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Sample records for adiabatic raman passage

  1. Spontaneous emission in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A.; Vitanov, N. V.; Bergmann, K.

    2005-11-15

    This work explores the effect of spontaneous emission on the population transfer efficiency in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). The approach uses adiabatic elimination of weakly coupled density matrix elements in the Liouville equation, from which a very accurate analytic approximation is derived. The loss of population transfer efficiency is found to decrease exponentially with the factor {omega}{sub 0}{sup 2}/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the spontaneous emission rate and {omega}{sub 0} is the peak Rabi frequency. The transfer efficiency increases with the pulse delay and reaches a steady value. For large pulse delay and large spontaneous emission rate STIRAP degenerates into optical pumping.

  2. Ultrafast stimulated Raman parallel adiabatic passage by shaped pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dridi, G.; Guerin, S.; Hakobyan, V.; Jauslin, H. R.; Eleuch, H.

    2009-10-15

    We present a general and versatile technique of population transfer based on parallel adiabatic passage by femtosecond shaped pulses. Their amplitude and phase are specifically designed to optimize the adiabatic passage corresponding to parallel eigenvalues at all times. We show that this technique allows the robust adiabatic population transfer in a Raman system with the total pulse area as low as 3{pi}, corresponding to a fluence of one order of magnitude below the conventional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage process. This process of short duration, typically picosecond and subpicosecond, is easily implementable with the modern pulse shaper technology and opens the possibility of ultrafast robust population transfer with interesting applications in quantum information processing.

  3. Dephasing effects on stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in tripod configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarou, C.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2010-09-15

    We present an analytic description of the effects of dephasing processes on stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a tripod quantum system. To this end, we develop an effective two-level model. Our analysis makes use of the adiabatic approximation in the weak dephasing regime. An effective master equation for a two-level system formed by two dark states is derived, where analytic solutions are obtained by utilizing the Demkov-Kunike model. From these, it is found that the fidelity for the final coherent superposition state decreases exponentially for increasing dephasing rates. Depending on the pulse ordering and for adiabatic evolution, the pulse delay can have an inverse effect.

  4. Integrated polarization rotator/converter by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiao; Zou, Chang-Ling; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2013-07-15

    We proposed a polarization rotator inspired by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage model from quantum optics, which is composed of a signal waveguide and an ancillary waveguide. The two orthogonal modes in signal waveguide and the oblique mode in ancillary waveguide form a Λ-type three-level system. By controlling the width of signal waveguide and the gap between two waveguides, adiabatic conversion between two orthogonal modes can be realized in the signal waveguide. With such adiabatic passage, polarization conversion is completed within 150 μm length, with the efficiencies over 99% for both conversions between horizontal polarization and vertical polarization. In addition, such a polarization rotator is quite robust against fabrication error, allowing a wide range of tolerances for the rotator geometric parameters. Our work is not only significative to photonic simulations of coherent quantum phenomena with engineered photonic waveguides, but also enlightens the practical applications of these phenomena in optical device designs. PMID:23938558

  5. Robust Ramsey sequences with Raman adiabatic rapid passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotru, Krish; Brown, Justin M.; Butts, David L.; Kinast, Joseph M.; Stoner, Richard E.

    2014-11-01

    We present a method for robust timekeeping in which alkali-metal atoms are interrogated in a Ramsey sequence based on stimulated Raman transitions with optical photons. To suppress systematic effects introduced by differential ac Stark shifts and optical intensity gradients, we employ atom optics derived from Raman adiabatic rapid passage (ARP). Raman ARP drives coherent transfer between the alkali-metal hyperfine ground states via a sweep of the Raman detuning through the two-photon resonance. Our experimental implementation of Raman ARP reduced the phase sensitivity of Ramsey sequences to Stark shifts in 133Cs atoms by about two orders of magnitude, relative to fixed-frequency Raman transitions. This technique also preserved Ramsey fringe contrast for cloud displacements reaching the 1 /e2 intensity radius of the laser beam. In a magnetically unshielded apparatus, second-order Zeeman shifts limited the fractional frequency uncertainty to ˜3.5 ×10-12 after about 2500 s of averaging.

  6. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in Tm{sup 3+}:YAG

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A. L.; Lauro, R.; Louchet, A.; Chaneliere, T.; Le Goueet, J. L.

    2008-10-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a Tm{sup 3+}:YAG crystal. Tm{sup 3+}:YAG is a promising material for use in quantum information processing applications, but as yet there are few experimental investigations of coherent Raman processes in this material. We investigate the effect of inhomogeneous broadening and Rabi frequency on the transfer efficiency and the width of the two-photon spectrum. Simulations of the complete Tm{sup 3+}:YAG system are presented along with the corresponding experimental results.

  7. Effect of dephasing on stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P.A.; Vitanov, N.V.; Bergmann, K.

    2004-12-01

    This work explores the effect of phase relaxation on the population transfer efficiency in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). The study is based on the Liouville equation, which is solved analytically in the adiabatic limit. The transfer efficiency of STIRAP is found to decrease exponentially with the dephasing rate; this effect is stronger for shorter pulse delays and weaker for larger delays, since the transition time is found to be inversely proportional to the pulse delay. Moreover, it is found that the transfer efficiency of STIRAP in the presence of dephasing does not depend on the peak Rabi frequencies at all, as long as they are sufficiently large to enforce adiabatic evolution; hence increasing the field intensity cannot reduce the dephasing losses. It is shown also that for any dephasing rate, the final populations of the initial state and the intermediate state are equal. For strong dephasing all three populations tend to (1/3)

  8. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage through permanent dipole moment transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Niu Yingyu; Wang Rong; Qiu Minghui

    2010-04-15

    The rovibrational dynamics of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) through permanent dipole moment transitions are investigated theoretically using a time-dependent quantum wave packet method for the ground electronic state of an HF molecule. The two basic STIRAP processes, {Lambda} and ladder systems, are simulated. The calculated results show that nearly 100% of the population can be transferred to the target state. Besides the interested transitions, the pulses can induce other transitions which affect the dynamics of STIRAP. The final populations of the initial and target states depend on delay time.

  9. Multiphoton Raman Atom Optics with Frequency-Swept Adiabatic Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotru, Krish; Butts, David; Kinast, Joseph; Stoner, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Light-pulse atom interferometry is a promising candidate for future inertial navigators, gravitational wave detectors, and measurements of fundamental physical constants. The sensitivity of this technique, however, is often limited by the small momentum separations created between interfering atom wave packets (typically ~ 2 ℏk) . We address this issue using light-pulse atom optics derived from stimulated Raman transitions and frequency-swept adiabatic rapid passage (ARP). In experiments, these Raman ARP atom optics have generated up to 30 ℏk photon recoil momenta in an acceleration-sensitive atom interferometer, thereby enhancing the phase shift per unit acceleration by a factor of 15. Since this approach forgoes evaporative cooling and velocity selection, it could enable large-area atom interferometry at higher data rates, while also lowering the atom shot-noise-limited measurement uncertainty.

  10. Creation and Transfer of Coherence via Technique of Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage in Triple Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Si-Cong; Wan, Ren-Gang; Wang, Chun-Liang; Shu, Shi-Li; Wang, Li-Jie; Tong, Chun-Zhu

    2016-04-01

    We propose a scheme for creation and transfer of coherence among ground state and indirect exciton states of triple quantum dots via the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. Compared with the traditional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, the Stokes laser pulse is replaced by the tunneling pulse, which can be controlled by the externally applied voltages. By varying the amplitudes and sequences of the pump and tunneling pulses, a complete coherence transfer or an equal coherence distribution among multiple states can be obtained. The investigations can provide further insight for the experimental development of controllable coherence transfer in semiconductor structure and may have potential applications in quantum information processing.

  11. Creation and Transfer of Coherence via Technique of Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage in Triple Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Tian, Si-Cong; Wan, Ren-Gang; Wang, Chun-Liang; Shu, Shi-Li; Wang, Li-Jie; Tong, Chun-Zhu

    2016-12-01

    We propose a scheme for creation and transfer of coherence among ground state and indirect exciton states of triple quantum dots via the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. Compared with the traditional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, the Stokes laser pulse is replaced by the tunneling pulse, which can be controlled by the externally applied voltages. By varying the amplitudes and sequences of the pump and tunneling pulses, a complete coherence transfer or an equal coherence distribution among multiple states can be obtained. The investigations can provide further insight for the experimental development of controllable coherence transfer in semiconductor structure and may have potential applications in quantum information processing. PMID:27107772

  12. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a three-level superconducting circuit

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. S.; Vepsäläinen, A.; Danilin, S.; Paraoanu, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    The adiabatic manipulation of quantum states is a powerful technique that opened up new directions in quantum engineering—enabling tests of fundamental concepts such as geometrical phases and topological transitions, and holding the promise of alternative models of quantum computation. Here we benchmark the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage for circuit quantum electrodynamics by employing the first three levels of a transmon qubit. In this ladder configuration, we demonstrate a population transfer efficiency >80% between the ground state and the second excited state using two adiabatic Gaussian-shaped control microwave pulses. By doing quantum tomography at successive moments during the Raman pulses, we investigate the transfer of the population in time domain. Furthermore, we show that this protocol can be reversed by applying a third adiabatic pulse, we study a hybrid nondiabatic–adiabatic sequence, and we present experimental results for a quasi-degenerate intermediate level. PMID:26902454

  13. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a three-level superconducting circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Vepsäläinen, A.; Danilin, S.; Paraoanu, G. S.

    2016-02-01

    The adiabatic manipulation of quantum states is a powerful technique that opened up new directions in quantum engineering--enabling tests of fundamental concepts such as geometrical phases and topological transitions, and holding the promise of alternative models of quantum computation. Here we benchmark the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage for circuit quantum electrodynamics by employing the first three levels of a transmon qubit. In this ladder configuration, we demonstrate a population transfer efficiency >80% between the ground state and the second excited state using two adiabatic Gaussian-shaped control microwave pulses. By doing quantum tomography at successive moments during the Raman pulses, we investigate the transfer of the population in time domain. Furthermore, we show that this protocol can be reversed by applying a third adiabatic pulse, we study a hybrid nondiabatic-adiabatic sequence, and we present experimental results for a quasi-degenerate intermediate level.

  14. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a three-level superconducting circuit.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K S; Vepsäläinen, A; Danilin, S; Paraoanu, G S

    2016-01-01

    The adiabatic manipulation of quantum states is a powerful technique that opened up new directions in quantum engineering--enabling tests of fundamental concepts such as geometrical phases and topological transitions, and holding the promise of alternative models of quantum computation. Here we benchmark the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage for circuit quantum electrodynamics by employing the first three levels of a transmon qubit. In this ladder configuration, we demonstrate a population transfer efficiency >80% between the ground state and the second excited state using two adiabatic Gaussian-shaped control microwave pulses. By doing quantum tomography at successive moments during the Raman pulses, we investigate the transfer of the population in time domain. Furthermore, we show that this protocol can be reversed by applying a third adiabatic pulse, we study a hybrid nondiabatic-adiabatic sequence, and we present experimental results for a quasi-degenerate intermediate level. PMID:26902454

  15. Large-Area Atom Interferometry with Frequency-Swept Raman Adiabatic Passage.

    PubMed

    Kotru, Krish; Butts, David L; Kinast, Joseph M; Stoner, Richard E

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate light-pulse atom interferometry with large-momentum-transfer atom optics based on stimulated Raman transitions and frequency-swept adiabatic rapid passage. Our atom optics have produced momentum splittings of up to 30 photon recoil momenta in an acceleration-sensitive interferometer for laser cooled atoms. We experimentally verify the enhancement of phase shift per unit acceleration and characterize interferometer contrast loss. By forgoing evaporative cooling and velocity selection, this method lowers the atom shot-noise-limited measurement uncertainty and enables large-area atom interferometry at higher data rates. PMID:26382675

  16. Population transfer of a NaH molecule via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zai, Jing-Bo; Zhan, Wei-Shen; Wang, Shuo; Dang, Hai-Ping; Han, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    The population transfer of a NaH molecule from the ground state {{X}1}{Σ+} to the target state {{A}1}{Σ+} via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) is investigated. The results show that the intensity, delay time and detuning have a significant effect on population transfer. A large population transfer is observed with increased pump and Stokes intensity, especially when the pump and Stokes intensity match. Population transfer also depends on the delay time between the pump laser pulse and the Stokes laser pulse. The detuning of the two pulses influences the population transfer. Efficient population transfer can be realized under the resonant or two-photon resonant condition.

  17. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage for improved performance of a cold-atom electron and ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparkes, B. M.; Murphy, D.; Taylor, R. J.; Speirs, R. W.; McCulloch, A. J.; Scholten, R. E.

    2016-08-01

    We implement high-efficiency coherent excitation to a Rydberg state using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a cold-atom electron and ion source. We achieve an efficiency of 60% averaged over the laser excitation volume with a peak efficiency of 82%, a 1.6 times improvement relative to incoherent pulsed-laser excitation. Using pulsed electric field ionization of the Rydberg atoms we create electron bunches with durations of 250 ps. High-efficiency excitation will increase source brightness, crucial for ultrafast electron diffraction experiments, and coherent excitation to high-lying Rydberg states could allow for the reduction of internal bunch heating and the creation of a high-speed single-ion source.

  18. Robust Population Transfer by Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage in a Pr{sup 3+}:Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} Crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Jens; Beil, Fabian; Halfmann, Thomas

    2007-09-14

    We report on the experimental implementation of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) in a Pr{sup 3+}:Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} crystal. Our data provide clear and striking proof for nearly complete population inversion between hyperfine levels in the Pr{sup 3+} ions. The transfer efficiency was monitored by absorption spectroscopy. Time-resolved absorption measurements serve to monitor the adiabatic population dynamics during the STIRAP process. Efficient transfer is observed for negative pulse delays (STIRAP), as well as for positive delays. We identify the latter by an alternative adiabatic passage process.

  19. Theoretical study of Raman chirped adiabatic passage by X-ray absorption spectroscopy: Highly excited electronic states and rotational effects

    SciTech Connect

    Engin, Selma; Sisourat, Nicolas Selles, Patricia; Taïeb, Richard; Carniato, Stéphane

    2014-06-21

    Raman Chirped Adiabatic Passage (RCAP) is an efficient method to climb the vibrational ladder of molecules. It was shown on the example of fixed-in-space HCl molecule that selective vibrational excitation can thus be achieved by RCAP and that population transfer can be followed by X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy [S. Engin, N. Sisourat, P. Selles, R. Taïeb, and S. Carniato, Chem. Phys. Lett. 535, 192–195 (2012)]. Here, in a more detailed analysis of the process, we investigate the effects of highly excited electronic states and of molecular rotation on the efficiency of RCAP. Furthermore, we propose an alternative spectroscopic way to monitor the transfer by means of X-ray absorption spectra.

  20. Pulse sequences in photoassociation via adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuan; Dupre, William; Parker, Gregory A.

    2012-07-01

    We perform a detailed study of pulse sequences in a photoassociation via adiabatic passage (PAP) process to transfer population from an ensemble of ultracold atomic clouds to a vibrationally cold molecular state. We show that an appreciable final population of ultracold NaCs molecules can be achieved with optimized pulses in either the ‘counter-intuitive’ (tP > tS) or ‘intuitive’ (tP < tS) PAP pulse sequences, with tP and tS denoting the temporal centers of the pump and Stokes pulses, respectively. By investigating the dependence of the reactive yield on pulse sequences, in a wide range of tP-tS, we show that there is not a fundamental preference to either pulse sequence in a PAP process. We explain this no-sequence-preference phenomenon by analyzing a multi-bound model so that an analogy can be drawn to the conventional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage.

  1. Arbitrary qudit gates by adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseaux, B.; Guérin, S.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2013-03-01

    We derive an adiabatic technique that implements the most general SU(d) transformation in a quantum system of d degenerate states, featuring a qudit. This technique is based on the factorization of the SU(d) transformation into d generalized quantum Householder reflections, each of which is implemented by a two-shot stimulated Raman adiabatic passage with appropriate static phases. The energy of the lasers needed to synthesize a single Householder reflection is shown to be remarkably constant as a function of d. This technique is directly applicable to a linear trapped ion system with d+1 ions. We implement the quantum Fourier transform numerically in a qudit with d=4 (defined as a quartit) as an example.

  2. Experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schraft, Daniel; Halfmann, Thomas; Genov, Genko T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2013-12-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage (CAP) for robust and efficient manipulation of two-level systems. The technique represents a altered version of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), driven by composite sequences of radiation pulses with appropriately chosen phases. We implement CAP with radio-frequency pulses to invert (i.e., to rephase) optically prepared spin coherences in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. We perform systematic investigations of the efficiency of CAP and compare the results with conventional π pulses and RAP. The data clearly demonstrate the superior features of CAP with regard to robustness and efficiency, even under conditions of weakly fulfilled adiabaticity. The experimental demonstration of composite sequences to support adiabatic passage is of significant relevance whenever a high efficiency or robustness of coherent excitation processes need to be maintained, e.g., as required in quantum information technology.

  3. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage preparation of a coherent superposition of ThO H3Δ1 states for an improved electron electric-dipole-moment measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, C. D.; O'Leary, B. R.; West, A. D.; Baron, J.; Hess, P. W.; Hoffman, C.; Kirilov, E.; Overstreet, C. B.; West, E. P.; DeMille, D.; Doyle, J. M.; Gabrielse, G.

    2016-05-01

    Experimental searches for the electron electric-dipole moment (EDM) probe new physics beyond the standard model. The current best EDM limit was set by the ACME Collaboration [Science 343, 269 (2014), 10.1126/science.1248213], constraining time-reversal symmetry (T ) violating physics at the TeV energy scale. ACME used optical pumping to prepare a coherent superposition of ThO H3Δ1 states that have aligned electron spins. Spin precession due to the molecule's internal electric field was measured to extract the EDM. We report here on an improved method for preparing this spin-aligned state of the electron by using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). We demonstrate a transfer efficiency of 75 %±5 % , representing a significant gain in signal for a next-generation EDM experiment. We discuss the particularities of implementing STIRAP in systems such as ours, where molecular ensembles with large phase-space distributions are transferred via weak molecular transitions with limited laser power and limited optical access.

  4. Trapped Ion Quantum Computation by Adiabatic Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Xuni; Wu Chunfeng; Lai, C. H.; Oh, C. H.

    2008-11-07

    We propose a new universal quantum computation scheme for trapped ions in thermal motion via the technique of adiabatic passage, which incorporates the advantages of both the adiabatic passage and the model of trapped ions in thermal motion. Our scheme is immune from the decoherence due to spontaneous emission from excited states as the system in our scheme evolves along a dark state. In our scheme the vibrational degrees of freedom are not required to be cooled to their ground states because they are only virtually excited. It is shown that the fidelity of the resultant gate operation is still high even when the magnitude of the effective Rabi frequency moderately deviates from the desired value.

  5. Adiabatic passage in the presence of noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, T.; Dietrich, M. R.; Kurz, N.; Shu, G.; Wright, J.; Blinov, B. B.

    2012-02-01

    We report on an experimental investigation of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP) in a trapped barium ion system. RAP is implemented on the transition from the 6S1/2 ground state to the metastable 5D5/2 level by applying a laser at 1.76 μm. We focus on the interplay of laser frequency noise and laser power in shaping the effectiveness of RAP, which is commonly assumed to be a robust tool for high-efficiency population transfer. However, we note that reaching high state transfer fidelity requires a combination of small laser linewidth and large Rabi frequency.

  6. Mean-field dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a time-dependent triple-well trap: Nonlinear eigenstates, Landau-Zener models, and stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

    SciTech Connect

    Graefe, E. M.; Korsch, H. J.; Witthaut, D.

    2006-01-15

    We investigate the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a triple-well trap in a three-level approximation. The interatomic interactions are taken into account in a mean-field approximation (Gross-Pitaevskii equation), leading to a nonlinear three-level model. Additional eigenstates emerge due to the nonlinearity, depending on the system parameters. Adiabaticity breaks down if such a nonlinear eigenstate disappears when the parameters are varied. The dynamical implications of this loss of adiabaticity are analyzed for two important special cases: A three-level Landau-Zener model and the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) scheme. We discuss the emergence of looped levels for an equal-slope Landau-Zener model. The Zener tunneling probability does not tend to zero in the adiabatic limit and shows pronounced oscillations as a function of the velocity of the parameter variation. Furthermore we generalize the STIRAP scheme for adiabatic coherent population transfer between atomic states to the nonlinear case. It is shown that STIRAP breaks down if the nonlinearity exceeds the detuning.

  7. Nonadiabatic Transitions in Adiabatic Rapid Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, T.; Miao, X.; Metcalf, H.

    2006-05-01

    Optical forces much larger than the ordinary radiative force can be achieved on a two-level atom by multiple repetitions of adiabatic rapid passage sweeps with counterpropagating light beams. Chirped light pulses drive the atom-laser system up a ladder of dressed state energy sheets on sequential trajectories, thereby decreasing the atomic kinetic energy. Nonadiabatic transitions between the energy sheets must be avoided for this process to be effective. We have calculated the nonadiabatic transition probability for various chirped light pulses numerically. These results were compared to the first Demkov-Kunike model and the well-known Landau-Zener model. In addition, an analytical form of the nonadiabatic transition probability has been found for linearly chirped pulses and an approximate form for generic symmetric finite-time pulses has been found for the entire parameter space using the technique of unitary integration. From this, the asymptotic transition probability in the adiabatic limit was derived. T. Lu, X. Miao, and H. Metcalf, Phys., Rev. A 71 061405(R) (2005). Yu. Demkov and M. Kunike, Vestn. Leningr. Univ. Fis. Khim., 16, 39 (1969); K.-A. Suominen and B. Garraway, Phys. Rev. A45, 374 (1992)

  8. Chirped Pulse Adiabatic Passage in CARS for Imaging of Biological Structure and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Malinovskaya, Svetlana A.

    2007-12-26

    We propose the adiabatic passage control scheme implementing chirped femtosecond laser pulses to maximize coherence in a predetermined molecular vibrational mode using two-photon Raman transitions. We investigate vibrational energy relaxation and collisional dephasing as factors of coherence loss, and demonstrate the possibility for preventing decoherence by the chirped pulse train. The proposed method may be used to advance noninvasive biological imaging techniques.

  9. Transport of ultracold atoms between concentric traps via spatial adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polo, J.; Benseny, A.; Busch, Th; Ahufinger, V.; Mompart, J.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial adiabatic passage processes for ultracold atoms trapped in tunnel-coupled cylindrically symmetric concentric potentials are investigated. Specifically, we discuss the matter-wave analog of the rapid adiabatic passage (RAP) technique for a high fidelity and robust loading of a single atom into a harmonic ring potential from a harmonic trap, and for its transport between two concentric rings. We also consider a system of three concentric rings and investigate the transport of a single atom between the innermost and the outermost rings making use of the matter-wave analog of the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) technique. We describe the RAP-like and STIRAP-like dynamics by means of a two- and a three-state model, respectively, obtaining good agreement with the numerical simulations of the corresponding two-dimensional Schrödinger equation.

  10. Nonadiabatic transitions in finite-time adiabatic rapid passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, T.; Miao, X.; Metcalf, H.

    2007-06-01

    To apply the adiabatic rapid passage process repetitively [T. Lu, X. Miao, and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. A 71, 061405(R) (2005)], the nonadiabatic transition probability of a two-level atom subject to chirped light pulses over a finite period of time needs to be calculated. Using a unitary first-order perturbation method in the rotating adiabatic frame, an approximate formula has been derived for such transition probabilities in the entire parameter space of the pulses.

  11. Spatial adiabatic passage: a review of recent progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menchon-Enrich, R.; Benseny, A.; Ahufinger, V.; Greentree, A. D.; Busch, Th; Mompart, J.

    2016-07-01

    Adiabatic techniques are known to allow for engineering quantum states with high fidelity. This requirement is currently of large interest, as applications in quantum information require the preparation and manipulation of quantum states with minimal errors. Here we review recent progress on developing techniques for the preparation of spatial states through adiabatic passage, particularly focusing on three state systems. These techniques can be applied to matter waves in external potentials, such as cold atoms or electrons, and to classical waves in waveguides, such as light or sound.

  12. Spatial adiabatic passage: a review of recent progress.

    PubMed

    Menchon-Enrich, R; Benseny, A; Ahufinger, V; Greentree, A D; Busch, Th; Mompart, J

    2016-07-01

    Adiabatic techniques are known to allow for engineering quantum states with high fidelity. This requirement is currently of large interest, as applications in quantum information require the preparation and manipulation of quantum states with minimal errors. Here we review recent progress on developing techniques for the preparation of spatial states through adiabatic passage, particularly focusing on three state systems. These techniques can be applied to matter waves in external potentials, such as cold atoms or electrons, and to classical waves in waveguides, such as light or sound. PMID:27245462

  13. Stark-shift-chirped rapid-adiabatic-passage technique among three states

    SciTech Connect

    Rangelov, A. A.; Vitanov, N. V.; Yatsenko, L. P.; Shore, B. W.; Halfmann, T.; Bergmann, K.

    2005-11-15

    We show that the technique of Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP), hitherto used for complete population transfer between two quantum states, offers a simple and robust method for complete population transfer amongst three states in atoms and molecules. In this case SCRAP uses three laser pulses: a strong far-off-resonant pulse modifies the transition frequencies by inducing dynamic Stark shifts and thereby creating time-dependent level crossings amongst the three diabatic states, while near-resonant and moderately strong pump and Stokes pulses, appropriately offset in time, drive the population between the initial and final states via adiabatic passage. The population transfer efficiency is robust to variations in the intensities of the lasers, as long as these intensities are sufficiently large to enforce adiabatic evolution. With suitable pulse timings the population in the (possibly decaying) intermediate state can be minimized, as with stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). This technique applies to one-photon as well as multiphoton transitions and it is also applicable to media exhibiting inhomogeneous broadening; these features represent clear advantages over STIRAP by overcoming the inevitable dynamical Stark shifts that accompany multiphoton transitions as well as unwanted detunings, e.g., induced by Doppler shifts.

  14. Coherent tunnelling adiabatic passage in optical fibres using superimposed long-period fiber gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyagarajan, K.; Gupta, Ruchi

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the optical analogue of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) technique for three level atomic system in optical fibre geometry. Considering linearly polarized modes of an optical fibre, it is shown that using a pair of superimposed long-period gratings with peak refractive index perturbation varying spatially along the propagation axis, light can be transferred adiabatically from one core mode to another core mode via an intermediate cladding mode which itself does not get appreciably excited; thus acting like a dark mode. We compare the transmission spectrum of superimposed long-period gratings involved in adiabatic transfer with the transmission spectrum of conventional long-period grating. The analogue output is further analysed for its tolerance to the changes in the ambient refractive index, temperature and other fabrication parameters.

  15. Steady-state coherent transfer by adiabatic passage.

    PubMed

    Huneke, Jan; Platero, Gloria; Kohler, Sigmund

    2013-01-18

    We propose steady-state electron transport based on coherent transfer by adiabatic passage (CTAP) in a linearly arranged triple quantum dot with leads attached to the outer dots. Its main feature is repeated steering of single electrons from the first dot to the last dot without relevant occupation of the middle dot. The coupling to leads enables a steady-state current, whose shot noise is significantly suppressed provided that the CTAP protocol performs properly. This represents an indication for the direct transfer between spatially separated dots and, thus, may resolve the problem of finding experimental evidence for the nonoccupation of the middle dot. PMID:23373941

  16. Superposition of states by adiabatic passage in N-pod systems

    SciTech Connect

    Amniat-Talab, M.; Saadati-Niari, M.; Nader-Ali, R.; Guerin, S.

    2011-01-15

    We study the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique in an N-pod system driven by N pulsed fields when N-2 and N-1 pulses not connected to the initial state have the same shape. We show that, for properly timed pulses, robust population transfer from an initial ground state to an arbitrary coherent superposition of the ground states can be achieved in a single step. The case of N-2 pulses of the same shape involves a geometric phase of the same type as the one appearing in tripod systems.

  17. Spatial adiabatic passage via interaction-induced band separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benseny, Albert; Gillet, Jérémie; Busch, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The development of advanced quantum technologies and the quest for a deeper understanding of many-particle quantum mechanics requires control over the quantum state of interacting particles to a high degree of fidelity. However, the quickly increasing density of the spectrum, together with the appearance of crossings in time-dependent processes, makes any effort to control the system hard and resource intensive. Here we show that in trapped systems regimes can exist in which isolated energy bands appear that allow one to easily generalize known single-particle techniques. We demonstrate this for the well-known spatial adiabatic passage effect, which can control the center-of-mass state of atoms with high fidelity.

  18. Adiabatic passage with spin locking in Tm3+:YAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Winter, M. F.; Tongning, R. C.; Lauro, R.; Louchet-Chauvet, A.; Chanelière, T.; Le Gouët, J.-L.

    2012-08-01

    In low-concentration Tm3+:YAG, we observe efficient adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) of thulium nuclear spin over flipping times much longer than T2. Efficient ARP with long flipping time has been observed in monoatomic solids for decades and has been analyzed in terms of spin temperature and of the thermodynamic equilibrium of a coupled spin ensemble. In low-concentration impurity-doped crystals the spin temperature concept may be questioned. A single spin model should be preferred since the impurity ions are weakly coupled together but interact with the numerous off-resonant matrix ions that originate the spin-spin relaxation. The experiment takes place in the context of quantum information investigation, involving impurity-doped crystals, spin hyperpolarization by optical pumping, and optical detection of the spin evolution.

  19. Controlled Rapid Adiabatic Passage in a V-Type System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yunheung; Lee, Han-Gyeol; Jo, Hanlae; Ahn, Jaewook

    2016-05-01

    In chirped rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), chirp sign determines the final state to which the complete population transfer (CPT) occurs in a three-level V-type system. In this study, we show that laser intensity can be alternatively used as a control means in RAP, when the laser pulse is chirped and of a spectral hole resonant to one of the excited states. We verified such excitation selectivity in the experiment performed as-shaped femtosecond laser pulses interacting with the lowest three levels (5S, 5 P1/2, and 5 P3/2) of atomic rubidium. The successful demonstration implies that this intensity-dependent RAP in conjunction with laser beam profile programming may allow excitation selectivity for atoms or ions arranged in space.

  20. Coherently controlled adiabatic passage to multiple continuum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Thanopulos, Ioannis; Shapiro, Moshe

    2006-09-15

    We present a solution to the multichannel quantum control problem, where selective and complete population transfer from an initial bound state to M energetically degenerate continuum channels is achieved under loss-free conditions. The control is affected by adiabatic passage proceeding via N bound intermediate states, where even in the presence of real loss from these states, the control efficiency remains significant, about 40-50%. We illustrate the viability of the method by computationally controlling the CH{sub 3}(v)+I*({sup 2}P{sub 1/2})<-CH{sub 3}I{yields}CH{sub 3}(v)+I({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) multichannel photodissociation process.

  1. Adiabatic passage in photon-echo quantum memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeter, Gabor

    2013-11-01

    Photon-echo-based quantum memories use inhomogeneously broadened, optically thick ensembles of absorbers to store a weak optical signal and employ various protocols to rephase the atomic coherences for information retrieval. We study the application of two consecutive, frequency-chirped control pulses for coherence rephasing in an ensemble with a “natural” inhomogeneous broadening. Although propagation effects distort the two control pulses differently, chirped pulses that drive adiabatic passage can rephase atomic coherences in an optically thick storage medium. Combined with spatial phase-mismatching techniques to prevent primary echo emission, coherences can be rephased around the ground state to achieve secondary echo emission with close to unit efficiency. Potential advantages over similar schemes working with π pulses include greater potential signal fidelity, reduced noise due to spontaneous emission, and better capability for the storage of multiple memory channels.

  2. Experimental Progress Toward Multiple Adiabatic Rapid Passage Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, X.; Wertz, E.; Cohen, M. G.; Metcalf, H.

    2006-05-01

    Multiple repetitions of adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) sweeps with counterpropagating light beams can enable huge optical forces on atoms. The repetition rate of the ARP sweeps φsγ results in a force k φs/πk γ/2 ≡Frad where 1/γ≡τ is the excited state lifetime and Frad is the ordinary radiative force. This is because each pair of ARP-induced inversions can coherently transfer momentum ±2 k between the light beams, and thus 2 k to the atoms. In developing instruments for such experiments on the 2^3S1-> 2^3P2 transition at λ = 1083 nm in He, we exploit recent developments in the optical communications industry. We use commercial phase and intensity modulators of the LiNbO3 waveguide type having Vπ as low as 6 V and thus requiring relatively low rf power for the modulation. Synchronized driving of the two modulators can produce the necessary multiple ARP sequences of 10 ns chirped pulses that span several GHz, as needed for the experiment^3. We are also developing optical methods for characterizing these pulses. T. Lu, X. Miao, and H. Metcalf, Phys., Rev. A 71 061405(R) (2005).

  3. Geometry of an adiabatic passage at a level crossing

    SciTech Connect

    Cholascinski, Mateusz

    2005-06-15

    We discuss adiabatic quantum phenomena at a level crossing. Given a path in the parameter space which passes through a degeneracy point, we find a criterion which determines whether the adiabaticity condition can be satisfied. For paths that can be traversed adiabatically we also derive a differential equation which specifies the time dependence of the system parameters, for which transitions between distinct energy levels can be neglected. We also generalize the well-known geometric connections to the case of adiabatic paths containing arbitrarily many level-crossing points and degenerate levels.

  4. Shortcut to Adiabatic Passage in Two- and Three-Level Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xi; Lizuain, I.; Muga, J. G.; Ruschhaupt, A.; Guery-Odelin, D.

    2010-09-17

    We propose a method to speed up adiabatic passage techniques in two-level and three-level atoms extending to the short-time domain their robustness with respect to parameter variations. It supplements or substitutes the standard laser beam setups with auxiliary pulses that steer the system along the adiabatic path. Compared to other strategies, such as composite pulses or the original adiabatic techniques, it provides a fast and robust approach to population control.

  5. Fractional adiabatic passage in two-level systems: Mirrors and beam splitters for atomic interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, James; Freegarde, Tim

    2007-07-15

    Atom interferometers require atom mirrors and beam splitters that can maintain high fidelity even when experimental parameters vary from the ideal. We address the use of chirped laser pulses to provide such elements via rapid adiabatic passage, and present a prescription for practical pulses that offer controlled adiabaticity throughout. Full- and half-adiabatic pulses, providing mirrors and beam splitters, respectively, are derived, and the latter examined for robustness and suitability for experimental implementations.

  6. Spin-Label CW Microwave Power Saturation and Rapid Passage with Triangular Non-Adiabatic Rapid Sweep (NARS) and Adiabatic Rapid Passage (ARP) EPR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kittell, Aaron W.; Hyde, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Non-adiabatic rapid passage (NARS) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was introduced by Kittell, A.W., Camenisch, T.G., Ratke, J.J. Sidabras, J.W., Hyde, J.S., 2011 as a general purpose technique to collect the pure absorption response. The technique has been used to improve sensitivity relative to sinusoidal magnetic field modulation, increase the range of inter-spin distances that can be measured under near physiological conditions, and enhance spectral resolution in copper (II) spectra. In the present work, the method is extended to CW microwave power saturation of spin-labeled T4 Lysozyme (T4L). As in the cited papers, rapid triangular sweep of the polarizing magnetic field was superimposed on slow sweep across the spectrum. Adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) effects were encountered in samples undergoing very slow rotational diffusion as the triangular magnetic field sweep rate was increased. The paper reports results of variation of experimental parameters at the interface of adiabatic and non-adiabatic rapid sweep conditions. Comparison of the forward (up) and reverse (down) triangular sweeps is shown to be a good indicator of the presence of rapid passage effects. Spectral turning points can be distinguished from spectral regions between turning points in two ways: differential microwave power saturation and differential passage effects. Oxygen accessibility data are shown under NARS conditions that appear similar to conventional field modulation data. However, the sensitivity is much higher, permitting, in principle, experiments at substantially lower protein concentrations. Spectral displays were obtained that appear sensitive to rotational diffusion in the range of rotational correlation times of 10−3 to 10−7 s in a manner that is analogous to saturation transfer spectroscopy. PMID:25917132

  7. Spin-label CW microwave power saturation and rapid passage with triangular non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) and adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) EPR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittell, Aaron W.; Hyde, James S.

    2015-06-01

    Non-adiabatic rapid passage (NARS) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was introduced by Kittell et al. (2011) as a general purpose technique to collect the pure absorption response. The technique has been used to improve sensitivity relative to sinusoidal magnetic field modulation, increase the range of inter-spin distances that can be measured under near physiological conditions (Kittell et al., 2012), and enhance spectral resolution in copper (II) spectra (Hyde et al., 2013). In the present work, the method is extended to CW microwave power saturation of spin-labeled T4 Lysozyme (T4L). As in the cited papers, rapid triangular sweep of the polarizing magnetic field was superimposed on slow sweep across the spectrum. Adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) effects were encountered in samples undergoing very slow rotational diffusion as the triangular magnetic field sweep rate was increased. The paper reports results of variation of experimental parameters at the interface of adiabatic and non-adiabatic rapid sweep conditions. Comparison of the forward (up) and reverse (down) triangular sweeps is shown to be a good indicator of the presence of rapid passage effects. Spectral turning points can be distinguished from spectral regions between turning points in two ways: differential microwave power saturation and differential passage effects. Oxygen accessibility data are shown under NARS conditions that appear similar to conventional field modulation data. However, the sensitivity is much higher, permitting, in principle, experiments at substantially lower protein concentrations. Spectral displays were obtained that appear sensitive to rotational diffusion in the range of rotational correlation times of 10-3 to 10-7 s in a manner that is analogous to saturation transfer spectroscopy.

  8. Spin-label CW microwave power saturation and rapid passage with triangular non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) and adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kittell, Aaron W; Hyde, James S

    2015-06-01

    Non-adiabatic rapid passage (NARS) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was introduced by Kittell et al. (2011) as a general purpose technique to collect the pure absorption response. The technique has been used to improve sensitivity relative to sinusoidal magnetic field modulation, increase the range of inter-spin distances that can be measured under near physiological conditions (Kittell et al., 2012), and enhance spectral resolution in copper (II) spectra (Hyde et al., 2013). In the present work, the method is extended to CW microwave power saturation of spin-labeled T4 Lysozyme (T4L). As in the cited papers, rapid triangular sweep of the polarizing magnetic field was superimposed on slow sweep across the spectrum. Adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) effects were encountered in samples undergoing very slow rotational diffusion as the triangular magnetic field sweep rate was increased. The paper reports results of variation of experimental parameters at the interface of adiabatic and non-adiabatic rapid sweep conditions. Comparison of the forward (up) and reverse (down) triangular sweeps is shown to be a good indicator of the presence of rapid passage effects. Spectral turning points can be distinguished from spectral regions between turning points in two ways: differential microwave power saturation and differential passage effects. Oxygen accessibility data are shown under NARS conditions that appear similar to conventional field modulation data. However, the sensitivity is much higher, permitting, in principle, experiments at substantially lower protein concentrations. Spectral displays were obtained that appear sensitive to rotational diffusion in the range of rotational correlation times of 10(-3) to 10(-7) s in a manner that is analogous to saturation transfer spectroscopy. PMID:25917132

  9. Experimental implementation of adiabatic passage between different topological orders.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xinhua; Luo, Zhihuang; Zheng, Wenqiang; Kou, Supeng; Suter, Dieter; Du, Jiangfeng

    2014-08-22

    Topological orders are exotic phases of matter existing in strongly correlated quantum systems, which are beyond the usual symmetry description and cannot be distinguished by local order parameters. Here we report an experimental quantum simulation of the Wen-plaquette spin model with different topological orders in a nuclear magnetic resonance system, and observe the adiabatic transition between two Z(2) topological orders through a spin-polarized phase by measuring the nonlocal closed-string (Wilson loop) operator. Moreover, we also measure the entanglement properties of the topological orders. This work confirms the adiabatic method for preparing topologically ordered states and provides an experimental tool for further studies of complex quantum systems. PMID:25192080

  10. Protecting and accelerating adiabatic passage with time-delayed pulse sequences.

    PubMed

    Sampedro, Pablo; Chang, Bo Y; Sola, Ignacio R

    2016-05-21

    Using numerical simulations of two-photon electronic absorption with femtosecond pulses in Na2 we show that: (i) it is possible to avoid the characteristic saturation or dumped Rabi oscillations in the yield of absorption by time-delaying the laser pulses; (ii) it is possible to accelerate the onset of adiabatic passage by using the vibrational coherence starting in a wave packet; and (iii) it is possible to prepare the initial wave packet in order to achieve full state-selective transitions with broadband pulses. The findings can be used, for instance, to achieve ultrafast adiabatic passage by light-induced potentials and understand its intrinsic robustness. PMID:27125342

  11. Experimental demonstration of population inversion driven by retroreflection-induced bichromatic adiabatic passage

    SciTech Connect

    Conde, Alvaro Peralta; Yatsenko, Leonid P.; Klein, Jens; Oberst, Martin; Halfmann, Thomas

    2005-11-15

    We present experimental data to demonstrate coherently driven population inversion by retroreflection-induced bichromatic adiabatic passage in metastable helium atoms. Complete and robust population transfer from an initial to a target state is induced by coherent interaction of the atoms in a supersonic beam with two counterpropagating and temporally delayed laser pulses of different intensities. The radiation fields intersect the atomic beam slightly tilted away from normal incidence, thereby inducing Doppler shifts of the atomic resonance between the initial and the target state. Thus the laser pulses produce a bichromatic field in the rest frame of each atom, which induces complete coherent population transfer by an adiabatic passage process.

  12. Deterministic implementations of quantum gates with circuit QEDs via Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jingwei; Wei, L. F.

    2015-10-01

    We show that a set of universal quantum gates could be implemented robustly in a circuit QED system by using Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP) technique. Under the adiabatic limit we find that the population transfers could be deterministically passaged from one selected quantum states to the others, and thus the desired quantum gates can be implemented. The proposed SCRAP-based gates are insensitive to the details of the operations and thus relax the designs of the applied pulses, operational imperfections, and the decoherence of the system.

  13. Nonlinear Adiabatic Passage from Fermion Atoms to Boson Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Pazy, E.; Tikhonenkov, I.; Band, Y.B.; Vardi, A.; Fleischhauer, M.

    2005-10-21

    We study the dynamics of an adiabatic sweep through a Feshbach resonance in a quantum gas of fermionic atoms. Analysis of the dynamical equations, supported by mean-field and many-body numerical results, shows that the dependence of the remaining atomic fraction {gamma} on the sweep rate {alpha} varies from exponential Landau-Zener behavior for a single pair of particles to a power-law dependence for large particle number N. The power law is linear, {gamma}{proportional_to}{alpha}, when the initial molecular fraction is smaller than the 1/N quantum fluctuations, and {gamma}{proportional_to}{alpha}{sup 1/3} when it is larger. Experimental data agree well with a linear dependence, but do not conclusively rule out the Landau-Zener model.

  14. Many-body effects on adiabatic passage through Feshbach resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Tikhonenkov, I.; Pazy, E.; Band, Y. B.; Vardi, A.; Fleischhauer, M.

