often quantified by their response to plane waves from the far field. Here, we present a theoretical analysis of the local density of states near lattices of discrete magnetic scatterers, i.e., the response to near field excitation by a point source. Based on a pointdipole theory using Ewald summation and an array scanning method, we can swiftly and semi-analytically evaluate the local density of states (LDOS) for magnetoelectric point sources in front of an infinite two-dimensional (2D) lattice composed of arbitrary magnetoelectric dipole scatterers. The method takes into account radiation damping as well as all retarded electrodynamic interactions in a self-consistent manner. We show that a lattice of magnetic scatterers evidences characteristic Drexhage oscillations. However, the oscillations are phase shifted relative to the electrically scattering lattice consistent with the difference expected for reflection off homogeneous magnetic respectively electric mirrors. Furthermore, we identify in which source-surface separation regimes the metasurface may be treated as a homogeneous interface, and in which homogenization fails. A strong frequency and in-plane position dependence of the LDOS close to the lattice reveals coupling to guided modes supported by the lattice. PMID:26868601

  14. The local density of optical states of a metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunnemann, Per; Koenderink, A. Femius

    2016-02-01

    While metamaterials are often desirable for near-field functions, such as perfect lensing, or cloaking, they are often quantified by their response to plane waves from the far field. Here, we present a theoretical analysis of the local density of states near lattices of discrete magnetic scatterers, i.e., the response to near field excitation by a point source. Based on a pointdipole theory using Ewald summation and an array scanning method, we can swiftly and semi-analytically evaluate the local density of states (LDOS) for magnetoelectric point sources in front of an infinite two-dimensional (2D) lattice composed of arbitrary magnetoelectric dipole scatterers. The method takes into account radiation damping as well as all retarded electrodynamic interactions in a self-consistent manner. We show that a lattice of magnetic scatterers evidences characteristic Drexhage oscillations. However, the oscillations are phase shifted relative to the electrically scattering lattice consistent with the difference expected for reflection off homogeneous magnetic respectively electric mirrors. Furthermore, we identify in which source-surface separation regimes the metasurface may be treated as a homogeneous interface, and in which homogenization fails. A strong frequency and in-plane position dependence of the LDOS close to the lattice reveals coupling to guided modes supported by the lattice.

  15. The local density of optical states of a metasurface

    PubMed Central

    Lunnemann, Per; Koenderink, A. Femius

    2016-01-01

    While metamaterials are often desirable for near-field functions, such as perfect lensing, or cloaking, they are often quantified by their response to plane waves from the far field. Here, we present a theoretical analysis of the local density of states near lattices of discrete magnetic scatterers, i.e., the response to near field excitation by a point source. Based on a pointdipole theory using Ewald summation and an array scanning method, we can swiftly and semi-analytically evaluate the local density of states (LDOS) for magnetoelectric point sources in front of an infinite two-dimensional (2D) lattice composed of arbitrary magnetoelectric dipole scatterers. The method takes into account radiation damping as well as all retarded electrodynamic interactions in a self-consistent manner. We show that a lattice of magnetic scatterers evidences characteristic Drexhage oscillations. However, the oscillations are phase shifted relative to the electrically scattering lattice consistent with the difference expected for reflection off homogeneous magnetic respectively electric mirrors. Furthermore, we identify in which source-surface separation regimes the metasurface may be treated as a homogeneous interface, and in which homogenization fails. A strong frequency and in-plane position dependence of the LDOS close to the lattice reveals coupling to guided modes supported by the lattice. PMID:26868601

  16. Adiabatic Quantum Search in Open Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Dominik S.; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Knap, Michael; Yao, Norman Y.; Lukin, Mikhail D.

    2016-10-01

    Adiabatic quantum algorithms represent a promising approach to universal quantum computation. In isolated systems, a key limitation to such algorithms is the presence of avoided level crossings, where gaps become extremely small. In open quantum systems, the fundamental robustness of adiabatic algorithms remains unresolved. Here, we study the dynamics near an avoided level crossing associated with the adiabatic quantum search algorithm, when the system is coupled to a generic environment. At zero temperature, we find that the algorithm remains scalable provided the noise spectral density of the environment decays sufficiently fast at low frequencies. By contrast, higher order scattering processes render the algorithm inefficient at any finite temperature regardless of the spectral density, implying that no quantum speedup can be achieved. Extensions and implications for other adiabatic quantum algorithms will be discussed.

  17. Global and local curvature in density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qing; Ioannidis, Efthymios I.; Kulik, Heather J.

    2016-08-01

    Piecewise linearity of the energy with respect to fractional electron removal or addition is a requirement of an electronic structure method that necessitates the presence of a derivative discontinuity at integer electron occupation. Semi-local exchange-correlation (xc) approximations within density functional theory (DFT) fail to reproduce this behavior, giving rise to deviations from linearity with a convex global curvature that is evidence of many-electron, self-interaction error and electron delocalization. Popular functional tuning strategies focus on reproducing piecewise linearity, especially to improve predictions of optical properties. In a divergent approach, Hubbard U-augmented DFT (i.e., DFT+U) treats self-interaction errors by reducing the local curvature of the energy with respect to electron removal or addition from one localized subshell to the surrounding system. Although it has been suggested that DFT+U should simultaneously alleviate global and local curvature in the atomic limit, no detailed study on real systems has been carried out to probe the validity of this statement. In this work, we show when DFT+U should minimize deviations from linearity and demonstrate that a "+U" correction will never worsen the deviation from linearity of the underlying xc approximation. However, we explain varying degrees of efficiency of the approach over 27 octahedral transition metal complexes with respect to transition metal (Sc-Cu) and ligand strength (CO, NH3, and H2O) and investigate select pathological cases where the delocalization error is invisible to DFT+U within an atomic projection framework. Finally, we demonstrate that the global and local curvatures represent different quantities that show opposing behavior with increasing ligand field strength, and we identify where these two may still coincide.

  18. Local Density of States for Single Impurity in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ling

    2011-12-01

    Graphene consists of an atom-thick layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, and its low-energy electronic excitations are well described as massless Dirac fermions with spin half and an additional pseudospin degree of freedom. Impurities in graphene can have a significant effect on the local electronic structure of graphene when the Fermi level is near the Dirac point. We study the local electronic spectra and real-space and k-space local density of state (LDOS) maps of graphene with different impurities (diagonal and non-diagonal impurity potential) such as vacancies, substitutional impurities, and adatoms. In the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, we use a linearization approximation for the energy dispersion and employ a T-matrix formalism to calculate the Green's function. We investigate the effect of an external magnetic field on the Friedel oscillations and impurity-induced resonant states. Using a multimode description for an scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip, we calculate STM currents for the substitutional and vacancies case and find that strong resonances in the LDOS at finite energies lead to the presence of steps in the STM current and suppression of the Fano factor. We also describe in detail the theory of scanning tunneling spectroscopy in graphene in the presence of adatoms, magnetic or not, with localized orbitals of arbitrary symmetry, corresponding to any given angular momentum state.We show that quantum interference effects which are naturally inbuilt in the honeycomb lattice, in combination with the orbital symmetry of the localized state, allow scanning tunneling probes to characterize adatoms and defects in graphene.

  19. Adiabatic Betatron deceleration of ionospheric charged particles: a new explanation for (i) the rapid outflow of ionospheric O ions, and for (ii) the increase of plasma mass density observed in magnetospheric flux tubes during main phases of geomagnetic s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Joseph; Pierrard, Viviane; Darrouzet, Fabien

    2013-04-01

    Using European arrays of magnetometers and the cross-phase analysis to determine magnetic field line resonance frequencies, it has been found by Kale et al. (2009) that the plasma mass density within plasmaspheric flux tubes increased rapidly after the SSC of the Hallowe'en 2003 geomagnetic storms. These observations tend to confirm other independent experimental results, suggesting that heavy ion up-flow from the ionosphere is responsible for the observed plasma density increases during main phases of geomagnetic storms. The aim of our contribution is to point out that, during main phases, reversible Betatron effect induced by the increase of the southward Dst-magnetic field component (|Δ Bz|), diminishes slightly the perpendicular kinetic energy (W?) of charged particles spiraling along field lines. Furthermore, due to the conservation of the first adiabatic invariant (μ = Wm/ Bm) the mirror points of all ionospheric ions and electrons are lifted up to higher altitudes i.e. where the mirror point magnetic field (Bm) is slightly smaller. Note that the change of the mirror point altitude is given by: Δ hm = -1/3 (RE + hm) Δ Bm / Bm. It is independent of the ion species and it does not depend of their kinetic energy. The change of kinetic energy is determined by: Δ Wm = Wm Δ Bm / Bm. Both of these equations have been verified numerically by Lemaire et al. (2005; doi: 10.1016/S0273-1177(03)00099-1) using trajectory calculations in a simple time-dependant B-field model: i.e. the Earth's magnetic dipole, plus an increasing southward B-field component: i.e. the Dst magnetic field whose intensity becomes more and more negative during the main phase of magnetic storms. They showed that a variation of Bz (or Dst) by more than - 50 nT significantly increases the mirror point altitudes by more than 100 km which is about equal to scale height of the plasma density in the topside ionosphere where particles are almost collisionless (see Fig. 2 in Lemaire et al., 2005

  20. Isothermal and Adiabatic Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNairy, William W.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the working of the Adiabatic Gas Law Apparatus, a useful tool for measuring the pressure, temperature, and volume of a variety of gases undergoing compressions and expansions. Describes the adaptation of this apparatus to perform isothermal measurements and discusses the theory behind the adiabatic and isothermal processes. (JRH)

  1. Pfaffian statistics through adiabatic transport in the 1D coherent state representation.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Recent work has shown that the low energy sector of certain quantum Hall states is adiabatically connected to simple charge-density-wave patterns that appear, e.g., when the system is deformed into a thin torus. Here it is shown that the patterns emerging in this limit already determine the non-Abelian statistics of the nu=1 Moore-Read state. Aside from the knowledge of these patterns, the method only relies on the principle of adiabatic continuity, the effectively noncommutative geometry in a strong magnetic field, and topological as well as locality arguments.

  2. Correction of localized shape errors on optical surfaces by altering the localized density of surface or near-surface layers

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, John S.; Folta, James A.; Montcalm, Claude

    2005-01-18

    Figure errors are corrected on optical or other precision surfaces by changing the local density of material in a zone at or near the surface. Optical surface height is correlated with the localized density of the material within the same region. A change in the height of the optical surface can then be caused by a change in the localized density of the material at or near the surface.

  3. Wireless adiabatic power transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Rangelov, A.A.; Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y.; Vitanov, N.V.

    2011-03-15

    Research Highlights: > Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. > The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

  4. Adiabatic invariance of oscillons/I -balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Takeda, Naoyuki

    2015-11-01

    Real scalar fields are known to fragment into spatially localized and long-lived solitons called oscillons or I -balls. We prove the adiabatic invariance of the oscillons/I -balls for a potential that allows periodic motion even in the presence of non-negligible spatial gradient energy. We show that such a potential is uniquely determined to be the quadratic one with a logarithmic correction, for which the oscillons/I -balls are absolutely stable. For slightly different forms of the scalar potential dominated by the quadratic one, the oscillons/I -balls are only quasistable, because the adiabatic charge is only approximately conserved. We check the conservation of the adiabatic charge of the I -balls in numerical simulation by slowly varying the coefficient of logarithmic corrections. This unambiguously shows that the longevity of oscillons/I -balls is due to the adiabatic invariance.

  5. Parallelizable adiabatic gate teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakago, Kosuke; Hajdušek, Michal; Nakayama, Shojun; Murao, Mio

    2015-12-01

    To investigate how a temporally ordered gate sequence can be parallelized in adiabatic implementations of quantum computation, we modify adiabatic gate teleportation, a model of quantum computation proposed by Bacon and Flammia [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 120504 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.120504], to a form deterministically simulating parallelized gate teleportation, which is achievable only by postselection. We introduce a twisted Heisenberg-type interaction Hamiltonian, a Heisenberg-type spin interaction where the coordinates of the second qubit are twisted according to a unitary gate. We develop parallelizable adiabatic gate teleportation (PAGT) where a sequence of unitary gates is performed in a single step of the adiabatic process. In PAGT, numeric calculations suggest the necessary time for the adiabatic evolution implementing a sequence of L unitary gates increases at most as O (L5) . However, we show that it has the interesting property that it can map the temporal order of gates to the spatial order of interactions specified by the final Hamiltonian. Using this property, we present a controlled-PAGT scheme to manipulate the order of gates by a control qubit. In the controlled-PAGT scheme, two differently ordered sequential unitary gates F G and G F are coherently performed depending on the state of a control qubit by simultaneously applying the twisted Heisenberg-type interaction Hamiltonians implementing unitary gates F and G . We investigate why the twisted Heisenberg-type interaction Hamiltonian allows PAGT. We show that the twisted Heisenberg-type interaction Hamiltonian has an ability to perform a transposed unitary gate by just modifying the space ordering of the final Hamiltonian implementing a unitary gate in adiabatic gate teleportation. The dynamics generated by the time-reversed Hamiltonian represented by the transposed unitary gate enables deterministic simulation of a postselected event of parallelized gate teleportation in adiabatic

  6. Thermodynamics versus Local Density Fluctuations in the Metal-Mott-Insulator Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewes, J. H.; Cocchi, E.; Miller, L. A.; Chan, C. F.; Pertot, D.; Brennecke, F.; Köhl, M.

    2016-09-01

    The crossover between a metal and a Mott insulator leads to a localization of fermions from delocalized Bloch states to localized states. We experimentally study this crossover using fermionic atoms in an optical lattice by measuring thermodynamic and local (on-site) density correlations. In the metallic phase at incommensurable filling we observe the violation of the local fluctuation-dissipation theorem indicating that the thermodynamics of the system cannot be characterized by local observables alone. In contrast, in the Mott insulator we observe the convergence of local and thermodynamic fluctuations indicating the absence of long-range density-density correlations.

  7. Adiabatic Mass Parameters for Spontaneous Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Baran, A.; Sheikh, J. A.; Nazarewicz, Witold

    2009-01-01

    The collective mass tensor derived from the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory, perturbative cranking approximation, and the Gaussian overlap approximation to the generator-coordinate method is discussed. Illustrative calculations are carried out for ^{252}Fm using the nuclear density functional theory with Skyrme interaction SkM* and seniority pairing.

  8. Adiabatic capture and debunching

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2012-03-01

    In the study of beam preparation for the g-2 experiment, adiabatic debunching and adiabatic capture are revisited. The voltage programs for these adiabbatic processes are derived and their properties discussed. Comparison is made with some other form of adiabatic capture program. The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab calls for intense proton bunches for the creation of muons. A booster batch of 84 bunches is injected into the Recycler Ring, where it is debunched and captured into 4 intense bunches with the 2.5-MHz rf. The experiment requires short bunches with total width less than 100 ns. The transport line from the Recycler to the muon-production target has a low momentum aperture of {approx} {+-}22 MeV. Thus each of the 4 intense proton bunches required to have an emittance less than {approx} 3.46 eVs. The incoming booster bunches have total emittance {approx} 8.4 eVs, or each one with an emittance {approx} 0.1 eVs. However, there is always emittance increase when the 84 booster bunches are debunched. There will be even larger emittance increase during adiabatic capture into the buckets of the 2.5-MHz rf. In addition, the incoming booster bunches may have emittances larger than 0.1 eVs. In this article, we will concentrate on the analysis of the adiabatic capture process with the intention of preserving the beam emittance as much as possible. At this moment, beam preparation experiment is being performed at the Main Injector. Since the Main Injector and the Recycler Ring have roughly the same lattice properties, we are referring to adiabatic capture in the Main Injector instead in our discussions.

  9. Adiabatic gate teleportation.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Dave; Flammia, Steven T

    2009-09-18

    The difficulty in producing precisely timed and controlled quantum gates is a significant source of error in many physical implementations of quantum computers. Here we introduce a simple universal primitive, adiabatic gate teleportation, which is robust to timing errors and many control errors and maintains a constant energy gap throughout the computation above a degenerate ground state space. This construction allows for geometric robustness based upon the control of two independent qubit interactions. Further, our piecewise adiabatic evolution easily relates to the quantum circuit model, enabling the use of standard methods from fault-tolerance theory for establishing thresholds.

  10. On adiabatic invariant in generalized Galileon theories

    SciTech Connect

    Ema, Yohei; Jinno, Ryusuke; Nakayama, Kazunori; Mukaida, Kyohei E-mail: jinno@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: kazunori@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2015-10-01

    We consider background dynamics of generalized Galileon theories in the context of inflation, where gravity and inflaton are non-minimally coupled to each other. In the inflaton oscillation regime, the Hubble parameter and energy density oscillate violently in many cases, in contrast to the Einstein gravity with minimally coupled inflaton. However, we find that there is an adiabatic invariant in the inflaton oscillation regime in any generalized Galileon theory. This adiabatic invariant is useful in estimating the expansion law of the universe and also the particle production rate due to the oscillation of the Hubble parameter.

  11. Spontaneous emission in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A.; Vitanov, N. V.; Bergmann, K.

    2005-11-15

    This work explores the effect of spontaneous emission on the population transfer efficiency in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). The approach uses adiabatic elimination of weakly coupled density matrix elements in the Liouville equation, from which a very accurate analytic approximation is derived. The loss of population transfer efficiency is found to decrease exponentially with the factor {omega}{sub 0}{sup 2}/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the spontaneous emission rate and {omega}{sub 0} is the peak Rabi frequency. The transfer efficiency increases with the pulse delay and reaches a steady value. For large pulse delay and large spontaneous emission rate STIRAP degenerates into optical pumping.

  12. Towards fault tolerant adiabatic quantum computation.

    PubMed

    Lidar, Daniel A

    2008-04-25

    I show how to protect adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) against decoherence and certain control errors, using a hybrid methodology involving dynamical decoupling, subsystem and stabilizer codes, and energy gaps. Corresponding error bounds are derived. As an example, I show how to perform decoherence-protected AQC against local noise using at most two-body interactions.

  13. Adiabatically implementing quantum gates

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jie; Lu, Songfeng Liu, Fang

    2014-06-14

    We show that, through the approach of quantum adiabatic evolution, all of the usual quantum gates can be implemented efficiently, yielding running time of order O(1). This may be considered as a useful alternative to the standard quantum computing approach, which involves quantum gates transforming quantum states during the computing process.

  14. Entanglement and adiabatic quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrensmeier, D.

    2006-06-01

    Adiabatic quantum computation provides an alternative approach to quantum computation using a time-dependent Hamiltonian. The time evolution of entanglement during the adiabatic quantum search algorithm is studied, and its relevance as a resource is discussed.

  15. Electron density power spectrum in the local interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.; Rickett, B. J.; Spangler, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    Interstellar scintillation (ISS), fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of radio waves caused by scattering in the interstellar medium, is important as a diagnostic of interstellar plasma turbulence. ISS is also of interest because it is noise for other radio astronomical observations. The unifying concern is the power spectrum of the interstellar electron density. Here we use ISS observations through the nearby (less than or approximately =1 kpc) (ISM) to estimate the spectrum. From measurements of angular broadening of pulsars and extragalactic sources, decorrelation bandwidth of pulsars, refractive steering of features in pulsar dynamic spectra, dispersion measured fluctuations of pulsars, and refractive scintillation index measurements, we construct a composite structure function that is approximately power law over 2 x 10(exp 6) m less than scale less than 10(exp 13) m. The data are consistent with the structure function having a logarithmic slope versus baseline less than 2; thus there is a meaningful connection between scales in the radiowave fluctuation field and the scales in the electron density field causing the scattering. The data give an upper limit to the inner scale, l(sub o) less than or approximately 10(exp 8) m and are consistent with much smaller values. We construct a composite electron density spectrum that is approximately power law over at least the approximately = 5 decade wavenumber range 10(exp -13)/m less than wavenumber less than 10(exp -8)/m and that may extend to higher wavenumbers. The average spectral index of electron density over this wavenumber range is approximately = 3.7, very close to the value expected for a Kolmogorov process. The outer scale size, L(sub o), must be greater than or approximately = 10(exp 13) m (determined from dispersion measure fluctuations). When the ISS data are combined with measurements of differential Faraday rotation angle, and gradients in the average electron density, constraints can be put on the

  16. Time-dependent local density measurements in unsteady flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, R. L.; Monson, D. J.; Exberger, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A laser-induced fluorescence technique for measuring the relative time-dependent density fluctuations in unsteady or turbulent flows is demonstrated. Using a 1.5-W continuous-wave Kr(+) laser, measurements have been obtained in 0.1-mm diameter by 1-mm-long sampling volumes in a Mach 3 flow of N2 seeded with biacetyl vapor. A signal amplitude resolution of 2% was achieved for a detection frequency bandwidth of 10 kHz. The measurement uncertainty was found to be dominated by noise behaving as photon statistical noise. The practical limits of signal-to-noise ratios have been characterized for a wide range of detection frequency bandwidths that encompasses those of interest in supersonic turbulence measurements.

  17. Time-dependent local density measurements in unsteady flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, R. L.; Monson, D. J.; Exberger, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A laser-induced fluorescence technique for measuring the relative time-dependent density fluctuations in unsteady or turbulent flows is demonstrated. Using a 1.5-W continuous-wave Kr(+) laser, measurements have been obtained in 0.1-mm-diameter by 1-mm-long sampling volumes in a Mach 3 flow of N2 seeded with biacetyl vapor. A signal amplitude resolution of 2% was achieved for a detection frequency bandwidth of 10 kHz. The measurement uncertainty was found to be dominated by noise behaving as photon statistical noise. The practical limits of signal-to-noise ratios have been characterized for a wide range of detection frequency bandwidths that encompasses those of interest in supersonic turbulence measurements.

  18. Local densities connect spatial ecology to game, multilevel selection and inclusive fitness theories of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Tekwa, Edward W; Gonzalez, Andrew; Loreau, Michel

    2015-09-01

    Cooperation plays a crucial role in many aspects of biology. We use the spatial ecological metrics of local densities to measure and model cooperative interactions. While local densities can be found as technical details in current theories, we aim to establish them as central to an approach that describes spatial effects in the evolution of cooperation. A resulting local interaction model neatly partitions various spatial and non-spatial selection mechanisms. Furthermore, local densities are shown to be fundamental for important metrics of game theory, multilevel selection theory and inclusive fitness theory. The corresponding metrics include structure coefficients, spatial variance, contextual covariance, relatedness, and inbreeding coefficient or F-statistics. Local densities serve as the basis of an emergent spatial theory that draws from and brings unity to multiple theories of cooperation.

  19. Multifluorophore localization as a percolation problem: limits to density and precision.

    PubMed

    Small, Alex

    2016-07-01

    We show that the maximum desirable density of activated fluorophores in a superresolution experiment can be determined by treating the overlapping point spread functions as a problem in percolation theory. We derive a bound on the density of activated fluorophores, taking into account the desired localization accuracy and precision, as well as the number of photons emitted. Our bound on density is close to that reported in experimental work, suggesting that further increases in the density of imaged fluorophores will come at the expense of localization accuracy and precision. PMID:27409704

  20. An association of magnetospheric whistler dispersion characteristics with changes in local plasma density.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.; Chappell, C. R.

    1973-01-01

    We use OGO 5 measurements made within the plasmapause on May 15, 1969, to investigate the possible association between changes in lightning whistler dispersion characteristics and local density fluctuations. It is shown that groups of whistlers with relatively constant dispersions tended to be detected in regions where the local ion concentration was significantly enhanced. It is assumed that these local density fluctuations represent characteristics of large-scale field-aligned variations. The results are then compared with ray refraction estimates appropriate for low-frequency whistler mode propagation (wave components with frequencies comparable to the local lower hybrid frequency) in a nonuniform medium.

  1. Adiabatic Halo Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzani, A.; Turchetti, G.; Benedetti, C.; Rambaldi, S.; Servizi, G.

    2005-06-08

    In a high intensity circular accelerator the synchrotron dynamics introduces a slow modulation in the betatronic tune due to the space-charge tune depression. When the transverse motion is non-linear due to the presence of multipolar effects, resonance islands move in the phase space and change their amplitude. This effect introduces the trapping and detrapping phenomenon and a slow diffusion in the phase space. We apply the neo-adiabatic theory to describe this diffusion mechanism that can contribute to halo formation.

  2. Spatially heterogeneous populations with mixed negative and positive local density dependence.

    PubMed

    Knipl, Diána; Röst, Gergely

    2016-06-01

    Identifying the steady states of a population is a key issue in theoretical ecology, that includes the study of spatially heterogeneous populations. There are several examples of real ecosystems in patchy environments where the habitats are heterogeneous in their local density dependence. We investigate a multi-patch model of a single species with spatial dispersal, where the growth of the local population is logistic in some localities (negative density dependence) while other patches exhibit a strong Allee effect (positive density dependence). When the local dynamics is logistic in each patch and the habitats are interconnected by dispersal then the total population has only the extinction steady state and a componentwise positive equilibrium, corresponding to persistence in each patch. We show that animal populations in patchy environments can have a large number of steady states if local density dependence varies over the locations. It is demonstrated that, depending on the network topology of migration routes between the patches, the interaction of spatial dispersal and local density dependence can create a variety of coexisting stable positive equilibria. We give a detailed description of the multiple ways dispersal can rescue local populations from extinction. PMID:26801607

  3. Theory of laser-induced adiabat shaping in inertial fusion implosions: The relaxation method

    SciTech Connect

    Betti, R.; Anderson, K.; Knauer, J.; Collins, T.J.B.; McCrory, R.L.; McKenty, P.W.; Skupsky, S.

    2005-04-15

    The theory of the adiabat shaping induced by a strong shock propagating through a relaxed density profile is carried out for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules. The relaxed profile is produced through a laser prepulse, while the adiabat-shaping shock is driven by the foot of the main laser pulse. The theoretical adiabat profiles accurately reproduce the simulation results. ICF capsules with a shaped adiabat are expected to benefit from improved hydrodynamic stability while maintaining the same one-dimensional performances as flat-adiabat shells.

  4. A Tomographic Method for the Reconstruction of Local Probability Density Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivathanu, Y. R.; Gore, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    A method of obtaining the probability density function (PDF) of local properties from path integrated measurements is described. The approach uses a discrete probability function (DPF) method to infer the PDF of the local extinction coefficient from measurements of the PDFs of the path integrated transmittance. The local PDFs obtained using the method are compared with those obtained from direct intrusive measurements in propylene/air and ethylene/air diffusion flames. The results of this comparison are good.

  5. Validity of local density prescriptions for microscopic calculations of proton nucleus elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Crespo, R.; Johnson, R.C.; Tostevin, J.A. )

    1994-12-01

    The validity of the local density approximation as applied to the construction of the nucleon-nucleus optical potential is studied. A Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) local equivalent potential to the second-order term of the Kerman, McManus, and Thaler (KMT) multiple scattering expansion of the nucleon nucleus optical potential is derived. Assuming that the nucleon-nucleon transition amplitude is on the energy shell, we compare the microscopic KMT optical potential with the approximate potential deduced from the nuclear matter limit by use of the local density approximation. Calculations are presented for the nucleon-[sup 16]O system at 135 and 200 MeV incident energies. It is shown that the use of the local density prescription leads to surface peaking of the optical potential. This effect is absent from the second-order term of the optical potential derived microscopically from the KMT approach.

  6. The effect of helmet liner density upon acceleration and local contact forces during bicycle helmet impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Terrance Alan

    In order to address the need to monitor local contact forces during head impacts, a custom transducer was designed to monitor local force distribution patterns on an ISO size E magnesium headform concurrently with linear acceleration measures from an accelerometer located at the center of gravity of the headform. The response characteristics of the transducer were found to be predictable and acceptable given the limitations of high speed data collection in a confined environment. During bicycle helmet testing, the output from the transducer was also found to be sensitive to ventilation openings and ventilation channels located on the underside of the helmet liner. The effect of helmet liner density upon local contact forces and headform acceleration was evaluated using an identical bicycle helmet model fabricated in four different helmet liner densities. The study found that peak headform acceleration and peak local contact sensor force values were significantly lower for the low density helmet liners when compared to the highest density of helmet liners during low to moderate energy impacts. During the high energy impact tests against the hemispherical anvil, the lower density helmets bottomed out, resulting in high local contact forces and high peak headform acceleration values relative to the higher density helmets. These results suggest that a tradeoff does exist in terms of the protection offered by low density helmets at low to moderate energy impacts compared to the performance of higher density helmets during the higher energy impacts. The study also found that a poor correlation exists between peak headform acceleration and local contact force suggesting that future head protection standards should include evaluation of the load distribution characteristics of the helmet.

  7. Adiabatic nanofocusing: spectroscopy, transport and imaging investigation of the nano world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giugni, A.; Allione, M.; Torre, B.; Das, G.; Francardi, M.; Moretti, M.; Malerba, M.; Perozziello, G.; Candeloro, P.; Di Fabrizio, E.

    2014-11-01

    Adiabatic compression plays a fundamental role in the realization of localized enhanced electromagnetic field hot spots, it provides the possibility to focus at nanoscale optical excitation. It differs from the well-known lightning rod effect since it is based on the lossless propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) up to a nano-sized metal tip where the energy density is largely enhanced. Here we discuss two important applications of adiabatic compression: Raman and hot electron spectroscopy at nanometric resolution. The underlying phenomena are the conversion of SPPs into photons or hot electrons. New scanning probe spectroscopy techniques along with experimental results are discussed. We foresee that these techniques will play a key role in relating the functional and structural properties of matter at the nanoscale.

  8. Adiabatic burst evaporation from bicontinuous nanoporous membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ichilmann, Sachar; Rücker, Kerstin; Haase, Markus; Enke, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation of volatile liquids from nanoporous media with bicontinuous morphology and pore diameters of a few 10 nm is an ubiquitous process. For example, such drying processes occur during syntheses of nanoporous materials by sol–gel chemistry or by spinodal decomposition in the presence of solvents as well as during solution impregnation of nanoporous hosts with functional guests. It is commonly assumed that drying is endothermic and driven by non-equilibrium partial pressures of the evaporating species in the gas phase. We show that nearly half of the liquid evaporates in an adiabatic mode involving burst-like liquid-to-gas conversions. During single adiabatic burst evaporation events liquid volumes of up to 107 μm3 are converted to gas. The adiabatic liquid-to-gas conversions occur if air invasion fronts get unstable because of the built-up of high capillary pressures. Adiabatic evaporation bursts propagate avalanche-like through the nanopore systems until the air invasion fronts have reached new stable configurations. Adiabatic cavitation bursts thus compete with Haines jumps involving air invasion front relaxation by local liquid flow without enhanced mass transport out of the nanoporous medium and prevail if the mean pore diameter is in the range of a few 10 nm. The results reported here may help optimize membrane preparation via solvent-based approaches, solution-loading of nanopore systems with guest materials as well as routine use of nanoporous membranes with bicontinuous morphology and may contribute to better understanding of adsorption/desorption processes in nanoporous media. PMID:25926406

  9. Towards improved local hybrid functionals by calibration of exchange-energy densities

    SciTech Connect

    Arbuznikov, Alexei V. E-mail: martin.kaupp@tu-berlin.de; Kaupp, Martin E-mail: martin.kaupp@tu-berlin.de

    2014-11-28

    A new approach for the calibration of (semi-)local and exact exchange-energy densities in the context of local hybrid functionals is reported. The calibration functions are derived from only the electron density and its spatial derivatives, avoiding spatial derivatives of the exact-exchange energy density or other computationally unfavorable contributions. The calibration functions fulfill the seven more important out of nine known exact constraints. It is shown that calibration improves substantially the definition of a non-dynamical correlation energy term for generalized gradient approximation (GGA)-based local hybrids. Moreover, gauge artifacts in the potential-energy curves of noble-gas dimers may be corrected by calibration. The developed calibration functions are then evaluated for a large range of energy-related properties (atomization energies, reaction barriers, ionization potentials, electron affinities, and total atomic energies) of three sets of local hybrids, using a simple one-parameter local-mixing. The functionals are based on (a) local spin-density approximation (LSDA) or (b) Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange and correlation, and on (c) Becke-88 (B88) exchange and Lee-Yang-Parr (LYP) correlation. While the uncalibrated GGA-based functionals usually provide very poor thermochemical data, calibration allows a dramatic improvement, accompanied by only a small deterioration of reaction barriers. In particular, an optimized BLYP-based local-hybrid functional has been found that is a substantial improvement over the underlying global hybrids, as well as over previously reported LSDA-based local hybrids. It is expected that the present calibration approach will pave the way towards new generations of more accurate hyper-GGA functionals based on a local mixing of exchange-energy densities.

  10. Towards improved local hybrid functionals by calibration of exchange-energy densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbuznikov, Alexei V.; Kaupp, Martin

    2014-11-01

    A new approach for the calibration of (semi-)local and exact exchange-energy densities in the context of local hybrid functionals is reported. The calibration functions are derived from only the electron density and its spatial derivatives, avoiding spatial derivatives of the exact-exchange energy density or other computationally unfavorable contributions. The calibration functions fulfill the seven more important out of nine known exact constraints. It is shown that calibration improves substantially the definition of a non-dynamical correlation energy term for generalized gradient approximation (GGA)-based local hybrids. Moreover, gauge artifacts in the potential-energy curves of noble-gas dimers may be corrected by calibration. The developed calibration functions are then evaluated for a large range of energy-related properties (atomization energies, reaction barriers, ionization potentials, electron affinities, and total atomic energies) of three sets of local hybrids, using a simple one-parameter local-mixing. The functionals are based on (a) local spin-density approximation (LSDA) or (b) Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange and correlation, and on (c) Becke-88 (B88) exchange and Lee-Yang-Parr (LYP) correlation. While the uncalibrated GGA-based functionals usually provide very poor thermochemical data, calibration allows a dramatic improvement, accompanied by only a small deterioration of reaction barriers. In particular, an optimized BLYP-based local-hybrid functional has been found that is a substantial improvement over the underlying global hybrids, as well as over previously reported LSDA-based local hybrids. It is expected that the present calibration approach will pave the way towards new generations of more accurate hyper-GGA functionals based on a local mixing of exchange-energy densities.

  11. Geometry of the Adiabatic Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobo, Augusto Cesar; Ribeiro, Rafael Antunes; Ribeiro, Clyffe de Assis; Dieguez, Pedro Ruas

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple and pedagogical derivation of the quantum adiabatic theorem for two-level systems (a single qubit) based on geometrical structures of quantum mechanics developed by Anandan and Aharonov, among others. We have chosen to use only the minimum geometric structure needed for the understanding of the adiabatic theorem for this case.…

  12. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Pérez, Marco E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Ayers, Paul W. E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Gázquez, José L. E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Vela, Alberto E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx

    2015-12-28

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model.

  13. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Ayers, Paul W; Gázquez, José L; Vela, Alberto

    2015-12-28

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model.

  14. Adiabatic Heating of Contracting Turbulent Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Brant; Goldreich, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Turbulence influences the behavior of many astrophysical systems, frequently by providing non-thermal pressure support through random bulk motions. Although turbulence is commonly studied in systems with constant volume and mean density, turbulent astrophysical gases often expand or contract under the influence of pressure or gravity. Here, we examine the behavior of turbulence in contracting volumes using idealized models of compressed gases. Employing numerical simulations and an analytical model, we identify a simple mechanism by which the turbulent motions of contracting gases "adiabatically heat," experiencing an increase in their random bulk velocities until the largest eddies in the gas circulate over a Hubble time of the contraction. Adiabatic heating provides a mechanism for sustaining turbulence in gases where no large-scale driving exists. We describe this mechanism in detail and discuss some potential applications to turbulence in astrophysical settings.

  15. ADIABATIC HEATING OF CONTRACTING TURBULENT FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Brant; Goldreich, Peter

    2012-05-10

    Turbulence influences the behavior of many astrophysical systems, frequently by providing non-thermal pressure support through random bulk motions. Although turbulence is commonly studied in systems with constant volume and mean density, turbulent astrophysical gases often expand or contract under the influence of pressure or gravity. Here, we examine the behavior of turbulence in contracting volumes using idealized models of compressed gases. Employing numerical simulations and an analytical model, we identify a simple mechanism by which the turbulent motions of contracting gases 'adiabatically heat', experiencing an increase in their random bulk velocities until the largest eddies in the gas circulate over a Hubble time of the contraction. Adiabatic heating provides a mechanism for sustaining turbulence in gases where no large-scale driving exists. We describe this mechanism in detail and discuss some potential applications to turbulence in astrophysical settings.

  16. 3D high-density localization microscopy using hybrid astigmatic/ biplane imaging and sparse image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Min, Junhong; Holden, Seamus J; Carlini, Lina; Unser, Michael; Manley, Suliana; Ye, Jong Chul

    2014-11-01

    Localization microscopy achieves nanoscale spatial resolution by iterative localization of sparsely activated molecules, which generally leads to a long acquisition time. By implementing advanced algorithms to treat overlapping point spread functions (PSFs), imaging of densely activated molecules can improve the limited temporal resolution, as has been well demonstrated in two-dimensional imaging. However, three-dimensional (3D) localization of high-density data remains challenging since PSFs are far more similar along the axial dimension than the lateral dimensions. Here, we present a new, high-density 3D imaging system and algorithm. The hybrid system is implemented by combining astigmatic and biplane imaging. The proposed 3D reconstruction algorithm is extended from our state-of-the art 2D high-density localization algorithm. Using mutual coherence analysis of model PSFs, we validated that the hybrid system is more suitable than astigmatic or biplane imaging alone for 3D localization of high-density data. The efficacy of the proposed method was confirmed via simulation and real data of microtubules. Furthermore, we also successfully demonstrated fluorescent-protein-based live cell 3D localization microscopy with a temporal resolution of just 3 seconds, capturing fast dynamics of the endoplasmic recticulum.

  17. A non-parametric method for measuring the local dark matter density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverwood, H.; Sivertsson, S.; Steger, P.; Read, J. I.; Bertone, G.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new method for determining the local dark matter density using kinematic data for a population of tracer stars. The Jeans equation in the z-direction is integrated to yield an equation that gives the velocity dispersion as a function of the total mass density, tracer density, and the `tilt' term that describes the coupling of vertical and radial motions. We then fit a dark matter mass profile to tracer density and velocity dispersion data to derive credible regions on the vertical dark matter density profile. Our method avoids numerical differentiation, leading to lower numerical noise, and is able to deal with the tilt term while remaining one dimensional. In this study we present the method and perform initial tests on idealized mock data. We also demonstrate the importance of dealing with the tilt term for tracers that sample ≳1 kpc above the disc plane. If ignored, this results in a systematic underestimation of the dark matter density.

  18. Star Formation as a Function of Neutral Hydrogen Gas Density in Local Group Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Erika K.; Madore, Barry F.; Freedman, Wendy L.

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of the efficiency and timescales of star formation as a function of local neutral hydrogen gas density in four Local Group galaxies: M33, NGC 6822, the LMC, and the SMC. In this work, we conceptualize the process of star formation as a cycle of two major phases - (1) a gas dynamics phase in which neutral hydrogen gas coalesces into clouds, and (2) a stellar phase in which stars have formed and interrupt further gas coalescence during their active lifetimes. By examining the spatial distribution and number densities of stars on maps of neutral hydrogen, we estimate the timescale of the gas coalescence phase relative to the timescale of the stellar phase and infer an efficiency of star formation as a function of neutral hydrogen gas density. From these timescales and efficiencies, we will calculate star formation rates as a function of neutral hydrogen gas density in these galaxies.

  19. Dissecting the roles of local packing density and longer-range effects in protein sequence evolution.

    PubMed

    Shahmoradi, Amir; Wilke, Claus O

    2016-06-01

    What are the structural determinants of protein sequence evolution? A number of site-specific structural characteristics have been proposed, most of which are broadly related to either the density of contacts or the solvent accessibility of individual residues. Most importantly, there has been disagreement in the literature over the relative importance of solvent accessibility and local packing density for explaining site-specific sequence variability in proteins. We show that this discussion has been confounded by the definition of local packing density. The most commonly used measures of local packing, such as contact number and the weighted contact number, represent the combined effects of local packing density and longer-range effects. As an alternative, we propose a truly local measure of packing density around a single residue, based on the Voronoi cell volume. We show that the Voronoi cell volume, when calculated relative to the geometric center of amino-acid side chains, behaves nearly identically to the relative solvent accessibility, and each individually can explain, on average, approximately 34% of the site-specific variation in evolutionary rate in a data set of 209 enzymes. An additional 10% of variation can be explained by nonlocal effects that are captured in the weighted contact number. Consequently, evolutionary variation at a site is determined by the combined effects of the immediate amino-acid neighbors of that site and effects mediated by more distant amino acids. We conclude that instead of contrasting solvent accessibility and local packing density, future research should emphasize on the relative importance of immediate contacts and longer-range effects on evolutionary variation. Proteins 2016; 84:841-854. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990194

  20. Electron density of local interstellar medium, based on the Voyager heliospheric-shock observations

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, V.B.

    1986-10-01

    Some implications of a model for the solar wind-local-interstellar-medium (LISM) interaction, comprising a bow shock and a heliospheric shock with a contact interface in between, are compared against the Voyager probe data. A fit can be achieved if the LISM electron density is somewhat higher than indicated by pulsar dispersion measurements. The theory is compatible with the hydrogen densities inferred from Copernicus and from the scattering solar L-alpha radiation. 14 references.

  1. Local-spin-density calculations for iron: Effect of spin interpolation on ground-state properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLaren, J. M.; Clougherty, D. P.; Albers, R. C.

    1990-08-01

    Scalar-relativistic self-consistent linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) calculations for bcc and fcc Fe have been performed with several different local approximations to the exchange and correlation energy density and potential. Overall, in contrast to the conclusions of previous studies, we find that the local-spin-density approximation to exchange and correlation can provide an adequate description of bulk Fe provided that a proper parametrization of the correlation energy density and potential of the homogeneous electron gas over both spin and density is used. Lattice constants, found from the position of the minimum of the total energy as a function of Wigner-Seitz radius, agree to within 1% (for s,p,d LMTO's only) and within 1-2% (for s,p,d,f LMTO's) of the experimental lattice constants for all forms used for the local correlation. The best agreement, however, was obtained using a local correlation potential derived from the Vosko-Wilk-Nusair form for the spin dependence of the correlation energy density. The calculation performed with this correlation potential was also the only calculation to correctly predict a bcc ferromagnetic ground state.

  2. Applying and assessing some semi-local density functionals for condensed matter physics and quantum chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Pan

    Density functional theory (DFT) is a widely used quantum mechanical method for the simulation of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, and solids. The only part that needs to be approximated is the exchange-correlation energy as a functional of the electron density. After many-year development, there is a huge variety of exchange-correlation functionals. According to the ingredients, an exchange-correlation functional can be classified as a semi-local functional or beyond. A semi-local functional can be nonempirical or empirical and only uses locality information, such as electron density, gradient of the density, Laplacian of the density, and kinetic energy density. Unlike a non-local functional that uses non-locality information, a semi-local functional is computationally efficient and can be applied to large systems. The meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA), which is the highest-level semi-local functional, has the potential to give a good description for condensed matter physics and quantum chemistry. We built the self-consistent revised Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (revTPSS) meta-GGA into the band-structure program BAND to test the performances of some self-consistent semi-local functionals on lattice constant with a 58-solid test set. The self-consistent effect of revTPSS was also discussed. The vibration of a crystal has a contribution to the ground state energy of a system, which is the zero-point energy at zero temperature. It has anharmonicity at the equilibrium geometry. The standard DFT doesn't consider the zero-point energy of a crystal. We used density functional perturbation theory (DFPT), which is a powerful and flexible theoretical technique within the density functional framework, to study the zero-point energy and make a correction to the lattice constant. The method was compared to a traditional zero-point anharmonic expansion method that is based on the Debye and Dugdale-MacDonald approximations. We also tested some new

  3. Kathu Townlands: a high density Earlier Stone Age locality in the interior of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Walker, Steven J H; Lukich, Vasa; Chazan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Kathu Townlands is a high density Earlier Stone Age locality in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Here we present the first detailed information on this locality based on analysis of a sample of lithic material from excavations by P. Beaumont and field observations made in the course of fieldwork in 2013. The results confirm the remarkably high artefact density at Kathu Townlands and do not provide evidence consistent with high energy transport as a mechanism of site formation, suggesting that Kathu Townlands was the site of intensive exploitation of highly siliceous outcroppings of banded iron formation. The results presented here provide a first step towards understanding this complex locality and point to the need for further research and the importance of preserving this locality in the face of intensive and rapid development.

  4. Kathu Townlands: A High Density Earlier Stone Age Locality in the Interior of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Steven J. H.; Lukich, Vasa; Chazan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Kathu Townlands is a high density Earlier Stone Age locality in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Here we present the first detailed information on this locality based on analysis of a sample of lithic material from excavations by P. Beaumont and field observations made in the course of fieldwork in 2013. The results confirm the remarkably high artefact density at Kathu Townlands and do not provide evidence consistent with high energy transport as a mechanism of site formation, suggesting that Kathu Townlands was the site of intensive exploitation of highly siliceous outcroppings of banded iron formation. The results presented here provide a first step towards understanding this complex locality and point to the need for further research and the importance of preserving this locality in the face of intensive and rapid development. PMID:25058317

  5. Guided Cell Migration on Microtextured Substrates with Variable Local Density and Anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deok-Ho; Seo, Chang-Ho; Han, Karam; Kwon, Keon Woo; Levchenko, Andre; Suh, Kahp-Yang

    2009-01-01

    This work reports the design of and experimentation with a topographically patterned cell culture substrate of variable local density and anisotropy as a facile and efficient platform to guide the organization and migration of cells in spatially desirable patterns. Using UV-assisted capillary force lithography, an optically transparent microstructured layer of a UV curable poly(urethane acrylate) resin is fabricated and employed as a cell-culture substrate after coating with fibronectin. With variable local pattern density and anisotropy present in a single cell-culture substrate, the differential polarization of cell morphology and movement in a single experiment is quantitatively characterized. It is found that cell shape and velocity are exquisitely sensitive to variation in the local anisotropy of the two-dimensional rectangular lattice arrays, with cell elongation and speed decreasing on symmetric lattice patterns. It is also found that cells could integrate orthogonal spatial cues when determining the direction of cell orientation and movement. Furthermore, cells preferentially migrate toward the topographically denser areas from sparser ones. Consistent with these results, it is demonstrated that systematic variation of local densities of rectangular lattice arrays enable a planar assembly of cells into a specified location. It is envisioned that lithographically defined substrates of variable local density and anisotropy not only provide a new route to tailoring the cell-material interface but could serve as a template for advanced tissue engineering. PMID:20046799

  6. Method for Determining Local Current Density in 2G HTS Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bludova, A. I.

    Practically important problem is to determine the density and direction of 2G HTS induced currents at each point on the tape in order to examine its local deviations. This problem is resolved indirectly by spatial measurement of generated magnetic field with a scanning Hall sensor at a given height above the tape surface. Current density is subsequently determined by the Biot-Savart law inversion in Fourier domain. Tikhonov regularization is used in order to increase precision. Method is verified with the model current density reconstruction. Optimal calculation parameters and resulting precision are described.

  7. Local current density measurement using a Rogowski probe in Tokyo Spherical Tokamak-2.

    PubMed

    Furui, H; Nagashima, Y; Takase, Y; Ejiri, A; Kakuda, H; Sonehara, M; Oosako, T; Tsujii, N; Hiratsuka, J; Imamura, K; Inada, T; Nakamura, K; Nakanishi, A; Shinya, T; Togashi, H; Tsuda, S; Wakatsuki, T; Yamaguchi, T

    2014-11-01

    A Rogowski probe consisting of a small multi-layer Rogowski coil, five magnetic pick-up coils, and a Langmuir probe was developed to measure the local current density and its direction. It can be moved along the major radius and can be turned around its axis. This probe was used to measure the current density profile near the last closed flux surface of Ohmic plasmas in Tokyo Spherical Tokamak-2. The current density profile was measured successfully with a signal to noise ratio of greater than 20.

  8. Non-adiabatic dark fluid cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Hipólito-Ricaldi, W.S.; Velten, H.E.S.; Zimdahl, W. E-mail: velten@cce.ufes.br

    2009-06-01

    We model the dark sector of the cosmic substratum by a viscous fluid with an equation of state p = −ζΘ, where Θ is the fluid-expansion scalar and ζ is the coefficient of bulk viscosity for which we assume a dependence ζ∝ρ{sup ν} on the energy density ρ. The homogeneous and isotropic background dynamics coincides with that of a generalized Chaplygin gas with equation of state p = −A/ρ{sup α}. The perturbation dynamics of the viscous model, however, is intrinsically non-adiabatic and qualitatively different from the Chaplygin-gas case. In particular, it avoids short-scale instabilities and/or oscillations which apparently have ruled out unified models of the Chaplygin-gas type. We calculate the matter power spectrum and demonstrate that the non-adiabatic model is compatible with the data from the 2dFGRS and the SDSS surveys. A χ{sup 2}-analysis shows, that for certain parameter combinations the viscous-dark-fluid (VDF) model is well competitive with the ΛCDM model. These results indicate that non-adiabatic unified models can be seen as potential contenders for a General-Relativity-based description of the cosmic substratum.

  9. Communication: Near-locality of exchange and correlation density functionals for 1- and 2-electron systems.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianwei; Perdew, John P; Yang, Zenghui; Peng, Haowei

    2016-05-21

    The uniform electron gas and the hydrogen atom play fundamental roles in condensed matter physics and quantum chemistry. The former has an infinite number of electrons uniformly distributed over the neutralizing positively charged background, and the latter only one electron bound to the proton. The uniform electron gas was used to derive the local spin density approximation to the exchange-correlation functional that undergirds the development of the Kohn-Sham density functional theory. We show here that the ground-state exchange-correlation energies of the hydrogen atom and many other 1- and 2-electron systems are modeled surprisingly well by a different local spin density approximation (LSDA0). LSDA0 is constructed to satisfy exact constraints but agrees surprisingly well with the exact results for a uniform two-electron density in a finite, curved three-dimensional space. We also apply LSDA0 to excited or noded 1-electron densities, where it works less well. Furthermore, we show that the localization of the exact exchange hole for a 1- or 2-electron ground state can be measured by the ratio of the exact exchange energy to its optimal lower bound. PMID:27208927

  10. Communication: Near-locality of exchange and correlation density functionals for 1- and 2-electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianwei; Perdew, John P.; Yang, Zenghui; Peng, Haowei

    2016-05-01

    The uniform electron gas and the hydrogen atom play fundamental roles in condensed matter physics and quantum chemistry. The former has an infinite number of electrons uniformly distributed over the neutralizing positively charged background, and the latter only one electron bound to the proton. The uniform electron gas was used to derive the local spin density approximation to the exchange-correlation functional that undergirds the development of the Kohn-Sham density functional theory. We show here that the ground-state exchange-correlation energies of the hydrogen atom and many other 1- and 2-electron systems are modeled surprisingly well by a different local spin density approximation (LSDA0). LSDA0 is constructed to satisfy exact constraints but agrees surprisingly well with the exact results for a uniform two-electron density in a finite, curved three-dimensional space. We also apply LSDA0 to excited or noded 1-electron densities, where it works less well. Furthermore, we show that the localization of the exact exchange hole for a 1- or 2-electron ground state can be measured by the ratio of the exact exchange energy to its optimal lower bound.