    2006-04-15

    We theoretically study the dynamics of an adiabatic sweep through a Feshbach resonance, thereby converting a degenerate quantum gas of fermionic atoms into a degenerate quantum gas of bosonic dimers. Our analysis relies on a zero temperature mean-field theory which accurately accounts for initial molecular quantum fluctuations, triggering the association process. The structure of the resulting semiclassical phase space is investigated, highlighting the dynamical instability of the system towards association, for sufficiently small detuning from resonance. It is shown that this instability significantly modifies the finite-rate efficiency of the sweep, transforming the single-pair exponential Landau-Zener behavior of the remnant fraction of atoms {gamma} on sweep rate {alpha}, into a power-law dependence as the number of atoms increases. The obtained nonadiabaticity is determined from the interplay of characteristic time scales for the motion of adiabatic eigenstates and for fast periodic motion around them. Critical slowing-down of these precessions near the instability leads to the power-law dependence. A linear power law {gamma}{proportional_to}{alpha} is obtained when the initial molecular fraction is smaller than the 1/N quantum fluctuations, and a cubic-root power law {gamma}{proportional_to}{alpha}{sup 1/3} is attained when it is larger. Our mean-field analysis is confirmed by exact calculations, using Fock-space expansions. Finally, we fit experimental low temperature Feshbach sweep data with a power-law dependence. While the agreement with the experimental data is well within experimental error bars, similar accuracy can be obtained with an exponential fit, making additional data highly desirable.

  15. Adiabatic Tip-Plasmon Focusing for Nano-Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Berweger, Samuel; Atkin, Joanna M.; Olmon, Robert L.; Raschke, Markus Bernd

    2010-12-16

    True nanoscale optical spectroscopy requires the efficient delivery of light for a spatially nanoconfined excitation. We utilize adiabatic plasmon focusing to concentrate an optical field into the apex of a scanning probe tip of {approx}10 nm in radius. The conical tips with the ability for two-stage optical mode matching of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) grating-coupling and the adiabatic propagating SPP conversion into a localized SPP at the tip apex represent a special optical antenna concept for far-field transduction into nanoscale excitation. The resulting high nanofocusing efficiency and the spatial separation of the plasmonic grating coupling element on the tip shaft from the near-field apex probe region allows for true background-free nanospectroscopy. As an application, we demonstrate tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) of surface molecules with enhanced contrast and its extension into the near-IR with 800 nm excitation.

  16. Efficient shortcuts to adiabatic passage for three-dimensional entanglement generation via transitionless quantum driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shuang; Su, Shi-Lei; Wang, Dong-Yang; Sun, Wen-Mei; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-08-01

    We propose an effective scheme of shortcuts to adiabaticity for generating a three-dimensional entanglement of two atoms trapped in a cavity using the transitionless quantum driving (TQD) approach. The key point of this approach is to construct an effective Hamiltonian that drives the dynamics of a system along instantaneous eigenstates of a reference Hamiltonian to reproduce the same final state as that of an adiabatic process within a much shorter time. In this paper, the shortcuts to adiabatic passage are constructed by introducing two auxiliary excited levels in each atom and applying extra cavity modes and classical fields to drive the relevant transitions. Thereby, the three-dimensional entanglement is obtained with a faster rate than that in the adiabatic passage. Moreover, the influences of atomic spontaneous emission and photon loss on the fidelity are discussed by numerical simulation. The results show that the speed of entanglement implementation is greatly improved by the use of adiabatic shortcuts and that this entanglement implementation is robust against decoherence. This will be beneficial to the preparation of high-dimensional entanglement in experiment and provides the necessary conditions for the application of high-dimensional entangled states in quantum information processing.

  17. Efficient shortcuts to adiabatic passage for three-dimensional entanglement generation via transitionless quantum driving

    PubMed Central

    He, Shuang; Su, Shi-Lei; Wang, Dong-Yang; Sun, Wen-Mei; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-01-01

    We propose an effective scheme of shortcuts to adiabaticity for generating a three-dimensional entanglement of two atoms trapped in a cavity using the transitionless quantum driving (TQD) approach. The key point of this approach is to construct an effective Hamiltonian that drives the dynamics of a system along instantaneous eigenstates of a reference Hamiltonian to reproduce the same final state as that of an adiabatic process within a much shorter time. In this paper, the shortcuts to adiabatic passage are constructed by introducing two auxiliary excited levels in each atom and applying extra cavity modes and classical fields to drive the relevant transitions. Thereby, the three-dimensional entanglement is obtained with a faster rate than that in the adiabatic passage. Moreover, the influences of atomic spontaneous emission and photon loss on the fidelity are discussed by numerical simulation. The results show that the speed of entanglement implementation is greatly improved by the use of adiabatic shortcuts and that this entanglement implementation is robust against decoherence. This will be beneficial to the preparation of high-dimensional entanglement in experiment and provides the necessary conditions for the application of high-dimensional entangled states in quantum information processing. PMID:27499169

  18. Efficient shortcuts to adiabatic passage for three-dimensional entanglement generation via transitionless quantum driving.

    PubMed

    He, Shuang; Su, Shi-Lei; Wang, Dong-Yang; Sun, Wen-Mei; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-01-01

    We propose an effective scheme of shortcuts to adiabaticity for generating a three-dimensional entanglement of two atoms trapped in a cavity using the transitionless quantum driving (TQD) approach. The key point of this approach is to construct an effective Hamiltonian that drives the dynamics of a system along instantaneous eigenstates of a reference Hamiltonian to reproduce the same final state as that of an adiabatic process within a much shorter time. In this paper, the shortcuts to adiabatic passage are constructed by introducing two auxiliary excited levels in each atom and applying extra cavity modes and classical fields to drive the relevant transitions. Thereby, the three-dimensional entanglement is obtained with a faster rate than that in the adiabatic passage. Moreover, the influences of atomic spontaneous emission and photon loss on the fidelity are discussed by numerical simulation. The results show that the speed of entanglement implementation is greatly improved by the use of adiabatic shortcuts and that this entanglement implementation is robust against decoherence. This will be beneficial to the preparation of high-dimensional entanglement in experiment and provides the necessary conditions for the application of high-dimensional entangled states in quantum information processing. PMID:27499169

  19. Multi-atom entanglement engineering and phase-covariant cloning via adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shi-Biao

    2005-05-01

    A scheme is proposed for the generation of entangled states for multiple atoms trapped in an optical cavity via adiabatic passage. In the scheme, both the atomic system and the cavity have no probability of being excited. Thus both the atomic spontaneous emission and the cavity decay are suppressed, which makes our scheme very robust against decoherence. Taking advantage of the adiabatic process, the scheme does not require accurate adjustment of the interaction time. Furthermore, the scheme is scalable in principle. The idea can also be used for realizing phase-covariant cloning.

  20. Shortcuts to adiabatic passage for generation of W states of distant atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kun-Huang; Chen, Ming-Feng

    2016-08-01

    With the help of quantum Zeno dynamics, we propose fast and noise-resistant schemes for preparing the W states in the indirectly coupled cavity systems via the inverse engineering-based Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant (IBLR). Comparing with the original adiabatic passage method, the results show that the time needed to prepare the desired state is reduced and the effects of the atomic spontaneous emission and the cavity decay on the fidelity are suppressed. Moreover, this scheme can also be generalized to generation of N-atom W states. Not only the total operation time, but also the robustness against decoherence is insensitive to the number of atoms. It proves that our scheme is useful in scalable distributed quantum information processing and contributes to the understanding of more complex systems via shortcuts to adiabatic passage based on Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants.

  1. Quantum state transfer between atomic ensembles trapped in separate cavities via adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chun-Ling; Chen, Mei-Feng

    2015-07-01

    We propose a new approach for quantum state transfer (QST) between atomic ensembles separately trapped in two distant cavities connected by an optical fiber via adiabatic passage. The three-level Λ-type atoms in each ensemble dispersively interact with the nonresonant classical field and cavity mode. By choosing appropriate parameters of the system, the effective Hamiltonian describes two atomic ensembles interacting with “the same cavity mode” and has a dark state. Consequently, the QST between atomic ensembles can be implemented via adiabatic passage. Numerical calculations show that the scheme is robust against moderate fluctuations of the experimental parameters. In addition, the effect of decoherence can be suppressed effectively. The idea provides a scalable way to an atomic-ensemble-based quantum network, which may be reachable with currently available technology. Project supported by the Funding (type B) from the Fujian Education Department, China (Grant No. JB13261).

  2. Quantum state engineering with flux-biased Josephson phase qubits by rapid adiabatic passages

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, W.; Huang, J. S.; Shi, X.; Wei, L. F.

    2010-09-15

    In this article, the scheme of quantum computing based on the Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP) technique [L. F. Wei, J. R. Johansson, L. X. Cen, S. Ashhab, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113601 (2008)] is extensively applied to implement quantum state manipulations in flux-biased Josephson phase qubits. The broken-parity symmetries of bound states in flux-biased Josephson junctions are utilized to conveniently generate the desirable Stark shifts. Then, assisted by various transition pulses, universal quantum logic gates as well as arbitrary quantum state preparations can be implemented. Compared with the usual {pi}-pulse operations widely used in experiments, the adiabatic population passages proposed here are insensitive to the details of the applied pulses and thus the desirable population transfers can be satisfyingly implemented. The experimental feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.

  3. Single-photon emission of two-level system via rapid adiabatic passage

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Qiang; Zheng, Yujun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a high quality single-photon source based on the two-level system undergoing rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). A trigger strategy (sweet region) is suggested to optimize the single-photon emission and explain a counter-intuitive phenomenon on the optimal parameters. The RAP strategy of single-photon source is robust against control error and environmental fluctuation. PMID:27601295

  4. Multiqubit controlled unitary gate by adiabatic passage with an optical cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Hayato; Ichimura, Kouichi

    2004-07-01

    A new implementation of quantum gates by adiabatic passage with an optical cavity is proposed. This implementation allows one to perform not only elementary gates, such as one-qubit gates and a controlled-NOT gate, but also multiqubit controlled unitary gates. Some quantum gates are numerically simulated. From the simulation results, it is concluded that this implementation of the three-qubit controlled gates is more efficient than decomposing into the elementary gates.

  5. Single-photon emission of two-level system via rapid adiabatic passage.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qiang; Zheng, Yujun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a high quality single-photon source based on the two-level system undergoing rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). A trigger strategy (sweet region) is suggested to optimize the single-photon emission and explain a counter-intuitive phenomenon on the optimal parameters. The RAP strategy of single-photon source is robust against control error and environmental fluctuation. PMID:27601295

  6. Fast CNOT gate between two spatially separated atoms via shortcuts to adiabatic passage.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Song, Chong; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou

    2015-09-01

    Quantum logic gate is indispensable to quantum computation. One of the important qubit operations is the quantum controlled-not (CNOT) gate that performs a NOT operation on a target qubit depending on the state of the control qubit. In this paper we present a scheme to realize the quantum CNOT gate between two spatially separated atoms via shortcuts to adiabatic passage. The influence of various decoherence processes on the fidelity is discussed. The strict numerical simulation results show that the fidelity for the CNOT gate is relatively high. PMID:26368473

  7. Deterministic single-atom excitation via adiabatic passage and Rydberg blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Beterov, I. I.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Entin, V. M.; Yakshina, E. A.; Ryabtsev, I. I.; MacCormick, C.; Bergamini, S.

    2011-08-15

    We propose to use adiabatic rapid passage with a chirped laser pulse in the strong dipole blockade regime to deterministically excite only one Rydberg atom from randomly loaded optical dipole traps or optical lattices. The chirped laser excitation is shown to be insensitive to the random number N of the atoms in the traps. Our method overcomes the problem of the {radical}(N) dependence of the collective Rabi frequency, which was the main obstacle for deterministic single-atom excitation in the ensembles with unknown N, and can be applied for single-atom loading of dipole traps and optical lattices.

  8. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Entangled W State Generation via Adiabatic Passage in Cavity QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Song-She

    2010-09-01

    A scheme is proposed to generate W state of N atoms trapped in a cavity, based on adiabatic passage along dark state. Taking advantage of adiabatic passage, the atoms have no probability of being excited and thus the atomic spontaneous emission is suppressed. The scheme is simple. It does not need to adjust the interaction time accurately, and does not need to prepare the cavity field in one-photon state. Numerical simulation shows that the successful probability of the scheme increases with the increasing of the atom number.

  9. Quantum state specific reactant preparation in a molecular beam by rapid adiabatic passage

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, Helen Hundt, P. Morten; Reijzen, Maarten E. van; Yoder, Bruce L.; Beck, Rainer D.

    2014-01-21

    Highly efficient preparation of molecules in a specific rovibrationally excited state for gas/surface reactivity measurements is achieved in a molecular beam using tunable infrared (IR) radiation from a single mode continuous wave optical parametric oscillator (cw-OPO). We demonstrate that with appropriate focusing of the IR radiation, molecules in the molecular beam crossing the fixed frequency IR field experience a Doppler tuning that can be adjusted to achieve complete population inversion of a two-level system by rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). A room temperature pyroelectric detector is used to monitor the excited fraction in the molecular beam and the population inversion is detected and quantified using IR bleaching by a second IR-OPO. The second OPO is also used for complete population transfer to an overtone or combination vibration via double resonance excitation using two spatially separated RAP processes.

  10. Quantum state specific reactant preparation in a molecular beam by rapid adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, Helen; Hundt, P. Morten; van Reijzen, Maarten E.; Yoder, Bruce L.; Beck, Rainer D.

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient preparation of molecules in a specific rovibrationally excited state for gas/surface reactivity measurements is achieved in a molecular beam using tunable infrared (IR) radiation from a single mode continuous wave optical parametric oscillator (cw-OPO). We demonstrate that with appropriate focusing of the IR radiation, molecules in the molecular beam crossing the fixed frequency IR field experience a Doppler tuning that can be adjusted to achieve complete population inversion of a two-level system by rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). A room temperature pyroelectric detector is used to monitor the excited fraction in the molecular beam and the population inversion is detected and quantified using IR bleaching by a second IR-OPO. The second OPO is also used for complete population transfer to an overtone or combination vibration via double resonance excitation using two spatially separated RAP processes.

  11. Generation of tree-type three-dimensional entangled states via adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chong; Su, Shi-Lei; Wu, Jin-Lei; Wang, Dong-Yang; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou

    2016-06-01

    We propose a scheme for generating a type of novel tree-type three-dimensional entangled state. In the scheme, an atom and two Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are individually trapped in three spatially separated optical cavities which are connected by two optical fibers. Because the system evolves along the dark state via adiabatic passage, the populations of the intermediate excited states of the atom and BECs are so negligible that the influence of atomic spontaneous radiation on the fidelity is restrained. In addition, because of the certain limit condition used, the cavity decay and fiber loss are efficiently suppressed. This novel three-dimensional entangled state is likely to have applications for improving quantum communication security.

  12. High-fidelity composite adiabatic passage in nonlinear two-level systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Fu-Quan; Cao, Hui; Liu, Jie; Fu, Li-Bin

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the composite adiabatic passage (CAP) reported by B. T. Torosov et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 233001 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.233001] in a nonlinear two-level system in which the level energies depend on the occupation of the levels, representing a mean-field type of interaction between the particles. A high-fidelity, fast, and robust quantum manipulation is achieved in the system. We consider the effect of interparticle interaction and find that it tends to increase the number of the pulse sequences. The CAP technique can suppress the nonadiabatic oscillations below the quantum-information benchmark 10-4, as long as there exist sufficiently long composite sequences. We analyze the robustness against the variations in the field parameters. The difference between the nonlinear and linear systems on the CAP technique is also discussed.

  13. Quantum state specific reactant preparation in a molecular beam by rapid adiabatic passage.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Helen; Hundt, P Morten; van Reijzen, Maarten E; Yoder, Bruce L; Beck, Rainer D

    2014-01-21

    Highly efficient preparation of molecules in a specific rovibrationally excited state for gas/surface reactivity measurements is achieved in a molecular beam using tunable infrared (IR) radiation from a single mode continuous wave optical parametric oscillator (cw-OPO). We demonstrate that with appropriate focusing of the IR radiation, molecules in the molecular beam crossing the fixed frequency IR field experience a Doppler tuning that can be adjusted to achieve complete population inversion of a two-level system by rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). A room temperature pyroelectric detector is used to monitor the excited fraction in the molecular beam and the population inversion is detected and quantified using IR bleaching by a second IR-OPO. The second OPO is also used for complete population transfer to an overtone or combination vibration via double resonance excitation using two spatially separated RAP processes. PMID:25669393

  14. Adiabatic and fast passage ultra-wideband inversion in pulsed EPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doll, Andrin; Pribitzer, Stephan; Tschaggelar, René; Jeschke, Gunnar

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate that adiabatic and fast passage ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses can achieve inversion over several hundreds of MHz and thus enhance the measurement sensitivity, as shown by two selected experiments. Technically, frequency-swept pulses are generated by a 12 GS/s arbitrary waveform generator and upconverted to X-band frequencies. This pulsed UWB source is utilized as an incoherent channel in an ordinary pulsed EPR spectrometer. We discuss experimental methodologies and modeling techniques to account for the response of the resonator, which can strongly limit the excitation bandwidth of the entire non-linear excitation chain. Aided by these procedures, pulses compensated for bandwidth or variations in group delay reveal enhanced inversion efficiency. The degree of bandwidth compensation is shown to depend critically on the time available for excitation. As a result, we demonstrate optimized inversion recovery and double electron electron resonance (DEER) experiments. First, virtually complete inversion of the nitroxide spectrum with an adiabatic pulse of 128 ns length is achieved. Consequently, spectral diffusion between inverted and non-inverted spins is largely suppressed and the observation bandwidth can be increased to increase measurement sensitivity. Second, DEER is performed on a terpyridine-based copper (II) complex with a nitroxide-copper distance of 2.5 nm. As previously demonstrated on this complex, when pumping copper spins and observing nitroxide spins, the modulation depth is severely limited by the excitation bandwidth of the pump pulse. By using fast passage UWB pulses with a maximum length of 64 ns, we achieve up to threefold enhancement of the modulation depth. Associated artifacts in distance distributions when increasing the bandwidth of the pump pulse are shown to be small.

  15. Optimised adiabatic fast passage spin flipping for 3He neutron spin filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKetterick, T. J.; Boag, S.; Stewart, J. R.; Frost, C. D.; Skoda, M. W. A.; Parnell, S. R.; Babcock, E.

    2011-06-01

    We describe here a method of performing adiabatic fast passage (AFP) spin flipping of polarized 3He used as a neutron spin filter (NSF) to polarize neutron beams. By reversing the spin states of the 3He nuclei the polarization of a neutron beam can be efficiently reversed allowing for the transmission of a neutron beam polarized in either spin state. Using an amplitude modulated frequency sweep lasting 500 ms we can spin flip a polarized 3He neutron spin filter with only 1.8×10-5 loss in 3He polarization. The small magnetic fields (10-15 G) used to house neutron spin filters mean the 3He resonant frequencies are low enough to be generated using a computer with a digital I/O card. The versatility of this systems allows AFP to be performed on any beamline or in any laboratory using 3He neutron spin filters and polarization losses can be minimised by adjusting sweep parameters.

  16. Multi-resonance effects within a single chirp in broadband rotational spectroscopy: The rapid adiabatic passage regime for benzonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, David; Alvin Shubert, V.; Betz, Thomas; Schnell, Melanie

    2012-10-01

    We report here pronounced, stepwise multi-resonance excitations in benzonitrile arising from a single 1 μs broadband 2-8.3 GHz microwave chirp, observed with our new chirped-pulse broadband rotational spectrometer, COMPACT. Such multi-resonance excitations significantly alter the relative intensity patterns and are a strong indication that, for the given experimental conditions and using benzonitrile as a polar test molecule (μA = 4.5152 D), the rapid adiabatic passage (RAP) regime for strong coupling must be applied. This finding is contrary to previous discussions of chirped-pulse rotational spectroscopy, where the linear fast passage regime of weak coupling has been assumed.

  17. Adiabatic fast passage application in solid state NMR study of cross relaxation and molecular dynamics in heteronuclear systems.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, M; Woźniak-Braszak, A; Jurga, K

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the benefits of using fast adiabatic passage for the study of molecular dynamics in the solid state heteronuclear systems in the laboratory frame. A homemade pulse spectrometer operating at the frequency of 30.2MHz and 28.411MHz for protons and fluorines, respectively, has been enhanced with microcontroller direct digital synthesizer DDS controller [1-4]. This work briefly describes how to construct a low-cost and easy-to-assemble adiabatic extension set for homemade and commercial spectrometers based on recently very popular Arduino shields. The described set was designed for fast adiabatic generation. Timing and synchronization problems are discussed. The cross-relaxation experiments with different initial states of the two spin systems have been performed. Contrary to our previous work [5] where the steady-state NOE experiments were conducted now proton spins (1)H are polarized in the magnetic field B0 while fluorine spins (19)F are perturbed by selective saturation for a short time and then the system is allowed to evolve for a period in the absence of a saturating field. The adiabatic passage application leads to a reversal of magnetization of fluorine spins and increases the amplitude of the signal. PMID:26705906

  18. Adiabatic fast passage application in solid state NMR study of cross relaxation and molecular dynamics in heteronuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranowski, M.; Woźniak-Braszak, A.; Jurga, K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the benefits of using fast adiabatic passage for the study of molecular dynamics in the solid state heteronuclear systems in the laboratory frame. A homemade pulse spectrometer operating at the frequency of 30.2 MHz and 28.411 MHz for protons and fluorines, respectively, has been enhanced with microcontroller direct digital synthesizer DDS controller [1-4]. This work briefly describes how to construct a low-cost and easy-to-assemble adiabatic extension set for homemade and commercial spectrometers based on recently very popular Arduino shields. The described set was designed for fast adiabatic generation. Timing and synchronization problems are discussed. The cross-relaxation experiments with different initial states of the two spin systems have been performed. Contrary to our previous work [5] where the steady-state NOE experiments were conducted now proton spins 1H are polarized in the magnetic field B0 while fluorine spins 19F are perturbed by selective saturation for a short time and then the system is allowed to evolve for a period in the absence of a saturating field. The adiabatic passage application leads to a reversal of magnetization of fluorine spins and increases the amplitude of the signal.

  19. Shortcuts to adiabatic passage for fast generation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states by transitionless quantum driving

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ye-Hong; Xia, Yan; Song, Jie; Chen, Qing-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Berry’s approach on “transitionless quantum driving” shows how to set a Hamiltonian which drives the dynamics of a system along instantaneous eigenstates of a reference Hamiltonian to reproduce the same final result of an adiabatic process in a shorter time. In this paper, motivated by transitionless quantum driving, we construct shortcuts to adiabatic passage in a three-atom system to create the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states with the help of quantum Zeno dynamics and of non-resonant lasers. The influence of various decoherence processes is discussed by numerical simulation and the result proves that the scheme is fast and robust against decoherence and operational imperfection. PMID:26508283

  20. Filtering of matter-wave vibrational states via spatial adiabatic passage

    SciTech Connect

    Loiko, Yu.; Ahufinger, V.; Corbalan, R.; Mompart, J.; Birkl, G.

    2011-03-15

    We discuss the filtering of the vibrational states of a cold atom in an optical trap by chaining this trap with two empty ones and adiabatically controlling the tunneling. Matter-wave filtering is performed by selectively transferring the population of the highest populated vibrational state to the most distant trap while the population of the rest of the states remains in the initial trap. Analytical conditions for two-state filtering are derived and then applied to an arbitrary number of populated bound states. Realistic numerical simulations close to state-of-the-art experimental arrangements are performed by modeling the triple well with time-dependent Poeschl-Teller potentials. In addition to filtering of vibrational states, we discuss applications for quantum tomography of the initial population distribution and engineering of atomic Fock states that, eventually, could be used for tunneling-assisted evaporative cooling.

  1. Laminar-Turbulent Transition in Raman Fiber Lasers: A First Passage Statistics Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Amit K.; Nasiev, Diar; Sugavanam, Srikanth; Tarasov, Nikita; Churkin, Dmitry V.

    2016-01-01

    Loss of coherence with increasing excitation amplitudes and spatial size modulation is a fundamental problem in designing Raman fiber lasers. While it is known that ramping up laser pump power increases the amplitude of stochastic excitations, such higher energy inputs can also lead to a transition from a linearly stable coherent laminar regime to a non-desirable disordered turbulent state. This report presents a new statistical methodology, based on first passage statistics, that classifies lasing regimes in Raman fiber lasers, thereby leading to a fast and highly accurate identification of a strong instability leading to a laminar-turbulent phase transition through a self-consistently defined order parameter. The results have been consistent across a wide range of pump power values, heralding a breakthrough in the non-invasive analysis of fiber laser dynamics. PMID:27349282

  2. Laminar-Turbulent Transition in Raman Fiber Lasers: A First Passage Statistics Based Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Amit K.; Nasiev, Diar; Sugavanam, Srikanth; Tarasov, Nikita; Churkin, Dmitry V.

    2016-06-01

    Loss of coherence with increasing excitation amplitudes and spatial size modulation is a fundamental problem in designing Raman fiber lasers. While it is known that ramping up laser pump power increases the amplitude of stochastic excitations, such higher energy inputs can also lead to a transition from a linearly stable coherent laminar regime to a non-desirable disordered turbulent state. This report presents a new statistical methodology, based on first passage statistics, that classifies lasing regimes in Raman fiber lasers, thereby leading to a fast and highly accurate identification of a strong instability leading to a laminar-turbulent phase transition through a self-consistently defined order parameter. The results have been consistent across a wide range of pump power values, heralding a breakthrough in the non-invasive analysis of fiber laser dynamics.

  3. Laminar-Turbulent Transition in Raman Fiber Lasers: A First Passage Statistics Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Amit K; Nasiev, Diar; Sugavanam, Srikanth; Tarasov, Nikita; Churkin, Dmitry V

    2016-01-01

    Loss of coherence with increasing excitation amplitudes and spatial size modulation is a fundamental problem in designing Raman fiber lasers. While it is known that ramping up laser pump power increases the amplitude of stochastic excitations, such higher energy inputs can also lead to a transition from a linearly stable coherent laminar regime to a non-desirable disordered turbulent state. This report presents a new statistical methodology, based on first passage statistics, that classifies lasing regimes in Raman fiber lasers, thereby leading to a fast and highly accurate identification of a strong instability leading to a laminar-turbulent phase transition through a self-consistently defined order parameter. The results have been consistent across a wide range of pump power values, heralding a breakthrough in the non-invasive analysis of fiber laser dynamics. PMID:27349282

  4. Adiabatic passage for one-step generation of n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states of superconducting qubits via quantum Zeno dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jin-Lei; Song, Chong; Xu, Jing; Yu, Lin; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou

    2016-06-01

    An efficient scheme is proposed for generating n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states of n superconducting qubits separated by (n-1 ) coplanar waveguide resonators capacitively via adiabatic passage with the help of quantum Zeno dynamics in one step. In the scheme, it is not necessary to precisely control the time of the whole operation and the Rabi frequencies of classical fields because of the introduction of adiabatic passage. The numerical simulations for three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state show that the scheme is insensitive to the dissipation of the resonators and the energy relaxation of the superconducting qubits. The three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state can be deterministically generated with comparatively high fidelity in the current experimental conditions, though the scheme is somewhat sensitive to the dephasing of superconducting qubits.

  5. Application of an unstructured Navier-Stokes code to prediction of adiabatic effectiveness of endwall flush-slot-cooling for a stator vane passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Evgueni M.; Smirnov, Paul E.

    2008-06-01

    A three-dimensional unstructured finite-volume code developed for RANS computations with the artificial compressibility approach is described. The code is applied to prediction of adiabatic effectiveness of endwall flush-slot-cooling for a stator vane passage. Results obtained with the Spalart-Allmaras and the Menter SST turbulence models are presented and discussed in comparison with measurements and with the data computed using the FLUENT commercial software package.

  6. Scanning Raman lidar measurements of atmospheric water vapor during a cold frontal passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Melfi, S. H.; Starr, D. O. C.; Ferrare, R. A.; Evans, K. D.; Lare, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) had a highly successful deployment at the Department of Energy Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site in Billings, OK during April, 1994 for the first Intensive Operation Period (IOP) hosted there. During the IOP, the SRL operated from just after sundown to just before sunrise for all declared evenings of operation. The lidar acquired more than 123 hours of data over 15 nights with less than 1 hour of data lost due to minor system malfunction. The SRL acquired data both on the vertical and in scanning mode toward an instrumented 60 m tower during various meteorological conditions such as an intense cold frontal passage on April 15 which is the focus of this presentation.

  7. A homonuclear spin-pair filter for solid-state NMR based on adiabatic-passage techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verel, René; Baldus, Marc; Ernst, Matthias; Meier, Beat H.

    1998-05-01

    A filtering scheme for the selection of spin pairs (and larger spin clusters) under fast magic-angle spinning is proposed. The scheme exploits the avoided level crossing in spin pairs during an adiabatic amplitude sweep through the so-called HORROR recoupling condition. The advantages over presently used double-quantum filters are twofold. (i) The maximum theoretical filter efficiency is, due to the adiabatic variation, 100% instead of 73% as for transient methods. (ii) Since the filter does not rely on the phase-cycling properties of the double-quantum coherence, there is no need to obtain the full double-quantum intensity for all spins in the sample at one single point in time. The only important requirement is that all coupled spins pass through a two-spin state during the amplitude sweep. This makes the pulse scheme robust with respect to rf-amplitude missetting, rf-field inhomogeneity and chemical-shift offset.

  8. Efficient production of polar molecular Bose-Einstein condensates via an all-optical R-type atom-molecule adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jing; Zhou, Lu; Zhang, Keye; Zhang, Weiping

    2010-03-01

    We propose a scheme of 'R-type' photoassociative adiabatic passage (PAP) to create polar molecular condensates from two different species of ultracold atoms. Due to the presence of a quasi-coherent population trapping state in the scheme, it is possible to associate atoms into molecules with a low-power photoassociation (PA) laser. One remarkable advantage of our scheme is that a tunable atom-molecule coupling strength can be achieved by using a time-dependent PA field, which exhibits larger flexibility than using a tunable magnetic field. In addition, our results show that the PA intensity required in the 'R-type' PAP could be greatly reduced compared to that in a conventional 'Λ-type' one.

  9. Generation of multi-wavelength picosecond pulses with tunable pulsewidth and channel spacing using a Raman amplification-based adiabatic soliton compressor.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-The, Quang; Tan, Hung Nguyen; Matsuura, Motoharu; Kishi, Naoto

    2012-01-16

    We experimentally demonstrate pulsewidth-tunable picosecond multi-wavelength pulse generation at 10 Gb/s by the use of a Raman amplification-based adiabatic soliton compressor (RA-ASC). Multi-wavelength seed pulse trains are generated by a commercially available electroabsorption modulator and then compressed by using the RA-ASC. The pulsewidths of the compressed pulses can be simultaneously controlled from 16.0 ps to 2.0 ps by adjusting Raman pump power. Operating wavelength range of our scheme are also investigated, showing the possibility for wide channel spacing operations. PMID:22274467

  10. Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Cirrus Clouds During the Passage of Hurricane Bonnie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Demoz, B.; Starr, D. OC; Tobin, D.; Feltz, W.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Gutman, S. I.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Cardirola, M.; Melfi, S. H.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island in the Bahamas during August - September, 1998 as a part of the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) which focussed on hurricane development and tracking. During the period August 21 - 24, hurricane Bonnie passed near Andros Island and influenced the water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements acquired by the SRL. Two drying signatures related to the hurricane were recorded by the SRL (Scanning Raman Lidar) and other sensors. Cirrus cloud optical depths (at 351 nm) were also measured during this period. Optical depth values ranged from approximately 0.01 to 1.4. The influence of multiple scattering on these optical depth measurements was studied with the conclusion that the measured values of optical depth are less than the actual value by up to 20% . The UV/IR cirrus cloud optical depth ratio was estimated based on a comparison of lidar and GOES measurements. Simple radiative transfer model calculations compared with GOES satellite brightness temperatures indicate that satellite radiances are significantly affected by the presence of cirrus clouds if IR optical depths are approximately 0.02 or greater. This has implications for satellite cirrus detection requirements.

  11. Speeding up Adiabatic Quantum State Transfer by Using Dressed States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksic, Alexandre; Ribeiro, Hugo; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2016-06-01

    We develop new pulse schemes to significantly speed up adiabatic state transfer protocols. Our general strategy involves adding corrections to an initial control Hamiltonian that harness nonadiabatic transitions. These corrections define a set of dressed states that the system follows exactly during the state transfer. We apply this approach to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage protocols and show that a suitable choice of dressed states allows one to design fast protocols that do not require additional couplings, while simultaneously minimizing the occupancy of the "intermediate" level.

  12. Wireless adiabatic power transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Rangelov, A.A.; Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y.; Vitanov, N.V.

    2011-03-15

    Research Highlights: > Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. > The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

  13. Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Cirrus Clouds During The Passage of Hurricane Bonnie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Demoz, B.; Starr, D OC.; Eloranta, E. W.; Tobin, D.; Feltz, W.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Gutman, S. I.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island in the Bahamas during August - September, 1998 as a part of the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) which focussed on hurricane development and tracking. During the period August 21 - 24, hurricane Bonnie passed near Andros Island and influenced the water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements acquired by the SRL. Two drying signatures related to the hurricane were recorded by the SRL and other sensors. Cirrus cloud optical depths (at 351 nm) were also measured during this period. Optical depth values ranged from less than 0.01 to 1.5. The influence of multiple scattering on these optical depth measurements was studied. A correction technique is presented which minimizes the influences of multiple scattering and derives information about cirrus cloud optical and physical properties. The UV/IR cirrus cloud optical depth ratio was estimated based on a comparison of lidar and GOES measurements. Simple radiative transfer model calculations compared with GOES satellite brightness temperatures indicate that satellite radiances are significantly affected by the presence of cirrus clouds if IR optical depths are approximately 0.005 or greater. Using the ISCCP detection threshold for cirrus clouds on the GOES data presented here, a high bias of up to 40% in the GOES precipitable water retrieval was found.

  14. Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Cirrus Clouds During the Passage of Hurricane Bonnie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Demoz, B.; Starr, O C.; Tobin, D.; Feltz, W.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Gutman, S. I.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Cadirola, M.; Melfi, S. H.; Schmidlin, F.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island in the Bahamas during August - September, 1998 as a part of the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) which focussed on hurricane development and tracking. During the period August 21 - 24, hurricane Bonnie passed near Andros Island and influenced the water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements acquired by the SRL. Two drying signatures related to the hurricane were recorded by the SRL and other sensors. Cirrus cloud optical depths (at 351 nm) were also measured during this period. Optical depth values ranged from approximately 0.01 to 1.4. The influence of multiple scattering on these optical depth measurements was studied with the conclusion that the measured values of optical depth are less than the actual value by up to 20%. The UV/lR cirrus cloud optical depth ratio was estimated based on a comparison of lidar and GOES measurements. Simple radiative transfer model calculations compared with GOES satellite brightness temperatures indicate that satellite radiances are significantly affected by the presence of cirrus clouds if IR optical depths are approximately 0.02 or greater. This has implications for satellite cirrus detection requirements.

  15. Implementation speed of deterministic population passages compared to that of Rabi pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jingwei; Wei, L. F.

    2015-02-01

    Fast Rabi π -pulse technique has been widely applied to various coherent quantum manipulations, although it requires precise designs of the pulse areas. Relaxing the precise pulse designs, various rapid adiabatic passage (RAP) approaches have been alternatively utilized to implement various population passages deterministically. However, the usual RAP protocol could not be implemented desirably fast, as the relevant adiabatic condition should be robustly satisfied during the passage. Here, we propose a modified shortcut to adiabaticity (STA) technique to accelerate significantly the desired deterministic quantum state population passages. This transitionless technique is beyond the usual rotating wave approximation (RWA) performed in the recent STA protocols, and thus can be applied to deliver various fast quantum evolutions wherein the relevant counter-rotating effects cannot be neglected. The proposal is demonstrated specifically with the driven two- and three-level systems. Numerical results show that with the present STA technique beyond the RWA the usual Stark-chirped RAPs and stimulated Raman adiabatic passages could be significantly speeded up; the deterministic population passages could be implemented as fast as the widely used fast Rabi π pulses, but are insensitive to the applied pulse areas.

  16. Aspects of adiabatic population transfer and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirplak, Mustafa

    This thesis explores two different questions. The first question we answer is how to restore a given population transfer scenario given that it works efficiently in the adiabatic limit but fails because of lack of intensity and/or short duration. We derive a very simple algorithm to do this and apply it to both toy and realistic models. Two results emerge from this study. While the mathematical existence of the programme is certain it might not always be physically desirable. The restoration of adiabaticity is phase sensitive. The second question that is answered in this thesis is not how to invent new control paradigms, but rather what would happen to them in the presence of stochastic perturbers. We first use a phenomenological model to study the effect of stochastic dephasing on population transfer by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. The results of this Monte Carlo calculation are qualitatively explained with a perturbation theoretical result in the dressed state basis. The reliability of our phenomenological model is questioned through a more rigorous hybrid quantal-classical simulation of controlled population transfer in HCl in Ar.

  17. Breakdown of adiabatic transfer of light in waveguides in the presence of absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graefe, Eva-Maria; Mailybaev, Alexei A.; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2013-09-01

    In atomic physics, adiabatic evolution is often used to achieve a robust and efficient population transfer. Many adiabatic schemes have also been implemented in optical waveguide structures. Recently there has been increasing interest in the influence of decay and absorption, and their engineering applications. Here it is shown that even a small decay can significantly influence the dynamical behavior of a system, above and beyond a mere change of the overall norm. In particular, a small decay can lead to a breakdown of adiabatic transfer schemes, even when both the spectrum and the eigenfunctions are only sightly modified. This is demonstrated for the generalization of a stimulated Raman adiabatic passage scheme that has recently been implemented in optical waveguide structures. Here the question how an additional absorption in either the initial or the target waveguide influences the transfer property of the scheme is addressed. It is found that the scheme breaks down for small values of the absorption at a relatively sharp threshold, which can be estimated by simple analytical arguments.

  18. Non-adiabatic resonant conversion of solar neutrinos in three generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C. W.; Nussinov, S.; Sze, W. K.

    1987-02-01

    The survival probability of solar electron neutrinos after non-adiabatic passage through the resonance-oscillation region in the Sun is discussed for the case of three generations. A method to calculate three-generation Landau-Zener transition probabilities between adiabatic states is described. We also discuss how the Landua-Zener probability is modified in the extreme non-adiabatic case.

  19. Geometrical representation of sum frequency generation and adiabatic frequency conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchowski, Haim; Oron, Dan; Arie, Ady; Silberberg, Yaron

    2008-12-01

    We present a geometrical representation of the process of sum frequency generation in the undepleted pump approximation, in analogy with the known optical Bloch equations. We use this analogy to propose a technique for achieving both high efficiency and large bandwidth in sum frequency conversion using the adiabatic inversion scheme. The process is analogous with rapid adiabatic passage in NMR, and adiabatic constraints are derived in this context. This adiabatic frequency conversion scheme is realized experimentally using an aperiodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) device, where we achieved high efficiency signal-to-idler conversion over a bandwidth of 140nm .

  20. Shortcuts to adiabaticity for non-Hermitian systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, S.; Martinez-Garaot, S.; Torrontegui, E.; Muga, J. G.; Chen Xi

    2011-08-15

    Adiabatic processes driven by non-Hermitian, time-dependent Hamiltonians may be sped up by generalizing inverse engineering techniques based on counter-diabatic (transitionless driving) algorithms or on dynamical invariants. We work out the basic theory and examples described by two-level Hamiltonians: the acceleration of rapid adiabatic passage with a decaying excited level and of the dynamics of a classical particle on an expanding harmonic oscillator.

  1. Adiabatic approximation for the density matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, Yehuda B.

    1992-05-01

    An adiabatic approximation for the Liouville density-matrix equation which includes decay terms is developed. The adiabatic approximation employs the eigenvectors of the non-normal Liouville operator. The approximation is valid when there exists a complete set of eigenvectors of the non-normal Liouville operator (i.e., the eigenvectors span the density-matrix space), the time rate of change of the Liouville operator is small, and an auxiliary matrix is nonsingular. Numerical examples are presented involving efficient population transfer in a molecule by stimulated Raman scattering, with the intermediate level of the molecule decaying on a time scale that is fast compared with the pulse durations of the pump and Stokes fields. The adiabatic density-matrix approximation can be simply used to determine the density matrix for atomic or molecular systems interacting with cw electromagnetic fields when spontaneous emission or other decay mechanisms prevail.

  2. Adiabatically driven Brownian pumps.

    PubMed

    Rozenbaum, Viktor M; Makhnovskii, Yurii A; Shapochkina, Irina V; Sheu, Sheh-Yi; Yang, Dah-Yen; Lin, Sheng Hsien

    2013-07-01

    We investigate a Brownian pump which, being powered by a flashing ratchet mechanism, produces net particle transport through a membrane. The extension of the Parrondo's approach developed for reversible Brownian motors [Parrondo, Phys. Rev. E 57, 7297 (1998)] to adiabatically driven pumps is given. We demonstrate that the pumping mechanism becomes especially efficient when the time variation of the potential occurs adiabatically fast or adiabatically slow, in perfect analogy with adiabatically driven Brownian motors which exhibit high efficiency [Rozenbaum et al., Phys. Rev. E 85, 041116 (2012)]. At the same time, the efficiency of the pumping mechanism is shown to be less than that of Brownian motors due to fluctuations of the number of particles in the membrane. PMID:23944411

  3. Parallelizable adiabatic gate teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakago, Kosuke; Hajdušek, Michal; Nakayama, Shojun; Murao, Mio

    2015-12-01

    To investigate how a temporally ordered gate sequence can be parallelized in adiabatic implementations of quantum computation, we modify adiabatic gate teleportation, a model of quantum computation proposed by Bacon and Flammia [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 120504 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.120504], to a form deterministically simulating parallelized gate teleportation, which is achievable only by postselection. We introduce a twisted Heisenberg-type interaction Hamiltonian, a Heisenberg-type spin interaction where the coordinates of the second qubit are twisted according to a unitary gate. We develop parallelizable adiabatic gate teleportation (PAGT) where a sequence of unitary gates is performed in a single step of the adiabatic process. In PAGT, numeric calculations suggest the necessary time for the adiabatic evolution implementing a sequence of L unitary gates increases at most as O (L5) . However, we show that it has the interesting property that it can map the temporal order of gates to the spatial order of interactions specified by the final Hamiltonian. Using this property, we present a controlled-PAGT scheme to manipulate the order of gates by a control qubit. In the controlled-PAGT scheme, two differently ordered sequential unitary gates F G and G F are coherently performed depending on the state of a control qubit by simultaneously applying the twisted Heisenberg-type interaction Hamiltonians implementing unitary gates F and G . We investigate why the twisted Heisenberg-type interaction Hamiltonian allows PAGT. We show that the twisted Heisenberg-type interaction Hamiltonian has an ability to perform a transposed unitary gate by just modifying the space ordering of the final Hamiltonian implementing a unitary gate in adiabatic gate teleportation. The dynamics generated by the time-reversed Hamiltonian represented by the transposed unitary gate enables deterministic simulation of a postselected event of parallelized gate teleportation in adiabatic

  4. Adiabatic cooling of antiprotons.

    PubMed

    Gabrielse, G; Kolthammer, W S; McConnell, R; Richerme, P; Kalra, R; Novitski, E; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Sefzick, T; Zielinski, M; Fitzakerley, D; George, M C; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Müllers, A; Walz, J

    2011-02-18

    Adiabatic cooling is shown to be a simple and effective method to cool many charged particles in a trap to very low temperatures. Up to 3×10(6) p are cooled to 3.5 K-10(3) times more cold p and a 3 times lower p temperature than previously reported. A second cooling method cools p plasmas via the synchrotron radiation of embedded e(-) (with many fewer e(-) than p in preparation for adiabatic cooling. No p are lost during either process-a significant advantage for rare particles. PMID:21405511

  5. Adiabatic Cooling of Antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrielse, G.; Kolthammer, W. S.; McConnell, R.; Richerme, P.; Kalra, R.; Novitski, E.; Oelert, W.; Grzonka, D.; Sefzick, T.; Zielinski, M.; Fitzakerley, D.; George, M. C.; Hessels, E. A.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.; Muellers, A.; Walz, J.

    2011-02-18

    Adiabatic cooling is shown to be a simple and effective method to cool many charged particles in a trap to very low temperatures. Up to 3x10{sup 6} p are cooled to 3.5 K--10{sup 3} times more cold p and a 3 times lower p temperature than previously reported. A second cooling method cools p plasmas via the synchrotron radiation of embedded e{sup -} (with many fewer e{sup -} than p) in preparation for adiabatic cooling. No p are lost during either process--a significant advantage for rare particles.

  6. Catching Conical Intersections in the Act; Monitoring Transient Electronic Coherences by Attosecond Stimulated X-Ray Raman Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Kochise; Kowalewski, Markus; Dorfman, Konstantin; Mukamel, Shaul

    Conical intersections (CIs) dominate the pathways and outcomes of virtually all photochemical molecular processes. Despite extensive experimental and theoretical effort, CIs have not been directly observed yet and the experimental evidence is inferred from fast reaction rates and vibrational signatures. We show that short X-ray pulses can directly detect the passage through a CI with the adequate temporal and spectral sensitivity. The non-adiabatic coupling that exists in the region of a CI redistributes electronic population but also generates electronic coherence. This coherent oscillation can then be detected via a coherent Raman process that employs a composite femtosecond/attosecond X-ray pulse. This technique, dubbed Transient Redistribution of Ultrafast Electronic Coherences (TRUECARS) is reminiscent of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) in that a coherent oscillation is set in motion and then monitored, but differs in that the dynamics is electronic (CARS generally observes nuclear dynamics) and the coherence is generated internally by passage through a region of non-adiabatic coupling rather than by an externally applied laser. Support provided by U.S. Department of Energy through Award No. DE-FG02-04ER15571, the National Science Foundation (Grant No CHE-1361516), and the Alexander von Humboldt foundation through the Feodor Lynen program.

  7. Adiabatically implementing quantum gates

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jie; Lu, Songfeng Liu, Fang

    2014-06-14

    We show that, through the approach of quantum adiabatic evolution, all of the usual quantum gates can be implemented efficiently, yielding running time of order O(1). This may be considered as a useful alternative to the standard quantum computing approach, which involves quantum gates transforming quantum states during the computing process.

  8. Entanglement and adiabatic quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrensmeier, D.

    2006-06-01

    Adiabatic quantum computation provides an alternative approach to quantum computation using a time-dependent Hamiltonian. The time evolution of entanglement during the adiabatic quantum search algorithm is studied, and its relevance as a resource is discussed.

  9. Adiabatic topological quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesare, Chris; Landahl, Andrew J.; Bacon, Dave; Flammia, Steven T.; Neels, Alice

    2015-07-01

    Topological quantum computing promises error-resistant quantum computation without active error correction. However, there is a worry that during the process of executing quantum gates by braiding anyons around each other, extra anyonic excitations will be created that will disorder the encoded quantum information. Here, we explore this question in detail by studying adiabatic code deformations on Hamiltonians based on topological codes, notably Kitaev's surface codes and the more recently discovered color codes. We develop protocols that enable universal quantum computing by adiabatic evolution in a way that keeps the energy gap of the system constant with respect to the computation size and introduces only simple local Hamiltonian interactions. This allows one to perform holonomic quantum computing with these topological quantum computing systems. The tools we develop allow one to go beyond numerical simulations and understand these processes analytically.

  10. A model study of assisted adiabatic transfer of population in the presence of collisional dephasing

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, Shumpei; Rice, Stuart A.

    2015-06-28

    Previous studies have demonstrated that when experimental conditions generate non-adiabatic dynamics that prevents highly efficient population transfer between states of an isolated system by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), the addition of an auxiliary counter-diabatic field (CDF) can restore most or all of that efficiency. This paper examines whether that strategy is also successful in a non-isolated system in which the energies of the states fluctuate, e.g., when a solute is subject to collisions with solvent. We study population transfer in two model systems: (i) the three-state system used by Demirplak and Rice [J. Chem. Phys. 116, 8028 (2002)] and (ii) a four-state system, derived from the simulation studies of Demirplak and Rice [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 194517 (2006)], that mimics HCl in liquid Ar. Simulation studies of the vibrational manifold of HCl in dense fluid Ar show that the collision induced vibrational energy level fluctuations have asymmetric distributions. Representations of these asymmetric energy level fluctuation distributions are used in both models (i) and (ii). We identify three sources of degradation of the efficiency of STIRAP generated selective population transfer in model (ii): too small pulse areas of the laser fields, unwanted interference arising from use of strong fields, and the vibrational detuning. For both models (i) and (ii), our examination of the efficiency of STIRAP + CDF population transfer under the influence of the asymmetric distribution of the vibrational energy fluctuations shows that there is a range of field strengths and pulse durations under which STIRAP + CDF control of population transfer has greater efficiency than does STIRAP generated population transfer.

  11. A model study of assisted adiabatic transfer of population in the presence of collisional dephasing.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Shumpei; Rice, Stuart A

    2015-06-28

    Previous studies have demonstrated that when experimental conditions generate non-adiabatic dynamics that prevents highly efficient population transfer between states of an isolated system by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), the addition of an auxiliary counter-diabatic field (CDF) can restore most or all of that efficiency. This paper examines whether that strategy is also successful in a non-isolated system in which the energies of the states fluctuate, e.g., when a solute is subject to collisions with solvent. We study population transfer in two model systems: (i) the three-state system used by Demirplak and Rice [J. Chem. Phys. 116, 8028 (2002)] and (ii) a four-state system, derived from the simulation studies of Demirplak and Rice [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 194517 (2006)], that mimics HCl in liquid Ar. Simulation studies of the vibrational manifold of HCl in dense fluid Ar show that the collision induced vibrational energy level fluctuations have asymmetric distributions. Representations of these asymmetric energy level fluctuation distributions are used in both models (i) and (ii). We identify three sources of degradation of the efficiency of STIRAP generated selective population transfer in model (ii): too small pulse areas of the laser fields, unwanted interference arising from use of strong fields, and the vibrational detuning. For both models (i) and (ii), our examination of the efficiency of STIRAP + CDF population transfer under the influence of the asymmetric distribution of the vibrational energy fluctuations shows that there is a range of field strengths and pulse durations under which STIRAP + CDF control of population transfer has greater efficiency than does STIRAP generated population transfer. PMID:26133424

  12. A model study of assisted adiabatic transfer of population in the presence of collisional dephasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Shumpei; Rice, Stuart A.

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that when experimental conditions generate non-adiabatic dynamics that prevents highly efficient population transfer between states of an isolated system by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), the addition of an auxiliary counter-diabatic field (CDF) can restore most or all of that efficiency. This paper examines whether that strategy is also successful in a non-isolated system in which the energies of the states fluctuate, e.g., when a solute is subject to collisions with solvent. We study population transfer in two model systems: (i) the three-state system used by Demirplak and Rice [J. Chem. Phys. 116, 8028 (2002)] and (ii) a four-state system, derived from the simulation studies of Demirplak and Rice [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 194517 (2006)], that mimics HCl in liquid Ar. Simulation studies of the vibrational manifold of HCl in dense fluid Ar show that the collision induced vibrational energy level fluctuations have asymmetric distributions. Representations of these asymmetric energy level fluctuation distributions are used in both models (i) and (ii). We identify three sources of degradation of the efficiency of STIRAP generated selective population transfer in model (ii): too small pulse areas of the laser fields, unwanted interference arising from use of strong fields, and the vibrational detuning. For both models (i) and (ii), our examination of the efficiency of STIRAP + CDF population transfer under the influence of the asymmetric distribution of the vibrational energy fluctuations shows that there is a range of field strengths and pulse durations under which STIRAP + CDF control of population transfer has greater efficiency than does STIRAP generated population transfer.

  13. Adiabatic Halo Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzani, A.; Turchetti, G.; Benedetti, C.; Rambaldi, S.; Servizi, G.

    2005-06-08

    In a high intensity circular accelerator the synchrotron dynamics introduces a slow modulation in the betatronic tune due to the space-charge tune depression. When the transverse motion is non-linear due to the presence of multipolar effects, resonance islands move in the phase space and change their amplitude. This effect introduces the trapping and detrapping phenomenon and a slow diffusion in the phase space. We apply the neo-adiabatic theory to describe this diffusion mechanism that can contribute to halo formation.

  14. Coherent tunneling by adiabatic process in a four-waveguide optical coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jian; Ma, Rui-Qiong; Duan, Zuo-Liang; Liang, Meng; Zhang, Wen-wen; Dong, Jun

    2016-07-01

    We numerically simulate Schrödinger-like paraxial wave equation of a four-waveguide system. The coherent tunneling by adiabatic passage in a four-waveguide optical coupler is analyzed by borrowing the dressed state theory of coherent atom system. We discuss the optical coupling mechanism and coupling efficiency of light energy in both intuitive and counterintuitive tunneling schemes and analyze the threshold condition from adiabatic to non-adiabatic regimes in intuitive scheme. The results show that this coupler can be used as power splitter under certain conditions.

  15. Adiabatic two-photon quantum gate operations using a long-range photonic bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Anthony P.; Nguyen, Thach G.; Mitchell, Arnan; Greentree, Andrew D.

    2015-03-01

    Adiabatic techniques have much potential to realize practical and robust optical waveguide devices. Traditionally, photonic elements are limited to coupling schemes that rely on proximity to nearest neighbour elements. We combine adiabatic passage with a continuum based long-range optical bus to break free from such topological restraints and thereby outline a new approach to photonic quantum gate design. We explicitly show designs for adiabatic quantum gates that produce a Hadamard, 50:50 and 1/3:2/3 beam splitter, and non-deterministic controlled NOT gate based on planar thin, shallow ridge waveguides. Our calculations are performed under conditions of one and two-photon inputs.

  16. Fully efficient adiabatic frequency conversion of broadband Ti:sapphire oscillator pulses.

    PubMed

    Moses, Jeffrey; Suchowski, Haim; Kärtner, Franz X

    2012-05-01

    By adiabatic difference-frequency generation in an aperiodically poled nonlinear crystal-a nonlinear optical analog of rapid adiabatic passage in a two-level atomic system-we demonstrate the conversion of a 110 nm band from an octave-spanning Ti:sapphire oscillator to the infrared, spanning 1550 to 2450 nm, with near-100% internal conversion efficiency. The experiment proves the principle of complete Landau-Zener adiabatic transfer in nonlinear optical wave mixing. Our implementation is a practical approach to the seeding of high-energy ultrabroadband optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers. PMID:22555747

  17. Adiabatic Quantum Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landahl, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    Quantum computers promise to exploit counterintuitive quantum physics principles like superposition, entanglement, and uncertainty to solve problems using fundamentally fewer steps than any conventional computer ever could. The mere possibility of such a device has sharpened our understanding of quantum coherent information, just as lasers did for our understanding of coherent light. The chief obstacle to developing quantum computer technology is decoherence--one of the fastest phenomena in all of physics. In principle, decoherence can be overcome by using clever entangled redundancies in a process called fault-tolerant quantum error correction. However, the quality and scale of technology required to realize this solution appears distant. An exciting alternative is a proposal called ``adiabatic'' quantum computing (AQC), in which adiabatic quantum physics keeps the computer in its lowest-energy configuration throughout its operation, rendering it immune to many decoherence sources. The Adiabatic Quantum Architectures In Ultracold Systems (AQUARIUS) Grand Challenge Project at Sandia seeks to demonstrate this robustness in the laboratory and point a path forward for future hardware development. We are building devices in AQUARIUS that realize the AQC architecture on up to three quantum bits (``qubits'') in two platforms: Cs atoms laser-cooled to below 5 microkelvin and Si quantum dots cryo-cooled to below 100 millikelvin. We are also expanding theoretical frontiers by developing methods for scalable universal AQC in these platforms. We have successfully demonstrated operational qubits in both platforms and have even run modest one-qubit calculations using our Cs device. In the course of reaching our primary proof-of-principle demonstrations, we have developed multiple spinoff technologies including nanofabricated diffractive optical elements that define optical-tweezer trap arrays and atomic-scale Si lithography commensurate with placing individual donor atoms with

  18. Geometry of the Adiabatic Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobo, Augusto Cesar; Ribeiro, Rafael Antunes; Ribeiro, Clyffe de Assis; Dieguez, Pedro Ruas

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple and pedagogical derivation of the quantum adiabatic theorem for two-level systems (a single qubit) based on geometrical structures of quantum mechanics developed by Anandan and Aharonov, among others. We have chosen to use only the minimum geometric structure needed for the understanding of the adiabatic theorem for this case.…

  19. Effects of phase and coupling between the vibrational modes on selective excitation in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Vishesha; Malinovsky, Vladimir S.; Malinovskaya, Svetlana

    2010-06-15

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy has been a major tool of investigation of biological structures as it contains the vibrational signature of molecules. A quantum control method based on chirped pulse adiabatic passage was recently proposed for selective excitation of a predetermined vibrational mode in CARS microscopy [Malinovskaya and Malinovsky, Opt. Lett. 32, 707 (2007)]. The method utilizes the chirp sign variation at the peak pulse amplitude and gives a robust adiabatic excitation of the desired vibrational mode. Using this method, we investigate the impact of coupling between vibrational modes in molecules on controllability of excitation of the CARS signal. We analyze two models of two coupled two-level systems (TLSs) having slightly different transitional frequencies. The first model, featuring degenerate ground states of the TLSs, gives robust adiabatic excitation and maximum coherence in the resonant TLS for positive value of the chirp. In the second model, implying nondegenerate ground states in the TLSs, a population distribution is observed in both TLSs, resulting in a lack of selectivity of excitation and low coherence. It is shown that the relative phase and coupling between the TLSs play an important role in optimizing coherence in the desired vibrational mode and suppressing unwanted transitions in CARS microscopy.

  20. Intermediate photofragment distributions as probes of non-adiabatic dynamics at conical intersections: application to the Hartley band of ozone.

    PubMed

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu

    2015-11-21

    Quantum dynamics at a reactive two-state conical intersection lying outside the Franck-Condon zone is studied for a prototypical reaction of ultraviolet photodissociation of ozone in the Hartley band. The focus is on the vibrational distributions in the two electronic states at intermediate interfragment distances near the intersection. Such intermediate distributions of strongly interacting photofragments contain unique information on the location and shape of the conical intersection. Multidimensional Landau-Zener modeling provides a framework to reverse engineer the molecular geometry-dependent Massey parameter of the intersection from the intermediate distributions. The conceptual approach is demonstrated for the intermediate O-O bond stretch distributions which become strongly inverted on adiabatic passage through the intersection. It is further demonstrated that intermediate distributions can be reconstructed from the photoemission spectrum of the dissociating molecule. The illustration, given using quantum mechanical calculations of resonance Raman profiles for ozone, completes a practicable cycle of conversion of intermediate distributions into topographic features of the conical intersection. PMID:26455514

  1. Adiabatic evolution of plasma equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Grad, H.; Hu, P. N.; Stevens, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    A new theory of plasma equilibrium is introduced in which adiabatic constraints are specified. This leads to a mathematically nonstandard structure, as compared to the usual equilibrium theory, in which prescription of pressure and current profiles leads to an elliptic partial differential equation. Topologically complex configurations require further generalization of the concept of adiabaticity to allow irreversible mixing of plasma and magnetic flux among islands. Matching conditions across a boundary layer at the separatrix are obtained from appropriate conservation laws. Applications are made to configurations with planned islands (as in Doublet) and accidental islands (as in Tokamaks). Two-dimensional, axially symmetric, helically symmetric, and closed line equilibria are included. PMID:16578729

  2. Pressure Oscillations in Adiabatic Compression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Roland

    2011-01-01

    After finding Moloney and McGarvey's modified adiabatic compression apparatus, I decided to insert this experiment into my physical chemistry laboratory at the last minute, replacing a problematic experiment. With insufficient time to build the apparatus, we placed a bottle between two thick textbooks and compressed it with a third textbook forced…

  3. Adiabatic dynamics of magnetic vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanicolaou, N.

    1994-03-01

    We formulate a reasonably detailed adiabatic conjecture concerning the dynamics of skew deflection of magnetic vortices in a field gradient, which is expected to be valid at sufficiently large values of the winding number. The conjecture is consistent with the golden rule used to describe the dynamics of realistic magnetic bubbles and is verified here numerically within the 2-D isotropic Heisenberg model.

  4. Transitionless driving on adiabatic search algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sangchul; Kais, Sabre

    2014-12-14

    We study quantum dynamics of the adiabatic search algorithm with the equivalent two-level system. Its adiabatic and non-adiabatic evolution is studied and visualized as trajectories of Bloch vectors on a Bloch sphere. We find the change in the non-adiabatic transition probability from exponential decay for the short running time to inverse-square decay in asymptotic running time. The scaling of the critical running time is expressed in terms of the Lambert W function. We derive the transitionless driving Hamiltonian for the adiabatic search algorithm, which makes a quantum state follow the adiabatic path. We demonstrate that a uniform transitionless driving Hamiltonian, approximate to the exact time-dependent driving Hamiltonian, can alter the non-adiabatic transition probability from the inverse square decay to the inverse fourth power decay with the running time. This may open up a new but simple way of speeding up adiabatic quantum dynamics.

  5. Transitionless driving on adiabatic search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sangchul; Kais, Sabre

    2014-12-01

    We study quantum dynamics of the adiabatic search algorithm with the equivalent two-level system. Its adiabatic and non-adiabatic evolution is studied and visualized as trajectories of Bloch vectors on a Bloch sphere. We find the change in the non-adiabatic transition probability from exponential decay for the short running time to inverse-square decay in asymptotic running time. The scaling of the critical running time is expressed in terms of the Lambert W function. We derive the transitionless driving Hamiltonian for the adiabatic search algorithm, which makes a quantum state follow the adiabatic path. We demonstrate that a uniform transitionless driving Hamiltonian, approximate to the exact time-dependent driving Hamiltonian, can alter the non-adiabatic transition probability from the inverse square decay to the inverse fourth power decay with the running time. This may open up a new but simple way of speeding up adiabatic quantum dynamics.

  6. Transitionless driving on adiabatic search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sangchul; Kais, Sabre

    2014-12-14

    We study quantum dynamics of the adiabatic search algorithm with the equivalent two-level system. Its adiabatic and non-adiabatic evolution is studied and visualized as trajectories of Bloch vectors on a Bloch sphere. We find the change in the non-adiabatic transition probability from exponential decay for the short running time to inverse-square decay in asymptotic running time. The scaling of the critical running time is expressed in terms of the Lambert W function. We derive the transitionless driving Hamiltonian for the adiabatic search algorithm, which makes a quantum state follow the adiabatic path. We demonstrate that a uniform transitionless driving Hamiltonian, approximate to the exact time-dependent driving Hamiltonian, can alter the non-adiabatic transition probability from the inverse square decay to the inverse fourth power decay with the running time. This may open up a new but simple way of speeding up adiabatic quantum dynamics. PMID:25494733

  7. Studies in Chaotic adiabatic dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarzynski, C.

    1994-01-01

    Chaotic adiabatic dynamics refers to the study of systems exhibiting chaotic evolution under slowly time-dependent equations of motion. In this dissertation the author restricts his attention to Hamiltonian chaotic adiabatic systems. The results presented are organized around a central theme, namely, that the energies of such systems evolve diffusively. He begins with a general analysis, in which he motivates and derives a Fokker-Planck equation governing this process of energy diffusion. He applies this equation to study the {open_quotes}goodness{close_quotes} of an adiabatic invariant associated with chaotic motion. This formalism is then applied to two specific examples. The first is that of a gas of noninteracting point particles inside a hard container that deforms slowly with time. Both the two- and three-dimensional cases are considered. The results are discussed in the context of the Wall Formula for one-body dissipation in nuclear physics, and it is shown that such a gas approaches, asymptotically with time, an exponential velocity distribution. The second example involves the Fermi mechanism for the acceleration of cosmic rays. Explicit evolution equations are obtained for the distribution of cosmic ray energies within this model, and the steady-state energy distribution that arises when this equation is modified to account for the injection and removal of cosmic rays is discussed. Finally, the author re-examines the multiple-time-scale approach as applied to the study of phase space evolution under a chaotic adiabatic Hamiltonian. This leads to a more rigorous derivation of the above-mentioned Fokker-Planck equation, and also to a new term which has relevance to the problem of chaotic adiabatic reaction forces (the forces acting on slow, heavy degrees of freedom due to their coupling to light, fast chaotic degrees).

  8. Robust adiabatic sum frequency conversion.

    PubMed

    Suchowski, Haim; Prabhudesai, Vaibhav; Oron, Dan; Arie, Ady; Silberberg, Yaron

    2009-07-20

    We discuss theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the robustness of the adiabatic sum frequency conversion method. This technique, borrowed from an analogous scheme of robust population transfer in atomic physics and nuclear magnetic resonance, enables the achievement of nearly full frequency conversion in a sum frequency generation process for a bandwidth up to two orders of magnitude wider than in conventional conversion schemes. We show that this scheme is robust to variations in the parameters of both the nonlinear crystal and of the incoming light. These include the crystal temperature, the frequency of the incoming field, the pump intensity, the crystal length and the angle of incidence. Also, we show that this extremely broad bandwidth can be tuned to higher or lower central wavelengths by changing either the pump frequency or the crystal temperature. The detailed study of the properties of this converter is done using the Landau-Zener theory dealing with the adiabatic transitions in two level systems. PMID:19654679

  9. Adiabaticity in open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venuti, Lorenzo Campos; Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    We provide a rigorous generalization of the quantum adiabatic theorem for open systems described by a Markovian master equation with time-dependent Liouvillian L (t ) . We focus on the finite system case relevant for adiabatic quantum computing and quantum annealing. Adiabaticity is defined in terms of closeness to the instantaneous steady state. While the general result is conceptually similar to the closed-system case, there are important differences. Namely, a system initialized in the zero-eigenvalue eigenspace of L (t ) will remain in this eigenspace with a deviation that is inversely proportional to the total evolution time T . In the case of a finite number of level crossings, the scaling becomes T-η with an exponent η that we relate to the rate of the gap closing. For master equations that describe relaxation to thermal equilibrium, we show that the evolution time T should be long compared to the corresponding minimum inverse gap squared of L (t ) . Our results are illustrated with several examples.

  10. Frequency offset dependence of adiabatic rotating frame relaxation rate constants: relevance to MRS investigations of metabolite dynamics in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mangia, Silvia; Liimatainen, Timo; Garwood, Michael; Tkac, Ivan; Henry, Pierre-Gilles; Deelchand, Dinesh; Michaeli, Shalom

    2011-08-01

    In this work, we investigated the frequency-offset dependence of the rotating frame longitudinal (R(1ρ)) and transverse (R(2ρ)) relaxation rate constants when using hyperbolic-secant adiabatic full passage pulses or continuous-wave spin-lock irradiation. Phantom and in vivo measurements were performed to validate theoretical predictions of the dominant relaxation mechanisms existing during adiabatic full passage pulses when using different settings of the frequency offset relative to the carrier. In addition, adiabatic R(1ρ) and R(2ρ) values of total creatine and N-acetylaspartate were measured in vivo from the human brain at 4 T. When the continuous-wave pulse power was limited to safe specific absorption rates for humans, simulations revealed a strong dependence of R(1ρ) and R(2ρ) values on the frequency offset for both dipolar interactions and anisochronous exchange mechanisms. By contrast, theoretical and experimental results showed adiabatic R(1ρ) and R(2ρ) values to be practically invariant within the large subregion of the bandwidth of the hyperbolic-secant pulse where complete inversion was achieved. However, adiabatic R(1ρ) and R(2ρ) values of the methyl protons of total creatine (at 3.03 ppm) were almost doubled when compared with those of the methyl protons of N-acetylaspartate (at 2.01 ppm) in spite of the fact that these resonances were in the flat region of the inversion band of the adiabatic full passage pulses. We conclude that differences in adiabatic R(1ρ) and R(2ρ) values of human brain metabolites are not a result of their chemical shifts, but instead reflect differences in dynamics. PMID:21264976

  11. Frequency offset dependence of adiabatic rotating frame relaxation rate constants: relevance to MRS investigations of metabolite dynamics in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mangia, Silvia; Liimatainen, Timo; Garwood, Michael; Tkac, Ivan; Henry, Pierre-Gilles; Deelchand, Dinesh; Michaeli, Shalom

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the frequency-offset dependence of the rotating frame longitudinal (R1ρ) and transverse (R2ρ) relaxation rate constants when using hyperbolic-secant adiabatic full passage pulses or continuous-wave spin-lock irradiation. Phantom and in vivo measurements were performed to validate theoretical predictions of the dominant relaxation mechanisms existing during adiabatic full passage pulses when using different settings of the frequency offset relative to the carrier. In addition, adiabatic R1ρ and R2ρ values of total creatine and N-acetylaspartate were measured in vivo from the human brain at 4 T. When the continuous-wave pulse power was limited to safe specific absorption rates for humans, simulations revealed a strong dependence of R1ρ and R2ρ values on the frequency offset for both dipolar interactions and anisochronous exchange mechanisms. By contrast, theoretical and experimental results showed adiabatic R1ρ and R2ρ values to be practically invariant within the large subregion of the bandwidth of the hyperbolic-secant pulse where complete inversion was achieved. However, adiabatic R1ρ and R2ρ values of the methyl protons of total creatine (at 3.03 ppm) were almost doubled when compared with those of the methyl protons of N-acetylaspartate (at 2.01 ppm) in spite of the fact that these resonances were in the flat region of the inversion band of the adiabatic full passage pulses. We conclude that differences in adiabatic R1ρ and R2ρ values of human brain metabolites are not a result of their chemical shifts, but instead reflect differences in dynamics. PMID:21264976

  12. Invalidity of the quantitative adiabatic condition and general conditions for adiabatic approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dafa

    2016-05-01

    The adiabatic theorem was proposed about 90 years ago and has played an important role in quantum physics. The quantitative adiabatic condition constructed from eigenstates and eigenvalues of a Hamiltonian is a traditional tool to estimate adiabaticity and has proven to be the necessary and sufficient condition for adiabaticity. However, recently the condition has become a controversial subject. In this paper, we list some expressions to estimate the validity of the adiabatic approximation. We show that the quantitative adiabatic condition is invalid for the adiabatic approximation via the Euclidean distance between the adiabatic state and the evolution state. Furthermore, we deduce general necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of the adiabatic approximation by different definitions.

  13. Membrane with supported internal passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Salinas, Carlos E. (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides an improved proton exchange membrane for use in electrochemical cells having internal passages parallel to the membrane surface comprising permanent tubes preferably placed at the ends of the fluid passages. The invention also provides an apparatus and process for making the membrane, membrane and electrode assemblies fabricated using the membrane, and the application of the membrane and electrode assemblies to a variety of devices, both electrochemical and otherwise. The passages in the membrane extend from one edge of the membrane to another and allow fluid flow through the membrane and give access directly to the membrane.

  14. Electrical-Discharge Machining Of Perpendicular Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

    1996-01-01

    Perpendicular telescoping electrode used to perform electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of internal passage through previously inaccessible depth of metal workpiece. More specifically, used to make internal passage perpendicular to passage entering from outer surface.

  15. Raman Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Donald L.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature on Raman spectroscopy from late 1981 to late 1983. Topic areas include: instrumentation and sampling; liquids and solutions; gases and matrix isolation; biological molecules; polymers; high-temperature and high-pressure studies; Raman microscopy; thin films and surfaces; resonance-enhanced and surface-enhanced spectroscopy; and…

  16. Toxicology of the nasal passages

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this work include: Comparative Anatomy and Function of the Nasal Passages; Light Microscopic Examination of the Rat Nasal Passages: Preparation and Morphologic Features; Histopathology of Acute and Subacute Nasal Toxicity; Pathology of Chronic Nasal Toxic Responses Including Cancer; Responses of the Nasal Mucociliary Apparatus to Airborne Irritants; Effects of Chemical Exposure on Olfaction in Humans, Possible Consequences of Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Monooxygenases in Nasal Tissues.

  17. Adiabatic Wankel type rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamo, R.; Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1988-01-01

    This SBIR Phase program accomplished the objective of advancing the technology of the Wankel type rotary engine for aircraft applications through the use of adiabatic engine technology. Based on the results of this program, technology is in place to provide a rotor and side and intermediate housings with thermal barrier coatings. A detailed cycle analysis of the NASA 1007R Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engine was performed which concluded that applying thermal barrier coatings to the rotor should be successful and that it was unlikely that the rotor housing could be successfully run with thermal barrier coatings as the thermal stresses were extensive.

  18. Raman Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Derek J.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews mainly quantitative analytical applications in the field of Raman spectrometry. Includes references to other reviews, new and analytically untested techniques, and novel sampling and instrument designs. Cites 184 references. (CS)

  19. Degenerate adiabatic perturbation theory: Foundations and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigolin, Gustavo; Ortiz, Gerardo

    2014-08-01

    We present details and expand on the framework leading to the recently introduced degenerate adiabatic perturbation theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 170406 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.170406], and on the formulation of the degenerate adiabatic theorem, along with its necessary and sufficient conditions [given in Phys. Rev. A 85, 062111 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.062111]. We start with the adiabatic approximation for degenerate Hamiltonians that paves the way to a clear and rigorous statement of the associated degenerate adiabatic theorem, where the non-Abelian geometric phase (Wilczek-Zee phase) plays a central role to its quantitative formulation. We then describe the degenerate adiabatic perturbation theory, whose zeroth-order term is the degenerate adiabatic approximation, in its full generality. The parameter in the perturbative power-series expansion of the time-dependent wave function is directly associated to the inverse of the time it takes to drive the system from its initial to its final state. With the aid of the degenerate adiabatic perturbation theory we obtain rigorous necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics. Finally, to illustrate the power and wide scope of the methodology, we apply the framework to a degenerate Hamiltonian, whose closed-form time-dependent wave function is derived exactly, and also to other nonexactly solvable Hamiltonians whose solutions are numerically computed.

  20. Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gerrard, D.L.; Bowley, H.J.

    1986-04-01

    The period of this review is from late 1983 to late 1985. During this time over 5000 papers have appeared in the scientific literature dealing with many applications of Raman spectroscopy and extending its use to several new areas of study. As in the previous review in this series most of the applications relevant to solids are covered in one or other of the ten categories, which are the same as those used previously. However, aspects relating to solids which are not covered elsewhere include general reviews and the specific field of semiconductors. This is an area of great current interest in terms of Raman spectroscopy and the characterization of semiconductor materials and surfaces has been reported. Raman scattering also provides a new probe for the elucidation of structural properties of microcrystalline silicon and resonance Raman scattering in silicon at elevated temperatures has been studied. Many studies on carbon have also appeared in the literature including that of the various types of carbon, the use of Raman scattering to investigate disorder and crystallite formation in annealed carbon, in situ studies of intercalation kinetics, structural aspects of cokes and coals, and instrumentation for coal gasification. Raman spectroscopy has been applied to such diverse systems as organic crystals, the determination of modifications in layered crystals, the detection of explosives on silica gel or carbon, diagnostics of heterogeneous chemical processes, and a study of tungsten-halogen bulbs. Laser Raman spectroscopy has also been coupled with liquid chromatography and phase-resolved background suppression has been used to enhance Raman spectra. 397 references.

  1. Adiabatic passage mediated by plasmons: A route towards a decoherence-free quantum plasmonic platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseaux, B.; Dzsotjan, D.; Colas des Francs, G.; Jauslin, H. R.; Couteau, C.; Guérin, S.

    2016-01-01

    We show that the interaction of surface plasmons with quantum emitters can be described by an effective model that has the same structure as a lossy multimode cavity quantum electromagnetic interaction. This allows the coherent manipulation of quantum emitters dressed by surface plasmons at the nanoscale. We show that strong coupling in quantum plasmonics can be used to mediate efficiently the interaction between emitters via a decoherence-free channel, immune to the strong plasmon dissipation. Efficient and robust population transfer, as well as the deterministic generation of entanglement between emitters are numerically shown. These results pave the way for an efficient use of the quantum plasmonic platform beyond its inherent losses.

  2. Two-species Coherent Transport Adiabatic passage and Quantum Gate implementation in an Optical Superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kunal; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Opatrny, Tomas

    2011-05-01

    In an optical super-lattice of triple wells, containing two mutually interacting atom species in every cell, we show that one species (A) can be transported from the left well to the right well without ever significantly occupying the central well. This occurs simultaneously in every unit cell in the lattice. We demonstrate that this can be achieved with or without the presence of an atom of the second species (B) in the intermediate well of each cell, thereby allowing species-selective transport that avoids spatial overlap and direct interaction among the two species. Furthermore, by using optimal quantum control, we also demonstrate the lattice-wide parallel implementation of CNOT quantum gates in this configuration by using the presence or absence of an atom B in the central well of each cell as a control bit, and the localization of an atom A in the left well or the right well as the target bit. Supported by a NSF grant PHY-0970012 for Kunal Das, and a Czech Science Foundation grant P205/10/1657 for Tomas Opatrny.

  3. Rapid Adiabatic Passage in a Rb gas with intense Frequency Chirped Laser Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Brian; Grogan, Tanner; Paltoo, Tracy; Wright, Matthew

    We will discuss our progress toward using intense frequency chirped laser light to control the excitation of atoms in a room-temperature gas cell. We illuminate 87Rb atoms with a 1 GHz in 8 ns frequency chirped pulse of laser light covering the 5S1/2 F =1 --> 5P3/2 and explore the saturation behavior as intensity increases. We estimate that we are exciting over 90% of the atoms over 1 mm2.

  4. Shortcut to adiabatic gate teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Alan C.; Silva, Raphael D.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a shortcut to the adiabatic gate teleportation model of quantum computation. More specifically, we determine fast local counterdiabatic Hamiltonians able to implement teleportation as a universal computational primitive. In this scenario, we provide the counterdiabatic driving for arbitrary n -qubit gates, which allows to achieve universality through a variety of gate sets. Remarkably, our approach maps the superadiabatic Hamiltonian HSA for an arbitrary n -qubit gate teleportation into the implementation of a rotated superadiabatic dynamics of an n -qubit state teleportation. This result is rather general, with the speed of the evolution only dictated by the quantum speed limit. In particular, we analyze the energetic cost for different Hamiltonian interpolations in the context of the energy-time complementarity.

  5. Quantum gates with controlled adiabatic evolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hen, Itay

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a class of quantum adiabatic evolutions that we claim may be interpreted as the equivalents of the unitary gates of the quantum gate model. We argue that these gates form a universal set and may therefore be used as building blocks in the construction of arbitrary "adiabatic circuits," analogously to the manner in which gates are used in the circuit model. One implication of the above construction is that arbitrary classical boolean circuits as well as gate model circuits may be directly translated to adiabatic algorithms with no additional resources or complexities. We show that while these adiabatic algorithms fail to exhibit certain aspects of the inherent fault tolerance of traditional quantum adiabatic algorithms, they may have certain other experimental advantages acting as quantum gates.

  6. On a Nonlinear Model in Adiabatic Evolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jie; Lu, Song-Feng

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we study a kind of nonlinear model of adiabatic evolution in quantum search problem. As will be seen here, for this problem, there always exists a possibility that this nonlinear model can successfully solve the problem, while the linear model can not. Also in the same setting, when the overlap between the initial state and the final stare is sufficiently large, a simple linear adiabatic evolution can achieve O(1) time efficiency, but infinite time complexity for the nonlinear model of adiabatic evolution is needed. This tells us, it is not always a wise choice to use nonlinear interpolations in adiabatic algorithms. Sometimes, simple linear adiabatic evolutions may be sufficient for using. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61402188 and 61173050. The first author also gratefully acknowledges the support from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 2014M552041

  7. PNNL Tests Fish Passage System

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison

    2015-03-13

    Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.

  8. Jumps of adiabatic invariant at the separatrix of a degenerate saddle point.

    PubMed

    Artemyev, A V; Neishtadt, A I; Zelenyi, L M

    2011-12-01

    We consider a slow-fast Hamiltonian system with two degrees of freedom. One degree of freedom corresponds to slow variables, and the other one corresponds to fast variables. A characteristic ratio of the rates of change of slow and fast variables is a small parameter κ. For every fixed value of the slow variables, in the phase portrait of the fast variables there are a saddle point and separatrices passing through it. When the slow variables change, phase points may cross the separatrices. The action variable of the fast motion is an adiabatic invariant of the full system as long as a trajectory is far from the separatrices: value of the adiabatic invariant is conserved with an accuracy of order of κ on time intervals of order of 1/κ. A passage through a narrow neighborhood of the separatrices results in a jump of the adiabatic invariant. We consider a case when the saddle point is degenerate. We derive an asymptotic formula for the jump of the adiabatic invariant which turns out to be a value of order of κ(3/4) (in the case of a non-degenarate saddle point a similar jump is known to be a value of order of κ). Accumulation of these jumps after many consecutive separatrix crossings leads to the "diffusion" of the adiabatic invariant and chaotic dynamics. We verify the analytical expression for the jump of the adiabatic invariant by numerical simulations. We discuss application of the obtained results to the description of charged particle dynamics in the Earth magnetosphere. PMID:22225357

  9. Adiabatic Compression of Oxygen: Real Fluid Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barragan, Michelle; Wilson, D. Bruce; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2000-01-01

    The adiabatic compression of oxygen has been identified as an ignition source for systems operating in enriched oxygen atmospheres. Current practice is to evaluate the temperature rise on compression by treating oxygen as an ideal gas with constant heat capacity. This paper establishes the appropriate thermodynamic analysis for the common occurrence of adiabatic compression of oxygen and in the process defines a satisfactory equation of state (EOS) for oxygen. It uses that EOS to model adiabatic compression as isentropic compression and calculates final temperatures for this system using current approaches for comparison.

  10. Heating and cooling in adiabatic mixing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jing; Cai, Zi; Zou, Xu-Bo; Guo, Guang-Can

    2010-12-01

    We study the effect of interaction on the temperature change in the process of adiabatic mixing of two components of Fermi gases using the real-space Bogoliubov-de Gennes method. We find that in the process of adiabatic mixing, the competition between the adiabatic expansion and the attractive interaction makes it possible to cool or heat the system depending on the strength of the interaction and the initial temperature of the system. The changes of the temperature in a bulk system and in a trapped system are investigated.

  11. Raman spectroscopy of shocked water

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, N.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Graham, W.B.; Walrafen, G.E.

    1985-08-01

    We describe a new technique for recording spontaneous Raman spectra from molecules during the passage of strong shock waves. We have used this technique to study the OH-stretch band of liquid H/sub 2/O shocked to pressure up to 26 GPa and 1700 K. The shape of the band changes over the range 7.5-26 GPa, and is described well by a two-component mixture model, implying changes in the intermolecular coupling of shock compressed water molecules. We discuss the implications of the spectra on the mechanism responsible for the electrical conductivity of shocked H/sub 2/O. 22 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Raman Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Shona; Priore, Ryan J.; Nelson, Matthew P.; Treado, Patrick J.

    2012-07-01

    The past decade has seen an enormous increase in the number and breadth of imaging techniques developed for analysis in many industries, including pharmaceuticals, food, and especially biomedicine. Rather than accept single-dimensional forms of information, users now demand multidimensional assessment of samples. High specificity and the need for little or no sample preparation make Raman imaging a highly attractive analytical technique and provide motivation for continuing advances in its supporting technology and utilization. This review discusses the current tools employed in Raman imaging, the recent advances, and the major applications in this ever-growing analytical field.

  13. Multisurface Adiabatic Reactive Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Tibor; Yosa Reyes, Juvenal; Meuwly, Markus

    2014-04-01

    Adiabatic reactive molecular dynamics (ARMD) simulation method is a surface-crossing algorithm for modeling chemical reactions in classical molecular dynamics simulations using empirical force fields. As the ARMD Hamiltonian is time dependent during crossing, it allows only approximate energy conservation. In the current work, the range of applicability of conventional ARMD is explored, and a new multisurface ARMD (MS-ARMD) method is presented, implemented in CHARMM and applied to the vibrationally induced photodissociation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in the gas phase. For this, an accurate global potential energy surface (PES) involving 12 H2SO4 and 4 H2O + SO3 force fields fitted to MP2/6-311G++(2d,2p) reference energies is employed. The MS-ARMD simulations conserve total energy and feature both intramolecular H-transfer reactions and water elimination. An analytical treatment of the dynamics in the crossing region finds that conventional ARMD can approximately conserve total energy for limiting cases. In one of them, the reduced mass of the system is large, which often occurs for simulations of solvated biomolecular systems. On the other hand, MS-ARMD is a general approach for modeling chemical reactions including gas-phase, homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic catalytic reactions while conserving total energy in atomistic simulations. PMID:26580356

  14. Adiabatic limits on Riemannian Heisenberg manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, A A

    2008-02-28

    An asymptotic formula is obtained for the distribution function of the spectrum of the Laplace operator, in the adiabatic limit for the foliation defined by the orbits of an invariant flow on a compact Riemannian Heisenberg manifold. Bibliography: 21 titles.

  15. An Adiabatic Architecture for Linear Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.; Götze, J.

    2005-05-01

    Using adiabatic CMOS logic instead of the more traditional static CMOS logic can lower the power consumption of a hardware design. However, the characteristic differences between adiabatic and static logic, such as a four-phase clock, have a far reaching influence on the design itself. These influences are investigated in this paper by adapting a systolic array of CORDIC devices to be implemented adiabatically. We present a means to describe adiabatic logic in VHDL and use it to define the systolic array with precise timing and bit-true calculations. The large pipeline bubbles that occur in a naive version of this array are identified and removed to a large degree. As an example, we demonstrate a parameterization of the CORDIC array that carries out adaptive RLS filtering.