  11. Examining local processes when applying a cumulative impact policy to address harms of alcohol outlet density.

    PubMed

    Grace, Daniel; Egan, Matt; Lock, Karen

    2016-07-01

    One approach to addressing the negative health and social harms of excessive drinking has been to attempt to limit alcohol availability in areas of high outlet density. The Licensing Act (2003) enables English local authorities the power to implement a Cumulative Impact Policy (CIP) in order to tackle alcohol challenges. More than 100 English local authorities have implemented a CIP in one or more designated areas. We examined local licence decision-making in the context of implementing CIPs. Specifically, we explored the activities involved in alcohol licensing in one London local authority in order to explicate how local decision-making processes regarding alcohol outlet density occur. Institutional ethnographic research revealed that CIPs were contested on multiple grounds within the statutory licensing process of a local authority with this policy in place. CIPs are an example of multi-level governance in which national and local interests, legal powers and alcohol licensing priorities interface. Public health priorities can be advanced in the delivery of CIPs, but those priorities can at times be diluted by those of other stakeholders, both public sector and commercial. PMID:27197092

  12. Comment on 'Intermolecular interaction potentials of the methane dimer from the local density approximation'

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Arvin H.-T.; Chao, S.D.

    2006-01-15

    To verify the recently calculated intermolecular interaction potentials of the methane dimer within the density functional theory using the (Perdew) local density approximation (LDA) [Chen et al., Phys. Rev. A 69, 034701 (2004)], we have performed a parallel series of calculations using the LDA/6-311++G (3df, 3pd) level of theory with selected exchange functionals (B, G96, MPW, O, PBE, PW91, S, and XA). None of the above calculated intermolecular interaction potentials from the local density approximation reproduce the results reported in the commented paper. In addition, we point out the inappropriateness of using the Lennard-Jones function to model the long-range parts of the calculated intermolecular interaction potentials, as suggested positively by Chen et al.

  13. Definition of current density in the presence of a non-local potential.

    PubMed

    Li, Changsheng; Wan, Langhui; Wei, Yadong; Wang, Jian

    2008-04-16

    In the presence of a non-local potential arising from electron-electron interaction, the conventional definition of current density J(c) = (e/2m)([(p-eA)ψ](*)ψ-ψ(*)[(p-eA)ψ]) cannot satisfy the condition of current conservation, i.e., [Formula: see text] in the steady state. In order to solve this problem, we give a new definition of current density including the contribution due to the non-local potential. We show that the current calculated based on the new definition of current density conserves the current and is the same as that obtained from the Landauer-Büttiker formula. Examples are given to demonstrate our results.

  14. Measurement of local current density of all-vanadium redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Yen; Leu, Chih-Hsing; Wu, Chun-Hsing; Chen, Yong-Song

    2014-12-01

    This article presents a preliminary study of the measurement of local current density in all-vanadium redox flow batteries. Two batteries are designed and manufactured in this study, and the experimental results are compared. In the first cell, the current collector is divided into 25 segments, and the flow field plate is not segmented, whereas in the other cell, the flow field plate is segmented. The effects of the electrolyte flow rate on the battery efficiencies and the local current density variation are investigated. The experimental results show that the current density near the outlet significantly decreases when the discharge capacity approaches zero. In addition, the battery has a larger discharge depth at a higher electrolyte flow rate.

  15. Local electric dipole moments for periodic systems via density functional theory embedding.

    PubMed

    Luber, Sandra

    2014-12-21

    We describe a novel approach for the calculation of local electric dipole moments for periodic systems. Since the position operator is ill-defined in periodic systems, maximally localized Wannier functions based on the Berry-phase approach are usually employed for the evaluation of local contributions to the total electric dipole moment of the system. We propose an alternative approach: within a subsystem-density functional theory based embedding scheme, subset electric dipole moments are derived without any additional localization procedure, both for hybrid and non-hybrid exchange-correlation functionals. This opens the way to a computationally efficient evaluation of local electric dipole moments in (molecular) periodic systems as well as their rigorous splitting into atomic electric dipole moments. As examples, Infrared spectra of liquid ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are presented, which are commonly employed as solvents in Lithium ion batteries. PMID:25527922

  16. Local electric dipole moments for periodic systems via density functional theory embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luber, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    We describe a novel approach for the calculation of local electric dipole moments for periodic systems. Since the position operator is ill-defined in periodic systems, maximally localized Wannier functions based on the Berry-phase approach are usually employed for the evaluation of local contributions to the total electric dipole moment of the system. We propose an alternative approach: within a subsystem-density functional theory based embedding scheme, subset electric dipole moments are derived without any additional localization procedure, both for hybrid and non-hybrid exchange-correlation functionals. This opens the way to a computationally efficient evaluation of local electric dipole moments in (molecular) periodic systems as well as their rigorous splitting into atomic electric dipole moments. As examples, Infrared spectra of liquid ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are presented, which are commonly employed as solvents in Lithium ion batteries.

  17. Coral reef degradation is not correlated with local human population density.

    PubMed

    Bruno, John F; Valdivia, Abel

    2016-01-01

    The global decline of reef-building corals is understood to be due to a combination of local and global stressors. However, many reef scientists assume that local factors predominate and that isolated reefs, far from human activities, are generally healthier and more resilient. Here we show that coral reef degradation is not correlated with human population density. This suggests that local factors such as fishing and pollution are having minimal effects or that their impacts are masked by global drivers such as ocean warming. Our results also suggest that the effects of local and global stressors are antagonistic, rather than synergistic as widely assumed. These findings indicate that local management alone cannot restore coral populations or increase the resilience of reefs to large-scale impacts. They also highlight the truly global reach of anthropogenic warming and the immediate need for drastic and sustained cuts in carbon emissions. PMID:27435659

  18. Coral reef degradation is not correlated with local human population density

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, John F.; Valdivia, Abel

    2016-01-01

    The global decline of reef-building corals is understood to be due to a combination of local and global stressors. However, many reef scientists assume that local factors predominate and that isolated reefs, far from human activities, are generally healthier and more resilient. Here we show that coral reef degradation is not correlated with human population density. This suggests that local factors such as fishing and pollution are having minimal effects or that their impacts are masked by global drivers such as ocean warming. Our results also suggest that the effects of local and global stressors are antagonistic, rather than synergistic as widely assumed. These findings indicate that local management alone cannot restore coral populations or increase the resilience of reefs to large-scale impacts. They also highlight the truly global reach of anthropogenic warming and the immediate need for drastic and sustained cuts in carbon emissions. PMID:27435659

  19. Coral reef degradation is not correlated with local human population density.

    PubMed

    Bruno, John F; Valdivia, Abel

    2016-07-20

    The global decline of reef-building corals is understood to be due to a combination of local and global stressors. However, many reef scientists assume that local factors predominate and that isolated reefs, far from human activities, are generally healthier and more resilient. Here we show that coral reef degradation is not correlated with human population density. This suggests that local factors such as fishing and pollution are having minimal effects or that their impacts are masked by global drivers such as ocean warming. Our results also suggest that the effects of local and global stressors are antagonistic, rather than synergistic as widely assumed. These findings indicate that local management alone cannot restore coral populations or increase the resilience of reefs to large-scale impacts. They also highlight the truly global reach of anthropogenic warming and the immediate need for drastic and sustained cuts in carbon emissions.

  20. Local electric dipole moments for periodic systems via density functional theory embedding

    SciTech Connect

    Luber, Sandra

    2014-12-21

    We describe a novel approach for the calculation of local electric dipole moments for periodic systems. Since the position operator is ill-defined in periodic systems, maximally localized Wannier functions based on the Berry-phase approach are usually employed for the evaluation of local contributions to the total electric dipole moment of the system. We propose an alternative approach: within a subsystem-density functional theory based embedding scheme, subset electric dipole moments are derived without any additional localization procedure, both for hybrid and non-hybrid exchange–correlation functionals. This opens the way to a computationally efficient evaluation of local electric dipole moments in (molecular) periodic systems as well as their rigorous splitting into atomic electric dipole moments. As examples, Infrared spectra of liquid ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are presented, which are commonly employed as solvents in Lithium ion batteries.

  1. Differentiability in density-functional theory: Further study of the locality theorem

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, Ingvar; Salomonson, Sten

    2004-09-01

    The locality theorem in density-functional theory (DFT) states that the functional derivative of the Hohenberg-Kohn universal functional can be expressed as a local multiplicative potential function, and this is the basis of DFT and of the successful Kohn-Sham model. Nesbet has in several papers [Phys. Rev. A 58, R12 (1998); ibid.65, 010502 (2001); Adv. Quant. Chem, 43, 1 (2003)] claimed that this theorem is in conflict with fundamental quantum physics, and as a consequence that the Hohenberg-Kohn theory cannot be generally valid. We have commented upon these works [Comment, Phys. Rev. A 67, 056501 (2003)] and recently extended the arguments [Adv. Quantum Chem. 43, 95 (2003)]. We have shown that there is no such conflict and that the locality theorem is inherently exact. In the present work we have furthermore verified this numerically by constructing a local Kohn-Sham potential for the 1s2s{sup 3}S state of helium that generates the many-body electron density and shown that the corresponding 2s Kohn-Sham orbital eigenvalue agrees with the ionization energy to nine digits. Similar result is obtained with the Hartree-Fock density. Therefore, in addition to verifying the locality theorem, this result also confirms the so-called ionization-potential theorem.

  2. Adiabatic fluctuations from cosmic strings in a contracting universe

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Takahashi, Tomo; Yamaguchi, Masahide E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2009-07-01

    We show that adiabatic, super-Hubble, and almost scale invariant density fluctuations are produced by cosmic strings in a contracting universe. An essential point is that isocurvature perturbations produced by topological defects such as cosmic strings on super-Hubble scales lead to a source term which seeds the growth of curvature fluctuations on these scales. Once the symmetry has been restored at high temperatures, the isocurvature seeds disappear, and the fluctuations evolve as adiabatic ones in the expanding phase. Thus, cosmic strings may be resurrected as a mechanism for generating the primordial density fluctuations observed today.

  3. Localization and delocalization errors in density functional theory and implications for band-gap prediction.

    PubMed

    Mori-Sánchez, Paula; Cohen, Aron J; Yang, Weitao

    2008-04-11

    The band-gap problem and other systematic failures of approximate exchange-correlation functionals are explained from an analysis of total energy for fractional charges. The deviation from the correct intrinsic linear behavior in finite systems leads to delocalization and localization errors in large and bulk systems. Functionals whose energy is convex for fractional charges such as the local density approximation display an incorrect apparent linearity in the bulk limit, due to the delocalization error. Concave functionals also have an incorrect apparent linearity in the bulk calculation, due to the localization error and imposed symmetry. This resolves an apparent paradox and identifies the physical nature of the error to be addressed to obtain accurate band gaps from density functional theory.

  4. RECONSTRUCTING THE INITIAL DENSITY FIELD OF THE LOCAL UNIVERSE: METHODS AND TESTS WITH MOCK CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Yang Xiaohu; Van den Bosch, Frank C.

    2013-07-20

    Our research objective in this paper is to reconstruct an initial linear density field, which follows the multivariate Gaussian distribution with variances given by the linear power spectrum of the current cold dark matter model and evolves through gravitational instabilities to the present-day density field in the local universe. For this purpose, we develop a Hamiltonian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to obtain the linear density field from a posterior probability function that consists of two components: a prior of a Gaussian density field with a given linear spectrum and a likelihood term that is given by the current density field. The present-day density field can be reconstructed from galaxy groups using the method developed in Wang et al. Using a realistic mock Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7, obtained by populating dark matter halos in the Millennium simulation (MS) with galaxies, we show that our method can effectively and accurately recover both the amplitudes and phases of the initial, linear density field. To examine the accuracy of our method, we use N-body simulations to evolve these reconstructed initial conditions to the present day. The resimulated density field thus obtained accurately matches the original density field of the MS in the density range 0.3{approx}<{rho}/ {rho}-bar {approx}<20 without any significant bias. In particular, the Fourier phases of the resimulated density fields are tightly correlated with those of the original simulation down to a scale corresponding to a wavenumber of {approx}1 h Mpc{sup -1}, much smaller than the translinear scale, which corresponds to a wavenumber of {approx}0.15 h Mpc{sup -1}.

  5. Bounds on the local energy density of holographic CFTs from bulk geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischetti, Sebastian; Hickling, Andrew; Wiseman, Toby

    2016-11-01

    The stress tensor is a basic local operator in any field theory; in the context of AdS/CFT, it is the operator which is dual to the bulk geometry itself. Here we exploit this feature by using the bulk geometry to place constraints on the local energy density in static states of holographic (2+1)-dimensional CFTs living on a closed (but otherwise generally curved) spatial geometry. We allow for the presence of a marginal scalar deformation, dual to a massless scalar field in the bulk. For certain vacuum states in which the bulk geometry is well-behaved at zero temperature, we find that the bulk equations of motion imply that the local energy density integrated over specific boundary domains is negative. In the absence of scalar deformations, we use the inverse mean curvature flow to show that if the CFT spatial geometry has spherical topology but non-constant curvature, the local energy density must be positive somewhere. This result extends to other topologies, but only for certain types of vacuum; in particular, for a generic toroidal boundary, the vacuum’s bulk dual must be the zero-temperature limit of a toroidal black hole.

  6. Local and Landscape Correlates of Spider Activity Density and Species Richness in Urban Gardens.

    PubMed

    Otoshi, Michelle D; Bichier, Peter; Philpott, Stacy M

    2015-08-01

    Urbanization is a major threat to arthropod biodiversity and abundance due to reduction and loss of suitable natural habitat. Green spaces and small-scale agricultural areas may provide habitat and resources for arthropods within densely developed cities. We studied spider activity density (a measure of both abundance and degree of movement) and diversity in urban gardens in Santa Cruz, Santa Clara, and Monterey counties in central California, USA. We sampled for spiders with pitfall traps and sampled 38 local site characteristics for 5 mo in 19 garden sites to determine the relative importance of individual local factors. We also analyzed 16 landscape variables at 500-m and 1-km buffers surrounding each garden to determine the significance of landscape factors. We identified individuals from the most common families to species and identified individuals from other families to morphospecies. Species from the families Lycosidae and Gnaphosidae composed 81% of total adult spider individuals. Most of the significant factors that correlated with spider activity density and richness were local rather than landscape factors. Spider activity density and richness increased with mulch cover and flowering plant species, and decreased with bare soil. Thus, changes in local garden management have the potential to promote diversity of functionally important spiders in urban environments. PMID:26314049

  7. Local and Landscape Correlates of Spider Activity Density and Species Richness in Urban Gardens.

    PubMed

    Otoshi, Michelle D; Bichier, Peter; Philpott, Stacy M

    2015-08-01

    Urbanization is a major threat to arthropod biodiversity and abundance due to reduction and loss of suitable natural habitat. Green spaces and small-scale agricultural areas may provide habitat and resources for arthropods within densely developed cities. We studied spider activity density (a measure of both abundance and degree of movement) and diversity in urban gardens in Santa Cruz, Santa Clara, and Monterey counties in central California, USA. We sampled for spiders with pitfall traps and sampled 38 local site characteristics for 5 mo in 19 garden sites to determine the relative importance of individual local factors. We also analyzed 16 landscape variables at 500-m and 1-km buffers surrounding each garden to determine the significance of landscape factors. We identified individuals from the most common families to species and identified individuals from other families to morphospecies. Species from the families Lycosidae and Gnaphosidae composed 81% of total adult spider individuals. Most of the significant factors that correlated with spider activity density and richness were local rather than landscape factors. Spider activity density and richness increased with mulch cover and flowering plant species, and decreased with bare soil. Thus, changes in local garden management have the potential to promote diversity of functionally important spiders in urban environments.

  8. Quasi-particle energy spectra in local reduced density matrix functional theory.

    PubMed

    Lathiotakis, Nektarios N; Helbig, Nicole; Rubio, Angel; Gidopoulos, Nikitas I

    2014-10-28

    Recently, we introduced [N. N. Lathiotakis, N. Helbig, A. Rubio, and N. I. Gidopoulos, Phys. Rev. A 90, 032511 (2014)] local reduced density matrix functional theory (local RDMFT), a theoretical scheme capable of incorporating static correlation effects in Kohn-Sham equations. Here, we apply local RDMFT to molecular systems of relatively large size, as a demonstration of its computational efficiency and its accuracy in predicting single-electron properties from the eigenvalue spectrum of the single-particle Hamiltonian with a local effective potential. We present encouraging results on the photoelectron spectrum of molecular systems and the relative stability of C20 isotopes. In addition, we propose a modelling of the fractional occupancies as functions of the orbital energies that further improves the efficiency of the method useful in applications to large systems and solids. PMID:25362285

  9. Quasi-particle energy spectra in local reduced density matrix functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lathiotakis, Nektarios N.; Helbig, Nicole; Rubio, Angel

    2014-10-28

    Recently, we introduced [N. N. Lathiotakis, N. Helbig, A. Rubio, and N. I. Gidopoulos, Phys. Rev. A 90, 032511 (2014)] local reduced density matrix functional theory (local RDMFT), a theoretical scheme capable of incorporating static correlation effects in Kohn-Sham equations. Here, we apply local RDMFT to molecular systems of relatively large size, as a demonstration of its computational efficiency and its accuracy in predicting single-electron properties from the eigenvalue spectrum of the single-particle Hamiltonian with a local effective potential. We present encouraging results on the photoelectron spectrum of molecular systems and the relative stability of C{sub 20} isotopes. In addition, we propose a modelling of the fractional occupancies as functions of the orbital energies that further improves the efficiency of the method useful in applications to large systems and solids.

  10. Multiple Vehicle Cooperative Localization with Spatial Registration Based on a Probability Hypothesis Density Filter

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feihu; Buckl, Christian; Knoll, Alois

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of multiple vehicle cooperative localization with spatial registration in the formulation of the probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter. Assuming vehicles are equipped with proprioceptive and exteroceptive sensors (with biases) to cooperatively localize positions, a simultaneous solution for joint spatial registration and state estimation is proposed. For this, we rely on the sequential Monte Carlo implementation of the PHD filtering. Compared to other methods, the concept of multiple vehicle cooperative localization with spatial registration is first proposed under Random Finite Set Theory. In addition, the proposed solution also addresses the challenges for multiple vehicle cooperative localization, e.g., the communication bandwidth issue and data association uncertainty. The simulation result demonstrates its reliability and feasibility in large-scale environments. PMID:24406860

  11. Phototactic number-density flux in the localized bioconvection of Euglena gracilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Erika; Suematsu, Nobuhiko; Nishimori, Hiraku; Awazu, Akinori; Izumi, Shunsuke; Iima, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    Euglena gracilis is a unicellular phototactic flagellate; it escapes from light sources if the light intensity is higher than 200 W/m2 (negative phototaxis). When the suspension of E. gracilis is illuminated from the bottom by strong light, bioconvection patterns are generated. In the case of E. gracilis, the patterns can be spatially localized. The localization mechanism has not been clarified. We report experimental results related to the localization mechanism. In particular, we experimentally measured the strength of the phototaxis in the lateral direction as well as vertical direction. We prepared a thin container in which the suspension is included, and gave the linearly-changing light intensity. We found the number density gets a peak at a particular light intensity, which never happens if the suspension has the vertical phototaxis only. Further, we succeeded in getting the function representing lateral phototaxis. The relationship between the measured functions and the localized convection cells will be also reported.

  12. Evidence for a ~300 Megaparsec Scale Under-density in the Local Galaxy Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, R. C.; Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.

    2013-09-01

    Galaxy counts and recent measurements of the luminosity density in the near-infrared have indicated the possibility that the local universe may be under-dense on scales of several hundred megaparsecs. The presence of a large-scale under-density in the local universe could introduce significant biases into the interpretation of cosmological observables, and, in particular, into the inferred effects of dark energy on the expansion rate. Here we measure the K-band luminosity density as a function of redshift to test for such a local under-density. For our primary sample in this study, we select galaxies from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and use spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Two-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey, the Galaxy And Mass Assembly Survey (GAMA), and other redshift surveys to generate a K-selected catalog of ~35, 000 galaxies that is ~95% spectroscopically complete at K AB < 16.3 (K AB < 17 in the GAMA fields). To complement this sample at low redshifts, we also analyze a K-selected sample from the 2M++ catalog, which combines Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) photometry with redshifts from the 2MASS redshift survey, the Six-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey, and the SDSS. The combination of these samples allows for a detailed measurement of the K-band luminosity density as a function of distance over the redshift range 0.01 < z < 0.2 (radial distances D ~ 50-800 h_{70}^{-1} Mpc). We find that the overall shape of the z = 0 rest-frame K-band luminosity function (M*-5log (h 70) = -22.15 ± 0.04 and α = -1.02 ± 0.03) appears to be relatively constant as a function of environment and distance from us. We find a local (z < 0.07, D < 300 h_{70}^{-1} Mpc) luminosity density that is in good agreement with previous studies. Beyond z ~ 0.07, we detect a rising luminosity density that reaches a value of roughly ~1.5 times higher than that measured locally at z > 0.1. This suggests that the stellar mass density as a function of

  13. EVIDENCE FOR A ∼300 MEGAPARSEC SCALE UNDER-DENSITY IN THE LOCAL GALAXY DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, R. C.; Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.

    2013-09-20

    Galaxy counts and recent measurements of the luminosity density in the near-infrared have indicated the possibility that the local universe may be under-dense on scales of several hundred megaparsecs. The presence of a large-scale under-density in the local universe could introduce significant biases into the interpretation of cosmological observables, and, in particular, into the inferred effects of dark energy on the expansion rate. Here we measure the K-band luminosity density as a function of redshift to test for such a local under-density. For our primary sample in this study, we select galaxies from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and use spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Two-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey, the Galaxy And Mass Assembly Survey (GAMA), and other redshift surveys to generate a K-selected catalog of ∼35, 000 galaxies that is ∼95% spectroscopically complete at K{sub AB} < 16.3 (K{sub AB} < 17 in the GAMA fields). To complement this sample at low redshifts, we also analyze a K-selected sample from the 2M++ catalog, which combines Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) photometry with redshifts from the 2MASS redshift survey, the Six-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey, and the SDSS. The combination of these samples allows for a detailed measurement of the K-band luminosity density as a function of distance over the redshift range 0.01 < z < 0.2 (radial distances D ∼ 50-800 h{sub 70}{sup -1} Mpc). We find that the overall shape of the z = 0 rest-frame K-band luminosity function (M*-5log (h{sub 70}) = –22.15 ± 0.04 and α = –1.02 ± 0.03) appears to be relatively constant as a function of environment and distance from us. We find a local (z < 0.07, D < 300 h{sub 70}{sup -1} Mpc) luminosity density that is in good agreement with previous studies. Beyond z ∼ 0.07, we detect a rising luminosity density that reaches a value of roughly ∼1.5 times higher than that measured locally at z > 0.1. This suggests that the

  14. State pre-emption, local control, and alcohol retail outlet density regulation.

    PubMed

    Mosher, James F; Treffers, Ryan D

    2013-04-01

    The substantial health and economic costs of excessive alcohol consumption make its reduction a major public health and economic concern. The Community Preventive Services Task Force, based on a systematic review of the research literature, concluded that restricting alcohol retail outlet density through local land use and zoning regulations is an effective strategy for reducing these costs. Yet the implementation of the Task Force's recommendation is limited by state pre-emption, which determines the extent to which states allow local government to adopt policies and enact legislation. This article summarizes the state pre-emption doctrine, its status in the 50 states pertaining to alcohol retail outlet density regulation, and findings from state legal analyses conducted in six states. Data reflect state laws in effect as of January 1, 2012. Analyses were conducted during the 2012 calendar year. An examination of relevant state laws found five distinct pre-emption categories: exclusive state licensing, exclusive state licensing and concurrent local zoning, joint licensing, exclusive local licensing, and a mixed system. The analysis demonstrated wide variability across the states, ranging from exclusive state pre-emption to broad state delegation of authority to local governments. Pre-emption is applied differentially in many states based on retail outlet characteristics. In many cases, state pre-emption laws are ambiguous in terms of their application, leading to inconsistent and confusing court interpretations. Reforms targeting the adverse impact of state pre-emption on alcohol retail outlet density have the potential for reducing the harm associated with excessive alcohol consumption. State and local public health departments can support such reforms by implementing educational, analytic, monitoring, and technical assistance activities.

  15. The electron localization as the information content of the conditional pair density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, Andres S.; Torres, F. Javier; Rincon, Luis

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, the information gained by an electron for "knowing" about the position of another electron with the same spin is calculated using the Kullback-Leibler divergence (DKL) between the same-spin conditional pair probability density and the marginal probability. DKL is proposed as an electron localization measurement, based on the observation that regions of the space with high information gain can be associated with strong correlated localized electrons. Taking into consideration the scaling of DKL with the number of σ-spin electrons of a system (Nσ), the quantity χ = (Nσ - 1) DKLfcut is introduced as a general descriptor that allows the quantification of the electron localization in the space. fcut is defined such that it goes smoothly to zero for negligible densities. χ is computed for a selection of atomic and molecular systems in order to test its capability to determine the region in space where electrons are localized. As a general conclusion, χ is able to explain the electron structure of molecules on the basis of chemical grounds with a high degree of success and to produce a clear differentiation of the localization of electrons that can be traced to the fluctuation in the average number of electrons in these regions.

  16. Exact density functional and wave function embedding schemes based on orbital localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hégely, Bence; Nagy, Péter R.; Ferenczy, György G.; Kállay, Mihály

    2016-08-01

    Exact schemes for the embedding of density functional theory (DFT) and wave function theory (WFT) methods into lower-level DFT or WFT approaches are introduced utilizing orbital localization. First, a simple modification of the projector-based embedding scheme of Manby and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A507 (2014)] is proposed. We also use localized orbitals to partition the system, but instead of augmenting the Fock operator with a somewhat arbitrary level-shift projector we solve the Huzinaga-equation, which strictly enforces the Pauli exclusion principle. Second, the embedding of WFT methods in local correlation approaches is studied. Since the latter methods split up the system into local domains, very simple embedding theories can be defined if the domains of the active subsystem and the environment are treated at a different level. The considered embedding schemes are benchmarked for reaction energies and compared to quantum mechanics (QM)/molecular mechanics (MM) and vacuum embedding. We conclude that for DFT-in-DFT embedding, the Huzinaga-equation-based scheme is more efficient than the other approaches, but QM/MM or even simple vacuum embedding is still competitive in particular cases. Concerning the embedding of wave function methods, the clear winner is the embedding of WFT into low-level local correlation approaches, and WFT-in-DFT embedding can only be more advantageous if a non-hybrid density functional is employed.

  17. The electron localization as the information content of the conditional pair density.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Andres S; Torres, F Javier; Rincon, Luis

    2016-06-28

    In the present work, the information gained by an electron for "knowing" about the position of another electron with the same spin is calculated using the Kullback-Leibler divergence (DKL) between the same-spin conditional pair probability density and the marginal probability. DKL is proposed as an electron localization measurement, based on the observation that regions of the space with high information gain can be associated with strong correlated localized electrons. Taking into consideration the scaling of DKL with the number of σ-spin electrons of a system (N(σ)), the quantity χ = (N(σ) - 1) DKLfcut is introduced as a general descriptor that allows the quantification of the electron localization in the space. fcut is defined such that it goes smoothly to zero for negligible densities. χ is computed for a selection of atomic and molecular systems in order to test its capability to determine the region in space where electrons are localized. As a general conclusion, χ is able to explain the electron structure of molecules on the basis of chemical grounds with a high degree of success and to produce a clear differentiation of the localization of electrons that can be traced to the fluctuation in the average number of electrons in these regions. PMID:27369494

  18. The local projection in the density functional theory plus U approach: A critical assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue-Chao; Chen, Ze-Hua; Jiang, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Density-functional theory plus the Hubbard U correction (DFT + U) method is widely used in first-principles studies of strongly correlated systems, as it can give qualitatively (and sometimes, semi-quantitatively) correct description of energetic and structural properties of many strongly correlated systems with similar computational cost as local density approximation or generalized gradient approximation. On the other hand, the DFT + U approach is limited both theoretically and practically in several important aspects. In particular, the results of DFT + U often depend on the choice of local orbitals (the local projection) defining the subspace in which the Hubbard U correction is applied. In this work we have systematically investigated the issue of the local projection by considering typical transition metal oxides, β-MnO2 and MnO, and comparing the results obtained from different implementations of DFT + U. We found that the choice of the local projection has significant effects on the DFT + U results, which are more significant for systems with stronger covalent bonding (e.g., MnO2) than those with more ionic bonding (e.g., MnO). These findings can help to clarify some confusion arising from the practical use of DFT + U and may also provide insights for the development of new first-principles approaches beyond DFT + U.

  19. The local projection in the density functional theory plus U approach: A critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Chao; Chen, Ze-Hua; Jiang, Hong

    2016-04-14

    Density-functional theory plus the Hubbard U correction (DFT + U) method is widely used in first-principles studies of strongly correlated systems, as it can give qualitatively (and sometimes, semi-quantitatively) correct description of energetic and structural properties of many strongly correlated systems with similar computational cost as local density approximation or generalized gradient approximation. On the other hand, the DFT + U approach is limited both theoretically and practically in several important aspects. In particular, the results of DFT + U often depend on the choice of local orbitals (the local projection) defining the subspace in which the Hubbard U correction is applied. In this work we have systematically investigated the issue of the local projection by considering typical transition metal oxides, β-MnO2 and MnO, and comparing the results obtained from different implementations of DFT + U. We found that the choice of the local projection has significant effects on the DFT + U results, which are more significant for systems with stronger covalent bonding (e.g., MnO2) than those with more ionic bonding (e.g., MnO). These findings can help to clarify some confusion arising from the practical use of DFT + U and may also provide insights for the development of new first-principles approaches beyond DFT + U. PMID:27083707

  20. Measurement of Temperature, Density, and Particle Transport with Localized Dopants in Wire-Array Z Pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.; Deeney, C.; McKenney, J. L.; Ampleford, D. J.; Coverdale, C. A.; LePell, P. D.; Shelton, K. P.; Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Osborne, G.; Sotnikov, V. I.; Ivanov, V. V.; Fedin, D.; Nalajala, V.; Yilmaz, F.; Shrestha, I.

    2008-03-14

    Axially localized NaF dopants are coated onto Al cylindrical wire arrays in order to act as spectroscopic tracers in the stagnated z-pinch plasma. Non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium kinetic models fit to Na K-shell lines provide an independent measurement of the density and temperature that is consistent with spectroscopic analysis of K-shell emissions from Al and an alloyed Mg dopant. Axial transport of the Na dopant is observed, enabling quantitative study of instabilities in dense z-pinch plasmas.

  1. Ionization potentials of cobalt and nickel ions in the local-spin-density approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Dhar, S. ); Kestner, N.R. )

    1990-06-15

    In this article we report on the ionization potentials of all configurations of the Co{sup {ital n}+} and Ni{sup {ital n}+} ions obtained via transition-state calculations using local-spin-density (LSD) potentials. The calculations were performed numerically with and without modifications of the local exchange potential for fractional occupation numbers. When the exchange potential is corrected for noninteger occupation numbers, a more consistent picture of the ionization process is obtained than that given by the LSD Kohn-Sham exchange. The agreement with experimental results is also significantly improved.

  2. Storm time impulsive enhancements of energetic oxygen due to adiabatic acceleration of preexisting warm oxygen in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keika, Kunihiro; Seki, Kanako; Nosé, Masahito; Machida, Shinobu; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Lanzerotti, Louis J.; Mitchell, Donald G.; Gkioulidou, Matina; Turner, Drew; Spence, Harlan; Larsen, Brian A.

    2016-08-01

    We examine enhancements of energetic (>50 keV) oxygen ions observed by the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument on board the Van Allen Probes spacecraft in the inner magnetosphere (L ~ 6) at 22-23 h magnetic local time (MLT) during an injection event of the 6 June 2013 storm. Simultaneous observations by two Van Allen Probes spacecraft located close together (~0.5 RE) indicate that particle injections occurred in the premidnight sector (< ~24 h MLT). We also examine the evolution of the proton and oxygen energy spectra at L ~ 6 during the injection event. The spectral slope did not significantly change during the storm. The oxygen phase space density (PSD) was shifted toward higher PSD in a wide range of the first adiabatic invariant. The spectral evolution manifests the characteristics of adiabatic acceleration and density increase of oxygen ions. Warm (0.1-10 keV) oxygen measured by the Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) instrument was enhanced prior to the storm mostly in magnetic field-aligned directions. The most reasonable scenario of this event is that warm oxygen ions that preexisted in the inner magnetosphere were picked up and adiabatically transported and accelerated by spatially localized, temporarily impulsive electric fields.

  3. Water dynamics: relation between hydrogen bond bifurcations, molecular jumps, local density & hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Titantah, John Tatini; Karttunen, Mikko

    2013-10-21

    Structure and dynamics of water remain a challenge. Resolving the properties of hydrogen bonding lies at the heart of this puzzle. We employ ab initio Molecular Dynamics (AIMD) simulations over a wide temperature range. The total simulation time was ≈ 2 ns. Both bulk water and water in the presence of a small hydrophobic molecule were simulated. We show that large-angle jumps and bond bifurcations are fundamental properties of water dynamics and that they are intimately coupled to both local density and hydrogen bond strength oscillations in scales from about 60 to a few hundred femtoseconds: Local density differences are the driving force for bond bifurcations and the consequent large-angle jumps. The jumps are intimately connected to the recently predicted hydrogen bond energy asymmetry. Our analysis also appears to confirm the existence of the so-called negativity track provided by the lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen atom to enable water rotation.

  4. Density-functional theory of thermoelectric phenomena.

    PubMed

    Eich, F G; Di Ventra, M; Vignale, G

    2014-05-16

    We introduce a nonequilibrium density-functional theory of local temperature and associated local energy density that is suited for the study of thermoelectric phenomena. The theory rests on a local temperature field coupled to the energy-density operator. We identify the excess-energy density, in addition to the particle density, as the basic variable, which is reproduced by an effective noninteracting Kohn-Sham system. A novel Kohn-Sham equation emerges featuring a time-dependent and spatially varying mass which represents local temperature variations. The adiabatic contribution to the Kohn-Sham potentials is related to the entropy viewed as a functional of the particle and energy density. Dissipation can be taken into account by employing linear response theory and the thermoelectric transport coefficients of the electron gas.

  5. Local conditions for the Pauli potential in order to yield self-consistent electron densities exhibiting proper atomic shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finzel, Kati

    2016-01-01

    The local conditions for the Pauli potential that are necessary in order to yield self-consistent electron densities from orbital-free calculations are investigated for approximations that are expressed with the help of a local position variable. It is shown that those local conditions also apply when the Pauli potential is given in terms of the electron density. An explicit formula for the Ne atom is given, preserving the local conditions during the iterative procedure. The resulting orbital-free electron density exhibits proper shell structure behavior and is in close agreement with the Kohn-Sham electron density. This study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain self-consistent orbital-free electron densities with proper atomic shell structure from simple one-point approximations for the Pauli potential at local density level.

  6. Local conditions for the Pauli potential in order to yield self-consistent electron densities exhibiting proper atomic shell structure.

    PubMed

    Finzel, Kati

    2016-01-21

    The local conditions for the Pauli potential that are necessary in order to yield self-consistent electron densities from orbital-free calculations are investigated for approximations that are expressed with the help of a local position variable. It is shown that those local conditions also apply when the Pauli potential is given in terms of the electron density. An explicit formula for the Ne atom is given, preserving the local conditions during the iterative procedure. The resulting orbital-free electron density exhibits proper shell structure behavior and is in close agreement with the Kohn-Sham electron density. This study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain self-consistent orbital-free electron densities with proper atomic shell structure from simple one-point approximations for the Pauli potential at local density level.

  7. Ultraviolet observations of cool stars. V - The local density of interstellar matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclintock, W.; Henry, R. C.; Moos, H. W.; Linsky, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    A high-resolution Copernicus observation of the chromospheric Ly-alpha emission line of the nearby (3.3 pc) K dwarf epsilon Eri sets limits on the velocity, the velocity dispersion, and the density of atomic hydrogen in the local interstellar medium. Analysis shows that the interstellar Ly-alpha absorption is on the flat portion of the curve of growth. An upper limit of 0.12 per cu cm is derived for the atomic-hydrogen density. The value of this density is 0.08 (plus or minus 0.04 per cu cm if the velocity-dispersion parameter is 9 km/s, corresponding to a temperature of 5000 K. Also, the interstellar deuterium Ly-alpha line may be present in the spectrum.

  8. Transverse isospin response function of asymmetric nuclear matter from a local isospin density functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipparini, Enrico; Pederiva, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    The time dependent local isospin density approximation (TDLIDA) has been extended to the study of the transverse isospin response function in nuclear matter with an arbitrary neutron-proton asymmetry parameter ξ . The energy density functional has been chosen in order to fit existing accurate quantum Monte Carlo calculations with a density dependent potential. The evolution of the response with ξ in the Δ Tz=±1 channels is quite different. While the strength of the Δ Tz=+1 channel disappears rather quickly by increasing the asymmetry, the Δ Tz=-1 channel develops a stronger and stronger collective mode that in the regime typical of neutron star matter at β equilibrium almost completely exhausts the excitation spectrum of the system. The neutrino mean free paths obtained from the TDLIDA responses are strongly dependent on ξ and on the presence of collective modes, leading to a sizable difference with respect to the prediction of the Fermi gas model.

  9. Local-density driven clustered star formation: Model and (some) implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmentier, G.

    A positive power-law trend between the local surface densities of molecular gas, Σ_gas, and young stellar objects, Σ_stars, in molecular clouds of the solar neighbourhood has recently been identified. How it relates to the properties of embedded clusters has so far not been investigated. To that purpose, we model the development of the stellar component of molecular clumps as a function of time and local volume density. Specifically, we associate the observed volume density gradient of molecular clumps to the density-dependent free-fall time and we obtain the molecular clump star formation history by applying a constant star formation efficiency per free-fall time, ɛ_ff. The model reproduces naturally the observed (Σ_gas, Σ_stars) relation quoted above. The consequences of our model in terms of cluster survivability after residual star-forming gas expulsion and in terms of star age distribution in young gas-free clusters are discussed.

  10. Local suppression of the superfluid density of PuCoGa5 by strong onsite disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Tanmoy; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Graf, Matthias J.

    2011-10-01

    We present superfluid density calculations for the unconventional superconductor PuCoGa5 by solving the real-space Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations on a square lattice within the Swiss-cheese model in the presence of strong onsite disorder. We find that, despite strong electronic inhomogeneity, one can establish a one-to-one correspondence between the local maps of the density of states, superconducting order parameter, and superfluid density. In this model, strong onsite impurity scattering punches localized holes into the fabric of d-wave superconductivity similar to a Swiss cheese. Already, a two-dimensional impurity concentration of nimp=4% gives rise to a pronounced short-range suppression of the order parameter and a suppression of the superconducting transition temperature Tc by roughly 20% compared to its pure limit value Tc0, whereas the superfluid density ρs is reduced drastically by about 70%. This result is consistent with available experimental data for aged (400-day-old) and fresh (25-day-old) PuCoGa5 superconducting samples. In addition, we show that the T2 dependence of the low-T superfluid density, a signature of dirty d-wave superconductivity, originates from a combined effect in the density of states of “gap filling” and “gap closing.” Finally, we demonstrate that the Uemuera plot of Tc versus ρs deviates sharply from the conventional Abrikosov-Gor’kov theory for radiation-induced defects in PuCoGa5, but follows the same trend of short-coherence-length high-Tc cuprate superconductors.

  11. Shortcuts to adiabaticity by counterdiabatic driving for trapped-ion displacement in phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Shuoming; Lv, Dingshun; Del Campo, Adolfo; Kim, Kihwan

    2016-09-01

    The application of adiabatic protocols in quantum technologies is severely limited by environmental sources of noise and decoherence. Shortcuts to adiabaticity by counterdiabatic driving constitute a powerful alternative that speed up time-evolution while mimicking adiabatic dynamics. Here we report the experimental implementation of counterdiabatic driving in a continuous variable system, a shortcut to the adiabatic transport of a trapped ion in phase space. The resulting dynamics is equivalent to a `fast-motion video' of the adiabatic trajectory. The robustness of this protocol is shown to surpass that of competing schemes based on classical local controls and Fourier optimization methods. Our results demonstrate that shortcuts to adiabaticity provide a robust speedup of quantum protocols of wide applicability in quantum technologies.

  12. Shortcuts to adiabaticity by counterdiabatic driving for trapped-ion displacement in phase space

    PubMed Central

    An, Shuoming; Lv, Dingshun; del Campo, Adolfo; Kim, Kihwan

    2016-01-01

    The application of adiabatic protocols in quantum technologies is severely limited by environmental sources of noise and decoherence. Shortcuts to adiabaticity by counterdiabatic driving constitute a powerful alternative that speed up time-evolution while mimicking adiabatic dynamics. Here we report the experimental implementation of counterdiabatic driving in a continuous variable system, a shortcut to the adiabatic transport of a trapped ion in phase space. The resulting dynamics is equivalent to a ‘fast-motion video' of the adiabatic trajectory. The robustness of this protocol is shown to surpass that of competing schemes based on classical local controls and Fourier optimization methods. Our results demonstrate that shortcuts to adiabaticity provide a robust speedup of quantum protocols of wide applicability in quantum technologies. PMID:27669897

  13. Using the electron localization function to correct for confinement physics in semi-local density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Feng Mattsson, Ann E.; Armiento, Rickard

    2014-05-14

    We have previously proposed that further improved functionals for density functional theory can be constructed based on the Armiento-Mattsson subsystem functional scheme if, in addition to the uniform electron gas and surface models used in the Armiento-Mattsson 2005 functional, a model for the strongly confined electron gas is also added. However, of central importance for this scheme is an index that identifies regions in space where the correction provided by the confined electron gas should be applied. The electron localization function (ELF) is a well-known indicator of strongly localized electrons. We use a model of a confined electron gas based on the harmonic oscillator to show that regions with high ELF directly coincide with regions where common exchange energy functionals have large errors. This suggests that the harmonic oscillator model together with an index based on the ELF provides the crucial ingredients for future improved semi-local functionals. For a practical illustration of how the proposed scheme is intended to work for a physical system we discuss monoclinic cupric oxide, CuO. A thorough discussion of this system leads us to promote the cell geometry of CuO as a useful benchmark for future semi-local functionals. Very high ELF values are found in a shell around the O ions, and take its maximum value along the Cu–O directions. An estimate of the exchange functional error from the effect of electron confinement in these regions suggests a magnitude and sign that could account for the error in cell geometry.

  14. Parallel and Low-Order Scaling Implementation of Hartree-Fock Exchange Using Local Density Fitting.

    PubMed

    Köppl, Christoph; Werner, Hans-Joachim

    2016-07-12

    Calculations using modern linear-scaling electron-correlation methods are often much faster than the necessary reference Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations. We report a newly implemented HF program that speeds up the most time-consuming step, namely, the evaluation of the exchange contributions to the Fock matrix. Using localized orbitals and their sparsity, local density fitting (LDF), and atomic orbital domains, we demonstrate that the calculation of the exchange matrix scales asymptotically linearly with molecular size. The remaining parts of the HF calculation scale cubically but become dominant only for very large molecular sizes or with many processing cores. The method is well parallelized, and the speedup scales well with up to about 100 CPU cores on multiple compute nodes. The effect of the local approximations on the accuracy of computed HF and local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory energies is systematically investigated, and default values are established for the parameters that determine the domain sizes. Using these values, calculations for molecules with hundreds of atoms in combination with triple-ζ basis sets can be carried out in less than 1 h, with just a few compute nodes. The method can also be used to speed up density functional theory calculations with hybrid functionals that contain HF exchange. PMID:27267488

  15. Energy decomposition analysis based on a block-localized wavefunction and multistate density functional theory

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Peng

    2013-01-01

    An interaction energy decomposition analysis method based on the block-localized wavefunction (BLW-ED) approach is described. The first main feature of the BLW-ED method is that it combines concepts of valence bond and molecular orbital theories such that the intermediate and physically intuitive electron-localized states are variationally optimized by self-consistent field calculations. Furthermore, the block-localization scheme can be used both in wave function theory and in density functional theory, providing a useful tool to gain insights on intermolecular interactions that would otherwise be difficult to obtain using the delocalized Kohn–Sham DFT. These features allow broad applications of the BLW method to energy decomposition (BLW-ED) analysis for intermolecular interactions. In this perspective, we outline theoretical aspects of the BLW-ED method, and illustrate its applications in hydrogen-bonding and π–cation intermolecular interactions as well as metal–carbonyl complexes. Future prospects on the development of a multistate density functional theory (MSDFT) are presented, making use of block-localized electronic states as the basis configurations. PMID:21369567

  16. Chitosan Nanoparticles for Nuclear Targeting: The Effect of Nanoparticle Size and Nuclear Localization Sequence Density.

    PubMed

    Tammam, Salma N; Azzazy, Hassan M E; Breitinger, Hans G; Lamprecht, Alf

    2015-12-01

    Many recently discovered therapeutic proteins exert their main function in the nucleus, thus requiring both efficient uptake and correct intracellular targeting. Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted interest as protein delivery vehicles due to their biocompatibility and ability to escape the endosomes offering high potential for nuclear delivery. Molecular entry into the nucleus occurs through the nuclear pore complexes, the efficiency of which is dependent on NP size and the presence of nuclear localization sequence (NLS). Chitosan nanoparticles of different sizes (S-NPs ≈ 25 nm; L-NP ≈ 150 nm) were formulated, and they were modified with different densities of the octapeptide NLS CPKKKRKV (S-NPs, 0.25, 0.5, 2.0 NLS/nm(2); L-NPs, 0.6, 0.9, 2 NLS/nm(2)). Unmodified and NLS-tagged NPs were evaluated for their protein loading capacity, extent of cell association, cell uptake, cell surface binding, and finally nuclear delivery efficiency in L929 fibroblasts. To avoid errors generated with cell fractionation and nuclear isolation protocols, nuclear delivery was assessed in intact cells utilizing Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) fluorometry and microscopy. Although L-NPs showed ≈10-fold increase in protein loading per NP when compared to S-NPs, due to higher cell association and uptake S-NPs showed superior protein delivery. NLS exerts a size and density dependent effect on nanoparticle uptake and surface binding, with a general reduction in NP cell surface binding and an increase in cell uptake with the increase in NLS density (up to 8.4-fold increase in uptake of High-NLS-L-NPs (2 NLS/nm(2)) compared to unmodified L-NPs). However, for nuclear delivery, unmodified S-NPs show higher nuclear localization rates when compared to NLS modified NPs (up to 5-fold by FRET microscopy). For L-NPs an intermediate NLS density (0.9 NLS/nm(2)) seems to provide highest nuclear localization (3.7-fold increase in nuclear delivery compared to High

  17. Adiabatic computation: A toy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Pedro; Mosseri, Rémy

    2006-10-01

    We discuss a toy model for adiabatic quantum computation which displays some phenomenological properties expected in more realistic implementations. This model has two free parameters: the adiabatic evolution parameter s and the α parameter, which emulates many-variable constraints in the classical computational problem. The proposed model presents, in the s-α plane, a line of first-order quantum phase transition that ends at a second-order point. The relation between computation complexity and the occurrence of quantum phase transitions is discussed. We analyze the behavior of the ground and first excited states near the quantum phase transition, the gap, and the entanglement content of the ground state.

  18. Adiabatic computation: A toy model

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, Pedro; Mosseri, Remy

    2006-10-15

    We discuss a toy model for adiabatic quantum computation which displays some phenomenological properties expected in more realistic implementations. This model has two free parameters: the adiabatic evolution parameter s and the {alpha} parameter, which emulates many-variable constraints in the classical computational problem. The proposed model presents, in the s-{alpha} plane, a line of first-order quantum phase transition that ends at a second-order point. The relation between computation complexity and the occurrence of quantum phase transitions is discussed. We analyze the behavior of the ground and first excited states near the quantum phase transition, the gap, and the entanglement content of the ground state.

  19. Adiabatic evolution of plasma equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Grad, H.; Hu, P. N.; Stevens, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    A new theory of plasma equilibrium is introduced in which adiabatic constraints are specified. This leads to a mathematically nonstandard structure, as compared to the usual equilibrium theory, in which prescription of pressure and current profiles leads to an elliptic partial differential equation. Topologically complex configurations require further generalization of the concept of adiabaticity to allow irreversible mixing of plasma and magnetic flux among islands. Matching conditions across a boundary layer at the separatrix are obtained from appropriate conservation laws. Applications are made to configurations with planned islands (as in Doublet) and accidental islands (as in Tokamaks). Two-dimensional, axially symmetric, helically symmetric, and closed line equilibria are included. PMID:16578729

  20. Autonomous bacterial localization and gene expression based on nearby cell receptor density

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Quan, David N; Cheng, Yi; Servinsky, Matthew D; Carter, Karen K; Jee, Kathleen J; Terrell, Jessica L; Zargar, Amin; Rubloff, Gary W; Payne, Gregory F; Valdes, James J; Bentley, William E

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli were genetically modified to enable programmed motility, sensing, and actuation based on the density of features on nearby surfaces. Then, based on calculated feature density, these cells expressed marker proteins to indicate phenotypic response. Specifically, site-specific synthesis of bacterial quorum sensing autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is used to initiate and recruit motile cells. In our model system, we rewired E. coli's AI-2 signaling pathway to direct bacteria to a squamous cancer cell line of head and neck (SCCHN), where they initiate synthesis of a reporter (drug surrogate) based on a threshold density of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This represents a new type of controller for targeted drug delivery as actuation (synthesis and delivery) depends on a receptor density marking the diseased cell. The ability to survey local surfaces and initiate gene expression based on feature density represents a new area-based switch in synthetic biology that will find use beyond the proposed cancer model here. PMID:23340842

  1. Adiabatic connection at negative coupling strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, Michael; Gori-Giorgi, Paola

    2010-01-15

    The adiabatic connection of density functional theory (DFT) for electronic systems is generalized here to negative values of the coupling strength alpha (with attractive electrons). In the extreme limit alpha->-infinity a simple physical solution is presented and its implications for DFT (as well as its limitations) are discussed. For two-electron systems (a case in which the present solution can be calculated exactly), we find that an interpolation between the limit alpha->-infinity and the opposite limit of infinitely strong repulsion (alpha->+infinity) yields a rather accurate estimate of the second-order correlation energy E{sub c}{sup GL2}[rho] for several different densities rho, without using virtual orbitals. The same procedure is also applied to the Be isoelectronic series, analyzing the effects of near degeneracy.

  2. The flat Grothendieck-Riemann-Roch theorem without adiabatic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Man-Ho

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we give a simplified proof of the flat Grothendieck-Riemann-Roch theorem. The proof makes use of the local family index theorem and basic computations of the Chern-Simons form. In particular, it does not involve any adiabatic limit computation of the reduced eta-invariant.