  16. General conditions for quantum adiabatic evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Comparat, Daniel

    2009-07-15

    Adiabaticity occurs when, during its evolution, a physical system remains in the instantaneous eigenstate of the Hamiltonian. Unfortunately, existing results, such as the quantum adiabatic theorem based on a slow down evolution [H({epsilon}t),{epsilon}{yields}0], are insufficient to describe an evolution driven by the Hamiltonian H(t) itself. Here we derive general criteria and exact bounds, for the state and its phase, ensuring an adiabatic evolution for any Hamiltonian H(t). As a corollary, we demonstrate that the commonly used condition of a slow Hamiltonian variation rate, compared to the spectral gap, is indeed sufficient to ensure adiabaticity but only when the Hamiltonian is real and nonoscillating (for instance, containing exponential or polynomial but no sinusoidal functions)

  17. Adiabatic invariance of oscillons/I -balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Takeda, Naoyuki

    2015-11-01

    Real scalar fields are known to fragment into spatially localized and long-lived solitons called oscillons or I -balls. We prove the adiabatic invariance of the oscillons/I -balls for a potential that allows periodic motion even in the presence of non-negligible spatial gradient energy. We show that such a potential is uniquely determined to be the quadratic one with a logarithmic correction, for which the oscillons/I -balls are absolutely stable. For slightly different forms of the scalar potential dominated by the quadratic one, the oscillons/I -balls are only quasistable, because the adiabatic charge is only approximately conserved. We check the conservation of the adiabatic charge of the I -balls in numerical simulation by slowly varying the coefficient of logarithmic corrections. This unambiguously shows that the longevity of oscillons/I -balls is due to the adiabatic invariance.

  18. Vortex-generating coolant-flow-passage design for increased film-cooling effectiveness and surface coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papell, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    The thermal film-cooling footprints observed by infrared imagery for three coolant-passage configurations embedded in adiabatic-test plates are discussed. The configurations included a standard round-hole cross section and two orientations of a vortex-generating flow passage. Both orientations showed up to factors of four increases in both film-cooling effectiveness and surface coverage over that obtained with the round coolant passage. The crossflow data covered a range of tunnel velocities from 15.5 to 45 m/sec with blowing rates from 0.20 to 2.05. A photographic streakline flow visualization technique supported the concept of the counterrotating apability of the flow passage design and gave visual credence to its role in inhibiting flow separation.

  19. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction....

  20. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction....

  1. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction....

  2. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction....

  3. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not engaged, shall open from either side by a single movement of the hardware mechanism in any direction....

  4. Symmetry of the Adiabatic Condition in the Piston Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Ferreira, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses a controversial issue in the adiabatic piston problem, namely that of the piston being adiabatic when it is fixed but no longer so when it can move freely. It is shown that this apparent contradiction arises from the usual definition of adiabatic condition. The issue is addressed here by requiring the adiabatic condition to be…

  5. Hot Wax Sweeps Debris From Narrow Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Steven K.

    1990-01-01

    Safe and effective technique for removal of debris and contaminants from narrow passages involves entrainment of undesired material in thermoplastic casting material. Semisolid wax slightly below melting temperature pushed along passage by pressurized nitrogen to remove debris. Devised to clean out fuel passages in main combustion chamber of Space Shuttle main engine. Also applied to narrow, intricate passages in internal-combustion-engine blocks, carburetors, injection molds, and other complicated parts.

  6. 76 FR 34692 - Inside Passage Electric Cooperative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Inside Passage Electric Cooperative Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, and supplemented on May 18, 2011, the Inside Passage Electric Cooperative filed an application.... Applicant Contact: Mr. Peter A. Bibb, Operations Manager, Inside Passage Electric Cooperative, P.O....

  7. Graph isomorphism and adiabatic quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane

    2014-02-01

    In the graph isomorphism (GI) problem two N-vertex graphs G and G' are given and the task is to determine whether there exists a permutation of the vertices of G that preserves adjacency and transforms G →G'. If yes, then G and G' are said to be isomorphic; otherwise they are nonisomorphic. The GI problem is an important problem in computer science and is thought to be of comparable difficulty to integer factorization. In this paper we present a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of GI and which also provides an approach to determining all automorphisms of a given graph. We show how the GI problem can be converted to a combinatorial optimization problem that can be solved using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate the algorithm's quantum dynamics and show that it correctly (i) distinguishes nonisomorphic graphs; (ii) recognizes isomorphic graphs and determines the permutation(s) that connect them; and (iii) finds the automorphism group of a given graph G. We then discuss the GI quantum algorithm's experimental implementation, and close by showing how it can be leveraged to give a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of the NP-complete subgraph isomorphism problem. The computational complexity of an adiabatic quantum algorithm is largely determined by the minimum energy gap Δ (N) separating the ground and first-excited states in the limit of large problem size N ≫1. Calculating Δ (N) in this limit is a fundamental open problem in adiabatic quantum computing, and so it is not possible to determine the computational complexity of adiabatic quantum algorithms in general, nor consequently, of the specific adiabatic quantum algorithms presented here. Adiabatic quantum computing has been shown to be equivalent to the circuit model of quantum computing, and so development of adiabatic quantum algorithms continues to be of great interest.

  8. Adiabatic nanofocusing: spectroscopy, transport and imaging investigation of the nano world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giugni, A.; Allione, M.; Torre, B.; Das, G.; Francardi, M.; Moretti, M.; Malerba, M.; Perozziello, G.; Candeloro, P.; Di Fabrizio, E.

    2014-11-01

    Adiabatic compression plays a fundamental role in the realization of localized enhanced electromagnetic field hot spots, it provides the possibility to focus at nanoscale optical excitation. It differs from the well-known lightning rod effect since it is based on the lossless propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) up to a nano-sized metal tip where the energy density is largely enhanced. Here we discuss two important applications of adiabatic compression: Raman and hot electron spectroscopy at nanometric resolution. The underlying phenomena are the conversion of SPPs into photons or hot electrons. New scanning probe spectroscopy techniques along with experimental results are discussed. We foresee that these techniques will play a key role in relating the functional and structural properties of matter at the nanoscale.

  9. Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2014-12-14

    A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10{sup −12} at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H{sub 2}, HD, HT, D{sub 2}, DT, and T{sub 2} has been determined. For the ground state of H{sub 2} the estimated precision is 3 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup −1}, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.

  10. Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10-12 at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, and T2 has been determined. For the ground state of H2 the estimated precision is 3 × 10-7 cm-1, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.

  11. Symmetry-Protected Quantum Adiabatic Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Dominic J.; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2014-03-01

    An essential development in the history of computing was the invention of the transistor as it allowed logic circuits to be implemented in a robust and modular way. The physical characteristics of semiconductor materials were the key to building these devices. We aim to present an analogous development for quantum computing by showing that quantum adiabatic transistors (as defined by Flammia et al.) are built upon the essential qualities of symmetry-protected (SP) quantum ordered phases in one dimension. Flammia et al. and Renes et al. have demonstrated schemes for universal adiabatic quantum computation using quantum adiabatic transistors described by interacting spin chain models with specifically chosen Hamiltonian terms. We show that these models can be understood as specific examples of the generic situation in which all SP phases lead to quantum computation on encoded edge degrees of freedom by adiabatically traversing a symmetric phase transition into a trivial symmetric phase. This point of view is advantageous as it allows us to readily see that the computational properties of a quantum adiabatic transistor arise from a phase of matter rather than due to carefully tuned interactions.

  12. Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbara, Thomas M.

    2016-04-01

    A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging.

  13. Extensive Adiabatic Invariants for Nonlinear Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgilli, Antonio; Paleari, Simone; Penati, Tiziano

    2012-09-01

    We look for extensive adiabatic invariants in nonlinear chains in the thermodynamic limit. Considering the quadratic part of the Klein-Gordon Hamiltonian, by a linear change of variables we transform it into a sum of two parts in involution. At variance with the usual method of introducing normal modes, our constructive procedure allows us to exploit the complete resonance, while keeping the extensive nature of the system. Next we construct a nonlinear approximation of an extensive adiabatic invariant for a perturbation of the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger model. The fluctuations of this quantity are controlled via Gibbs measure estimates independent of the system size, for a large set of initial data at low specific energy. Finally, by numerical calculations we show that our adiabatic invariant is well conserved for times much longer than predicted by our first order theory, with fluctuation much smaller than expected according to standard statistical estimates.

  14. Anderson localization makes adiabatic quantum optimization fail

    PubMed Central

    Altshuler, Boris; Krovi, Hari; Roland, Jérémie

    2010-01-01

    Understanding NP-complete problems is a central topic in computer science (NP stands for nondeterministic polynomial time). This is why adiabatic quantum optimization has attracted so much attention, as it provided a new approach to tackle NP-complete problems using a quantum computer. The efficiency of this approach is limited by small spectral gaps between the ground and excited states of the quantum computer’s Hamiltonian. We show that the statistics of the gaps can be analyzed in a novel way, borrowed from the study of quantum disordered systems in statistical mechanics. It turns out that due to a phenomenon similar to Anderson localization, exponentially small gaps appear close to the end of the adiabatic algorithm for large random instances of NP-complete problems. This implies that unfortunately, adiabatic quantum optimization fails: The system gets trapped in one of the numerous local minima. PMID:20616043

  15. Adiabatic Hyperspherical Analysis of Realistic Nuclear Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daily, K. M.; Kievsky, Alejandro; Greene, Chris H.

    2015-12-01

    Using the hyperspherical adiabatic method with the realistic nuclear potentials Argonne V14, Argonne V18, and Argonne V18 with the Urbana IX three-body potential, we calculate the adiabatic potentials and the triton bound state energies. We find that a discrete variable representation with the slow variable discretization method along the hyperradial degree of freedom results in energies consistent with the literature. However, using a Laguerre basis results in missing energy, even when extrapolated to an infinite number of basis functions and channels. We do not include the isospin T = 3/2 contribution in our analysis.

  16. On black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qing-Quan; Han, Yan

    2012-12-01

    In this Letter, we obtain the black hole spectroscopy by combining the black hole property of adiabaticity and the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. This velocity is obtained in the tunneling framework. In particular, we declare, if requiring canonical invariance, the adiabatic invariant quantity should be of the covariant form Iadia = ∮pi dqi. Using it, the horizon area of a Schwarzschild black hole is quantized independently of the choice of coordinates, with an equally spaced spectroscopy always given by ΔA = 8 π lp2 in the Schwarzschild and Painlevé coordinates.

  17. Complexity of the Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hen, Itay

    2013-01-01

    The Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm (QAA) has been proposed as a mechanism for efficiently solving optimization problems on a quantum computer. Since adiabatic computation is analog in nature and does not require the design and use of quantum gates, it can be thought of as a simpler and perhaps more profound method for performing quantum computations that might also be easier to implement experimentally. While these features have generated substantial research in QAA, to date there is still a lack of solid evidence that the algorithm can outperform classical optimization algorithms.

  18. Adiabatic approximation for nucleus-nucleus scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.C.

    2005-10-14

    Adiabatic approximations to few-body models of nuclear scattering are described with emphasis on reactions with deuterons and halo nuclei (frozen halo approximation) as projectiles. The different ways the approximation should be implemented in a consistent theory of elastic scattering, stripping and break-up are explained and the conditions for the theory's validity are briefly discussed. A formalism which links few-body models and the underlying many-body system is outlined and the connection between the adiabatic and CDCC methods is reviewed.

  19. Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gerrard, D.L.; Bowley, H.J.

    1988-06-15

    The period of this review is from late 1985 to late 1987. During this time over 6000 papers have been published in the scientific literature dealing with many applications of Raman spectroscopy and extending its use to new areas of study. This article covers only those papers that are relevant to the analytical chemist and this necessitates a highly selective approach. There are some areas that have been the subject of many papers with relatively few being of analytical interest. In such cases the reader is referred to appropriate reviews which are detailed in this section.

  20. Rites of passage in Italy.

    PubMed

    Field, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Unlike the vast number of public celebrations in Italy that are almost always associated with specific foods, rites of passage in that country are focused on pivotal private moments after the ceremonial crossing of a threshold; and food may or may not be a primary focus of the event. Recognition of birth, marriage, and death—the three major turning points in the intimate life of a family—may still be observed with dishes or ingredients traceable to the Renaissance, but many older traditions have been modified or forgotten entirely in the last thirty years. Financial constraints once preserved many customs, especially in the south, but regional borders have become porous, and new food trends may no longer reflect the authentic tradition. Can new movements, such as Slow Food, promote ancient values as the form and food of traditional events continue to change? PMID:21495289

  1. Crushing runtimes in adiabatic quantum computation with Energy Landscape Manipulation (ELM): Application to Quantum Factoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattani, Nike; Tanburn, Richard; Lunt, Oliver

    We introduce two methods for speeding up adiabatic quantum computations by increasing the energy between the ground and first excited states. Our methods are even more general. They can be used to shift a Hamiltonian's density of states away from the ground state, so that fewer states occupy the low-lying energies near the minimum, hence allowing for faster adiabatic passages to find the ground state with less risk of getting caught in an undesired low-lying excited state during the passage. Even more generally, our methods can be used to transform a discrete optimization problem into a new one whose unique minimum still encodes the desired answer, but with the objective function's values forming a different landscape. Aspects of the landscape such as the objective function's range, or the values of certain coefficients, or how many different inputs lead to a given output value, can be decreased *or* increased. One of the many examples for which these methods are useful is in finding the ground state of a Hamiltonian using NMR. We apply our methods to an AQC algorithm for integer factorization, and the first method reduces the maximum runtime in our example by up to 754%, and the second method reduces the maximum runtime of another example by up to 250%.

  2. Adiabatic Compression in a Fire Syringe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayn, Carl H.; Baird, Scott C.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests using better materials in fire syringes to obtain more effective results during demonstrations which show the elevation in temperature upon a very rapid (adiabatic) compression of air. Also describes an experiment (using ignition temperatures) which introduces students to the use of thermocouples for high temperature measurements. (DH)

  3. Apparatus to Measure Adiabatic and Isothermal Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, D. W.; White, G. M.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a simple manual apparatus designed to serve as an effective demonstration of the differences between isothermal and adiabatic processes for the general or elementary physics student. Enables students to verify Boyle's law for slow processes and identify the departure from this law for rapid processes and can also be used to give a clear…

  4. Mid-range adiabatic wireless energy transfer via a mediator coil

    SciTech Connect

    Rangelov, A.A. Vitanov, N.V.

    2012-09-15

    A technique for efficient mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils via a mediator coil is proposed. By varying the coil frequencies, three resonances are created: emitter-mediator (EM), mediator-receiver (MR) and emitter-receiver (ER). If the frequency sweeps are adiabatic and such that the EM resonance precedes the MR resonance, the energy flows sequentially along the chain emitter-mediator-receiver. If the MR resonance precedes the EM resonance, then the energy flows directly from the emitter to the receiver via the ER resonance; then the losses from the mediator are suppressed. This technique is robust against noise, resonant constraints and external interferences. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer via a mediator coil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils.

  5. Communication: Adiabatic and non-adiabatic electron-nuclear motion: Quantum and classical dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Julian; Kaiser, Dustin; Engel, Volker

    2016-05-01

    Using a model for coupled electronic-nuclear motion we investigate the range from negligible to strong non-adiabatic coupling. In the adiabatic case, the quantum dynamics proceeds in a single electronic state, whereas for strong coupling a complete transition between two adiabatic electronic states takes place. It is shown that in all coupling regimes the short-time wave-packet dynamics can be described using ensembles of classical trajectories in the phase space spanned by electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom. We thus provide an example which documents that the quantum concept of non-adiabatic transitions is not necessarily needed if electronic and nuclear motion is treated on the same footing.

  6. The dynamic instability of adiabatic blast waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.

    1991-01-01

    Adiabatic blastwaves, which have a total energy injected from the center E varies as t(sup q) and propagate through a preshock medium with a density rho(sub E) varies as r(sup -omega) are described by a family of similarity solutions. Previous work has shown that adiabatic blastwaves with increasing or constant postshock entropy behind the shock front are susceptible to an oscillatory instability, caused by the difference between the nature of the forces on the two sides of the dense shell behind the shock front. This instability sets in if the dense postshock layer is sufficiently thin. The stability of adiabatic blastwaves with a decreasing postshock entropy is considered. Such blastwaves, if they are decelerating, always have a region behind the shock front which is subject to convection. Some accelerating blastwaves also have such region, depending on the values of q, omega, and gamma where gamma is the adiabatic index. However, since the shock interface stabilizes dynamically induced perturbations, blastwaves become convectively unstable only if the convective zone is localized around the origin or a contact discontinuity far from the shock front. On the other hand, the contact discontinuity of accelerating blastwaves is subject to a strong Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The frequency spectra of the nonradial, normal modes of adiabatic blastwaves have been calculated. The results have been applied to the shocks propagating through supernovae envelopes. It is shown that the metal/He and He/H interfaces are strongly unstable against the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. This instability will induce mixing in supernovae envelopes. In addition the implications of this work for the evolution of planetary nebulae is discussed.

  7. Adiabatic circuits: converter for static CMOS signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, J.; Amirante, E.; Bargagli-Stoffi, A.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2003-05-01

    Ultra low power applications can take great advantages from adiabatic circuitry. In this technique a multiphase system is used which consists ideally of trapezoidal voltage signals. The input signals to be processed will often come from a function block realized in static CMOS. The static rectangular signals must be converted for the oscillating multiphase system of the adiabatic circuitry. This work shows how to convert the input signals to the proposed pulse form which is synchronized to the appropriate supply voltage. By means of adder structures designed for a 0.13µm technology in a 4-phase system there will be demonstrated, which additional circuits are necessary for the conversion. It must be taken into account whether the data arrive in parallel or serial form. Parallel data are all in one phase and therefore it is advantageous to use an adder structure with a proper input stage, e.g. a Carry Lookahead Adder (CLA). With a serial input stage it is possible to read and to process four signals during one cycle due to the adiabatic 4-phase system. Therefore input signals with a frequency four times higher than the adiabatic clock frequency can be used. This reduces the disadvantage of the slow clock period typical for adiabatic circuits. By means of an 8 bit Ripple Carry Adder (8 bit RCA) the serial reading will be introduced. If the word width is larger than 4 bits the word can be divided in 4 bit words which are processed in parallel. This is the most efficient way to minimize the number of input lines and pads. At the same time a high throughput is achieved.

  8. The dynamic instability of adiabatic blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.

    1991-02-01

    Adiabatic blastwaves, which have a total energy injected from the center E varies as tq and propagate through a preshock medium with a density rhoE varies as r-omega are described by a family of similarity solutions. Previous work has shown that adiabatic blastwaves with increasing or constant postshock entropy behind the shock front are susceptible to an oscillatory instability, caused by the difference between the nature of the forces on the two sides of the dense shell behind the shock front. This instability sets in if the dense postshock layer is sufficiently thin. The stability of adiabatic blastwaves with a decreasing postshock entropy is considered. Such blastwaves, if they are decelerating, always have a region behind the shock front which is subject to convection. Some accelerating blastwaves also have such region, depending on the values of q, omega, and gamma where gamma is the adiabatic index. However, since the shock interface stabilizes dynamically induced perturbations, blastwaves become convectively unstable only if the convective zone is localized around the origin or a contact discontinuity far from the shock front. On the other hand, the contact discontinuity of accelerating blastwaves is subject to a strong Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The frequency spectra of the nonradial, normal modes of adiabatic blastwaves have been calculated. The results have been applied to the shocks propagating through supernovae envelopes. It is shown that the metal/He and He/H interfaces are strongly unstable against the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. This instability will induce mixing in supernovae envelopes. In addition the implications of this work for the evolution of planetary nebulae is discussed.

  9. The dynamic instability of adiabatic blastwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.

    1990-05-01

    Adiabatic blastwaves, which have a total energy injected from the center E varies as t(sup q) and propagate through a preshock medium with a density rho(sub E) varies as r(sup -omega) are described by a family of similarity solutions. Previous work has shown that adiabatic blastwaves with increasing or constant postshock entropy behind the shock front are susceptible to an oscillatory instability, caused by the difference between the nature of the forces on the two sides of the dense shell behind the shock front. This instability sets in if the dense postshock layer is sufficiently thin. The stability of adiabatic blastwaves with a decreasing postshock entropy is considered. Such blastwaves, if they are decelerating, always have a region behind the shock front which is subject to convection. Some accelerating blastwaves also have such region, depending on the values of q, omega, and gamma where gamma is the adiabatic index. However, since the shock interface stabilizes dynamically induced perturbations, blastwaves become convectively unstable only if the convective zone is localized around the origin or a contact discontinuity far from the shock front. On the other hand, the contact discontinuity of accelerating blastwaves is subject to a strong Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The frequency spectra of the nonradial, normal modes of adiabatic blastwaves have been calculated. The results have been applied to the shocks propagating through supernovae envelopes. It is shown that the metal/He and He/H interfaces are strongly unstable against the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. This instability will induce mixing in supernovae envelopes. In addition the implications of this work for the evolution of planetary nebulae is discussed.

  10. Adiabatic burst evaporation from bicontinuous nanoporous membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ichilmann, Sachar; Rücker, Kerstin; Haase, Markus; Enke, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation of volatile liquids from nanoporous media with bicontinuous morphology and pore diameters of a few 10 nm is an ubiquitous process. For example, such drying processes occur during syntheses of nanoporous materials by sol–gel chemistry or by spinodal decomposition in the presence of solvents as well as during solution impregnation of nanoporous hosts with functional guests. It is commonly assumed that drying is endothermic and driven by non-equilibrium partial pressures of the evaporating species in the gas phase. We show that nearly half of the liquid evaporates in an adiabatic mode involving burst-like liquid-to-gas conversions. During single adiabatic burst evaporation events liquid volumes of up to 107 μm3 are converted to gas. The adiabatic liquid-to-gas conversions occur if air invasion fronts get unstable because of the built-up of high capillary pressures. Adiabatic evaporation bursts propagate avalanche-like through the nanopore systems until the air invasion fronts have reached new stable configurations. Adiabatic cavitation bursts thus compete with Haines jumps involving air invasion front relaxation by local liquid flow without enhanced mass transport out of the nanoporous medium and prevail if the mean pore diameter is in the range of a few 10 nm. The results reported here may help optimize membrane preparation via solvent-based approaches, solution-loading of nanopore systems with guest materials as well as routine use of nanoporous membranes with bicontinuous morphology and may contribute to better understanding of adsorption/desorption processes in nanoporous media. PMID:25926406

  11. Adiabatic evolution of an irreversible two level system

    SciTech Connect

    Kvitsinsky, A.; Putterman, S. )

    1991-05-01

    The adiabatic dynamics of a two level atom with spontaneous decay is studied. The existence of a complex adiabatic phase shift is established: The real part being the usual Berry's phase. A closed-form expression for this phase and the adiabatic transition amplitudes is obtained. Incorporation of a finite preparation time for the initial state yields a new asymptotic form for the adiabatic transition amplitudes which is significantly different from the standard Landau--Zener--Dykhne formula.

  12. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  13. Risk Taking and Rites of Passage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Scott; Martin, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Throughout history, young people earned adult roles through observing, imitating, and interacting with adults around them. Rituals of initiation such as the Jewish bar mitzvah and bat mitzvah are very important rite of passage ceremonies. Many churches confer baptism, confirmation, or catechism as rites of passage to adulthood. Without such…

  14. Comparison of textbook passages, nonfiction trade book passages and fiction trade book passages as instructional tools for learning science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    This study examined the impact of different types of text on student achievement in elementary school science. Gender was also examined to see if the type of text passage read had any differential effect on boys' and girls' achievement. This study was a pretest/posttest/retention test design. Eighty-four fourth grade students from a public charter elementary school in South Florida were randomly assigned a passage from a physical science textbook, a physical science nonfiction trade book, a physical science fiction trade book, a biological science textbook or a biological science nonfiction trade book. Results in the physical science content area revealed that students in the textbook passage group had higher posttest and retention test results than students in the nonfiction and fiction trade book passage groups. There was no difference on the posttest results of students in the biological science textbook and nonfiction trade book passage groups. Students in the biological science textbook passage group had higher retention results than students in the biological science nonfiction passage group. Gender results in the physical science content area revealed that boys had a higher retention score than girls in the fiction trade book passage group. There were no gender achievement differences as a result of the text passage read in the biological science content area. It was concluded that no definitive answer as to the efficacy of textbooks versus trade books was possible based upon results of the study. Recommendations for future research include examining the effects of different types of texts in conjunction with other authentic teaching methods.

  15. Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Koshelev, N.A.

    2011-04-01

    The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models.

  16. Adiabatic Far Field Sub-Diffraction Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cang, Hu; Salandrino, Alessandro; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    The limited resolution of a conventional optical imaging system stems from the fact that the fine feature information of an object is carried by evanescent waves, which exponentially decay in space thus cannot reach the imaging plane. We introduce here a new concept of adiabatic lens, which utilizes a geometrically conformal surface to mediate the interference of slowly decompressed electromagnetic waves at far field to form images. The decompression is satisfying an adiabatic condition, and by bridging the gap between far field and near field, it allows far field optical systems to project an image of the near field features directly. Using these designs, we demonstrated the magnification can be up to 20 times and it is possible to achieve sub-50nm imaging resolution in visible. Our approach provides a means to extend the domain of geometrical optics to a deep sub-wavelength scale. PMID:26258769

  17. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory.

    PubMed

    Acconcia, Thiago V; Bonança, Marcus V S; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. With the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found-quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. Finally, we propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts to adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times. PMID:26565209

  18. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis

    2014-12-01

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  19. Quantum adiabatic evolution with energy degeneracy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    A classical-kind phase-space formalism is developed to address the tiny intrinsic dynamical deviation from what is predicted by Wilczek-Zee theorem during quantum adiabatic evolution on degeneracy levels. In this formalism, the Hilbert space and the aggregate of degenerate eigenstates become the classical-kind phase space and a high-dimensional subspace in the phase space, respectively. Compared with the previous analogous study by a different method, the current result is qualitatively different in that the first-order deviation derived here is always perpendicular to the degeneracy subspace. A tripod-scheme Hamiltonian with two degenerate dark states is employed to illustrate the adiabatic deviation with degeneracy levels.

  20. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. With the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. Finally, we propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts to adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.

  1. Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.

    2014-12-22

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are storedmore » in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.« less

  2. Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall

    SciTech Connect

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.

    2014-12-22

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  3. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory

    SciTech Connect

    Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-23

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts to adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.

  4. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-23

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts tomore » adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.« less

  5. Adiabatic Quantization of Andreev Quantum Billiard Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestrov, P. G.; Goorden, M. C.; Beenakker, C. W.

    2003-03-01

    We identify the time T between Andreev reflections as a classical adiabatic invariant in a ballistic chaotic cavity (Lyapunov exponent λ), coupled to a superconductor by an N-mode constriction. Quantization of the adiabatically invariant torus in phase space gives a discrete set of periods Tn, which in turn generate a ladder of excited states ɛnm=(m+1/2)πℏ/Tn. The largest quantized period is the Ehrenfest time T0=λ-1ln(N. Projection of the invariant torus onto the coordinate plane shows that the wave functions inside the cavity are squeezed to a transverse dimension W/(N), much below the width W of the constriction.

  6. Adiabatic state preparation study of methylene

    SciTech Connect

    Veis, Libor Pittner, Jiří

    2014-06-07

    Quantum computers attract much attention as they promise to outperform their classical counterparts in solving certain type of problems. One of them with practical applications in quantum chemistry is simulation of complex quantum systems. An essential ingredient of efficient quantum simulation algorithms are initial guesses of the exact wave functions with high enough fidelity. As was proposed in Aspuru-Guzik et al. [Science 309, 1704 (2005)], the exact ground states can in principle be prepared by the adiabatic state preparation method. Here, we apply this approach to preparation of the lowest lying multireference singlet electronic state of methylene and numerically investigate preparation of this state at different molecular geometries. We then propose modifications that lead to speeding up the preparation process. Finally, we decompose the minimal adiabatic state preparation employing the direct mapping in terms of two-qubit interactions.

  7. Adiabatic Quantum Simulation of Quantum Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Babbush, Ryan; Love, Peter J.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-01-01

    We show how to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm directly to the quantum computation of molecular properties. We describe a procedure to map electronic structure Hamiltonians to 2-body qubit Hamiltonians with a small set of physically realizable couplings. By combining the Bravyi-Kitaev construction to map fermions to qubits with perturbative gadgets to reduce the Hamiltonian to 2-body, we obtain precision requirements on the coupling strengths and a number of ancilla qubits that scale polynomially in the problem size. Hence our mapping is efficient. The required set of controllable interactions includes only two types of interaction beyond the Ising interactions required to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm to combinatorial optimization problems. Our mapping may also be of interest to chemists directly as it defines a dictionary from electronic structure to spin Hamiltonians with physical interactions. PMID:25308187

  8. Adiabatic charging of nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Chuck; Foroozan, S.; Brewer, Jeff; Jackson, Lorna

    1995-01-01

    Battery management during prelaunch activities has always required special attention and careful planning. The transition from nickel-cadium to nickel-hydrogen batteries, with their high self discharge rate and lower charge efficiency, as well as longer prelaunch scenarios, has made this aspect of spacecraft battery management even more challenging. The AXAF-I Program requires high battery state of charge at launch. The use of active cooling, to ensure efficient charging, was considered and proved to be difficult and expensive. Alternative approaches were evaluated. Optimized charging, in the absence of cooling, appeared promising and was investigated. Initial testing was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the 'Adiabatic Charging' approach. Feasibility was demonstrated and additional testing performed to provide a quantitative, parametric data base. The assumption that the battery is in an adiabatic environment during prelaunch charging is a conservative approximation because the battery will transfer some heat to its surroundings by convective air cooling. The amount is small compared to the heat dissipated during battery overcharge. Because the battery has a large thermal mass, substantial overcharge can occur before the cells get too hot to charge efficiently. The testing presented here simulates a true adiabatic environment. Accordingly the data base may be slightly conservative. The adiabatic charge methodology used in this investigation begins with stabilizing the cell at a given starting temperature. The cell is then fully insulated on all sides. Battery temperature is carefully monitored and the charge terminated when the cell temperature reaches 85 F. Charging has been evaluated with starting temperatures from 55 to 75 F.

  9. Advanced Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators for Continuous Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Paul C. W.

    2004-01-01

    The research at Houston was focused on optimizing the design of superconducting magnets for advanced adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs), assessing the feasibility of using high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets in ADRs in the future, and developing techniques to deposit HTS thin and thick films on high strength, low thermal conductivity substrates for HTS magnet leads. Several approaches have been tested for the suggested superconducting magnets.

  10. Computer Code For Turbocompounded Adiabatic Diesel Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assanis, D. N.; Heywood, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    Computer simulation developed to study advantages of increased exhaust enthalpy in adiabatic turbocompounded diesel engine. Subsytems of conceptual engine include compressor, reciprocator, turbocharger turbine, compounded turbine, ducting, and heat exchangers. Focus of simulation of total system is to define transfers of mass and energy, including release and transfer of heat and transfer of work in each subsystem, and relationship among subsystems. Written in FORTRAN IV.

  11. Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes. II - Adiabatic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montesinos, Benjamin; Thomas, John H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper extends the study of steady siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes surrounded by field-free gas to the case of adiabatic flows. The basic equations governing steady adiabatic siphon flows in a thin, isolated magnetic flux tube are summarized, and qualitative features of adiabatic flows in elevated, arched flux tubes are discussed. The equations are then cast in nondimensional form and the results of numerical computations of adiabatic siphon flows in arched flux tubes are presented along with comparisons between isothermal and adiabatic flows. The effects of making the interior of the flux tube hotter or colder than the surrounding atmosphere at the upstream footpoint of the arch is considered. In this case, is it found that the adiabatic flows are qualitatively similar to the isothermal flows, with adiabatic cooling producing quantitative differences. Critical flows can produce a bulge point in the rising part of the arch and a concentration of magnetic flux above the bulge point.

  12. Random matrix model of adiabatic quantum computing

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, David R.; Adami, Christoph; Lue, Waynn; Williams, Colin P.

    2005-05-15

    We present an analysis of the quantum adiabatic algorithm for solving hard instances of 3-SAT (an NP-complete problem) in terms of random matrix theory (RMT). We determine the global regularity of the spectral fluctuations of the instantaneous Hamiltonians encountered during the interpolation between the starting Hamiltonians and the ones whose ground states encode the solutions to the computational problems of interest. At each interpolation point, we quantify the degree of regularity of the average spectral distribution via its Brody parameter, a measure that distinguishes regular (i.e., Poissonian) from chaotic (i.e., Wigner-type) distributions of normalized nearest-neighbor spacings. We find that for hard problem instances - i.e., those having a critical ratio of clauses to variables - the spectral fluctuations typically become irregular across a contiguous region of the interpolation parameter, while the spectrum is regular for easy instances. Within the hard region, RMT may be applied to obtain a mathematical model of the probability of avoided level crossings and concomitant failure rate of the adiabatic algorithm due to nonadiabatic Landau-Zener-type transitions. Our model predicts that if the interpolation is performed at a uniform rate, the average failure rate of the quantum adiabatic algorithm, when averaged over hard problem instances, scales exponentially with increasing problem size.

  13. Adiabatic heating in impulsive solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maetzler, C.; Bai, T.; Crannell, C. J.; Frost, K. J.

    1978-01-01

    A study is made of adiabatic heating in two impulsive solar flares on the basis of dynamic X-ray spectra in the 28-254 keV range, H-alpha, microwave, and meter-wave radio observations. It is found that the X-ray spectra of the events are like those of thermal bremsstrahlung from single-temperature plasmas in the 10-60 keV range if photospheric albedo is taken into account. The temperature-emission correlation indicates adiabatic compression followed by adiabatic expansion and that the electron distribution remains isotropic. H-alpha data suggest compressive energy transfer. The projected areas and volumes of the flares are estimated assuming that X-ray and microwave emissions are produced in a single thermal plasma. Electron densities of about 10 to the 9th/cu cm are found for homogeneous, spherically symmetric sources. It is noted that the strong self-absorption of hot-plasma gyrosynchrotron radiation reveals low magnetic field strengths.

  14. Non-adiabatic effect on quantum pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Chikako

    2014-03-01

    We study quantum pumping for an anharmonic junction model which interacts with two kinds of bosonic environments. We provide an expression for the quantum pumping under a piecewise modulation of environmental temperatures with including non-adiabatic effect under Markovian approximation. The obtained formula is an extension of the one expressed with the geometrical phase(Phys. Rev. Lett. 104,170601 (2010)). This extension shows that the quantum pumping depends on the initial condition of the anharmonic junction just before the modulation, as well as the characteristic environmental parameters such as interaction strength and cut-off frequencies of spectral density other than the conditions of modulation. We clarify that the pumping current including non-adiabatic effect can be larger than that under the adiabatic condition. This means that we can find the optimal condition of the current by adjusting these parameters. (The article has been submitted as http://arxiv.org/submit/848201 and will be appeared soon.) This work is supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (KAKENHI 25287098).

  15. An adiabatic approximation for grain alignment theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberge, W. G.

    1997-10-01

    The alignment of interstellar dust grains is described by the joint distribution function for certain `internal' and `external' variables, where the former describe the orientation of the axes of a grain with respect to its angular momentum, J, and the latter describe the orientation of J relative to the interstellar magnetic field. I show how the large disparity between the dynamical time-scales of the internal and external variables - which is typically 2-3 orders of magnitude - can be exploited to simplify calculations of the required distribution greatly. The method is based on an `adiabatic approximation' which closely resembles the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in quantum mechanics. The adiabatic approximation prescribes an analytic distribution function for the `fast' dynamical variables and a simplified Fokker-Planck equation for the `slow' variables which can be solved straightforwardly using various techniques. These solutions are accurate to O(epsilon), where epsilon is the ratio of the fast and slow dynamical time-scales. As a simple illustration of the method, I derive an analytic solution for the joint distribution established when Barnett relaxation acts in concert with gas damping. The statistics of the analytic solution agree with the results of laborious numerical calculations which do not exploit the adiabatic approximation.

  16. An Adiabatic Approximation for Grain Alignment Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberge, W. G.

    1997-12-01

    The alignment of interstellar dust grains is described by the joint distribution function for certain ``internal'' and ``external'' variables, where the former describe the orientation of a grain's axes with respect to its angular momentum, J, and the latter describe the orientation of J relative to the interstellar magnetic field. I show how the large disparity between the dynamical timescales of the internal and external variables--- which is typically 2--3 orders of magnitude--- can be exploited to greatly simplify calculations of the required distribution. The method is based on an ``adiabatic approximation'' which closely resembles the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in quantum mechanics. The adiabatic approximation prescribes an analytic distribution function for the ``fast'' dynamical variables and a simplified Fokker-Planck equation for the ``slow'' variables which can be solved straightforwardly using various techniques. These solutions are accurate to cal {O}(epsilon ), where epsilon is the ratio of the fast and slow dynamical timescales. As a simple illustration of the method, I derive an analytic solution for the joint distribution established when Barnett relaxation acts in concert with gas damping. The statistics of the analytic solution agree with the results of laborious numerical calculations which do not exploit the adiabatic approximation.

  17. Isolation and Adaptation in Passage Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Paula T.

    1985-01-01

    Examines the phenomena of isolation and adaptation in the context of two recognition experiments investigating retroactive interference. Results suggest a framework for predicting errors and accuracies in passage memory based on integrative processing. (DF)

  18. Passage relevance models for genomics search

    PubMed Central

    Urbain, Jay; Frieder, Ophir; Goharian, Nazli

    2009-01-01

    We present a passage relevance model for integrating syntactic and semantic evidence of biomedical concepts and topics using a probabilistic graphical model. Component models of topics, concepts, terms, and document are represented as potential functions within a Markov Random Field. The probability of a passage being relevant to a biologist's information need is represented as the joint distribution across all potential functions. Relevance model feedback of top ranked passages is used to improve distributional estimates of query concepts and topics in context, and a dimensional indexing strategy is used for efficient aggregation of concept and term statistics. By integrating multiple sources of evidence including dependencies between topics, concepts, and terms, we seek to improve genomics literature passage retrieval precision. Using this model, we are able to demonstrate statistically significant improvements in retrieval precision using a large genomics literature corpus. PMID:19344479

  19. Skeptical notes on a physics of passage.

    PubMed

    Huggett, Nick

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the mathematical representation of time in physics. In existing theories, time is represented by the real numbers, hence their formal properties represent properties of time: these are surveyed. The central question of the paper is whether the existing representation of time is adequate, or whether it can or should be supplemented: especially, do we need a physics incorporating some kind of "dynamical passage" of time? The paper argues that the existing mathematical framework is resistant to such changes, and might have to be rejected by anyone seeking a physics of passage. Then it rebuts two common arguments for incorporating passage into physics, especially the claim that it is an element of experience. Finally, the paper investigates whether, as has been claimed, causal set theory provides a physics of passage. PMID:25183288

  20. Adjunctive Therapy to Promote Stone Passage

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Geoffrey R; Rackley, Judson D; Assimos, Dean G

    2005-01-01

    The majority of individuals with nephrolithiasis have small ureteral stones that pass spontaneously. However, patients may experience severe pain during this process, which significantly alters their quality of life and may limit their vocational responsibilities. Therefore, measures to facilitate stone passage are uniformly embraced. We discuss methods to enhance spontaneous stone passage as well as the elimination of fragments generated with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. PMID:16985812

  1. Brook trout passage performance through culverts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Bergeron, Normand

    2016-01-01

    Culverts can restrict access to habitat for stream-dwelling fishes. We used passive integrated transponder telemetry to quantify passage performance of >1000 wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) attempting to pass 13 culverts in Quebec under a range of hydraulic and environmental conditions. Several variables influenced passage success, including complex interactions between physiology and behavior, hydraulics, and structural characteristics. The probability of successful passage was greater through corrugated metal culverts than through smooth ones, particularly among smaller fish. Trout were also more likely to pass at warmer temperatures, but this effect diminished above 15 °C. Passage was impeded at higher flows, through culverts with steep slopes, and those with deep downstream pools. This study provides insight on factors influencing brook trout capacity to pass culverts as well as a model to estimate passage success under various conditions, with an improved resolution and accuracy over existing approaches. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate passage success of other species, with implications for connectivity of the riverscape.

  2. Bond selective chemistry beyond the adiabatic approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, L.J.

    1993-12-01

    One of the most important challenges in chemistry is to develop predictive ability for the branching between energetically allowed chemical reaction pathways. Such predictive capability, coupled with a fundamental understanding of the important molecular interactions, is essential to the development and utilization of new fuels and the design of efficient combustion processes. Existing transition state and exact quantum theories successfully predict the branching between available product channels for systems in which each reaction coordinate can be adequately described by different paths along a single adiabatic potential energy surface. In particular, unimolecular dissociation following thermal, infrared multiphoton, or overtone excitation in the ground state yields a branching between energetically allowed product channels which can be successfully predicted by the application of statistical theories, i.e. the weakest bond breaks. (The predictions are particularly good for competing reactions in which when there is no saddle point along the reaction coordinates, as in simple bond fission reactions.) The predicted lack of bond selectivity results from the assumption of rapid internal vibrational energy redistribution and the implicit use of a single adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface for the reaction. However, the adiabatic approximation is not valid for the reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between the electronic states of the reacting species play a a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. The work described below investigated the central role played by coupling between electronic states in polyatomic molecules in determining the selective branching between energetically allowed fragmentation pathways in two key systems.

  3. Intracavity Raman lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Band, Y.B.; Ackerhalt, J.R.; Krasinski, J.S.; Heller, D.F.

    1989-02-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of intracavity Raman lasers are presented. Advantages of intracavity Raman lasers, particularly for low-emission cross section and broadly tunable vibronic gain media, are described. Experimental studies of a hydrogen gas Raman laser pumped inside the cavity of an alexandrite laser are presented. A theoretical model of the dynamics of a unidirectional intracavity Raman ring laser is developed and solved analytically. This model is adapted to simulate experiments.

  4. Phase avalanches in near-adiabatic evolutions

    SciTech Connect

    Vertesi, T.; Englman, R.

    2006-02-15

    In the course of slow, nearly adiabatic motion of a system, relative changes in the slowness can cause abrupt and high magnitude phase changes, ''phase avalanches,'' superimposed on the ordinary geometric phases. The generality of this effect is examined for arbitrary Hamiltonians and multicomponent (>2) wave packets and is found to be connected (through the Blaschke term in the theory of analytic signals) to amplitude zeros in the lower half of the complex time plane. Motion on a nonmaximal circle on the Poincare-sphere suppresses the effect. A spectroscopic transition experiment can independently verify the phase-avalanche magnitudes.

  5. Adiabatic chaos in the spin orbit problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benettin, Giancarlo; Guzzo, Massimiliano; Marini, Valerio

    2008-05-01

    We provide evidences that the angular momentum of a symmetric rigid body in a spin orbit resonance can perform large scale chaotic motions on time scales which increase polynomially with the inverse of the oblateness of the body. This kind of irregular precession appears as soon as the orbit of the center of mass is non-circular and the angular momentum of the body is far from the principal directions with minimum (maximum) moment of inertia. We also provide a quantitative explanation of these facts by using the theory of adiabatic invariants, and we provide numerical applications to the cases of the 1:1 and 1:2 spin orbit resonances.