  3. Density functional method including weak interactions: Dispersion coefficients based on the local response approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takeshi; Nakai, Hiromi

    2009-12-01

    A new method to calculate the atom-atom dispersion coefficients in a molecule is proposed for the use in density functional theory with dispersion (DFT-D) correction. The method is based on the local response approximation due to Dobson and Dinte [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1780 (1996)], with modified dielectric model recently proposed by Vydrov and van Voorhis [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 104105 (2009)]. The local response model is used to calculate the distributed multipole polarizabilities of atoms in a molecule, from which the dispersion coefficients are obtained by an explicit frequency integral of the Casimir-Polder type. Thus obtained atomic polarizabilities are also used in the damping function for the short-range singularity. Unlike empirical DFT-D methods, the local response dispersion (LRD) method is able to calculate the dispersion energy from the ground-state electron density only. It is applicable to any geometry, free from physical constants such as van der Waals radii or atomic polarizabilities, and computationally very efficient. The LRD method combined with the long-range corrected DFT functional (LC-BOP) is applied to calculations of S22 weakly bound complex set [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 1985 (2006)]. Binding energies obtained by the LC-BOP + LRD agree remarkably well with ab initio references.

  4. Density Functional Modeling of the Local Structure of Kaolinite Subjected to Thermal Dehydroxylation

    SciTech Connect

    White, Claire E.; Provis, John L.; Proffen, Thomas; Riley, Daniel P.; van Deventer, Jannie S.J.

    2010-11-19

    Understanding the atomic-level changes that occur as kaolinite is converted (thermally dehydroxylated) to metakaolin is critical to the optimization of this large-scale industrial process. Metakaolin is X-ray amorphous; therefore, conventional crystallographic techniques do not reveal the changes in local structure during its formation. Local structure-based experimental techniques are useful in understanding the atomic structure but do not provide the thermodynamic information which is necessary to ensure plausibility of refined structures. Here, kaolinite dehydroxylation is modeled using density functional theory, and a stepwise methodology, where several water molecules are removed from the structure, geometry optimization is carried out, and then the process is repeated. Hence, the structure remains in an energetically and thermodynamically feasible state while transitioning from kaolinite to metakaolin. The structures generated during the dehydroxylation process are validated by comparison with X-ray and neutron pair distribution function data. Thus, this study illustrates one possible route by which dehydroxylation of kaolinite can take place, revealing a chemically, energetically, and experimentally plausible structure of metakaolin. This methodology of density functional modeling of the stepwise changes in a material is not limited in application to kaolinite or other aluminosilicates and provides an accurate representation of the local structural changes occurring in materials used in industrially important processes.

  5. Identification of Essential Proteins Based on a New Combination of Local Interaction Density and Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jiawei; Qi, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background Computational approaches aided by computer science have been used to predict essential proteins and are faster than expensive, time-consuming, laborious experimental approaches. However, the performance of such approaches is still poor, making practical applications of computational approaches difficult in some fields. Hence, the development of more suitable and efficient computing methods is necessary for identification of essential proteins. Method In this paper, we propose a new method for predicting essential proteins in a protein interaction network, local interaction density combined with protein complexes (LIDC), based on statistical analyses of essential proteins and protein complexes. First, we introduce a new local topological centrality, local interaction density (LID), of the yeast PPI network; second, we discuss a new integration strategy for multiple bioinformatics. The LIDC method was then developed through a combination of LID and protein complex information based on our new integration strategy. The purpose of LIDC is discovery of important features of essential proteins with their neighbors in real protein complexes, thereby improving the efficiency of identification. Results Experimental results based on three different PPI(protein-protein interaction) networks of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli showed that LIDC outperformed classical topological centrality measures and some recent combinational methods. Moreover, when predicting MIPS datasets, the better improvement of performance obtained by LIDC is over all nine reference methods (i.e., DC, BC, NC, LID, PeC, CoEWC, WDC, ION, and UC). Conclusions LIDC is more effective for the prediction of essential proteins than other recently developed methods. PMID:26125187

  6. Elementary examples of adiabatic invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1990-04-01

    Simple classical one-dimensional systems subject to adiabatic (gradual) perturbations are examined. The first examples are well known: the adiabatic invariance of the product Eτ of energy E and period τ for the simple pendulum and for the simple harmonic oscillator. Next, the adiabatic invariants of the vertical bouncer are found—a ball bouncing elastically from the floor of a rising elevator having slowly varying velocity and acceleration. These examples lead to consideration of adiabatic invariance for one-dimensional systems with potentials of the form V=axn, with a=a(t) slowly varying in time. Then, the horizontal bouncer is considered—a mass sliding on a smooth floor, bouncing back and forth between two impenetrable walls, one of which is slowly moving. This example is generalized to a particle in a bound state of a general potential with one slowly moving ``turning point.'' Finally, circular motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field slowly varying in time under three different configurations is considered: (a) a free particle in a uniform field; (b) a free particle in a nonuniform ``betatron'' field; and (c) a particle constrained to a circular orbit in a uniform field.

  7. Pressure Oscillations in Adiabatic Compression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Roland

    2011-01-01

    After finding Moloney and McGarvey's modified adiabatic compression apparatus, I decided to insert this experiment into my physical chemistry laboratory at the last minute, replacing a problematic experiment. With insufficient time to build the apparatus, we placed a bottle between two thick textbooks and compressed it with a third textbook forced…

  8. Transitionless driving on adiabatic search algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sangchul; Kais, Sabre

    2014-12-14

    We study quantum dynamics of the adiabatic search algorithm with the equivalent two-level system. Its adiabatic and non-adiabatic evolution is studied and visualized as trajectories of Bloch vectors on a Bloch sphere. We find the change in the non-adiabatic transition probability from exponential decay for the short running time to inverse-square decay in asymptotic running time. The scaling of the critical running time is expressed in terms of the Lambert W function. We derive the transitionless driving Hamiltonian for the adiabatic search algorithm, which makes a quantum state follow the adiabatic path. We demonstrate that a uniform transitionless driving Hamiltonian, approximate to the exact time-dependent driving Hamiltonian, can alter the non-adiabatic transition probability from the inverse square decay to the inverse fourth power decay with the running time. This may open up a new but simple way of speeding up adiabatic quantum dynamics.

  9. Symmetry-broken local-density approximation for one-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Fergus J. M.; Ball, Caleb J.; Loos, Pierre-François

    2016-06-01

    Within density-functional theory, the local-density approximation (LDA) correlation functional is typically built by fitting the difference between the near-exact and Hartree-Fock (HF) energies of the uniform electron gas (UEG), together with analytic perturbative results from the high- and low-density regimes. Near-exact energies are obtained by performing accurate diffusion Monte Carlo calculations, while HF energies are usually assumed to be the Fermi fluid HF energy. However, it has been known since the seminal work of A. W. Overhauser [Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 414 (1959), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.3.414; Phys. Rev. 128, 1437 (1962), 10.1103/PhysRev.128.1437] that one can obtain lower, symmetry-broken (SB) HF energies at any density. Here, we have computed the SBHF energies of the one-dimensional UEG and constructed a SB version of the LDA (SBLDA) from the results. We compare the performance of the LDA and SBLDA functionals when applied to one-dimensional systems, including atoms and molecules. Generalization to higher dimensions is also discussed.

  10. Charge density stabilised local electron spin pair states in insulating polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Serra, S.; Dissado, L. A.

    2014-12-14

    A model is presented that addresses the energy stability of localized electron states in insulating polymers with respect to delocalized free electron-like states at variable charge densities. The model was derived using an effective Hamiltonian for the total energy of electrons trapped in large polarons and spin-paired bipolarons, which includes the electrostatic interaction between charges that occurs when the charge density exceeds the infinite dilution limit. The phase diagram of the various electronic states with respect to the charge density is derived using parameters determined from experimental data for polyethylene, and it is found that a phase transition from excess charge in the form of stable polarons to a stable state of bipolarons with charge = 2 and spin number S = 0 is predicted for a charge density between 0.2 C/m{sup 3} and ∼2 C/m{sup 3}. This transition is consistent with a change from low mobility charge transport to charge transport in the form of pulses with a mobility orders of magnitude higher that has been observed in several insulating polymers.

  11. Characterization of adiabatic shear bands in AM60B magnesium alloy under ballistic impact

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, D.L.; Zhen, L. Xu, C.Y.; Shao, W.Z.

    2011-05-15

    Adiabatic shear bands in Mg alloy under ballistic impact at a velocity of 0.5 km.s{sup -1} were characterized by means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and indenter technique. The results show that adiabatic shear bands were formed around the impacted crater, and the deformed and transformed bands were distinguished by etching colors in metallographic observation. TEM observation shows that the deformed bands were composed of the elongated grains and high density dislocations, while the transformed bands composed of the ultrafine and equiaxed grains were confirmed. In initial stage, the severe localized plastic deformation led to the formation of elongated grains in the deformed bands. With localized strain increasing, the severe localized deformation assisted with the plastic temperature rising led to the severe deformation grains evolved into the ultrafine and equiaxed grains, while the deformed bands were developed into transformed bands. The formation of the ultrafine and equiaxed grains in the transformed bands should be attributed to the twinning-induced rotational dynamic recrystallization mechanism. High microhardness in the bands was obtained because of the strain hardening, grain refining and content concentration. - Research Highlights: {yields} Deformed and transformed bands are found in Mg alloy under ballistic impact. {yields} The microstructures in the deformed and transformed bands are characterized. {yields} The evolution process of the microstructure in the bands is discussed.

  12. Studies in Chaotic adiabatic dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarzynski, C.

    1994-01-01

    Chaotic adiabatic dynamics refers to the study of systems exhibiting chaotic evolution under slowly time-dependent equations of motion. In this dissertation the author restricts his attention to Hamiltonian chaotic adiabatic systems. The results presented are organized around a central theme, namely, that the energies of such systems evolve diffusively. He begins with a general analysis, in which he motivates and derives a Fokker-Planck equation governing this process of energy diffusion. He applies this equation to study the {open_quotes}goodness{close_quotes} of an adiabatic invariant associated with chaotic motion. This formalism is then applied to two specific examples. The first is that of a gas of noninteracting point particles inside a hard container that deforms slowly with time. Both the two- and three-dimensional cases are considered. The results are discussed in the context of the Wall Formula for one-body dissipation in nuclear physics, and it is shown that such a gas approaches, asymptotically with time, an exponential velocity distribution. The second example involves the Fermi mechanism for the acceleration of cosmic rays. Explicit evolution equations are obtained for the distribution of cosmic ray energies within this model, and the steady-state energy distribution that arises when this equation is modified to account for the injection and removal of cosmic rays is discussed. Finally, the author re-examines the multiple-time-scale approach as applied to the study of phase space evolution under a chaotic adiabatic Hamiltonian. This leads to a more rigorous derivation of the above-mentioned Fokker-Planck equation, and also to a new term which has relevance to the problem of chaotic adiabatic reaction forces (the forces acting on slow, heavy degrees of freedom due to their coupling to light, fast chaotic degrees).

  13. The dipole moment of the spin density as a local indicator for phase transitions

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, D.; Schmitz-Antoniak, C.; Warland, A.; Darbandi, M.; Haldar, S.; Bhandary, S.; Eriksson, O.; Sanyal, B.; Wende, H.

    2014-01-01

    The intra-atomic magnetic dipole moment - frequently called 〈Tz〉 term - plays an important role in the determination of spin magnetic moments by x-ray absorption spectroscopy for systems with nonspherical spin density distributions. In this work, we present the dipole moment as a sensitive monitor to changes in the electronic structure in the vicinity of a phase transiton. In particular, we studied the dipole moment at the Fe2+ and Fe3+ sites of magnetite as an indicator for the Verwey transition by a combination of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and density functional theory. Our experimental results prove that there exists a local change in the electronic structure at temperatures above the Verwey transition correlated to the known spin reorientation. Furthermore, it is shown that measurement of the dipole moment is a powerful tool to observe this transition in small magnetite nanoparticles for which it is usually screened by blocking effects in classical magnetometry. PMID:25041757

  14. The dipole moment of the spin density as a local indicator for phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, D.; Schmitz-Antoniak, C.; Warland, A.; Darbandi, M.; Haldar, S.; Bhandary, S.; Eriksson, O.; Sanyal, B.; Wende, H.

    2014-07-01

    The intra-atomic magnetic dipole moment - frequently called term - plays an important role in the determination of spin magnetic moments by x-ray absorption spectroscopy for systems with nonspherical spin density distributions. In this work, we present the dipole moment as a sensitive monitor to changes in the electronic structure in the vicinity of a phase transiton. In particular, we studied the dipole moment at the Fe2+ and Fe3+ sites of magnetite as an indicator for the Verwey transition by a combination of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and density functional theory. Our experimental results prove that there exists a local change in the electronic structure at temperatures above the Verwey transition correlated to the known spin reorientation. Furthermore, it is shown that measurement of the dipole moment is a powerful tool to observe this transition in small magnetite nanoparticles for which it is usually screened by blocking effects in classical magnetometry.

  15. Gradient corrections to the local-density approximation for trapped superfluid Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Csordas, Andras; Almasy, Orsolya; Szepfalusy, Peter

    2010-12-15

    Two species superfluid Fermi gas is investigated on the BCS side up to the Feshbach resonance. Using the Greens's function technique gradient corrections are calculated to the generalized Thomas-Fermi theory including Cooper pairing. Their relative magnitude is found to be measured by the small parameter (d/R{sub TF}){sup 4}, where d is the oscillator length of the trap potential and R{sub TF} is the radial extension of the density n in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. In particular, at the Feshbach resonance the universal corrections to the local density approximation are calculated and a universal prefactor {kappa}{sub W}=7/27 is derived for the von Weizsaecker-type correction {kappa}{sub W}(({h_bar}/2{pi}){sup 2}/2m)({nabla}{sup 2}n{sup 1/2}/n{sup 1/2}).

  16. Is local alcohol outlet density related to alcohol-related morbidity and mortality in Scottish cities?

    PubMed

    Richardson, E A; Hill, S E; Mitchell, R; Pearce, J; Shortt, N K

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol consumption may be influenced by the local alcohol retailing environment. This study is the first to examine neighbourhood alcohol outlet availability (on- and off-sales outlets) and alcohol-related health outcomes in Scotland. Alcohol-related hospitalisations and deaths were significantly higher in neighbourhoods with higher outlet densities, and off-sales outlets were more important than on-sales outlets. The relationships held for most age groups, including those under the legal minimum drinking age, although were not significant for the youngest legal drinkers (18-25 years). Alcohol-related deaths and hospitalisations were higher in more income-deprived neighbourhoods, and the gradient in deaths (but not hospitalisations) was marginally larger in neighbourhoods with higher off-sales outlet densities. Efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm should consider the potentially important role of the alcohol retail environment. PMID:25840352

  17. Evolution of the local packing density in a sheared granular material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbanhowar, Paul; van Hecke, Martin; Sakaie, Ken

    2005-11-01

    The local particle packing density, η, in a bed of poppy seeds sheared in a vertical, split-bottom cylindrical container is measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Wide shear zones away from the wall are generated when a thin concentric disk at the bottom of the cylinder, and with radius less than the cylinder radius, is rotated slowly. Experiments reveal that, initially, a shear band forms at the outer edge of the disk which decreases in radius with decreasing depth. Material near the shear zone dilates with a corresponding decrease in η of about 15%. The radial extent of the dilated region increases approximately logarithmically with increasing rotation in shallow layers. In relatively deep layers, the shear zone is at first entirely below the free surface, but with further rotation grows vertically creating a low η core. We discuss the relation between the previously reported universal velocity profiles across the shear zone and the spatial and temporal evolution of the packing density.

  18. Is local alcohol outlet density related to alcohol-related morbidity and mortality in Scottish cities?

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, E.A.; Hill, S.E.; Mitchell, R.; Pearce, J.; Shortt, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption may be influenced by the local alcohol retailing environment. This study is the first to examine neighbourhood alcohol outlet availability (on- and off-sales outlets) and alcohol-related health outcomes in Scotland. Alcohol-related hospitalisations and deaths were significantly higher in neighbourhoods with higher outlet densities, and off-sales outlets were more important than on-sales outlets. The relationships held for most age groups, including those under the legal minimum drinking age, although were not significant for the youngest legal drinkers (18–25 years). Alcohol-related deaths and hospitalisations were higher in more income-deprived neighbourhoods, and the gradient in deaths (but not hospitalisations) was marginally larger in neighbourhoods with higher off-sales outlet densities. Efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm should consider the potentially important role of the alcohol retail environment. PMID:25840352

  19. Relativistic Coulomb excitation within the time dependent superfluid local density approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Stetcu, I.; Bertulani, C. A.; Bulgac, A.; Magierski, P.; Roche, K. J.

    2015-01-06

    Within the framework of the unrestricted time-dependent density functional theory, we present for the first time an analysis of the relativistic Coulomb excitation of the heavy deformed open shell nucleus 238U. The approach is based on the superfluid local density approximation formulated on a spatial lattice that can take into account coupling to the continuum, enabling self-consistent studies of superfluid dynamics of any nuclear shape. We compute the energy deposited in the target nucleus as a function of the impact parameter, finding it to be significantly larger than the estimate using the Goldhaber-Teller model. The isovector giant dipole resonance, the dipole pygmy resonance, and giant quadrupole modes are excited during the process. As a result, the one-body dissipation of collective dipole modes is shown to lead a damping width Γ↓≈0.4 MeV and the number of preequilibrium neutrons emitted has been quantified.

  20. Locally adapted social parasite affects density, social structure, and life history of its ant hosts.

    PubMed

    Foitzik, Susanne; Achenbach, Alexandra; Brandt, Miriam

    2009-05-01

    Selection and adaptation are important processes in the coevolution between parasites and their hosts. The slave-making ant Protomognathus americanus, an obligate ant social parasite, has previously been shown to evolve morphological, behavioral, and chemical adaptations in the coevolutionary arms race with its Temnothorax hosts. Yet empirical studies have given variable results on the strength of the selection pressure this parasite exerts on its host populations. In this study, we directly investigated the pressure exerted by P. americanus and the reactions of the main host species, T. longispinosus, in two ant communities by manipulating parasite density in the field over several years. In addition, a cross-fostering design with the exchange of parasites between host populations allowed us to investigate local adaptation of parasite or host. We demonstrate a severe impact of the social parasite on the two host populations in West Virginia and New York, but also variation in host reactions between sites, as expected by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution. Host density decreased at the West Virginia site with the presence of local slave-makers, whereas at the ecologically favorable New York site, density was unaffected. Nevertheless, social organization, colony size, and investment patterns of these host colonies at this site changed in response to our parasite manipulation. The release of P. americanus colonies led to a reduction in the number of resident queens and workers, an increase in intranest relatedness, and lower productivity, but also a higher investment in reproductives. In West Virginia, colony demography did not change, but raiding activity by New York slave-makers caused different investment patterns of host colonies. In addition, the cross-fostering element revealed local adaptation of the parasite P. americanus: slave-making colonies fared better in their sympatric host population, as they contained more slave-making ant workers and slaves

  1. Jeans Analysis of the Galactic Thick Disk and the Local Dark Matter Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J.; Flynn, Chris; de Diego, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamical estimates of the mass surface density at the solar radius can be made up to a height of 4 kpc using thick disk stars as tracers of the potential. We investigate why different Jeans estimators of the local surface density lead to puzzling and conflicting results. Using the Jeans equations, we compute the vertical (Fz) and radial (FR) components of the gravitational force, as well as Γ(z), which is defined as {{Γ }}\\equiv \\partial {V}{{c}}2/\\partial R, with {V}{{c}}2\\equiv -R{F}R. If we assume that the thick disk does not flare and that all the components of the velocity dispersion tensor of the thick disk have a uniform radial scalelength of 3.5 kpc, Γ takes implausibly large negative values when using the currently available kinematical data of the thick disk. This implies that the input parameters or the model assumptions must be revised. We have explored, using a simulated thick disk, the impact of the assumption that the scalelengths of the density and velocity dispersions do not depend on the vertical height z above the midplane. In the absence of any information about how these scale radii depend on z, we define a different strategy. By using a parameterized Galactic potential, we find that acceptable fits to Fz, FR, and Γ are obtained for a flaring thick disk and a spherical dark matter (DM) halo with a local density ≳0.0064 M⊙ pc-3. Disk-like DM distributions may be also compatible with the current data of the thick disk. A precise measurement of Γ at the midplane could be very useful for discriminating between models.

  2. Electron affinities for rare gases and some actinides from local-spin-density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Wrinn, M.C.; Whitehead, M.A. )

    1989-12-01

    The negative ions of the rare gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn) and some actinides (Pu, Am, Bk, Cf, and Es) have been calculated self-consistently by the generalized exchange local-spin-density-functional theory with self-interaction correction and correlation. The electron affinities were obtained as the differences between the statistical total energies of the negative ions and neutral atoms; the electron affinities were positive around several millirydbergs. Consequently, the negative ions are predicted stable for the rare gases and actinides.

  3. Existence of minimizers for Kohn-Sham within the local spin density approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontier, David

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to extend the work by Anantharaman and Cancès (2009 Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré (C) 26 2425-55) and prove the existence of minimizers for the spin-polarized Kohn-Sham model in the presence of a magnetic field within the local spin density approximation. We show that for any magnetic field that vanishes at infinity, the existence of minimizers is ensured for neutral or positively charged systems. The proof relies on classical concentration-compactness techniques.

  4. Staggered Local Density of States around the Vortex in Underdoped Cuprates

    SciTech Connect

    Kishine, Jun-ichiro; Lee, Patrick A.; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2001-06-04

    We have studied a single vortex with the staggered flux (SF) core based on the SU(2) slave-boson theory of high T{sub c} superconductors. We find that, whereas the center in the vortex core is a SF state, as one moves away from the core center a correlated staggered modulation of the hopping amplitude {chi} and pairing amplitude {Delta} becomes predominant. We predict that in this region the local density of states exhibits staggered modulation when measured on the bonds, which may be directly detected by STM experiments.

  5. Micromagnetic model for studies on Magnetic Tunnel Junction switching dynamics, including local current density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankowski, Marek; Czapkiewicz, Maciej; Skowroński, Witold; Stobiecki, Tomasz

    2014-02-01

    We present a model introducing the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with a Slonczewski's Spin-Transfer-Torque (STT) component in order to take into account spin polarized current influence on the magnetization dynamics, which was developed as an Object Oriented MicroMagnetic Framework extension. We implement the following computations: magnetoresistance of vertical channels is calculated from the local spin arrangement, local current density is used to calculate the in-plane and perpendicular STT components as well as the Oersted field, which is caused by the vertical current flow. The model allows for an analysis of all listed components separately, therefore, the contribution of each physical phenomenon in dynamic behavior of Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) magnetization is discussed. The simulated switching voltage is compared with the experimental data measured in MTJ nanopillars.

  6. Influence of the local-spin-density correlation functional on the stability of bcc ferromagnetic iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D.; Clougherty, D. P.; MacLaren, J. M.; Albers, R. C.; Wang, C. S.

    1991-10-01

    The influence of local-spin-dependent correlation effects on the predicted stable ground-state phase of iron is reexamined with use of general-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave calculations. Differences in the form of the Vosko-Wilk-Nusair (VWN) local-spin-density functional used in previous studies are noted, since in previous studies significant additional approximations were made with respect to those of Vosko, Wilk, and Nusan [Can. J. Phys. 58, 1200 (1980)] and of MacLaren, Clougherty, and Albers [Phys. Rev. B 42, 3205 (1990)]. While the results of previous linear muffin-tin orbital calculations using the VWN functional predict a bcc ferromagnetic ground state, the present calculations show that the VWN spin-correlation effects fail to stabilize a bcc ground state. Considerable sensitivity to the form of the spin interpolation is found.

  7. Electron transfer and localization in endohedral metallofullerenes: Ab initio density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shenyuan; Yoon, Mina; Hicke, Christian; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wang, Enge

    2008-09-01

    Endohedral metallofullerenes constitute an appealing class of nanoscale building blocks for fabrication of a wide range of materials. One open question of fundamental importance is the precise nature of charge redistribution within the carbon cages (Cn) upon metal encapsulation. Using ab initio density functional theory, we systematically study the electronic structure of metallofullerenes, focusing on the spatial charge redistribution. For large metallofullerenes (n>32) , the valence electrons of the metal atoms are all transferred to the fullerene states. Surprisingly, the transferred charge is found to be highly localized inside the cage near the metal cations rather than uniformly distributed on the surfaces of the carbon cage as traditionally believed. This counterintuitive charge localization picture is attributed to the strong metal-cage interactions within the systems. These findings may prove to be instrumental in the design of fullerene-based functional nanomaterials.

  8. Self-interaction-corrected local-spin-density calculations for rare earth materials

    SciTech Connect

    Svane, A.; Temmerman, W.M.; Szotek, Z.; Laegsgaard, J.; Winter, H.

    2000-04-20

    The ab initio self-interaction-corrected (SIC) local-spin-density (LSD) approximation is discussed with emphasis on the ability to describe localized f-electron states in rare earth solids. Two methods for minimizing the SIC-LSD total energy functional are discussed, one using a unified Hamiltonian for all electron states, thus having the advantages of Bloch's theorem, the other one employing an iterative scheme in real space. Results for cerium and cerium compounds as well as other rare earths are presented. For the cerium compounds the onset of f-electron delocalization can be accurately described, including the intricate isostructural phase transitions in elemental cerium and CeP. In Pr and Sm the equilibrium lattice constant and zero temperature equation of state is greatly improved in comparison with the LSD results.

  9. Adiabatic cooling of solar wind electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandbaek, Ornulf; Leer, Egil

    1992-01-01

    In thermally driven winds emanating from regions in the solar corona with base electron densities of n0 not less than 10 exp 8/cu cm, a substantial fraction of the heat conductive flux from the base is transfered into flow energy by the pressure gradient force. The adiabatic cooling of the electrons causes the electron temperature profile to fall off more rapidly than in heat conduction dominated flows. Alfven waves of solar origin, accelerating the basically thermally driven solar wind, lead to an increased mass flux and enhanced adiabatic cooling. The reduction in electron temperature may be significant also in the subsonic region of the flow and lead to a moderate increase of solar wind mass flux with increasing Alfven wave amplitude. In the solar wind model presented here the Alfven wave energy flux per unit mass is larger than that in models where the temperature in the subsonic flow is not reduced by the wave, and consequently the asymptotic flow speed is higher.

  10. Effects of Connectivity and Recurrent Local Disturbances on Community Structure and Population Density in Experimental Metacommunities

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Francesco; Rinaldo, Andrea; Holyoak, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Metacommunity theory poses that the occurrence and abundance of species is a product of local factors, including disturbance, and regional factors, like dispersal among patches. While metacommunity ideas have been broadly tested there is relatively little work on metacommunities subject to disturbance. We focused on how localized disturbance and dispersal interact to determine species composition in metacommunities. Experiments conducted in simple two-patch habitats containing eight protozoa and rotifer species tested how dispersal altered community composition in both communities that were disturbed and communities that connected to refuge communities not subject to disturbance. While disturbance lowered population densities, in disturbed patches connected to undisturbed patches this was ameliorated by immigration. Furthermore, species with high dispersal abilities or growth rates showed the fastest post-disturbance recovery in presence of immigration. Connectivity helped to counteract the negative effect of disturbances on local populations, allowing mass-effect-driven dispersal of individuals from undisturbed to disturbed patches. In undisturbed patches, however, local population sizes were not significantly reduced by emigration. The absence of a cost of dispersal for undisturbed source populations is consistent with a lack of complex demography in our system, such as age- or sex-specific emigration. Our approach provides an improved way to separate components of population growth from organisms' movement in post-disturbance recovery of (meta)communities. Further studies are required in a variety of ecosystems to investigate the transient dynamics resulting from disturbance and dispersal. PMID:21559336

  11. Voyager 1 in the Local Interstellar Medium: Cosmic-ray Energy Density and Ionization Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.; Heikkila, B. C.; Lal, N.; Webber, W. R.; Johannesson, G.; Moskalenko, I.; Orlando, E.; Porter, T.

    2015-12-01

    We present the energy spectra of cosmic ay nuclei and electrons in the local interstellar medium (LISM) from the Cosmic Ray Subsystem on Voyager 1 (V1). We use four models of the local interstellar spectra of nuclei and one of electrons that are constrained by the observations to compute the energy density and ionization rate of atomic H in the LISM above 3 MeV for electrons and protons and above 3 MeV/nuc for nuclei with Z > 1. We find that the total cosmic-ray energy density is in the range 0.82-0.97 eV/cm3, which includes a contribution of 0.023 eV/cm3 from electrons. We find the cosmic-ray ionization rate of atomic H to be in the range 1.45-1.58 x 10-17 s-1, which is a factor of more than 10 below the cosmic-ray ionization rate in diffuse interstellar clouds based on astrochemistry methods. We discuss possible reasons for this difference. Voyager data analysis is supported by NASA Grant NNN12AA012. GALPROP development is supported by NASA Grants NNX13AC47G and NNX10AE78G.

  12. Floral herbivory increases with inflorescence size and local plant density in Digitalis purpurea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sletvold, Nina; Grindeland, John M.

    2008-07-01

    Insect herbivores search for their host plants in heterogeneous environments, and the efficiency of host location may be influenced by plant architecture and abundance. In this study, we ask how plant and habitat characteristics traditionally thought to attract pollinators are related to attack rates by floral herbivores. Patterns of floral herbivory by the moth larva Eupithecia pulchellata were studied in relation to inflorescence size and local plant density in two years in a natural population of the facultative biennial Digitalis purpurea. Overall levels of herbivory were low, 84% of the infested plants lost less than 10% of their flowers. Only 9% of the plants lost more than 20% of their flowers. Probability of herbivory at the plant level increased strongly with inflorescence height, and it was considerably higher in dense patches compared to sparse ones. There was no effect of local plant density on the functional relationship between inflorescence size and probability of herbivory. Both number and proportion of damaged flowers per plant increased with inflorescence height. The results suggest that E. pulchellata is attracted to dense patches and large individuals of D. purpurea, and that negative effects of herbivory increase with plant size. This implies diminishing returns for investment in more flowers in D. purpurea, and indicates that herbivory may select for smaller flowering size and flower number in this monocarpic species.

  13. Global hybrids from the semiclassical atom theory satisfying the local density linear response.

    PubMed

    Fabiano, Eduardo; Constantin, Lucian A; Cortona, Pietro; Della Sala, Fabio

    2015-01-13

    We propose global hybrid approximations of the exchange-correlation (XC) energy functional which reproduce well the modified fourth-order gradient expansion of the exchange energy in the semiclassical limit of many-electron neutral atoms and recover the full local density approximation (LDA) linear response. These XC functionals represent the hybrid versions of the APBE functional [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2011, 106, 186406] yet employing an additional correlation functional which uses the localization concept of the correlation energy density to improve the compatibility with the Hartree-Fock exchange as well as the coupling-constant-resolved XC potential energy. Broad energetic and structural testing, including thermochemistry and geometry, transition metal complexes, noncovalent interactions, gold clusters and small gold-molecule interfaces, as well as an analysis of the hybrid parameters, show that our construction is quite robust. In particular, our testing shows that the resulting hybrid, including 20% of Hartree-Fock exchange and named hAPBE, performs remarkably well for a broad palette of systems and properties, being generally better than popular hybrids (PBE0 and B3LYP). Semiempirical dispersion corrections are also provided. PMID:26574210

  14. Impact of a large density gradient on linear and nonlinear edge-localized mode simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, P. W.; Xu, X. Q.; Xia, T. Y.; Nevins, W. M.; Kim, S. S.

    2013-11-01

    The impact of a large density gradient on edge-localized modes (ELMs) is studied linearly and nonlinearly by employing both two-fluid and gyro-fluid simulations. In two-fluid simulations, the ion diamagnetic stabilization on high-n modes disappears when the large density gradient is taken into account. But gyro-fluid simulations show that the finite Larmor radius (FLR) effect can effectively stabilize high-n modes, so the ion diamagnetic effect alone is not sufficient to represent the FLR stabilizing effect. We further demonstrate that additional gyroviscous terms must be kept in the two-fluid model to recover the linear results from the gyro-fluid model. Nonlinear simulations show that the density variation significantly weakens the E × B shearing at the top of the pedestal and thus leads to more energy loss during ELMs. The turbulence spectrum after an ELM crash is measured and has the relation of P(k_{z})\\propto k_{z}^{-3.3} .

  15. Electronic viscosity in a quantum well: A test for the local-density approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agosta, Roberto; di Ventra, Massimiliano; Vignale, Giovanni

    2007-07-01

    In the local-density approximation (LDA) for electronic time-dependent current-density-functional theory, many-body effects are described in terms of the viscoelastic constants of the homogeneous three-dimensional electron gas. In this paper, we critically examine the applicability of the three-dimensional LDA to the calculation of the viscous damping of one-dimensional collective oscillations of angular frequency ω in a quasi-two-dimensional quantum well. We calculate the effective viscosity ζ(ω) from perturbation theory in the screened Coulomb interaction and compare it with the commonly used three-dimensional LDA viscosity Y(ω) . Significant differences are found. At low frequency, Y(ω) is dominated by a shear term, which is absent in ζ(ω) . At high frequency, ζ(ω) and Y(ω) exhibit different power-law behaviors ( ω-3 and ω-5/2 , respectively), reflecting different spectral densities of electron-hole excitations in two and three dimensions. These findings demonstrate the need for better approximations for the exchange-correlation stress tensor in specific systems where the use of the three-dimensional functionals may lead to unphysical results.

  16. Local Neutral Density and Plasma Parameter Measurements in a Hollow Cathode Plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Kristina K.; Goebel, Dan M.; MiKellides, Joannis; Watkins, Ron M.

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the cathode and keeper wear observed during the Extended Life Test (ELT) of the DS1 flight spare NSTAR thruster and provide benchmarking data for a 2D cathode/cathode-plume model, a basic understanding of the plasma and neutral gas parameters in the cathode orifice and keeper region of the cathode plume must be obtained. The JPL cathode facility is instrumented with an array of Langmuir probe diagnostics along with an optical diagnostic to measure line intensity of xenon neutrals. In order to make direct comparisons with the present model, a flat plate anode arrangement was installed for these tests. Neutral density is deduced from the scanning probe data of the plasma parameters and the measured xenon line intensity in the optical regime. The Langmuir probes are scanned both axially, out to 7.0 cm downstream of the keeper, and radially to obtain 2D profile of the plasma parameters. The optical fiber is housed in a collimating stainless steel tube, and is scanned to view across the cathode plume along cuts in front of the keeper with a resolution of 1.5 mm. The radial intensities are unfolded using the Abel inversion technique that produces radial profiles of local neutral density. In this paper, detailed measurements of the plasma parameters and the local neutral densities will be presented in the cathode/keeper plume region for a 1.5 cm diameter NEXIS cathode at 25A of discharge current at several different strengths of applied magnetic field.

  17. The cosmic-ray positron excess from a local Dark Matter over-density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hektor, Andi; Raidal, Martti; Strumia, Alessandro; Tempel, Elmo

    2014-01-01

    We show that the cosmic-ray positron excess measured by PAMELA and AMS could be induced by Dark Matter annihilations in a local over-density. In such a context leptophilic DM is not needed and good fits to positron data, in agreement with antiproton and gamma-ray measurements, are obtained for DM annihilations to WW, hh, ZZ, ttbar, bbbar, qqbar channels. The classic Dark Matter candidates, such as the pure supersymmetric Wino with standard thermal annihilation cross-section, can fit the positron excess, without invoking any additional assumption on Dark Matter properties. The pink band is the diffuse isotropic gamma-ray background, as extracted from the FERMI Collaboration [42]. The slightly higher gray band is extracted by us from FERMI data, following a simpler procedure. We subtracted known point-like sources and reduced the Galactic gamma-ray background by restricting the observation region to high Galactic latitudes, |b|>60°. We do not show the expected astrophysical gamma-ray background because we do not know any reliable estimate of it.We here neglected the Inverse Compton gamma-ray flux, because it is strongly reduced with respect to the standard scenario, where it is problematic, by our assumptions that the e+ excess is just local.Finally, we point out that, while the main features of our results have been explained with simple approximations, our numerical results have been derived from a full numerical study where we have taken into account energy losses for e± and other small effects. In Figs. 4 and 5 we also plotted the contributions to the gamma-ray and antiproton fluxes coming from regions of the Milky Way outside from the dominant local over-density. We see that such contribution is so small that the analysis would remain unchanged in presence of a moderate Bpart˜10, or even larger.

  18. Impurity States in Ionic Crystals: a Self-Interaction - Corrected Local Spin Density Theory Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Koblar Alan

    1988-12-01

    While the local spin density theory (LSD) has been successfully used to calculate the electronic properties of a variety of condensed matter systems, its use does not provide an adequate description of point impurities in insulating crystals. Unphysical self-interaction effects in LSD lead to calculated one-electron properties which do not agree well with corresponding experimental properties in the limit of localized states. As an additional result of the spurious self-interactions, LSD calculations underestimate the host crystal band gaps in these systems by typically 40%. Recently the self-interaction-correction (SIC) was developed to remove the non-physical effects of electronic self-interaction from LSD. The resulting SIC-LSD theory is self-interaction free, and its use greatly improves the description of both localized states and insulator band gaps compared to uncorrected LSD. In the first part of this work, a novel method for calculating multiplet -dependent atomic wave functions in SIC-LSD is described, and calculated SIC-LSD wave functions for the quintet and triplet excited states of atomic oxygen are shown to be in excellent agreement with the corresponding Hartree-Fock wave functions, further establishing the success of SIC -LSD in calculating the properties of localized states. SIC -LSD is then applied to the NaCl:Cu^+ and LiCl:Ag^+ impurity systems. Transitions associated with the impurity ions in these systems are studied, and the calculated transition energies are found to be in good agreement with experiment. By examining the impurity state wave functions, characteristic differences between the absorption spectra for the Cu^+ and Ag^+ systems are explained.

  19. Invalidity of the quantitative adiabatic condition and general conditions for adiabatic approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dafa

    2016-05-01

    The adiabatic theorem was proposed about 90 years ago and has played an important role in quantum physics. The quantitative adiabatic condition constructed from eigenstates and eigenvalues of a Hamiltonian is a traditional tool to estimate adiabaticity and has proven to be the necessary and sufficient condition for adiabaticity. However, recently the condition has become a controversial subject. In this paper, we list some expressions to estimate the validity of the adiabatic approximation. We show that the quantitative adiabatic condition is invalid for the adiabatic approximation via the Euclidean distance between the adiabatic state and the evolution state. Furthermore, we deduce general necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of the adiabatic approximation by different definitions.

  20. Formulation for scalable optimization of microcavities via the frequency-averaged local density of states.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiangdong; Johnson, Steven G

    2013-12-16

    We present a technique for large-scale optimization of optical microcavities based on the frequency-averaged local density of states (LDOS), which circumvents computational difficulties posed by previous eigenproblem-based formulations and allows us to perform full topology optimization of three-dimensional (3d) leaky cavity modes. We present theoretical results for both 2d and fully 3d computations in which every pixel of the design pattern is a degree of freedom ("topology optimization"), e.g. for lithographic patterning of dielectric slabs in 3d. More importantly, we argue that such optimization techniques can be applied to design cavities for which (unlike silicon-slab single-mode cavities) hand designs are difficult or unavailable, and in particular we design minimal-volume multi-mode cavities (e.g. for nonlinear frequency-conversion applications). PMID:24514656

  1. Time-dependent local density approximation study of attosecond time delays in the photoionization of xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrakvelidze, Maia; Madjet, Mohamed; Chakraborty, Himadri

    2016-05-01

    We investigate Wigner-Smith (WS) time delays of the photoionization from various subshells of xenon using the time-dependent local density approximation (TDLDA) with the Leeuwen and Baerends exchange-correlation functional. At the 4d giant dipole resonance region as well as near all the Cooper minimum anti-resonances in 5p, 5s and 4d photoemissions, effects of electron correlations uniquely determine the shapes of the emission quantum phase. The Wigner-Smith time delay derived from this phase indicates significant variations as a function of energy. The results qualitatively support our TDLDA predictions at the fullerene plasmon region and at 3p Cooper minimum in argon, and should encourage attosecond measurements of Xe photoemission via two-photon interferometric techniques, such as RABITT. The work is supported by the NSF, USA.

  2. Decay of density waves in coupled one-dimensional many-body-localized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prelovšek, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This work analyzes the behavior of coupled disordered one-dimensional systems as modelled by identical fermionic Hubbard chains with the on-site potential disorder and coupling emerging through the interchain hopping t'. The study is motivated by the experiment on fermionic cold atoms on a disordered lattice, where a decay rate of the quenched density wave was measured. We present a derivation of the decay rate Γ within perturbation theory and show that, even at large disorder along the chains, the interaction leads to finite Γ >0 , the mechanism being the interaction-induced coupling of in-chain localized and interchain extended single-fermion states. Explicit expressions for Γ are presented for a weak interaction U U >t' . It is shown that, in both regimes, Γ increases with the interchain hopping t', as well as decreases with increasing disorder.

  3. Quantifying local density of optical states of nanorods by fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Jiang, Xunpeng; Ishii, Satoshi; Shalaev, Vladimir; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate a facile far-field approach to quantify the near-field local density of optical states (LDOS) of a nanorod using CdTe quantum dots (QDs) emitters tethered to the surface of nanorods as beacons for optical read-outs. Radiative decay rate was extracted to quantify the LDOS; our analysis indicates that the LDOS of the nanorod enhance both the radiative and nonradiative decay of QD, particularly radiative decay of QDs at the end of nanorod is enhanced by 1.17 times greater than that at the waist, while the nonradiative decay was uniformly enhanced over the nanorod. To the best of our knowledge, our effort constitutes the first to map the LDOS of a nanostructure via far-field method, to provide clarity on the interaction mechanism between emitters and the nanostructure, and to be potentially employed in the LDOS mapping of high-throughput nanostructures.

  4. Broadband enhancement of local density of states using silicon-compatible hyperbolic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yu; Inampudi, Sandeep; Capretti, Antonio; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Fujii, Minoru; Dal Negro, Luca

    2015-06-15

    Light emitting silicon quantum dots by colloidal synthesis were uniformly spin-coated into a 20 nm-thick film and deposited atop a hyperbolic metamaterial of alternating TiN and SiO{sub 2} sub-wavelength layers. Using steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy as a function of the emission wavelength in partnership with rigorous electromagnetic modeling of dipolar emission, we demonstrate enhanced Local Density of States and coupling to high-k modes in a broad spectral range. These findings provide an alternative approach for the engineering of novel Si-compatible broadband sources that leverage the control of radiative transitions in hyperbolic metamaterials and the flexibility of the widespread Si platform.

  5. Model-free test of local-density mean-field behavior in electric double layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giera, Brian; Henson, Neil; Kober, Edward M.; Squires, Todd M.; Shell, M. Scott

    2013-07-01

    We derive a self-similarity criterion that must hold if a planar electric double layer (EDL) can be captured by a local-density approximation (LDA), without specifying any specific LDA. Our procedure generates a similarity coordinate from EDL profiles (measured or computed), and all LDA EDL profiles for a given electrolyte must collapse onto a master curve when plotted against this similarity coordinate. Noncollapsing profiles imply the inability of any LDA theory to capture EDLs in that electrolyte. We demonstrate our approach with molecular simulations, which reveal dilute electrolytes to collapse onto a single curve, and semidilute ions to collapse onto curves specific to each electrolyte, except where size-induced correlations arise.

  6. Quantifying local density of optical states of nanorods by fluorescence lifetime imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Jiang, Xunpeng; Ishii, Satoshi; Shalaev, Vladimir; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate a facile far-field approach to quantify the near-field local density of optical states (LDOS) of a nanorod using CdTe quantum dots (QDs) emitters tethered to the surface of nanorods as beacons for optical read-outs. Radiative decay rate was extracted to quantify the LDOS; our analysis indicates that the LDOS of the nanorod enhance both the radiative and nonradiative decay of QD, particularly radiative decay of QDs at the end of nanorod is enhanced by 1.17 times greater than that at the waist, while the nonradiative decay was uniformly enhanced over the nanorod. To the best of our knowledge, our effort constitutes the first to map the LDOS of a nanostructure via far-field method, to provide clarity on the interaction mechanism between emitters and the nanostructure, and to be potentially employed in the LDOS mapping of high-throughput nanostructures. PMID:25408619

  7. Towards a Density Functional Theory Exchange-Correlation Functional able to describe localization/delocalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Ann E.; Wills, John M.

    2013-03-01

    The inability to computationally describe the physics governing the properties of actinides and their alloys is the poster child of failure of existing Density Functional Theory exchange-correlation functionals. The intricate competition between localization and delocalization of the electrons, present in these materials, exposes the limitations of functionals only designed to properly describe one or the other situation. We will discuss the manifestation of this competition in real materials and propositions on how to construct a functional able to accurately describe properties of these materials. I addition we will discuss both the importance of using the Dirac equation to describe the relativistic effects in these materials, and the connection to the physics of transition metal oxides. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Determination of Local Densities in Accreted Ice Samples Using X-Rays and Digital Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broughton, Howard; Sims, James; Vargas, Mario

    1996-01-01

    At the NASA Lewis Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel ice shapes, similar to those which develop in-flight icing conditions, were formed on an airfoil. Under cold room conditions these experimental samples were carefully removed from the airfoil, sliced into thin sections, and x-rayed. The resulting microradiographs were developed and the film digitized using a high resolution scanner to extract fine detail in the radiographs. A procedure was devised to calibrate the scanner and to maintain repeatability during the experiment. The techniques of image acquisition and analysis provide accurate local density measurements and reveal the internal characteristics of the accreted ice with greater detail. This paper will discuss the methodology by which these samples were prepared with emphasis on the digital imaging techniques.

  9. Many-body localization and transition by density matrix renormalization group and exact diagonalization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S. P.; Sheng, D. N.

    2016-07-01

    A many-body localized (MBL) state is a new state of matter emerging in a disordered interacting system at high-energy densities through a disorder-driven dynamic phase transition. The nature of the phase transition and the evolution of the MBL phase near the transition are the focus of intense theoretical studies with open issues in the field. We develop an entanglement density matrix renormalization group (En-DMRG) algorithm to accurately target highly excited states for MBL systems. By studying the one-dimensional Heisenberg spin chain in a random field, we demonstrate the accuracy of the method in obtaining energy eigenstates and the corresponding statistical results of quantum states in the MBL phase. Based on large system simulations by En-DMRG for excited states, we demonstrate some interesting features in the entanglement entropy distribution function, which is characterized by two peaks: one at zero and another one at the quantized entropy S =ln2 with an exponential decay tail on the S >ln2 side. Combining En-DMRG with exact diagonalization simulations, we demonstrate that the transition from the MBL phase to the delocalized ergodic phase is driven by rare events where the locally entangled spin pairs develop power-law correlations. The corresponding phase diagram contains an intermediate or crossover regime, which has power-law spin-z correlations resulting from contributions of the rare events. We discuss the physical picture for the numerical observations in this regime, where various distribution functions are distinctly different from results deep in the ergodic and MBL phases for finite-size systems. Our results may provide new insights for understanding the phase transition in such systems.

  10. Relativistic Coulomb excitation within the time dependent superfluid local density approximation

    DOE PAGES

    Stetcu, I.; Bertulani, C. A.; Bulgac, A.; Magierski, P.; Roche, K. J.

    2015-01-06

    Within the framework of the unrestricted time-dependent density functional theory, we present for the first time an analysis of the relativistic Coulomb excitation of the heavy deformed open shell nucleus 238U. The approach is based on the superfluid local density approximation formulated on a spatial lattice that can take into account coupling to the continuum, enabling self-consistent studies of superfluid dynamics of any nuclear shape. We compute the energy deposited in the target nucleus as a function of the impact parameter, finding it to be significantly larger than the estimate using the Goldhaber-Teller model. The isovector giant dipole resonance, themore » dipole pygmy resonance, and giant quadrupole modes are excited during the process. As a result, the one-body dissipation of collective dipole modes is shown to lead a damping width Γ↓≈0.4 MeV and the number of preequilibrium neutrons emitted has been quantified.« less

  11. Cs diffusion in local Taiwan laterite with different solution concentration, pH and packing density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsing-Hai; Li, Ming-Hsu; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2008-09-01

    In this work we used an "in-diffusion" method to study the effects of pH, solution concentration and packing density on Cs diffusion by packing local Taiwan laterite (LTL) into modified capillary columns with 5mm diameter. These packed columns were first pre-equilibrated with synthetic groundwater (GW) for 3 weeks. The diffusion experiments were then carried out at ambient condition for 2 weeks. Our experimental results showed that the Cs diffusion profile fits Fick's second law very well in given experimental conditions, indicating the validity of modified capillary column method. Generally speaking, Cs diffusion in LTL decreases as the pH increases and as Cs concentration decreases. The apparent diffusion coefficient (D(a)) increases from 5.52 x 10(-12) (10(-7)M) to 2.18 x 10(-11) (10(-3)M)m(2)/s, while the effective diffusion coefficient (D(e)) shows slight variation as the Cs concentration changes. Both the derived D(a) and D(e) values decrease as the pH increases, implying that the diffusion mechanisms of Cs nuclide in alkaline and acid environment are different. In addition, our results show that Cs diffusion is unaffected by the given packing density, indicating the interlaminary space is not the major determinant of Cs adsorption and diffusion in LTL. PMID:18321721

  12. Cs diffusion in local Taiwan laterite with different solution concentration, pH and packing density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsing-Hai; Li, Ming-Hsu; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2008-09-01

    In this work we used an "in-diffusion" method to study the effects of pH, solution concentration and packing density on Cs diffusion by packing local Taiwan laterite (LTL) into modified capillary columns with 5mm diameter. These packed columns were first pre-equilibrated with synthetic groundwater (GW) for 3 weeks. The diffusion experiments were then carried out at ambient condition for 2 weeks. Our experimental results showed that the Cs diffusion profile fits Fick's second law very well in given experimental conditions, indicating the validity of modified capillary column method. Generally speaking, Cs diffusion in LTL decreases as the pH increases and as Cs concentration decreases. The apparent diffusion coefficient (D(a)) increases from 5.52 x 10(-12) (10(-7)M) to 2.18 x 10(-11) (10(-3)M)m(2)/s, while the effective diffusion coefficient (D(e)) shows slight variation as the Cs concentration changes. Both the derived D(a) and D(e) values decrease as the pH increases, implying that the diffusion mechanisms of Cs nuclide in alkaline and acid environment are different. In addition, our results show that Cs diffusion is unaffected by the given packing density, indicating the interlaminary space is not the major determinant of Cs adsorption and diffusion in LTL.

  13. Bonding in the first-row diatomic molecules within the local spin-density approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, G. S.; Averill, F. W.

    1982-08-01

    The Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham density-functional equations in the local spin-density approximation (LSDA) have been solved with essentially no loss of accuracy for dimers of the first row of the Periodic Table with the use of a fully-self-consistent spin-polarized Gaussian-orbital approach. Spectroscopic constants (binding energies, equilibrium separations, and ground-state vibrational frequencies) have been derived from the calculated potential-energy curves. Intercomparison of results obtained using the exchange-correlation functionals of Slater (scaled exchange or Xα, Gunnarsson and Lundqvist (GL), and Vosko, Wilk, and Nusair (VWN) permits assessment of the relative merits of each and serves to identify general shortcomings in the LSDA. Basic trends are similar for each functional, but the treatment of the spin dependence of the exchange-correlation energy in the GL and VWN functionals yields a variation of the binding energy across the series which is more systematic than that in the Xα approximation. Agreement between the present results and those of Dunlap, Connolly, and Sabin in the Xα approximation confirms the accuracy of the variational charge-density-fit procedure used in the latter work. The refinements in correlation treatment within the VWN functional are reflected in improvements in binding energies which are only slight for most dimers in the series. This behavior is attributed to the error remaining in the exchange channel within the LSDA and demonstrates the necessity for self-interaction corrections for more accurate binding-energy determinations. Within the current LSDA, absolute accuracies of the VWN functional for the first-row dimers are within 2.3 eV for binding energies, 0.07 a.u. for bond lengths, and ~200 cm-1 for vibrational frequencies.

  14. Quantifying dust and the ultraviolet radiation density in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan-Robinson, Michael

    2003-09-01

    A sample of local galaxies for which far-infrared and ultraviolet fluxes are available is used to estimate the characteristic dust extinction in galaxies and to test whether standard dust properties are plausible. Assuming galaxies can be characterized by a single dust optical depth (certainly not valid for galaxies with a dominant starburst component), the infrared excess and ultraviolet colours of local galaxies are found to be consistent with normal Milky Way dust, with a mean value for E(B-V) of 0.16. A significant fraction of the dust heating is caused by older, lower-mass stars, and this fraction increases towards earlier galaxy types. Analysis of (FFIR/FUV) versus ultraviolet colour diagrams for starburst galaxies in terms of a simple screen dust model does not support a Calzetti (1997) rather than a Milky Way extinction law, though the absence of the expected strong 2200-Å feature in several galaxies with IUE spectra does show that more detailed radiative transfer models are needed - probably with nonspherical geometry. A simple treatment in which the 100/60-μm flux ratio is used to subtract the optically thick starburst contribution to the far-infrared radiation results in lower extinction estimates for the optically thin cirrus component, with a mean E(B-V) of 0.10. The ultraviolet luminosity density, corrected for dust extinction, is derived and a value for the local mean star formation rate inferred. This is consistent with previous estimates from ultraviolet surveys and from Hα surveys.

  15. Adiabatic Wankel type rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamo, R.; Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1988-01-01

    This SBIR Phase program accomplished the objective of advancing the technology of the Wankel type rotary engine for aircraft applications through the use of adiabatic engine technology. Based on the results of this program, technology is in place to provide a rotor and side and intermediate housings with thermal barrier coatings. A detailed cycle analysis of the NASA 1007R Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engine was performed which concluded that applying thermal barrier coatings to the rotor should be successful and that it was unlikely that the rotor housing could be successfully run with thermal barrier coatings as the thermal stresses were extensive.

  16. Adiabatic processes in monatomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera-Patiño, Martin E.

    1988-08-01

    A kinetic model is used to predict the temperature evolution of a monatomic ideal gas undergoing an adiabatic expansion or compression at a constant finite rate, and it is then generalized to treat real gases. The effects of interatomic forces are considered, using as examples the gas with the square-well potential and the van der Waals gas. The model is integrated into a Carnot cycle operating at a finite rate to compare the efficiency's rate-dependent behavior with the reversible result. Limitations of the model, rate penalties, and their importance are discussed.

  17. Adiabatic preparation of Floquet condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinisch, Christoph; Holthaus, Martin

    2016-10-01

    We argue that a Bose-Einstein condensate can be transformed into a Floquet condensate, that is, into a periodically time-dependent many-particle state possessing the coherence properties of a mesoscopically occupied single-particle Floquet state. Our reasoning is based on the observation that the denseness of the many-body system's quasienergy spectrum does not necessarily obstruct effectively adiabatic transport. Employing the idealized model of a driven bosonic Josephson junction, we demonstrate that only a small amount of Floquet entropy is generated when a driving force with judiciously chosen frequency and maximum amplitude is turned on smoothly.

  18. On adiabatic stabilization and geometry of Bunsen flames

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, C.J.; Sung, C.J.; Law, C.K.

    1994-12-31

    Two aspects of stretched flame dynamics are investigated via the model problem of the stabilization and geometry of Bunsen flames. Specifically, the possibility of stabilizing a Bunsen flame without heat loss to the burner rim is experimentally investigated by examining the temperature of the rim, the temperature gradient between the rim and the flame base, and the standoff distance of the flame base in relation to the flame thickness. Results show that, while heat loss is still the dominant stabilization mechanism for flames in uniform flows and for strong flames in parabolic flow, adiabatic stabilization and, subsequently, blowoff are indeed possible for weak flames in parabolic flows. The adiabatically stabilized flame is then modeled by using the scalar field formulation and by allowing for the effects of curvature and aerodynamic straining on the local flame speed. The calculated flame configuration agrees well with the experiment for the adiabatically stabilized flame but not for the nonadiabatic flame. Results further show that active modification of the flame curvature is the dominant cause for the flame to maintain adiabatic stabilization. Implications of the present results on turbulent flame modeling are discussed.

  19. On the question of adiabatic invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitropol'Skii, Iu. A.

    Some aspects of the construction of adiabadic invariants for dynamic systems with a single degree of freedom are discussed. Adiabatic invariants are derived using classical principles and the method proposed by Djukic (1981). The discussion covers an adiabatic invariant for a dynamic system with slowly varying parameters; derivation of an expression for an adiabatic invariant by the Djukic method for a second-order equation with a variable mass; and derivation of an expression for the adiabatic invariant for a nearly integrable differential equation.

  20. Model for fluctuating inflaton coupling: sneutrino induced adiabatic perturbations and nonthermal leptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Anupam

    2004-06-18

    We discuss a unique possibility of generating adiabatic density perturbations and leptogenesis from the spatial fluctuations of the inflaton decay rate. The key assumption is that the initial isocurvature perturbations are created in the right-handed sneutrino sector during inflation which is then converted into adiabatic perturbations when the inflaton decays. We discuss distinct imprints on the cosmic microwave background radiation, which can distinguish nonthermal versus thermal leptogenesis.

  1. Local density of unoccupied states in ion-beam-mixed Pd-Ag alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, K.H.; Jung, S.M.; Lee, Y.S.; Whang, C.N.; Jeon, Y.; Croft, M.; Sills, D.; Ansari, P.H.; Mack, K.

    1996-04-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements have been used to probe the electronic structure of ion-beam-mixed (IBM) Pd-Ag thin films with bulk alloys being studied for comparison. Pd {ital L}{sub 3} and Ag {ital L}{sub 3} absorption edges for pure Pd, Ag, and Pd{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Ag{sub {ital x}} alloys are discussed. Structural information from both x-ray diffraction and the XAS fine structure oscillations are discussed. The observed decrease of the white-line feature strength, at the Pd {ital L}{sub 3} edge, indicates that the local density of unoccupied Pd 4{ital d} states declines upon alloying with Ag in a manner similar to that observed in previous bulk studies. However, while the Pd {ital d}-hole count decreases monotonically for bulk alloys, in the IBM alloys it saturates at higher levels in the Ag-rich materials. This disparity is interpreted on the basis of a modified charge transfer due to structural differences in the IBM alloys. The Ag {ital L}{sub 3} near-edge region is largely unchanged in these alloys, indicating that the charge transferred away from the Ag site is dominantly of {ital non}-{ital d} type. Our experimental results are discussed in the context of recent electronic structure calculations and of previous work on this alloy system. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. Enhanced gas adsorption on graphitic substrates via defects and local curvature: A density functional theory study

    DOE PAGES

    Dutta, Debosruti; Wood, Brandon C.; Bhide, Shreyas Y.; Ayappa, K. Ganapathy; Narasimhan, Shobhana

    2014-03-24

    Using van-der-Waals-corrected density functional theory calculations, we explore the possibility of engineering the local structure and morphology of high-surface-area graphene-derived materials to improve the uptake of methane and carbon dioxide for gas storage and sensing. We test the sensitivity of the gas adsorption energy to the introduction of native point defects, curvature, and the application of strain. The binding energy at topological point defect sites is inversely correlated with the number of missing carbon atoms, causing Stone–Wales defects to show the largest enhancement with respect to pristine graphene (~20%). Improvements of similar magnitude are observed at concavely curved surfaces inmore » buckled graphene sheets under compressive strain, whereas tensile strain tends to weaken gas binding. Trends for CO2 and CH4 are similar, although CO2 binding is generally stronger by ~4 to 5 kJ mol–1. Furthermore, the differential between the adsorption of CO2 and CH4 is much higher on folded graphene sheets and at concave curvatures; this could possibly be leveraged for CH4/CO2 flow separation and gas-selective sensors.« less

  3. Effective mass density based topology optimization of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials for bandgap maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiong Wei; Lee, Joong Seok; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-11-01

    Because effective material properties are essential concepts in the analyses of wave phenomena in metamaterials, they may also be utilized in the optimal design of metamaterials. In this work, we propose a topology optimization method directly using the Effective Mass Density (EMD) concept to maximize the first bandgaps of two-dimensional solid Locally Resonant Acoustic Metamaterials (LRAMs). When the first bandgap is characterized by the negative EMD, the bandgap maximization can be formulated efficiently as a topology optimization problem to broaden the frequency zone of the negative EMD values. In this work, EMD is calculated by considering the macroscopic isotropy of LRAMs in the long wavelength limit. To facilitate the analytical sensitivity analysis, we propose an elaborate calculation scheme of EMD. A sensitivity averaging technique is also suggested to guarantee the macroscopically isotropic behavior of the LRAMs. In the present study, the coating layer interfacing the core and the matrix of a ternary LRAM is chosen as the design region because it significantly influences the bandgap. By considering several numerical examples, the validity of this method is verified, and the effects of the mass constraint ratios on the optimized results are also investigated.

  4. Local density approximation results for bond length alternation in the infinite polyyne chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylaska, Eric; Weare, John

    1998-03-01

    Calculations for large even numbered carbon ring molecules and band structure calculations for the infinite polyyne chain within the local density approximation are reported. We studied the alternation of bond lengths in this system as a function of size. Particular focus is on alternation in the infinite system. For intermediate and large sized Cn rings with n satisfying n=4N (doubly-antiaromatic rings) there is a substantial first order Jahn-Teller distortion which decreases for large N. On the other hand, for Cn rings satisfying n=4N+2 (doubly-aromatic rings) the second order Jahn-Teller distortion does not produce bond length alternation even by the large C_42 ring. The persistance of aromatic behavior in the very large carbon rings manifests itself in the band structure calculations by making the amount of bond length alternation predicted for the infinite polyyne chain extremely sensitive to the numerical treatment of the Brillouin zone. We have shown that the infinite polyyne has a finite amount of bond length alternation but the condensation energy is very small.

  5. Unitary Thermodynamics from Thermodynamic Geometry II: Fit to a Local-Density Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppeiner, George

    2015-10-01

    Strongly interacting Fermi gasses at low density possess universal thermodynamic properties that have recently seen very precise PVT measurements by a group at MIT. This group determined local thermodynamic properties of a system of ultracold atoms tuned to Feshbach resonance. In this paper, I analyze the MIT data with a thermodynamic theory of unitary thermodynamics based on ideas from critical phenomena. This theory was introduced in the first paper of this sequence and characterizes the scaled thermodynamics by the entropy per particle and the energy per particle Y( z), in units of the Fermi energy. Y( z) is in two segments, separated by a second-order phase transition at : a "superfluid" segment for and a "normal" segment for . For small z, the theory obeys a series where is a constant exponent and () are constant series coefficients. For large z, the theory obeys a perturbation of the ideal gas , where is a constant exponent and () are constant series coefficients. This limiting form for large z differs from the series used in the first paper and was necessary to fit the MIT data. I fit the MIT data by adjusting four free independent theory parameters: . This fit process was augmented by trap integration and comparison with earlier thermal data taken at Duke University. The overall match to both the data sets was good and had , , , scaled critical temperature , where is the Fermi temperature, and Bertsch parameter . I also discuss the virial expansion in the context of this thermodynamic geometric theory.

  6. Calculations with the quasirelativistic local-spin-density-functional theory for high-Z atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Whitehead, M.A.

    1988-10-01

    The generalized-exchange local-spin-density-functional theory (LSD-GX) with relativistic corrections of the mass velocity and Darwin terms has been used to calculate statistical total energies for the neutral atoms, the positive ions, and the negative ions for high-Z elements. The effect of the correlation and relaxation correction on the statistical total energy is discussed. Comparing the calculated results for the ionization potentials and electron affinities for the atoms (atomic number Z from 37 to 56 and 72 to 80) with experiment, shows that for the atoms rubidium to barium both the LSD-GX and the quasirelativistic LSD-GX, with self-interaction correction, Gopinathan, Whitehead, and Bogdanovic's Fermi-hole parameters (Phys. Rev. A 14, 1 (1976)), and Vosko, Wilk, and Nusair's correlation correction (Can. J. Phys. 58, 1200 (1980)), are very good methods for calculating ionization potentials and electron affinities. For the atoms hafnium to mercury the relativistic effect has to be considered.

  7. RKKY interaction and local density of states for a triangular triple quantum dot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yong-Chen; Wang, Wei-Zhong; Luo, Shi-Jun; Yang, Jun-Tao; Huang, Hai-Ming

    2016-02-01

    By means of the numerical renormalization group technique, we study the local density of states (LDOS) for a triangular triple quantum dot system, with two dots connected in parallel to the conduction leads. We find the location of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) peak identified in the LDOS could be illustrated as JRKKY = aΓ2 / U +bt22 / U, with U being the on-site Coulomb repulsion, Γ the dot-lead coupling, and t2 the hopping between the connected dots and the side dot. When the hopping between two connected dots t1 turns on, the spectrum weight of the RKKY peaks decreases due to the competition between the direct and the RKKY interactions. As t1 increases beyond a critical point t1c, two connected dots form a spin singlet, and decouple from both the side dot and the conduction leads, thus the Kondo and RKKY peaks could not be found. For t1 1 ≥t1 c, it drops to zero.

  8. Enhanced gas adsorption on graphitic substrates via defects and local curvature: A density functional theory study

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Debosruti; Wood, Brandon C.; Bhide, Shreyas Y.; Ayappa, K. Ganapathy; Narasimhan, Shobhana

    2014-03-24

    Using van-der-Waals-corrected density functional theory calculations, we explore the possibility of engineering the local structure and morphology of high-surface-area graphene-derived materials to improve the uptake of methane and carbon dioxide for gas storage and sensing. We test the sensitivity of the gas adsorption energy to the introduction of native point defects, curvature, and the application of strain. The binding energy at topological point defect sites is inversely correlated with the number of missing carbon atoms, causing Stone–Wales defects to show the largest enhancement with respect to pristine graphene (~20%). Improvements of similar magnitude are observed at concavely curved surfaces in buckled graphene sheets under compressive strain, whereas tensile strain tends to weaken gas binding. Trends for CO2 and CH4 are similar, although CO2 binding is generally stronger by ~4 to 5 kJ mol–1. Furthermore, the differential between the adsorption of CO2 and CH4 is much higher on folded graphene sheets and at concave curvatures; this could possibly be leveraged for CH4/CO2 flow separation and gas-selective sensors.

  9. Bond length and local energy density property connections for non-transition-metal oxide-bonded interactions.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, G V; Spackman, M A; Jayatilaka, D; Rosso, K M; Cox, D F

    2006-11-01

    For a variety of molecules and earth materials, the theoretical local kinetic energy density, G(r(c)), increases and the local potential energy density, V(r(c)), decreases as the M-O bond lengths (M = first- and second-row metal atoms bonded to O) decrease and the electron density, rho(r(c)), accumulates at the bond critical points, r(c). Despite the claim that the local kinetic energy density per electronic charge, G(r(c))/rho(r(c)), classifies bonded interactions as shared interactions when less than unity and closed-shell when greater, the ratio was found to increase from 0.5 to 2.5 au as the local electronic energy density, H(r(c)) = G(r(c)) + V(r(c)), decreases and becomes progressively more negative. The ratio appears to be a measure of the character of a given M-O bonded interaction, the greater the ratio, the larger the value of rho(r(c)), the smaller the coordination number of the M atom and the more shared the bonded interaction. H(r(c))/rho(r(c)) versus G(r(c))/rho(r(c)) scatter diagrams categorize the M-O bonded interactions into domains with the local electronic energy density per electron charge, H(r(c))/rho(r(c)), tending to decrease as the electronegativity differences for the bonded pairs of atoms decrease. The values of G(r(c)) and V(r(c)), estimated with a gradient-corrected electron gas theory expression and the local virial theorem, are in good agreement with theoretical values, particularly for the bonded interactions involving second-row M atoms. The agreement is poorer for shared C-O and N-O bonded interactions.

  10. Bond length and local energy density property connections for non-transition-metal oxide-bonded interactions.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, G V; Spackman, M A; Jayatilaka, D; Rosso, K M; Cox, D F

    2006-11-01

    For a variety of molecules and earth materials, the theoretical local kinetic energy density, G(r(c)), increases and the local potential energy density, V(r(c)), decreases as the M-O bond lengths (M = first- and second-row metal atoms bonded to O) decrease and the electron density, rho(r(c)), accumulates at the bond critical points, r(c). Despite the claim that the local kinetic energy density per electronic charge, G(r(c))/rho(r(c)), classifies bonded interactions as shared interactions when less than unity and closed-shell when greater, the ratio was found to increase from 0.5 to 2.5 au as the local electronic energy density, H(r(c)) = G(r(c)) + V(r(c)), decreases and becomes progressively more negative. The ratio appears to be a measure of the character of a given M-O bonded interaction, the greater the ratio, the larger the value of rho(r(c)), the smaller the coordination number of the M atom and the more shared the bonded interaction. H(r(c))/rho(r(c)) versus G(r(c))/rho(r(c)) scatter diagrams categorize the M-O bonded interactions into domains with the local electronic energy density per electron charge, H(r(c))/rho(r(c)), tending to decrease as the electronegativity differences for the bonded pairs of atoms decrease. The values of G(r(c)) and V(r(c)), estimated with a gradient-corrected electron gas theory expression and the local virial theorem, are in good agreement with theoretical values, particularly for the bonded interactions involving second-row M atoms. The agreement is poorer for shared C-O and N-O bonded interactions. PMID:17078623

  11. Non-adiabatic molecular dynamic simulations of opening reaction of molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobač, Vladmír; Lewis, James P.; Jelínek, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    We report non-adiabatic molecular dynamic simulations of the ring opening reaction of diarylethene (DAE) derivative molecules, both free standing and embedded between gold electrodes. Simulations are performed by the surface hopping method employing density functional theory. Typically, the free-standing molecules exhibit large quantum yields to open and close; however the process is quenched for the molecules embedded between electrodes. Our simulations reveal the importance of the DAE side chemical groups, which explain the efficiency of the quenching process. Namely, delocalization of the LUMO state contributes to electronic coupling between the molecule and electrodes, suppressing or enhancing the reaction process. The simulations indicate that a proper choice of the chemical side group, which provides the strong localization of the LUMO state, can substantially diminish the quenching mechanism. Additionally, we analyze a strong dependency of the quantum yield of the opening reaction coming from the mechanical strength of the molecules.

  12. Non-adiabatic molecular dynamic simulations of opening reaction of molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Zobač, Vladmír; Lewis, James P; Jelínek, Pavel

    2016-07-15

    We report non-adiabatic molecular dynamic simulations of the ring opening reaction of diarylethene (DAE) derivative molecules, both free standing and embedded between gold electrodes. Simulations are performed by the surface hopping method employing density functional theory. Typically, the free-standing molecules exhibit large quantum yields to open and close; however the process is quenched for the molecules embedded between electrodes. Our simulations reveal the importance of the DAE side chemical groups, which explain the efficiency of the quenching process. Namely, delocalization of the LUMO state contributes to electronic coupling between the molecule and electrodes, suppressing or enhancing the reaction process. The simulations indicate that a proper choice of the chemical side group, which provides the strong localization of the LUMO state, can substantially diminish the quenching mechanism. Additionally, we analyze a strong dependency of the quantum yield of the opening reaction coming from the mechanical strength of the molecules. PMID:27255903

  13. Degenerate adiabatic perturbation theory: Foundations and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigolin, Gustavo; Ortiz, Gerardo

    2014-08-01

    We present details and expand on the framework leading to the recently introduced degenerate adiabatic perturbation theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 170406 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.170406], and on the formulation of the degenerate adiabatic theorem, along with its necessary and sufficient conditions [given in Phys. Rev. A 85, 062111 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.062111]. We start with the adiabatic approximation for degenerate Hamiltonians that paves the way to a clear and rigorous statement of the associated degenerate adiabatic theorem, where the non-Abelian geometric phase (Wilczek-Zee phase) plays a central role to its quantitative formulation. We then describe the degenerate adiabatic perturbation theory, whose zeroth-order term is the degenerate adiabatic approximation, in its full generality. The parameter in the perturbative power-series expansion of the time-dependent wave function is directly associated to the inverse of the time it takes to drive the system from its initial to its final state. With the aid of the degenerate adiabatic perturbation theory we obtain rigorous necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics. Finally, to illustrate the power and wide scope of the methodology, we apply the framework to a degenerate Hamiltonian, whose closed-form time-dependent wave function is derived exactly, and also to other nonexactly solvable Hamiltonians whose solutions are numerically computed.

  14. Ultrafast Response of the Hubbard Model: Non-adiabatic TDDFT + DMFT versus Non-equilibrium DMFT Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Shree Ram; Turkowski, Volodymyr; Rahman, Talat S.

    We study the ultrafast response of electrons in the one-band Hubbard model to an external laser-pulse perturbation by using the Non-adiabatic Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory + Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (TDDFT +DMFT) approach. The corresponding exchange-correlation kernel (XC) is obtained from the DMFT charge susceptibility by using the Quantum Monte Carlo solver for the impurity problem. Detailed analysis of the time-dependent excited charge density, the Fermi distribution function, and the spatially nonhomogeneous response (metallic domain growth), is performed for different values for the carrier density and local Coulomb repulsion. We compare the results with the corresponding non-equilibrium DMFT solutions, and demonstrate that non-adiabaticity (frequency-dependence) of the XC kernel is important in order to reproduce the non-equilibrium DMFT solution. Also, from the numerical results for the charge susceptibility, we obtain an approximate analytical expression for the XC kernel. Using this kernel, we reveal possible types of ''elementary'' excitations and the dynamics of metallic domain growth in the case of the one-band Hubbard model. Possible generalization of the approach to the multi-orbital case is discussed. Work supported in part by DOE Grant No. DOE-DE-FG02-07ER46354.

  15. On a Nonlinear Model in Adiabatic Evolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jie; Lu, Song-Feng

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we study a kind of nonlinear model of adiabatic evolution in quantum search problem. As will be seen here, for this problem, there always exists a possibility that this nonlinear model can successfully solve the problem, while the linear model can not. Also in the same setting, when the overlap between the initial state and the final stare is sufficiently large, a simple linear adiabatic evolution can achieve O(1) time efficiency, but infinite time complexity for the nonlinear model of adiabatic evolution is needed. This tells us, it is not always a wise choice to use nonlinear interpolations in adiabatic algorithms. Sometimes, simple linear adiabatic evolutions may be sufficient for using. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61402188 and 61173050. The first author also gratefully acknowledges the support from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 2014M552041

  16. Quantum and classical dynamics in adiabatic computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, P. J. D.; Äńurić, T.; Vinci, W.; Warburton, P. A.; Green, A. G.

    2014-10-01

    Adiabatic transport provides a powerful way to manipulate quantum states. By preparing a system in a readily initialized state and then slowly changing its Hamiltonian, one may achieve quantum states that would otherwise be inaccessible. Moreover, a judicious choice of final Hamiltonian whose ground state encodes the solution to a problem allows adiabatic transport to be used for universal quantum computation. However, the dephasing effects of the environment limit the quantum correlations that an open system can support and degrade the power of such adiabatic computation. We quantify this effect by allowing the system to evolve over a restricted set of quantum states, providing a link between physically inspired classical optimization algorithms and quantum adiabatic optimization. This perspective allows us to develop benchmarks to bound the quantum correlations harnessed by an adiabatic computation. We apply these to the D-Wave Vesuvius machine with revealing—though inconclusive—results.

  17. Comparative survey of the relative impact of mRNA features on local ribosome profiling read density

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Patrick B. F.; Andreev, Dmitry E.; Baranov, Pavel V.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome profiling (Ribo-seq), a promising technology for exploring ribosome decoding rates, is characterized by the presence of infrequent high peaks in ribosome footprint density and by long alignment gaps. Here, to reduce the impact of data heterogeneity we introduce a simple normalization method, Ribo-seq Unit Step Transformation (RUST). RUST is robust and outperforms other normalization techniques in the presence of heterogeneous noise. We illustrate how RUST can be used for identifying mRNA sequence features that affect ribosome footprint densities globally. We show that a few parameters extracted with RUST are sufficient for predicting experimental densities with high accuracy. Importantly the application of RUST to 30 publicly available Ribo-seq data sets revealed a substantial variation in sequence determinants of ribosome footprint frequencies, questioning the reliability of Ribo-seq as an accurate representation of local ribosome densities without prior quality control. This emphasizes our incomplete understanding of how protocol parameters affect ribosome footprint densities. PMID:27698342

  18. Fluctuations of work in nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Suomela, S; Salmilehto, J; Savenko, I G; Ala-Nissila, T; Möttönen, M

    2015-02-01

    We extend the quantum jump method to nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems in a way that allows for an accurate account of the external driving in the system-environment interaction. Using this framework, we construct the corresponding trajectory-dependent work performed on the system and derive the integral fluctuation theorem and the Jarzynski equality for nearly adiabatic driving. We show that such identities hold as long as the stochastic dynamics and work variable are consistently defined. We numerically study the emerging work statistics for a two-level quantum system and find that the conventional diabatic approximation is unable to capture some prominent features arising from driving, such as the continuity of the probability density of work. Our results reveal the necessity of using accurate expressions for the drive-dressed heat exchange in future experiments probing jump time distributions. PMID:25768477

  19. Excitation energies along a range-separated adiabatic connection

    SciTech Connect

    Rebolini, Elisa Toulouse, Julien Savin, Andreas; Teale, Andrew M.; Helgaker, Trygve

    2014-07-28

    We present a study of the variation of total energies and excitation energies along a range-separated adiabatic connection. This connection links the non-interacting Kohn–Sham electronic system to the physical interacting system by progressively switching on the electron–electron interactions whilst simultaneously adjusting a one-electron effective potential so as to keep the ground-state density constant. The interactions are introduced in a range-dependent manner, first introducing predominantly long-range, and then all-range, interactions as the physical system is approached, as opposed to the conventional adiabatic connection where the interactions are introduced by globally scaling the standard Coulomb interaction. Reference data are reported for the He and Be atoms and the H{sub 2} molecule, obtained by calculating the short-range effective potential at the full configuration-interaction level using Lieb's Legendre-transform approach. As the strength of the electron–electron interactions increases, the excitation energies, calculated for the partially interacting systems along the adiabatic connection, offer increasingly accurate approximations to the exact excitation energies. Importantly, the excitation energies calculated at an intermediate point of the adiabatic connection are much better approximations to the exact excitation energies than are the corresponding Kohn–Sham excitation energies. This is particularly evident in situations involving strong static correlation effects and states with multiple excitation character, such as the dissociating H{sub 2} molecule. These results highlight the utility of long-range interacting reference systems as a starting point for the calculation of excitation energies and are of interest for developing and analyzing practical approximate range-separated density-functional methodologies.

  20. Adiabaticity and gravity theory independent conservation laws for cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Antonio Enea; Mooij, Sander; Sasaki, Misao

    2016-04-01

    We carefully study the implications of adiabaticity for the behavior of cosmological perturbations. There are essentially three similar but different definitions of non-adiabaticity: one is appropriate for a thermodynamic fluid δPnad, another is for a general matter field δPc,nad, and the last one is valid only on superhorizon scales. The first two definitions coincide if cs2 = cw2 where cs is the propagation speed of the perturbation, while cw2 = P ˙ / ρ ˙ . Assuming the adiabaticity in the general sense, δPc,nad = 0, we derive a relation between the lapse function in the comoving slicing Ac and δPnad valid for arbitrary matter field in any theory of gravity, by using only momentum conservation. The relation implies that as long as cs ≠cw, the uniform density, comoving and the proper-time slicings coincide approximately for any gravity theory and for any matter field if δPnad = 0 approximately. In the case of general relativity this gives the equivalence between the comoving curvature perturbation Rc and the uniform density curvature perturbation ζ on superhorizon scales, and their conservation. This is realized on superhorizon scales in standard slow-roll inflation. We then consider an example in which cw =cs, where δPnad = δPc,nad = 0 exactly, but the equivalence between Rc and ζ no longer holds. Namely we consider the so-called ultra slow-roll inflation. In this case both Rc and ζ are not conserved. In particular, as for ζ, we find that it is crucial to take into account the next-to-leading order term in ζ's spatial gradient expansion to show its non-conservation, even on superhorizon scales. This is an example of the fact that adiabaticity (in the thermodynamic sense) is not always enough to ensure the conservation of Rc or ζ.

  1. On the Effect of Strain Gradient on Adiabatic Shear Banding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsagrakis, Ioannis; Aifantis, Elias C.

    2015-10-01

    Most of the work on adiabatic shear banding is based on the effect of temperature gradients on shear band nucleation and evolution. In contrast, the present work considers the coupling between temperature and strain gradients. The competition of thermal and strain gradient terms on the onset of instability and its dependence on specimen size is illustrated. It is shown that heat conduction promotes the instability initiation in the hardening part of the homogeneous stress-strain, while the strain gradient term favors the occurrence of this initiation in the softening regime. This behavior is size dependent, i.e., small specimens can support stable homogeneous deformations even in the softening regime. The spacing of adiabatic shear bands is also evaluated by considering the dominant instability mode during the primary stages of the localization process and it is found that it is an increasing function of the strain gradient coefficient.

  2. Evaluation and characterization of axial distribution in expanded bed. I. Bead size, bead density and local bed voidage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dong-Qiang; Tong, Hong-Fei; van de Sandt, Emile J A X; den Boer, Piet; Golubović, Marijana; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2013-08-23

    Expanded bed adsorption (EBA) is an innovative chromatography technology that allows the adsorption of target proteins directly from unclarified feedstock, and the most important property of an expanded bed is the perfectly classified fluidization of resin beads in the column. Due to the variation of both size and density of bulk resin beads, the axial distributions of bead size, bead density and bed voidage are the inherent characteristics of an expanded bed. However, the understanding on these properties is quite limited. In this study, raw beads (3% crosslinked agarose containing tungsten carbide) and 2cm-diameter nozzle column were used as the model system and mean bead size, bead density and local bed voidage along the bed height were measured systematically with the in-bed sampling method for two settled bed heights (11.5 and 23.1cm) and different expansion factors (1.4-2.6). With the increase of bed height, mean bead size and wet density of the beads decreased from 140 to 90μm and from 4 to 2g/ml, respectively. The local bed voidage increased from 0.6 to 0.9 with the increasing bed height. The relative bed height and relative bed voidage were introduced to describe the general rule of axial distribution. Some empirical equations were used to correlate the mean bead size, bead density and local bed voidage along the bed height with the standard deviations of 10.6%, 6.1% and 5.5, respectively. In addition, a general equation was proposed to predict the axial distributions of bead size, bead density and local bed voidage in the column with standard deviations less than 10% for most of the experimental data, which would be useful for the characterization of resin beads distribution in an expanded bed under varying operation conditions.

  3. Halo-independent tests of dark matter direct detection signals: local DM density, LHC, and thermal freeze-out

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Schwetz, Thomas; Vogl, Stefan

    2015-08-19

    From an assumed signal in a Dark Matter (DM) direct detection experiment a lower bound on the product of the DM-nucleon scattering cross section and the local DM density is derived, which is independent of the local DM velocity distribution. This can be combined with astrophysical determinations of the local DM density. Within a given particle physics model the bound also allows a robust comparison of a direct detection signal with limits from the LHC. Furthermore, the bound can be used to formulate a condition which has to be fulfilled if the particle responsible for the direct detection signal is a thermal relic, regardless of whether it constitutes all DM or only part of it. We illustrate the arguments by adopting a simplified DM model with a Z{sup ′} mediator and assuming a signal in a future xenon direct detection experiment.

  4. A geometric criterion for adiabatic chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, T.J. ); Kovacic, G. )

    1994-03-01

    Chaos in adiabatic Hamiltonian systems is a recent discovery and a pervasive phenomenon in physics. In this work, a geometric criterion is discussed based on the theory of action from classical mechanics to detect the existence of Smale horseshoe chaos in adiabatic systems. It is used to show that generic adiabatic planar Hamiltonian systems exhibit stochastic dynamics in large regions of phase space. To illustrate the method, results are obtained for three problems concerning relativistic particle dynamics, fluid mechanics, and passage through resonance, results which either could not be obtained with existing methods, or which were difficult and analytically impractical to obtain with them.

  5. Heating and cooling in adiabatic mixing process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Jing; Zou Xubo; Guo Guangcan; Cai Zi

    2010-12-15

    We study the effect of interaction on the temperature change in the process of adiabatic mixing of two components of Fermi gases using the real-space Bogoliubov-de Gennes method. We find that in the process of adiabatic mixing, the competition between the adiabatic expansion and the attractive interaction makes it possible to cool or heat the system depending on the strength of the interaction and the initial temperature of the system. The changes of the temperature in a bulk system and in a trapped system are investigated.

  6. REMOVING BARYON-ACOUSTIC-OSCILLATION PEAK SHIFTS WITH LOCAL DENSITY TRANSFORMS

    SciTech Connect

    McCullagh, Nuala; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Szapudi, Istvan

    2013-01-20

    Large-scale bulk flows in the universe distort the initial density field, broadening the baryon-acoustic-oscillation (BAO) feature that was imprinted when baryons were strongly coupled to photons. Additionally, there is a small shift inward in the peak of the conventional overdensity correlation function, a mass-weighted statistic. This shift occurs when high-density peaks move toward each other. We explore whether this shift can be removed by applying to the density field a transform (such as a logarithm) that gives fairer statistical weight to fluctuations in underdense regions. Using configuration-space perturbation theory in the Zel'dovich approximation, we find that the log-density correlation function shows a much smaller inward shift in the position of the BAO peak at low redshift than is seen in the overdensity correlation function. We also show that if the initial, Lagrangian density of matter parcels could be estimated at their Eulerian positions, giving a displaced-initial-density field, its peak shift would be even smaller. In fact, a transformed field that accentuates underdensities, such as the reciprocal of the density, pushes the peak the other way, outward. In our model, these shifts in the peak position can be attributed to shift terms, involving the derivative of the linear correlation function, that entirely vanish in this displaced-initial-density field.

  7. Path integrals for electronic densities, reactivity indices, and localization functions in quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Putz, Mihai V

    2009-11-10

    The density matrix theory, the ancestor of density functional theory, provides the immediate framework for Path Integral (PI) development, allowing the canonical density be extended for the many-electronic systems through the density functional closure relationship. Yet, the use of path integral formalism for electronic density prescription presents several advantages: assures the inner quantum mechanical description of the system by parameterized paths; averages the quantum fluctuations; behaves as the propagator for time-space evolution of quantum information; resembles Schrödinger equation; allows quantum statistical description of the system through partition function computing. In this framework, four levels of path integral formalism were presented: the Feynman quantum mechanical, the semiclassical, the Feynman-Kleinert effective classical, and the Fokker-Planck non-equilibrium ones. In each case the density matrix or/and the canonical density were rigorously defined and presented. The practical specializations for quantum free and harmonic motions, for statistical high and low temperature limits, the smearing justification for the Bohr's quantum stability postulate with the paradigmatic Hydrogen atomic excursion, along the quantum chemical calculation of semiclassical electronegativity and hardness, of chemical action and Mulliken electronegativity, as well as by the Markovian generalizations of Becke-Edgecombe electronic focalization functions - all advocate for the reliability of assuming PI formalism of quantum mechanics as a versatile one, suited for analytically and/or computationally modeling of a variety of fundamental physical and chemical reactivity concepts characterizing the (density driving) many-electronic systems.

  8. Path Integrals for Electronic Densities, Reactivity Indices, and Localization Functions in Quantum Systems

    PubMed Central

    Putz, Mihai V.

    2009-01-01

    The density matrix theory, the ancestor of density functional theory, provides the immediate framework for Path Integral (PI) development, allowing the canonical density be extended for the many-electronic systems through the density functional closure relationship. Yet, the use of path integral formalism for electronic density prescription presents several advantages: assures the inner quantum mechanical description of the system by parameterized paths; averages the quantum fluctuations; behaves as the propagator for time-space evolution of quantum information; resembles Schrödinger equation; allows quantum statistical description of the system through partition function computing. In this framework, four levels of path integral formalism were presented: the Feynman quantum mechanical, the semiclassical, the Feynman-Kleinert effective classical, and the Fokker-Planck non-equilibrium ones. In each case the density matrix or/and the canonical density were rigorously defined and presented. The practical specializations for quantum free and harmonic motions, for statistical high and low temperature limits, the smearing justification for the Bohr’s quantum stability postulate with the paradigmatic Hydrogen atomic excursion, along the quantum chemical calculation of semiclassical electronegativity and hardness, of chemical action and Mulliken electronegativity, as well as by the Markovian generalizations of Becke-Edgecombe electronic focalization functions – all advocate for the reliability of assuming PI formalism of quantum mechanics as a versatile one, suited for analytically and/or computationally modeling of a variety of fundamental physical and chemical reactivity concepts characterizing the (density driving) many-electronic systems. PMID:20087467

  9. Some properties of adiabatic blast waves in preexisting cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, D. P.; Franco, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cox and Anderson (1982) have conducted an investigation regarding an adiabatic blast wave in a region of uniform density and finite external pressure. In connection with an application of the results of the investigation to a study of interstellar blast waves in the very hot, low-density matrix, it was found that it would be desirable to examine situations with a positive radial density gradient in the ambient medium. Information concerning such situations is needed to learn about the behavior of blast waves occurring within preexisting, presumably supernova-induced cavities in the interstellar mass distribution. The present investigation is concerned with the first steps of a study conducted to obtain the required information. A review is conducted of Sedov's (1959) similarity solutions for the dynamical structure of any explosion in a medium with negligible pressure and power law density dependence on radius.

  10. Simulation of periodically focused, adiabatic thermal beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.; Akylas, T. R.; Barton, T. J.; Field, D. M.; Lang, K. M.; Mok, R. V.

    2012-12-21

    Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are performed to verify earlier theoretical predictions of adiabatic thermal beams in a periodic solenoidal magnetic focusing field [K.R. Samokhvalova, J. Zhou and C. Chen, Phys. Plasma 14, 103102 (2007); J. Zhou, K.R. Samokhvalova and C. Chen, Phys. Plasma 15, 023102 (2008)]. In particular, results are obtained for adiabatic thermal beams that do not rotate in the Larmor frame. For such beams, the theoretical predictions of the rms beam envelope, the conservations of the rms thermal emittances, the adiabatic equation of state, and the Debye length are verified in the simulations. Furthermore, the adiabatic thermal beam is found be stable in the parameter regime where the simulations are performed.

  11. Adiabatic Motion of Fault Tolerant Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, David Edward

    This work proposes and analyzes the adiabatic motion of fault tolerant qubits in two systems as candidates for the building blocks of a quantum computer. The first proposal examines a pair of electron spins in double quantum dots, finding that the leading source of decoherence, hyperfine dephasing, can be suppressed by adiabatic rotation of the dots in real space. The additional spin-orbit effects introduced by this motion are analyzed, simulated, and found to result in an infidelity below the error-correction threshold. The second proposal examines topological qubits formed by Majorana zero modes theorized to exist at the ends of semiconductor nanowires coupled to conventional superconductors. A model is developed to design adiabatic movements of the Majorana bound states to produce entangled qubits. Analysis and simulations indicate that these adiabatic operations can also be used to demonstrate entanglement experimentally by testing Bell's theorem.

  12. General conditions for quantum adiabatic evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Comparat, Daniel

    2009-07-15

    Adiabaticity occurs when, during its evolution, a physical system remains in the instantaneous eigenstate of the Hamiltonian. Unfortunately, existing results, such as the quantum adiabatic theorem based on a slow down evolution [H({epsilon}t),{epsilon}{yields}0], are insufficient to describe an evolution driven by the Hamiltonian H(t) itself. Here we derive general criteria and exact bounds, for the state and its phase, ensuring an adiabatic evolution for any Hamiltonian H(t). As a corollary, we demonstrate that the commonly used condition of a slow Hamiltonian variation rate, compared to the spectral gap, is indeed sufficient to ensure adiabaticity but only when the Hamiltonian is real and nonoscillating (for instance, containing exponential or polynomial but no sinusoidal functions)

  13. Experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schraft, Daniel; Halfmann, Thomas; Genov, Genko T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2013-12-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage (CAP) for robust and efficient manipulation of two-level systems. The technique represents a altered version of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), driven by composite sequences of radiation pulses with appropriately chosen phases. We implement CAP with radio-frequency pulses to invert (i.e., to rephase) optically prepared spin coherences in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. We perform systematic investigations of the efficiency of CAP and compare the results with conventional π pulses and RAP. The data clearly demonstrate the superior features of CAP with regard to robustness and efficiency, even under conditions of weakly fulfilled adiabaticity. The experimental demonstration of composite sequences to support adiabatic passage is of significant relevance whenever a high efficiency or robustness of coherent excitation processes need to be maintained, e.g., as required in quantum information technology.

  14. Adiabatic limits on Riemannian Heisenberg manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, A A

    2008-02-28

    An asymptotic formula is obtained for the distribution function of the spectrum of the Laplace operator, in the adiabatic limit for the foliation defined by the orbits of an invariant flow on a compact Riemannian Heisenberg manifold. Bibliography: 21 titles.

  15. Wave-particle transport from density drift instabilities - A comparison of local and nonlocal theories. [applicable to ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    Second-order Vlasov theory is used to compute the dissipation rates of plasma irregularities with a variety of shapes. A derivation of the nonlocal dispersion equation using linearized Vlasov theory is presented. Expressions for the normalized amplitudes of the first-order plasma density and electrostatic potential fluctuations are derived. Expressions are given for the saturation amplitudes of the electrostatic eigenmodes. The wave-particle transport and irregularity dissipation rate are computed by using formulas whose derivation is presented. Computational results for specific density variations are shown, and conclusions on the validity of the local theory as opposed to the nonlocal theory are given.

  16. Adiabatic Demagnetization Cooler For Far Infrared Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Akio; Yazawa, Takashi; Yamamoto, Junya

    1988-11-01

    An small adiabatic demagnetization cooler for an astronomical far infrared detector has been built. Single crystals of manganese ammonium sulphate and chromium potassium alum, were prepared as magnetic substances. The superconducting magnet was indirectly cooled and operated by small current up to 13.3 A, the maximum field being 3.5 T. As a preliminary step, adiabatic demagnetization to zero field was implemented. The lowest temperature obtained was 0.5 K, for 5.0 K initial temperature.

  17. Ray invariants, plane wave spectra, and adiabatic modes for tapered dielectric waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, J. M.; Felsen, L. B.

    1984-10-01

    In nonseparable problems resulting from the analysis of wave propagation in longitudinally varying waveguides, such as a wedge-shaped taper, singularities appear in both ray and coupled mode treatments at the local normal mode cutoff transition. A uniformization of the local normal (adiabatic) mode is proposed, using plane wave spectra, which effectively resolves this difficulty.

  18. Symmetry of the Adiabatic Condition in the Piston Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Ferreira, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses a controversial issue in the adiabatic piston problem, namely that of the piston being adiabatic when it is fixed but no longer so when it can move freely. It is shown that this apparent contradiction arises from the usual definition of adiabatic condition. The issue is addressed here by requiring the adiabatic condition to be…

  19. Hierarchical theory of quantum adiabatic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Gong, Jiangbin; Wu, Biao

    2014-12-01

    Quantum adiabatic evolution is a dynamical evolution of a quantum system under slow external driving. According to the quantum adiabatic theorem, no transitions occur between nondegenerate instantaneous energy eigenstates in such a dynamical evolution. However, this is true only when the driving rate is infinitesimally small. For a small nonzero driving rate, there are generally small transition probabilities between the energy eigenstates. We develop a classical mechanics framework to address the small deviations from the quantum adiabatic theorem order by order. A hierarchy of Hamiltonians is constructed iteratively with the zeroth-order Hamiltonian being determined by the original system Hamiltonian. The kth-order deviations are governed by a kth-order Hamiltonian, which depends on the time derivatives of the adiabatic parameters up to the kth-order. Two simple examples, the Landau-Zener model and a spin-1/2 particle in a rotating magnetic field, are used to illustrate our hierarchical theory. Our analysis also exposes a deep, previously unknown connection between classical adiabatic theory and quantum adiabatic theory.

  20. Laboratory Measurements of Adiabatic and Isothermal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNairy, W. W.

    1997-04-01

    Adiabatic and isothermal measurements on various of gases are made possible by using the Adiabatic Gas Law apparatus made by PASCO Scientific(Much of this work was published by the author in "The Physics Teacher", vol. 34, March 1996, p. 178-80.). By using a computer interface, undergraduates are able to data for monatomic, diatomic and polyatomic gases for both compression and expansion processes. Designed principally to obtain adiabatic data, the apparatus may be easily modified for use in isothermal processes. The various sets of data are imported into a spreadsheet program where fits may be made to the ideal gas law and the adiabatic gas law. Excellent results are obtained for the natural logarithm of pressure versus the natural logarithm of volume for both the isothermal data (expected slope equal to -1 in all cases) and the adiabatic data (slope equal to -1 times the ratio of specific heats for the particular gas). An overview of the lab procedure used at VMI will be presented along with data obtained for several adiabatic and isothermal processes.

  1. Obtaining Highly Excited Eigenstates of Many-Body Localized Hamiltonians by the Density Matrix Renormalization Group Approach.

    PubMed

    Khemani, Vedika; Pollmann, Frank; Sondhi, S L

    2016-06-17

    The eigenstates of many-body localized (MBL) Hamiltonians exhibit low entanglement. We adapt the highly successful density-matrix renormalization group method, which is usually used to find modestly entangled ground states of local Hamiltonians, to find individual highly excited eigenstates of MBL Hamiltonians. The adaptation builds on the distinctive spatial structure of such eigenstates. We benchmark our method against the well-studied random field Heisenberg model in one dimension. At moderate to large disorder, the method successfully obtains excited eigenstates with high accuracy, thereby enabling a study of MBL systems at much larger system sizes than those accessible to exact-diagonalization methods. PMID:27367405

  2. Interacting fermions in one-dimensional disordered lattices: Exploring localization and transport properties with lattice density-functional theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettchinkina, V.; Kartsev, A.; Karlsson, D.; Verdozzi, C.

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the static and dynamical behavior of one-dimensional interacting fermions in disordered Hubbard chains contacted to semi-infinite leads. The chains are described via the repulsive Anderson-Hubbard Hamiltonian, using static and time-dependent lattice density-functional theory. The dynamical behavior of our quantum transport system is studied using an integration scheme available in the literature, which we modify via the recursive Lanczos method to increase its efficiency. To quantify the degree of localization due to disorder and interactions, we adapt the definition of the inverse participation ratio to obtain an indicator which is suitable for quantum transport geometries and can be obtained within density-functional theory. Lattice density-functional theories are reviewed and, for contacted chains, we analyze the merits and limits of the coherent-potential approximation in describing the spectral properties, with interactions included via lattice density-functional theory. Our approach appears to be able to capture complex features due to the competition between disorder and interactions. Specifically, we find a dynamical enhancement of delocalization in the presence of a finite bias and an increase of the steady-state current induced by interparticle interactions. This behavior is corroborated by results for the time-dependent densities and for the inverse participation ratio. Using short isolated chains with interaction and disorder, a brief comparative analysis between time-dependent density-functional theory and exact results is then given, followed by general concluding remarks.

  3. Public support for river restoration funding in relation to local river ecomorphology, population density, and mean income

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SchläPfer, Felix; Witzig, Pieter-Jan

    2006-12-01

    In 1997, about 140,000 citizens in 388 voting districts in the Swiss canton of Bern passed a ballot initiative to allocate about 3 million Swiss Francs annually to a canton-wide river restoration program. Using the municipal voting returns and a detailed georeferenced data set on the ecomorphological status of the rivers, we estimate models of voter support in relation to local river ecomorphology, population density, mean income, cultural background, and recent flood damage. Support of the initiative increased with increasing population density and tended to increase with increasing mean income, in spite of progressive taxation. Furthermore, we found evidence that public support increased with decreasing "naturalness" of local rivers. The model estimates may be cautiously used to predict the public acceptance of similar restoration programs in comparable regions. Moreover, the voting-based insights into the distribution of river restoration benefits provide a useful starting point for debates about appropriate financing schemes.

  4. Spatial distribution of limited resources and local density regulation in juvenile Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Finstad, Anders G; Einum, Sigurd; Ugedal, Ola; Forseth, Torbjørn

    2009-01-01

    1. Spatial heterogeneity of resources may influence competition among individuals and thus have a fundamental role in shaping population dynamics and carrying capacity. In the present study, we identify shelter opportunities as a limiting resource for juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Experimental and field studies are combined in order to demonstrate how the spatial distribution of shelters may influence population dynamics on both within and among population scales. 2. In closed experimental streams, fish performance scaled negatively with decreasing shelter availability and increasing densities. In contrast, the fish in open stream channels dispersed according to shelter availability and performance of fish remaining in the streams did not depend on initial density or shelters. 3. The field study confirmed that spatial variation in densities of 1-year-old juveniles was governed both by initial recruit density and shelter availability. Strength of density-dependent population regulation, measured as carrying capacity, increased with decreasing number of shelters. 4. Nine rivers were surveyed for spatial variation in shelter availability and increased shelter heterogeneity tended to decrease maximum observed population size (measured using catch statistics of adult salmon as a proxy). 5. Our studies highlight the importance of small-scale within-population spatial structure in population dynamics and demonstrate that not only the absolute amount of limiting resources but also their spatial arrangement can be an important factor influencing population carrying capacity. PMID:18808436

  5. Local Measurement of Electron Density and Temperature in High Temperature Laser Plasma Using the Ion-Acoustic Dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, D H; Davis, P; Ross, S; Meezan, N; Divol, L; Price, D; Glenzer, S H; Rousseaux, C

    2005-09-20

    The dispersion of ion-acoustic fluctuations has been measured using a novel technique that employs multiple color Thomson-scattering diagnostics to measure the frequency spectrum for two separate thermal ion-acoustic fluctuations with significantly different wave vectors. The plasma fluctuations are shown to become dispersive with increasing electron temperature. We demonstrate that this technique allows a time resolved local measurement of electron density and temperature in inertial confinement fusion plasmas.