  6. Experimental breaking of an adiabatic invariant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notte, J.; Fajans, J.; Chu, R.; Wurtele, J. S.

    1993-06-01

    When a cylindrical pure electron plasma is displaced from the center of the trap, it performs a bulk circular orbital motion known as the l=1 diocotron mode. The slow application of a perturbing potential to a patch on the trap wall distorts the orbit into a noncircular closed path. Experiments and a simple theoretical model indicate that the area by the loop is an adiabatic invariant. Detailed studies are made of the breaking of the invariant when perturbations are rapidly applied. When the perturbation is applied with discontinuous time derivatives, the invariant breaking greatly exceeds the predictions of the standard theory for smooth perturbations.

  7. [Bond selective chemistry beyond the adiabatic approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, L.J.

    1993-02-28

    The adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface approximation is not valid for reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between electronic states of reacting species plays a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. This research program initially studies this coupling in (1) selective C-Br bond fission in 1,3- bromoiodopropane, (2) C-S:S-H bond fission branching in CH[sub 3]SH, and (3) competition between bond fission channels and H[sub 2] elimination in CH[sub 3]NH[sub 2].

  8. Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for space use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serlemitsos, A. T.; Warner, B. A.; Castles, S.; Breon, S. R.; San Sebastian, M.; Hait, T.

    1990-01-01

    An Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) for space use is under development at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The breadboard ADR operated at 100 mK for 400 minutes. Some significant changes to that ADR, designed to eliminate shortcomings revealed during tests, are reported. To increase thermal contact, the ferric ammonium sulfate crystals were grown directly on gold-plated copper wires which serve as the thermal bus. The thermal link to the X-ray sensors was also markedly improved. To speed up the testing required to determine the best design parameters for the gas gap heat switch, the new heat switch has a modular design and is easy to disassemble.

  9. An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for infrared bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, R. D.; Richards, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators have been built and installed in small portable liquid helium cryostats to test the feasibility of this method of cooling infrared bolometric detectors to temperatures below 0.3 K. Performance has been achieved which suggests that bolometer temperatures of 0.2 K can be maintained for periods of approximately 60 hours. Applications to sensitive infrared detection from ground-based telescopes and space satellites are discussed. Design data are given which permit the evaluation of refrigerator performance for a variety of design parameters.

  10. Generalized Ramsey numbers through adiabatic quantum optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, Mani; Macready, William G.; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Ramsey theory is an active research area in combinatorics whose central theme is the emergence of order in large disordered structures, with Ramsey numbers marking the threshold at which this order first appears. For generalized Ramsey numbers r(G, H), the emergent order is characterized by graphs G and H. In this paper we: (i) present a quantum algorithm for computing generalized Ramsey numbers by reformulating the computation as a combinatorial optimization problem which is solved using adiabatic quantum optimization; and (ii) determine the Ramsey numbers r({{T}}m,{{T}}n) for trees of order m,n = 6,7,8 , most of which were previously unknown.

  11. Decoherence in a scalable adiabatic quantum computer

    SciTech Connect

    Ashhab, S.; Johansson, J. R.; Nori, Franco

    2006-11-15

    We consider the effects of decoherence on Landau-Zener crossings encountered in a large-scale adiabatic-quantum-computing setup. We analyze the dependence of the success probability--i.e., the probability for the system to end up in its new ground state--on the noise amplitude and correlation time. We determine the optimal sweep rate that is required to maximize the success probability. We then discuss the scaling of decoherence effects with increasing system size. We find that those effects can be important for large systems, even if they are small for each of the small building blocks.

  12. Local entanglement generation in the adiabatic regime

    SciTech Connect

    Cliche, M.; Veitia, Andrzej

    2010-09-15

    We study entanglement generation in a pair of qubits interacting with an initially correlated system. Using time-independent perturbation theory and the adiabatic theorem, we show conditions under which the qubits become entangled as the joint system evolves into the ground state of the interacting theory. We then apply these results to the case of qubits interacting with a scalar quantum field. We study three different variations of this setup; a quantum field subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions, a quantum field interacting with a classical potential, and a quantum field that starts in a thermal state.

  13. On the Role of Prior Probability in Adiabatic Quantum Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jie; Lu, Songfeng; Yang, Liping

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we study the role of prior probability on the efficiency of quantum local adiabatic search algorithm. The following aspects for prior probability are found here: firstly, only the probabilities of marked states affect the running time of the adiabatic evolution; secondly, the prior probability can be used for improving the efficiency of the adiabatic algorithm; thirdly, like the usual quantum adiabatic evolution, the running time for the case of multiple solution states where the number of marked elements are smaller enough than the size of the set assigned that contains them can be significantly bigger than that of the case where the assigned set only contains all the marked states.

  14. Quantum Adiabatic Algorithms and Large Spin Tunnelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulatov, A.; Smelyanskiy, V. N.

    2003-01-01

    We provide a theoretical study of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm with different evolution paths proposed in this paper. The algorithm is applied to a random binary optimization problem (a version of the 3-Satisfiability problem) where the n-bit cost function is symmetric with respect to the permutation of individual bits. The evolution paths are produced, using the generic control Hamiltonians H (r) that preserve the bit symmetry of the underlying optimization problem. In the case where the ground state of H(0) coincides with the totally-symmetric state of an n-qubit system the algorithm dynamics is completely described in terms of the motion of a spin-n/2. We show that different control Hamiltonians can be parameterized by a set of independent parameters that are expansion coefficients of H (r) in a certain universal set of operators. Only one of these operators can be responsible for avoiding the tunnelling in the spin-n/2 system during the quantum adiabatic algorithm. We show that it is possible to select a coefficient for this operator that guarantees a polynomial complexity of the algorithm for all problem instances. We show that a successful evolution path of the algorithm always corresponds to the trajectory of a classical spin-n/2 and provide a complete characterization of such paths.

  15. Effect of the Heat Pipe Adiabatic Region.

    PubMed

    Brahim, Taoufik; Jemni, Abdelmajid

    2014-04-01

    The main motivation of conducting this work is to present a rigorous analysis and investigation of the potential effect of the heat pipe adiabatic region on the flow and heat transfer performance of a heat pipe under varying evaporator and condenser conditions. A two-dimensional steady-state model for a cylindrical heat pipe coupling, for both regions, is presented, where the flow of the fluid in the porous structure is described by Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model which accounts for the boundary and inertial effects. The model is solved numerically by using the finite volumes method, and a fortran code was developed to solve the system of equations obtained. The results show that a phase change can occur in the adiabatic region due to temperature gradient created in the porous structure as the heat input increases and the heat pipe boundary conditions change. A recirculation zone may be created at the condenser end section. The effect of the heat transfer rate on the vapor radial velocities and the performance of the heat pipe are discussed. PMID:24895467

  16. Adiabatic cooling of solar wind electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandbaek, Ornulf; Leer, Egil

    1992-01-01

    In thermally driven winds emanating from regions in the solar corona with base electron densities of n0 not less than 10 exp 8/cu cm, a substantial fraction of the heat conductive flux from the base is transfered into flow energy by the pressure gradient force. The adiabatic cooling of the electrons causes the electron temperature profile to fall off more rapidly than in heat conduction dominated flows. Alfven waves of solar origin, accelerating the basically thermally driven solar wind, lead to an increased mass flux and enhanced adiabatic cooling. The reduction in electron temperature may be significant also in the subsonic region of the flow and lead to a moderate increase of solar wind mass flux with increasing Alfven wave amplitude. In the solar wind model presented here the Alfven wave energy flux per unit mass is larger than that in models where the temperature in the subsonic flow is not reduced by the wave, and consequently the asymptotic flow speed is higher.

  17. Inertial effects in adiabatically driven flashing ratchets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenbaum, Viktor M.; Makhnovskii, Yurii A.; Shapochkina, Irina V.; Sheu, Sheh-Yi; Yang, Dah-Yen; Lin, Sheng Hsien

    2014-05-01

    We study analytically the effect of a small inertial correction on the properties of adiabatically driven flashing ratchets. Parrondo's lemma [J. M. R. Parrondo, Phys. Rev. E 57, 7297 (1998), 10.1103/PhysRevE.57.7297] is generalized to include the inertial term so as to establish the symmetry conditions allowing directed motion (other than in the overdamped massless case) and to obtain a high-temperature expansion of the motion velocity for arbitrary potential profiles. The inertial correction is thus shown to enhance the ratchet effect at all temperatures for sawtooth potentials and at high temperatures for simple potentials described by the first two harmonics. With the special choice of potentials represented by at least the first three harmonics, the correction gives rise to the motion reversal in the high-temperature region. In the low-temperature region, inertia weakens the ratchet effect, with the exception of the on-off model, where diffusion is important. The directed motion adiabatically driven by potential sign fluctuations, though forbidden in the overdamped limit, becomes possible due to purely inertial effects in neither symmetric nor antisymmetric potentials, i.e., not for commonly used sawtooth and two-sinusoid profiles.

  18. Adiabatic Mass Loss Model in Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, H. W.

    2012-07-01

    Rapid mass transfer process in the interacting binary systems is very complicated. It relates to two basic problems in the binary star evolution, i.e., the dynamically unstable Roche-lobe overflow and the common envelope evolution. Both of the problems are very important and difficult to be modeled. In this PhD thesis, we focus on the rapid mass loss process of the donor in interacting binary systems. The application to the criterion of dynamically unstable mass transfer and the common envelope evolution are also included. Our results based on the adiabatic mass loss model could be used to improve the binary evolution theory, the binary population synthetic method, and other related aspects. We build up the adiabatic mass loss model. In this model, two approximations are included. The first one is that the energy generation and heat flow through the stellar interior can be neglected, hence the restructuring is adiabatic. The second one is that he stellar interior remains in hydrostatic equilibrium. We model this response by constructing model sequences, beginning with a donor star filling its Roche lobe at an arbitrary point in its evolution, holding its specific entropy and composition profiles fixed. These approximations are validated by the comparison with the time-dependent binary mass transfer calculations and the polytropic model for low mass zero-age main-sequence stars. In the dynamical time scale mass transfer, the adiabatic response of the donor star drives it to expand beyond its Roche lobe, leading to runaway mass transfer and the formation of a common envelope with its companion star. For donor stars with surface convection zones of any significant depth, this runaway condition is encountered early in mass transfer, if at all; but for main sequence stars with radiative envelopes, it may be encountered after a prolonged phase of thermal time scale mass transfer, so-called delayed dynamical instability. We identify the critical binary mass ratio for the

  19. Heteronuclear Adiabatic Relaxation Dispersion (HARD) for quantitative analysis of conformational dynamics in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traaseth, Nathaniel J.; Chao, Fa-An; Masterson, Larry R.; Mangia, Silvia; Garwood, Michael; Michaeli, Shalom; Seelig, Burckhard; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2012-06-01

    NMR relaxation methods probe biomolecular motions over a wide range of timescales. In particular, the rotating frame spin-lock R1ρ and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) R2 experiments are commonly used to characterize μs to ms dynamics, which play a critical role in enzyme folding and catalysis. In an effort to complement these approaches, we introduced the Heteronuclear Adiabatic Relaxation Dispersion (HARD) method, where dispersion in rotating frame relaxation rate constants (longitudinal R1ρ and transverse R2ρ) is created by modulating the shape and duration of adiabatic full passage (AFP) pulses. Previously, we showed the ability of the HARD method to detect chemical exchange dynamics in the fast exchange regime (kex ˜ 104-105 s-1). In this article, we show the sensitivity of the HARD method to slower exchange processes by measuring R1ρ and R2ρ relaxation rates for two soluble proteins (ubiquitin and 10C RNA ligase). One advantage of the HARD method is its nominal dependence on the applied radio frequency field, which can be leveraged to modulate the dispersion in the relaxation rate constants. In addition, we also include product operator simulations to define the dynamic range of adiabatic R1ρ and R2ρ that is valid under all exchange regimes. We conclude from both experimental observations and simulations that this method is complementary to CPMG-based and rotating frame spin-lock R1ρ experiments to probe conformational exchange dynamics for biomolecules. Finally, this approach is germane to several NMR-active nuclei, where relaxation rates are frequency-offset independent.

  20. First passage time distribution in heterogeneity controlled kinetics: going beyond the mean first passage time

    PubMed Central

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The first passage is a generic concept for quantifying when a random quantity such as the position of a diffusing molecule or the value of a stock crosses a preset threshold (target) for the first time. The last decade saw an enlightening series of new results focusing mostly on the so-called mean and global first passage time (MFPT and GFPT, respectively) of such processes. Here we push the understanding of first passage processes one step further. For a simple heterogeneous system we derive rigorously the complete distribution of first passage times (FPTs). Our results demonstrate that the typical FPT significantly differs from the MFPT, which corresponds to the long time behaviour of the FPT distribution. Conversely, the short time behaviour is shown to correspond to trajectories connecting directly from the initial value to the target. Remarkably, we reveal a previously overlooked third characteristic time scale of the first passage dynamics mirroring brief excursion away from the target. PMID:26852802

  1. The Northwest Passage opens for bowhead whales.

    PubMed

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Laidre, Kristin L; Quakenbush, Lori T; Citta, John J

    2012-04-23

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is predicted to open up the Northwest Passage, shortening shipping routes and facilitating the exchange of marine organisms between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Here, we present the first observations of distribution overlap of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from the two oceans in the Northwest Passage, demonstrating this route is already connecting whales from two populations that have been assumed to be separated by sea ice. Previous satellite tracking has demonstrated that bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska enter the ice-infested channels of the Canadian High Arctic during summer. In August 2010, two bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska entered the Northwest Passage from opposite directions and spent approximately 10 days in the same area, documenting overlap between the two populations. PMID:21937490

  2. Deep boundary current disintegration in Drake Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brearley, J. Alexander; Sheen, Katy L.; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.; Smeed, David A.; Speer, Kevin G.; Thurnherr, Andreas M.; Meredith, Michael P.; Waterman, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The fate of a deep boundary current that originates in the Southeast Pacific and flows southward along the continental slope of South America is elucidated. The current transports poorly ventilated water of low salinity (a type of Pacific Deep Water, PDW), into Drake Passage. East of Drake Passage, the boundary current breaks into fresh anticyclonic eddies, nine examples of which were observed in mooring data from December 2009 to March 2012. The observed eddies appear to originate mainly from a topographic separation point close to 60°W, have typical diameters of 20-60 km and accompanying Rossby numbers of 0.1-0.3. These features are likely to be responsible for transporting PDW meridionally across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, explaining the near homogenization of Circumpolar Deep Water properties downstream of Drake Passage. This mechanism of boundary current breakdown may constitute an important process in the Southern Ocean overturning circulation.

  3. Bipolar membranes with fluid distribution passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Archer, Shivaun (Inventor); Tennakoon, Charles L. (Inventor); Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a bipolar membrane and methods for making and using the membrane. The bipolar membrane comprises a cation-selective region, an anion-selective region, an interfacial region between the anion-selective region and the cation-selective region, and means for delivering fluid directly into the interfacial region. The means for delivering fluid includes passages that may comprise a fluid-permeable material, a wicking material, an open passage disposed within the membrane or some combination thereof. The passages may be provided in many shapes, sizes and configurations, but preferably deliver fluid directly to the interfacial region so that the rate of electrodialysis is no longer limited by the diffusion of fluid through the cation- or anion-selective regions to the interfacial region.

  4. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  5. The Northwest Passage opens for bowhead whales

    PubMed Central

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Laidre, Kristin L.; Quakenbush, Lori T.; Citta, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is predicted to open up the Northwest Passage, shortening shipping routes and facilitating the exchange of marine organisms between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Here, we present the first observations of distribution overlap of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from the two oceans in the Northwest Passage, demonstrating this route is already connecting whales from two populations that have been assumed to be separated by sea ice. Previous satellite tracking has demonstrated that bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska enter the ice-infested channels of the Canadian High Arctic during summer. In August 2010, two bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska entered the Northwest Passage from opposite directions and spent approximately 10 days in the same area, documenting overlap between the two populations. PMID:21937490

  6. Extension in Mona Passage, Northeast Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaytor, J.D.; ten Brink, U.S.

    2010-01-01

    As shown by the recent Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake, intra-arc deformation, which accompanies the subduction process, can present seismic and tsunami hazards to nearby islands. Spatially-limited diffuse tectonic deformation within the Northeast Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone likely led to the development of the submerged Mona Passage between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. GPS geodetic data and a moderate to high level of seismicity indicate that extension within the region is ongoing. Newly-collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles and previously-collected samples are used here to determine the tectonic evolution of the Mona Passage intra-arc region. The passage is floored almost completely by Oligocene-Pliocene carbonate platform strata, which have undergone submarine and subaerial erosion. Structurally, the passage is characterized by W- to NNW-trending normal faults that offset the entire thickness of the Oligo-Pliocene carbonate platform rocks. The orientation of these faults is compatible with the NE-oriented extension vector observed in GPS data. Fault geometry best fits an oblique extension model rather than previously proposed single-phase, poly-phase, bending-moment, or rotation extension models. The intersection of these generally NW-trending faults in Mona Passage with the N-S oriented faults of Mona Canyon may reflect differing responses of the brittle upper-crust, along an arc-forearc rheological boundary, to oblique subduction along the Puerto Rico trench. Several faults within the passage, if ruptured completely, are long enough to generate earthquakes with magnitudes on the order of Mw 6.5-7. ?? 2010.

  7. The Contribution of Passage and Non-Passage Factors to Item Performance on the SAT Reading Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Stuart; Lautenschlager, Gary J.

    2001-01-01

    Conducted a regression analysis to assess the contributions of passage and no-passage factors to item variance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test reading comprehension task. Results show that no-passage factors play a larger role than do passage factors, accounting for as much as three-fourths of systematic variance in item difficulty and more than…

  8. Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, K. L.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J. L.; Jones, O. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Landen, O. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Weber, C. R.; Haan, S. W.; Döppner, T. D.; Dixit, S.; Giraldez, E.; Hamza, A. V.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Kroll, J. J.; Lafortune, K. N.; MacGowan, B. J.; Moody, J. D.; Nikroo, A.; Widmayer, C. C.

    2015-05-01

    Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform for both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. This approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures.

  9. Quantum adiabatic algorithm for factorization and its experimental implementation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xinhua; Liao, Zeyang; Xu, Nanyang; Qin, Gan; Zhou, Xianyi; Suter, Dieter; Du, Jiangfeng

    2008-11-28

    We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm capable of factorizing numbers, using fewer qubits than Shor's algorithm. We implement the algorithm in a NMR quantum information processor and experimentally factorize the number 21. In the range that our classical computer could simulate, the quantum adiabatic algorithm works well, providing evidence that the running time of this algorithm scales polynomially with the problem size. PMID:19113467

  10. Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K. L.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J. L.; Jones, O. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Landen, O. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Weber, C. R.; Haan, S. W.; Döppner, T. D.; Dixit, S.; Hamza, A. V.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Kroll, J. J.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform for both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. This approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures.

  11. Kinetic Theory Derivation of the Adiabatic Law for Ideal Gases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, Michael I.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses how the adiabatic law for ideal gases can be derived from the assumption of a Maxwell-Boltzmann (or any other) distribution of velocities--in contrast to the usual derivations from thermodynamics alone, and the higher-order effect that leads to one-body viscosity. An elementary derivation of the adiabatic law is given. (Author/DS)

  12. The Adiabatic Invariance of the Action Variable in Classical Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Clive G.; Siklos, Stephen T. C.

    2007-01-01

    We consider one-dimensional classical time-dependent Hamiltonian systems with quasi-periodic orbits. It is well known that such systems possess an adiabatic invariant which coincides with the action variable of the Hamiltonian formalism. We present a new proof of the adiabatic invariance of this quantity and illustrate our arguments by means of…

  13. Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlak, Mariusz; Shagam, Yuval; Narevicius, Edvardas; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2015-08-21

    We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment {sup 4}He(1s2s {sup 3}S) + HD(1s{sup 2}) → {sup 4}He(1s{sup 2}) + HD{sup +}(1s) + e{sup −} [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings.

  14. Quantum Adiabatic Optimization and Combinatorial Landscapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Knysh, S.; Morris, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the performance of the Quantum Adiabatic Evolution (QAE) algorithm on a variant of Satisfiability problem for an ensemble of random graphs parametrized by the ratio of clauses to variables, gamma = M / N. We introduce a set of macroscopic parameters (landscapes) and put forward an ansatz of universality for random bit flips. We then formulate the problem of finding the smallest eigenvalue and the excitation gap as a statistical mechanics problem. We use the so-called annealing approximation with a refinement that a finite set of macroscopic variables (verses only energy) is used, and are able to show the existence of a dynamic threshold gamma = gammad, beyond which QAE should take an exponentially long time to find a solution. We compare the results for extended and simplified sets of landscapes and provide numerical evidence in support of our universality ansatz.

  15. An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timbie, P. T.; Bernstein, G. M.; Richards, P. L.

    1989-01-01

    An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) has been proposed to cool bolometric infrared detectors on the multiband imaging photometer of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). One such refrigerator has been built which uses a ferric ammonium alum salt pill suspended by nylon threads in a 3-T solenoid. The resonant modes of this suspension are above 100 Hz. The heat leak to the salt pill is less than 0.5 microW. The system has a hold time at 0.1K of more than 12 h. The cold stage temperature is regulated with a feedback loop that controls the magnetic field. A second, similar refrigerator is being built at a SIRTF prototype to fly on a ballon-borne telescope. It will use a ferromagnetic shield. The possibility of using a high-Tc solenoid-actuated heat switch is also discussed.

  16. Design of a spaceworthy adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serlemitsos, A. T.; Kunes, E.; Sansebastian, M.

    1992-01-01

    A spaceworthy adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) under development at NASA-Goddard is presented. A baseline model heat switch was tested extensively with an on/off ratio of about 10,000 and a parasitic heat leak of 10 micro-W. Data obtained from the breadboard models were used to design an ADR with improved structural integrity. The core of the ADR is the salt pill which consists of the paramagnetic salt crystal and the thermal bus. When a magnetic field is applied to the salt it forces the alignment of the magnetic moments, thereby decreasing the entropy of the salt. Preliminary tests results showed a net crystal mass of 680 g instead of the expected 740 g, which indicate that there are gaps in the salt pill. A partial fix was accomplished by sealing helium gas in the salt pill at a pressure of 2 bar, which improved the thermal contact during salt magnetization, at about 2 K.

  17. Differential topology of adiabatically controlled quantum processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, Edmond A.; Rezakhani, Ali T.; Ahmad, Farooq

    2013-03-01

    It is shown that in a controlled adiabatic homotopy between two Hamiltonians, H 0 and H 1, the gap or "anti-crossing" phenomenon can be viewed as the development of cusps and swallow tails in the region of the complex plane where two critical value curves of the quadratic map associated with the numerical range of H 0 + i H 1 come close. The "near crossing" in the energy level plots happens to be a generic situation, in the sense that a crossing is a manifestation of the quadratic numerical range map being unstable in the sense of differential topology. The stable singularities that can develop are identified and it is shown that they could occur near the gap, making those singularities of paramount importance. Various applications, including the quantum random walk, are provided to illustrate this theory.

  18. Reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, N.; Yamanashi, Y.; Yoshikawa, N.

    2014-01-01

    Reversible computing has been studied since Rolf Landauer advanced the argument that has come to be known as Landauer's principle. This principle states that there is no minimum energy dissipation for logic operations in reversible computing, because it is not accompanied by reductions in information entropy. However, until now, no practical reversible logic gates have been demonstrated. One of the problems is that reversible logic gates must be built by using extremely energy-efficient logic devices. Another difficulty is that reversible logic gates must be both logically and physically reversible. Here we propose the first practical reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices and experimentally demonstrate the logical and physical reversibility of the gate. Additionally, we estimate the energy dissipation of the gate, and discuss the minimum energy dissipation required for reversible logic operations. It is expected that the results of this study will enable reversible computing to move from the theoretical stage into practical usage. PMID:25220698

  19. Entropy in Adiabatic Regions of Convection Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Joel D.; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    One of the largest sources of uncertainty in stellar models is caused by the treatment of convection in stellar envelopes. One-dimensional stellar models often make use of the mixing length or equivalent approximations to describe convection, all of which depend on various free parameters. There have been attempts to rectify this by using 3D radiative-hydrodynamic simulations of stellar convection, and in trying to extract an equivalent mixing length from the simulations. In this Letter, we show that the entropy of the deeper, adiabatic layers in these simulations can be expressed as a simple function of {log}g and {log}{T}{{eff}}, which holds potential for calibrating stellar models in a simple and more general manner.

  20. Symmetry-protected adiabatic quantum transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Dominic J.; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2015-05-01

    Adiabatic quantum transistors (AQT) allow quantum logic gates to be performed by applying a large field to a quantum many-body system prepared in its ground state, without the need for local control. The basic operation of such a device can be viewed as driving a spin chain from a symmetry-protected (SP) phase to a trivial phase. This perspective offers an avenue to generalize the AQT and to design several improvements. The performance of quantum logic gates is shown to depend only on universal symmetry properties of a SP phase rather than any fine tuning of the Hamiltonian, and it is possible to implement a universal set of logic gates in this way by combining several different types of SP matter. Such SP AQTs are argued to be robust to a range of relevant noise processes.

  1. Number Partitioning via Quantum Adiabatic Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Toussaint, Udo; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We study both analytically and numerically the complexity of the adiabatic quantum evolution algorithm applied to random instances of combinatorial optimization problems. We use as an example the NP-complete set partition problem and obtain an asymptotic expression for the minimal gap separating the ground and exited states of a system during the execution of the algorithm. We show that for computationally hard problem instances the size of the minimal gap scales exponentially with the problem size. This result is in qualitative agreement with the direct numerical simulation of the algorithm for small instances of the set partition problem. We describe the statistical properties of the optimization problem that are responsible for the exponential behavior of the algorithm.

  2. Geometric Adiabatic Transport in Quantum Hall States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klevtsov, S.; Wiegmann, P.

    2015-08-01

    We argue that in addition to the Hall conductance and the nondissipative component of the viscous tensor, there exists a third independent transport coefficient, which is precisely quantized. It takes constant values along quantum Hall plateaus. We show that the new coefficient is the Chern number of a vector bundle over moduli space of surfaces of genus 2 or higher and therefore cannot change continuously along the plateau. As such, it does not transpire on a sphere or a torus. In the linear response theory, this coefficient determines intensive forces exerted on electronic fluid by adiabatic deformations of geometry and represents the effect of the gravitational anomaly. We also present the method of computing the transport coefficients for quantum Hall states.

  3. Geometric Adiabatic Transport in Quantum Hall States.

    PubMed

    Klevtsov, S; Wiegmann, P

    2015-08-21

    We argue that in addition to the Hall conductance and the nondissipative component of the viscous tensor, there exists a third independent transport coefficient, which is precisely quantized. It takes constant values along quantum Hall plateaus. We show that the new coefficient is the Chern number of a vector bundle over moduli space of surfaces of genus 2 or higher and therefore cannot change continuously along the plateau. As such, it does not transpire on a sphere or a torus. In the linear response theory, this coefficient determines intensive forces exerted on electronic fluid by adiabatic deformations of geometry and represents the effect of the gravitational anomaly. We also present the method of computing the transport coefficients for quantum Hall states. PMID:26340197

  4. Adiabatic connection at negative coupling strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, Michael; Gori-Giorgi, Paola

    2010-01-15

    The adiabatic connection of density functional theory (DFT) for electronic systems is generalized here to negative values of the coupling strength alpha (with attractive electrons). In the extreme limit alpha->-infinity a simple physical solution is presented and its implications for DFT (as well as its limitations) are discussed. For two-electron systems (a case in which the present solution can be calculated exactly), we find that an interpolation between the limit alpha->-infinity and the opposite limit of infinitely strong repulsion (alpha->+infinity) yields a rather accurate estimate of the second-order correlation energy E{sub c}{sup GL2}[rho] for several different densities rho, without using virtual orbitals. The same procedure is also applied to the Be isoelectronic series, analyzing the effects of near degeneracy.

  5. Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Mariusz; Shagam, Yuval; Narevicius, Edvardas; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2015-08-21

    We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment (4)He(1s2s (3)S) + HD(1s(2)) → (4)He(1s(2)) + HD(+)(1s) + e(-) [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings. PMID:26298122

  6. Sliding seal materials for adiabatic engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lankford, J.

    1985-01-01

    The sliding friction coefficients and wear rates of promising carbide, oxide, and nitride materials were measured under temperature, environmental, velocity, loading conditions that are representative of the adiabatic engine environment. In order to provide guidance needed to improve materials for this application, the program stressed fundamental understanding of the mechanisms involved in friction and wear. Microhardness tests were performed on the candidate materials at elevated temperatures, and in atmospheres relevant to the piston seal application, and optical and electron microscopy were used to elucidate the micromechanisms of wear following wear testing. X-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate interface/environment interactions which seemed to be important in the friction and wear process. Electrical effects in the friction and wear processes were explored in order to evaluate the potential usefulness of such effects in modifying the friction and wear rates in service. However, this factor was found to be of negligible significance in controlling friction and wear.

  7. Adiabatically-tapered fiber mode multiplexers.

    PubMed

    Yerolatsitis, S; Gris-Sánchez, I; Birks, T A

    2014-01-13

    Simple all-fiber three-mode multiplexers were made by adiabatically merging three dissimilar single-mode cores into one multimode core. This was achieved by collapsing air holes in a photonic crystal fiber and (in a separate device) by fusing and tapering separate telecom fibers in a fluorine-doped silica capillary. In each case the LP01 mode and both LP11 modes were individually excited from three separate input cores, with losses below 0.3 and 0.7 dB respectively and mode purities exceeding 10 dB. Scaling to more modes is challenging, but would be assisted by using single-mode fibers with a smaller ratio of cladding to core diameter. PMID:24515021

  8. The HAWC and SAFIRE Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, Jim; Shirron, Peter; DiPirro, Michael; Jackson, Michael; Behr, Jason; Kunes, Evan; Hait, Tom; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The High-Resolution Airborne Wide-band Camera (HAWC) and Submillimeter and Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) are far-infrared experiments which will fly on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) aircraft. HAWC's detectors will operate at 0.2 Kelvin, while those of SAFIRE will be at 0.1 Kelvin. Each instrument will include an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to cool its detector stage from the liquid helium bath temperature (HAWC's at 4.2 Kelvin and SAFIRE's pumped to about 1.3 Kelvin) to its operating temperature. Except for the magnets used to achieve the cooling and a slight difference in the heat switch design, the two ADRs are nearly identical. We describe the ADR design and present the results of performance testing.

  9. An integrated programming and development environment for adiabatic quantum optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humble, T. S.; McCaskey, A. J.; Bennink, R. S.; Billings, J. J.; DʼAzevedo, E. F.; Sullivan, B. D.; Klymko, C. F.; Seddiqi, H.

    2014-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum computing is a promising route to the computational power afforded by quantum information processing. The recent availability of adiabatic hardware has raised challenging questions about how to evaluate adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO) programs. Processor behavior depends on multiple steps to synthesize an adiabatic quantum program, which are each highly tunable. We present an integrated programming and development environment for AQO called Jade Adiabatic Development Environment (JADE) that provides control over all the steps taken during program synthesis. JADE captures the workflow needed to rigorously specify the AQO algorithm while allowing a variety of problem types, programming techniques, and processor configurations. We have also integrated JADE with a quantum simulation engine that enables program profiling using numerical calculation. The computational engine supports plug-ins for simulation methodologies tailored to various metrics and computing resources. We present the design, integration, and deployment of JADE and discuss its potential use for benchmarking AQO programs by the quantum computer science community.

  10. An Integrated Development Environment for Adiabatic Quantum Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; McCaskey, Alex; Bennink, Ryan S; Billings, Jay Jay; D'Azevedo, Eduardo; Sullivan, Blair D; Klymko, Christine F; Seddiqi, Hadayat

    2014-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum computing is a promising route to the computational power afforded by quantum information processing. The recent availability of adiabatic hardware raises the question of how well quantum programs perform. Benchmarking behavior is challenging since the multiple steps to synthesize an adiabatic quantum program are highly tunable. We present an adiabatic quantum programming environment called JADE that provides control over all the steps taken during program development. JADE captures the workflow needed to rigorously benchmark performance while also allowing a variety of problem types, programming techniques, and processor configurations. We have also integrated JADE with a quantum simulation engine that enables program profiling using numerical calculation. The computational engine supports plug-ins for simulation methodologies tailored to various metrics and computing resources. We present the design, integration, and deployment of JADE and discuss its use for benchmarking adiabatic quantum programs.

  11. Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics with complex quantum trajectories. II. The adiabatic representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamstein, Noa; Tannor, David J.

    2012-12-01

    We present a complex quantum trajectory method for treating non-adiabatic dynamics. Each trajectory evolves classically on a single electronic surface but with complex position and momentum. The equations of motion are derived directly from the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, and the population exchange arises naturally from amplitude-transfer terms. In this paper the equations of motion are derived in the adiabatic representation to complement our work in the diabatic representation [N. Zamstein and D. J. Tannor, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A517 (2012)], 10.1063/1.4739845. We apply our method to two benchmark models introduced by John Tully [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 1061 (1990)], 10.1063/1.459170, and get very good agreement with converged quantum-mechanical calculations. Specifically, we show that decoherence (spatial separation of wavepackets on different surfaces) is already contained in the equations of motion and does not require ad hoc augmentation.

  12. Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics with complex quantum trajectories. II. The adiabatic representation

    SciTech Connect

    Zamstein, Noa; Tannor, David J.

    2012-12-14

    We present a complex quantum trajectory method for treating non-adiabatic dynamics. Each trajectory evolves classically on a single electronic surface but with complex position and momentum. The equations of motion are derived directly from the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, and the population exchange arises naturally from amplitude-transfer terms. In this paper the equations of motion are derived in the adiabatic representation to complement our work in the diabatic representation [N. Zamstein and D. J. Tannor, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A517 (2012)]. We apply our method to two benchmark models introduced by John Tully [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 1061 (1990)], and get very good agreement with converged quantum-mechanical calculations. Specifically, we show that decoherence (spatial separation of wavepackets on different surfaces) is already contained in the equations of motion and does not require ad hoc augmentation.

  13. CYANOBACTERIA PASSAGE DURING FILTER PERTURBATION EPISODES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eight pilot-scale in-line filtration trials were performed to evaluate the passage of cyanobacterial cells through drinking water filters after sudden increases in hydraulic loading rates. Trials were performed at 30 C using two coagulant combinations (aluminum sulfate and cati...

  14. Charles Johnson's "Middle Passage" as Historiographic Metafiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaden, Barbara Z.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that what makes Charles Johnson's "Middle Passage" significant and eminently teachable is that it is an accessible example of "historiographic metafiction"--bestselling postmodern novels set in the past. Notes that students find the novel "easy" and enjoyable and that teaching the novel with some of its intertexts, such as H. Melville's…

  15. Passage Recall: Schema Change and Cognitive Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Paula T.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The effects of subsequent related information and cognitive flexibility on prose recall were studied. Subjects read a passage; then were given either consistent or contradictory information. Errors in cued recall, reflecting the subsequent information, were more frequently produced after a three-week delay than after two days. (Author/GDC)

  16. Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    Implementation of the Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project -- Phase 2 would significantly improve the production of anadromous fish in the Yakima River system. The project would provide offsite mitigation and help to compensate for lower Columbia River hydroelectric fishery losses. The Phase 2 screens would allow greater numbers of juvenile anadromous fish to survive. As a consequence, there would be higher returns of adult salmon and steelhead to the Yakima River. The proposed action would play an integral part in the overall Yakima River anadromous fish enhancement program (fish passage improvement, habitat enhancement, hatchery production increases, and harvest management). These would be environmental benefits associated with implementation of the Fish Passage and Protective Facilities Phase 2 Project. Based on the evaluation presented in this assessment, there would be no significant adverse environmental impacts if the proposed action was carried forward. No significant adverse environmental effects have been identified from construction and operation of the Yakima Phase 2 fish passage project. Proper design and implementation of the project will ensure no adverse effects will occur. Based on the information in this environmental analysis, BPA's and Reclamation's proposal to construct these facilities does not constitute a major Federal action that could significantly affect the quality of the human environment. 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Remote Raman measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, D. A.

    1981-02-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  18. Remote Raman measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  19. Remote Raman Measurement Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Donald A.

    1981-02-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  20. Non-adiabatic perturbations in Ricci dark energy model

    SciTech Connect

    Karwan, Khamphee; Thitapura, Thiti E-mail: nanodsci2523@hotmail.com

    2012-01-01

    We show that the non-adiabatic perturbations between Ricci dark energy and matter can grow both on superhorizon and subhorizon scales, and these non-adiabatic perturbations on subhorizon scales can lead to instability in this dark energy model. The rapidly growing non-adiabatic modes on subhorizon scales always occur when the equation of state parameter of dark energy starts to drop towards -1 near the end of matter era, except that the parameter α of Ricci dark energy equals to 1/2. In the case where α = 1/2, the rapidly growing non-adiabatic modes disappear when the perturbations in dark energy and matter are adiabatic initially. However, an adiabaticity between dark energy and matter perturbations at early time implies a non-adiabaticity between matter and radiation, this can influence the ordinary Sachs-Wolfe (OSW) effect. Since the amount of Ricci dark energy is not small during matter domination, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect is greatly modified by density perturbations of dark energy, leading to a wrong shape of CMB power spectrum. The instability in Ricci dark energy is difficult to be alleviated if the effects of coupling between baryon and photon on dark energy perturbations are included.

  1. Effects of rotation on coolant passage heat transfer. Volume 1: Coolant passages with smooth walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Wagner, J. H.; Johnson, B. V.; Higgins, A. W.; Steuber, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of rotating multipass passages, for configurations and dimensions typical of modern turbine blades. The immediate objective was the generation of a data base of heat transfer and pressure loss data required to develop heat transfer correlations and to assess computational fluid dynamic techniques for rotating coolant passages. Experiments were conducted in a smooth wall large scale heat transfer model.

  2. Dynamics of Charged Particles in an Adiabatic Thermal Beam Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chiping; Wei, Haofei

    2010-11-01

    Charged-particle motion is studied in the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of a well-matched, intense charged-particle beam and an applied periodic solenoidal magnetic focusing field. The beam is assumed to be in a state of adiabatic thermal equilibrium. The phase space is analyzed and compared with that of the well-known Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV)-type beam equilibrium. It is found that the widths of nonlinear resonances in the adiabatic thermal beam equilibrium are narrower than those in the KV-type beam equilibrium. Numerical evidence is presented, indicating almost complete elimination of chaotic particle motion in the adiabatic thermal beam equilibrium.

  3. Complete population inversion of Bose particles by an adiabatic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Atushi; Cheon, Taksu

    2016-04-01

    We show that an adiabatic cycle excites Bose particles confined in a one-dimensional box. During the adiabatic cycle, a wall described by a δ-shaped potential is applied and its strength and position are slowly varied. When the system is initially prepared in the ground state, namely, in the zero-temperature equilibrium state, the adiabatic cycle brings all Bosons into the first excited one-particle state, leaving the system in a nonequilibrium state. The absorbed energy during the cycle is proportional to the number of Bosons.

  4. RAMAN MICROSPECTROSCOPY AND IMAGING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the Raman effect was discovered in 1928 by C.V. Raman it received little attention as a spectroscopic method until lasers (high intensity monochromatic light sources) were employed as sources. Recent developments to include improved detectors and filters, techniques to suppress of fluoresc...

  5. Portable raman explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven; Scharff, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

  6. Aperture combined Raman laser

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, C.; Tang, K.; Howton, C.; Muller, D.; Hunter, R.O. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Excimer lasers, while able to produce large powers and energies, are limited to a few discrete wavelengths. Efficient Raman shifting promises the availability of a much broader wavelength range. A method was developed which both Raman shifts and allows for multiple pump beams.

  7. Design of the PIXIE Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark Oliver; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan J.; Li, Xiaoyi; DiPirro, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is a proposed mission to densely map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. It will operate in a scanning mode from a sun-synchronous orbit, using low temperature detectors (at 0.1 K) and located inside a teslescope that is cooled to approximately 2.73 K - to match the background temperature. A mechanical cryocooler operating at 4.5 K establishes a low base temperature from which two adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) assemblies will cool the telescope and detectors. To achieve continuous scanning capability, the ADRs must operate continuously. Complicating the design are two factors: 1) the need to systematically vary the temperature of various telescope components in order to separate the small polarization signal variations from those that may arise from temperature drifts and changing gradients within the telescope, and 2) the orbital and monthly variations in lunar irradiance into the telescope barrels. These factors require the telescope ADR to reject quasi-continuous heat loads of 2-3 millwatts, while maintaining a peak heat reject rate of less than 12 milliwatts. The detector heat load at 0.1 K is comparatively small at 1-2 microwatts. This paper will describe the 3-stage and 2-stage continuous ADRs that will be used to meet the cooling power and temperature stability requirements of the PIXIE detectors and telescope.

  8. Design of the PIXIE adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan J.; Li, Xiaoyi; DiPirro, Michael J.

    2012-04-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is a proposed mission to densely map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. It will operate in a scanning mode from a sun-synchronous orbit, using low temperature detectors (at 0.1 K) and located inside a telescope that is cooled to approximately 2.73 K - to match the background temperature. A mechanical cryocooler operating at 4.5 K establishes a low base temperature from which two adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) assemblies will cool the telescope and detectors. To achieve continuous scanning capability, the ADRs must operate continuously. Complicating the design are two factors: (1) the need to systematically vary the temperature of various telescope components in order to separate the small polarization signal variations from those that may arise from temperature drifts and changing gradients within the telescope, and (2) the orbital and monthly variations in lunar irradiance into the telescope barrels. These factors require the telescope ADR to reject quasi-continuous heat loads of 2-3 mW, while maintaining a peak heat reject rate of less than 12 mW. The detector heat load at 0.1 K is comparatively small at 1-2 μW. This paper will describe the 3-stage and 2-stage continuous ADRs that will be used to meet the cooling power and temperature stability requirements of the PIXIE detectors and telescope.

  9. Graph isomorphism and adiabatic quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane

    2014-03-01

    In the Graph Isomorphism (GI) problem two N-vertex graphs G and G' are given and the task is to determine whether there exists a permutation of the vertices of G that preserves adjacency and maps G --> G'. If yes (no), then G and G' are said to be isomorphic (non-isomorphic). The GI problem is an important problem in computer science and is thought to be of comparable difficulty to integer factorization. We present a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of GI, and which provides a novel approach to determining all automorphisms of a graph. The algorithm converts a GI instance to a combinatorial optimization problem that can be solved using adiabatic quantum evolution. Numerical simulation of the algorithm's quantum dynamics shows that it correctly distinguishes non-isomorphic graphs; recognizes isomorphic graphs; and finds the automorphism group of a graph. We also discuss the algorithm's experimental implementation and show how it can be leveraged to solve arbitrary instances of the NP-Complete Sub-Graph Isomorphism problem.