  6. A Density Functional Theory Examination of the Local Conformational Energetics of Normal and Epigenetically Modified Duplex DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusufaly, Tahir; Olson, Wilma

    2013-03-01

    We report density functional theory calculations of various local regions of duplex DNA, including hydrogen bonded base pairs, stacked nearest-neighbor bases, and sugar-phosphate backbones. Special attention is given to the methylation of 5-cytosine, an epigenetic modification believed to play a key role in eukaryotic gene regulation. Energetically stable molecular conformations are identified and their elastic properties analyzed. Our results are compared with previous ab initio studies and high-resolution crystalline structural data.

  7. Self-Interaction Corrected Electronic Structure and Energy Gap of CuAlO2 beyond Local Density Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Akitaka

    2011-05-01

    We implemented a self-interaction correction (SIC) into first-principles calculation code to go beyond local density approximation and applied it to CuAlO2. Our simulation shows that the valence band width calculated within the SIC is narrower than that calculated without the SIC because the SIC makes the d-band potential deeper. The energy gap calculated within the SIC expands and is close to experimental data.

  8. Relativistic blast waves in two dimensions. I - The adiabatic case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Approximate solutions are presented for the dynamical evolution of strong adiabatic relativistic blast waves which result from a point explosion in an ambient gas in which the density varies both with distance from the explosion center and with polar angle in axisymmetry. Solutions are analytical or quasi-analytical for the extreme relativistic case and numerical for the arbitrarily relativistic case. Some general properties of nonplanar relativistic shocks are also discussed, including the incoherence of spherical ultrarelativistic blast-wave fronts on angular scales greater than the reciprocal of the shock Lorentz factor, as well as the conditions for producing blast-wave acceleration.

  9. Electric Double-Layer Structure in Primitive Model Electrolytes. Comparing Molecular Dynamics with Local-Density Approximations

    DOE PAGES

    Giera, Brian; Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Henson, Neil; Kober, Edward M.; Shell, M. Scott; Squires, Todd M.

    2015-02-27

    We evaluate the accuracy of local-density approximations (LDAs) using explicit molecular dynamics simulations of binary electrolytes comprised of equisized ions in an implicit solvent. The Bikerman LDA, which considers ions to occupy a lattice, poorly captures excluded volume interactions between primitive model ions. Instead, LDAs based on the Carnahan–Starling (CS) hard-sphere equation of state capture simulated values of ideal and excess chemical potential profiles extremely well, as is the relationship between surface charge density and electrostatic potential. Excellent agreement between the EDL capacitances predicted by CS-LDAs and computed in molecular simulations is found even in systems where ion correlations drivemore » strong density and free charge oscillations within the EDL, despite the inability of LDAs to capture the oscillations in the detailed EDL profiles.« less

  10. Electric Double-Layer Structure in Primitive Model Electrolytes. Comparing Molecular Dynamics with Local-Density Approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Giera, Brian; Henson, Neil; Kober, Edward M.; Shell, M. Scott; Squires, Todd M.

    2015-02-27

    We evaluate the accuracy of local-density approximations (LDAs) using explicit molecular dynamics simulations of binary electrolytes comprised of equisized ions in an implicit solvent. The Bikerman LDA, which considers ions to occupy a lattice, poorly captures excluded volume interactions between primitive model ions. Instead, LDAs based on the Carnahan–Starling (CS) hard-sphere equation of state capture simulated values of ideal and excess chemical potential profiles extremely well, as is the relationship between surface charge density and electrostatic potential. Excellent agreement between the EDL capacitances predicted by CS-LDAs and computed in molecular simulations is found even in systems where ion correlations drive strong density and free charge oscillations within the EDL, despite the inability of LDAs to capture the oscillations in the detailed EDL profiles.

  11. Density relaxation of a near-critical fluid in response to local heating and low frequency vibration in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Jounet, Arnaud

    2002-03-01

    The response of a confined near-critical fluid to local heating in the presence of vibration is studied by means of two-dimensional numerical simulations of the compressible and unsteady Navier-Stokes equations written for a van der Waals fluid. As in the experiments performed two years ago onboard the Mir orbital station, two different regimes of density distribution are observed. For sufficiently low frequency and high amplitude vibration, two thermal plumes develop from the heat source along the vibration axis. Otherwise (higher frequency and/or lower amplitude), density inhomogeneities caused by heating stay around the heat source. For this regime, the pair of vortices created in each half period absorbs the preceding one, while it is convected away for the double-plume regime. As time goes on, this process repeats, with a lateral extension of the low density region. At lower frequencies, instabilities appear in the flow, thus corroborating again microgravity experiments.

  12. Coarse-grained models using local-density potentials optimized with the relative entropy: Application to implicit solvation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanyal, Tanmoy; Shell, M. Scott

    2016-07-01

    Bottom-up multiscale techniques are frequently used to develop coarse-grained (CG) models for simulations at extended length and time scales but are often limited by a compromise between computational efficiency and accuracy. The conventional approach to CG nonbonded interactions uses pair potentials which, while computationally efficient, can neglect the inherently multibody contributions of the local environment of a site to its energy, due to degrees of freedom that were coarse-grained out. This effect often causes the CG potential to depend strongly on the overall system density, composition, or other properties, which limits its transferability to states other than the one at which it was parameterized. Here, we propose to incorporate multibody effects into CG potentials through additional nonbonded terms, beyond pair interactions, that depend in a mean-field manner on local densities of different atomic species. This approach is analogous to embedded atom and bond-order models that seek to capture multibody electronic effects in metallic systems. We show that the relative entropy coarse-graining framework offers a systematic route to parameterizing such local density potentials. We then characterize this approach in the development of implicit solvation strategies for interactions between model hydrophobes in an aqueous environment.

  13. Do galaxy global relationships emerge from local ones? I. The SDSS IV MaNGA surface mass density - metallicity relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Zhu, Guangtun B.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Law, David; Wake, David.; Green, Jenny E.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Malanushenko, Elena; Pan, Kaike; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Lane, Richard R.

    2016-08-01

    We present the stellar surface mass density vs. gas metallicity (Σ★ - Z) relation for more than 500,000 spatially-resolved star-forming resolution elements (spaxels) from a sample of 653 disk galaxies included in the SDSS IV MaNGA survey. We find a tight relation between these local properties, with higher metallicities as the surface density increases. This relation extends over three orders of magnitude in the surface mass density and a factor of four in metallicity. We show that this local relationship can simultaneously reproduce two well-known properties of disk galaxies: their global mass-metallicity relationship and their radial metallicity gradients. We also find that the Σ★ - Z relation is largely independent of the galaxy's total stellar mass and specific star-formation rate (sSFR), except at low stellar mass and high sSFR. These results suggest that in the present-day universe local properties play a key role in determining the gas-phase metallicity in typical disk galaxies.

  14. Localization and density of phoretic deutonymphs of the mite Uropoda orbicularis (Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) on Aphodius beetles (Aphodiidae) affect pedicel length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajerlein, Daria; Witaliński, Wojciech

    2014-04-01

    The phoretic stage of Uropodina mites is a deutonymph with developed morphological adaptations for dispersal by insects. Phoretic deutonymphs are able to produce a pedicel, a stalk-like temporary attachment structure that connects the mite with the carrier. The aim of our study was to determine whether localization and density of phoretic deutonymphs on the carrier affect pedicel length. The study was conducted on a common phoretic mite— Uropoda orbicularis (Uropodina) and two aphodiid beetles— Aphodius prodromus and Aphodius distinctus. Our results show that pedicel length is influenced by the localization of deutonymphs on the body of the carrier. The longest pedicels are produced by deutonymphs attached to the upper part of elytra, whereas deutonymphs attached to femora and trochanters of the third pair of legs and the apex of elytra construct the shortest pedicels. In general, deutonymphs attached to more exposed parts of the carrier produce longer pedicels, whereas shorter pedicels are produced when deutonymphs are fixed to non-exposed parts of the carrier. A second factor influencing pedicel length is the density of attached deutonymphs. Mean pedicel length and deutonymph densities were highly correlated: higher deutonymph density leads to the formation of longer pedicels. The cause for this correlation is discussed, and we conclude that pedicel length variability can increase successful dispersal.

  15. Performance of a local electron density trigger to select extensive air showers at sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, T.; Madani, J.; Ashton, F.

    1985-01-01

    Time coincident voltage pulses in the two closely space (1.6m) plastic scintillators were recorded. Most of the recorded events are expeted to be due to electrons in cosmic ray showers whose core fall at some distance from the detectors. This result is confirmed from a measurement of the frequency distribution of the recorded density ratios of the two scintillators.

  16. Maximization of ICRF power by SOL density tailoring with local gas injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, P.; Goniche, M.; Bobkov, V.; Lerche, E.; Pinsker, R. I.; Pitts, R. A.; Zhang, W.; Colas, L.; Hosea, J.; Moriyama, S.; Wang, S.-J.; Wukitch, S.; Zhang, X.; Bilato, R.; Bufferand, H.; Guimarais, L.; Faugel, H.; Hanson, G. R.; Kocan, M.; Monakhov, I.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Petrzilka, V.; Shaw, A.; Stepanov, I.; Sips, A. C. C.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.; JET contributors, the; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the DIII-D Team; ITPA ‘Integrated Operation Scenarios' members, the; experts

    2016-04-01

    Experiments have been performed under the coordination of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) on several tokamaks, including ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), JET and DIII-D, to characterize the increased Ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antenna loading achieved by optimizing the position of gas injection relative to the RF antennas. On DIII-D, AUG and JET (with the ITER-Like Wall) a 50% increase in the antenna loading was observed when injecting deuterium in ELMy H-mode plasmas using mid-plane inlets close to the powered antennas instead of divertor injection and, with smaller improvement when using gas inlets located at the top of the machine. The gas injection rate required for such improvements (~0.7  ×  1022 el s-1 in AUG, ~1.0  ×  1022 el s-1 in JET) is compatible with the use of this technique to optimize ICRF heating during the development of plasma scenarios and no degradation of confinement was observed when using the mid-plane or top inlets compared with divertor valves. An increase in the scrape-off layer (SOL) density was measured when switching gas injection from divertor to outer mid-plane or top. On JET and DIII-D, the measured SOL density increase when using main chamber puffing is consistent with the antenna coupling resistance increase provided that the distance between the measurement lines of sight and the injection location is taken into account. Optimized gas injection was also found to be beneficial for reducing tungsten (W) sputtering at the AUG antenna limiters, and also to reduce slightly the W and nickel (Ni) content in JET plasmas. Modeling the specific effects of divertor/top/mid-plane injection on the outer mid-plane density was carried out using both the EDGE2D-EIRENE and EMC3-EIRENE plasma boundary code packages; simulations indeed indicate that outer mid-plane gas injection maximizes the density in the mid-plane close to the injection point with qualitative agreement with the AUG SOL density measurements

  17. Assessment of total efficiency in adiabatic engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitianiec, W.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents influence of ceramic coating in all surfaces of the combustion chamber of SI four-stroke engine on working parameters mainly on heat balance and total efficiency. Three cases of engine were considered: standard without ceramic coating, fully adiabatic combustion chamber and engine with different thickness of ceramic coating. Consideration of adiabatic or semi-adiabatic engine was connected with mathematical modelling of heat transfer from the cylinder gas to the cooling medium. This model takes into account changeable convection coefficient based on the experimental formulas of Woschni, heat conductivity of multi-layer walls and also small effect of radiation in SI engines. The simulation model was elaborated with full heat transfer to the cooling medium and unsteady gas flow in the engine intake and exhaust systems. The computer program taking into account 0D model of engine processes in the cylinder and 1D model of gas flow was elaborated for determination of many basic engine thermodynamic parameters for Suzuki DR-Z400S 400 cc SI engine. The paper presents calculation results of influence of the ceramic coating thickness on indicated pressure, specific fuel consumption, cooling and exhaust heat losses. Next it were presented comparisons of effective power, heat losses in the cooling and exhaust systems, total efficiency in function of engine rotational speed and also comparison of temperature inside the cylinder for standard, semi-adiabatic and full adiabatic engine. On the basis of the achieved results it was found higher total efficiency of adiabatic engines at 2500 rpm from 27% for standard engine to 37% for full adiabatic engine.

  18. Graph isomorphism and adiabatic quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane

    2014-02-01

    In the graph isomorphism (GI) problem two N-vertex graphs G and G' are given and the task is to determine whether there exists a permutation of the vertices of G that preserves adjacency and transforms G →G'. If yes, then G and G' are said to be isomorphic; otherwise they are nonisomorphic. The GI problem is an important problem in computer science and is thought to be of comparable difficulty to integer factorization. In this paper we present a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of GI and which also provides an approach to determining all automorphisms of a given graph. We show how the GI problem can be converted to a combinatorial optimization problem that can be solved using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate the algorithm's quantum dynamics and show that it correctly (i) distinguishes nonisomorphic graphs; (ii) recognizes isomorphic graphs and determines the permutation(s) that connect them; and (iii) finds the automorphism group of a given graph G. We then discuss the GI quantum algorithm's experimental implementation, and close by showing how it can be leveraged to give a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of the NP-complete subgraph isomorphism problem. The computational complexity of an adiabatic quantum algorithm is largely determined by the minimum energy gap Δ (N) separating the ground and first-excited states in the limit of large problem size N ≫1. Calculating Δ (N) in this limit is a fundamental open problem in adiabatic quantum computing, and so it is not possible to determine the computational complexity of adiabatic quantum algorithms in general, nor consequently, of the specific adiabatic quantum algorithms presented here. Adiabatic quantum computing has been shown to be equivalent to the circuit model of quantum computing, and so development of adiabatic quantum algorithms continues to be of great interest.

  19. Efficient Semi-numerical Implementation of Global and Local Hybrid Functionals for Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Maier, Toni M; Bahmann, Hilke; Kaupp, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Local hybrid functionals with position-dependent exact-exchange admixture offer increased flexibility compared to global hybrids. For sufficiently advanced functionals of this type, this is expected to hold also for a wide range of electronic excitations within time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Following a recent semi-numerical implementation of local hybrid functionals for ground-state self-consistent-field calculations (Bahmann, H.; Kaupp, M. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2015, 11, 1540-1548), the first linear-response TDDFT implementation of local hybrids is reported, using a semi-numerical integration technique. The timings and accuracy of the semi-numerical implementation are evaluated by comparison with analytical schemes for time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) and for the TPSSh global hybrid. In combination with the RI approximation to the Coulomb part of the kernel, the semi-numerical implementation is faster than the existing analytical TDDFT/TDHF implementation of global hybrid functionals in the TURBOMOLE code, even for small systems and moderate basis sets. Moreover, timings for global and local hybrids are practically equal for the semi-numerical scheme. The way to TDDFT calculations with local hybrid functionals for large systems is thus now open, and more sophisticated parametrizations of local hybrids may be evaluated.

  20. Spin-Polarized Nonadiabatic Dynamics with Local Basis Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, Robert; Kolesov, Grigory; Tritsaris, Georgios; Granas, Oscar; Efthimios, Efthimios

    Accurate simulations of electron transfer at the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) are critical for understanding and predicting electrochemical reactions. Density-Functional Theory (DFT) has been widely applied to study the ground-state structure of novel materials for electrochemical energy storage and for adiabatic molecular dynamics. Unfortunately, many chemical reactions take place on femtosecond time scales where assuming adiabatic electron density propagation is invalid. To resolve this, we have developed the ability to perform time-dependent DFT calculations using nonadiabatic propagation of the electron density along with Ehrenfest dynamics for the ions to better capture the complex interactions that occur during surface-electrolyte electron transfer and chemical reactions. Spin polarization is also implemented to improve the accuracy of the simulations and their suitability for studying a wider range of chemical reactions. Local basis sets are implemented via linear combinations of atomic orbitals to reduce the size of the DFT basis for computational efficiency.

  1. Individual differences in local gray matter density are associated with differences in affective and cognitive empathy.

    PubMed

    Eres, Robert; Decety, Jean; Louis, Winnifred R; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    The understanding of empathy from a neuroscientific perspective has recently developed quickly, with numerous functional MRI studies associating different brain regions with different components of empathy. A recent meta-analysis across 40 fMRI studies revealed that affective empathy is most often associated with increased activity in the insula, whereas cognitive empathy is most often associated with activity in the midcingulate cortex and adjacent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (MCC/dmPFC). To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in brain morphometry in these regions underlie different dispositions in affective and cognitive empathy. In order to test this hypothesis, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the extent to which gray matter density predicts scores from an established empathy measure (Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy; QCAE). One hundred and seventy-six participants completed the QCAE and underwent MRI in order to acquire a high-resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted structural scans. A factor analysis of the questionnaire scores revealed two distinct factors of empathy, affective and cognitive, which confirmed the validity of the QCAE. VBM results revealed gray matter density differences associated with the distinct components of empathy. Higher scores on affective empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the insula cortex and higher scores of cognitive empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the MCC/dmPFC. Taken together, these results provide validation for empathy being a multi-component construct, suggesting that affective and cognitive empathy are differentially represented in brain morphometry as well as providing convergent evidence for empathy being represented by different neural and structural correlates. PMID:26008886

  2. Individual differences in local gray matter density are associated with differences in affective and cognitive empathy.

    PubMed

    Eres, Robert; Decety, Jean; Louis, Winnifred R; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    The understanding of empathy from a neuroscientific perspective has recently developed quickly, with numerous functional MRI studies associating different brain regions with different components of empathy. A recent meta-analysis across 40 fMRI studies revealed that affective empathy is most often associated with increased activity in the insula, whereas cognitive empathy is most often associated with activity in the midcingulate cortex and adjacent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (MCC/dmPFC). To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in brain morphometry in these regions underlie different dispositions in affective and cognitive empathy. In order to test this hypothesis, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the extent to which gray matter density predicts scores from an established empathy measure (Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy; QCAE). One hundred and seventy-six participants completed the QCAE and underwent MRI in order to acquire a high-resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted structural scans. A factor analysis of the questionnaire scores revealed two distinct factors of empathy, affective and cognitive, which confirmed the validity of the QCAE. VBM results revealed gray matter density differences associated with the distinct components of empathy. Higher scores on affective empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the insula cortex and higher scores of cognitive empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the MCC/dmPFC. Taken together, these results provide validation for empathy being a multi-component construct, suggesting that affective and cognitive empathy are differentially represented in brain morphometry as well as providing convergent evidence for empathy being represented by different neural and structural correlates.

  3. Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10-12 at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, and T2 has been determined. For the ground state of H2 the estimated precision is 3 × 10-7 cm-1, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.

  4. Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2014-12-14

    A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10{sup −12} at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H{sub 2}, HD, HT, D{sub 2}, DT, and T{sub 2} has been determined. For the ground state of H{sub 2} the estimated precision is 3 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup −1}, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.

  5. Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule.

    PubMed

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2014-12-14

    A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10(-12) at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, and T2 has been determined. For the ground state of H2 the estimated precision is 3 × 10(-7) cm(-1), which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels. PMID:25494728

  6. Pyroclastic density currents and local topography as seen with the conveyer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronzo, Domenico M.; Dellino, Pierfrancesco

    2014-05-01

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are multiphase flows generated during explosive volcanic eruptions, and they move down the volcano, and over the surrounding topography. The flow-topography interaction can play a fundamental role in the sedimentary processes, and in the resulting deposit facies architecture, as well as can play a dramatic role in the flow behavior, and in the associated volcanic hazard. This paper aims at discussing the PDC-topography interaction theme from the viewpoint of both deposits and flow structure, by accounting for appropriate literature, and revising the concepts in light of the theoretical conveyer model of Doronzo and Dellino (2013) on sedimentation and deposition in particulate density currents. First the effects, then the causes of the flow-topography interaction are discussed, in order to follow the historical development of theme concepts. The discussion is relative in terms of inertial and forced currents, which are defined on the basis of a dimensionless quantity (SD) representing the conservation of mass. Momentum equation relating depositional unit thickness, flow shear velocity, and density contrast shows that the flow is the cause of PDC motion, whereas the density contrast sustains the momentum, and the deposits are the process effect. In particular, the flow structure is described into three parts, flow-substrate boundary zone, boundary layer (lower part), and wake region (upper part) of the current. The facies architecture of PDC deposits, and the volcanic hazard depend on fluid dynamic and hydraulic behavior represented, in light of the conveyer model, by the balance of sedimentation and deposition rates through transport and erosion (“sedimentation-deposition” ratio, SD). This balance acts between flow-substrate boundary zone and boundary layer. The paper discussion mainly applies to small-to-intermediate volume eruptions. Field and modeling examples of Vulcano tuff cone and Colli Albani maar (Italy) constrain the

  7. Energy efficiency of adiabatic superconductor logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Adiabatic superconductor logic (ASL), including adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic, exhibits high energy efficiency because its bit energy can be decreased below the thermal energy through adiabatic switching operations. In the present paper, we present the general scaling laws of ASL and compare the energy efficiency of ASL with those of other energy-efficient logics. Also, we discuss the minimum energy-delay product (EDP) of ASL at finite temperature. Our study shows that there is a maximum temperature at which the EDP can reach the quantum limit given by ħ/2, which is dependent on the superconductor material and the Josephson junction quality, and that it is reasonable to operate ASL at cryogenic temperatures in order to achieve an EDP that approaches ħ/2.

  8. Adiabaticity and viscosity in deep mantle convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quareni, F.; Yuen, D. A.; Saari, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been conducted of steady convection with adiabatic and viscous heating for variable viscosity in the Boussinesq limit using the mean-field theory. A strong nonlinear coupling is found between the thermodynamic constants governing adiabatic heating and the rheological parameters. The range of rheological values for which adiabaticity would occur throughout the mantle has been established. Too large an activation volume, greater than 6 cu cm/mol for the cases examined, would produce unreasonably high temperature at the bottom of the mantle (greater than 6000 K) and superadiabatic gradients, especially in the lower mantle. Radiogenic heating plays a profound role in controlling dynamically mantle temperatures. Present values for the averaged mantle heat production would yield objectionably high temperatures in the lower mantle.

  9. Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbara, Thomas M.

    2016-04-01

    A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging.

  10. Temperature dependence of electronic eigenenergies in the adiabatic harmonic approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poncé, S.; Antonius, G.; Gillet, Y.; Boulanger, P.; Laflamme Janssen, J.; Marini, A.; Côté, M.; Gonze, X.

    2014-12-01

    The renormalization of electronic eigenenergies due to electron-phonon interactions (temperature dependence and zero-point motion effect) is important in many materials. We address it in the adiabatic harmonic approximation, based on first principles (e.g., density-functional theory), from different points of view: directly from atomic position fluctuations or, alternatively, from Janak's theorem generalized to the case where the Helmholtz free energy, including the vibrational entropy, is used. We prove their equivalence, based on the usual form of Janak's theorem and on the dynamical equation. We then also place the Allen-Heine-Cardona (AHC) theory of the renormalization in a first-principles context. The AHC theory relies on the rigid-ion approximation, and naturally leads to a self-energy (Fan) contribution and a Debye-Waller contribution. Such a splitting can also be done for the complete harmonic adiabatic expression, in which the rigid-ion approximation is not required. A numerical study within the density-functional perturbation theory framework allows us to compare the AHC theory with frozen-phonon calculations, with or without the rigid-ion approximation. For the two different numerical approaches without non-rigid-ion terms, the agreement is better than 7 μ eV in the case of diamond, which represent an agreement to five significant digits. The magnitude of the non-rigid-ion terms in this case is also presented, distinguishing specific phonon modes contributions to different electronic eigenenergies.

  11. FRW-type cosmologies with adiabatic matter creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, J. A. S.; Germano, A. S. M.; Abramo, L. R. W.

    1996-04-01

    Some properties of cosmological models with matter creation are investigated in the framework of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker line element. For adiabatic matter creation, as developed by Prigogine and co-workers, we derive a simple expression relating the particle number density n and energy density ρ which holds regardless of the matter creation rate. The conditions to generate inflation are discussed and by considering the natural phenomenological matter creation rate ψ=3βnH, where β is a pure number of the order of unity and H is the Hubble parameter, a minimally modified hot big-bang model is proposed. The dynamic properties of such models can be deduced from the standard ones simply by replacing the adiabatic index γ of the equation of state by an effective parameter γ*=γ(1-β). The thermodynamic behavior is determined and it is also shown that ages large enough to agree with observations are obtained even given the high values of H suggested by recent measurements.

  12. Estimation of the radial size and density fluctuation amplitude of edge localized modes using microwave interferometer array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayub, M. K.; Yun, G. S.; Leem, J.; Kim, M.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.

    2016-03-01

    A novel technique to estimate the range of radial size and density fluctuation amplitude of edge localized modes (ELMs) in the KSTAR tokamak plasma is presented. A microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) system is reconfigured as a multi-channel microwave interferometer array (MIA) to measure the density fluctuations associated with ELMs, while electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system is used as a reference diagnostics to confirm the MIA observation. Two dimensional full-wave (FWR2D) simulations integrated with optics simulation are performed to investigate the Gaussian beam propagation and reflection through the plasma as well as the MIA optical components and obtain the interferometric phase undulations of individual channels at the detector plane due to ELM perturbation. The simulation results show that the amplitude of the phase undulation depends linearly on both radial size and density perturbation amplitude of ELM. For a typical discharge with ELMs, it is estimated that the ELM structure observed by the MIA system has density perturbation amplitude in the range ~ 7 % to 14 % while radial size in the range ~ 1 to 3 cm.

  13. Recognition of Fibrotic Infarct Density by the Pattern of Local Systolic-Diastolic Myocardial Electrical Impedance

    PubMed Central

    Amorós-Figueras, Gerard; Jorge, Esther; García-Sánchez, Tomás; Bragós, Ramón; Rosell-Ferrer, Javier; Cinca, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial electrical impedance is a biophysical property of the heart that is influenced by the intrinsic structural characteristics of the tissue. Therefore, the structural derangements elicited in a chronic myocardial infarction should cause specific changes in the local systolic-diastolic myocardial impedance, but this is not known. This study aimed to characterize the local changes of systolic-diastolic myocardial impedance in a healed myocardial infarction model. Six pigs were successfully submitted to 150 min of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. 4 weeks later, myocardial impedance spectroscopy (1–1000 kHz) was measured at different infarction sites. The electrocardiogram, left ventricular (LV) pressure, LV dP/dt, and aortic blood flow (ABF) were also recorded. A total of 59 LV tissue samples were obtained and histopathological studies were performed to quantify the percentage of fibrosis. Samples were categorized as normal myocardium (<10% fibrosis), heterogeneous scar (10–50%) and dense scar (>50%). Resistivity of normal myocardium depicted phasic changes during the cardiac cycle and its amplitude markedly decreased in dense scar (18 ± 2 Ω·cm vs. 10 ± 1 Ω·cm, at 41 kHz; P < 0.001, respectively). The mean phasic resistivity decreased progressively from normal to heterogeneous and dense scar regions (285 ± 10 Ω·cm, 225 ± 25 Ω·cm, and 162 ± 6 Ω·cm, at 41 kHz; P < 0.001 respectively). Moreover, myocardial resistivity and phase angle correlated significantly with the degree of local fibrosis (resistivity: r = 0.86 at 1 kHz, P < 0.001; phase angle: r = 0.84 at 41 kHz, P < 0.001). Myocardial infarcted regions with greater fibrotic content show lower mean impedance values and more depressed systolic-diastolic dynamic impedance changes. In conclusion, this study reveals that differences in the degree of myocardial fibrosis can be detected in vivo by local measurement of phasic systolic

  14. Recognition of Fibrotic Infarct Density by the Pattern of Local Systolic-Diastolic Myocardial Electrical Impedance

    PubMed Central

    Amorós-Figueras, Gerard; Jorge, Esther; García-Sánchez, Tomás; Bragós, Ramón; Rosell-Ferrer, Javier; Cinca, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial electrical impedance is a biophysical property of the heart that is influenced by the intrinsic structural characteristics of the tissue. Therefore, the structural derangements elicited in a chronic myocardial infarction should cause specific changes in the local systolic-diastolic myocardial impedance, but this is not known. This study aimed to characterize the local changes of systolic-diastolic myocardial impedance in a healed myocardial infarction model. Six pigs were successfully submitted to 150 min of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. 4 weeks later, myocardial impedance spectroscopy (1–1000 kHz) was measured at different infarction sites. The electrocardiogram, left ventricular (LV) pressure, LV dP/dt, and aortic blood flow (ABF) were also recorded. A total of 59 LV tissue samples were obtained and histopathological studies were performed to quantify the percentage of fibrosis. Samples were categorized as normal myocardium (<10% fibrosis), heterogeneous scar (10–50%) and dense scar (>50%). Resistivity of normal myocardium depicted phasic changes during the cardiac cycle and its amplitude markedly decreased in dense scar (18 ± 2 Ω·cm vs. 10 ± 1 Ω·cm, at 41 kHz; P < 0.001, respectively). The mean phasic resistivity decreased progressively from normal to heterogeneous and dense scar regions (285 ± 10 Ω·cm, 225 ± 25 Ω·cm, and 162 ± 6 Ω·cm, at 41 kHz; P < 0.001 respectively). Moreover, myocardial resistivity and phase angle correlated significantly with the degree of local fibrosis (resistivity: r = 0.86 at 1 kHz, P < 0.001; phase angle: r = 0.84 at 41 kHz, P < 0.001). Myocardial infarcted regions with greater fibrotic content show lower mean impedance values and more depressed systolic-diastolic dynamic impedance changes. In conclusion, this study reveals that differences in the degree of myocardial fibrosis can be detected in vivo by local measurement of phasic systolic

  15. Recognition of Fibrotic Infarct Density by the Pattern of Local Systolic-Diastolic Myocardial Electrical Impedance.

    PubMed

    Amorós-Figueras, Gerard; Jorge, Esther; García-Sánchez, Tomás; Bragós, Ramón; Rosell-Ferrer, Javier; Cinca, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial electrical impedance is a biophysical property of the heart that is influenced by the intrinsic structural characteristics of the tissue. Therefore, the structural derangements elicited in a chronic myocardial infarction should cause specific changes in the local systolic-diastolic myocardial impedance, but this is not known. This study aimed to characterize the local changes of systolic-diastolic myocardial impedance in a healed myocardial infarction model. Six pigs were successfully submitted to 150 min of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. 4 weeks later, myocardial impedance spectroscopy (1-1000 kHz) was measured at different infarction sites. The electrocardiogram, left ventricular (LV) pressure, LV dP/dt, and aortic blood flow (ABF) were also recorded. A total of 59 LV tissue samples were obtained and histopathological studies were performed to quantify the percentage of fibrosis. Samples were categorized as normal myocardium (<10% fibrosis), heterogeneous scar (10-50%) and dense scar (>50%). Resistivity of normal myocardium depicted phasic changes during the cardiac cycle and its amplitude markedly decreased in dense scar (18 ± 2 Ω·cm vs. 10 ± 1 Ω·cm, at 41 kHz; P < 0.001, respectively). The mean phasic resistivity decreased progressively from normal to heterogeneous and dense scar regions (285 ± 10 Ω·cm, 225 ± 25 Ω·cm, and 162 ± 6 Ω·cm, at 41 kHz; P < 0.001 respectively). Moreover, myocardial resistivity and phase angle correlated significantly with the degree of local fibrosis (resistivity: r = 0.86 at 1 kHz, P < 0.001; phase angle: r = 0.84 at 41 kHz, P < 0.001). Myocardial infarcted regions with greater fibrotic content show lower mean impedance values and more depressed systolic-diastolic dynamic impedance changes. In conclusion, this study reveals that differences in the degree of myocardial fibrosis can be detected in vivo by local measurement of phasic systolic

  16. Measurement of local density and magnetic field of a magnetized plasma using Raman scattering from a focused laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hyung Seon; Cho, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Kuk; Kang, Teyoun; Suk, Hyyong; Hur, Min Sup

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the possibility of pin pointing the local density and magnetic field of an inhomogeneous, magnetized plasma by stimulated Raman scattering of a pump laser pulse focused on a desired position. As the Raman growth rate is proportional to the pump pulse amplitude, the spectral peak shift of the scattered signal is, though it is a spatially integrated one, expected to be determined dominantly by that from the focal position of the pump pulse. From a theoretical estimation, we found a condition of the pulse duration and plasma density for such an expectation to properly work. It was confirmed by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that as long as the pulse duration is long and the length scale of the plasma inhomogeneity is large compared to the Rayleigh length, the spectral bandwidth of the spatially integrated Raman signal can be narrow enough to distinguish the peak position with good enough resolution.

  17. Adiabatic density perturbations in a cosmological model with massive neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroszynski, M.

    Lifshitz (1946) has investigated the gravitational instability of a Friedmann Universe model. He treated the matter content of the universe as a single perfect fluid. In other studies, a two fluid approach was used to represent neutrinos and other kinds of matter separately. A distribution function was used by Peebles and Yu (1970), and also by Silk and Wilson (1980) to describe photons of the black-body background during and after the recombination of the primeval plasma. The approach used in the present investigation is similar, except for two differences. No collisional term is used in the kinetic equation, and massive particles are considered. A detailed description is provided of the method used to investigate the gravitational instability of a cosmological model with massive neutrinos. It is pointed out that the obtained results are preliminary. The final spectrum of perturbations is similar to those of Peebles and Yu (1970), and Wilson and Silk (1981).

  18. Adiabatic Hyperspherical Analysis of Realistic Nuclear Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daily, K. M.; Kievsky, Alejandro; Greene, Chris H.

    2015-12-01

    Using the hyperspherical adiabatic method with the realistic nuclear potentials Argonne V14, Argonne V18, and Argonne V18 with the Urbana IX three-body potential, we calculate the adiabatic potentials and the triton bound state energies. We find that a discrete variable representation with the slow variable discretization method along the hyperradial degree of freedom results in energies consistent with the literature. However, using a Laguerre basis results in missing energy, even when extrapolated to an infinite number of basis functions and channels. We do not include the isospin T = 3/2 contribution in our analysis.

  19. Complexity of the Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hen, Itay

    2013-01-01

    The Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm (QAA) has been proposed as a mechanism for efficiently solving optimization problems on a quantum computer. Since adiabatic computation is analog in nature and does not require the design and use of quantum gates, it can be thought of as a simpler and perhaps more profound method for performing quantum computations that might also be easier to implement experimentally. While these features have generated substantial research in QAA, to date there is still a lack of solid evidence that the algorithm can outperform classical optimization algorithms.

  20. On the Kohn-Sham density response in a localized basis set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, Dietrich; Koval, Peter

    2009-07-01

    We construct the Kohn-Sham density response function χ0 in a previously described basis of the space of orbital products. The calculational complexity of our construction is O(N2Nω) for a molecule of N atoms and in a spectroscopic window of Nω frequency points. As a first application, we use χ0 to calculate the molecular spectra from the Petersilka-Gossmann-Gross equation. With χ0 as input, we obtain the correct spectra with an extra computational effort that grows also as O(N2Nω) and, therefore, less steeply in N than the O(N3) complexity of solving Casida's equations. Our construction should be useful for the study of excitons in molecular physics and in related areas where χ0 is a crucial ingredient.

  1. Fermi orbital self-interaction corrected electronic structure of molecules beyond local density approximation.

    PubMed

    Hahn, T; Liebing, S; Kortus, J; Pederson, Mark R

    2015-12-14

    The correction of the self-interaction error that is inherent to all standard density functional theory calculations is an object of increasing interest. In this article, we apply the very recently developed Fermi-orbital based approach for the self-interaction correction [M. R. Pederson et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 121103 (2014) and M. R. Pederson, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 064112 (2015)] to a set of different molecular systems. Our study covers systems ranging from simple diatomic to large organic molecules. We focus our analysis on the direct estimation of the ionization potential from orbital eigenvalues. Further, we show that the Fermi orbital positions in structurally similar molecules appear to be transferable.

  2. Fermi orbital self-interaction corrected electronic structure of molecules beyond local density approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Torsten; Liebing, Simon; Kortus, Jens; Pederson, Mark

    The correction of the self-interaction error that is inherent to all standard density functional theory (DFT) calculations is an object of increasing interest. We present our results on the application of the recently developed Fermi-orbital based approach for the self-interaction correction (FO-SIC) to a set of different molecular systems. Our study covers systems ranging from simple diatomic to large organic molecules. Our focus lies on the direct estimation of the ionization potential from orbital eigenvalues and on the ordering of electronic levels in metal-organic molecules. Further, we show that the Fermi orbital positions in structurally similar molecules appear to be transferable. Support by DFG FOR1154 is greatly acknowledged.

  3. Fermi orbital self-interaction corrected electronic structure of molecules beyond local density approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, T. Liebing, S.; Kortus, J.; Pederson, Mark R.

    2015-12-14

    The correction of the self-interaction error that is inherent to all standard density functional theory calculations is an object of increasing interest. In this article, we apply the very recently developed Fermi-orbital based approach for the self-interaction correction [M. R. Pederson et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 121103 (2014) and M. R. Pederson, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 064112 (2015)] to a set of different molecular systems. Our study covers systems ranging from simple diatomic to large organic molecules. We focus our analysis on the direct estimation of the ionization potential from orbital eigenvalues. Further, we show that the Fermi orbital positions in structurally similar molecules appear to be transferable.

  4. Density functional study of collective electron localization: detection by persistent current.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Marc; Hofmann, Markus; Pankratov, Oleg

    2009-04-15

    We apply the optimized effective potential (OEP) implementation of density functional theory (DFT) to the model system of interacting spinless electrons on a quantum ring. The ring encircles a magnetic flux that induces a persistent current. In a perfect rotationally invariant system the current does not depend on the electron-electron interaction (the latter is characterized by a standard dimensionless parameter r(S)) and hence is not sensitive to the microscopic structure of the electron correlated state. This changes, however, if a symmetry-breaking external potential is introduced or, in a realistic system, due to the crystal lattice potential (Hamer et al 1987 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 20 5677-93). In our model, we calculate the persistent current as a function of r(S) in the presence of a weak Gaussian-shaped 'impurity' potential. We find that while below a threshold value r(S)r(S)(c). This signals the formation of an electron Wigner crystal pinned by the impurity potential. The electron density, homogeneous below r(S)(c), indeed shows a periodic modulation at r(S)>r(S)(c). The modulation amplitude follows a (r(S)-r(S)(c))((1)/(2)) behaviour which is characteristic for a second-order phase transition, as expected in the mean-field-type DFT-OEP approach. Our calculation shows that the macroscopic current, which is a quantity directly accessible in DFT, can serve as an indicator of the formation of a correlated electron state.

  5. Parameterised local spin density exchange-correlation energies and potentials for electronic structure calculations I. Zero temperature formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLaren, J. M.; Clougherty, D. P.; McHenry, M. E.; Donovan, M. M.

    1991-09-01

    Commonly used approximate forms for the exchange-correlation energy and potential within the local density approximation are summarised, and FORTRAN code is included for the evaluation of these various forms. Included are the following: Xα, Kohn-Sham-Gaspàr, Hedin-Lundqvist-Wilkins, Janak-Moruzzi-Williams, Von Barth-Hedin, Ceperley-Alder (Perdew-Zunger), and Ceperley-Alder (Vosko-Wilk-Nusair). Both the Vosko-Wilk-Nusair and the Von Barth-Hedin expressions for spin interpolation between paramagnetic and ferromagnetic limits are also provided.

  6. Evolution of the local superconducting density of states in ErRh4B4 close to the ferromagnetic transition.

    PubMed

    Crespo, V; Rodrigo, J G; Suderow, H; Vieira, S; Hinks, D G; Schuller, I K

    2009-06-12

    We present local tunneling spectroscopy experiments in the superconducting and ferromagnetic phases of the reentrant superconductor ErRh4B4. The tunneling conductance curves jump from showing normal to superconducting features within a few mK close to the ferromagnetic transition temperature, with a clear hysteretic behavior. Within the ferromagnetic phase, we do not detect any superconducting correlations. Within the superconducting phase we find a peculiar V-shaped density of states at low energies, which is produced by the magnetically modulated phase that coexists with superconductivity just before ferromagnetism sets in. PMID:19658962

  7. Phase diagrams of two-dimensional and three-dimensional disordered Bose gases in the local density approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdel, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    We study superfluid transitions in bidimensional (2D) and tridimensional (3D) disordered and interacting Bose gases. We work in the limit of long-range correlated disorder such that it can be treated in the local density approximation. We present superfluid transition curves in both the disorder-temperature plane and the disorder-entropy plane in 2D and 3D Bose gases. Surprisingly, we find that a small amount of disorder is always favorable to the apparition of a superfluid. Our results offer a quantitative comparison with recent experiments in 2D disordered ultracold gases, for which no exact theory exists.

  8. Development of a tungsten heavy alloy that fails by an adiabatic shear mechanism. Phase 1. Final report, 1 January-30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Guha, S.; Kyriacou, C.; Withers, J.C.; Loutfy, R.O.

    1993-04-01

    Kinetic Energy penetrators made from Depleted Uranium (DU) alloys have consistently performed better than equi-density and geometrically similar penetrators made from conventional tungsten heavy alloys (WHA) during ballistic penetration tests into semi-infinite Rolled Homogeneous Armor (RHA) steel targets. The superior penetration behavior of DU penetrators is presently attributed to these penetrators maintaining a chisel nose by failure along adiabatic shear bands which is in contrast to the mushroom head observed in WHA penetrators; the mushroom head decreases the energy density at the target thereby leading to reduced penetration. The radiological hazard of DU combined with chemical corrosion during storage provides an impetus to improving the state-of-the-art in WHA with respect to ballistic penetration behavior. Interestingly, WHA penetrators with DU matrix (instead of the conventional Ni-Fe, Ni-Co, or Ni-Fe-Co matrices) also fail by adiabatic shear indicating that shear localization is probably influenced greatly by matrix material properties. Hence, an investigation into alternative matrix materials for WHA that will support shear localization is warranted.

  9. Non-equilibrium scale invariance and shortcuts to adiabaticity in a one-dimensional Bose gas

    PubMed Central

    Rohringer, W.; Fischer, D.; Steiner, F.; Mazets, I. E.; Schmiedmayer, J.; Trupke, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present experimental evidence for scale invariant behaviour of the excitation spectrum in phase-fluctuating quasi-1d Bose gases after a rapid change of the external trapping potential. Probing density correlations in free expansion, we find that the temperature of an initial thermal state scales with the spatial extension of the cloud as predicted by a model based on adiabatic rescaling of initial eigenmodes with conserved quasiparticle occupation numbers. Based on this result, we demonstrate that shortcuts to adiabaticity for the rapid expansion or compression of the gas do not induce additional heating. PMID:25867640

  10. Non-equilibrium scale invariance and shortcuts to adiabaticity in a one-dimensional Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohringer, W.; Fischer, D.; Steiner, F.; Mazets, I. E.; Schmiedmayer, J.; Trupke, M.

    2015-04-01

    We present experimental evidence for scale invariant behaviour of the excitation spectrum in phase-fluctuating quasi-1d Bose gases after a rapid change of the external trapping potential. Probing density correlations in free expansion, we find that the temperature of an initial thermal state scales with the spatial extension of the cloud as predicted by a model based on adiabatic rescaling of initial eigenmodes with conserved quasiparticle occupation numbers. Based on this result, we demonstrate that shortcuts to adiabaticity for the rapid expansion or compression of the gas do not induce additional heating.

  11. Non-equilibrium scale invariance and shortcuts to adiabaticity in a one-dimensional Bose gas.

    PubMed

    Rohringer, W; Fischer, D; Steiner, F; Mazets, I E; Schmiedmayer, J; Trupke, M

    2015-04-13

    We present experimental evidence for scale invariant behaviour of the excitation spectrum in phase-fluctuating quasi-1d Bose gases after a rapid change of the external trapping potential. Probing density correlations in free expansion, we find that the temperature of an initial thermal state scales with the spatial extension of the cloud as predicted by a model based on adiabatic rescaling of initial eigenmodes with conserved quasiparticle occupation numbers. Based on this result, we demonstrate that shortcuts to adiabaticity for the rapid expansion or compression of the gas do not induce additional heating.

  12. Predicting Local Dengue Transmission in Guangzhou, China, through the Influence of Imported Cases, Mosquito Density and Climate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Shaowei; Yin, Wenwu; Bi, Peng; Zhang, Honglong; Wang, Chenggang; Liu, Xiaobo; Chen, Bin; Yang, Weizhong; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Each year there are approximately 390 million dengue infections worldwide. Weather variables have a significant impact on the transmission of Dengue Fever (DF), a mosquito borne viral disease. DF in mainland China is characterized as an imported disease. Hence it is necessary to explore the roles of imported cases, mosquito density and climate variability in dengue transmission in China. The study was to identify the relationship between dengue occurrence and possible risk factors and to develop a predicting model for dengue’s control and prevention purpose. Methodology and Principal Findings Three traditional suburbs and one district with an international airport in Guangzhou city were selected as the study areas. Autocorrelation and cross-correlation analysis were used to perform univariate analysis to identify possible risk factors, with relevant lagged effects, associated with local dengue cases. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract principal components and PCA score was used to represent the original variables to reduce multi-collinearity. Combining the univariate analysis and prior knowledge, time-series Poisson regression analysis was conducted to quantify the relationship between weather variables, Breteau Index, imported DF cases and the local dengue transmission in Guangzhou, China. The goodness-of-fit of the constructed model was determined by pseudo-R2, Akaike information criterion (AIC) and residual test. There were a total of 707 notified local DF cases from March 2006 to December 2012, with a seasonal distribution from August to November. There were a total of 65 notified imported DF cases from 20 countries, with forty-six cases (70.8%) imported from Southeast Asia. The model showed that local DF cases were positively associated with mosquito density, imported cases, temperature, precipitation, vapour pressure and minimum relative humidity, whilst being negatively associated with air pressure, with different time

  13. The ALFALFA Hα Survey. I. Project Description and The Local Star-formation Rate Density from the Fall Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Sistine, Angela; Salzer, John J.; Sugden, Arthur; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Janowiecki, Steven; Jaskot, Anne E.; Wilcots, Eric M.

    2016-06-01

    The ALFALFA Hα survey utilizes a large sample of H i-selected galaxies from the ALFALFA survey to study star formation (SF) in the local universe. ALFALFA Hα contains 1555 galaxies with distances between ˜20 and ˜100 Mpc. We have obtained continuum-subtracted narrowband Hα images and broadband R images for each galaxy, creating one of the largest homogeneous sets of Hα images ever assembled. Our procedures were designed to minimize the uncertainties related to the calculation of the local SF rate density (SFRD). The galaxy sample we constructed is as close to volume-limited as possible, is a robust statistical sample, and spans a wide range of galaxy environments. In this paper, we discuss the properties of our Fall sample of 565 galaxies, our procedure for deriving individual galaxy SF rates, and our method for calculating the local SFRD. We present a preliminary value of log(SFRD[M ⊙ yr‑1 Mpc‑3]) = ‑1.747 ± 0.018 (random) ±0.05 (systematic) based on the 565 galaxies in our Fall sub-sample. Compared to the weighted average of SFRD values around z ≈ 2, our local value indicates a drop in the global SFRD of a factor of 10.2 over that lookback time.

  14. Exploiting the locality of periodic subsystem density-functional theory: efficient sampling of the Brillouin zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele

    2015-12-01

    In order to approximately satisfy the Bloch theorem, simulations of complex materials involving periodic systems are made {{n}\\text{k}} times more complex by the need to sample the first Brillouin zone at {{n}\\text{k}} points. By combining ideas from Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (DFT) and orbital-free DFT, for which no sampling is needed due to the absence of waves, subsystem DFT offers an interesting middle ground capable of sizable theoretical speedups against Kohn-Sham DFT. By splitting the supersystem into interacting subsystems, and mapping their quantum problem onto separate auxiliary Kohn-Sham systems, subsystem DFT allows an optimal topical sampling of the Brillouin zone. We elucidate this concept with two proof of principle simulations: a water bilayer on Pt[1 1 1]; and a complex system relevant to catalysis—a thiophene molecule physisorbed on a molybdenum sulfide monolayer deposited on top of an α-alumina support. For the latter system, a speedup of 300% is achieved against the subsystem DTF reference by using an optimized Brillouin zone sampling (600% against KS-DFT).

  15. Evaluation of local density enhancement of microcapsules in artificial blood vessel during exposure to focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamoto, Ryusuke; Masuda, Kohji; Watarai, Nobuyuki; Taguchi, Yuto; Kato, Toshikazu; Yoshinaga, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yoshitaka; Chiba, Toshio

    2011-09-01

    We have proposed a physical DDS (Drug Delivery System) which makes use of microcapsules of μm size, which may contain a specified drug and also are easily affected by ultrasound exposure near their resonant frequency, to release various kinds of medications. These capsules are easily detected and actuated by ultrasound. However, because of the diffusion of capsules after injection into human body, it was difficult to enhance the efficiency of drug delivery. Thus we have considered a method for controlling the density of capsules in flow which uses acoustic radiation force, which moves the capsules to balance flow resistance. We have experimented with trapping microcapsules or microbubbles in flow of an artificial blood vessel. We have evaluated the effect of radiation force by measuring the trapped area of capsules or bubbles for various frequencies, sound pressures, and exposure times of sinusoidal ultrasound. The trapped area of capsules or bubbles increased with sound pressure and exposure time, and decreased with frequency. From those results, we have derived optimal conditions for trapping the capsules or bubbles.

  16. mBEEF: An accurate semi-local Bayesian error estimation density functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellendorff, Jess; Lundgaard, Keld T.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.; Bligaard, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    We present a general-purpose meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA) exchange-correlation functional generated within the Bayesian error estimation functional framework [J. Wellendorff, K. T. Lundgaard, A. Møgelhøj, V. Petzold, D. D. Landis, J. K. Nørskov, T. Bligaard, and K. W. Jacobsen, Phys. Rev. B 85, 235149 (2012)]. The functional is designed to give reasonably accurate density functional theory (DFT) predictions of a broad range of properties in materials physics and chemistry, while exhibiting a high degree of transferability. Particularly, it improves upon solid cohesive energies and lattice constants over the BEEF-vdW functional without compromising high performance on adsorption and reaction energies. We thus expect it to be particularly well-suited for studies in surface science and catalysis. An ensemble of functionals for error estimation in DFT is an intrinsic feature of exchange-correlation models designed this way, and we show how the Bayesian ensemble may provide a systematic analysis of the reliability of DFT based simulations.

  17. Evaluation of localized muscle fatigue using power spectral density analysis of the electromyogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafevers, E. V.

    1974-01-01

    Surface electromyograms (EMGs) taken from three upper torso muscles during a push-pull task were analyzed by a power spectral density technique to determine the operational feasibility of the technique for identifying changes in the EMGs resulting from muscular fatigue. The EMGs were taken from four subjects under two conditions (1) in shirtsleeves and (2) in a pressurized space suit. This study confirmed that frequency analysis of dynamic muscle activity is capable of providing reliable data for many industrial applications where fatigue may be of practical interest. The results showed significant effects of the pressurized space suit on the pattern of shirtsleeve fatigue responses of the muscles. The data also revealed (1) reliable differences between muscles in fatigue-induced responses to various locations in the reach envelope at which the subjects were required to perform the push-pull exercise and (2) the differential sensitivity of muscles to the various reach positions in terms of fatigue-related shifts in EMG power.

  18. Molecular Gas in Local Mergers: Understanding Mergers using High Density Gas Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manohar, Swarnima; Scoville, N.; Sheth, K.

    2013-01-01

    NGC 6240 and Arp 220 can be considered the founding members of a very active class of objects called Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies or ULIRGs. They are in different stages of mergers and hence are excellent case studies to enhance our knowledge about the merging process. We have imaged the dense star-forming regions of these galaxies at sub-arcsec resolution with ALMA and CARMA. Multi-band imaging will allow multilevel excitation analysis of HCN, HCO+ and CS transitions which will be used to constrain the properties of the gas as a function of position and velocity (across line profiles). We aim to do an extensive multilevel excitation analysis of the merger as a function of radius which will enable in depth understanding of the gas dynamics and gas properties such as temperature and density. This will in turn probe the homogeneity of the gas in the merging system and hence the regions that facilitate high star formation rates. This tandem use of CARMA with ALMA to map these systems at different merger stages will help assemble a more integrated picture of the merger process. We will probe the distribution and dynamics of star forming gas and star formation activity in the dense disk structures to enable new theoretical understanding of the physics, dynamics, star formation activity and associated feedback in the most active and rapidly evolving galactic nuclei. Here we present preliminary observations of Arp 220 and NGC 6240 from ALMA and CARMA.

  19. Wigner phase space distribution via classical adiabatic switching

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Amartya; Makri, Nancy

    2015-09-21

    Evaluation of the Wigner phase space density for systems of many degrees of freedom presents an extremely demanding task because of the oscillatory nature of the Fourier-type integral. We propose a simple and efficient, approximate procedure for generating the Wigner distribution that avoids the computational difficulties associated with the Wigner transform. Starting from a suitable zeroth-order Hamiltonian, for which the Wigner density is available (either analytically or numerically), the phase space distribution is propagated in time via classical trajectories, while the perturbation is gradually switched on. According to the classical adiabatic theorem, each trajectory maintains a constant action if the perturbation is switched on infinitely slowly. We show that the adiabatic switching procedure produces the exact Wigner density for harmonic oscillator eigenstates and also for eigenstates of anharmonic Hamiltonians within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. We generalize the approach to finite temperature by introducing a density rescaling factor that depends on the energy of each trajectory. Time-dependent properties are obtained simply by continuing the integration of each trajectory under the full target Hamiltonian. Further, by construction, the generated approximate Wigner distribution is invariant under classical propagation, and thus, thermodynamic properties are strictly preserved. Numerical tests on one-dimensional and dissipative systems indicate that the method produces results in very good agreement with those obtained by full quantum mechanical methods over a wide temperature range. The method is simple and efficient, as it requires no input besides the force fields required for classical trajectory integration, and is ideal for use in quasiclassical trajectory calculations.

  20. Dynamical aspects of an adiabatic piston.

    PubMed

    Munakata, T; Ogawa, H

    2001-09-01

    Dynamical aspects of an adiabatic piston are investigated, based on the mass ratio expansion of the master equation for the piston velocity distribution function. Simple theory for piston motion and relaxation of an ideal gas in a cylinder turns out to reproduce our numerical experiments quantitatively.

  1. Adiabatic reversible compression: a molecular view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, E. N.

    2002-07-01

    The adiabatic compression (or expansion) of an ideal gas has been analysed. Using the kinetic theory of gases the usual relation between temperature and volume is obtained, while textbooks follow a thermodynamic approach. In this way we show, once again, the agreement between a macroscopic view (thermodynamics) and a microscopic one (kinetic theory).

  2. Dynamical aspects of an adiabatic piston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munakata, Toyonori; Ogawa, Hideki

    2001-09-01

    Dynamical aspects of an adiabatic piston are investigated, based on the mass ratio expansion of the master equation for the piston velocity distribution function. Simple theory for piston motion and relaxation of an ideal gas in a cylinder turns out to reproduce our numerical experiments quantitatively.

  3. Adiabatic Compression in a Fire Syringe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayn, Carl H.; Baird, Scott C.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests using better materials in fire syringes to obtain more effective results during demonstrations which show the elevation in temperature upon a very rapid (adiabatic) compression of air. Also describes an experiment (using ignition temperatures) which introduces students to the use of thermocouples for high temperature measurements. (DH)

  4. Time dependence of adiabatic particle number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, Robert; Dunne, Gerald V.

    2016-09-01

    We consider quantum field theoretic systems subject to a time-dependent perturbation, and discuss the question of defining a time-dependent particle number not just at asymptotic early and late times, but also during the perturbation. Naïvely, this is not a well-defined notion for such a nonequilibrium process, as the particle number at intermediate times depends on a basis choice of reference states with respect to which particles and antiparticles are defined, even though the final late-time particle number is independent of this basis choice. The basis choice is associated with a particular truncation of the adiabatic expansion. The adiabatic expansion is divergent, and we show that if this divergent expansion is truncated at its optimal order, a universal time dependence is obtained, confirming a general result of Dingle and Berry. This optimally truncated particle number provides a clear picture of quantum interference effects for perturbations with nontrivial temporal substructure. We illustrate these results using several equivalent definitions of adiabatic particle number: the Bogoliubov, Riccati, spectral function and Schrödinger picture approaches. In each approach, the particle number may be expressed in terms of the tiny deviations between the exact and adiabatic solutions of the Ermakov-Milne equation for the associated time-dependent oscillators.

  5. Apparatus to Measure Adiabatic and Isothermal Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, D. W.; White, G. M.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a simple manual apparatus designed to serve as an effective demonstration of the differences between isothermal and adiabatic processes for the general or elementary physics student. Enables students to verify Boyle's law for slow processes and identify the departure from this law for rapid processes and can also be used to give a clear…

  6. Local density of states and its mesoscopic fluctuations near the transition to a superconducting state in disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmistrov, I. S.; Gornyi, I. V.; Mirlin, A. D.

    2016-05-01

    We develop a theory of the local density of states (LDOS) of disordered superconductors, employing the nonlinear sigma-model formalism and the renormalization-group framework. The theory takes into account the interplay of disorder and interaction couplings in all channels, treating the systems with short-range and Coulomb interactions on equal footing. We explore two-dimensional systems that would be Anderson insulators in the absence of interaction and two- or three-dimensional systems that undergo an Anderson transition in the absence of interaction. We evaluate both the average tunneling density of states and its mesoscopic fluctuations which are related to the LDOS multifractality in normal disordered systems. The obtained average LDOS shows a pronounced depletion around the Fermi energy, both in the metallic phase (i.e., above the superconducting critical temperature Tc) and in the insulating phase near the superconductor-insulator transition (SIT). The fluctuations of the LDOS are found to be particularly strong for the case of short-range interactions, especially, in the regime when Tc is enhanced by Anderson localization. On the other hand, the long-range Coulomb repulsion reduces the mesoscopic LDOS fluctuations. However, also in a model with Coulomb interaction, the fluctuations become strong when the systems approach the SIT.

  7. Accurate and Efficient Calculation of van der Waals Interactions Within Density Functional Theory by Local Atomic Potential Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y. Y.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, K.; Zhang, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) in the commonly used local density or generalized gradient approximation fails to describe van der Waals (vdW) interactions that are vital to organic, biological, and other molecular systems. Here, we propose a simple, efficient, yet accurate local atomic potential (LAP) approach, named DFT+LAP, for including vdW interactions in the framework of DFT. The LAPs for H, C, N, and O are generated by fitting the DFT+LAP potential energy curves of small molecule dimers to those obtained from coupled cluster calculations with single, double, and perturbatively treated triple excitations, CCSD(T). Excellent transferability of the LAPs is demonstrated by remarkable agreement with the JSCH-2005 benchmark database [P. Jurecka et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 1985 (2006)], which provides the interaction energies of CCSD(T) quality for 165 vdW and hydrogen-bonded complexes. For over 100 vdW dominant complexes in this database, our DFT+LAP calculations give a mean absolute deviation from the benchmark results less than 0.5 kcal/mol. The DFT+LAP approach involves no extra computational cost other than standard DFT calculations and no modification of existing DFT codes, which enables straightforward quantum simulations, such as ab initio molecular dynamics, on biomolecular systems, as well as on other organic systems.

  8. Communication: Adiabatic and non-adiabatic electron-nuclear motion: Quantum and classical dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Julian; Kaiser, Dustin; Engel, Volker

    2016-05-01

    Using a model for coupled electronic-nuclear motion we investigate the range from negligible to strong non-adiabatic coupling. In the adiabatic case, the quantum dynamics proceeds in a single electronic state, whereas for strong coupling a complete transition between two adiabatic electronic states takes place. It is shown that in all coupling regimes the short-time wave-packet dynamics can be described using ensembles of classical trajectories in the phase space spanned by electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom. We thus provide an example which documents that the quantum concept of non-adiabatic transitions is not necessarily needed if electronic and nuclear motion is treated on the same footing.

  9. Communication: Adiabatic and non-adiabatic electron-nuclear motion: Quantum and classical dynamics.

    PubMed

    Albert, Julian; Kaiser, Dustin; Engel, Volker

    2016-05-01

    Using a model for coupled electronic-nuclear motion we investigate the range from negligible to strong non-adiabatic coupling. In the adiabatic case, the quantum dynamics proceeds in a single electronic state, whereas for strong coupling a complete transition between two adiabatic electronic states takes place. It is shown that in all coupling regimes the short-time wave-packet dynamics can be described using ensembles of classical trajectories in the phase space spanned by electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom. We thus provide an example which documents that the quantum concept of non-adiabatic transitions is not necessarily needed if electronic and nuclear motion is treated on the same footing.

  10. Impact of the pedestal plasma density on dynamics of edge localized mode crashes and energy loss scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X. Q.; Ma, J. F.; Li, G. Q.

    2014-12-15

    The latest BOUT++ studies show an emerging understanding of dynamics of edge localized mode (ELM) crashes and the consistent collisionality scaling of ELM energy losses with the world multi-tokamak database. A series of BOUT++ simulations are conducted to investigate the scaling characteristics of the ELM energy losses vs collisionality via a density scan. Linear results demonstrate that as the pedestal collisionality decreases, the growth rate of the peeling-ballooning modes decreases for high n but increases for low n (1 < n < 5), therefore the width of the growth rate spectrum γ(n) becomes narrower and the peak growth shifts to lower n. Nonlinear BOUT++ simulations show a two-stage process of ELM crash evolution of (i) initial bursts of pressure blob and void creation and (ii) inward void propagation. The inward void propagation stirs the top of pedestal plasma and yields an increasing ELM size with decreasing collisionality after a series of micro-bursts. The pedestal plasma density plays a major role in determining the ELM energy loss through its effect on the edge bootstrap current and ion diamagnetic stabilization. The critical trend emerges as a transition (1) linearly from ballooning-dominated states at high collisionality to peeling-dominated states at low collisionality with decreasing density and (2) nonlinearly from turbulence spreading dynamics at high collisionality into avalanche-like dynamics at low collisionality.

  11. Queuing Theory Based Co-Channel Interference Analysis Approach for High-Density Wireless Local Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Han, Guangjie; Qian, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Increased co-channel interference (CCI) in wireless local area networks (WLANs) is bringing serious resource constraints to today's high-density wireless environments. CCI in IEEE 802.11-based networks is inevitable due to the nature of the carrier sensing mechanism however can be reduced by resource optimization approaches. That means the CCI analysis is basic, but also crucial for an efficient resource management. In this article, we present a novel CCI analysis approach based on the queuing theory, which considers the randomness of end users' behavior and the irregularity and complexity of network traffic in high-density WLANs that adopts the M/M/c queuing model for CCI analysis. Most of the CCIs occur when multiple networks overlap and trigger channel contentions; therefore, we use the ratio of signal-overlapped areas to signal coverage as a probabilistic factor to the queuing model to analyze the CCI impacts in highly overlapped WLANs. With the queuing model, we perform simulations to see how the CCI influences the quality of service (QoS) in high-density WLANs. PMID:27563896

  12. Queuing Theory Based Co-Channel Interference Analysis Approach for High-Density Wireless Local Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Han, Guangjie; Qian, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Increased co-channel interference (CCI) in wireless local area networks (WLANs) is bringing serious resource constraints to today’s high-density wireless environments. CCI in IEEE 802.11-based networks is inevitable due to the nature of the carrier sensing mechanism however can be reduced by resource optimization approaches. That means the CCI analysis is basic, but also crucial for an efficient resource management. In this article, we present a novel CCI analysis approach based on the queuing theory, which considers the randomness of end users’ behavior and the irregularity and complexity of network traffic in high-density WLANs that adopts the M/M/c queuing model for CCI analysis. Most of the CCIs occur when multiple networks overlap and trigger channel contentions; therefore, we use the ratio of signal-overlapped areas to signal coverage as a probabilistic factor to the queuing model to analyze the CCI impacts in highly overlapped WLANs. With the queuing model, we perform simulations to see how the CCI influences the quality of service (QoS) in high-density WLANs. PMID:27563896

  13. Impact of the pedestal plasma density on dynamics of edge localized mode crashes and energy loss scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X. Q.; Ma, J. F.; Li, G. Q.

    2014-12-29

    The latest BOUT++ studies show an emerging understanding of dynamics of edge localized mode(ELM) crashes and the consistent collisionality scaling of ELMenergy losses with the world multi-tokamak database. A series of BOUT++ simulations are conducted to investigate the scaling characteristics of the ELMenergy losses vs collisionality via a density scan. Moreover, the linear results demonstrate that as the pedestal collisionality decreases, the growth rate of the peeling-ballooning modes decreases for high n but increases for low n (1 < n < 5), therefore the width of the growth rate spectrum γ(n) becomes narrower and the peak growth shifts to lower n. For nonlinear BOUT++ simulations show a two-stage process of ELM crash evolution of (i) initial bursts of pressure blob and void creation and (ii) inward void propagation. The inward void propagation stirs the top of pedestal plasma and yields an increasing ELM size with decreasing collisionality after a series of micro-bursts. The pedestal plasma density plays a major role in determining the ELMenergy loss through its effect on the edge bootstrap current and ion diamagnetic stabilization. Finally, the critical trend emerges as a transition (1) linearly from ballooning-dominated states at high collisionality to peeling-dominated states at low collisionality with decreasing density and (2) nonlinearly from turbulence spreading dynamics at high collisionality into avalanche-like dynamics at low collisionality.

  14. Impact of the pedestal plasma density on dynamics of edge localized mode crashes and energy loss scaling

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, X. Q.; Ma, J. F.; Li, G. Q.

    2014-12-29

    The latest BOUT++ studies show an emerging understanding of dynamics of edge localized mode(ELM) crashes and the consistent collisionality scaling of ELMenergy losses with the world multi-tokamak database. A series of BOUT++ simulations are conducted to investigate the scaling characteristics of the ELMenergy losses vs collisionality via a density scan. Moreover, the linear results demonstrate that as the pedestal collisionality decreases, the growth rate of the peeling-ballooning modes decreases for high n but increases for low n (1 < n < 5), therefore the width of the growth rate spectrum γ(n) becomes narrower and the peak growth shifts to lowermore » n. For nonlinear BOUT++ simulations show a two-stage process of ELM crash evolution of (i) initial bursts of pressure blob and void creation and (ii) inward void propagation. The inward void propagation stirs the top of pedestal plasma and yields an increasing ELM size with decreasing collisionality after a series of micro-bursts. The pedestal plasma density plays a major role in determining the ELMenergy loss through its effect on the edge bootstrap current and ion diamagnetic stabilization. Finally, the critical trend emerges as a transition (1) linearly from ballooning-dominated states at high collisionality to peeling-dominated states at low collisionality with decreasing density and (2) nonlinearly from turbulence spreading dynamics at high collisionality into avalanche-like dynamics at low collisionality.« less

  15. Global effects of local human population density and distance to markets on the condition of coral reef fisheries.

    PubMed

    Cinner, Joshua E; Graham, Nicholas A J; Huchery, Cindy; Macneil, M Aaron

    2013-06-01

    Coral reef fisheries support the livelihoods of millions of people but have been severely and negatively affected by anthropogenic activities. We conducted a systematic review of published data on the biomass of coral reef fishes to explore how the condition of reef fisheries is related to the density of local human populations, proximity of the reef to markets, and key environmental variables (including broad geomorphologic reef type, reef area, and net productivity). When only population density and environmental covariates were considered, high variability in fisheries conditions at low human population densities resulted in relatively weak explanatory models. The presence or absence of human settlements, habitat type, and distance to fish markets provided a much stronger explanatory model for the condition of reef fisheries. Fish biomass remained relatively low within 14 km of markets, then biomass increased exponentially as distance from reefs to markets increased. Our results suggest the need for an increased science and policy focus on markets as both a key driver of the condition of reef fisheries and a potential source of solutions.

  16. Global effects of local human population density and distance to markets on the condition of coral reef fisheries.

    PubMed

    Cinner, Joshua E; Graham, Nicholas A J; Huchery, Cindy; Macneil, M Aaron

    2013-06-01

    Coral reef fisheries support the livelihoods of millions of people but have been severely and negatively affected by anthropogenic activities. We conducted a systematic review of published data on the biomass of coral reef fishes to explore how the condition of reef fisheries is related to the density of local human populations, proximity of the reef to markets, and key environmental variables (including broad geomorphologic reef type, reef area, and net productivity). When only population density and environmental covariates were considered, high variability in fisheries conditions at low human population densities resulted in relatively weak explanatory models. The presence or absence of human settlements, habitat type, and distance to fish markets provided a much stronger explanatory model for the condition of reef fisheries. Fish biomass remained relatively low within 14 km of markets, then biomass increased exponentially as distance from reefs to markets increased. Our results suggest the need for an increased science and policy focus on markets as both a key driver of the condition of reef fisheries and a potential source of solutions. PMID:23025334

  17. Queuing Theory Based Co-Channel Interference Analysis Approach for High-Density Wireless Local Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Han, Guangjie; Qian, Yujie

    2016-08-23

    Increased co-channel interference (CCI) in wireless local area networks (WLANs) is bringing serious resource constraints to today's high-density wireless environments. CCI in IEEE 802.11-based networks is inevitable due to the nature of the carrier sensing mechanism however can be reduced by resource optimization approaches. That means the CCI analysis is basic, but also crucial for an efficient resource management. In this article, we present a novel CCI analysis approach based on the queuing theory, which considers the randomness of end users' behavior and the irregularity and complexity of network traffic in high-density WLANs that adopts the M/M/c queuing model for CCI analysis. Most of the CCIs occur when multiple networks overlap and trigger channel contentions; therefore, we use the ratio of signal-overlapped areas to signal coverage as a probabilistic factor to the queuing model to analyze the CCI impacts in highly overlapped WLANs. With the queuing model, we perform simulations to see how the CCI influences the quality of service (QoS) in high-density WLANs.

  18. Shortcuts to adiabaticity in quantum many-body systems: a quantum dynamical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Campo, Adolfo

    2014-03-01

    The evolution of a quantum system induced by a shortcut to adiabaticity mimics the adiabatic dynamics without the requirement of slow driving. Engineering it involves diagonalizing the instantaneous Hamiltonian of the system and results in the need of auxiliary non-local interactions for matter-waves. Here experimentally realizable driving protocols are found for a large class of single-particle, many-body, and non-linear systems without demanding the spectral properties as an input. The method is applied to the expansion of a trapped ultracold gas which spatially scales up the size of the cloud while conserving the quantum correlations of the initial many-body state. This shortcut to adiabatic expansions acts as a quantum dynamical microscope.

  19. Determination of the spin torque non-adiabaticity in perpendicularly magnetized nanowires.

    PubMed

    Heinen, J; Hinzke, D; Boulle, O; Malinowski, G; Swagten, H J M; Koopmans, B; Ulysse, C; Faini, G; Ocker, B; Wrona, J; Kläui, M

    2012-01-18

    Novel nanofabrication methods and the discovery of an efficient manipulation of local magnetization based on spin polarized currents has generated a tremendous interest in the field of spintronics. The search for materials allowing for fast domain wall dynamics requires fundamental research into the effects involved (Oersted fields, adiabatic and non-adiabatic spin torque, Joule heating) and possibilities for a quantitative comparison. Theoretical descriptions reveal a material and geometry dependence of the non-adiabaticity factor β, which governs the domain wall velocity. Here, we present two independent approaches for determining β: (i) measuring the dependence of the dwell times for which a domain wall stays in a metastable pinning state on the injected current and (ii) the current-field equivalence approach. The comparison of the deduced β values highlights the problems of using one-dimensional models to describe two-dimensional dynamics and allows us to ascertain the reliability, robustness and limits of the approaches used. PMID:22172802

  20. Geometric phase of an atom inside an adiabatic radio-frequency potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.; You, L.

    2007-09-15

    We investigate the geometric phase of an atom inside an adiabatic radio-frequency (rf) potential created from a static magnetic field (B field) and a time-dependent rf field. The spatial motion of the atomic center of mass is shown to give rise to a geometric phase, or Berry's phase, in the adiabatically evolving atomic hyperfine spin along the local B field. This phase is found to depend on both the static B field along the semiclassical trajectory of the atomic center of mass and an effective magnetic field consisting of the total B field, including the oscillating rf field. Specific calculations are provided for several recent atom interferometry experiments and proposals utilizing adiabatic rf potentials.

  1. Density-Matrix Calculations of the 1.5 T Citrate Signal Acquired with Volume-Localized STEAM Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulkern, R. V.; Bowers, J. L.; Peled, S.; Williamson, D. S.

    1996-03-01

    Citrate detection and quantitation with proton spectroscopic methods are of current interest as potential tools in the diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer. Thestimulatedechoacquisitionmode (STEAM) sequence is a commonly used volume-localization method for detecting citrate signal. Since the1H citrate resonance at clinically available field strengths arises from a strongly coupled two-spin system, the 90° RF pulses and localizing gradients used in STEAM sequences result in a complicated dependence of signal intensity on timing intervals and gradient amplitudes. The density-matrix formalism has been applied to arrive at a general solution to this problem. Citrate-signal properties at 1.5 T for different gradient localization schemes are examined with the solution. Optimal interpulse delays, deleterious gradient balances, zero-quantum oscillations with mixing time, and a low-frequency, large-amplitude oscillation with echo time are identified for signals acquired with the standard disposition of gradients in STEAM. The generality of the solution also allows for an examination of nonstandard gradient disposition schemes for enhancing citrate signal and for quantifying the sensitivity of such approaches to both field inhomogeneities and off-resonance effects.

  2. Extra-pair paternity in the socially monogamous white stork (Ciconia ciconia) is fairly common and independent of local density

    PubMed Central

    Turjeman, Sondra Feldman; Centeno-Cuadros, Alejandro; Eggers, Ute; Rotics, Shay; Blas, Julio; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Kaatz, Michael; Jeltsch, Florian; Wikelski, Martin; Nathan, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Although many birds are socially monogamous, most (>75%) studied species are not strictly genetically monogamous, especially under high breeding density. We used molecular tools to reevaluate the reproductive strategy of the socially monogamous white stork (Ciconia ciconia) and examined local density effects. DNA samples of nestlings (Germany, Spain) were genotyped and assigned relationships using a two-program maximum likelihood classification. Relationships were successfully classified in 79.2% of German (n = 120) and 84.8% of Spanish (n = 59) nests. For each population respectively, 76.8% (n = 73) and 66.0% (n = 33) of nests contained only full-siblings, 10.5% (n = 10) and 18.0% (n = 9) had half-siblings (at least one nestling with a different parent), 3.2% (n = 3) and 10.0% (n = 5) had unrelated nestlings (at least two nestlings, each with different parents), and 9.5% (n = 9) and 6.0% (n = 3) had “not full-siblings” (could not differentiate between latter two cases). These deviations from strict monogamy place the white stork in the 59th percentile for extra-pair paternity among studied bird species. Although high breeding density generally increases extra-pair paternity, we found no significant association with this species’ mating strategies. Thus although genetic monogamy is indeed prominent in the white stork, extra-pair paternity is fairly common compared to other bird species and cannot be explained by breeding density. PMID:27328982

  3. Extra-pair paternity in the socially monogamous white stork (Ciconia ciconia) is fairly common and independent of local density.

    PubMed

    Turjeman, Sondra Feldman; Centeno-Cuadros, Alejandro; Eggers, Ute; Rotics, Shay; Blas, Julio; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Kaatz, Michael; Jeltsch, Florian; Wikelski, Martin; Nathan, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Although many birds are socially monogamous, most (>75%) studied species are not strictly genetically monogamous, especially under high breeding density. We used molecular tools to reevaluate the reproductive strategy of the socially monogamous white stork (Ciconia ciconia) and examined local density effects. DNA samples of nestlings (Germany, Spain) were genotyped and assigned relationships using a two-program maximum likelihood classification. Relationships were successfully classified in 79.2% of German (n = 120) and 84.8% of Spanish (n = 59) nests. For each population respectively, 76.8% (n = 73) and 66.0% (n = 33) of nests contained only full-siblings, 10.5% (n = 10) and 18.0% (n = 9) had half-siblings (at least one nestling with a different parent), 3.2% (n = 3) and 10.0% (n = 5) had unrelated nestlings (at least two nestlings, each with different parents), and 9.5% (n = 9) and 6.0% (n = 3) had "not full-siblings" (could not differentiate between latter two cases). These deviations from strict monogamy place the white stork in the 59(th) percentile for extra-pair paternity among studied bird species. Although high breeding density generally increases extra-pair paternity, we found no significant association with this species' mating strategies. Thus although genetic monogamy is indeed prominent in the white stork, extra-pair paternity is fairly common compared to other bird species and cannot be explained by breeding density. PMID:27328982

  4. Adiabatic cooling of the artificial Porcupine plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruizhin, Iu. Ia.; Treumann, R. A.; Bauer, O. H.; Moskalenko, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the plasma density obtained during the interaction of the artificial plasma jet, fired into the ionosphere with the body of the Porcupine main payload, have been analyzed for times when there was a well-developed wake effect. Using wake theory, the maximum temperature of the quasi-neutral xenon ion beam has been determined for an intermediate distance from the ion beam source when the beam has left the diamagnetic region but is still much denser than the ionospheric background plasma. The beam temperature is found to be about 4 times less than the temperature at injection. This observation is very well explained by adiabatic cooling of the beam during its initial diamagnetic and current-buildup phases at distances r smaller than 10 m. Outside this region, the beam conserves the temperature achieved. The observation proves that the artificial plasma jet passes through an initial gas-like diamagnetic phase restricted to the vicinity of the beam source, where it expands adiabatically. Partial cooling also takes place outside the diamagnetic region where the beam current still builds up. The observations also support a recently developed current-closure model of the quasi-neutral ion beam.

  5. High Energy Signatures of POST Adiabatic Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telezhinsky, Igor; Hnatyk, Bohdan

    Between the well-known adiabatic and radiative stages of the Supernova remnant (SNR) evolution there is, in fact, a transition stage with a duration comparable to the duration of adiabatic one. Physical existence of the transition stage is motivated by cooling of some part of the downstream hot gas with formation of a thin cold shell that is joined to a shell of swept up interstellar medium (ISM). We give an approximate analytical method for full hydrodynamical description of the transition stage. On its base we investigate the evolution of X-ray and γ-ray radiation during this stage. It is shown that formation of a dense shell during the transition stage is accompanied by the decrease of X-ray luminosity because of hot gas cooling and increase of gamma-ray flux according to the increase of target proton density and CR energy in the newly born shell. The role of nonuniformity of ISM and its influence on the high energy fluxes from the SNRs is also discussed.

  6. Carrier-density dependence of photoluminescence from localized states in InGaN/GaN quantum wells in nanocolumns and a thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Shimosako, N. Inose, Y.; Satoh, H.; Kinjo, K.; Nakaoka, T.; Oto, T.; Kishino, K.; Ema, K.

    2015-11-07

    We have measured and analyzed the carrier-density dependence of photoluminescence (PL) spectra and the PL efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells in nanocolumns and in a thin film over a wide excitation range. The localized states parameters, such as the tailing parameter, density and size of the localized states, and the mobility edge density are estimated. The spectral change and reduction of PL efficiency are explained by filling of the localized states and population into the extended states around the mobility edge density. We have also found that the nanocolumns have a narrower distribution of the localized states and a higher PL efficiency than those of the film sample although the In composition of the nanocolumns is higher than that of the film.

  7. Combined local-density and dynamical mean field theory calculations for the compressed lanthanides Ce, Pr, and Nd

    SciTech Connect

    McMahan, A K

    2005-03-30

    This paper reports calculations for compressed Ce (4f{sup 1}), Pr (4f{sup 2}), and Nd (4f{sup 3}) using a combination of the local-density approximation (LDA) and dynamical mean field theory (DMFT), or LDA+DMFT. The 4f moment, spectra, and the total energy among other properties are examined as functions of volume and atomic number for an assumed face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. These materials are seen to be strongly localized at ambient pressure and for compressions up through the experimentally observed fcc phases ({gamma} phase for Ce), in the sense of having fully formed Hund's rules moments and little 4f spectral weight at the Fermi level. Subsequent compression for all three lanthanides brings about significant deviation of the moments from their Hund's rules values, a growing Kondo resonance at the fermi level, an associated softening in the total energy, and quenching of the spin orbit since the Kondo resonance is of mixed spin-orbit character while the lower Hubbard band is predominantly j = 5/2. while the most dramatic changes for Ce occur within the two-phase region of the {gamma}-{alpha} volume collapse transition, as found in earlier work, those for Pr and Nd occur within the volume range of the experimentally observed distorted fcc (dfcc) phase, which is therefore seen here as transitional and not part of the localized trivalent lanthanide sequence. The experimentally observed collapse to the {alpha}-U structure in Pr occurs only on further compression, and no such collapse is found in Nd. These lanthanides start closer to the localized limit for increasing atomic number, and so the theoretical signatures noted above are also offset to smaller volume as well, which is possibly related to the measured systematics of the size of the volume collapse being 15%, 9%, and none for Ce, Pr, and Nd, respectively.

  8. Nonequilibrium quantum relaxation across a localization-delocalization transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roósz, Gergő; Divakaran, Uma; Rieger, Heiko; Iglói, Ferenc

    2014-11-01

    We consider the one-dimensional X X model in a quasiperiodic transverse field described by the Harper potential, which is equivalent to a tight-binding model of spinless fermions with a quasiperiodic chemical potential. For weak transverse field (chemical potential), h localized for h >hc . We study the nonequilibrium relaxation of the system by applying two protocols: a sudden change of h (quench dynamics) and a slow change of h in time (adiabatic dynamics). For a quench into the delocalized (localized) phase, the entanglement entropy grows linearly (saturates) and the order parameter decreases exponentially (has a finite limiting value). For a critical quench the entropy increases algebraically with time, whereas the order parameter decreases with a stretched exponential. The density of defects after an adiabatic field change through the critical point is shown to scale with a power of the rate of field change and a scaling relation for the exponent is derived.

  9. Enhanced diffusion weighting generated by selective adiabatic pulse trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ziqi; Bartha, Robert

    2007-09-01

    A theoretical description and experimental validation of the enhanced diffusion weighting generated by selective adiabatic full passage (AFP) pulse trains is provided. Six phantoms (Ph-1-Ph-6) were studied on a 4 T Varian/Siemens whole body MRI system. Phantoms consisted of 2.8 cm diameter plastic tubes containing a mixture of 10 μm ORGASOL polymer beads and 2 mM Gd-DTPA dissolved in 5% agar (Ph-1) or nickel(II) ammonium sulphate hexahydrate doped (56.3-0.8 mM) water solutions (Ph-2-Ph-6). A customized localization by adiabatic selective refocusing (LASER) sequence containing slice selective AFP pulse trains and pulsed diffusion gradients applied in the phase encoding direction was used to measure 1H 2O diffusion. The b-value associated with the LASER sequence was derived using the Bloch-Torrey equation. The apparent diffusion coefficients measured by LASER were comparable to those measured by a conventional pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) sequence for all phantoms. Image signal intensity increased in Ph-1 and decreased in Ph-2-Ph-6 as AFP pulse train length increased while maintaining a constant echo-time. These experimental results suggest that such AFP pulse trains can enhance contrast between regions containing microscopic magnetic susceptibility variations and homogeneous regions in which dynamic dephasing relaxation mechanisms are dominant.

  10. Schedule path optimization for adiabatic quantum computing and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lishan; Zhang, Jun; Sarovar, Mohan

    2016-04-01

    Adiabatic quantum computing and optimization have garnered much attention recently as possible models for achieving a quantum advantage over classical approaches to optimization and other special purpose computations. Both techniques are probabilistic in nature and the minimum gap between the ground state and first excited state of the system during evolution is a major factor in determining the success probability. In this work we investigate a strategy for increasing the minimum gap and success probability by introducing intermediate Hamiltonians that modify the evolution path between initial and final Hamiltonians. We focus on an optimization problem relevant to recent hardware implementations and present numerical evidence for the existence of a purely local intermediate Hamiltonian that achieve the optimum performance in terms of pushing the minimum gap to one of the end points of the evolution. As a part of this study we develop a convex optimization formulation of the search for optimal adiabatic schedules that makes this computation more tractable, and which may be of independent interest. We further study the effectiveness of random intermediate Hamiltonians on the minimum gap and success probability, and empirically find that random Hamiltonians have a significant probability of increasing the success probability, but only by a modest amount.

  11. Effect of Strain on Microstructure Evolution of 1Cr18Ni9Ti Stainless Steel During Adiabatic Shearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Jiang, L. H.; Luo, S. H.; Hu, H. B.; Tang, T. G.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic shear test was conducted on the hat-shaped specimen of the thermo-mechanical-processed 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel by using the split Hopkinson pressure bar at ambient temperature. The effect of the shear strain on the microstructure evolution was investigated during adiabatic shearing. The results revealed that the development of adiabatic shear localization went through three stages, including the incubation period, the development stage, and the maturity period. TEM observations showed that the grains in the shear region were elongated, and the elongated grains were gradually evolved into equiaxed nano-grains of 100 nm as shear strain increased. The rotational dynamic recrystallization kinetics calculation showed that subgrains had sufficient time to generate an equiaxed microcrystalline structure by rotation within the deformation time. Based on the observation of the evolution of dislocations and sub-grains in the adiabatic shear region, a model of the microstructure evolution was established during the adiabatic shearing.

  12. Semianalytical quasi-normal mode theory for the local density of states in coupled photonic crystal cavity-waveguide structures.

    PubMed

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper; Gregersen, Niels

    2015-12-15

    We present and validate a semianalytical quasi-normal mode (QNM) theory for the local density of states (LDOS) in coupled photonic crystal (PhC) cavity-waveguide structures. By means of an expansion of the Green's function on one or a few QNMs, a closed-form expression for the LDOS is obtained, and for two types of two-dimensional PhCs, with one and two cavities side-coupled to an extended waveguide, the theory is validated against numerically exact computations. For the single cavity, a slightly asymmetric spectrum is found, which the QNM theory reproduces, and for two cavities, a nontrivial spectrum with a peak and a dip is found, which is reproduced only when including both the two relevant QNMs in the theory. In both cases, we find relative errors below 1% in the bandwidth of interest.

  13. Observation of a multimode plasma response and its relationship to density pumpout and edge-localized mode suppression

    DOE PAGES

    Paz-Soldan, C.; Nazikian, R.; Haskey, S. R.; Logan, N. C.; Strait, E. J.; Ferraro, N. M.; Hanson, J. M.; King, J. D.; Lanctot, M. J.; Moyer, R. A.; et al

    2015-03-12

    Density pumpout and edge-localized mode (ELM) suppression by applied n=2 magnetic fields in low collisionality DIII-D plasmas are shown to be correlated with the magnitude of the plasma response driven on the high field side (HFS) of the magnetic axis, but not the low-field side (LFS) midplane. These distinct responses are a direct measurement of a multi-modal magnetic plasma response, with each structure preferentially excited by a different n=2 applied spectrum and preferentially detected on the LFS or HFS. Ideal and resistive MHD calculations find that the LFS measurement is primarily sensitive to excitation of stable kink modes, while themore » HFS measurement is primarily sensitive to resonant currents (whether fully shielding or partially penetrated). Lastly, the resonant currents are themselves strongly modified by kink excitation, with the optimal applied field pitch for pumpout and ELM suppression significantly differing from equilibrium field-alignment.« less

  14. Large-scale, high-density (up to 512 channels) recording of local circuits in behaving animals

    PubMed Central

    Berényi, Antal; Somogyvári, Zoltán; Nagy, Anett J.; Roux, Lisa; Long, John D.; Fujisawa, Shigeyoshi; Stark, Eran; Leonardo, Anthony; Harris, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring representative fractions of neurons from multiple brain circuits in behaving animals is necessary for understanding neuronal computation. Here, we describe a system that allows high-channel-count recordings from a small volume of neuronal tissue using a lightweight signal multiplexing headstage that permits free behavior of small rodents. The system integrates multishank, high-density recording silicon probes, ultraflexible interconnects, and a miniaturized microdrive. These improvements allowed for simultaneous recordings of local field potentials and unit activity from hundreds of sites without confining free movements of the animal. The advantages of large-scale recordings are illustrated by determining the electroanatomic boundaries of layers and regions in the hippocampus and neocortex and constructing a circuit diagram of functional connections among neurons in real anatomic space. These methods will allow the investigation of circuit operations and behavior-dependent interregional interactions for testing hypotheses of neural networks and brain function. PMID:24353300

  15. Large-eddy simulation/probability density function modeling of local extinction and re-ignition in Sandia Flame E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haifeng; Popov, Pavel; Hiremath, Varun; Lantz, Steven; Viswanathan, Sharadha; Pope, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    A large-eddy simulation (LES)/probability density function (PDF) code is developed and applied to the study of local extinction and re-ignition in Sandia Flame E. The modified Curl mixing model is used to account for the sub-filter scalar mixing; the ARM1 mechanism is used for the chemical reaction; and the in- situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) algorithm is used to accelerate the chemistry calculations. Calculations are performed on different grids to study the resolution requirement for this flame. Then, with sufficient grid resolution, full-scale LES/PDF calculations are performed to study the flame characteristics and the turbulence-chemistry interactions. Sensitivity to the mixing frequency model is explored in order to understand the behavior of sub-filter scalar mixing in the context of LES. The simulation results are compared to the experimental data to demonstrate the capability of the code. Comparison is also made to previous RANS/PDF simulations.

  16. Observation of a multimode plasma response and its relationship to density pumpout and edge-localized mode suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Paz-Soldan, C.; Nazikian, R.; Haskey, S. R.; Logan, N. C.; Strait, E. J.; Ferraro, N. M.; Hanson, J. M.; King, J. D.; Lanctot, M. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Okabayashi, M.; Park, J. -K.; Shafer, M. W.; Tobias, B. J.

    2015-03-12

    Density pumpout and edge-localized mode (ELM) suppression by applied n=2 magnetic fields in low collisionality DIII-D plasmas are shown to be correlated with the magnitude of the plasma response driven on the high field side (HFS) of the magnetic axis, but not the low-field side (LFS) midplane. These distinct responses are a direct measurement of a multi-modal magnetic plasma response, with each structure preferentially excited by a different n=2 applied spectrum and preferentially detected on the LFS or HFS. Ideal and resistive MHD calculations find that the LFS measurement is primarily sensitive to excitation of stable kink modes, while the HFS measurement is primarily sensitive to resonant currents (whether fully shielding or partially penetrated). Lastly, the resonant currents are themselves strongly modified by kink excitation, with the optimal applied field pitch for pumpout and ELM suppression significantly differing from equilibrium field-alignment.

  17. Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Koshelev, N.A.

    2011-04-01

    The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models.

  18. Control of Transmembrane Protein Diffusion within the Postsynaptic Density Assessed by Simultaneous Single-Molecule Tracking and Localization Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tuo P.; Blanpied, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Postsynaptic transmembrane proteins are critical elements of synapses, mediating trans-cellular contact, sensitivity to neurotransmitters and other signaling molecules, and flux of Ca and other ions. Positioning and mobility of each member of this large class of proteins is critical to their individual function at the synapse. One critical example is that the position of glutamate receptors within the postsynaptic density (PSD) strongly modulates their function by aligning or misaligning them with sites of presynaptic vesicle fusion. In addition, the regulated ability of receptors to move in or out of the synapse is critical for activity-dependent plasticity. However, factors that control receptor mobility within the boundaries of the synapse are not well understood. Notably, PSD scaffold molecules accumulate in domains much smaller than the synapse. Within these nanodomains, the density of proteins is considerably higher than that of the synapse as a whole, so high that steric hindrance is expected to reduce receptor mobility substantially. However, while numerical modeling has demonstrated several features of how the varying protein density across the face of a single PSD may modulate receptor motion, there is little experimental information about the extent of this influence. To address this critical aspect of synaptic organizational dynamics, we performed single-molecule tracking of transmembrane proteins using universal point accumulation-for-imaging-in-nanoscale-topography (uPAINT) over PSDs whose internal structure was simultaneously resolved using photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM). The results provide important experimental confirmation that PSD scaffold protein density strongly influences the mobility of transmembrane proteins. A protein with a cytosolic domain that does not bind PSD-95 was still slowed in regions of high PSD-95 density, suggesting that crowding by scaffold molecules and perhaps other proteins is sufficient to stabilize

  19. Control of Transmembrane Protein Diffusion within the Postsynaptic Density Assessed by Simultaneous Single-Molecule Tracking and Localization Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Tuo P; Blanpied, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Postsynaptic transmembrane proteins are critical elements of synapses, mediating trans-cellular contact, sensitivity to neurotransmitters and other signaling molecules, and flux of Ca and other ions. Positioning and mobility of each member of this large class of proteins is critical to their individual function at the synapse. One critical example is that the position of glutamate receptors within the postsynaptic density (PSD) strongly modulates their function by aligning or misaligning them with sites of presynaptic vesicle fusion. In addition, the regulated ability of receptors to move in or out of the synapse is critical for activity-dependent plasticity. However, factors that control receptor mobility within the boundaries of the synapse are not well understood. Notably, PSD scaffold molecules accumulate in domains much smaller than the synapse. Within these nanodomains, the density of proteins is considerably higher than that of the synapse as a whole, so high that steric hindrance is expected to reduce receptor mobility substantially. However, while numerical modeling has demonstrated several features of how the varying protein density across the face of a single PSD may modulate receptor motion, there is little experimental information about the extent of this influence. To address this critical aspect of synaptic organizational dynamics, we performed single-molecule tracking of transmembrane proteins using universal point accumulation-for-imaging-in-nanoscale-topography (uPAINT) over PSDs whose internal structure was simultaneously resolved using photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM). The results provide important experimental confirmation that PSD scaffold protein density strongly influences the mobility of transmembrane proteins. A protein with a cytosolic domain that does not bind PSD-95 was still slowed in regions of high PSD-95 density, suggesting that crowding by scaffold molecules and perhaps other proteins is sufficient to stabilize

  20. THE SPACE DENSITY OF EXTENDED ULTRAVIOLET (XUV) DISKS IN THE LOCAL UNIVERSE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR GAS ACCRETION ONTO GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonias, Jenna J.; Schiminovich, David; Thilker, David; Bianchi, Luciana; Wyder, Ted K.; Martin, D. Christopher; Seibert, Mark; Madore, Barry F.; Treyer, Marie A.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Rich, R. Michael

    2011-06-01

    We present results of the first unbiased search for extended ultraviolet (XUV)-disk galaxies undertaken to determine the space density of such galaxies. Our sample contains 561 local (0.001 < z < 0.05) galaxies that lie in the intersection of available Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) deep imaging (exposure time >1.5 x 10{sup 4} s) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 footprints. We explore modifications to the standard classification scheme for our sample that includes both disk- and bulge-dominated galaxies. Visual classification of each galaxy in the sample reveals an XUV-disk frequency of up to 20% for the most nearby portion of our sample. On average over the entire sample (out to z = 0.05) the frequency ranges from a hard limit of 4%-14%. The GALEX imaging allows us to detect XUV disks beyond 100 Mpc. The XUV regions around XUV-disk galaxies are consistently bluer than the main bodies. We find a surprisingly high frequency of XUV emission around luminous red (NUV-r > 5) and green valley (3 < NUV-r < 5) galaxies. The XUV-disk space density in the local universe is >(1.5-4.2) x 10{sup -3} Mpc{sup -3}. Using the XUV emission as an indicator of recent gas accretion, we estimate that the cold gas accretion rate onto these galaxies is >(1.7-4.6) x 10{sup -3} M{sub sun} Mpc{sup -3} yr{sup -1}. The number of XUV disks in the green valley and the estimated accretion rate onto such galaxies points to the intriguing possibility that 7%-18% of galaxies in this population are transitioning away from the red sequence.

  1. Sensitivity of inertial confinement fusion hot spot properties to the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, J.; Lim, H.; Rana, V.; Cheng, B.; Glimm, J.; Sharp, D. H.; Wilson, D. C.

    2015-02-01

    We determine the dependence of key Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hot spot simulation properties on the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat, here modified by addition of energy to the cold shell. Variation of this parameter reduces the simulation to experiment discrepancy in some, but not all, experimentally inferred quantities. Using simulations with radiation drives tuned to match experimental shots N120321 and N120405 from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), we carry out sets of simulations with varying amounts of added entropy and examine the sensitivities of important experimental quantities. Neutron yields, burn widths, hot spot densities, and pressures follow a trend approaching their experimentally inferred quantities. Ion temperatures and areal densities are sensitive to the adiabat changes, but do not necessarily converge to their experimental quantities with the added entropy. This suggests that a modification to the simulation adiabat is one of, but not the only explanation of the observed simulation to experiment discrepancies. In addition, we use a theoretical model to predict 3D mix and observe a slight trend toward less mixing as the entropy is enhanced. Instantaneous quantities are assessed at the time of maximum neutron production, determined dynamically within each simulation. These trends contribute to ICF science, as an effort to understand the NIC simulation to experiment discrepancy, and in their relation to the high foot experiments, which features a higher adiabat in the experimental design and an improved neutron yield in the experimental results.

  2. Sensitivity of inertial confinement fusion hot spot properties to the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat

    SciTech Connect

    Melvin, J.; Lim, H.; Rana, V.; Glimm, J.; Cheng, B.; Sharp, D. H.; Wilson, D. C.

    2015-02-15

    We determine the dependence of key Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hot spot simulation properties on the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat, here modified by addition of energy to the cold shell. Variation of this parameter reduces the simulation to experiment discrepancy in some, but not all, experimentally inferred quantities. Using simulations with radiation drives tuned to match experimental shots N120321 and N120405 from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), we carry out sets of simulations with varying amounts of added entropy and examine the sensitivities of important experimental quantities. Neutron yields, burn widths, hot spot densities, and pressures follow a trend approaching their experimentally inferred quantities. Ion temperatures and areal densities are sensitive to the adiabat changes, but do not necessarily converge to their experimental quantities with the added entropy. This suggests that a modification to the simulation adiabat is one of, but not the only explanation of the observed simulation to experiment discrepancies. In addition, we use a theoretical model to predict 3D mix and observe a slight trend toward less mixing as the entropy is enhanced. Instantaneous quantities are assessed at the time of maximum neutron production, determined dynamically within each simulation. These trends contribute to ICF science, as an effort to understand the NIC simulation to experiment discrepancy, and in their relation to the high foot experiments, which features a higher adiabat in the experimental design and an improved neutron yield in the experimental results.

  3. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of the electronic local density of states of graphite surfaces near monoatomic step edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niimi, Y.; Matsui, T.; Kambara, H.; Tagami, K.; Tsukada, M.; Fukuyama, Hiroshi

    2006-02-01

    We measured the electronic local density of states (LDOS) of graphite surfaces near monoatomic step edges, which consist of either the zigzag or armchair edge, with the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) techniques. The STM data reveal that the (3×3)R30° and honeycomb superstructures coexist over a length scale of 3-4nm from both the edges. By comparing with density-functional derived nonorthogonal tight-binding calculations, we show that the coexistence is due to a slight admixing of the two types of edges at the graphite surfaces. In the STS measurements, a clear peak in the LDOS at negative bias voltages from -100 to -20mV was observed near the zigzag edges, while such a peak was not observed near the armchair edges. We concluded that this peak corresponds to the graphite “edge state” theoretically predicted by Fujita [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 65, 1920 (1996)] with a tight-binding model for graphene ribbons. The existence of the edge state only at the zigzag type edge was also confirmed by our first-principles calculations with different edge terminations.

  4. Adiabatic quantum simulation of quantum chemistry.

    PubMed

    Babbush, Ryan; Love, Peter J; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-10-13

    We show how to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm directly to the quantum computation of molecular properties. We describe a procedure to map electronic structure Hamiltonians to 2-body qubit Hamiltonians with a small set of physically realizable couplings. By combining the Bravyi-Kitaev construction to map fermions to qubits with perturbative gadgets to reduce the Hamiltonian to 2-body, we obtain precision requirements on the coupling strengths and a number of ancilla qubits that scale polynomially in the problem size. Hence our mapping is efficient. The required set of controllable interactions includes only two types of interaction beyond the Ising interactions required to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm to combinatorial optimization problems. Our mapping may also be of interest to chemists directly as it defines a dictionary from electronic structure to spin Hamiltonians with physical interactions.

  5. Quantum adiabatic evolution with energy degeneracy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    A classical-kind phase-space formalism is developed to address the tiny intrinsic dynamical deviation from what is predicted by Wilczek-Zee theorem during quantum adiabatic evolution on degeneracy levels. In this formalism, the Hilbert space and the aggregate of degenerate eigenstates become the classical-kind phase space and a high-dimensional subspace in the phase space, respectively. Compared with the previous analogous study by a different method, the current result is qualitatively different in that the first-order deviation derived here is always perpendicular to the degeneracy subspace. A tripod-scheme Hamiltonian with two degenerate dark states is employed to illustrate the adiabatic deviation with degeneracy levels.

  6. Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall

    SciTech Connect

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.

    2014-12-22

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  7. Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall

    DOE PAGES

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.

    2014-12-22

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are storedmore » in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.« less

  8. Trapped Ion Quantum Computation by Adiabatic Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Xuni; Wu Chunfeng; Lai, C. H.; Oh, C. H.

    2008-11-07

    We propose a new universal quantum computation scheme for trapped ions in thermal motion via the technique of adiabatic passage, which incorporates the advantages of both the adiabatic passage and the model of trapped ions in thermal motion. Our scheme is immune from the decoherence due to spontaneous emission from excited states as the system in our scheme evolves along a dark state. In our scheme the vibrational degrees of freedom are not required to be cooled to their ground states because they are only virtually excited. It is shown that the fidelity of the resultant gate operation is still high even when the magnitude of the effective Rabi frequency moderately deviates from the desired value.

  9. Ramsey numbers and adiabatic quantum computing.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane

    2012-01-01

    The graph-theoretic Ramsey numbers are notoriously difficult to calculate. In fact, for the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n) with m, n≥3, only nine are currently known. We present a quantum algorithm for the computation of the Ramsey numbers R(m,n). We show how the computation of R(m,n) can be mapped to a combinatorial optimization problem whose solution can be found using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate this adiabatic quantum algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(2,s) for 5≤s≤7. We then discuss the algorithm's experimental implementation, and close by showing that Ramsey number computation belongs to the quantum complexity class quantum Merlin Arthur.