  10. Adiabatic Quantum Computation with Neutral Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Grant

    2013-03-01

    We are implementing a new platform for adiabatic quantum computation (AQC)[2] based on trapped neutral atoms whose coupling is mediated by the dipole-dipole interactions of Rydberg states. Ground state cesium atoms are dressed by laser fields in a manner conditional on the Rydberg blockade mechanism,[3,4] thereby providing the requisite entangling interactions. As a benchmark we study a Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) problem whose solution is found in the ground state spin configuration of an Ising-like model. In collaboration with Lambert Parazzoli, Sandia National Laboratories; Aaron Hankin, Center for Quantum Information and Control (CQuIC), University of New Mexico; James Chin-Wen Chou, Yuan-Yu Jau, Peter Schwindt, Cort Johnson, and George Burns, Sandia National Laboratories; Tyler Keating, Krittika Goyal, and Ivan Deutsch, Center for Quantum Information and Control (CQuIC), University of New Mexico; and Andrew Landahl, Sandia National Laboratories. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories

  11. Adiabatic Quantum Algorithm for Search Engine Ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnerone, Silvano; Zanardi, Paolo; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2012-06-01

    We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm for generating a quantum pure state encoding of the PageRank vector, the most widely used tool in ranking the relative importance of internet pages. We present extensive numerical simulations which provide evidence that this algorithm can prepare the quantum PageRank state in a time which, on average, scales polylogarithmically in the number of web pages. We argue that the main topological feature of the underlying web graph allowing for such a scaling is the out-degree distribution. The top-ranked log⁡(n) entries of the quantum PageRank state can then be estimated with a polynomial quantum speed-up. Moreover, the quantum PageRank state can be used in “q-sampling” protocols for testing properties of distributions, which require exponentially fewer measurements than all classical schemes designed for the same task. This can be used to decide whether to run a classical update of the PageRank.

  12. Coolant passage heat transfer with rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Higgins, A. W.

    1985-10-01

    The objective is to develop a heat transfer and pressure drop data base, computational fluid dynamic techniques, and correlations for multi-pass rotating coolant passages with and without flow turbulators. The experimental effort is focused on the simulation of configurations and conditions expected in the blades of advanced aircraft high pressure turbines. With the use of this data base, the effects of Coriolis and buoyancy forces on the coolant side flow can be included in the design of turbine blades.

  13. 37. INTERIOR VIEW, CENTRAL PASSAGE AND STAIRCASE LEADING TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. INTERIOR VIEW, CENTRAL PASSAGE AND STAIRCASE LEADING TO THE SECOND FLOOR; THE STAIR RISES AT THE EAST WALL OF THE PASSAGE - Arlington Place, 331 Cotton Avenue, Southwest, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Adiabaticity and spectral splits in collective neutrino transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Raffelt, Georg G.; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2007-12-15

    Neutrinos streaming off a supernova core transform collectively by neutrino-neutrino interactions, leading to 'spectral splits' where an energy E{sub split} divides the transformed spectrum sharply into parts of almost pure but different flavors. We present a detailed description of the spectral-split phenomenon which is conceptually and quantitatively understood in an adiabatic treatment of neutrino-neutrino effects. Central to this theory is a self-consistency condition in the form of two sum rules (integrals over the neutrino spectra that must equal certain conserved quantities). We provide explicit analytic and numerical solutions for various neutrino spectra. We introduce the concept of the adiabatic reference frame and elaborate on the relative adiabatic evolution. Violating adiabaticity leads to the spectral split being 'washed out'. The sharpness of the split appears to be represented by a surprisingly universal function.

  15. Acceleration of adiabatic quantum dynamics in electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, Shumpei; Nakamura, Katsuhiro

    2011-10-15

    We show a method to accelerate quantum adiabatic dynamics of wave functions under electromagnetic field (EMF) by developing the preceding theory [Masuda and Nakamura, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 466, 1135 (2010)]. Treating the orbital dynamics of a charged particle in EMF, we derive the driving field which accelerates quantum adiabatic dynamics in order to obtain the final adiabatic states in any desired short time. The scheme is consolidated by describing a way to overcome possible singularities in both the additional phase and driving potential due to nodes proper to wave functions under EMF. As explicit examples, we exhibit the fast forward of adiabatic squeezing and transport of excited Landau states with nonzero angular momentum, obtaining the result consistent with the transitionless quantum driving applied to the orbital dynamics in EMF.

  16. Adiabatic and isocurvature perturbation projections in multi-field inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Chris; Saffin, Paul M.

    2013-08-01

    Current data are in good agreement with the predictions of single field inflation. However, the hemispherical asymmetry, seen in the cosmic microwave background data, may hint at a potential problem. Generalizing to multi-field models may provide one possible explanation. A useful way of modeling perturbations in multi-field inflation is to investigate the projection of the perturbation along and perpendicular to the background fields' trajectory. These correspond to the adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations. However, it is important to note that in general there are no corresponding adiabatic and isocurvature fields. The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between a field redefinition and a perturbation projection. We provide a detailed derivation of the evolution of the isocurvature perturbation to show that no assumption of an adiabatic or isocurvature field is needed. We also show how this evolution equation is consistent with the field covariant evolution equations for the adiabatic perturbation in the flat field space limit.

  17. Startup of the RFP in a quasi-adiabatic mode

    SciTech Connect

    Caramana, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    The equations describing the purely adiabatic formation of the reversed-field pinch are solved. This method of formation in principle remedies the problem of flux consumption during the startup phase of this device.

  18. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of tunneling in quantum adiabatic optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Lucas T.; van Dam, Wim

    2016-03-01

    We explore to what extent path-integral quantum Monte Carlo methods can efficiently simulate quantum adiabatic optimization algorithms during a quantum tunneling process. Specifically we look at symmetric cost functions defined over n bits with a single potential barrier that a successful quantum adiabatic optimization algorithm will have to tunnel through. The height and width of this barrier depend on n , and by tuning these dependencies, we can make the optimization algorithm succeed or fail in polynomial time. In this article we compare the strength of quantum adiabatic tunneling with that of path-integral quantum Monte Carlo methods. We find numerical evidence that quantum Monte Carlo algorithms will succeed in the same regimes where quantum adiabatic optimization succeeds.

  19. 75 FR 61479 - Western Passage OCGenTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Western Passage OCGen\\TM\\ Power Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit... Western Passage OCGen\\TM\\ Power Project, located in Western Passage, in the vicinity of the City of... consist of: (1) 2 OCGen\\TM\\ hydrokinetic tidal devices each consisting of four 150-kilowatt...

  20. Response of Juvenile Pacific Lamprey to Turbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.

    2009-09-14

    To help determine the Pacific lamprey’s ability to survive turbine passage, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted laboratory tests designed to simulate a fish’s passage through the turbine environment. Juvenile Pacific lamprey were subjected to two of three aspects of passage: pressure drop and shear stress. The third aspect, blade strike, was not tested.

  1. Interior view, ground floor passage crossing the main corridor at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, ground floor passage crossing the main corridor at its center, looking east through the doorway linking the two perpendicular axes. The door at the end of the passage opens onto a passage running under the entrance portico bearing ground floor exterior doors at each end. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Safe Passage: Making It through Adolescence in a Risky Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryfoos, Joy G.

    The primary job of parents is to ensure safe passage for their children from infancy through adolescence to adulthood. Research has indicated many things schools can do to turn the privilege of safe passage into a right. Three research-based programs that work to achieve safe passage are described. The first is Caring Connection, a "one-stop-shop"…

  3. Measuring Gains in Reading Ability with Passage Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Zumeta, Rebecca; Dupree, Opio; Kent Johnson

    2005-01-01

    This study examined several aspects of Passage Reading Fluency (PRF) including performance variability across passages alternative designs for measuring PRF gain, and effects on PRF level from retesting with the same passages. Participants were 33 students from grades 2 to 10 attending a school for students with learning disabilities. PRF was…

  4. Realization of adiabatic Aharonov-Bohm scattering with neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöqvist, Erik; Almquist, Martin; Mattsson, Ken; Gürkan, Zeynep Nilhan; Hessmo, Björn

    2015-11-01

    The adiabatic Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect is a manifestation of the Berry phase acquired when some slow variables take a planar spin around a loop. While the effect has been observed in molecular spectroscopy, direct measurement of the topological phase shift in a scattering experiment has been elusive in the past. Here, we demonstrate an adiabatic AB effect by explicit simulation of the dynamics of unpolarized very slow neutrons that scatter on a long straight current-carrying wire.

  5. Raman scattering in crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.F.

    1988-09-30

    A tutorial presentation is given of Raman scattering in crystals. The physical concepts are emphasized rather than the detailed mathematical formalism. Starting with an introduction to the concepts of phonons and conservation laws, the effects of photon-phonon interactions are presented. This interaction concept is shown for a simple cubic crystal and is extended to a uniaxial crystal. The correlation table method is used for determining the number and symmetry of the Raman active modes. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the relative ease of using this group theoretical method and the predictions are compared with measured Raman spectra. 37 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. [Raman spectral analysis of theanine].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Jian; Chen, Rong; Li, Yong-Zeng; Huang, Zu-Fang; Chen, Jie-Si; Lin, Duo; Xi, Gang-Qin

    2011-11-01

    The L-theanine was tested using confocal Raman microscopy. Obvious Raman bands were showed in the range of 250 -1 700 and 2 800-3 000 cm(-1). The Raman bands were assigned with a preliminary analysis and the characteristic vibrational modes were gained in different range of wave numbers. Eight strong Raman bands were observed in the Raman spectra at 321, 900, 938, 1 153, 1 312, 1 358, 1 454 and 1 647 cm(-1), respectively. They are the characteristic Raman bands of L-theanine. The results showed that Raman spectroscopy might be a new kind of precise, direct and fast detecting method for theanine. PMID:22242495

  7. Improving hydroturbine pressures to enhance salmon passage survival and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbo, Bradly A.; Ahmann, Martin L.; Renholods, Jon F.; Brown, Richard S.; Colotelo, Alison H. A.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2013-12-12

    This paper provides an overview of turbine pressure data collection and barotrauma studies relative to fish passage through large Kaplan turbines and how this information may be applied to safer fish passage through turbines. The specific objectives are to 1) discuss turbine pressures defined by Sensor Fish releases; 2) discuss what has been learned about pressure effects on fish and the factors influencing barotrauma associated with simulated turbine passage; 3) elucidate data gaps associated with fish behavior and passage that influence barotrauma during turbine passage; 4) discuss how the results of these studies have led to turbine design criteria for safer fish passage; and 5) relate this information to salmon recovery efforts and safer fish passage for Atlantic and Pacific salmonids.

  8. Inverse design of a turbine cascade passage and DNS of a stationary and rotating serpentine passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskowski, Gregory Michael

    2005-12-01

    Experimental investigations of the flow physics past a single stationary transonic turbine blade in a cascade are complicated by the periodic nature of the problem. Typically up to seven blades in a cascade are required to guarantee periodicity about the center blade that, in turn, requires large compressors at transonic speeds. One possibility to circumvent the constraint of so many blades, and allow the necessary optical access, is to place a single blade in a passage consisting of two plexiglass walls that are designed to obtain certain representative periodic flowfield characteristics. Using an optimization procedure based on the method of steepest descent and the RANS equations, the walls were designed to ensure that the Surface Isentropic Mach Number (SIMN) distribution on the blade matched the SIMN of the same blade in an infinite cascade. The experimental setup imposed an additional constraint requiring the flow remained attached along both passage walls. A robust and autonomous design method using a weighted composite cost function was developed and successfully applied. Excellent agreement was achieved between CFD of the infinite cascade SIMN, CFD of the designed double passage SIMN, and the experimentally measured SIMN. Serpentine passages are found in a number of engineering applications including turbine blade cooling passages. The serpentine passage is an ideal candidate for conducting a thorough DNS study due to its geometric simplicity but complex flow physics. The serpentine passage geometry investigated has dimensions 12pidelta x 2delta x 3pidelta and radius of curvature delta/r c = 0.5 in the curved section. Simulations of a test matrix consisting of two different Reynolds numbers, Retau = 180 and Retau = 250, subjected to two different orthogonal rotation numbers, Ro tau = 0 and Rotau = 5 was conducted. Whereas the stationary case results in a symmetric flowfield for the two U-bends constituting the passage, the effect of rotation coupled with

  9. Modeling drug passage into human milk.

    PubMed

    Anderson, P O; Sauberan, J B

    2016-07-01

    Breastfeeding has positive health consequences for both the breastfed infant and the nursing mother.(1,2) Although information on drug use during lactation is available through sites such as LactMed,(3) available information is often incomplete. Unlike pregnancy, in which large numbers of pregnant women need to be studied to assure safety, measurement of drug concentrations in breastmilk in a relatively few subjects can provide valuable information to assess drug safety. This article reviews methods of measuring and predicting drug passage into breastmilk. PMID:27060684

  10. Turbine engine component with cooling passages

    DOEpatents

    Arrell, Douglas J.; James, Allister W.

    2012-01-17

    A component for use in a turbine engine including a first member and a second member associated with the first member. The second member includes a plurality of connecting elements extending therefrom. The connecting elements include securing portions at ends thereof that are received in corresponding cavities formed in the first member to attach the second member to the first member. The connecting elements are constructed to space apart a first surface of the second member from a first surface of the first member such that at least one cooling passage is formed between adjacent connecting elements and the first surface of the second member and the first surface of the first member.

  11. A Simple Raman Spectrometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blond, J. P.; Boggett, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some basic physical ideas about light scattering and describes a simple Raman spectrometer, a single prism monochromator and a multiplier detector. This discussion is intended for British undergraduate physics students. (HM)

  12. Auger resonant Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, Y.; LeBrun, T.; MacDonald, M.; Southworth, S.H.

    1995-08-01

    As noted above, traditional spectroscopy of the electronic structure of the inner shells of atoms, molecules, and solids is limited by the lifetime broadening of the core-excited states. This limitation can also be avoided with the non-radiative analog of X-ray Raman scattering - resonant Auger Raman spectroscopy. We have used this technique to study the K-shell excitation spectrum of argon as the photon energy is continuously scanned across threshold.

  13. Ice Thickness in the Northwest Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, C.; Howell, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recently the feasibility of commercial shipping in the ice-prone Northwest Passage has attracted a lot of attention. However, very little ice thickness information actually exists. We present results of the first-ever airborne electromagnetic ice thickness surveys over the NWP carried out in April and May 2011 and 2015 over first-year and multiyear ice. Results show modal thicknesses between 1.8 and 2.0 m in all regions. Mean thicknesses over 3 m and thick, deformed ice were observed over some multiyear ice regimes shown to originate from the Arctic Ocean. Thick ice features more than 100 m wide and thicker than 4 m occurred frequently. There are few other data to compare with to evaluate if the ice of the Northwest Passage has transitioned as other parts of the Arctic have. Although likely thinner than some 20 or more years ago, ice conditions must still be considered severe, and the Canadian Arctic Archipelao may well be considered the last ice refuge of the Arctic. These results have important implications for the prediction of ice break-up and summer ice conditions, and the assessment of sea ice hazards during the summer shipping season.

  14. Understanding cell passage through constricted microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartas-Ayala, Marco A.; Karnik, Rohit

    2012-11-01

    Recently, several microfluidic platforms have been proposed to characterize cells based on their behaviour during cell passage through constricted channels. Variables like transit time have been analyzed in disease states like sickle cell anemia, malaria and sepsis. Nevertheless, it is hard to make direct comparisons between different platforms and cell types. We present experimental results of the relationship between solid deformable particle properties, i.e. stiffness and relative particle size, and flow properties, i.e. particle's velocity. We measured the hydrodynamic variables during the flow of HL-60 cells, a white myeloid cell type, in narrow microfluidic square channels using a microfluidic differential manometer. We measured the flow force required to move cells of different sizes through microchannels and quantified friction forces opposing cell passage. We determined the non-dimensional parameters that influence the flow of cells and we used them to obtain a non dimensional expression that can be used to predict the forces needed to drive cells through microchannels. We found that the friction force needed to flow HL-60 through a microfluidic channel is the sum of two parts. The first part is a static friction force that is proportional to the force needed to keep the force compressed. The second part is a factor that is proportional to the cell velocity, hence a dynamic term, and slightly sensitive to the compressive force. We thank CONACYT (Mexican Science and Technology Council) for supporting this project, grant 205899.

  15. Transplacental passage of insulin complexed to antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, W A; Yalow, R S

    1981-01-01

    The passage of plasma proteins across the placental barrier in humans is known to be highly selective. Thus, free maternal insulin has been reported not to cross the normal maternofetal barrier, although insulin-binding antibodies have been detected in newborn infants whose diabetic mothers received insulin therapy. In this report we demonstrate, with the use of a human antiserum that permits distinction between human and animal insulins, that insulin in the cord blood of each of two neonates of insulin-treated diabetic mothers was, in part, animal insulin. The higher the antibody titer of the mother the greater was the total insulin in the cord plasma and the greater was the fraction that was animal insulin. In case 1 cord plasma insulin was 0.7 unit/liter, of which 10% was animal insulin; in case 2 cord plasma insulin was 3.5 units/liter, of which 25% was animal insulin. The demonstration that antigen restricted from transplacental passage can be transferred while complexed to antibody raises the question whether such fetal exposure would induce partial or total immunologic unresponsiveness subsequently if the fetus were rechallenged with the same antigen. PMID:7027265

  16. Adiabatic condition and the quantum hitting time of Markov chains

    SciTech Connect

    Krovi, Hari; Ozols, Maris; Roland, Jeremie

    2010-08-15

    We present an adiabatic quantum algorithm for the abstract problem of searching marked vertices in a graph, or spatial search. Given a random walk (or Markov chain) P on a graph with a set of unknown marked vertices, one can define a related absorbing walk P{sup '} where outgoing transitions from marked vertices are replaced by self-loops. We build a Hamiltonian H(s) from the interpolated Markov chain P(s)=(1-s)P+sP{sup '} and use it in an adiabatic quantum algorithm to drive an initial superposition over all vertices to a superposition over marked vertices. The adiabatic condition implies that, for any reversible Markov chain and any set of marked vertices, the running time of the adiabatic algorithm is given by the square root of the classical hitting time. This algorithm therefore demonstrates a novel connection between the adiabatic condition and the classical notion of hitting time of a random walk. It also significantly extends the scope of previous quantum algorithms for this problem, which could only obtain a full quadratic speedup for state-transitive reversible Markov chains with a unique marked vertex.

  17. Adiabatic compressibility of myoglobin. Effect of axial ligand and denaturation.

    PubMed

    Leung, W P; Cho, K C; Lo, Y M; Choy, C L

    1986-03-01

    An ultrasonic technique has been employed to study the adiabatic compressibility of three metmyoglobin derivatives (aquomet-, fluoromet- and azidometmyoglobin) at neutral pH, and aquometmyoglobin as a function of pH in the frequency range of 1-10 MHz at 20 degrees C. No difference was observed in the adiabatic compressibility of the various derivatives. This indicates that the binding of different axial ligands to myoglobin does not affect significantly the conformational fluctuations of the protein. The finding is consistent with the results of the hydrogen exchange rate experiment, indicating that both types of measurements are useful for the study of protein dynamics. Upon acid-induced denaturation, the adiabatic compressibility of myoglobin drops from 5.3 X 10(-12) cm2/dyn to 0.5 X 10(-12) cm2/dyn. Plausible reasons for such a decrease are discussed. PMID:3947645

  18. Interaction-induced adiabatic cooling for antiferromagnetism in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Dare, A.-M.; Raymond, L.; Albinet, G.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2007-08-01

    In the experimental context of cold-fermion optical lattices, we discuss the possibilities to approach the pseudogap or ordered phases by manipulating the scattering length or the strength of the laser-induced lattice potential. Using the two-particle self-consistent approach, as well as quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we provide isentropic curves for the two- and three-dimensional Hubbard models at half-filling. These quantitative results are important for practical attempts to reach the ordered antiferromagnetic phase in experiments on optical lattices of two-component fermions. We find that adiabatically turning on the interaction in two dimensions to cool the system is not very effective. In three dimensions, adiabatic cooling to the antiferromagnetic phase can be achieved in such a manner, although the cooling efficiency is not as high as initially suggested by dynamical mean-field theory. Adiabatic cooling by turning off the repulsion beginning at strong coupling is possible in certain cases.

  19. Adiabatic Quantum Programming: Minor Embedding With Hard Faults

    SciTech Connect

    Klymko, Christine F; Sullivan, Blair D; Humble, Travis S

    2013-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum programming defines the time-dependent mapping of a quantum algorithm into the hardware or logical fabric. An essential programming step is the embedding of problem-specific information into the logical fabric to define the quantum computational transformation. We present algorithms for embedding arbitrary instances of the adiabatic quantum optimization algorithm into a square lattice of specialized unit cells. Our methods are shown to be extensible in fabric growth, linear in time, and quadratic in logical footprint. In addition, we provide methods for accommodating hard faults in the logical fabric without invoking approximations to the original problem. These hard fault-tolerant embedding algorithms are expected to prove useful for benchmarking the adiabatic quantum optimization algorithm on existing quantum logical hardware. We illustrate this versatility through numerical studies of embeddabilty versus hard fault rates in square lattices of complete bipartite unit cells.

  20. Shortcuts to adiabaticity in a time-dependent box

    PubMed Central

    Campo, A. del; Boshier, M. G.

    2012-01-01

    A method is proposed to drive an ultrafast non-adiabatic dynamics of an ultracold gas trapped in a time-dependent box potential. The resulting state is free from spurious excitations associated with the breakdown of adiabaticity, and preserves the quantum correlations of the initial state up to a scaling factor. The process relies on the existence of an adiabatic invariant and the inversion of the dynamical self-similar scaling law dictated by it. Its physical implementation generally requires the use of an auxiliary expulsive potential. The method is extended to a broad family of interacting many-body systems. As illustrative examples we consider the ultrafast expansion of a Tonks-Girardeau gas and of Bose-Einstein condensates in different dimensions, where the method exhibits an excellent robustness against different regimes of interactions and the features of an experimentally realizable box potential. PMID:22970340

  1. Pressure sensitivity of adiabatic shear banding in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanina, E.; Rittel, D.; Rosenberg, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Adiabatic shear banding (ASB) is a dynamic failure mode characterized by large plastic strains in a narrow localized band. ASB occurs at high strain rates (ɛ˙⩾103s-1), under adiabatic conditions leading to a significant temperature rise inside the band [H. Tresca, Annales du Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers 4, (1879); Y. L. Bai and B. Dodd, Adiabatic Shear Localization-Occurrence, Theories, and Applications (Pergamon, Oxford, 1992); M. A. Meyers, Dynamic Behavior of Materials (Wiley, New York, 1994).; and J. J. Lewandowski and L. M. Greer, Nat. Mater. 5, 15 (2006)]. Large hydrostatic pressures are experienced in many dynamic applications involving ASB formation (e.g., ballistic penetration, impact, and machining). The relationship between hydrostatic pressure and ASB development remains an open question, although its importance has been often noted. This letter reports original experimental results indicating a linear relationship between the (normalized) dynamic deformation energy and the (normalized) hydrostatic pressure.

  2. Adiabatic quantum programming: minor embedding with hard faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klymko, Christine; Sullivan, Blair D.; Humble, Travis S.

    2013-11-01

    Adiabatic quantum programming defines the time-dependent mapping of a quantum algorithm into an underlying hardware or logical fabric. An essential step is embedding problem-specific information into the quantum logical fabric. We present algorithms for embedding arbitrary instances of the adiabatic quantum optimization algorithm into a square lattice of specialized unit cells. These methods extend with fabric growth while scaling linearly in time and quadratically in footprint. We also provide methods for handling hard faults in the logical fabric without invoking approximations to the original problem and illustrate their versatility through numerical studies of embeddability versus fault rates in square lattices of complete bipartite unit cells. The studies show that these algorithms are more resilient to faulty fabrics than naive embedding approaches, a feature which should prove useful in benchmarking the adiabatic quantum optimization algorithm on existing faulty hardware.

  3. Heat transfer in serpentine flow passages with rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, S.; Takamura, J.; Yamawaki, S.; Yang, Wen-Jei

    1992-06-01

    Results are reported of an experimental study tracing heat transfer performance in a rotating serpentine flow passage of a square cross section. The test section is preceded by a hydrodynamic calming region. The test model is a blow-up (by seven times) of actual winding flow passages in rotor blades. It is concluded that the flow in the 180-deg bends exhibits strong 3D structure. The heat transfer coefficient in the bend is substantially higher than in the straight flow passages. The average heat transfer characteristics over the entire flow passage is greatly affected by flow at the 180-deg bends. Due to secondary flow induced by the Coriolis force, the heat transfer coefficient in the radially outward flow passages diminish on the leading surface, but increase on the trailing surface, with an increase in rotational speed. The trend is reversed in the radially inward flow passages.

  4. Partially turbulated trailing edge cooling passages for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Thatcher, Jonathan Carl; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2001-01-01

    A plurality of passages are spaced one from the other along the length of a trailing edge of a nozzle vane in a gas turbine. The passages lie in communication with a cavity in the vane for flowing cooling air from the cavity through the passages through the tip of the trailing edge into the hot gas path. Each passage is partially turbulated and includes ribs in an aft portion thereof to provide enhanced cooling effects adjacent the tip of the trailing edge. The major portions of the passages are smooth bore. By this arrangement, reduced temperature gradients across the trailing edge metal are provided. Additionally, the inlets to each of the passages have a restriction whereby a reduced magnitude of compressor bleed discharge air is utilized for trailing edge cooling purposes.

  5. Non Adiabatic Evolution of Elliptical Galaxies by Dynamical Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, S. E.; Bertin, G.; Liseikina, T.; Pegoraro, F.

    2007-05-01

    Many astrophysical problems, ranging from structure formation in cosmology to dynamics of elliptical galaxies, refer to slow processes of evolution of essentially collisionless self-gravitating systems. In order to determine the relevant quasi-equilibrium configuration at time t from given initial conditions, it is often argued that such slow evolution may be approximated in terms of adiabatic evolution, for the calculation of which efficient semi--analytical techniques are available. Here we focus on the slow process of evolution, induced by dynamical friction of a host stellar system on a minority component of "satellites", to determine to what extent an adiabatic description might be applied. The study is realized by means of N--body simulations of the evolution of the total system (the stellar system plus the minority component), in a controlled numerical environment. In particular, we compare the evolution from initial to final configurations of the system subject to dynamical friction with that of the same system evolved adiabatically (in the absence of dynamical friction). We consider two classes of galaxy models characterized by significantly different density and pressure anisotropy profiles. We demonstrate that, for the examined process, the evolution driven by dynamical friction is significantly different from the adiabatic case, not only quantitatively, but also qualitatively. The two classes of galaxy models considered in this investigation exhibit generally similar trends in evolution, with one exception: concentrated models reach a final total density profile, in the internal region, shallower than the initial one, while galaxy models with a broad core show the opposite behaviour. The evolution of elliptical galaxies induced by dynamical friction is a slow process but it is not adiabatic. The results of our investigation should be taken as a warning against the indiscriminate use of adiabatic growth prescriptions in studies of the structure of

  6. Ice thickness in the Northwest Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Christian; Howell, Stephen E. L.

    2015-09-01

    Recently, the feasibility of commercial shipping in the ice-prone Northwest Passage (NWP) has attracted a lot of attention. However, very little ice thickness information actually exists. We present results of the first ever airborne electromagnetic ice thickness surveys over the NWP carried out in April and May 2011 and 2015 over first-year and multiyear ice. These show modal thicknesses between 1.8 and 2.0 m in all regions. Mean thicknesses over 3 m and thick, deformed ice were observed over some multiyear ice regimes shown to originate from the Arctic Ocean. Thick ice features more than 100 m wide and thicker than 4 m occurred frequently. Results indicate that even in today's climate, ice conditions must still be considered severe. These results have important implications for the prediction of ice breakup and summer ice conditions, and the assessment of sea ice hazards during the summer shipping season.

  7. The Eskimos of the Northwest Passage

    PubMed Central

    Davies, L. E. C.; Hanson, S.

    1965-01-01

    In 1959 and 1960, during the annual survey conducted by the Federal Northern Health Services in the area of the Northwest Passage, the diet and living conditions of some 1500 Eskimos who live in this area were studied and blood and urine samples were obtained from 40-50% of this population. Hemoglobin, blood cell morphology, serum protein-bound iodine, serum proteins, serum lipids and serum total cholesterol estimations, urinalyses, and agglutination studies for brucellosis were carried out. Hemoglobin levels were in the normal range; however, increased contact with civilization appeared to be associated with lower hemoglobin levels. Eleven per cent of the Eskimos showed eosinophilia. Serum proteins were normal. Serum lipids and serum cholesterol levels were higher in Eskimo children living in a government residential school than in a comparable group living on the Barren Lands. Serum protein-bound iodine levels were in the upper euthyroid range. Diabetes mellitus occurs among Eskimos. Sporadic cases of brucellosis also occur. PMID:14246293

  8. Coolant passage heat transfer with rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Wagner, J.; Johnson, B. V.

    1986-10-01

    In current and advanced gas turbine engines, increased speeds, pressures and temperatures are used to reduce specific fuel consumption and increase thrust/weight ratios. Hence, the turbine airfoils are subjected to increased heat loads escalating the cooling requirements to satisfy life goals. The efficient use of cooling air requires that the details of local geometry and flow conditions be adequately modeled to predict local heat loads and the corresponding heat transfer coefficients. The objective of this program is to develop a heat transfer and pressure drop data base, computational fluid dynamic techniques and correlations for multi-pass rotating coolant passages with and without flow turbulators. The experimental effort is focused on the simulation of configurations and conditions expected in the blades of advanced aircraft high pressure turbines. With the use of this data base, the effects of Coriolis and buoyancy forces on the coolant side flow can be included in the design of turbine blades.

  9. First-passage phenomena in hierarchical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavani, Flavia; Agliari, Elena

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we study Markov processes and related first-passage problems on a class of weighted, modular graphs which generalize the Dyson hierarchical model. In these networks, the coupling strength between two nodes depends on their distance and is modulated by a parameter σ . We find that, in the thermodynamic limit, ergodicity is lost and the "distant" nodes cannot be reached. Moreover, for finite-sized systems, there exists a threshold value for σ such that, when σ is relatively large, the inhomogeneity of the coupling pattern prevails and "distant" nodes are hardly reached. The same analysis is carried on also for generic hierarchical graphs, where interactions are meant to involve p -plets (p >2 ) of nodes, finding that ergodicity is still broken in the thermodynamic limit, but no threshold value for σ is evidenced, ultimately due to a slow growth of the network diameter with the size.

  10. Tectonic reconstructions for paleobathymetry in Drake Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagles, Graeme; Jokat, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    A minimum-complexity tectonic reconstruction, based on published and new basin opening models, depicts how the Scotia Sea grew by Cenozoic plate divergence, dismembering a Jurassic sheared margin of Gondwana. Part of the Jurassic-early Cretaceous ocean that accreted to this margin forms the core of the Central Scotia Plate, the arc plate above a trench at the eastern end of the Scotia Sea, which migrated east away from the Antarctic and South American plates. A sequence of extensional basins opened on the western edge of the Central Scotia Plate at 50-30 Ma, decoupled from the South American Plate to the northwest by slow motion on a long transform fault. Succeeding the basins, seafloor spreading started around 30 Ma on the West Scotia Ridge, which propagated northwards in the 23-17 Ma period and ceased to operate at 6 Ma. The circuits of plate motions inside and outside the Scotia Arc are joined via rotations that describe Antarctic-Central Scotia plate motion in Powell Basin until 20 Ma, and along the South Scotia Ridge thereafter. The modelled relative motion at the northern edge of the Scotia Sea is thus constrained only by the plate circuit, but nonetheless resembles that known coarsely from the geological record of Tierra del Fuego. A paleobathymetric interpretation of nine time slices in the model shows Drake Passage developing as an intermediate-depth oceanographic gateway at 50-30 Ma, with deep flow possible afterwards. Initially, this deep flow would have been made tortuous by numerous intermediate and shallow barriers. A frontal pattern resembling that in the modern Scotia Sea would have awaited the clearance of significant barriers by continuing seafloor spreading in the Scotia Sea at ~ 18.5 Ma, at Shag Rocks Passage, and after 10 Ma southeast of South Georgia.

  11. Binary fish passage models for uniform and nonuniform flows

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S

    2011-01-01

    Binary fish passage models are considered by many fisheries managers to be the best 21 available practice for culvert inventory assessments and for fishway and barrier design. 22 Misunderstandings between different binary passage modeling approaches often arise, 23 however, due to differences in terminology, application and presentation. In this paper 24 one-dimensional binary fish passage models are reviewed and refined to clarify their 25 origins and applications. For uniform flow, a simple exhaustion-threshold (ET) model 26 equation is derived that predicts the flow speed threshold in a fishway or velocity barrier 27 that causes exhaustion at a given maximum distance of ascent. Flow speeds at or above 28 the threshold predict failure to pass (exclusion). Flow speeds below the threshold predict 29 passage. The binary ET model is therefore intuitive and easily applied to predict passage 30 or exclusion. It is also shown to be consistent with the distance-maximizing model. The 31 ET model s limitation to uniform flow is addressed by deriving a passage model that 32 accounts for nonuniform flow conditions more commonly found in the field, including 33 backwater profiles and drawdown curves. Comparison of these models with 34 experimental observations of volitional passage for Gambusia affinis in uniform and 35 nonuniform flows indicates reasonable prediction of binary outcomes (passage or 36 exclusion) if the flow speed is not near the threshold flow velocity. More research is 37 needed on fish behavior, passage strategies under nonuniform flow regimes and 38 stochastic methods that account for individual differences in swimming performance at or 39 near the threshold flow speed. Future experiments should track and measure ground 40 speeds of ascending fish to test nonuniform flow passage strategies and to improve model 41 predictions. Stochastic models, such as Monte-Carlo techniques, that account for 42 different passage performance among individuals and allow

  12. The Sensor Fish: Measuring Fish Passage in Severe Hydraulic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J. ); Duncan, Joanne P. ); Gilbride, Theresa L. )

    2003-05-28

    This article describes PNNL's efforts to develop the Sensor Fish, a waterproof sensor package that travels thru the turbines of spillways of hydroelectric dam to collect pressure and acceleration data on the conditions experienced by live salmon smolts during dam passage. Sensor Fish development is sponsored by the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine Survival Program. The article also gave two recent examples of Sensor Fish use: turbine passage at a McNary Kaplan turbine and spill passage in topspill at Rock Island Dam.

  13. Adiabatic invariants, diffusion and acceleration in rigid body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Alexey V.; Mamaev, Ivan S.

    2016-03-01

    The onset of adiabatic chaos in rigid body dynamics is considered. A comparison of the analytically calculated diffusion coefficient describing probabilistic effects in the zone of chaos with a numerical experiment is made. An analysis of the splitting of asymptotic surfaces is performed and uncertainty curves are constructed in the Poincaré-Zhukovsky problem. The application of Hamiltonian methods to nonholonomic systems is discussed. New problem statements are given which are related to the destruction of an adiabatic invariant and to the acceleration of the system (Fermi's acceleration).

  14. Adiabatic Rosen-Zener interferometry with ultracold atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Libin; Ye Defa; Lee Chaohong; Zhang Weiping; Liu Jie

    2009-07-15

    We propose a time-domain 'interferometer' based on double-well ultracold atoms through a so-called adiabatic Rosen-Zener process, that is, the barrier between two wells is ramped down slowly, held for a while, and then ramped back. After the adiabatic Rosen-Zener process, we count the particle population in each well. We find that the final occupation probability shows nice interference fringes. The fringe pattern is sensitive to the initial state as well as the intrinsic parameters of the system such as interatomic interaction or energy bias between two wells. The underlying mechanism is revealed and possible applications are discussed.

  15. Quantum dynamics by the constrained adiabatic trajectory method

    SciTech Connect

    Leclerc, A.; Jolicard, G.; Guerin, S.; Killingbeck, J. P.

    2011-03-15

    We develop the constrained adiabatic trajectory method (CATM), which allows one to solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation constraining the dynamics to a single Floquet eigenstate, as if it were adiabatic. This constrained Floquet state (CFS) is determined from the Hamiltonian modified by an artificial time-dependent absorbing potential whose forms are derived according to the initial conditions. The main advantage of this technique for practical implementation is that the CFS is easy to determine even for large systems since its corresponding eigenvalue is well isolated from the others through its imaginary part. The properties and limitations of the CATM are explored through simple examples.

  16. Gravitational Chern-Simons and the adiabatic limit

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Brendan

    2010-12-15

    We compute the gravitational Chern-Simons term explicitly for an adiabatic family of metrics using standard methods in general relativity. We use the fact that our base three-manifold is a quasiregular K-contact manifold heavily in this computation. Our key observation is that this geometric assumption corresponds exactly to a Kaluza-Klein Ansatz for the metric tensor on our three-manifold, which allows us to translate our problem into the language of general relativity. Similar computations have been performed by Guralnik et al.[Ann. Phys. 308, 222 (2008)], although not in the adiabatic context.

  17. Adiabatic fluctuations from cosmic strings in a contracting universe

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Takahashi, Tomo; Yamaguchi, Masahide E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2009-07-01

    We show that adiabatic, super-Hubble, and almost scale invariant density fluctuations are produced by cosmic strings in a contracting universe. An essential point is that isocurvature perturbations produced by topological defects such as cosmic strings on super-Hubble scales lead to a source term which seeds the growth of curvature fluctuations on these scales. Once the symmetry has been restored at high temperatures, the isocurvature seeds disappear, and the fluctuations evolve as adiabatic ones in the expanding phase. Thus, cosmic strings may be resurrected as a mechanism for generating the primordial density fluctuations observed today.

  18. Quantum Adiabatic Pumping by Modulating Tunnel Phase in Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Masahiko; Nakajima, Satoshi; Kubo, Toshihiro; Tokura, Yasuhiro

    2016-08-01

    In a mesoscopic system, under zero bias voltage, a finite charge is transferred by quantum adiabatic pumping by adiabatically and periodically changing two or more control parameters. We obtained expressions for the pumped charge for a ring of three quantum dots (QDs) by choosing the magnetic flux penetrating the ring as one of the control parameters. We found that the pumped charge shows a steplike behavior with respect to the variance of the flux. The value of the step heights is not universal but depends on the trajectory of the control parameters. We discuss the physical origin of this behavior on the basis of the Fano resonant condition of the ring.

  19. Classical nuclear motion coupled to electronic non-adiabatic transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, Federica; Abedi, Ali; Gross, E. K. U.

    2014-12-01

    Based on the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function, we have recently proposed a mixed quantum-classical scheme [A. Abedi, F. Agostini, and E. K. U. Gross, Europhys. Lett. 106, 33001 (2014)] to deal with non-adiabatic processes. Here we present a comprehensive description of the formalism, including the full derivation of the equations of motion. Numerical results are presented for a model system for non-adiabatic charge transfer in order to test the performance of the method and to validate the underlying approximations.

  20. Classical nuclear motion coupled to electronic non-adiabatic transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Agostini, Federica; Abedi, Ali; Gross, E. K. U.

    2014-12-07

    Based on the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function, we have recently proposed a mixed quantum-classical scheme [A. Abedi, F. Agostini, and E. K. U. Gross, Europhys. Lett. 106, 33001 (2014)] to deal with non-adiabatic processes. Here we present a comprehensive description of the formalism, including the full derivation of the equations of motion. Numerical results are presented for a model system for non-adiabatic charge transfer in order to test the performance of the method and to validate the underlying approximations.

  1. Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic investigation on Lamiaceae plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösch, P.; Popp, J.; Kiefer, W.

    1999-05-01

    The essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgaris are studied by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The containing monoterpenes can be identified by their Raman spectra. Further the essential oils are investigated in their natural environment, the so-called oil cells of these Lamiaceae plants, with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). This method has the advantage to enhance Raman signals and furthermore the SERS effect leads to fluorescence quenching.

  2. Observations of a diapycnal shortcut to adiabatic upwelling of Antarctic Circumpolar Deep Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvester, J. Mead; Lenn, Yueng-Djern; Polton, Jeff A.; Rippeth, Tom P.; Maqueda, M. Morales

    2014-11-01

    In the Southern Ocean, small-scale turbulence causes diapycnal mixing which influences important water mass transformations, in turn impacting large-scale ocean transports such as the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC), a key controller of Earth's climate. We present direct observations of mixing over the Antarctic continental slope between water masses that are part of the Southern Ocean MOC. A 12 h time series of microstructure turbulence measurements, hydrography, and velocity observations off Elephant Island, north of the Antarctic Peninsula, reveals two concurrent bursts of elevated dissipation of O(10-6) W kg-1, resulting in heat fluxes ˜10 times higher than basin-integrated Drake Passage estimates. This occurs across the boundary between adjacent adiabatic upwelling and downwelling overturning cells. Ray tracing to nearby topography shows mixing between 300 and 400 m is consistent with the breaking of locally generated internal tidal waves. Since similar conditions extend to much of the Antarctic continental slope where these water masses outcrop, diapycnal mixing may contribute significantly to upwelling.

  3. Non-adiabatic and adiabatic transitions at level crossing with decay: two- and three-level systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenmoe, M. B.; Mkam Tchouobiap, S. E.; Kenfack Sadem, C.; Tchapda, A. B.; Fai, L. C.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the Landau-Zener (LZ) like dynamics of decaying two- and three-level systems with decay rates {{Γ }1} and {{Γ }2} for levels with minimum and maximum spin projection. Non-adiabatic and adiabatic transition probabilities are calculated from diabatic and adiabatic bases for two- and three-level systems. We extend the familiar two-level model of atoms with decay from the excited state out of the system into the hierarchy of three-level models which can be solved analytically or computationally in a non-perturbative manner. Exact analytical solutions are obtained within the framework of an extended form of the proposed procedure which enables to take into account all possible initial moments rather than large negative time {{t}0}=-∞ as in standard LZ problems. We elucidate the applications of our results from a unified theoretical basis that numerically analyzes the dynamics of a system as probed by experiments.

  4. Raman spectroscopy of composites

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.J.; Andrews, M.C.; Yang, X.; Huang, Y.L.; Gu, X.; Day, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    It is demonstrated that Raman Spectroscopy can be used to follow the micromechanics of the deformation of high-performance fibers within composites. The technique can be applied to a wide range of fiber systems including aramids, carbon and ceramic (using fluorescence spectroscopy) fibers. Well-defined Raman spectra are obtained and the position of the Raman bands shift on the application of stress or strain. It is possible to determine the point-to-point variation of strain along an individual fiber inside a transparent matrix under any general state of stress or strain. Examples are given of the use of the technique to study a variety of phenomena in a wide range of composite systems. The phenomena investigated include thermal stresses, fiber/matrix adhesion, matrix yielding for both fragmentation and pull-out tests. The systems studied include aramid/epoxy, carbon/epoxy and ceramic-fiber/glass composites.