  10. Adiabatic Quantum Simulation of Quantum Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babbush, Ryan; Love, Peter J.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-10-01

    We show how to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm directly to the quantum computation of molecular properties. We describe a procedure to map electronic structure Hamiltonians to 2-body qubit Hamiltonians with a small set of physically realizable couplings. By combining the Bravyi-Kitaev construction to map fermions to qubits with perturbative gadgets to reduce the Hamiltonian to 2-body, we obtain precision requirements on the coupling strengths and a number of ancilla qubits that scale polynomially in the problem size. Hence our mapping is efficient. The required set of controllable interactions includes only two types of interaction beyond the Ising interactions required to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm to combinatorial optimization problems. Our mapping may also be of interest to chemists directly as it defines a dictionary from electronic structure to spin Hamiltonians with physical interactions.

  11. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory

    SciTech Connect

    Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-23

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts to adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.

  12. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory

    DOE PAGES

    Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-23

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts tomore » adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.« less

  13. Nanotribology of octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayers and silicon: self-mated versus unmated interfaces and local packing density effects.

    PubMed

    Flater, Erin E; Ashurst, W Robert; Carpick, Robert W

    2007-08-28

    We use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine the frictional properties of nanoscale single-asperity contacts involving octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) monolayers and silicon. Quantitative AFM measurements in the wearless regime are performed using both uncoated and OTS-coated silicon AFM tips in contact with both uncoated and OTS-coated silicon surfaces, providing four pairs of either self-mated or unmated interfaces. Striking differences in the frictional responses of the four pairs of interfaces are found. First, lower friction occurs with OTS present on either the tip or substrate, and friction is yet lower when OTS is present on both. Second, the shape of the friction versus load plot strongly depends on whether the substrate is coated with OTS, regardless of whether the tip is coated. Uncoated substrates exhibit the common sublinear dependence, consistent with friction being directly proportional to the area of contact. However, coated substrates exhibit an unusual superlinear dependence. These results can be explained qualitatively by invoking molecular plowing as a significant contribution to the frictional behavior of OTS. Direct in situ comparison of two intrinsic OTS structural phases on the substrate is also performed. We observe frictional contrast for different local molecular packing densities of the otherwise identical molecules. The phase with lower packing density exhibits higher friction, in agreement with related previous work, but decisively observed here in single, continuous images involving the same molecules. Lateral stiffness measurements show no distinction between the two OTS structural phases, demonstrating that the difference in friction is not due to divergent stiffnesses of the two phases. Therefore, the packing density directly affects the interface's intrinsic resistance to friction, that is, the interfacial shear strength.

  14. Density structure and geometry of the Costa Rican subduction zone from 3-D gravity modeling and local earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lücke, O. H.; Arroyo, I. G.

    2015-07-01

    The eastern part of the oceanic Cocos Plate presents a heterogeneous crustal structure due to diverse origins and ages as well as plate-hot spot interactions which originated the Cocos Ridge, a structure that converges with the Caribbean Plate in southeastern Costa Rica. The complex structure of the oceanic plate directly influences the dynamics and geometry of the subduction zone along the Middle American Trench. In this paper an integrated interpretation of the slab geometry is presented based on three-dimensional density modeling of combined satellite and surface gravity data, constrained by available geophysical and geological data and seismological information obtained from local networks. The results show the continuation of steep subduction geometry from the Nicaraguan margin into Northwestern Costa Rica, followed by a moderate dipping slab under the Central Cordillera toward the end of the Central American Volcanic Arc. To the southeast end of the volcanic arc, our preferred model shows a steep, coherent slab that extends up to the landward projection of the Panama Fracture Zone. Overall, a gradual change in the depth of the intraplate seismicity is observed, reaching 220 km in the northwestern part, and becoming progressively shallower toward the southeast, where it reaches a terminal depth of 75 km. The changes in the terminal depth of the observed seismicity correlate with the increased density in the modeled slab. The absence of intermediate depth intraplate seismicity in the southeastern section and the higher densities for the subducted slab in this area, support a model in which dehydration reactions in the subducted slab cease at a shallower depth, originating an anhydrous and thus aseismic slab.

  15. Density structure and geometry of the Costa Rican subduction zone from 3-D gravity modeling and local earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lücke, O. H.; Arroyo, I. G.

    2015-10-01

    The eastern part of the oceanic Cocos Plate presents a heterogeneous crustal structure due to diverse origins and ages as well as plate-hot spot interactions which originated the Cocos Ridge, a structure that converges with the Caribbean Plate in southeastern Costa Rica. The complex structure of the oceanic plate directly influences the dynamics and geometry of the subduction zone along the Middle American Trench. In this paper an integrated interpretation of the slab geometry in Costa Rica is presented based on 3-D density modeling of combined satellite and surface gravity data, constrained by available geophysical and geological data and seismological information obtained from local networks. The results show the continuation of steep subduction geometry from the Nicaraguan margin into northwestern Costa Rica, followed by a moderate dipping slab under the Central Cordillera toward the end of the Central American Volcanic Arc. Contrary to commonly assumed, to the southeast end of the volcanic arc, our preferred model shows a steep, coherent slab that extends up to the landward projection of the Panama Fracture Zone. Overall, a gradual change in the depth of the intraplate seismicity is observed, reaching 220 km in the northwestern part, and becoming progressively shallower toward the southeast, where it reaches a maximum depth of 75 km. The changes in the terminal depth of the observed seismicity correlate with the increased density in the modeled slab. The absence of intermediate depth (> 75 km) intraplate seismicity in the southeastern section and the higher densities for the subducted slab in this area, support a model in which dehydration reactions in the subducted slab cease at a shallower depth, originating an anhydrous and thus aseismic slab.

  16. Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes. II - Adiabatic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montesinos, Benjamin; Thomas, John H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper extends the study of steady siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes surrounded by field-free gas to the case of adiabatic flows. The basic equations governing steady adiabatic siphon flows in a thin, isolated magnetic flux tube are summarized, and qualitative features of adiabatic flows in elevated, arched flux tubes are discussed. The equations are then cast in nondimensional form and the results of numerical computations of adiabatic siphon flows in arched flux tubes are presented along with comparisons between isothermal and adiabatic flows. The effects of making the interior of the flux tube hotter or colder than the surrounding atmosphere at the upstream footpoint of the arch is considered. In this case, is it found that the adiabatic flows are qualitatively similar to the isothermal flows, with adiabatic cooling producing quantitative differences. Critical flows can produce a bulge point in the rising part of the arch and a concentration of magnetic flux above the bulge point.

  17. Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes. II. Adiabatic flows

    SciTech Connect

    Montesinos, B.; Thomas, J.H.

    1989-02-01

    This paper extends the study of steady siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes surrounded by field-free gas to the case of adiabatic flows. The basic equations governing steady adiabatic siphon flows in a thin, isolated magnetic flux tube are summarized, and qualitative features of adiabatic flows in elevated, arched flux tubes are discussed. The equations are then cast in nondimensional form and the results of numerical computations of adiabatic siphon flows in arched flux tubes are presented along with comparisons between isothermal and adiabatic flows. The effects of making the interior of the flux tube hotter or colder than the surrounding atmosphere at the upstream footpoint of the arch is considered. In this case, is it found that the adiabatic flows are qualitatively similar to the isothermal flows, with adiabatic cooling producing quantitative differences. Critical flows can produce a bulge point in the rising part of the arch and a concentration of magnetic flux above the bulge point. 15 references.

  18. Computer Code For Turbocompounded Adiabatic Diesel Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assanis, D. N.; Heywood, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    Computer simulation developed to study advantages of increased exhaust enthalpy in adiabatic turbocompounded diesel engine. Subsytems of conceptual engine include compressor, reciprocator, turbocharger turbine, compounded turbine, ducting, and heat exchangers. Focus of simulation of total system is to define transfers of mass and energy, including release and transfer of heat and transfer of work in each subsystem, and relationship among subsystems. Written in FORTRAN IV.

  19. Adiabatic charging of nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurie, Chuck; Foroozan, S.; Brewer, Jeff; Jackson, Lorna

    1995-02-01

    Battery management during prelaunch activities has always required special attention and careful planning. The transition from nickel-cadium to nickel-hydrogen batteries, with their high self discharge rate and lower charge efficiency, as well as longer prelaunch scenarios, has made this aspect of spacecraft battery management even more challenging. The AXAF-I Program requires high battery state of charge at launch. The use of active cooling, to ensure efficient charging, was considered and proved to be difficult and expensive. Alternative approaches were evaluated. Optimized charging, in the absence of cooling, appeared promising and was investigated. Initial testing was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the 'Adiabatic Charging' approach. Feasibility was demonstrated and additional testing performed to provide a quantitative, parametric data base. The assumption that the battery is in an adiabatic environment during prelaunch charging is a conservative approximation because the battery will transfer some heat to its surroundings by convective air cooling. The amount is small compared to the heat dissipated during battery overcharge. Because the battery has a large thermal mass, substantial overcharge can occur before the cells get too hot to charge efficiently. The testing presented here simulates a true adiabatic environment. Accordingly the data base may be slightly conservative. The adiabatic charge methodology used in this investigation begins with stabilizing the cell at a given starting temperature. The cell is then fully insulated on all sides. Battery temperature is carefully monitored and the charge terminated when the cell temperature reaches 85 F. Charging has been evaluated with starting temperatures from 55 to 75 F.

  20. Advanced Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators for Continuous Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Paul C. W.

    2004-01-01

    The research at Houston was focused on optimizing the design of superconducting magnets for advanced adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs), assessing the feasibility of using high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets in ADRs in the future, and developing techniques to deposit HTS thin and thick films on high strength, low thermal conductivity substrates for HTS magnet leads. Several approaches have been tested for the suggested superconducting magnets.

  1. Generator localization by current source density (CSD): implications of volume conduction and field closure at intracranial and scalp resolutions.

    PubMed

    Tenke, Craig E; Kayser, Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    The topographic ambiguity and reference-dependency that has plagued EEG/ERP research throughout its history are largely attributable to volume conduction, which may be concisely described by a vector form of Ohm's Law. This biophysical relationship is common to popular algorithms that infer neuronal generators via inverse solutions. It may be further simplified as Poisson's source equation, which identifies underlying current generators from estimates of the second spatial derivative of the field potential (Laplacian transformation). Intracranial current source density (CSD) studies have dissected the "cortical dipole" into intracortical sources and sinks, corresponding to physiologically-meaningful patterns of neuronal activity at a sublaminar resolution, much of which is locally cancelled (i.e., closed field). By virtue of the macroscopic scale of the scalp-recorded EEG, a surface Laplacian reflects the radial projections of these underlying currents, representing a unique, unambiguous measure of neuronal activity at scalp. Although the surface Laplacian requires minimal assumptions compared to complex, model-sensitive inverses, the resulting waveform topographies faithfully summarize and simplify essential constraints that must be placed on putative generators of a scalp potential topography, even if they arise from deep or partially-closed fields. CSD methods thereby provide a global empirical and biophysical context for generator localization, spanning scales from intracortical to scalp recordings.

  2. Generator localization by current source density (CSD): implications of volume conduction and field closure at intracranial and scalp resolutions.

    PubMed

    Tenke, Craig E; Kayser, Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    The topographic ambiguity and reference-dependency that has plagued EEG/ERP research throughout its history are largely attributable to volume conduction, which may be concisely described by a vector form of Ohm's Law. This biophysical relationship is common to popular algorithms that infer neuronal generators via inverse solutions. It may be further simplified as Poisson's source equation, which identifies underlying current generators from estimates of the second spatial derivative of the field potential (Laplacian transformation). Intracranial current source density (CSD) studies have dissected the "cortical dipole" into intracortical sources and sinks, corresponding to physiologically-meaningful patterns of neuronal activity at a sublaminar resolution, much of which is locally cancelled (i.e., closed field). By virtue of the macroscopic scale of the scalp-recorded EEG, a surface Laplacian reflects the radial projections of these underlying currents, representing a unique, unambiguous measure of neuronal activity at scalp. Although the surface Laplacian requires minimal assumptions compared to complex, model-sensitive inverses, the resulting waveform topographies faithfully summarize and simplify essential constraints that must be placed on putative generators of a scalp potential topography, even if they arise from deep or partially-closed fields. CSD methods thereby provide a global empirical and biophysical context for generator localization, spanning scales from intracortical to scalp recordings. PMID:22796039

  3. Adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation DFT for the structural properties of solids—The renormalized ALDA and electron gas kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Christopher E.; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2015-09-01

    We present calculations of the correlation energies of crystalline solids and isolated systems within the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation formulation of density-functional theory. We perform a quantitative comparison of a set of model exchange-correlation kernels originally derived for the homogeneous electron gas (HEG), including the recently introduced renormalized adiabatic local-density approximation (rALDA) and also kernels which (a) satisfy known exact limits of the HEG, (b) carry a frequency dependence, or (c) display a 1/k2 divergence for small wavevectors. After generalizing the kernels to inhomogeneous systems through a reciprocal-space averaging procedure, we calculate the lattice constants and bulk moduli of a test set of 10 solids consisting of tetrahedrally bonded semiconductors (C, Si, SiC), ionic compounds (MgO, LiCl, LiF), and metals (Al, Na, Cu, Pd). We also consider the atomization energy of the H2 molecule. We compare the results calculated with different kernels to those obtained from the random-phase approximation (RPA) and to experimental measurements. We demonstrate that the model kernels correct the RPA's tendency to overestimate the magnitude of the correlation energy whilst maintaining a high-accuracy description of structural properties.

  4. Adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation DFT for the structural properties of solids—The renormalized ALDA and electron gas kernels

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, Christopher E. Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2015-09-14

    We present calculations of the correlation energies of crystalline solids and isolated systems within the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation formulation of density-functional theory. We perform a quantitative comparison of a set of model exchange-correlation kernels originally derived for the homogeneous electron gas (HEG), including the recently introduced renormalized adiabatic local-density approximation (rALDA) and also kernels which (a) satisfy known exact limits of the HEG, (b) carry a frequency dependence, or (c) display a 1/k{sup 2} divergence for small wavevectors. After generalizing the kernels to inhomogeneous systems through a reciprocal-space averaging procedure, we calculate the lattice constants and bulk moduli of a test set of 10 solids consisting of tetrahedrally bonded semiconductors (C, Si, SiC), ionic compounds (MgO, LiCl, LiF), and metals (Al, Na, Cu, Pd). We also consider the atomization energy of the H{sub 2} molecule. We compare the results calculated with different kernels to those obtained from the random-phase approximation (RPA) and to experimental measurements. We demonstrate that the model kernels correct the RPA’s tendency to overestimate the magnitude of the correlation energy whilst maintaining a high-accuracy description of structural properties.

  5. Random matrix model of adiabatic quantum computing

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, David R.; Adami, Christoph; Lue, Waynn; Williams, Colin P.

    2005-05-15

    We present an analysis of the quantum adiabatic algorithm for solving hard instances of 3-SAT (an NP-complete problem) in terms of random matrix theory (RMT). We determine the global regularity of the spectral fluctuations of the instantaneous Hamiltonians encountered during the interpolation between the starting Hamiltonians and the ones whose ground states encode the solutions to the computational problems of interest. At each interpolation point, we quantify the degree of regularity of the average spectral distribution via its Brody parameter, a measure that distinguishes regular (i.e., Poissonian) from chaotic (i.e., Wigner-type) distributions of normalized nearest-neighbor spacings. We find that for hard problem instances - i.e., those having a critical ratio of clauses to variables - the spectral fluctuations typically become irregular across a contiguous region of the interpolation parameter, while the spectrum is regular for easy instances. Within the hard region, RMT may be applied to obtain a mathematical model of the probability of avoided level crossings and concomitant failure rate of the adiabatic algorithm due to nonadiabatic Landau-Zener-type transitions. Our model predicts that if the interpolation is performed at a uniform rate, the average failure rate of the quantum adiabatic algorithm, when averaged over hard problem instances, scales exponentially with increasing problem size.

  6. Adiabatic model and design of a translating field reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Intrator, T. P.; Siemon, R. E.; Sieck, P. E.

    2008-04-15

    We apply an adiabatic evolution model to predict the behavior of a field reversed configuration (FRC) during decompression and translation, as well as during boundary compression. Semi-empirical scaling laws, which were developed and benchmarked primarily for collisionless FRCs, are expected to remain valid even for the collisional regime of FRX-L experiment. We use this approach to outline the design implications for FRX-L, the high density translated FRC experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A conical theta coil is used to accelerate the FRC to the largest practical velocity so it can enter a mirror bounded compression region, where it must be a suitable target for a magnetized target fusion (MTF) implosion. FRX-L provides the physics basis for the integrated MTF plasma compression experiment at the Shiva-Star pulsed power facility at Kirtland Air Force Research Laboratory, where the FRC will be compressed inside a flux conserving cylindrical shell.

  7. Observational tests of non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, S.; Pigozzo, C. E-mail: cpigozzo@ufba.br

    2014-10-01

    In a previous paper [1] it was shown that any dark sector model can be mapped into a non-adiabatic fluid formed by two interacting components, one with zero pressure and the other with equation-of-state parameter ω = -1. It was also shown that the latter does not cluster and, hence, the former is identified as the observed clustering matter. This guarantees that the dark matter power spectrum does not suffer from oscillations or instabilities. It applies in particular to the generalised Chaplygin gas, which was shown to be equivalent to interacting models at both background and perturbation levels. In the present paper we test the non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas against the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae, the position of the first acoustic peak in the anisotropy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background and the linear power spectrum of large scale structures. We consider two different compilations of SNe Ia, namely the Constitution and SDSS samples, both calibrated with the MLCS2k2 fitter, and for the power spectrum we use the 2dFGRS catalogue. The model parameters to be adjusted are the present Hubble parameter, the present matter density and the Chaplygin gas parameter α. The joint analysis best fit gives α ≈ - 0.5, which corresponds to a constant-rate energy flux from dark energy to dark matter, with the dark energy density decaying linearly with the Hubble parameter. The ΛCDM model, equivalent to α = 0, stands outside the 3σ confidence interval.

  8. The relationship between local liquid density and force applied on a tip of atomic force microscope: A theoretical analysis for simple liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, Ken-ichi Takahashi, Ohgi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Fukuma, Takeshi; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2013-12-14

    The density of a liquid is not uniform when placed on a solid. The structured liquid pushes or pulls a probe employed in atomic force microscopy, as demonstrated in a number of experimental studies. In the present study, the relation between the force on a probe and the local density of a liquid is derived based on the statistical mechanics of simple liquids. When the probe is identical to a solvent molecule, the strength of the force is shown to be proportional to the vertical gradient of ln(ρ{sub DS}) with the local liquid's density on a solid surface being ρ{sub DS}. The intrinsic liquid's density on a solid is numerically calculated and compared with the density reconstructed from the force on a probe that is identical or not identical to the solvent molecule.

  9. The relationship between local liquid density and force applied on a tip of atomic force microscope: a theoretical analysis for simple liquids.

    PubMed

    Amano, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Fukuma, Takeshi; Takahashi, Ohgi; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2013-12-14

    The density of a liquid is not uniform when placed on a solid. The structured liquid pushes or pulls a probe employed in atomic force microscopy, as demonstrated in a number of experimental studies. In the present study, the relation between the force on a probe and the local density of a liquid is derived based on the statistical mechanics of simple liquids. When the probe is identical to a solvent molecule, the strength of the force is shown to be proportional to the vertical gradient of ln(ρDS) with the local liquid's density on a solid surface being ρDS. The intrinsic liquid's density on a solid is numerically calculated and compared with the density reconstructed from the force on a probe that is identical or not identical to the solvent molecule.

  10. Self-consistent calculation of hyperfine fields and adiabatic potential of impurities in iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, Junjiro; Akai, Hisazumi; Akai, Masako

    1984-01-01

    Hyperfine fields of impurities of the atomic number Z=1 56 at the substitutional site and those of light impurities of Z=1 9 at the interstitial sites in ferromagnetic iron are calculated by the KKR method adapted to the system containing a single impurity atom. The potential of the impurity atom is determined self-consistently by use of the local spin density functional formalism. The results for nonmagnetic sp valence impurities agree with those of the previous nonself-consistent calculation by Katayama-Yoshida, Terakura and Kanamori except for a few cases, confirming their theory of the systematic variation of hyperfine fields. The calculation for magnetic impurities of transition elements is presented for the first time in this paper. The calculations mentioned so far assume that impurities are situated at the center of each site. For the purpose of discussing the stability of the impurity positions, the change of the adiabatic potential due to displacements from the center is calculated by carrying out similar self-consistent calculations for off-center impurity positions. It is concluded that positive muon and some light impurities including boron will be displaced from the center when trapped in a vacancy.

  11. Non-adiabatic effects in near-adiabatic mixed-field orientation and alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maan, Anjali; Ahlawat, Dharamvir Singh; Prasad, Vinod

    2016-11-01

    We present a theoretical study of the impact of a pair of moderate electric fields tilted an angle with respect to one another on a molecule. As a prototype, we consider a molecule with large rotational constant (with corresponding small rotational period) and moderate dipole moment. Within rigid-rotor approximation, the time-dependent Schrodinger equation is solved using fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. We have analysed that lower rotational states are significantly influenced by variation in pulse durations, the tilt angle between the fields and also on the electric field strengths. We also suggest a control scheme of how the rotational dynamics, orientation and alignment of a molecule can be enhanced by a combination of near-adiabatic pulses in comparision to non-adiabatic or adiabatic pulses.

  12. Local Structure and Vibrational Properties of alpha-Pu, alpha-U, and the alpha-U Charge Density Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E J; Allen, P G; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Booth, C H

    2004-08-10

    The local atomic environment and vibrational properties of atoms in monoclinic pure {alpha}-plutonium as well as orthorhombic pure {alpha}-uranium and its low-temperature charge-density-wave (CDW) modulation are examined by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Pu L{sub III}-edge and U L{sub III}-edge EXAFS data measured at low temperatures verify the crystal structures of {alpha}-U and {alpha}-Pu samples previously determined by x-ray diffraction and neutron scattering. Debye-Waller factors from temperature-dependent EXAFS measurements are fit with a correlated Debye model. The observed Pu-Pu bond correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-Pu) = 162 {+-} 5 K for the pure {alpha}-Pu phase agrees with our previous measurement of the correlated Debye temperature of the gallium-containing {alpha}'-Pu phase in a mixed phase 1.9 at% Ga-doped {alpha}'-Pu/{delta}-Pu alloy. The temperature dependence of the U-U nearest neighbor Debye-Waller factor exhibits a sharp discontinuity in slope near T{sub CDW} = 43 K, the transition temperature at which the charge-density wave (CDW) in {alpha}-U condenses from a soft phonon mode along the (100) direction. Our measurement of the CDW using EXAFS is the first observation of the structure of the CDW in polycrystalline {alpha}-U. The different temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor for T < T{sub CDW} can be modeled by the change in bond length distributions resulting from condensation of the charge density wave. For T > T{sub CDW}, the observed correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-U) = 199 {+-} 3 K is in good agreement with other measurements of the Debye temperature for polycrystalline {alpha}-U. CDW structural models fit to the {alpha}-U EXAFS data support a squared CDW at the lowest temperatures, with a displacement amplitude of {var_epsilon} = 0.05 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom}.

  13. First-order derivative couplings between excited states from adiabatic TDDFT response theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Qi; Subotnik, Joseph E.; Bellchambers, Gregory D.; Furche, Filipp

    2015-02-14

    We present a complete derivation of derivative couplings between excited states in the framework of adiabatic time-dependent density functional response theory. Explicit working equations are given and the resulting derivative couplings are compared with derivative couplings from a pseudo-wavefunction ansatz. For degenerate excited states, i.e., close to a conical intersection (CI), the two approaches are identical apart from an antisymmetric overlap term. However, if the difference between two excitation energies equals another excitation energy, the couplings from response theory exhibit an unphysical divergence. This spurious behavior is a result of the adiabatic or static kernel approximation of time-dependent density functional theory leading to an incorrect analytical structure of the quadratic response function. Numerical examples for couplings close to a CI and for well-separated electronic states are given.

  14. Star Formation in the Local Universe from the CALIFA sample: calibration and contribution of disks to the SFR density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán-Torrecilla, Cristina; Gil de Paz, Armando; Castillo-Morales, África; Iglesias-Páramo, Jorge; Sánchez, Sebastián F.

    2015-02-01

    The study of the star formation rate (SFR) is crucial for understanding the birth and evolution of the galaxies (Kennicutt 1998), with this aim in mind, we make use of a well-characterized sample of 380 nearby galaxies from the CALIFA survey that fill the entire color-magnitude diagram in the Local Universe. The availability of wide-field CALIFA IFS ensures a proper determination of the underlying stellar continuum and, consequently, of the extiction-corrected Hα luminosity. We compare our integrated Hα-based SFRs with single and hybrids tracers at other wavelengths found in the literature (Calzetti 2013). Then, we provide a new set of single-band and hybrid calibrators anchored to the extinction-corrected Hα luminosities. In the case of the hybrid calibrators we determine the best fitting aIR coefficients for different combinations of observed (UV or Hα) and dust-reprocessed (22μm or TIR) SFR contributions (where SFR ~ Lobs + aIR × L[IR]). This analysis allow us to provide, for the first time, a set of hybrid calibrations for different morphological types and masses. These are particularly useful in case that the sample to be analyzed shows a different bias in terms of morphology or, more commonly, luminosity or stellar mass. We also study the dependence of this coefficient with color and ionized-gas attenuation. The distributions of a IR values are quite wide in all cases. We found that not single physical property can by itself explain the variation found in a IR. Finally, we explore the spatial distribution of the SFR by measuring the contribution of disks to the total SFR in the Local Universe. Our preliminary spatially-resolved analysis shows that the disk to total (disk + spheroidal component) SFR ratio is on average ~ 88%. The use of the 2D spectroscopic data is critical to properly determine the Hα luminosity function and SFR density in the Local Universe per galaxy components, the ultimate goal of this project.

  15. Bond selective chemistry beyond the adiabatic approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, L.J.

    1993-12-01

    One of the most important challenges in chemistry is to develop predictive ability for the branching between energetically allowed chemical reaction pathways. Such predictive capability, coupled with a fundamental understanding of the important molecular interactions, is essential to the development and utilization of new fuels and the design of efficient combustion processes. Existing transition state and exact quantum theories successfully predict the branching between available product channels for systems in which each reaction coordinate can be adequately described by different paths along a single adiabatic potential energy surface. In particular, unimolecular dissociation following thermal, infrared multiphoton, or overtone excitation in the ground state yields a branching between energetically allowed product channels which can be successfully predicted by the application of statistical theories, i.e. the weakest bond breaks. (The predictions are particularly good for competing reactions in which when there is no saddle point along the reaction coordinates, as in simple bond fission reactions.) The predicted lack of bond selectivity results from the assumption of rapid internal vibrational energy redistribution and the implicit use of a single adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface for the reaction. However, the adiabatic approximation is not valid for the reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between the electronic states of the reacting species play a a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. The work described below investigated the central role played by coupling between electronic states in polyatomic molecules in determining the selective branching between energetically allowed fragmentation pathways in two key systems.

  16. Exploiting the spatial locality of electron correlation within the parametric two-electron reduced-density-matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePrince, A. Eugene; Mazziotti, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The parametric variational two-electron reduced-density-matrix (2-RDM) method is applied to computing electronic correlation energies of medium-to-large molecular systems by exploiting the spatial locality of electron correlation within the framework of the cluster-in-molecule (CIM) approximation [S. Li et al., J. Comput. Chem. 23, 238 (2002); J. Chem. Phys. 125, 074109 (2006)]. The 2-RDMs of individual molecular fragments within a molecule are determined, and selected portions of these 2-RDMs are recombined to yield an accurate approximation to the correlation energy of the entire molecule. In addition to extending CIM to the parametric 2-RDM method, we (i) suggest a more systematic selection of atomic-orbital domains than that presented in previous CIM studies and (ii) generalize the CIM method for open-shell quantum systems. The resulting method is tested with a series of polyacetylene molecules, water clusters, and diazobenzene derivatives in minimal and nonminimal basis sets. Calculations show that the computational cost of the method scales linearly with system size. We also compute hydrogen-abstraction energies for a series of hydroxyurea derivatives. Abstraction of hydrogen from hydroxyurea is thought to be a key step in its treatment of sickle cell anemia; the design of hydroxyurea derivatives that oxidize more rapidly is one approach to devising more effective treatments.

  17. Modeling high-pressure adsorption of gas mixtures on activated carbon and coal using a simplified local-density model.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, James E; Robinson, Robert L; Gasem, Khaled A M

    2006-11-01

    The simplified local-density (SLD) theory was investigated regarding its ability to provide accurate representations and predictions of high-pressure supercritical adsorption isotherms encountered in coalbed methane (CBM) recovery and CO2 sequestration. Attention was focused on the ability of the SLD theory to predict mixed-gas adsorption solely on the basis of information from pure gas isotherms using a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS). An extensive set of high-pressure adsorption measurements was used in this evaluation. These measurements included pure and binary mixture adsorption measurements for several gas compositions up to 14 MPa for Calgon F-400 activated carbon and three water-moistened coals. Also included were ternary measurements for the activated carbon and one coal. For the adsorption of methane, nitrogen, and CO2 on dry activated carbon, the SLD-PR can predict the component mixture adsorption within about 2.2 times the experimental uncertainty on average solely on the basis of pure-component adsorption isotherms. For the adsorption of methane, nitrogen, and CO2 on two of the three wet coals, the SLD-PR model can predict the component adsorption within the experimental uncertainties on average for all feed fractions (nominally molar compositions of 20/80, 40/60, 60/40, and 80/20) of the three binary gas mixture combinations, although predictions for some specific feed fractions are outside of their experimental uncertainties. PMID:17073487

  18. Edge states, spin transport, and impurity-induced local density of states in spin-orbit coupled graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, Ranjani; Sengupta, K.; Sen, Diptiman

    2016-01-01

    We study graphene, which has both spin-orbit coupling (SOC), taken to be of the Kane-Mele form, and a Zeeman field induced due to proximity to a ferromagnetic material. We show that a zigzag interface of graphene having SOC with its pristine counterpart hosts robust chiral edge modes in spite of the gapless nature of the pristine graphene; such modes do not occur for armchair interfaces. Next we study the change in the local density of states (LDOS) due to the presence of an impurity in graphene with SOC and Zeeman field, and demonstrate that the Fourier transform of the LDOS close to the Dirac points can act as a measure of the strength of the spin-orbit coupling; in addition, for a specific distribution of impurity atoms, the LDOS is controlled by a destructive interference effect of graphene electrons which is a direct consequence of their Dirac nature. Finally, we study transport across junctions, which separates spin-orbit coupled graphene with Kane-Mele and Rashba terms from pristine graphene both in the presence and absence of a Zeeman field. We demonstrate that such junctions are generally spin active, namely, they can rotate the spin so that an incident electron that is spin polarized along some direction has a finite probability of being transmitted with the opposite spin. This leads to a finite, electrically controllable, spin current in such graphene junctions. We discuss possible experiments that can probe our theoretical predictions.

  19. Shortcut to adiabaticity in spinor condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Arnau; Núñez, David López; Martorell, Joan; De Sarlo, Luigi; Zibold, Tilman; Gerbier, Fabrice; Polls, Artur; Juliá-Díaz, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    We devise a method to shortcut the adiabatic evolution of a spin-1 Bose gas with an external magnetic field as the control parameter. An initial many-body state with almost all bosons populating the Zeeman sublevel m =0 is evolved to a final state very close to a macroscopic spin-singlet condensate, a fragmented state with three macroscopically occupied Zeeman states. The shortcut protocol, obtained by an approximate mapping to a harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian, is compared to linear and exponential variations of the control parameter. We find a dramatic speedup of the dynamics when using the shortcut protocol.

  20. On adiabatic perturbations in the ekpyrotic scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Linde, A.; Mukhanov, V.; Vikman, A. E-mail: Viatcheslav.Mukhanov@physik.uni-muenchen.de

    2010-02-01

    In a recent paper, Khoury and Steinhardt proposed a way to generate adiabatic cosmological perturbations with a nearly flat spectrum in a contracting Universe. To produce these perturbations they used a regime in which the equation of state exponentially rapidly changed during a short time interval. Leaving aside the singularity problem and the difficult question about the possibility to transmit these perturbations from a contracting Universe to the expanding phase, we will show that the methods used in Khoury are inapplicable for the description of the cosmological evolution and of the process of generation of perturbations in this scenario.

  1. Generalized Ramsey numbers through adiabatic quantum optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, Mani; Macready, William G.; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Ramsey theory is an active research area in combinatorics whose central theme is the emergence of order in large disordered structures, with Ramsey numbers marking the threshold at which this order first appears. For generalized Ramsey numbers r( G, H), the emergent order is characterized by graphs G and H. In this paper we: (i) present a quantum algorithm for computing generalized Ramsey numbers by reformulating the computation as a combinatorial optimization problem which is solved using adiabatic quantum optimization; and (ii) determine the Ramsey numbers r({{T}}m,{{T}}n) for trees of order m,n = 6,7,8, most of which were previously unknown.

  2. Cavity-state preparation using adiabatic transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Jonas; Andersson, Erika

    2005-05-01

    We show how to prepare a variety of cavity field states for multiple cavities. The state preparation technique used is related to the method of stimulated adiabatic Raman passage. The cavity modes are coupled by atoms, making it possible to transfer an arbitrary cavity field state from one cavity to another and also to prepare nontrivial cavity field states. In particular, we show how to prepare entangled states of two or more cavities, such as an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state and a W state, as well as various entangled superpositions of coherent states in different cavities, including Schrödinger cat states. The theoretical considerations are supported by numerical simulations.

  3. Phase avalanches in near-adiabatic evolutions

    SciTech Connect

    Vertesi, T.; Englman, R.

    2006-02-15

    In the course of slow, nearly adiabatic motion of a system, relative changes in the slowness can cause abrupt and high magnitude phase changes, ''phase avalanches,'' superimposed on the ordinary geometric phases. The generality of this effect is examined for arbitrary Hamiltonians and multicomponent (>2) wave packets and is found to be connected (through the Blaschke term in the theory of analytic signals) to amplitude zeros in the lower half of the complex time plane. Motion on a nonmaximal circle on the Poincare-sphere suppresses the effect. A spectroscopic transition experiment can independently verify the phase-avalanche magnitudes.

  4. An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for infrared bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, R. D.; Richards, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators have been built and installed in small portable liquid helium cryostats to test the feasibility of this method of cooling infrared bolometric detectors to temperatures below 0.3 K. Performance has been achieved which suggests that bolometer temperatures of 0.2 K can be maintained for periods of approximately 60 hours. Applications to sensitive infrared detection from ground-based telescopes and space satellites are discussed. Design data are given which permit the evaluation of refrigerator performance for a variety of design parameters.

  5. Phase relations and adiabats in boiling seafloor geothermal systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Pitzer, Kenneth S.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of large salinity variations and vent temperatures in the range of 380-400??C suggest that boiling or two-phase separation may be occurring in some seafloor geothermal systems. Consideration of flow rates and the relatively small differences in density between vapors and liquids at the supercritical pressures at depth in these systems suggests that boiling is occurring under closed-system conditions. Salinity and temperature of boiling vents can be used to estimate the pressure-temperature point in the subsurface at which liquid seawater first reached the two-phase boundary. Data are reviewed to construct phase diagrams of coexisting brines and vapors in the two-phase region at pressures corresponding to those of the seafloor geothermal systems. A method is developed for calculating the enthalpy and entropy of the coexisting mixtures, and results are used to construct adiabats from the seafloor to the P-T two-phase boundary. Results for seafloor vents discharging at 2300 m below sea level indicate that a 385??C vent is composed of a brine (7% NaCl equivalent) in equilibrium with a vapor (0.1% NaCl). Brine constitutes 45% by weight of the mixture, and the fluid first boiled at approximately 1 km below the seafloor at 415??C, 330 bar. A 400??C vent is primarily vapor (88 wt.%, 0.044% NaCl) with a small amount of brine (26% NaCl) and first boiled at 2.9 km below the seafloor at 500??C, 520 bar. These results show that adiabatic decompression in the two-phase region results in dramatic cooling of the fluid mixture when there is a large fraction of vapor. ?? 1985.

  6. Adiabatic quantum optimization in the presence of discrete noise: Reducing the problem dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrà, Salvatore; Guerreschi, Gian Giacomo; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2015-12-01

    Adiabatic quantum optimization is a procedure to solve a vast class of optimization problems by slowly changing the Hamiltonian of a quantum system. The evolution time necessary for the algorithm to be successful scales inversely with the minimum energy gap encountered during the dynamics. Unfortunately, the direct calculation of the gap is strongly limited by the exponential growth in the dimensionality of the Hilbert space associated to the quantum system. Although many special-purpose methods have been devised to reduce the effective dimensionality, they are strongly limited to particular classes of problems with evident symmetries. Moreover, little is known about the computational power of adiabatic quantum optimizers in real-world conditions. Here we propose and implement a general purposes reduction method that does not rely on any explicit symmetry and which requires, under certain general conditions, only a polynomial amount of classical resources. Thanks to this method, we are able to analyze the performance of "nonideal" quantum adiabatic optimizers to solve the well-known Grover problem, namely the search of target entries in an unsorted database, in the presence of discrete local defects. In this case, we show that adiabatic quantum optimization, even if affected by random noise, is still potentially faster than any classical algorithm.

  7. On the relation between orbital-localization and self-interaction errors in the density functional theory treatment of organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Körzdörfer, T

    2011-03-01

    It is commonly argued that the self-interaction error (SIE) inherent in semilocal density functionals is related to the degree of the electronic localization. Yet at the same time there exists a latent ambiguity in the definitions of the terms "localization" and "self-interaction," which ultimately prevents a clear and readily accessible quantification of this relationship. This problem is particularly pressing for organic semiconductor molecules, in which delocalized molecular orbitals typically alternate with localized ones, thus leading to major distortions in the eigenvalue spectra. This paper discusses the relation between localization and SIEs in organic semiconductors in detail. Its findings provide further insights into the SIE in the orbital energies and yield a new perspective on the failure of self-interaction corrections that identify delocalized orbital densities with electrons.

  8. Quantum Adiabatic Algorithms and Large Spin Tunnelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulatov, A.; Smelyanskiy, V. N.

    2003-01-01

    We provide a theoretical study of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm with different evolution paths proposed in this paper. The algorithm is applied to a random binary optimization problem (a version of the 3-Satisfiability problem) where the n-bit cost function is symmetric with respect to the permutation of individual bits. The evolution paths are produced, using the generic control Hamiltonians H (r) that preserve the bit symmetry of the underlying optimization problem. In the case where the ground state of H(0) coincides with the totally-symmetric state of an n-qubit system the algorithm dynamics is completely described in terms of the motion of a spin-n/2. We show that different control Hamiltonians can be parameterized by a set of independent parameters that are expansion coefficients of H (r) in a certain universal set of operators. Only one of these operators can be responsible for avoiding the tunnelling in the spin-n/2 system during the quantum adiabatic algorithm. We show that it is possible to select a coefficient for this operator that guarantees a polynomial complexity of the algorithm for all problem instances. We show that a successful evolution path of the algorithm always corresponds to the trajectory of a classical spin-n/2 and provide a complete characterization of such paths.

  9. Effect of the Heat Pipe Adiabatic Region.

    PubMed

    Brahim, Taoufik; Jemni, Abdelmajid

    2014-04-01

    The main motivation of conducting this work is to present a rigorous analysis and investigation of the potential effect of the heat pipe adiabatic region on the flow and heat transfer performance of a heat pipe under varying evaporator and condenser conditions. A two-dimensional steady-state model for a cylindrical heat pipe coupling, for both regions, is presented, where the flow of the fluid in the porous structure is described by Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model which accounts for the boundary and inertial effects. The model is solved numerically by using the finite volumes method, and a fortran code was developed to solve the system of equations obtained. The results show that a phase change can occur in the adiabatic region due to temperature gradient created in the porous structure as the heat input increases and the heat pipe boundary conditions change. A recirculation zone may be created at the condenser end section. The effect of the heat transfer rate on the vapor radial velocities and the performance of the heat pipe are discussed. PMID:24895467

  10. Microstructural evolution in adiabatic shear bands of copper at high strain rates: Electron backscatter diffraction characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Lin; Chen Zhiyong; Zhan Congkun; Yang Xuyue; Liu Chuming; Cai Hongnian

    2012-02-15

    The microstructural evolution of adiabatic shear bands in annealed copper with different large strains at high strain rates has been investigated by electron backscatter diffraction. The results show that mechanical twinning can occur with minimal contribution to shear localization under dynamic loading. Elongated ultrafine grains with widths of 100-300 nm are observed during the evolution of the adiabatic shear bands. A rotational dynamic recrystallization mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of the elongated ultrafine grains. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microstructural evolution of ASB is studied by electron backscatter diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Twinning can occur in ASB while the contribution to shear localization is slight. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elongated ultrafine grains are observed during the evolution process of ASB. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A possible mechanism is proposed to explain the microstructure evolution of ASB.

  11. Decoherence and adiabatic transport in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switkes, Michael

    2000-10-01

    I present research on ballistic electron transport in lateral GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots connected to the environment with leads supporting one or more fully transmitting quantum modes. The first part of this dissertation examines electron the phenomena which mediate the transition from quantum mechanical to classical behavior in these quantum dots. Measurements of electron phase coherence time based on the magnitude of weak localization correction are presented as a function both of temperature and of applied bias. The coherence time is found to depend on temperature approximately as a sum of two power laws, tauφ ≈ AT-1 + BT-2, in agreement with the prediction for diffusive two dimensional systems but not with predictions for closed quantum dots or ballistic 2D systems. The effects of a large applied bias can be described with an elevated effective electron temperature calculated from the balance of Joule heating and cooling by Wiedemann-Franz out diffusion of hot electrons. The limits this imposes for quantum dot based technologies are examined through the detailed analysis of a quantum dot magnetometer. The second part of the work presented here focuses on a novel form of electron transport, adiabatic quantum electron pumping, in which a current is driven by cyclic changes in the wave function of a mesoscopic system rather than by an externally imposed bias. After a brief review of other mechanisms which produce a dc current from an ac excitation, measurements of adiabatic pumping are presented. The pumped current (or voltage) is sinusoidal in the phase difference between the two ac voltages deforming the dot potential and fluctuates in both magnitude and direction with small changes in external parameters such as magnetic field. Dependencies of pumping on the strength of the deformations, temperature, and breaking of time-reversal symmetry are also investigated.

  12. Constitutive expression of a COOH-terminal leucine mutant of lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 causes its exclusive localization in low density intracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Akasaki, Kenji; Shiotsu, Keiko; Michihara, Akihiro; Ide, Norie; Wada, Ikuo

    2014-07-01

    Lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) is a type I transmembrane protein with a short cytoplasmic tail that possesses a lysosome-targeting signal of GYQTI(382)-COOH. Wild-type (WT)-LAMP-1 was exclusively localized in high density lysosomes, and efficiency of LAMP-1's transport to lysosomes depends on its COOH-terminal amino acid residue. Among many different COOH-terminal amino acid substitution mutants of LAMP-1, a leucine-substituted mutant (I382L) displays the most efficient targeting to late endosomes and lysosomes [Akasaki et al. (2010) J. Biochem. 148: , 669-679]. In this study, we generated two human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 cell lines) that stably express WT-LAMP-1 and I382L, and compared their intracellular distributions. The subcellular fractionation study using Percoll density gradient centrifugation revealed that WT-LAMP-1 had preferential localization in the high density secondary lysosomes where endogenous human LAMP-1 was enriched. In contrast, a major portion of I382L was located in a low density fraction. The low density fraction also contained approximately 80% of endogenous human LAMP-1 and significant amounts of endogenous β-glucuronidase and LAMP-2, which probably represents occurrence of low density lysosomes in the I382L-expressing cells. Double immunofluorescence microscopic analyses distinguished I382L-containing intracellular vesicles from endogenous LAMP-1-containing lysosomes and early endosomes. Altogether, constitutive expression of I382L causes its aberrant intracellular localization and generation of low density lysosomes, indicating that the COOH-terminal isoleucine is critical for normal localization of LAMP-1 in the dense lysosomes.

  13. Adiabat Shaping of ICF Capsules Using Ramped Pressure Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K.; Betti, R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Marinak, M. M.; Haan, S. W.

    2002-11-01

    Target design of direct-drive ICF capsules has historically involved a compromise between high 1-D (clean) yield and capsule stability. Low-adiabat fuel is desirable to achieve high compression and, hence, high yield. A higher adiabat at the ablation front reduces the growth rate of the Raleigh--Taylor instability due to higher ablation velocity. An optimal target design will take advantage of both by shaping the adiabat of the capsule to allow for high adiabat in the material that is to be ablated and low adiabat in the remaining fuel. We present here a method of adiabat shaping using a low-intensity prepulse followed by laser shutoff before beginning the main drive pulse. This creates a decaying shock with a ramped pressure profile behind it. Since the prepulse is low intensity, the adiabat is not strongly affected by the prepulse. The main shock is then launched up this ramped pressure profile to set the adiabat. Because the main shock sees an increasing pressure profile, the effective strength of the shock decreases as it propagates through the shell, thus creating a smooth adiabat profile from high outer-shell adiabat to low inner-shell adiabat. Results of simulations using 1-D LILAC and 2-D DRACO (LLE), as well as 1-D and 2-D HYDRA (LLNL), are presented. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460 and by the University of California LLNL under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  14. Uncovering Genes and Ploidy Involved in the High Diversity in Root Hair Density, Length and Response to Local Scarce Phosphate in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Stetter, Markus G.; Schmid, Karl; Ludewig, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Plant root hairs increase the root surface to enhance the uptake of sparingly soluble and immobile nutrients, such as the essential nutrient phosphorus, from the soil. Here, root hair traits and the response to scarce local phosphorus concentration were studied in 166 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana using split plates. Root hair density and length were correlated, but highly variable among accessions. Surprisingly, the well-known increase in root hair density under low phosphorus was mostly restricted to genotypes that had less and shorter root hairs under P sufficient conditions. By contrast, several accessions with dense and long root hairs even had lower hair density or shorter hairs in local scarce phosphorus. Furthermore, accessions with whole-genome duplications developed more dense but phosphorus-insensitive root hairs. The impact of genome duplication on root hair density was confirmed by comparing tetraploid accessions with their diploid ancestors. Genome-wide association mapping identified candidate genes potentially involved in root hair responses tp scarce local phosphate. Knock-out mutants in identified candidate genes (CYR1, At1g32360 and RLP48) were isolated and differences in root hair traits in the mutants were confirmed. The large diversity in root hair traits among accessions and the diverse response when local phosphorus is scarce is a rich resource for further functional analyses. PMID:25781967

  15. New utility of an old marker: serum low-density lipoprotein predicts histopathological response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ji-Chun; Guo, Ju-Feng; Teng, Rong-Yue; Wang, Qin-Chuan; Wang, Ji; Wei, Qun; Li, Zi-Duo; Shen, Jian-Guo; Wang, Lin-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the correlation between metabolic abnormality and gastric cancer has been extensively investigated, the question of whether metabolic parameters might influence the efficacy of chemotherapy in locally advanced gastric cancer is still unanswered. In our present study, we investigated the relationship between serum fasting glucose, lipid levels, and histopathological response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in locally advanced gastric cancers. Patients and methods A total of 128 patients were identified from a prospectively maintained database of patients with locally advanced gastric cancer who received NAC between July 2004 and December 2012. Histopathological response after NAC was analyzed according to Becker’s tumor-regression grade. Univariate analyses and multivariable regression analyses were performed to determine the correlation between tumor size, differentiation, fasting glucose, lipid levels, and tumor histopathological response after NAC. Results Univariate analysis revealed that low-density lipoprotein level and total cholesterol, as well as tumor size and differentiation, correlated significantly with histopathological response. Low-density lipoprotein levels and tumor size were found to be independent predictors for histopathological response, according to multivariable regression analyses. Conclusion In this observational, hypothesis-generating study, serum low-density lipoprotein measurement was found to be useful in predicting chemosensitivity to locally advanced gastric cancer patients undergoing NAC. Incorporation of serum low-density lipoprotein levels into individualized treatment protocols could be considered in clinical practice. PMID:27574445

  16. Landscape and local effects on occupancy and densities of an endangered wood-warbler in an urbanizing landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reidy, Jennifer; Thompson III, Frank R.; Amundson, Courtney; O'Donnell, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Landscape composition and habitat structure were important determinants of warbler occupancy and density, and the large intact patches of juniper and mixed forest on BCP (>2100 ha) supported a high density of warblers. Increasing urbanization and fragmentation in the surrounding landscape will likely result in lower breeding density due to loss of juniper and mixed forest and increasing urban land cover and edge.

  17. Inferring effective interactions from the local density of states: application to STM data from Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_8 delta

    SciTech Connect

    Jamei, R.

    2010-04-06

    While the influence of impurities on the local density of states (LDOS) in a metal is notoriously non-local due to interference effects, low order moments of the LDOS in general can be shown to depend only on the local structure of the Hamiltonian. Specifically, we show that an analysis of the spatial variations of these moments permits one to 'work backwards' from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) data to infer the local structure of the underlying effective Hamiltonian. Applying this analysis to STM data from the high temperature superconductor, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}, we find that the variations of the electro-chemical potential are remarkably small (i.e., the disorder is, in a sense, weak) but that there are large variations in the local magnitude of the d-wave gap parameter.

  18. The Adiabatic Invariance of the Action Variable in Classical Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Clive G.; Siklos, Stephen T. C.

    2007-01-01

    We consider one-dimensional classical time-dependent Hamiltonian systems with quasi-periodic orbits. It is well known that such systems possess an adiabatic invariant which coincides with the action variable of the Hamiltonian formalism. We present a new proof of the adiabatic invariance of this quantity and illustrate our arguments by means of…

  19. Generation of atomic NOON states via shortcuts to adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chong; Su, Shi-Lei; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou

    2016-10-01

    Based on Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants and quantum Zeno dynamics, we propose an effective scheme for generating atomic NOON states via shortcuts to adiabatic passage. The photon losses are efficiently suppressed by engineering shortcuts to adiabatic passage in the scheme. The numerical simulation shows that the atomic NOON states can be generated with high fidelity.

  20. Kinetic Theory Derivation of the Adiabatic Law for Ideal Gases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, Michael I.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses how the adiabatic law for ideal gases can be derived from the assumption of a Maxwell-Boltzmann (or any other) distribution of velocities--in contrast to the usual derivations from thermodynamics alone, and the higher-order effect that leads to one-body viscosity. An elementary derivation of the adiabatic law is given. (Author/DS)

  1. Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K. L.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J. L.; Jones, O. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Landen, O. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Weber, C. R.; Haan, S. W.; Döppner, T. D.; Dixit, S.; Hamza, A. V.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Kroll, J. J.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform for both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. This approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures.

  2. Ab initio quasi-particle approximation bandgaps of silicon nanowires calculated at density functional theory/local density approximation computational effort

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, M.