  5. Raman spectroscopy in astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Jorge Villar, Susana E; Edwards, Howell G M

    2006-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is proposed as a valuable analytical technique for planetary exploration because it is sensitive to organic and inorganic compounds and able to unambiguously identify key spectral markers in a mixture of biological and geological components; furthermore, sample manipulation is not required and any size of sample can be studied without chemical or mechanical pretreatment. NASA and ESA are considering the adoption of miniaturised Raman spectrometers for inclusion in suites of analytical instrumentation to be placed on robotic landers on Mars in the near future to search for extinct or extant life signals. In this paper we review the advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of complex specimens with relevance to the detection of bio- and geomarkers in extremophilic organisms which are considered to be terrestrial analogues of possible extraterrestial life that could have developed on planetary surfaces. PMID:16456933

  6. FT-Raman Spectroscopy: A Catalyst for the Raman Explosion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The limitations of Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy, which is used to detect and analyze the scattered radiation, are discussed. FT-Raman has served to revitalize a field that was lagging and the presence of Raman instrumentation as a routine analytical tool is established for the foreseeable future.

  7. Trace element mass balance in hydrous adiabatic mantle melting: The Hydrous Adiabatic Mantle Melting Simulator version 1 (HAMMS1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Kawabata, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    numerical mass balance calculation model for the adiabatic melting of a dry to hydrous peridotite has been programmed in order to simulate the trace element compositions of basalts from mid-ocean ridges, back-arc basins, ocean islands, and large igneous provinces. The Excel spreadsheet-based calculator, Hydrous Adiabatic Mantle Melting Simulator version 1 (HAMMS1) uses (1) a thermodynamic model of fractional adiabatic melting of mantle peridotite, with (2) the parameterized experimental melting relationships of primitive to depleted mantle sources in terms of pressure, temperature, water content, and degree of partial melting. The trace element composition of the model basalt is calculated from the accumulated incremental melts within the adiabatic melting regime, with consideration for source depletion. The mineralogic mode in the primitive to depleted source mantle in adiabat is calculated using parameterized experimental results. Partition coefficients of the trace elements of mantle minerals are parameterized to melt temperature mostly from a lattice strain model and are tested using the latest compilations of experimental results. The parameters that control the composition of trace elements in the model are as follows: (1) mantle potential temperature, (2) water content in the source mantle, (3) depth of termination of adiabatic melting, and (4) source mantle depletion. HAMMS1 enables us to obtain the above controlling parameters using Monte Carlo fitting calculations and by comparing the calculated basalt compositions to primary basalt compositions. Additionally, HAMMS1 compares melting parameters with a major element model, which uses petrogenetic grids formulated from experimental results, thus providing better constraints on the source conditions.

  8. Fiber enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frosch, T.; Yan, D.; Hanf, S.; Popp, J.

    2014-05-01

    Fiber enhanced Raman sensing is presented for versatile and extremely sensitive analysis of pharmaceutical drugs and biogenic gases. Elaborated micro-structured optical fibers guide the light with very low losses within their hollow core and provide at the same time a miniaturized sample container for the analytes. Thus, fiber enhanced Raman spectroscopy (FERS) allows for chemically selective detection of minimal sample amounts with high sensitivity. Two examples are presented in this contribution: (i) the detection of picomolar concentrations of pharmaceutical drugs; and (ii) the analysis of biogenic gases within a complex mixture of gases with analytical sensitivities in the ppm range.

  9. Carbon Raman Spectroscopy of 36 Inter-Planetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busemann, H.; Nittler, L. R.; Davidson, J.; Franchi, I. A.; Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Palma, R. L.; Pepin, R. O.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon Raman spectroscopy is a useful tool to determine the degree of order of organic material (OM) in extra-terrestrial matter. As shown for meteoritic OM [e.g., 2], peak parameters of D and G bands are a measure of thermal alteration, causing graphitization (order), and amorphization, e.g. during protoplanetary irradiation, causing disorder. Th e most pristine interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) may come from comets. However, their exact provenance is unknown. IDP collection during Earth?s passage through comet Grigg-Skjellerup?s dust stream ("GSC" collectors) may increase the probability of collecting fresh IDPs from a known, cometary source. We used Raman spectroscopy to compare 21 GSC-IDPs with 15 IDPs collected at different periods, and found that the variation among GSC-IDPs is larger than among non-GSC IDPs, with the most primitive IDPs being mostly GSC-IDPs.

  10. Adiabatic quantum computing with phase modulated laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Debabrata

    2005-01-01

    Implementation of quantum logical gates for multilevel systems is demonstrated through decoherence control under the quantum adiabatic method using simple phase modulated laser pulses. We make use of selective population inversion and Hamiltonian evolution with time to achieve such goals robustly instead of the standard unitary transformation language. PMID:17195865

  11. Does temperature increase or decrease in adiabatic decompression of magma?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilinc, A. I.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Khan, T.

    2011-12-01

    We have modeled adiabatic decompression of an andesitic and a basaltic magma as an isentropic process using the Melts algorithm. Our modeling shows that during adiabatic decompression temperature of andesitic magma increases but temperature of basaltic magma decreases. In an isentropic process entropy is constant so change of temperature with pressure can be written as dT/dP=T (dV/dT)/Cp where T (dV/dT)/Cp is generally positive. If delta P is negative so is delta T. In general, in the absence of phase change, we expect the temperature to decrease with adiabatic decompression. The effect of crystallization is to turn a more entropic phase (liquid) into a less entropic phase (solid), which must be compensated by raising the temperature. If during adiabatic decompression there is small amount or no crystallization, T (dV/dT)/Cp effect which lowers the temperature overwhelms the small amount of crystallization, which raises the temperature, and overall system temperature decreases.

  12. A Kinetic Study of the Adiabatic Polymerization of Acrylamide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, R. A. M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses theory, procedures, and results for an experiment which demonstrates the application of basic physics to chemical problems. The experiment involves the adiabatic process, in which polymerization carried out in a vacuum flask is compared to the theoretical prediction of the model with the temperature-time curve obtained in practice. (JN)

  13. The flat Grothendieck-Riemann-Roch theorem without adiabatic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Man-Ho

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we give a simplified proof of the flat Grothendieck-Riemann-Roch theorem. The proof makes use of the local family index theorem and basic computations of the Chern-Simons form. In particular, it does not involve any adiabatic limit computation of the reduced eta-invariant.

  14. Fast Quasi-Adiabatic Gas Cooling: An Experiment Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oss, S.; Gratton, L. M.; Calza, G.; Lopez-Arias, T.

    2012-01-01

    The well-known experiment of the rapid expansion and cooling of the air contained in a bottle is performed with a rapidly responsive, yet very cheap thermometer. The adiabatic, low temperature limit is approached quite closely and measured with our apparatus. A straightforward theoretical model for this process is also presented and discussed.…

  15. Failure of geometric electromagnetism in the adiabatic vector Kepler problem

    SciTech Connect

    Anglin, J.R.; Schmiedmayer, J.

    2004-02-01

    The magnetic moment of a particle orbiting a straight current-carrying wire may precess rapidly enough in the wire's magnetic field to justify an adiabatic approximation, eliminating the rapid time dependence of the magnetic moment and leaving only the particle position as a slow degree of freedom. To zeroth order in the adiabatic expansion, the orbits of the particle in the plane perpendicular to the wire are Keplerian ellipses. Higher-order postadiabatic corrections make the orbits precess, but recent analysis of this 'vector Kepler problem' has shown that the effective Hamiltonian incorporating a postadiabatic scalar potential ('geometric electromagnetism') fails to predict the precession correctly, while a heuristic alternative succeeds. In this paper we resolve the apparent failure of the postadiabatic approximation, by pointing out that the correct second-order analysis produces a third Hamiltonian, in which geometric electromagnetism is supplemented by a tensor potential. The heuristic Hamiltonian of Schmiedmayer and Scrinzi is then shown to be a canonical transformation of the correct adiabatic Hamiltonian, to second order. The transformation has the important advantage of removing a 1/r{sup 3} singularity which is an artifact of the adiabatic approximation.

  16. When an Adiabatic Irreversible Expansion or Compression Becomes Reversible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Ferreira, J. M.; Soares, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the concepts of a "reversible process" and "entropy". For this purpose, an adiabatic irreversible expansion or compression is analysed, by considering that an ideal gas is expanded (compressed), from an initial pressure P[subscript i] to a final pressure P[subscript f], by being placed in…

  17. Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit.

    PubMed

    Barends, R; Shabani, A; Lamata, L; Kelly, J; Mezzacapo, A; Las Heras, U; Babbush, R; Fowler, A G; Campbell, B; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z; Chiaro, B; Dunsworth, A; Jeffrey, E; Lucero, E; Megrant, A; Mutus, J Y; Neeley, M; Neill, C; O'Malley, P J J; Quintana, C; Roushan, P; Sank, D; Vainsencher, A; Wenner, J; White, T C; Solano, E; Neven, H; Martinis, John M

    2016-06-01

    Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable. PMID:27279216

  18. Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barends, R.; Shabani, A.; Lamata, L.; Kelly, J.; Mezzacapo, A.; Heras, U. Las; Babbush, R.; Fowler, A. G.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Lucero, E.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J. Y.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; O’Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Solano, E.; Neven, H.; Martinis, John M.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable.

  19. Nonadiabatic quantum Liouville and master equations in the adiabatic basis

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Seogjoo

    2012-12-14

    A compact form of nonadiabatic molecular Hamiltonian in the basis of adiabatic electronic states and nuclear position states is presented. The Hamiltonian, which includes both the first and the second derivative couplings, is Hermitian and thus leads to a standard expression for the quantum Liouville equation for the density operator. With the application of a projection operator technique, a quantum master equation for the diagonal components of the density operator is derived. Under the assumption that nuclear states are much more short ranged compared to electronic states and assuming no singularity, a semi-adiabatic approximation is invoked, which results in expressions for the nonadiabatic molecular Hamiltonian and the quantum Liouville equation that are much more amenable to advanced quantum dynamics calculation. The semi-adiabatic approximation is also applied to a resonance energy transfer system consisting of a donor and an acceptor interacting via Coulomb terms, and explicit detailed expressions for exciton-bath Hamiltonian including all the non-adiabatic terms are derived.

  20. The density temperature and the dry and wet virtual adiabats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlo, J.; Betts, Alan K.

    1991-01-01

    A density temperature is introduced to represent virtual temperature and potential temperature on thermodynamic diagrams. This study reviews how the dry and wet virtual adiabats can be used to represent stability and air parcel density for unsaturated and cloudy air, and present formula and tabulations.

  1. Adiabatic single scan two-dimensional NMR spectrocopy.

    PubMed

    Pelupessy, Philippe

    2003-10-01

    New excitation schemes, based on the use adiabatic pulses, for single scan two-dimensional NMR experiments (Frydman et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 2002, 99, 15 858-15 862) are introduced. The advantages are discussed. Applications in homo- and heteronuclear experiments are presented. PMID:14519020

  2. SIMULATION OF CONTINUOUS-CONTACT SEPARATION PROCESSES: MULTICOMPONENT, ADIABATIC ABSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new algorithm has been developed for the steady-state simulation of multicomponent, adiabatic absorption in packed columns. The system of differential model equations that describe the physical absorption process is reduced to algebraic equations by using a finite difference me...

  3. Equations for Adiabatic but Rotational Steady Gas Flows without Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Manfred

    1947-01-01

    This paper makes the following assumptions: 1) The flowing gases are assumed to have uniform energy distribution. ("Isoenergetic gas flows," that is valid with the same constants for the the energy equation entire flow.) This is correct, for example, for gas flows issuing from a region of constant pressure, density, temperature, end velocity. This property is not destroyed by compression shocks because of the universal validity of the energy law. 2) The gas behaves adiabatically, not during the compression shock itself but both before and after the shock. However, the adiabatic equation (p/rho(sup kappa) = C) is not valid for the entire gas flow with the same constant C but rather with an appropriate individual constant for each portion of the gas. For steady flows, this means that the constant C of the adiabatic equation is a function of the stream function. Consequently, a gas that has been flowing "isentropically",that is, with the same constant C of the adiabatic equation throughout (for example, in origination from a region of constant density, temperature, and velocity) no longer remains isentropic after a compression shock if the compression shock is not extremely simple (wedge shaped in a two-dimensional flow or cone shaped in a rotationally symmetrical flow). The solution of nonisentropic flows is therefore an urgent necessity.

  4. Surface Layer Turbulence During a Frontal Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, M; Lundquist, J K

    2004-06-15

    calculations using these techniques are employed using data from both the sonic and hotwire anemometers, when possible. Unfortunately, direct calculations of {var_epsilon} were not possible during a part of the frontal passage because the high wind speeds concurrent with the frontal passage demand very high frequency resolution, beyond that possible with the hotwire anemometer, for direct {var_epsilon} calculations. The calculations resulting from these three techniques are presented for the cold front as a time series. Quantitative comparisons of the direct and indirect calculation techniques are also given. More detail, as well as a discussion of energy spectra, can be found in Piper & Lundquist(2004).

  5. Non-adiabatic response of relativistic radiation belt electrons to GEM magnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdams, K. L.; Reeves, G. D.

    The importance of fully adiabatic effects in the relativistic radiation belt electron response to magnetic storms is poorly characterized due to many difficulties in calculating adiabatic flux response. Using the adiabatic flux model of Kim and Chan [1997a] and Los Alamos National Laboratory geosynchronous satellite data, we examine the relative timing of the adiabatic and non-adiabatic flux responses. In the three storms identified by the GEM community for in depth study, the non-adiabatic energization occurs hours earlier than the adiabatic re-energization. The adiabatic energization can account for only 10-20% of the flux increases in the first recovery stages, and only 1% of the flux increase if there is continuing activity.

  6. The Athena Raman Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Alian; Haskin, Larry A.; Jolliff, Bradley; Wdowiak, Tom; Agresti, David; Lane, Arthur L.

    2000-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful tool for in situ mineralogy, petrology, and detection of water and carbon. The Athena Raman spectrometer is a microbeam instrument intended for close-up analyses of targets (rock or soils) selected by the Athena Pancam and Mini-TES. It will take 100 Raman spectra along a linear traverse of approximately one centimeter (point-counting procedure) in one to four hours during the Mars' night. From these spectra, the following information about the target will extracted: (1) the identities of major, minor, and trace mineral phases, organic species (e.g., PAH or kerogen-like polymers), reduced inorganic carbon, and water-bearing phases; (2) chemical features (e.g. Mg/Fe ratio) of major minerals; and (3) rock textural features (e.g., mineral clusters, amygdular filling and veins). Part of the Athena payload, the miniaturized Raman spectrometer has been under development in a highly interactive collaboration of a science team at Washington University and the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and an engineering team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The development has completed the brassboard stage and has produced the design for the engineering model.

  7. Raman Crystallography and Other Biochemical Applications of Raman Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Paul R.

    2006-05-01

    Recent studies using a Raman microscope have shown that single protein crystals provide an ideal platform to undertake Raman difference spectroscopic analyses under nonresonance conditions. This approach, termed Raman crystallography, provides a means of characterizing chemical events within the crystal such as ligand binding and enzyme reactions. In many cases Raman crystallography goes hand in hand with X-ray crystallographic studies because the Raman results can inform the X-ray crystallographer about the status of chemical events in the crystal prior to flash freezing and X-ray analysis. In turn, the combined data from the Raman and X-ray analyses are highly synergistic and offer novel perspectives on structure and dynamics in enzyme active sites. In a related area, protein misfolding, Raman microscopy can provide detailed insights into the chemistry of the amyloid plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease and into the intermediates on the α-synuclein protein misfolding pathway implicated in Parkinson's disease.

  8. Optimal Number of Gaps in C-Test Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghaei, Purya

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of the optimal number of gaps in C-Test passages. An English C-Test battery containing four passages each having 40 blanks was given to 104 undergraduate students of English. The data were entered into SPSS spreadsheet. Out of the complete data with 160 blanks seven additional datasets were constructed. In the first…

  9. 49 CFR 192.150 - Passage of internal inspection devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passage of internal inspection devices. 192.150... Components § 192.150 Passage of internal inspection devices. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c... of instrumented internal inspection devices. (b) This section does not apply to: (1) Manifolds;...

  10. 49 CFR 192.150 - Passage of internal inspection devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passage of internal inspection devices. 192.150... Components § 192.150 Passage of internal inspection devices. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c... of instrumented internal inspection devices. (b) This section does not apply to: (1) Manifolds;...

  11. Middle Passage in the Triangular Slave Trade: The West Indies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawh, Ruth; Scales, Alice M.

    2006-01-01

    Our narrative focuses on the middle passage of the slave trade in the West Indies. Herein we describe why more men, women, and children were imported in the West Indies than other islands. Specifically, our aim was to address how slaves in the middle passage of the triangular slave trade were treated, how they sustained themselves, and how they…

  12. INTERIOR VIEW, PASSAGE AND DOOR LETTING ONTO THE SOUTHEAST BED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, PASSAGE AND DOOR LETTING ONTO THE SOUTHEAST BED CHAMBER. THE ANGLED PASSAGE RUNS PARALLEL TO WHAT WAS AN EXTERIOR WALL OF THE THREE-SIDED WINDOW BOW PRESENT IN THE HOUSE’S ORIGINAL CA. 1770 STATE - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. INTERIOR VIEW, SECONDSTORY PASSAGE FROM THE EAST CHAMBER OVER THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, SECOND-STORY PASSAGE FROM THE EAST CHAMBER OVER THE SALOON. THE STAIRS UP FROM THE MAIN PASSAGE ACCOMMODATE THE ADDED HEIGHT OF THE SALOON’S CEILING. THE ARCHED DOOR OPENING AT CENTER ACCESSES THE SERVICE STAIR - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Bilingual Listeners' Perception of Temporally Manipulated English Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lu-Feng; Farooq, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The current study measured, objectively and subjectively, how changes in speech rate affect recognition of English passages in bilingual listeners. Method: Ten native monolingual, 20 English-dominant bilingual, and 20 non-English-dominant bilingual listeners repeated target words in English passages at five speech rates (unprocessed, two…

  15. Tick passage results in enhanced attenuation of babesia bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serial blood passage of virulent Babesia bovis in splenectomized cattle results in attenuated derivatives that do not cause neurologic disease. Tick transmissibility can be lost with attenuation, and has been reported to result in a reversion to virulence following tick passage. This study provides ...

  16. Gender Differences in Implicit and Explicit Memory for Affective Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Vardy, Susan Bernstein.; Frohlich, Jonathan; Wyatt, Gwinne; Dimitri, Diana; Constante, Shimon; Guterman, Elan

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-two participants were administered 4 verbal tasks, an Implicit Affective Task, an Implicit Neutral Task, an Explicit Affective Task, and an Explicit Neutral Task. For the Implicit Tasks, participants were timed while reading passages aloud as quickly as possible, but not so quickly that they did not understand. A target verbal passage was…

  17. The Use of Ritual in Rites of Passage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Humans move through difficult transitions best when guided by ceremony and ritual. The components of traditional rites of passage mirror exactly many of today's most promising psychological theories. Four components of rites of passage that comprise life transitions are discussed: letting go of an old identity, the wandering, the new identity, and…

  18. Rites of Passage in Emerging Adulthood: Perspectives of Young Mormons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.

    2003-01-01

    Explored the role of rites of passage in emerging adulthood among Mormon college students. Found that the majority supported individualistic criteria for adulthood, but most also believed that rites of passage specific to their religion were necessary to become an adult. Determined that emerging adulthood is a distinct period of the life course…

  19. Alcohol Use and Abuse as a Rite of Passage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Edward R.

    1998-01-01

    Rites of passage are a normal part of a young person's growth from adolescence to adulthood and many are marked with the use and abuse of alcohol. Describes three phases of the rites of passage (separation, liminal, and reincorporation) that youth undergo. Suggests that educators and advisors help them create meaningful rituals without resorting…

  20. Temperature measurements in reacting flows by time-resolved femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sukesh; Kinnius, Paul J.; Lucht, Robert P.; Gord, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Time-resolved femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) spectroscopy of the nitrogen molecule is used for the measurement of temperature in atmospheric-pressure, near-adiabatic, hydrogen-air diffusion flames. The initial frequency-spread dephasing rate of the Raman coherence induced by the ultrafast (∼85 fs) Stokes and pump beams is used as a measure of gas-phase temperature. This initial frequency-spread dephasing rate of the Raman coherence is completely independent of collisions and depends only on the frequency spread of the Raman transitions at different temperatures. A simple theoretical model based on the assumption of impulsive excitation of Raman coherence is used to extract temperatures from time-resolved fs-CARS experimental signals. The extracted temperatures from fs-CARS signals are in excellent agreement with the theoretical temperatures calculated from an adiabatic equilibrium calculation. The estimated absolute accuracy and the precision of the measurement technique are found to be ±40 K and ±50 K, respectively, over the temperature range 1500-2500 K.

  1. Transplacental passage of antimicrobial paraben preservatives.

    PubMed

    Towers, Craig V; Terry, Paul D; Lewis, David; Howard, Bobby; Chambers, Wesley; Armistead, Casey; Weitz, Beth; Porter, Stephanie; Borman, Christopher J; Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Parabens are widely used preservatives suspected of being endocrine disruptors, with implications for human growth and development. The most common paraben found in consumer products is methylparaben. To date, no study has examined whether these substances cross the human placenta. A total of 100 study subjects (50 mother-child pairs) were enrolled at two medical institutions, serving primarily African-American and Caucasian women, respectively. A maternal blood sample was drawn on admission and a paired cord blood sample was obtained at delivery. Of the 50 mothers, 47 (94%) showed methylparaben in their blood (mean level 20.41 ng/l), and 47 in cords bloods (mean level 36.54 ng/l). There were 45 mother-child pairs where methylparaben was found in both samples. Of these, the fetal level was higher than the maternal level in 23 (51%). For butylparaben, only 4 mothers (8%) showed detectable levels (mean 40.54 ng/l), whereas 8 cord blood samples (16%) were positive (mean 32.5 ng/l). African-American mothers and infants showed higher prevalence of detectable levels (P=0.017). Methylparaben and butylparaben demonstrate transplacental passage. Additional studies are needed to examine potential differences in exposure by geography and demographics, what products are used by pregnant women that contain these preservatives, as well as any potential long-term effects in the growth and development of exposed children. PMID:25944699

  2. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, B.; Deutsch, M.; Iwatsuki, S.

    1985-04-01

    The records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) were analyzed to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From the data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. The authors have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed.

  3. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages.

    PubMed

    Mittal, B; Deutsch, M; Iwatsuki, S

    1985-04-01

    We analyzed the records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From our data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. We have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed. PMID:3980281

  4. Timing jitter of Raman solitons.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gengji; Xin, Ming; Kaertner, Franz X; Chang, Guoqing

    2015-11-01

    We study the relative intensity noise (RIN) and timing jitter of a Raman soliton. We demonstrate that the RIN of an excitation pulse causes center-wavelength fluctuations of the resulting Raman soliton which translates by fiber dispersion into relative timing jitter (RTJ) between the Raman soliton and the excitation pulse. The Raman soliton's absolute timing jitter is dominated by the excitation pulse's timing jitter at low frequency and by the RTJ at high frequency. The experimental study reveals that RTJ can be significantly reduced by reducing the accumulated fiber dispersion (e.g., using less dispersive fibers with shorter length) experienced by the Raman soliton. PMID:26512530

  5. Setting Passing Scores on Passage-Based Tests: A Comparison of Traditional and Single-Passage Bookmark Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaggs, Gary; Hein, Serge F.; Awuor, Risper

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a variation of the bookmark standard setting procedure for passage-based tests is proposed in which separate ordered item booklets are created for the items associated with each passage. This variation is compared to the traditional bookmark procedure for a fifth-grade reading test. The results showed that the single-passage…

  6. Planets in Transit V Passages of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, T. P.

    2003-05-01

    Eclipses of the Sun have long influenced culture, history, and science. The analogous but much more subtle phenomena of a transit of the Sun by Mercury was first predicted by Johannes Kepler. Soon, predictions of transits of Venus inspired bold expeditions to better understand the scale of our solar system. These passages of discovery sometimes succeeded scientifically but always captured the public imagination and played an unexpected role in history. The possibility of detecting planets outside the solar system by the transit method was first outlined by Otto Struve in 1952. Early inquiries usually assumed that extrasolar planetary systems would have a distribution of planetary radii and orbital sizes like the solar system. The detection of transits from the ground in such systems would be daunting. The recent, unexpected discovery of a class of extrasolar planets (by the radial velocity technique) with orbital periods less than a week and masses near to the planet Jupiter has resulted in a resurgence of interest in the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, and deep enough that ground-based transit searches can be successful. In November 1999, a planet orbiting the star HD 209458 was found to transit, and many measurements of the transit have since been made that challenge formation and evolution theories. Numerous ground based searches for transits are now underway. Several planned high precision space-based missions designed to detect transits of earth-sized planets, also have the potential to detect transits of hundreds of "hot Jupiters". These efforts and the upcoming transit of the Sun by Venus on June 8, 2004 present an opportunity for transits to once again capture the public imagination and perhaps play a role in history.

  7. The passage of fast electrons through matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorini, Adam P.

    This work regards the passage of fast electrons through matter, and in particular how electrons scatter and lose energy within a solid. The basic quantum theory of these scattering processes was first considered in the early- to mid-20th century by Bohr, Bethe, Fermi, and others. This work extends our understanding of how a relativistic electron scatters off, and loses energy to, a complex many-body system. The main idea of this work is that it is now possible to calculate, from first-principles, the inelastic losses of relativistic electrons in condensed matter. We present ab initio calculations based on a real-space Green's function approach, implemented in the FEFF8 computer program[1]. Our work focuses on three topics: Relativistic stopping power and associated loss parameters, electron energy loss spectroscopy in high energy transmission electron microscopes, and the inelastic electron scattering mixed dynamic form factor. We calculate, for the first time, ab initio stopping powers and inelastic mean free paths in real materials. The stopping powers are calculated over a broad energy range, from ten eV to above ten MeV. We also present the first ab initio calculations of the "mean excitation energy". We develop a relativistic theory of inelastic electron scattering, based on ab initio calculations of dielectric response, and the generalized Lorenz gauge. Using our relativistic dielectric theory, we calculate the EELS magic angle ratio for boron nitride and for graphite. In these anisotropic materials we find large relativistic corrections to the magic angle for high energy electron microscopes. We also predict and calculate large deviations in the EELS magic angle from the relativistic vacuum predictions in the low energy-loss regime. Finally, we present calculations of mixed dynamic form factor.

  8. Fish Passage Center 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Michele

    2008-11-25

    and McNary dams), whereas prior to 2005 spill was terminated at these projects after the spring period. In addition, the 2007 operations agreement provided regardless of flow conditions. For the first time spill for fish passage was provided in the low flow conditions that prevailed in the Snake River throughout the spring and summer migration periods. Gas bubble trauma (GBT) monitoring continued throughout the spill period. A higher incidence of rank 1, GBT signs were observed in late arriving steelhead smolts arriving after the 95% passage date had occurred. During this time dissolved gas levels were generally below the 110% water quality standard in the forebay where fish were sampled. This occurrence was due to prolonged exposure and extended travel times due to low migration flows. The 2007 migration conditions differed from any year in the historic record. The migration conditions combined low river flows in the Snake River with spill throughout the spring and summer season. The juvenile migration characteristics observed in 2007 were unique compared to past years in that high levels of 24 hour spill for fish passage were provided in low flow conditions, and with a delayed start to the smolt transportation program a smaller proportion of the total run being transported. This resulted in relatively high spring juvenile survival despite the lower flows. The seasonal spring average flow in the Snake River was 61 Kcfs much lower than the spring time average of 120 Kcfs that occurred in 2006. However juvenile steelhead survival through the Lower Granite to McNary reach in 2007 was nearly 70% which was similar to the juvenile steelhead survival seen in 2006 under higher migration flows. The low flows in the May-July period of 2007 were similar to the 2001 low flow year, yet survival for fall chinook juveniles in this period in 2007 was much higher. In 2001 the reach survival estimate for juvenile fall Chinook from Lower Granite to McNary Dam ranged from 0

  9. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage Through Bonneville Dam in 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R. ); Schilt, Carl R.; Kim, J; Escher, Charles; Skalski, John R.

    2003-08-15

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2002. The ERDC contracted with MEVATEC Corporation to provide staff ranging from scientists to technicians to help conduct the study. This study supports the Portland-District goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. In this report, we present results of two studies of juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam that we carried out in the 2002 downstream passage season April 20 through July 15, 2002. The first study of Project-wide FPE provides hourly estimates of fish passage and associated variances for all operating turbine units, spill bays, and the two sluiceway entrances at Powerhouse 1 (B1), as well as estimates of a variety of fish-passage efficiency and effectiveness measures. This was the third consecutive year of full-project hydroacoustic sampling and passage estimation. The second study was more narrowly focused on B2 turbines and had two components: (1) to sample the FGE at two modified turbine intakes and compare them with efficiencies of other B2 units that were sampled in the first study, and (2) to evaluate proportions of fish passing up into gatewell slots versus through screen gaps at a few B2 turbine intakes.

  10. Forecasting survival and passage of migratory juvenile salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, William P.; Steinhorst, R. Kirk; Burge, Howard L.

    2000-01-01

    We developed methods to forecast survival and cumulative percent passage for subyearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at a dam to help managers effectively time the release of reservoir water to mitigate for passage delays and reduced survival. We tagged Snake River subyearling chinook salmon upstream of a dam from 1993 to 1998 and determined when a subsample of the tagged fish passed the dam. We randomly selected data (1993, 1994, 1996, and 1998) to develop a quadratic discriminant function for predicting which fish would survive to the dam and to develop a multiple-regression equation to predict the date survivors would pass the dam. We used the predicted passage dates within a year to calculate a daily cumulative percent passage forecast and then calculated a 90% forecast interval that varied by year, depending on the number of predicted survivors. We validated the forecast method using data for 1995 and 1997. The 1995 forecasted passage curve differed from the observed passage curve for 25 d of the 168-d emigration season. The 1997 forecasted and observed passage curves were similar for the entire 168-d emigration season. The 90% forecast interval was ±18.8% in 1995 and ±22.4% in 1997. We conclude that our method is a valid tool for in-season water management but acknowledge the potential for interannual variability in forecast performance.

  11. Tick Passage Results in Enhanced Attenuation of Babesia bovis

    PubMed Central

    McElwain, Terry F.; Ueti, Massaro W.; Scoles, Glen A.; Reif, Kathryn E.; Lau, Audrey O. T.

    2014-01-01

    Serial blood passage of virulent Babesia bovis in splenectomized cattle results in attenuated derivatives that do not cause neurologic disease. Tick transmissibility can be lost with attenuation, but when retained, attenuated B. bovis can revert to virulence following tick passage. This study provides data showing that tick passage of the partially attenuated B. bovis T2Bo derivative strain further decreased virulence compared with intravenous inoculation of the same strain in infected animals. Ticks that acquired virulent or attenuated parasites by feeding on infected cattle were transmission fed on naive, splenectomized animals. While there was no significant difference between groups in the number of parasites in the midgut, hemolymph, or eggs of replete female ticks after acquisition feeding, animals infected with the attenuated parasites after tick transmission showed no clinical signs of babesiosis, unlike those receiving intravenous challenge with the same attenuated strain prior to tick passage. Additionally, there were significantly fewer parasites in blood and tissues of animals infected with tick-passaged attenuated parasites. Sequencing analysis of select B. bovis genes before and after tick passage showed significant differences in parasite genotypes in both peripheral blood and cerebral samples. These results provide evidence that not only is tick transmissibility retained by the attenuated T2Bo strain, but also it results in enhanced attenuation and is accompanied by expansion of parasite subpopulations during tick passage that may be associated with the change in disease phenotype. PMID:25114111

  12. Necessary and sufficient condition for quantum adiabatic evolution by unitary control fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen-Yu; Plenio, Martin B.

    2016-05-01

    We decompose the quantum adiabatic evolution as the products of gauge invariant unitary operators and obtain the exact nonadiabatic correction in the adiabatic approximation. A necessary and sufficient condition that leads to adiabatic evolution with geometric phases is provided, and we determine that in the adiabatic evolution, while the eigenstates are slowly varying, the eigenenergies and degeneracy of the Hamiltonian can change rapidly. We exemplify this result by the example of the adiabatic evolution driven by parametrized pulse sequences. For driving fields that are rotating slowly with the same average energy and evolution path, fast modulation fields can have smaller nonadiabatic errors than obtained under the traditional approach with a constant amplitude.

  13. Stimulated Raman photoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Zhang, Hao F.; Noojin, Gary D.; Denton, Michael L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2010-01-01

    Achieving label-free, molecular-specific imaging with high spatial resolution in deep tissue is often considered the grand challenge of optical imaging. To accomplish this goal, significant optical scattering in tissues has to be overcome while achieving molecular specificity without resorting to extrinsic labeling. We demonstrate the feasibility of developing such an optical imaging modality by combining the molecularly specific stimulated Raman excitation with the photoacoustic detection. By employing two ultrashort excitation laser pulses, separated in frequency by the vibrational frequency of a targeted molecule, only the specific vibrational level of the target molecules in the illuminated tissue volume is excited. This targeted optical absorption generates ultrasonic waves (referred to as stimulated Raman photoacoustic waves) which are detected using a traditional ultrasonic transducer to form an image following the design of the established photoacoustic microscopy. PMID:21059930

  14. The mean shape of transition and first-passage paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Won Kyu; Netz, Roland R.

    2015-12-01

    Based on the one-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation in an arbitrary free energy landscape including a general inhomogeneous diffusivity profile, we analytically calculate the mean shape of transition paths and first-passage paths, where the shape of a path is defined as the kinetic profile in the plane spanned by the mean time and the position. The transition path ensemble is the collection of all paths that do not revisit the start position xA and that terminate when first reaching the final position xB. In contrast, a first-passage path can revisit its start position xA before it terminates at xB. Our theoretical framework employs the forward and backward Fokker-Planck equations as well as first-passage, passage, last-passage, and transition-path time distributions, for which we derive the defining integral equations. We show that the mean shape of transition paths, in other words the mean time at which the transition path ensemble visits an intermediate position x, is equivalent to the mean first-passage time of reaching the position xA when starting from x without ever visiting xB. The mean shape of first-passage paths is related to the mean shape of transition paths by a constant time shift. Since for a large barrier height U, the mean first-passage time scales exponentially in U, while the mean transition path time scales linearly inversely in U, the time shift between first-passage and transition path shapes is substantial. We present explicit examples of transition path shapes for linear and harmonic potentials and illustrate our findings by trajectories obtained from Brownian dynamics simulations.

  15. The mean shape of transition and first-passage paths.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Kyu; Netz, Roland R

    2015-12-14

    Based on the one-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation in an arbitrary free energy landscape including a general inhomogeneous diffusivity profile, we analytically calculate the mean shape of transition paths and first-passage paths, where the shape of a path is defined as the kinetic profile in the plane spanned by the mean time and the position. The transition path ensemble is the collection of all paths that do not revisit the start position x(A) and that terminate when first reaching the final position x(B). In contrast, a first-passage path can revisit its start position x(A) before it terminates at x(B). Our theoretical framework employs the forward and backward Fokker-Planck equations as well as first-passage, passage, last-passage, and transition-path time distributions, for which we derive the defining integral equations. We show that the mean shape of transition paths, in other words the mean time at which the transition path ensemble visits an intermediate position x, is equivalent to the mean first-passage time of reaching the position x(A) when starting from x without ever visiting x(B). The mean shape of first-passage paths is related to the mean shape of transition paths by a constant time shift. Since for a large barrier height U, the mean first-passage time scales exponentially in U, while the mean transition path time scales linearly inversely in U, the time shift between first-passage and transition path shapes is substantial. We present explicit examples of transition path shapes for linear and harmonic potentials and illustrate our findings by trajectories obtained from Brownian dynamics simulations. PMID:26671359

  16. C. V. Raman and the Discovery of the Raman Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajinder

    In 1928 the Indian physicist C. V. Raman (1888-1970) discovered the effect named after him virtually simultaneously with the Russian physicists G. S. Landsberg (1890-1957) and L. I. Mandelstam (1879-1944). I first provide a biographical sketch of Raman through his years in Calcutta (1907-1932) and Bangalore (after 1932). I then discuss his scientific work in acoustics, astronomy, and optics up to 1928, including his views on Albert Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis and on Arthur Holly Compton's discovery of the Compton effect, with particular reference to Compton's debate on it with William Duane in Toronto in 1924, which Raman witnessed. I then examine Raman's discovery of the Raman effect and its reception among physicists. Finally, I suggest reasons why Landsberg and Mandelstam did not share the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1930 with Raman.

  17. Adiabatic and diabatic process of sum frequency conversion.

    PubMed

    Liqing, Ren; Yongfang, Li; Baihong, Li; Lei, Wang; Zhaohua, Wang

    2010-09-13

    Based on the dressed state formalism, we obtain the adiabatic criterion of the sum frequency conversion. We show that this constraint restricts the energy conversion between the two dressed fields, which are superpositions of the signal field and the sum frequency field. We also show that the evolution of the populations of the dressed fields, which in turn describes the conversion of light photons from the seed frequency to the sum frequency during propagation through the nonlinear crystal. Take the quasiphased matched (QPM) scheme as an example, we calculate the expected bandwidth of the frequency conversion process, and its dependence on the length of the crystal. We demonstrate that the evolutionary patterns of the sum frequency field's energy are similar to the Fresnel diffraction of a light field. We finally show that the expected bandwidth can be also deduced from the evolution of the adiabaticity of the dressed fileds. PMID:20940935

  18. On the off-stoichiometric peaking of adiabatic flame temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Law, C.K.; Lu, T.F.; Makino, A.

    2006-06-15

    The characteristic rich shifting of the maximum adiabatic flame temperature from the stoichiometric value for mixtures of hydrocarbon and air is demonstrated to be caused by product dissociation and hence reduced amount of heat release. Since the extent of dissociation is greater on the lean side as a result of the stoichiometry of dissociated products, the peaking occurs on the rich side. The specific heat per unit mass of the mixture is shown to increase monotonically with increasing fuel concentration, and as such tends to shift the peak toward the lean side. It is further shown that this is the cause for the lean shifting of the adiabatic flame temperature of oxidizer-enriched mixtures of N{sub m}H{sub n} and F{sub 2} and of NH{sub 3} and O{sub 2}, with various amounts of inert dilution, even though their maximum heat release still peaks on the rich side. (author)

  19. Microscopic expression for heat in the adiabatic basis.

    PubMed

    Polkovnikov, Anatoli

    2008-11-28

    We derive a microscopic expression for the instantaneous diagonal elements of the density matrix rho(nn)(t) in the adiabatic basis for an arbitrary time-dependent process in a closed Hamiltonian system. If the initial density matrix is stationary (diagonal) then this expression contains only squares of absolute values of matrix elements of the evolution operator, which can be interpreted as transition probabilities. We then derive the microscopic expression for the heat defined as the energy generated due to transitions between instantaneous energy levels. If the initial density matrix is passive [diagonal with rho(nn)(0) monotonically decreasing with energy] then the heat is non-negative in agreement with basic expectations of thermodynamics. Our findings also can be used for systematic expansion of various observables around the adiabatic limit. PMID:19113464

  20. Non-adiabatic dynamics of molecules in optical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Bennett, Kochise; Mukamel, Shaul

    2016-02-01

    Strong coupling of molecules to the vacuum field of micro cavities can modify the potential energy surfaces thereby opening new photophysical and photochemical reaction pathways. While the influence of laser fields is usually described in terms of classical field, coupling to the vacuum state of a cavity has to be described in terms of dressed photon-matter states (polaritons) which require quantized fields. We present a derivation of the non-adiabatic couplings for single molecules in the strong coupling regime suitable for the calculation of the dressed state dynamics. The formalism allows to use quantities readily accessible from quantum chemistry codes like the adiabatic potential energy surfaces and dipole moments to carry out wave packet simulations in the dressed basis. The implications for photochemistry are demonstrated for a set of model systems representing typical situations found in molecules.

  1. Fastest Effectively Adiabatic Transitions for a Collection of Harmonic Oscillators.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Frank; Salamon, Peter; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz

    2016-05-19

    We discuss fastest effectively adiabatic transitions (FEATs) for a collection of noninteracting harmonic oscillators with shared controllable real frequencies. The construction of such transitions is presented for given initial and final equilibrium states, and the dependence of the minimum time control on the interval of achievable frequencies is discussed. While the FEAT times and associated FEAT processes are important in their own right as optimal controls, the FEAT time is an added feature which provides a measure of the quality of a shortcut to adiabaticity (STA). The FEAT time is evaluated for a previously reported experiment, wherein a cloud of Rb atoms is cooled following a STA recipe that took about twice as long as the FEAT speed limit, a time efficiency of 50%. PMID:26811863

  2. Ultrafast adiabatic manipulation of slow light in a photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Kampfrath, T.; Kuipers, L.; Beggs, D. M.; White, T. P.; Krauss, T. F.; Melloni, A.

    2010-04-15

    We demonstrate by experiment and theory that a light pulse propagating through a Si-based photonic-crystal waveguide is adiabatically blueshifted when the refractive index of the Si is reduced on a femtosecond time scale. Thanks to the use of slow-light modes, we are able to shift a 1.3-ps pulse at telecom frequencies by 0.3 THz with an efficiency as high as 80% in a waveguide as short as 19{mu}m. An analytic theory reproduces the experimental data excellently, which shows that adiabatic dynamics are possible even on the femtosecond time scale as long as the external stimulus conserves the spatial symmetry of the system.

  3. Adiabatic tapered optical fiber fabrication in two step etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenari, Z.; Latifi, H.; Ghamari, S.; Hashemi, R. S.; Doroodmand, F.

    2016-01-01

    A two-step etching method using HF acid and Buffered HF is proposed to fabricate adiabatic biconical optical fiber tapers. Due to the fact that the etching rate in second step is almost 3 times slower than the previous droplet etching method, terminating the fabrication process is controllable enough to achieve a desirable fiber diameter. By monitoring transmitted spectrum, final diameter and adiabaticity of tapers are deduced. Tapers with losses about 0.3 dB in air and 4.2 dB in water are produced. The biconical fiber taper fabricated using this method is used to excite whispering gallery modes (WGMs) on a microsphere surface in an aquatic environment. So that they are suitable to be used in applications like WGM biosensors.

  4. Fluctuations of work in nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Suomela, S; Salmilehto, J; Savenko, I G; Ala-Nissila, T; Möttönen, M

    2015-02-01

    We extend the quantum jump method to nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems in a way that allows for an accurate account of the external driving in the system-environment interaction. Using this framework, we construct the corresponding trajectory-dependent work performed on the system and derive the integral fluctuation theorem and the Jarzynski equality for nearly adiabatic driving. We show that such identities hold as long as the stochastic dynamics and work variable are consistently defined. We numerically study the emerging work statistics for a two-level quantum system and find that the conventional diabatic approximation is unable to capture some prominent features arising from driving, such as the continuity of the probability density of work. Our results reveal the necessity of using accurate expressions for the drive-dressed heat exchange in future experiments probing jump time distributions. PMID:25768477

  5. The adiabatic motion of charged dust grains in rotating magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northrop, T. G.; Hill, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Adiabatic equations of motion are derived for the micrometer-sized dust grains detected in the Jovian and Saturn magnetospheres by the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. The adiabatic theory of charged particle motion is extended to the case of variable grain charge. Attention is focused on the innermost and outermost limits to the grain orbit evolution, with all orbits tending to become circular with time. The parameters such as the center equation of motion, the drift velocity, and the parallel equation of motion are obtained for grains in a rotating magnetosphere. Consideration is given to the effects of periodic grain charge-discharge, which are affected by the ambient plasma properties and the grain plasma velocity. The charge-discharge process at the gyrofrequency is determined to eliminate the invariance of the magnetic moment and cause the grain to exhibit radial movement. The magnetic moment increases or decreases as a function of the gyrophase of the charge variation.