    2015-06-21

    Ab initio calculations of hydrogen-passivated Si nanowires were performed using density functional theory within LDA-1/2, to account for the excited states properties. A range of diameters was calculated to draw conclusions about the ability of the method to correctly describe the main trends of bandgap, quantum confinement, and self-energy corrections versus the diameter of the nanowire. Bandgaps are predicted with excellent accuracy if compared with other theoretical results like GW, and with the experiment as well, but with a low computational cost.

  3. An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timbie, P. T.; Bernstein, G. M.; Richards, P. L.

    1989-01-01

    An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) has been proposed to cool bolometric infrared detectors on the multiband imaging photometer of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). One such refrigerator has been built which uses a ferric ammonium alum salt pill suspended by nylon threads in a 3-T solenoid. The resonant modes of this suspension are above 100 Hz. The heat leak to the salt pill is less than 0.5 microW. The system has a hold time at 0.1K of more than 12 h. The cold stage temperature is regulated with a feedback loop that controls the magnetic field. A second, similar refrigerator is being built at a SIRTF prototype to fly on a ballon-borne telescope. It will use a ferromagnetic shield. The possibility of using a high-Tc solenoid-actuated heat switch is also discussed.

  4. An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for SIRTF

    SciTech Connect

    Timbie, P.T.; Bernstein, G.M.; Richards, P.L.

    1989-02-01

    An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) has been proposed to cool bolometric infrared detectors on the Multiband Imaging Photometer of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The authors have built one such refrigerator which employs a ferric ammonium alum salt pill suspended by nylon threads in a 3 Tesla solenoid. The resonant modes of this suspension are above 100 Hz. The heat leak to the salt pill is <0.5 ..mu..W. The system has a hold time at 0.1 /sup 0/K of >12 hours. The cold stage temperature is regulated with a feedback loop that controls the magnetic field. A second, similar refrigerator is being built as a SIRTF prototype to fly on a balloon-borne telescope. It will employ a ferromagnetic shield. The possibility of using high T/sub c/ leads to the superconducting magnet and a solenoid-actuated heat switch are also discussed.

  5. The HAWC and SAFIRE Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, Jim; Shirron, Peter; DiPirro, Michael; Jackson, Michael; Behr, Jason; Kunes, Evan; Hait, Tom; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The High-Resolution Airborne Wide-band Camera (HAWC) and Submillimeter and Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) are far-infrared experiments which will fly on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) aircraft. HAWC's detectors will operate at 0.2 Kelvin, while those of SAFIRE will be at 0.1 Kelvin. Each instrument will include an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to cool its detector stage from the liquid helium bath temperature (HAWC's at 4.2 Kelvin and SAFIRE's pumped to about 1.3 Kelvin) to its operating temperature. Except for the magnets used to achieve the cooling and a slight difference in the heat switch design, the two ADRs are nearly identical. We describe the ADR design and present the results of performance testing.

  6. Number Partitioning via Quantum Adiabatic Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Toussaint, Udo; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We study both analytically and numerically the complexity of the adiabatic quantum evolution algorithm applied to random instances of combinatorial optimization problems. We use as an example the NP-complete set partition problem and obtain an asymptotic expression for the minimal gap separating the ground and exited states of a system during the execution of the algorithm. We show that for computationally hard problem instances the size of the minimal gap scales exponentially with the problem size. This result is in qualitative agreement with the direct numerical simulation of the algorithm for small instances of the set partition problem. We describe the statistical properties of the optimization problem that are responsible for the exponential behavior of the algorithm.

  7. Differential topology of adiabatically controlled quantum processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, Edmond A.; Rezakhani, Ali T.; Ahmad, Farooq

    2013-03-01

    It is shown that in a controlled adiabatic homotopy between two Hamiltonians, H 0 and H 1, the gap or "anti-crossing" phenomenon can be viewed as the development of cusps and swallow tails in the region of the complex plane where two critical value curves of the quadratic map associated with the numerical range of H 0 + i H 1 come close. The "near crossing" in the energy level plots happens to be a generic situation, in the sense that a crossing is a manifestation of the quadratic numerical range map being unstable in the sense of differential topology. The stable singularities that can develop are identified and it is shown that they could occur near the gap, making those singularities of paramount importance. Various applications, including the quantum random walk, are provided to illustrate this theory.

  8. Quantum Adiabatic Optimization and Combinatorial Landscapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Knysh, S.; Morris, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the performance of the Quantum Adiabatic Evolution (QAE) algorithm on a variant of Satisfiability problem for an ensemble of random graphs parametrized by the ratio of clauses to variables, gamma = M / N. We introduce a set of macroscopic parameters (landscapes) and put forward an ansatz of universality for random bit flips. We then formulate the problem of finding the smallest eigenvalue and the excitation gap as a statistical mechanics problem. We use the so-called annealing approximation with a refinement that a finite set of macroscopic variables (verses only energy) is used, and are able to show the existence of a dynamic threshold gamma = gammad, beyond which QAE should take an exponentially long time to find a solution. We compare the results for extended and simplified sets of landscapes and provide numerical evidence in support of our universality ansatz.

  9. Geometric Adiabatic Transport in Quantum Hall States.

    PubMed

    Klevtsov, S; Wiegmann, P

    2015-08-21

    We argue that in addition to the Hall conductance and the nondissipative component of the viscous tensor, there exists a third independent transport coefficient, which is precisely quantized. It takes constant values along quantum Hall plateaus. We show that the new coefficient is the Chern number of a vector bundle over moduli space of surfaces of genus 2 or higher and therefore cannot change continuously along the plateau. As such, it does not transpire on a sphere or a torus. In the linear response theory, this coefficient determines intensive forces exerted on electronic fluid by adiabatic deformations of geometry and represents the effect of the gravitational anomaly. We also present the method of computing the transport coefficients for quantum Hall states. PMID:26340197

  10. Geometric Adiabatic Transport in Quantum Hall States.

    PubMed

    Klevtsov, S; Wiegmann, P

    2015-08-21

    We argue that in addition to the Hall conductance and the nondissipative component of the viscous tensor, there exists a third independent transport coefficient, which is precisely quantized. It takes constant values along quantum Hall plateaus. We show that the new coefficient is the Chern number of a vector bundle over moduli space of surfaces of genus 2 or higher and therefore cannot change continuously along the plateau. As such, it does not transpire on a sphere or a torus. In the linear response theory, this coefficient determines intensive forces exerted on electronic fluid by adiabatic deformations of geometry and represents the effect of the gravitational anomaly. We also present the method of computing the transport coefficients for quantum Hall states.

  11. Adiabatic frequency conversion of ultrafast pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchowski, H.; Bruner, B. D.; Ganany-Padowicz, A.; Juwiler, I.; Arie, A.; Silberberg, Y.

    2011-12-01

    A new method for efficient, broadband sum and difference frequency generation of ultrafast pulses is demonstrated. The principles of the method follow from an analogy between frequency conversion and coherent optical excitation of a two-level system. For conversion of ultrafast pulses, the concepts of adiabatic conversion are developed further in order to account for dispersion and group velocity mismatch. The scheme was implemented using aperiodically poled nonlinear crystals and a single step nonlinear mixing process, leading to conversion of near-IR (˜790 nm) ultrafast pulses into the blue (˜450 nm) and mid-IR (˜3.15 μm) spectral regions. Conversion bandwidths up to 15 THz FWHM and efficiencies up to 50% are reported.

  12. Stirling engine with one adiabatic cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, C. D.

    1982-03-01

    It is shown that integration around the P-V loop of a Stirling-like cycle with an adiabatic expansion or compression space is possible through careful application of the ideal gas laws. The result is a set of closed-form solutions or the work output, work input, and efficiency for ideal gases. Previous analyses yielded closed-form solutions only for machines in which all spaces behave isothermally, or that have other limitations that simplify the arithmetic but omit important aspects of real machines. The results of this analysis, although still far removed from the exact behavior of real, practical engines, yield important insights into the effects observed in computer models and experimental machines. These results are especially illuminating for machines intended to operate with fairly small temperature differences. Heat pumps and low-technology solar-powered engines might be included in this category.

  13. Sliding seal materials for adiabatic engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lankford, J.

    1985-01-01

    The sliding friction coefficients and wear rates of promising carbide, oxide, and nitride materials were measured under temperature, environmental, velocity, loading conditions that are representative of the adiabatic engine environment. In order to provide guidance needed to improve materials for this application, the program stressed fundamental understanding of the mechanisms involved in friction and wear. Microhardness tests were performed on the candidate materials at elevated temperatures, and in atmospheres relevant to the piston seal application, and optical and electron microscopy were used to elucidate the micromechanisms of wear following wear testing. X-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate interface/environment interactions which seemed to be important in the friction and wear process. Electrical effects in the friction and wear processes were explored in order to evaluate the potential usefulness of such effects in modifying the friction and wear rates in service. However, this factor was found to be of negligible significance in controlling friction and wear.

  14. Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlak, Mariusz; Shagam, Yuval; Narevicius, Edvardas; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2015-08-21

    We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment {sup 4}He(1s2s {sup 3}S) + HD(1s{sup 2}) → {sup 4}He(1s{sup 2}) + HD{sup +}(1s) + e{sup −} [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings.

  15. Lattice Boltzmann method for adiabatic acoustics.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbing; Shan, Xiaowen

    2011-06-13

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has been proved to be a useful tool in many areas of computational fluid dynamics, including computational aero-acoustics (CAA). However, for historical reasons, its applications in CAA have been largely restricted to simulations of isothermal (Newtonian) sound waves. As the recent kinetic theory-based reformulation establishes a theoretical framework in which LBM can be extended to recover the full Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NS) equations and beyond, in this paper, we show that, at least at the low-frequency limit (sound frequency much less than molecular collision frequency), adiabatic sound waves can be accurately simulated by the LBM provided that the lattice and the distribution function ensure adequate recovery of the full NS equations.

  16. An integrated programming and development environment for adiabatic quantum optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humble, T. S.; McCaskey, A. J.; Bennink, R. S.; Billings, J. J.; DʼAzevedo, E. F.; Sullivan, B. D.; Klymko, C. F.; Seddiqi, H.

    2014-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum computing is a promising route to the computational power afforded by quantum information processing. The recent availability of adiabatic hardware has raised challenging questions about how to evaluate adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO) programs. Processor behavior depends on multiple steps to synthesize an adiabatic quantum program, which are each highly tunable. We present an integrated programming and development environment for AQO called Jade Adiabatic Development Environment (JADE) that provides control over all the steps taken during program synthesis. JADE captures the workflow needed to rigorously specify the AQO algorithm while allowing a variety of problem types, programming techniques, and processor configurations. We have also integrated JADE with a quantum simulation engine that enables program profiling using numerical calculation. The computational engine supports plug-ins for simulation methodologies tailored to various metrics and computing resources. We present the design, integration, and deployment of JADE and discuss its potential use for benchmarking AQO programs by the quantum computer science community.

  17. An Integrated Development Environment for Adiabatic Quantum Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; McCaskey, Alex; Bennink, Ryan S; Billings, Jay Jay; D'Azevedo, Eduardo; Sullivan, Blair D; Klymko, Christine F; Seddiqi, Hadayat

    2014-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum computing is a promising route to the computational power afforded by quantum information processing. The recent availability of adiabatic hardware raises the question of how well quantum programs perform. Benchmarking behavior is challenging since the multiple steps to synthesize an adiabatic quantum program are highly tunable. We present an adiabatic quantum programming environment called JADE that provides control over all the steps taken during program development. JADE captures the workflow needed to rigorously benchmark performance while also allowing a variety of problem types, programming techniques, and processor configurations. We have also integrated JADE with a quantum simulation engine that enables program profiling using numerical calculation. The computational engine supports plug-ins for simulation methodologies tailored to various metrics and computing resources. We present the design, integration, and deployment of JADE and discuss its use for benchmarking adiabatic quantum programs.

  18. Coupled thermal, electrical, and fluid flow analyses of AMTEC multitube cell with adiabatic side wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schock, A.; Or, C.; Noravian, H.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes a novel OSC-generated methodology for analyzing the performance of multitube AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electrical Conversion) cells, which are under development by AMPS (Advanced Modular Power Systems, Inc.) for the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (AFPL) and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), for possible application to the Pluto Express and other space missions. The OSC study was supported by the Department of Energy (DOE), and was strongly encouraged by JPL, AFPL, and AMPS. It resulted in an iterative procedure for the coupled solution of the interdependent thermal, electrical, and fluid flow differential and integral equations governing the performance of AMTEC cells and generators. The paper clarifies the OSC procedure by presenting detailed results of its application to an illustrative example of a converter cell with an adiabatic side wall, including the non-linear axial variation of temperature, pressure, open-circuit voltage, interelectrode voltage, current density, axial current, sodium mass flow, and power density. The next paper in these proceedings describes parametric results obtained by applying the same procedure to variations of the baseline adiabatic converter design, culminating in an OSC-recommended revised cell design. A subsequent paper in these proceedings extends the procedure to analyze a variety of OSC-designed radioisotope-heated generators employing non-adiabatic multitube AMTEC cells.

  19. Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics with complex quantum trajectories. II. The adiabatic representation

    SciTech Connect

    Zamstein, Noa; Tannor, David J.

    2012-12-14

    We present a complex quantum trajectory method for treating non-adiabatic dynamics. Each trajectory evolves classically on a single electronic surface but with complex position and momentum. The equations of motion are derived directly from the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, and the population exchange arises naturally from amplitude-transfer terms. In this paper the equations of motion are derived in the adiabatic representation to complement our work in the diabatic representation [N. Zamstein and D. J. Tannor, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A517 (2012)]. We apply our method to two benchmark models introduced by John Tully [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 1061 (1990)], and get very good agreement with converged quantum-mechanical calculations. Specifically, we show that decoherence (spatial separation of wavepackets on different surfaces) is already contained in the equations of motion and does not require ad hoc augmentation.

  20. Adiabatic Deceleration Effects on the Formation of Heavy Ion Charge Spectra in Interplanetary Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartavykh, J. J.; Dröge, W.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Ostryakov, V. M.

    2005-03-01

    We investigate the effects of interplanetary propagation on the energy dependence of the mean ionic charge of ~0.1 1 MeV/n iron observed during impulsive solar particle events at 1 AU. A Monte-Carlo approach is applied to solve the transport equation which takes into account spatial diffusion as well as convection and adiabatic deceleration. We find that interplanetary propagation results in a shift of charge spectra observed at 1 AU towards lower energies due to adiabatic deceleration. Taking the above effect into account, we compare predictions of our model of charge-consistent stochastic acceleration with recent ACE observations. A detailed analysis of two particle events shows that our model can give a consistent explanation of the observed iron charge and energy spectra, and allows one to put constraints on the temperature, density, and the acceleration and escape time scales in the acceleration region.

  1. Exploiting initial-state dependence to improve the performance of adiabatic TDDFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuks, Johanna I.; Nielsen, Soeren E. B.; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Maitra, Neepa T.; Hunter college City University of New York Collaboration; Max-Planck-Institut für Struktur und Dynamik der Materie, Hamburg Collaboration

    Although time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) descriptions of dynamics in non-equilibrium situations have seen exciting successes recently, there have also been studies that throw into doubt the reliability of the approximate exchange-correlation functionals to accurately describe the dynamics. Here we study exact exchange-correlation potentials for few electron systems, found using the global fixed-point iteration method [NRL]. We find that the size of dynamical correlation features that are missing in the currently-used adiabatic approximations depend strongly on the choice of the initial Kohn-Sham wavefunction. With a judicious choice, the dynamical effects can be small over a finite time duration, but sometimes they can get large at longer times. We also examine different starting points, in particular an orbital-dependent potential directly obtained from the Kohn-Sham hole [LFSEM14], for approximate xc functionals: instead of building on an adiabatic approximation.

  2. Heavy-Ion-Acoustic Solitary and Shock Waves in an Adiabatic Multi-Ion Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossen, M. A.; Rahman, M. M.; Hossen, M. R.; Mamun, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    The standard reductive perturbation method has been employed to derive the Korteweg-deVries (K-dV) and Burgers (BG) equations to investigate the basic properties of heavy-ion-acoustic (HIA) waves in a plasma system which is supposed to be composed of nonthermal electrons, Boltzmann distributed light ions, and adiabatic positively charged inertial heavy ions. The HIA solitary and shock structures are found to exist with either positive or negative potential. It is found that the effects of adiabaticity of inertial heavy ions, nonthermality of electrons, and number densities of plasma components significantly modify the basic properties of the HIA solitary and shock waves. The implications of our results may be helpful in understanding the electrostatic perturbations in various laboratory and astrophysical plasma environments.

  3. Temperature gradients due to adiabatic plasma expansion in a magnetic nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, J. P.; Longmier, B. W.; Bering, E. A.; Olsen, C. S.; Squire, J. P.; Ballenger, M. G.; Carter, M. D.; Cassady, L. D.; Díaz, F. R. Chang; Glover, T. W.; Ilin, A. V.

    2014-08-01

    A mechanism for ambipolar ion acceleration in a magnetic nozzle is proposed. The plasma is adiabatic (i.e., does not exchange energy with its surroundings) in the diverging section of a magnetic nozzle so any energy lost by the electrons must be transferred to the ions via the electric field. Fluid theory indicates that the change in plasma potential is proportional to the change in average electron energy. These predictions were compared to measurements in the VX-200 experiment which has conditions conducive to ambipolar ion acceleration. A planar Langmuir probe was used to measure the plasma potential, electron density, and electron temperature for a range of mass flow rates and power levels. Axial profiles of those parameters were also measured, showing consistency with the adiabatic ambipolar fluid theory.

  4. [Evaluation of the Effect of Adiabatic Pulse and B1 Shim to the Radio Frequency Homogeneity in Chemical Shift Imaging].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Chie; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Okawa, Kohei; Taguchi, Jyunichi; Hirota, Yoshifumi; Yanagiya, Yohei

    2016-04-01

    It is considered that the enhancement of chemical shift and the elevation of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) induced by high magnetic fields are useful for the evaluation of metabolism using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). However, the reduction of the localization in MRS seems to be caused by the decreased homogeneity of radio frequency (RF) pulses, especially in chemical shift imaging (CSI). To search the influence of B1 shim mode and the significance of adiabatic pulses, we have examined the changes of RF homogeneity using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the water phantom and the metabolites phantom (containing acetate and lactate) in CSI. The RF homogeneity and chemical shift artifact were obviously improved using the adiabatic pulses. Improvement of the homogeneity of RF pulses was observed when B1 shim was used. These results suggest the usefulness of CSI using adiabatic pulses and B1 shim when small amount of metabolites of target is measured in MRS. PMID:27097994

  5. Differences between MEG and high-density EEG source localizations using a distributed source model in comparison to fMRI.

    PubMed

    Klamer, Silke; Elshahabi, Adham; Lerche, Holger; Braun, Christoph; Erb, Michael; Scheffler, Klaus; Focke, Niels K

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are widely used to localize brain activity and their spatial resolutions have been compared in several publications. While most clinical studies demonstrated higher accuracy of MEG source localization, simulation studies suggested a more accurate EEG than MEG localization for the same number of channels. However, studies comparing real MEG and EEG data with equivalent number of channels are scarce. We investigated 14 right-handed healthy subjects performing a motor task in MEG, high-density-(hd-) EEG and fMRI as well as a somatosensory task in MEG and hd-EEG and compared source analysis results of the evoked brain activity between modalities with different head models. Using individual head models, hd-EEG localized significantly closer to the anatomical reference point obtained by fMRI than MEG. Source analysis results were least accurate for hd-EEG based on a standard head model. Further, hd-EEG and MEG localized more medially than fMRI. Localization accuracy of electric source imaging is dependent on the head model used with more accurate results obtained with individual head models. If this is taken into account, EEG localization can be more accurate than MEG localization for the same number of channels.

  6. Relative contributions of local and regional factors to species richness and total density of butterflies and moths in semi-natural grasslands.

    PubMed

    Pöyry, Juha; Paukkunen, Juho; Heliölä, Janne; Kuussaari, Mikko

    2009-06-01

    Metapopulation theory predicts that species richness and total population density of habitat specialists increase with increasing area and regional connectivity of the habitat. To test these predictions, we examined the relative contributions of habitat patch area, connectivity of the regional habitat network and local habitat quality to species richness and total density of butterflies and day-active moths inhabiting semi-natural grasslands. We studied butterflies and moths in 48 replicate landscapes situated in southwest Finland, including a focal patch and the surrounding network of other semi-natural grasslands within a radius of 1.5 km from the focal patch. By applying the method of hierarchical partitioning, which can distinguish between independent and joint contributions of individual explanatory variables, we observed that variables of the local habitat quality (e.g. mean vegetation height and nectar plant abundance) generally showed the highest independent effect on species richness and total density of butterflies and moths. Habitat area did not show a significant independent contribution to species richness and total density of butterflies and moths. The effect of habitat connectivity was observed only for total density of the declining butterflies and moths. These observations indicate that the local habitat quality is of foremost importance in explaining variation in species richness and total density of butterflies and moths. In addition, declining butterflies and moths have larger populations in well-connected networks of semi-natural grasslands. Our results suggest that, while it is crucial to maintain high-quality habitats by management, with limited resources it would be appropriate to concentrate grassland management and restoration to areas with well-connected grassland networks in which the declining species currently have their strongest populations.

  7. Adiabatic particle motion in a nearly drift-free magnetic field - Application to the geomagnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation is made of the adiabatic particle motion occurring in an almost drift-free magnetic field. The dependence of the mean drift velocity on the equatorial pitch angle and the variation of the local drift velocity along the trajectories is studied. The fields considered are two-dimensional and resemble the geomagnetic tail. Derivations are presented for instantaneous and average drift velocities, bounce times, longitudinal invariants, and approximations to the adiabatic Hamiltonian. As expected, the mean drift velocity is significantly smaller than the instantaneous drift velocities found at typical points on the trajectory. The slow drift indicates that particles advance in the dawn-dusk direction rather slowly in the plasma sheet of the magnetospheric tail.

  8. Universal adiabatic quantum computation via the space-time circuit-to-Hamiltonian construction.

    PubMed

    Gosset, David; Terhal, Barbara M; Vershynina, Anna

    2015-04-10

    We show how to perform universal adiabatic quantum computation using a Hamiltonian which describes a set of particles with local interactions on a two-dimensional grid. A single parameter in the Hamiltonian is adiabatically changed as a function of time to simulate the quantum circuit. We bound the eigenvalue gap above the unique ground state by mapping our model onto the ferromagnetic XXZ chain with kink boundary conditions; the gap of this spin chain was computed exactly by Koma and Nachtergaele using its q-deformed version of SU(2) symmetry. We also discuss a related time-independent Hamiltonian which was shown by Janzing to be capable of universal computation. We observe that in the limit of large system size, the time evolution is equivalent to the exactly solvable quantum walk on Young's lattice.

  9. Universal adiabatic quantum computation via the space-time circuit-to-Hamiltonian construction.

    PubMed

    Gosset, David; Terhal, Barbara M; Vershynina, Anna

    2015-04-10

    We show how to perform universal adiabatic quantum computation using a Hamiltonian which describes a set of particles with local interactions on a two-dimensional grid. A single parameter in the Hamiltonian is adiabatically changed as a function of time to simulate the quantum circuit. We bound the eigenvalue gap above the unique ground state by mapping our model onto the ferromagnetic XXZ chain with kink boundary conditions; the gap of this spin chain was computed exactly by Koma and Nachtergaele using its q-deformed version of SU(2) symmetry. We also discuss a related time-independent Hamiltonian which was shown by Janzing to be capable of universal computation. We observe that in the limit of large system size, the time evolution is equivalent to the exactly solvable quantum walk on Young's lattice. PMID:25910098

  10. On the use of Abelian point group symmetry in density-fitted local MP2 using various types of virtual orbitals

    SciTech Connect

    Köppl, Christoph; Werner, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-28

    Electron correlation methods based on symmetry-adapted canonical Hartree-Fock orbitals can be speeded up significantly in the well known group theoretical manner, using the fact that integrals vanish unless the integrand is totally symmetric. In contrast to this, local electron correlation methods cannot benefit from such simplifications, since the localized molecular orbitals (LMOs) generally do not transform according to irreducible representations of the underlying point group symmetry. Instead, groups of LMOs become symmetry-equivalent and this can be exploited to accelerate local calculations. We describe an implementation of such a symmetry treatment for density-fitted local Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, using various types of virtual orbitals: Projected atomic orbitals, orbital specific virtuals, and pair natural orbitals. The savings by the symmetry treatment are demonstrated by calculations for several large molecules having different point group symmetries. Benchmarks for the parallel execution efficiency of our method are also presented.

  11. Effects of EOS adiabat on hot spot dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas; Wang, Yi-Ming; Batha, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Equation of state (EOS) and adiabat of the pusher play significant roles in the dynamics and formation of the hot spot of an ignition capsule. For given imploding energy, they uniquely determine the partition of internal energy, mass, and volume between the pusher and the hot spot. In this work, we apply the new scaling laws recently derived by Cheng et al. to the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) ignition capsules and study the impacts of EOS and adiabat of the pusher on the hot spot dynamics by using the EOS adiabat index as an adjustable model parameter. We compare our analysis with the NIC data, specifically, for shots N120321 and N120205, and with the numerical simulations of these shots. The predictions from our theoretical model are in good agreements with the NIC data when a hot adiabat was used for the pusher, and with code simulations when a cold adiabat was used for the pusher. Our analysis indicates that the actual adiabat of the pusher in NIC experiments may well be higher than the adiabat assumed in the simulations. This analysis provides a physical and systematic explanation to the ongoing disagreements between the NIC experimental results and the multi-dimensional numerical simulations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract number W-7405-ENG-36.

  12. Cosmological consequences of an adiabatic matter creation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Rafael C.; Pan, Supriya

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the cosmological consequences of a continuous matter creation associated with the production of particles by the gravitational field acting on the quantum vacuum. To illustrate this, three phenomenological models are considered. An equivalent scalar field description is presented for each models. The effects on the cosmic microwave background power spectrum are analysed for the first time in the context of adiabatic matter creation cosmology. Further, we introduce a model independent treatment, Om, which depends only on the Hubble expansion rate and the cosmological redshift to distinguish any cosmological model from Λ cold dark matter by providing a null test for the cosmological constant, meaning that, for any two redshifts z1, z2, Om(z) is same, i.e. Om(z1) - Om(z2) = 0. Also, this diagnostic can differentiate between several cosmological models by indicating their quintessential/phantom behaviour without knowing the accurate value of the matter density, and the present value of the Hubble parameter. For our models, we find that particle production rate is inversely proportional to Om. Finally, the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics bounded by the apparent horizon has been examined.

  13. Adiabatic perturbation theory of electronic stopping in insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsfield, Andrew P.; Lim, Anthony; Foulkes, W. M. C.; Correa, Alfredo A.

    2016-06-01

    A model able to explain the complicated structure of electronic stopping at low velocities in insulating materials is presented. It is shown to be in good agreement with results obtained from time-dependent density-functional theory for the stopping of a channeling Si atom in a Si crystal. If we define the repeat frequency f =v /λ , where λ is the periodic repeat length of the crystal along the direction the channeling atom is traveling, and v is the velocity of the channeling atom, we find that electrons experience a perturbing force that varies in time at integer multiples l of f . This enables electronic excitations at low atom velocity, but their contributions diminish rapidly with increasing values of l . The expressions for stopping power are derived using adiabatic perturbation theory for many-electron systems, and they are then specialized to the case of independent electrons. A simple model for the nonadiabatic matrix elements is described, along with the procedure for determining its parameters.

  14. Shock compression and adiabatic release of a titaniferous mare basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Jackson, I.; Jeanloz, R.

    1977-01-01

    A report is presented regarding the dynamic properties of a rock indigenous to the mare basins of the moon. The reported data were obtained in a study of sample 70215, a very titanium-rich basalt (58% pyroxene, 18% ilmenite, 15% plagioclase, 6% olivine, and 3% quartz by weight). This rock is probably representative of a class of the earliest mare-filling extrusive rocks which are exposed on the present lunar surface. Two series of experiments were performed. One set of experiments involved the measuring of Hugoniot and release adiabats to 15.7 GPa with a propellant gun apparatus. In the second set of experiments, a light-gas gun was employed to yield Hugoniot data at about 120 GPa and release states at about 90 GPa. Lunar basalt 70215 appears to be among the densest rocks in the present lunar sample collection, having a crystal density of 3.38 g/cu cm and a porosity of about 1.3%. The results of the experiments have important implications for both the degree of shock metamorphism expected for impact processes and the extent of ejecta transport on mare surfaces with high-titanium basalt composition.

  15. Pure spin current induced by adiabatic quantum pumping in zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Souma, Satofumi Ogawa, Matsuto

    2014-05-05

    We show theoretically that pure spin current can be generated in zigzag edged graphene nanoribbons through the adiabatic pumping by edge selective pumping potentials. The origin of such pure spin current is the spin splitting of the edge localized states, which are oppositely spin polarized at opposite edges. In the proposed device, each edge of the ribbon is covered by two independent time-periodic local gate potentials with a definite phase difference, inducing the edge spin polarized current. When the pumping phase difference is opposite in sign between two edges, the total charge currents is zero and the pure edge spin current is generated.

  16. Optimality of partial adiabatic search and its circuit model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Ying; Sun, Jie; Lu, Songfeng; Gao, Chao

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we first uncover a fact that a partial adiabatic quantum search with time complexity is in fact optimal, in which is the total number of elements in an unstructured database, and () of them are the marked ones(one) . We then discuss how to implement a partial adiabatic search algorithm on the quantum circuit model. From the implementing procedure on the circuit model, we can find out that the approximating steps needed are always in the same order of the time complexity of the adiabatic algorithm.

  17. Adiabatic control of atomic dressed states for transport and sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, N. R.; Rey, A. M.

    2015-08-01

    We describe forms of adiabatic transport that arise for dressed-state atoms in optical lattices. Focusing on the limit of weak tunnel-coupling between nearest-neighbor lattice sites, we explain how adiabatic variation of optical dressing allows control of atomic motion between lattice sites: allowing adiabatic particle transport in a direction that depends on the internal state, and force measurements via spectroscopic preparation and readout. For uniformly filled bands these systems display topologically quantized particle transport. An implementation of the dressing scheme using optical transitions in alkaline-earth atoms is discussed as well as its favorable features for precise force sensing.

  18. Salt licks do not increase local densities of the deer ked, Lipoptena cervi, an abundant ectoparasite of cervids.

    PubMed

    Paakkonen, T; Nieminen, P; Roininen, H; Mustonen, A-M

    2014-09-01

    The deer ked, Lipoptena cervi (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), is a common ectoparasite of the moose, Alces alces (Artiodactyla: Cervidae). Salt licks are widely used to manipulate moose movements to prevent damage to saplings and traffic accidents. They may cause moose to gather in small areas, which could create aggregates of deer ked pupae as the parasite is a short-distance flyer and its dispersion depends on its hosts. We investigated whether the population density of flying deer keds could be influenced by manipulating salt licks and how environmental variables affect parasite density. Densities were estimated in 40 experimental sites with four treatments (no salt licks, introduced salt licks, removed salt licks, permanent salt licks) in September during 2007-2010. Forest edges, mixed forests on mineral soil and coniferous forests on peat soil were the habitats with high numbers of parasites. The manipulation of salt licks seemed to be ineffective in reducing the density of deer keds as the only factor to show statistical significance with parasite numbers in the mixed-model analysis was year of determination. Annual deer ked densities correlated with the abundance of moose in the region. Moreover, high spring and summer temperatures seemed to increase the numbers of flying imagos.

  19. Evolution of f{sub NL} to the adiabatic limit

    SciTech Connect

    Elliston, Joseph; Mulryne, David J.; Tavakol, Reza; Seery, David E-mail: D.Mulryne@qmul.ac.uk E-mail: R.Tavakol@qmul.ac.uk

    2011-11-01

    We study inflationary perturbations in multiple-field models, for which ζ typically evolves until all isocurvature modes decay — the {sup a}diabatic limit{sup .} We use numerical methods to explore the sensitivity of the local-shape bispectrum to the process by which this limit is achieved, finding an appreciable dependence on model-specific data such as the time at which slow-roll breaks down or the timescale of reheating. In models with a sum-separable potential where the isocurvature modes decay before the end of the slow-roll phase we give an analytic criterion for the asymptotic value of f{sub NL} to be large. Other examples can be constructed using a waterfall field to terminate inflation while f{sub NL} is transiently large, caused by descent from a ridge or convergence into a valley. We show that these two types of evolution are distinguished by the sign of the bispectrum, and give approximate expressions for the peak f{sub NL}.

  20. Topological States and Adiabatic Pumping in Quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Yaakov; Lahini, Yoav; Ringel, Zohar; Verbin, Mor; Zilberberg, Oded

    2012-02-01

    We find a connection between quasicrystals and topological matter, namely that quasicrystals exhibit non-trivial topological phases attributed to dimensions higher than their own [1]. Quasicrystals are materials which are neither ordered nor disordered, i.e. they exhibit only long-range order [2]. This long-range order is usually expressed as a projection from a higher dimensional ordered system. Recently, the unrelated discovery of Topological Insulators [3] defined a new type of materials classified by their topology. We show theoretically and experimentally using photonic lattices, that one-dimensional quasicrystals exhibit topologically-protected boundary states equivalent to the edge states of the two-dimensional Integer Quantum Hall Effect. We harness this property to adiabatically pump light across the quasicrystal, and generalize our results to higher dimensional systems. Hence, quasicrystals offer a new platform for the study of topological phases while their topology may better explain their surface properties.[4pt] [1] Y. E. Kraus, Y. Lahini, Z. Ringel, M. Verbin, and O. Zilberberg, arXiv:1109.5983 (2011).[0pt] [2] C. Janot, Quasicrystals (Clarendon, Oxford, 1994), 2nd ed.[0pt] [3] M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045 (2010).

  1. On the persistence of adiabatic shear bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boakye-Yiadom, S.; Bassim, M. N.; Al-Ameeri, S.

    2012-08-01

    It is generally agreed that the initiation and development of adiabatic shear bands (ASBs) are manifestations of damage in metallic materials subjected to high strain rates and large strains as those due to impact in a Hopkinson Bar system. Models for evolution of these bands have been described in the literature. One question that has not received attention is how persistent these bands are and whether their presence and effect can be reversed or eliminated by using a process of thermal (heat treatment) or thermo-mechanical treatment that would relieve the material from the high strain associated with ASBs and their role as precursors to crack initiation and subsequent failure. Since ASBs are more prevalent and more defined in BCC metals including steels, a study was conducted to investigate the best conditions of generating ASBs in a heat treatable steel, followed by determining the best conditions for heat treatment of specimens already damaged by the presence of ASBs in order to relieve the strains due to ASBs and restore the material to an apparent microstructure without the "scars" due to the previous presence of ASBs. It was found that heat treatment achieves the curing from ASBs. This presentation documents the process undertaken to achieve this objective.

  2. Adiabatic quantum algorithm for search engine ranking.

    PubMed

    Garnerone, Silvano; Zanardi, Paolo; Lidar, Daniel A

    2012-06-01

    We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm for generating a quantum pure state encoding of the PageRank vector, the most widely used tool in ranking the relative importance of internet pages. We present extensive numerical simulations which provide evidence that this algorithm can prepare the quantum PageRank state in a time which, on average, scales polylogarithmically in the number of web pages. We argue that the main topological feature of the underlying web graph allowing for such a scaling is the out-degree distribution. The top-ranked log(n) entries of the quantum PageRank state can then be estimated with a polynomial quantum speed-up. Moreover, the quantum PageRank state can be used in "q-sampling" protocols for testing properties of distributions, which require exponentially fewer measurements than all classical schemes designed for the same task. This can be used to decide whether to run a classical update of the PageRank. PMID:23003933

  3. Graph isomorphism and adiabatic quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane

    2014-03-01

    In the Graph Isomorphism (GI) problem two N-vertex graphs G and G' are given and the task is to determine whether there exists a permutation of the vertices of G that preserves adjacency and maps G --> G'. If yes (no), then G and G' are said to be isomorphic (non-isomorphic). The GI problem is an important problem in computer science and is thought to be of comparable difficulty to integer factorization. We present a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of GI, and which provides a novel approach to determining all automorphisms of a graph. The algorithm converts a GI instance to a combinatorial optimization problem that can be solved using adiabatic quantum evolution. Numerical simulation of the algorithm's quantum dynamics shows that it correctly distinguishes non-isomorphic graphs; recognizes isomorphic graphs; and finds the automorphism group of a graph. We also discuss the algorithm's experimental implementation and show how it can be leveraged to solve arbitrary instances of the NP-Complete Sub-Graph Isomorphism problem.

  4. Design of the PIXIE Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark Oliver; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan J.; Li, Xiaoyi; DiPirro, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is a proposed mission to densely map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. It will operate in a scanning mode from a sun-synchronous orbit, using low temperature detectors (at 0.1 K) and located inside a teslescope that is cooled to approximately 2.73 K - to match the background temperature. A mechanical cryocooler operating at 4.5 K establishes a low base temperature from which two adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) assemblies will cool the telescope and detectors. To achieve continuous scanning capability, the ADRs must operate continuously. Complicating the design are two factors: 1) the need to systematically vary the temperature of various telescope components in order to separate the small polarization signal variations from those that may arise from temperature drifts and changing gradients within the telescope, and 2) the orbital and monthly variations in lunar irradiance into the telescope barrels. These factors require the telescope ADR to reject quasi-continuous heat loads of 2-3 millwatts, while maintaining a peak heat reject rate of less than 12 milliwatts. The detector heat load at 0.1 K is comparatively small at 1-2 microwatts. This paper will describe the 3-stage and 2-stage continuous ADRs that will be used to meet the cooling power and temperature stability requirements of the PIXIE detectors and telescope.

  5. Determination of W states equivalent under stochastic local operations and classical communication by their bipartite reduced density matrices with tree form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xia; Tian, Guo-Jing; Huang, Wei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Su-Juan; Gao, Fei

    2014-07-01

    It has been known that, among pure states, N-qubit W states cannot be uniquely determined by their arbitrary (N-1) bipartite reduced density matrices. Parashar and Rana proved that among arbitrary states, (N-1) bipartite reduced density matrices that the pairs of qubits constitute a star graph or a line graph can uniquely determine stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) equivalent W states, and we generalize this conclusion into tree graph. In this paper, we show that all SLOCC equivalent W states can be uniquely determined (among pure, mixed states) by their (N-1) bipartite reduced density matrices, if the (N-1) pairs of qubits constitute a tree graph on N vertices, where each pair of qubits represents an edge.

  6. A Bayesian analysis of the temporal change of local density of proboscis monkeys: implications for environmental effects on a multilevel society.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ikki; Kubo, Takuya; Tuuga, Augustine; Higashi, Seigo

    2010-06-01

    To understand the effects of environmental factors on a social system with multilevel society in proboscis monkey units, the temporal change of the local density of sleeping sites of monkeys was investigated along the Menanggul river from May 2005 to 2006 in Malaysia. Proboscis monkeys typically return to riverside trees for night sleeping. The sleeping site locations of a one-male unit (BE-unit) were recorded and the locations of other one-male and all-male units within 500 m of the BE-unit were verified. In addition, environmental factors (food availability, the water level of the river, and the river width) and copulation frequency of BE-unit were recorded. From the analyses of the distance from the BE-unit to the nearest neighbor unit, no spatial clumping of the sleeping sites of monkey units on a smaller scale was detected. The results of a Bayesian analysis suggest that the conditional local density around the BE-unit can be predicted by the spatial heterogeneity along the river and by the temporal change of food availability, that is, the local density of monkey units might increase due to better sleeping sites with regard to predator attacks and clumped food sources; proboscis monkeys might not exhibit high-level social organization previously reported. In addition, this study shows the importance of data analysis that considers the effects of temporal autocorrelation, because the daily measurements of longitudinal data on monkeys are not independent of each other. PMID:20091847

  7. Coverage dependent non-adiabaticity of CO on a copper surface

    SciTech Connect

    Omiya, Takuma; Arnolds, Heike

    2014-12-07

    We have studied the coverage-dependent energy transfer dynamics between hot electrons and CO on Cu(110) with femtosecond visible pump, sum frequency probe spectroscopy. We find that transients of the C–O stretch frequency display a red shift, which increases from 3 cm{sup −1} at 0.1 ML to 9 cm{sup −1} at 0.77 ML. Analysis of the transients reveals that the non-adiabatic coupling between the adsorbate vibrational motion and the electrons becomes stronger with increasing coverage. This trend requires the frustrated rotational mode to be the cause of the non-adiabatic behavior, even for relatively weak laser excitation of the adsorbate. We attribute the coverage dependence to both an increase in the adsorbate electronic density of states and an increasingly anharmonic potential energy surface caused by repulsive interactions between neighboring CO adsorbates. This work thus reveals adsorbate-adsorbate interactions as a new way to control adsorbate non-adiabaticity.

  8. Quasi-adiabatic dynamics of ions in a bifurcated current sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Kartsev, Yu. I.; Artemyev, A. V.; Malova, H. V. Zelenyi, L. M.

    2013-04-15

    The study is devoted to ion dynamics in bifurcated current sheets with a two-peak current-density distribution observed in the Earth's magnetotail and solar wind. The ion motion is described by a Hamiltonian system with two degrees of freedom. The presence of a small parameter {kappa} characterizing the ratio between the amplitudes of the normal and tangential magnetic field components allows one to separate variables into fast and slow ones and introduce the quasi-adiabatic invariant of motion I{sub z}. Conservation of this invariant makes it possible to analytically describe the dynamics of charged particles. Deviations of the particle dynamics from the quasi-adiabatic one, which are caused by the nonconservation of the quasi-adiabatic invariant, are investigated. The jump of the invariant {Delta}I{sub z} is shown to depend on the small parameter according to the power-law {Delta}I{sub z} {approx} {kappa}{sup h}, where the exponent h varies between unity and 3/4, depending on the level of current sheet bifurcation. The obtained dependence of {Delta}I{sub z} on {kappa} coincides with analytic expressions in the limiting cases of nonbifurcated and completely bifurcated current sheets.

  9. Serial Scanning and Registration of High Resolution Quantitative Computed Tomography Volume Scans for the Determination of Local Bone Density Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert T.; Napel, Sandy; Yan, Chye H.

    1996-01-01

    Progress in development of the methods required to study bone remodeling as a function of time is reported. The following topics are presented: 'A New Methodology for Registration Accuracy Evaluation', 'Registration of Serial Skeletal Images for Accurately Measuring Changes in Bone Density', and 'Precise and Accurate Gold Standard for Multimodality and Serial Registration Method Evaluations.'

  10. Large-scale real-space density-functional calculations: Moiré-induced electron localization in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Oshiyama, Atsushi Iwata, Jun-Ichi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Matsushita, Yu-Ichiro

    2015-03-21

    We show that our real-space finite-difference scheme allows us to perform density-functional calculations for nanometer-scale targets containing more than 100 000 atoms. This real-space scheme is applied to twisted bilayer graphene, clarifying that Moiré pattern induced in the slightly twisted bilayer graphene drastically modifies the atomic and electronic structures.

  11. Ion thermal effects on slow mode solitary waves in plasmas with two adiabatic ion species

    SciTech Connect

    Nsengiyumva, F. Hellberg, M. A. Mace, R. L.

    2015-09-15

    Using both the Sagdeev and Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) methods, ion thermal effects on slow mode ion acoustic solitons and double layers are investigated in a plasma with two adiabatic positive ion species. It is found that reducing the gap between the two ion thermal speeds by increasing the relative temperature of the cool ions increases the typical soliton/double layer speeds for all values of the ion-ion density ratio and reduces the range in the density ratio that supports double layers. The effect of increasing the relative cool ion temperature on the soliton/double layer amplitudes depends on the relative densities. For lower values of the ion density ratio, an increase in cool ion temperature leads to a significant decrease in soliton/double layer amplitude, so one may find that solitons of all permissible speeds lie within the range of KdV theory.

  12. Adiabaticity and spectral splits in collective neutrino transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Raffelt, Georg G.; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2007-12-15

    Neutrinos streaming off a supernova core transform collectively by neutrino-neutrino interactions, leading to 'spectral splits' where an energy E{sub split} divides the transformed spectrum sharply into parts of almost pure but different flavors. We present a detailed description of the spectral-split phenomenon which is conceptually and quantitatively understood in an adiabatic treatment of neutrino-neutrino effects. Central to this theory is a self-consistency condition in the form of two sum rules (integrals over the neutrino spectra that must equal certain conserved quantities). We provide explicit analytic and numerical solutions for various neutrino spectra. We introduce the concept of the adiabatic reference frame and elaborate on the relative adiabatic evolution. Violating adiabaticity leads to the spectral split being 'washed out'. The sharpness of the split appears to be represented by a surprisingly universal function.

  13. Adiabatic rotation, quantum search, and preparation of superposition states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siu, M. Stewart

    2007-06-01

    We introduce the idea of using adiabatic rotation to generate superpositions of a large class of quantum states. For quantum computing this is an interesting alternative to the well-studied “straight line” adiabatic evolution. In ways that complement recent results, we show how to efficiently prepare three types of states: Kitaev’s toric code state, the cluster state of the measurement-based computation model, and the history state used in the adiabatic simulation of a quantum circuit. We also show that the method, when adapted for quantum search, provides quadratic speedup as other optimal methods do with the advantages that the problem Hamiltonian is time independent and that the energy gap above the ground state is strictly nondecreasing with time. Likewise the method can be used for optimization as an alternative to the standard adiabatic algorithm.

  14. Coherent transfer by adiabatic passage in two-dimensional lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Longhi, Stefano

    2014-09-15

    Coherent tunneling by adiabatic passage (CTAP) is a well-established technique for robust spatial transport of quantum particles in linear chains. Here we introduce two exactly-solvable models where the CTAP protocol can be extended to two-dimensional lattice geometries. Such bi-dimensional lattice models are synthesized from time-dependent second-quantization Hamiltonians, in which the bosonic field operators evolve adiabatically like in an ordinary three-level CTAP scheme thus ensuring adiabatic passage in Fock space. - Highlights: • New ways of coherent transport by adiabatic passage (CTAP) in 2D lattices. • Synthesis of exactly-solvable 2D lattices from a simple three-well model. • CTAP in 2D lattices can be exploited for quantum state transfer.

  15. Adiabatic and isocurvature perturbation projections in multi-field inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Chris; Saffin, Paul M. E-mail: Paul.Saffin@nottingham.ac.uk

    2013-08-01

    Current data are in good agreement with the predictions of single field inflation. However, the hemispherical asymmetry, seen in the cosmic microwave background data, may hint at a potential problem. Generalizing to multi-field models may provide one possible explanation. A useful way of modeling perturbations in multi-field inflation is to investigate the projection of the perturbation along and perpendicular to the background fields' trajectory. These correspond to the adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations. However, it is important to note that in general there are no corresponding adiabatic and isocurvature fields. The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between a field redefinition and a perturbation projection. We provide a detailed derivation of the evolution of the isocurvature perturbation to show that no assumption of an adiabatic or isocurvature field is needed. We also show how this evolution equation is consistent with the field covariant evolution equations for the adiabatic perturbation in the flat field space limit.

  16. Ultrafast stimulated Raman parallel adiabatic passage by shaped pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dridi, G.; Guerin, S.; Hakobyan, V.; Jauslin, H. R.; Eleuch, H.

    2009-10-15

    We present a general and versatile technique of population transfer based on parallel adiabatic passage by femtosecond shaped pulses. Their amplitude and phase are specifically designed to optimize the adiabatic passage corresponding to parallel eigenvalues at all times. We show that this technique allows the robust adiabatic population transfer in a Raman system with the total pulse area as low as 3{pi}, corresponding to a fluence of one order of magnitude below the conventional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage process. This process of short duration, typically picosecond and subpicosecond, is easily implementable with the modern pulse shaper technology and opens the possibility of ultrafast robust population transfer with interesting applications in quantum information processing.

  17. Local spin density in the Cr7Ni antiferromagnetic molecular ring and 53Cr-NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Casadei, Cecilia M; Bordonali, L; Furukawa, Yuji; Borsa, Ferdinando; Garlatti, E; Lascialfari, A; Carretta, S; Sanna, S; Timco, G; Winpenny, R

    2012-09-13

    We present 53Cr-NMR spectra collected at low temperature in a single crystal of the heterometallic antiferromagnetic (AF) ring Cr7Ni in the S = 1/2 ground state with the aim of establishing the distribution of the local electronic moment in the ring. Due to the poor S/N we observed only one signal which is ascribed to three almost equivalent 53Cr nuclei in the ring. The calculated spin density in Cr7Ni in the ground state, with the applied magnetic field both parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the ring, turns out to be AF staggered with the greatest component of the local spin {s} for the Cr3+ ions next to the Ni2+ ion. The 53Cr-NMR frequency was found to be in good agreement with the local spin density calculated theoretically by assuming a core polarization field of Hcp =₋ 11 T/μB for both orientations, close to the value found previously in Cr7Cd. Lastly, the observed orientation dependence of the local spin moments is well reproduced by the theoretical calculation and evidences the importance of single-ion and dipolar anisotropies.

  18. Adiabatic invariant value variation under shortwave band subcritical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svistunov, K. V.; Tinin, M. V.

    1985-04-01

    The possibility of significant variations of the adiabatic invariant is examined for the propagation of radio waves in an irregular Earth-ionosphere waveguide with a parabolic dependence of permittivity on height. Numerical and analytical results indicate that nonexponential deviations of the adiabatic invariant can occur not only when the characteristic size of horizontal irregularity decreases (e.g., during resonant beam excitation) but also in quasi-critical conditions and for smoothly irregular waveguides.

  19. Shortcuts to adiabaticity for non-Hermitian systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, S.; Martinez-Garaot, S.; Torrontegui, E.; Muga, J. G.; Chen Xi

    2011-08-15

    Adiabatic processes driven by non-Hermitian, time-dependent Hamiltonians may be sped up by generalizing inverse engineering techniques based on counter-diabatic (transitionless driving) algorithms or on dynamical invariants. We work out the basic theory and examples described by two-level Hamiltonians: the acceleration of rapid adiabatic passage with a decaying excited level and of the dynamics of a classical particle on an expanding harmonic oscillator.

  20. Michel accretion of a polytropic fluid with adiabatic index \\gamma \\gt 5/3: global flows versus homoclinic orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaverra, Eliana; Mach, Patryk; Sarbach, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the properties of a polytropic fluid that is radially accreted into a Schwarzschild black hole. The case where the adiabatic index γ lies in the range of 1\\lt γ ≤slant 5/3 has been treated in previous work. In this article, we analyze the complementary range of 5/3\\lt γ ≤slant 2. To this purpose, the problem is cast into an appropriate Hamiltonian dynamical system, whose phase flow is analyzed. While, for 1\\lt γ ≤slant 5/3, the solutions are always characterized by the presence of a unique critical saddle point, we show that, when 5/3\\lt γ ≤slant 2, an additional critical point might appear, which is a center point. For the parametrization used in this paper, we prove that, whenever this additional critical point appears, there is a homoclinic orbit. Solutions corresponding to homoclinic orbits differ from standard transonic solutions with vanishing asymptotic velocities in two aspects: they are local (i.e., they cannot be continued to arbitrarily large radii); the dependence of the density or the value of the velocity on the radius is not monotonic.