  6. Adiabatic Berry phase in an atom-molecule conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Libin; Liu Jie

    2010-11-15

    We investigate the Berry phase of adiabatic quantum evolution in the atom-molecule conversion system that is governed by a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. We find that the Berry phase consists of two parts: the usual Berry connection term and a novel term from the nonlinearity brought forth by the atom-molecule coupling. The total geometric phase can be still viewed as the flux of the magnetic field of a monopole through the surface enclosed by a closed path in parameter space. The charge of the monopole, however, is found to be one third of the elementary charge of the usual quantized monopole. We also derive the classical Hannay angle of a geometric nature associated with the adiabatic evolution. It exactly equals minus Berry phase, indicating a novel connection between Berry phase and Hannay angle in contrast to the usual derivative form.

  7. Adiabatic creation of atomic squeezing in dark states versus decoherences

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Z. R.; Sun, C. P.; Wang Xiaoguang

    2010-07-15

    We study the multipartite correlations of the multiatom dark states, which are characterized by the atomic squeezing beyond the pairwise entanglement. It is shown that, in the photon storage process with atomic ensemble via the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) mechanism, the atomic squeezing and the pairwise entanglement can be created by adiabatically manipulating the Rabi frequency of the classical light field on the atomic ensemble. We also consider the sudden death for the atomic squeezing and the pairwise entanglement under various decoherence channels. An optimal time for generating the greatest atomic squeezing and pairwise entanglement is obtained by studying in detail the competition between the adiabatic creation of quantum correlation in the atomic ensemble and the decoherence that we describe with three typical decoherence channels.

  8. Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulin, E.; Demier, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.

    1984-01-01

    Steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat which projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks were studied. Steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance were analyzed. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state of the art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. The costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with aftercooling with the same total output were compared, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increase initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability are considered and the cost and performance of advanced systes are evaluated.

  9. Engineering adiabaticity at an avoided crossing with optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasseur, T.; Theis, L. S.; Sanders, Y. R.; Egger, D. J.; Wilhelm, F. K.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate ways to optimize adiabaticity and diabaticity in the Landau-Zener model with nonuniform sweeps. We show how diabaticity can be engineered with a pulse consisting of a linear sweep augmented by an oscillating term. We show that the oscillation leads to jumps in populations whose value can be accurately modeled using a model of multiple, photon-assisted Landau-Zener transitions, which generalizes work by Wubs et al. [New J. Phys. 7, 218 (2005)], 10.1088/1367-2630/7/1/218. We extend the study on diabaticity using methods derived from optimal control. We also show how to preserve adiabaticity with optimal pulses at limited time, finding a nonuniform quantum speed limit.

  10. Adiabatic far-field sub-diffraction imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cang, Hu; Salandrino, Alessandro; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-08-01

    The limited resolution of a conventional optical imaging system stems from the fact that the fine feature information of an object is carried by evanescent waves, which exponentially decays in space and thus cannot reach the imaging plane. We introduce here an adiabatic lens, which utilizes a geometrically conformal surface to mediate the interference of slowly decompressed electromagnetic waves at far field to form images. The decompression is satisfying an adiabatic condition, and by bridging the gap between far field and near field, it allows far-field optical systems to project an image of the near-field features directly. Using these designs, we demonstrated the magnification can be up to 20 times and it is possible to achieve sub-50 nm imaging resolution in visible. Our approach provides a means to extend the domain of geometrical optics to a deep sub-wavelength scale.

  11. Adiabatic nonlinear waves with trapped particles. II. Wave dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2012-01-15

    A general nonlinear dispersion relation is derived in a nondifferential form for an adiabatic sinusoidal Langmuir wave in collisionless plasma, allowing for an arbitrary distribution of trapped electrons. The linear dielectric function is generalized, and the nonlinear kinetic frequency shift {omega}{sub NL} is found analytically as a function of the wave amplitude a. Smooth distributions yield {omega}{sub NL}{proportional_to}{radical}(a), as usual. However, beam-like distributions of trapped electrons result in different power laws, or even a logarithmic nonlinearity, which are derived as asymptotic limits of the same dispersion relation. Such beams are formed whenever the phase velocity changes, because the trapped distribution is in autoresonance and thus evolves differently from the passing distribution. Hence, even adiabatic {omega}{sub NL}(a) is generally nonlocal.

  12. Heat transfer in serpentine passages with turbulence promoters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Local heat transfer rates and overall pressure losses were determined for serpentine passages of square cross section. The flow entered an inlet leg, turned 180 deg and then passed through an outlet leg. Results were obtained for a passage with smooth walls for three different bend geometries and the effect of turbulence promoters was investigated. Turbulence promoters between 0.6 and 15% of the passage height were tested. Local heat transfer rates are determined from thermocouple measurements on a thin electrically heated Inconel foil and pressure drop is measured along the flow path.

  13. Adiabatic trapping in coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, H. A.; Ali, Z.; Masood, W.

    2013-03-15

    In the present work, we have discussed the effects of adiabatic trapping of electrons on obliquely propagating Alfven waves in a low {beta} plasma. Using the two potential theory and employing the Sagdeev potential approach, we have investigated the existence of arbitrary amplitude coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic solitary waves in both the sub and super Alfvenic cases. The results obtained have been analyzed and presented graphically and can be applied to regions of space where the low {beta} assumption holds true.

  14. Adiabaticity and gravity theory independent conservation laws for cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Antonio Enea; Mooij, Sander; Sasaki, Misao

    2016-04-01

    We carefully study the implications of adiabaticity for the behavior of cosmological perturbations. There are essentially three similar but different definitions of non-adiabaticity: one is appropriate for a thermodynamic fluid δPnad, another is for a general matter field δPc,nad, and the last one is valid only on superhorizon scales. The first two definitions coincide if cs2 = cw2 where cs is the propagation speed of the perturbation, while cw2 = P ˙ / ρ ˙ . Assuming the adiabaticity in the general sense, δPc,nad = 0, we derive a relation between the lapse function in the comoving slicing Ac and δPnad valid for arbitrary matter field in any theory of gravity, by using only momentum conservation. The relation implies that as long as cs ≠cw, the uniform density, comoving and the proper-time slicings coincide approximately for any gravity theory and for any matter field if δPnad = 0 approximately. In the case of general relativity this gives the equivalence between the comoving curvature perturbation Rc and the uniform density curvature perturbation ζ on superhorizon scales, and their conservation. This is realized on superhorizon scales in standard slow-roll inflation. We then consider an example in which cw =cs, where δPnad = δPc,nad = 0 exactly, but the equivalence between Rc and ζ no longer holds. Namely we consider the so-called ultra slow-roll inflation. In this case both Rc and ζ are not conserved. In particular, as for ζ, we find that it is crucial to take into account the next-to-leading order term in ζ's spatial gradient expansion to show its non-conservation, even on superhorizon scales. This is an example of the fact that adiabaticity (in the thermodynamic sense) is not always enough to ensure the conservation of Rc or ζ.

  15. Geometric Phase for Adiabatic Evolutions of General Quantum States

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Biao; Liu, Jie; Niu, Qian; Singh, David J

    2005-01-01

    The concept of a geometric phase (Berry's phase) is generalized to the case of noneigenstates, which is applicable to both linear and nonlinear quantum systems. This is particularly important to nonlinear quantum systems, where, due to the lack of the superposition principle, the adiabatic evolution of a general state cannot be described in terms of eigenstates. For linear quantum systems, our new geometric phase reduces to a statistical average of Berry's phases. Our results are demonstrated with a nonlinear two-level model.

  16. Breakdown of adiabaticity when loading ultracold atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrzewski, Jakub; Delande, Dominique

    2009-07-01

    Realistic simulations of current ultracold atom experiments in optical lattices show that the ramping up of the optical lattice is significantly nonadiabatic, implying that experimentally prepared Mott insulators are not really in the ground state of the atomic system. The nonadiabaticity is even larger in the presence of a secondary quasiperiodic lattice simulating “disorder.” Alternative ramping schemes are suggested that improve the adiabaticity when the disorder is not too large.

  17. Complete Cycle Experiments Using the Adiabatic Gas Law Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzner, Mickey D.; Plantak, Mateja

    2014-10-01

    The ability of our society to make informed energy-usage decisions in the future depends partly on current science and engineering students retaining a deep understanding of the thermodynamics of heat engines. Teacher imaginations and equipment budgets can both be taxed in the effort to engage students in hands-on heat engine activities. The experiments described in this paper, carried out using the Adiabatic Gas Law Apparatus1 (AGLA), quantitatively explore popular complete cycle heat engine processes.

  18. Non-adiabatic Dynamics of Molecules in Optical Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Bennett, Kochise; Mukamel, Shaul

    Molecular systems coupled to optical cavities are promising candidates for a novel kind of photo chemistry. Strong coupling to the vacuum field of the cavity can modify the potential energy surfaces opening up new reaction pathways. We present a derivation of the non-adiabatic couplings for single molecules in the strong coupling regime. The possibilities for photo chemistry are demonstrated for a set of model systems representing typical situations found in molecules. Supported by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  19. Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics by accelerated semiclassical Monte Carlo

    DOE PAGESBeta

    White, Alexander J.; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N.; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry

    2015-07-07

    Non-adiabatic dynamics, where systems non-radiatively transition between electronic states, plays a crucial role in many photo-physical processes, such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, and photoisomerization. Methods for the simulation of non-adiabatic dynamics are typically either numerically impractical, highly complex, or based on approximations which can result in failure for even simple systems. Recently, the Semiclassical Monte Carlo (SCMC) approach was developed in an attempt to combine the accuracy of rigorous semiclassical methods with the efficiency and simplicity of widely used surface hopping methods. However, while SCMC was found to be more efficient than other semiclassical methods, it is not yet as efficientmore » as is needed to be used for large molecular systems. Here, we have developed two new methods: the accelerated-SCMC and the accelerated-SCMC with re-Gaussianization, which reduce the cost of the SCMC algorithm up to two orders of magnitude for certain systems. In many cases shown here, the new procedures are nearly as efficient as the commonly used surface hopping schemes, with little to no loss of accuracy. This implies that these modified SCMC algorithms will be of practical numerical solutions for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics in realistic molecular systems.« less

  20. Adiabatic shear mechanisms for the hard cutting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Caixu; Wang, Bo; Liu, Xianli; Feng, Huize; Cai, Chunbin

    2015-05-01

    The most important consequence of adiabatic shear phenomenon is formation of sawtooth chip. Lots of scholars focused on the formation mechanism of sawtooth, and the research often depended on experimental approach. For the present, the mechanism of sawtooth chip formation still remains some ambiguous aspects. This study develops a combined numerical and experimental approach to get deeper understanding of sawtooth chip formation mechanism for Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN) tools orthogonal cutting hard steel GCr15. By adopting the Johnson-Cook material constitutive equations, the FEM simulation model established in this research effectively overcomes serious element distortions and cell singularity in high strain domain caused by large material deformation, and the adiabatic shear phenomenon is simulated successfully. Both the formation mechanism and process of sawtooth are simulated. Also, the change features regarding the cutting force as well as its effects on temperature are studied. More specifically, the contact of sawtooth formation frequency with cutting force fluctuation frequency is established. The cutting force and effect of cutting temperature on mechanism of adiabatic shear are investigated. Furthermore, the effects of the cutting condition on sawtooth chip formation are researched. The researching results show that cutting feed has the most important effect on sawtooth chip formation compared with cutting depth and speed. This research contributes a better understanding of mechanism, feature of chip formation in hard turning process, and supplies theoretical basis for the optimization of hard cutting process parameters.

  1. Dynamics of Quantum Adiabatic Evolution Algorithm for Number Partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Toussaint, U. V.; Timucin, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a general technique to study the dynamics of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm applied to random combinatorial optimization problems in the asymptotic limit of large problem size n. We use as an example the NP-complete Number Partitioning problem and map the algorithm dynamics to that of an auxiliary quantum spin glass system with the slowly varying Hamiltonian. We use a Green function method to obtain the adiabatic eigenstates and the minimum excitation gap. g min, = O(n 2(exp -n/2), corresponding to the exponential complexity of the algorithm for Number Partitioning. The key element of the analysis is the conditional energy distribution computed for the set of all spin configurations generated from a given (ancestor) configuration by simultaneous flipping of a fixed number of spins. For the problem in question this distribution is shown to depend on the ancestor spin configuration only via a certain parameter related to 'the energy of the configuration. As the result, the algorithm dynamics can be described in terms of one-dimensional quantum diffusion in the energy space. This effect provides a general limitation of a quantum adiabatic computation in random optimization problems. Analytical results are in agreement with the numerical simulation of the algorithm.

  2. Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, E.; Demler, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.

    1984-03-01

    A study of steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks. A parametric analysis of steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance was conducted. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state-of-the-art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. When applied to a NASA specified turbo-charged adiabatic diesel the bottoming system increased the diesel output by almost 18%. In a comparison of the costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with after-cooling with the same total output, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increased initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Also during this program steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability were considered and the cost and performance of advanced systems were evaluated.

  3. Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics by accelerated semiclassical Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    White, Alexander J.; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N.; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry

    2015-07-07

    Non-adiabatic dynamics, where systems non-radiatively transition between electronic states, plays a crucial role in many photo-physical processes, such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, and photoisomerization. Methods for the simulation of non-adiabatic dynamics are typically either numerically impractical, highly complex, or based on approximations which can result in failure for even simple systems. Recently, the Semiclassical Monte Carlo (SCMC) approach was developed in an attempt to combine the accuracy of rigorous semiclassical methods with the efficiency and simplicity of widely used surface hopping methods. However, while SCMC was found to be more efficient than other semiclassical methods, it is not yet as efficient as is needed to be used for large molecular systems. Here, we have developed two new methods: the accelerated-SCMC and the accelerated-SCMC with re-Gaussianization, which reduce the cost of the SCMC algorithm up to two orders of magnitude for certain systems. In many cases shown here, the new procedures are nearly as efficient as the commonly used surface hopping schemes, with little to no loss of accuracy. This implies that these modified SCMC algorithms will be of practical numerical solutions for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics in realistic molecular systems.

  4. Irreconcilable difference between quantum walks and adiabatic quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Meyer, David A.

    2016-06-01

    Continuous-time quantum walks and adiabatic quantum evolution are two general techniques for quantum computing, both of which are described by Hamiltonians that govern their evolutions by Schrödinger's equation. In the former, the Hamiltonian is fixed, while in the latter, the Hamiltonian varies with time. As a result, their formulations of Grover's algorithm evolve differently through Hilbert space. We show that this difference is fundamental; they cannot be made to evolve along each other's path without introducing structure more powerful than the standard oracle for unstructured search. For an adiabatic quantum evolution to evolve like the quantum walk search algorithm, it must interpolate between three fixed Hamiltonians, one of which is complex and introduces structure that is stronger than the oracle for unstructured search. Conversely, for a quantum walk to evolve along the path of the adiabatic search algorithm, it must be a chiral quantum walk on a weighted, directed star graph with structure that is also stronger than the oracle for unstructured search. Thus, the two techniques, although similar in being described by Hamiltonians that govern their evolution, compute by fundamentally irreconcilable means.

  5. Conditions for super-adiabatic droplet growth after entrainment mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Shaw, Raymond; Xue, Huiwen

    2016-07-01

    Cloud droplet response to entrainment and mixing between a cloud and its environment is considered, accounting for subsequent droplet growth during adiabatic ascent following a mixing event. The vertical profile for liquid water mixing ratio after a mixing event is derived analytically, allowing the reduction to be predicted from the mixing fraction and from the temperature and humidity for both the cloud and environment. It is derived for the limit of homogeneous mixing. The expression leads to a critical height above the mixing level: at the critical height the cloud droplet radius is the same for both mixed and unmixed parcels, and the critical height is independent of the updraft velocity and mixing fraction. Cloud droplets in a mixed parcel are larger than in an unmixed parcel above the critical height, which we refer to as the "super-adiabatic" growth region. Analytical results are confirmed with a bin microphysics cloud model. Using the model, we explore the effects of updraft velocity, aerosol source in the environmental air, and polydisperse cloud droplets. Results show that the mixed parcel is more likely to reach the super-adiabatic growth region when the environmental air is humid and clean. It is also confirmed that the analytical predictions are matched by the volume-mean cloud droplet radius for polydisperse size distributions. The findings have implications for the origin of large cloud droplets that may contribute to onset of collision-coalescence in warm clouds.

  6. Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics by accelerated semiclassical Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    White, Alexander J.; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N.; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dmitry

    2015-07-07

    Non-adiabatic dynamics, where systems non-radiatively transition between electronic states, plays a crucial role in many photo-physical processes, such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, and photoisomerization. Methods for the simulation of non-adiabatic dynamics are typically either numerically impractical, highly complex, or based on approximations which can result in failure for even simple systems. Recently, the Semiclassical Monte Carlo (SCMC) approach was developed in an attempt to combine the accuracy of rigorous semiclassical methods with the efficiency and simplicity of widely used surface hopping methods. However, while SCMC was found to be more efficient than other semiclassical methods, it is not yet as efficient as is needed to be used for large molecular systems. Here, we have developed two new methods: the accelerated-SCMC and the accelerated-SCMC with re-Gaussianization, which reduce the cost of the SCMC algorithm up to two orders of magnitude for certain systems. In most cases shown here, the new procedures are nearly as efficient as the commonly used surface hopping schemes, with little to no loss of accuracy. This implies that these modified SCMC algorithms will be of practical numerical solutions for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics in realistic molecular systems.

  7. Dynamics of Quantum Adiabatic Evolution Algorithm for Number Partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyanskiy, Vadius; vonToussaint, Udo V.; Timucin, Dogan A.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a general technique to study the dynamics of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm applied to random combinatorial optimization problems in the asymptotic limit of large problem size n. We use as an example the NP-complete Number Partitioning problem and map the algorithm dynamics to that of an auxiliary quantum spin glass system with the slowly varying Hamiltonian. We use a Green function method to obtain the adiabatic eigenstates and the minimum exitation gap, gmin = O(n2(sup -n/2)), corresponding to the exponential complexity of the algorithm for Number Partitioning. The key element of the analysis is the conditional energy distribution computed for the set of all spin configurations generated from a given (ancestor) configuration by simultaneous flipping of a fixed number of spins. For the problem in question this distribution is shown to depend on the ancestor spin configuration only via a certain parameter related to the energy of the configuration. As the result, the algorithm dynamics can be described in terms of one-dimensional quantum diffusion in the energy space. This effect provides a general limitation of a quantum adiabatic computation in random optimization problems. Analytical results are in agreement with the numerical simulation of the algorithm.

  8. NMR implementation of adiabatic SAT algorithm using strongly modulated pulses.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Avik; Mahesh, T S; Kumar, Anil

    2008-03-28

    NMR implementation of adiabatic algorithms face severe problems in homonuclear spin systems since the qubit selective pulses are long and during this period, evolution under the Hamiltonian and decoherence cause errors. The decoherence destroys the answer as it causes the final state to evolve to mixed state and in homonuclear systems, evolution under the internal Hamiltonian causes phase errors preventing the initial state to converge to the solution state. The resolution of these issues is necessary before one can proceed to implement an adiabatic algorithm in a large system where homonuclear coupled spins will become a necessity. In the present work, we demonstrate that by using "strongly modulated pulses" (SMPs) for the creation of interpolating Hamiltonian, one can circumvent both the problems and successfully implement the adiabatic SAT algorithm in a homonuclear three qubit system. This work also demonstrates that the SMPs tremendously reduce the time taken for the implementation of the algorithm, can overcome problems associated with decoherence, and will be the modality in future implementation of quantum information processing by NMR. PMID:18376911

  9. NMR implementation of adiabatic SAT algorithm using strongly modulated pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Avik; Mahesh, T. S.; Kumar, Anil

    2008-03-01

    NMR implementation of adiabatic algorithms face severe problems in homonuclear spin systems since the qubit selective pulses are long and during this period, evolution under the Hamiltonian and decoherence cause errors. The decoherence destroys the answer as it causes the final state to evolve to mixed state and in homonuclear systems, evolution under the internal Hamiltonian causes phase errors preventing the initial state to converge to the solution state. The resolution of these issues is necessary before one can proceed to implement an adiabatic algorithm in a large system where homonuclear coupled spins will become a necessity. In the present work, we demonstrate that by using "strongly modulated pulses" (SMPs) for the creation of interpolating Hamiltonian, one can circumvent both the problems and successfully implement the adiabatic SAT algorithm in a homonuclear three qubit system. This work also demonstrates that the SMPs tremendously reduce the time taken for the implementation of the algorithm, can overcome problems associated with decoherence, and will be the modality in future implementation of quantum information processing by NMR.

  10. Adiabatic corrections to density functional theory energies and wave functions.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, José R; Coura, Thiago de O; Diniz, Leonardo G; de Castro, Gustavo; Assafrão, Denise; Heine, Thomas

    2008-09-25

    The adiabatic finite-nuclear-mass-correction (FNMC) to the electronic energies and wave functions of atoms and molecules is formulated for density-functional theory and implemented in the deMon code. The approach is tested for a series of local and gradient corrected density functionals, using MP2 results and diagonal-Born-Oppenheimer corrections from the literature for comparison. In the evaluation of absolute energy corrections of nonorganic molecules the LDA PZ81 functional works surprisingly better than the others. For organic molecules the GGA BLYP functional has the best performance. FNMC with GGA functionals, mainly BLYP, show a good performance in the evaluation of relative corrections, except for nonorganic molecules containing H atoms. The PW86 functional stands out with the best evaluation of the barrier of linearity of H2O and the isotopic dipole moment of HDO. In general, DFT functionals display an accuracy superior than the common belief and because the corrections are based on a change of the electronic kinetic energy they are here ranked in a new appropriate way. The approach is applied to obtain the adiabatic correction for full atomization of alcanes C(n)H(2n+2), n = 4-10. The barrier of 1 mHartree is approached for adiabatic corrections, justifying its insertion into DFT. PMID:18537228

  11. Removal of cyanobacterial toxins by sediment passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruetzmacher, G.; Boettcher, G.; Chorus, I.; Bartel, H.

    2003-04-01

    Cyanbacterial toxins ("Cyanotoxins") comprise a wide range of toxic substances produced by cyanobacteria ("blue-green algae"). Cyanobacteria occur in surface water word wide and can be found in high concentrations during so-called algal blooms when conditions are favourable (e.g. high nutrient levels, high temperatures). Some cyanobacteria produce hepato- or neurotoxins, of which the hepatotoxic microcystins are the most common in Germany. The WHO guideline value for drinking water was set at 1 μg/L. However, maximum concentrations in surface water can reach 25 mg/L, so that a secure method for toxin elimination has to be found when this water is used as source water for drinking water production. In order to assess if cyanotoxins can be removed by sediment passage the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) conducted laboratory- and field scale experiments as well as observations on bank filtration field sites. Laboratory experiments (batch- and column experiments for adsorption and degradation parameters) were conducted in order to vary a multitude of experimental conditions. These experiments were followed by field scale experiments on the UBA's experimental field in Berlin. This plant offers the unique possibility to conduct experiments on the behaviour of various agents - such as harmful substances - during infiltration and bank filtration under well-defined conditions on a field scale, and without releasing these substances to the environment. Finally the development of microcystin concentrations was observed between infiltrating surface water and a drinking water well along a transsecte of observation wells. The results obtained show that infiltration and bank filtration normally seem to be secure treatment methods for source water contaminated by microcystins. However, elimination was shown to be difficult under the following circumstances: - dying cyanobacterial population due to insufficient light and / or nutrients, low temperatures or application of

  12. Piezoelectric control of the mobility of a domain wall driven by adiabatic and non-adiabatic torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ranieri, E.; Roy, P. E.; Fang, D.; Vehsthedt, E. K.; Irvine, A. C.; Heiss, D.; Casiraghi, A.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Jungwirth, T.; Wunderlich, J.

    2013-09-01

    The rich internal degrees of freedom of magnetic domain walls make them an attractive complement to electron charge for exploring new concepts of storage, transport and processing of information. Here we use the tunable internal structure of a domain wall in a perpendicularly magnetized GaMnAsP/GaAs ferromagnetic semiconductor and demonstrate devices in which piezoelectrically controlled magnetic anisotropy yields up to 500% mobility variations for an electrical-current-driven domain wall. We observe current-induced domain wall motion over a wide range of current-pulse amplitudes and report a direct observation and the piezoelectric control of the Walker breakdown separating two regimes with different mobilities. Our work demonstrates that in spin-orbit-coupled ferromagnets with weak extrinsic domain wall pinning, the piezoelectric control allows one to experimentally assess the upper and lower boundaries of the characteristic ratio of adiabatic and non-adiabatic spin-transfer torques in the current-driven domain wall motion.

  13. Hydropower R&D: Recent advances in turbine passage technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn F.; Rinehart, Ben N.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the recent and planned R&D activities across the U.S. related to survival of fish entrained in hydroelectric turbines. In this report, we have considered studies that are intended to develop new information that can be used to mitigate turbine-passage mortality. This review focuses on the effects on fish of physical or operational modifications to turbines, comparisons to survival in other downstream passage routes (e.g., bypass systems and spillways), and applications of new modeling, experimental, and technological approaches to develop a greater understanding of the stresses associated with turbine passage. In addition, the emphasis is on biological studies, as opposed to the engineering studies (e.g., turbine index testing) that are often carried out in support of fish passage mitigation efforts.

  14. View of the garden wall and passage with wrought iron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the garden wall and passage with wrought iron gate to the northwest of the house (duplicate of HABS No. SC-115-14) - William Washington House, 8 South Battery Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  15. 35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight opening, view to northwest - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  16. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE CONSTRUCTION TO LEFT (SOUTHWEST); ENTRANCE TO A MAGAZINE TO THE RIGHT. VIEW IS NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. - Fort Monroe, Fortress, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  18. 4. INTERIOR VIEW NORTHWEST, ALLEYWAY PASSAGE BETWEEN 216 AND 218 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW NORTHWEST, ALLEYWAY PASSAGE BETWEEN 216 AND 218 KING STREET SHOWING MASONRY ARCHED CONSTRUCTION SUPPORTING UPPER STORIES - King Street, 200 Block, 216 King Street (Commercial Building), Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  19. 11. Second floor, northwest chamber, south wall. Former passage to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Second floor, northwest chamber, south wall. Former passage to southwest chamber (door blocked off on far side) on left; closet on right. - Conner Homestead, House, Epping Road (State Route 101), Exeter, Rockingham County, NH

  20. 12. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH PASSAGE BETWEEN THE SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH PASSAGE BETWEEN THE SOUTH END OF POWERHOUSE #1 AND NAVIGATION LOCK #1. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  1. INTERIOR VIEW, SECONDSTORY PASSAGE LOOKING WEST FROM ITS MIDPOINT. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, SECOND-STORY PASSAGE LOOKING WEST FROM ITS MIDPOINT. THE PANELED OPENING IN THE FOREGROUND MARKS THE ORIGINAL WEST WALL - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Cell block four exercise yard with original passage to cell ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block four exercise yard with original passage to cell re-exposed, looking from the baseball field, facing west, with scale - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. AIRFLOW CHARACTERISTICS IN A BABOON NASAL PASSAGE CAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airflow patterns in the nasal Passages influence the distribution of air-pollutant-induced lesions in the airway mucosa. ittle is known about airflow characteristics or the complex nasopharyngeal airway of man and experimental animals. irflow characteristics in the nasopharyngeal...

  4. 62. RAILROAD FACILITIES, TRUCKING PASSAGE, MAIL TRANSPORT AREA, ACCESS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. RAILROAD FACILITIES, TRUCKING PASSAGE, MAIL TRANSPORT AREA, ACCESS TO POST OFFICE BUILDING, VIEW TO WEST - Terminal Tower Building, Cleveland Union Terminal, 50 Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. Detail view of keystone sculpted head in the arched passage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of keystone sculpted head in the arched passage to the lobby vestibule - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Flow-test device fits into restricted access passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J. J.; Oberschmidt, M.; Rosenbaum, B. J.

    1967-01-01

    Test device using a mandrel with a collapsible linkage assembly enables a fluid flow sensor to be properly positioned in a restricted passage by external manipulation. This device is applicable to the combustion chamber of a rocket motor.

  7. BLDG 101, CENTRAL ENTRY/ PASSAGE SHOWING LEAD FLOOR, STEEL WALLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 101, CENTRAL ENTRY/ PASSAGE SHOWING LEAD FLOOR, STEEL WALLS AND ASBESTOS CEILING - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Operational Storage Building, Fifteenth Street near Kolekole Road intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Hydropower R&D: Recent Advances in Turbine Passage Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Bennie Nelson; Cada, G. F.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the recent and planned R&D activities across the U.S. related to survival of fish entrained in hydroelectric turbines. In this report, we have considered studies that are intended to develop new information that can be used to mitigate turbine-passage mortality. This review focuses on the effects on fish of physical or operational modifications to turbines, comparisons to survival in other downstream passage routes (e.g., bypass systems and spillways), and applications of new modeling, experimental, and technological approaches to develop a greater understanding of the stresses associated with turbine passage. In addition, the emphasis is on biological studies, as opposed to the engineering studies (e.g., turbine index testing) that re often carried out in support of fish passage mitigation efforts.

  9. Novel developments and applications of the classical adiabatic dynamics technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, Lula

    The present work aims to apply and develop modern molecular dynamics techniques based on a novel analysis of the classical adiabatic dynamics approach. In the first part of this thesis, Car-Parrinello ab-initio molecular dynamics, a successful technique based on adiabatic dynamics, is used to study the charge transport mechanism in solid ammonium perchlorate (AP) crystal exposed to an ammonia-rich environment. AP is a solid-state proton conductor composed of NH+4 and ClO-4 units that can undergo a decomposition process at high temperature, leading to its use such as rocket fuel. After computing IR spectra and carefully analysing the dynamics at different temperatures, we found that the charge transport mechanism in the pure crystal is dominated by diffusion of the ammonium ions and that the translational diffusion is strongly coupled to rotational diffusion of the two types of ions present. When the pure ammonium-perchlorate crystal is doped with neutral ammonia, another mechanism comes into play, namely, the Grotthuss proton hopping mechanism via short-lived N2H+7 complexes. In the second part of this thesis, adiabatic dynamics will be used to develop an alternative approach to the calculation of free energy profiles along reaction paths. The new method (AFED) is based on the creation of an adiabatic separation between the reaction coordinate subspace and the remaining degrees of freedom within a molecular dynamics run. This is achieved by associating with the reaction coordinate(s) a high temperature and large mass. These conditions allow the activated process to occur while permitting the remaining degrees of freedom to respond adiabatically. In this limit, by applying a formal multiple time scale Liouville operator factorization, it can be rigorously shown that the free energy profile is obtained directly from the probability distribution of the reaction coordinate subspace and, therefore, no postprocessing of the output data is required. The new method is

  10. Unintended consequences and trade-offs of fish passage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    8. McLaughlin, Robert L.; Smyth, Eric R.; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Jones, Michael L.; Koops, Marten A.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Vélez-Espino, Luis-Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We synthesized evidence for unintended consequences and trade-offs associated with the passage of fishes. Provisioning of fish passageways at dams and dam removals are being carried out increasingly as resource managers seek ways to reduce fragmentation of migratory fish populations and restore biodiversity and nature-like ecosystem services in tributaries altered by dams. The benefits of provisioning upstream passage are highlighted widely. Possible unwanted consequences and trade-offs of upstream passage are coming to light, but remain poorly examined and underappreciated. Unintended consequences arise when passage of native and desirable introduced fishes is delayed, undone (fallback), results in patterns of movement and habitat use that reduce Darwinian fitness (e.g. ecological traps), or is highly selective taxonomically and numerically. Trade-offs arise when passage decisions intended to benefit native species interfere with management decisions intended to control the unwanted spread of non-native fishes and aquatic invertebrates, or genes, diseases and contaminants carried by hatchery and wild fishes. These consequences and trade-offs will vary in importance from system to system and can result in large economic and environmental costs. For some river systems, decisions about how to manage fish passage involve substantial risks and could benefit from use of a formal, structured process that allows transparent, objective and, where possible, quantitative evaluation of these risks. Such a process can also facilitate the design of an adaptive framework that provides valuable insights into future decisions.

  11. Flow in Rotating Serpentine Coolant Passages With Skewed Trip Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, David G.N.; Steuber, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Laser velocimetry was utilized to map the velocity field in serpentine turbine blade cooling passages with skewed trip strips. The measurements were obtained at Reynolds and Rotation numbers of 25,000 and 0.24 to assess the influence of trips, passage curvature and Coriolis force on the flow field. The interaction of the secondary flows induced by skewed trips with the passage rotation produces a swirling vortex and a corner recirculation zone. With trips skewed at +45 deg, the secondary flows remain unaltered as the cross-flow proceeds from the passage to the turn. However, the flow characteristics at these locations differ when trips are skewed at -45 deg. Changes in the flow structure are expected to augment heat transfer, in agreement with the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. The present results show that trips are skewed at -45 deg in the outward flow passage and trips are skewed at +45 deg in the inward flow passage maximize heat transfer. Details of the present measurements were related to the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. to relate fluid flow and heat transfer measurements.

  12. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage through Bonneville Dam in 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Schilt, Carl R.; Kim, Jina; Johnson, Peter N.; Hanks, Michael E.; Patterson, Deborah S.; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J

    2005-12-22

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2004. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of four studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 15 and July 15, 2004, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, (2) B2 fish guidance efficiency and gap loss, (3) smolt approach and fate at the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC), and (4) B2 vertical barrier screen head differential.

  13. Flow in serpentine coolant passages with trip strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, D. G.-N.

    1995-01-01

    Under the subject contract, an effort is being conducted at Scientific Research Associates, Inc. (SRA) to obtain flow field measurements in the coolant passage of a rotating turbine blade with ribbed walls, both in the stationary and rotating frames. The data obtained will be used for validation of computational tools and assessment of turbine blade cooling strategies. The configuration of the turbine blade passage model is given, and the measuring plane locations are given. The model has a four-pass passage with three 180 turns. This geometry was chosen to allow analyses of the velocity measurements corresponding to the heat transfer results obtained by Wagner. Two passes of the passage have a rectangular cross-section of 1.0 in x 0.5 in. Another two passes have a square cross-section of 0.5 in x 0.5 in. Trips with a streamwise pitch to trip height (P/e) = 5 and trip height to coolant passage width (e/Z) = 0.1, were machined along the leading and trailing walls. These dimensions are typical of those used in turbine blade coolant passages. The trips on these walls are staggered by the half-pitch. The trips are skewed at +/- 45 deg, and this allows the effect of trip orientation to be examined. Experiments will be conducted with flow entering the model through the 1.0 in x 0.5 in rectangular passage (Configuration C) and the 0.5 in x 0. 5 in square passage (Configuration D) to examine the effect of passage aspect ratio. Velocity measurements were obtained with a Reynolds number (Re) of 25,000, based on the hydraulic diameter of and bulk mean velocity in the half inch square passage. The coordinate system used in presenting the results for configurations C and D, respectively, is shown. The first, second and third passes of the passage will be referred to as the first, second and third passages, respectively, in later discussion. Streamwise distance (x) from the entrance is normalized by the hydraulic diameter (D). Vertical (y) and tangential (z) distances are

  14. Raman accumulator as a fusion laser driver

    DOEpatents

    George, E. Victor; Swingle, James C.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for simultaneous laser pulse amplification and compression, using multiple pass Raman scattering in one Raman cell and pulse switchout from the optical cavity through use of a dichroic device associated with the Raman cell.

  15. Raman accumulator as a fusion laser driver

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.; Swingle, J.C.

    1982-03-31

    Apparatus for simultaneous laser pulse amplification and compression, using multiple pass Raman scattering in one Raman cell and pulse switchout from the optical cavity through use of a dichroic device associated with the Raman cell.

  16. Airborne Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaps, Wm. S.; Burris, J.

    1996-12-01

    We designed and tested an airborne lidar system using Raman scattering to make simultaneous measurements of methane, water vapor, and temperature in a series of flights on a NASA-operated C-130 aircraft. We present the results for methane detection, which show that the instrument has the requisite sensitivity to atmospheric trace gases. Ultimately these measurements can be used to examine the transport of chemically processed air from within the polar vortex to mid-latitudinal regions and the exchange of stratospheric air between tropical and mid-latitudinal regions.

  17. Broadband stimulated Raman backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, B.; Aurand, B.; Lehmann, G.; Gangolf, T.; Schnell, M.; Kühl, T.; Spielmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    Broadband amplification employing stimulated Raman backscattering is demonstrated. Using seed pulses with a bandwidth of about 200 nm, we study the amplification in a wide spectral range in a single laser shot. With chirped pump pulses and a Ne gas jet, we observed under optimized conditions, amplification in a range of about 80 nm, which is sufficient to support the amplification of sub-20 fs pulses. This broad amplification range is also in excellent agreement with PIC simulations. The conversion efficiency is at certain wavelengths as high as 1.2% and was measured to be better than 6 × 10‑3 on average.

  18. Proceedings of a workshop on American Eel passage technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent concerns regarding a decline in recruitment of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) have prompted efforts to restore this species to historic habitats by providing passage for both upstream migrant juveniles and downstream migrant adults at riverine barriers, including low-head and hydroelectric dams (Castonguay et al. 1994, Haro et al. 2000). These efforts include development of management plans and stock assessment reviews in both the US and Canada (COSEWIC 2006, Canadian Eel Working Group 2009, DFO 2010, MacGregor et al. 2010, ASMFC 2000, ASMFC 2006, ASMFC 2008, Williams and Threader 2007), which target improvement of upstream and downstream passage for eels, as well as identification and prioritization of research needs for development of new and more effective passage technologies for American eels. Traditional upstream fish passage structures, such as fishways and fish lifts, are often ineffective passing juvenile eels, and specialized passage structures for this species are needed. Although designs for such passage structures are available and diverse (Knights and White 1998, Porcher 2002, FAO/DVWK 2002, Solomon and Beach 2004a,b, Environment Agency UK 2011), many biologists, managers, and engineers are unfamiliar with eel pass design and operation, or unaware of the technical options available for upstream eel passage, Better coordination is needed to account for eel passage requirements during restoration efforts for other diadromous fish species. Also, appropriately siting eel passes at hydropower projects is critical, and siting can be difficult and complex due to physical restrictions in access to points of natural concentrations of eels, dynamic hydraulics of tailrace areas, and presence of significant competing flows from turbine outfalls or spill. As a result, some constructed eel passes are sited poorly and may pass only a fraction of the number of eels attempting to pass the barrier. When sited and constructed appropriately, however, eel passes

  19. Metal vapor Raman frequency shifter

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, D.W.; Liu, C.; Weaver, L.A.

    1980-12-16

    Shifted Raman radiation for an all-hot Raman discharge cell is produced by external laser pumping of a metal halide medium in the cell during an afterglow period following dissociation of the metal halide medium into metal atoms and before recombination to form the original species of the metal halide medium.

  20. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage Through Bonneville Dam in 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Hughes, James S.; Bouchard, Kyle E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Schilt, Carl R.; Hanks, Michael E.; Kim, Jina; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J.; Nagy, William T.

    2006-12-04

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2005. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of two studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 16 and July 15, 2005, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, and (2) smolt approach and fate at B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C from the B1 forebay. Some of the large appendices are only presented on the compact disk (CD) that accompanies the final report. Examples include six large comma-separated-variable (.CSV) files of hourly fish passage, hourly variances, and Project operations for spring and summer from Appendix E, and large Audio Video Interleave (AVI) files with DIDSON-movie clips of the area upstream of B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C (Appendix H). Those video clips show smolts approaching the outlet, predators feeding on smolts, and vortices that sometimes entrained approaching smolts into turbines. The CD also includes Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Files (PDF) of the entire report and appendices.

  1. Raman Spectroscopy of Cocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, Frank; Reardon, Paul; Ochoa, Romulo; Abourahma, Heba; Marti, Marcus; Dimeo, Rachel

    2010-02-01

    Cocrystals are a class of compounds that consist of two or more molecules that are held together by hydrogen bonding. Pharmaceutical cocrystals are those that contain an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) as one of the components. Pharmaceutical cocrystals are of particular interest and have gained a lot of attention in recent years because they offer the ability to modify the physical properties of the API, like solubility and bioavailability, without altering the chemical structure of the API. The APIs that we targeted for our studies are theophylline (Tp) and indomethacin (Ind). These compounds have been mixed with complementary coformers (cocrystal former) that include acetamide (AcONH2), melamine (MLM), nicotinic acid (Nic-COOH), 4-cyanopyridine (4-CNPy) and 4-aminopyridine (4-NH2Py). Raman spectroscopy has been used to characterize these cocrystals. Spectra of the cocrystals were compared to those of the coformers to analyze for peak shifts, specifically those corresponding to hydrogen bonding. A 0.5 m CCD Spex spectrometer was used, in a micro-Raman setup, for spectral analysis. An Argon ion Coherent laser at 514.5 nm was used as the excitation source. )

  2. ADIABATIC MASS LOSS IN BINARY STARS. I. COMPUTATIONAL METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Ge Hongwei; Chen Xuefei; Han Zhanwen; Webbink, Ronald F. E-mail: mshjell@gmail.co

    2010-07-10

    The asymptotic response of donor stars in interacting binary systems to very rapid mass loss is characterized by adiabatic expansion throughout their interiors. In this limit, energy generation and heat flow through the stellar interior can be neglected. We model this response by constructing model sequences, beginning with a donor star filling its Roche lobe at an arbitrary point in its evolution, holding its specific entropy and composition profiles fixed as mass is removed from the surface. The stellar interior remains in hydrostatic equilibrium. Luminosity profiles in these adiabatic models of mass-losing stars can be reconstructed from the specific entropy profiles and their gradients. These approximations are validated by comparison with time-dependent binary mass transfer calculations. We describe how adiabatic mass-loss sequences can be used to quantify threshold conditions for dynamical timescale mass transfer, and to establish the range of post-common envelope binaries that are allowed energetically. In dynamical timescale mass transfer, the adiabatic response of the donor star drives it to expand beyond its Roche lobe, leading to runaway mass transfer and the formation of a common envelope with its companion star. For donor stars with surface convection zones of any significant depth, this runaway condition is encountered early in mass transfer, if at all; but for main-sequence stars with radiative envelopes, it may be encountered after a prolonged phase of thermal timescale mass transfer, a so-called delayed dynamical instability. We identify the critical binary mass ratio for the onset of dynamical timescale mass transfer as that ratio for which the adiabatic response of the donor star radius to mass loss matches that of its Roche lobe at some point during mass transfer; if the ratio of donor to accretor masses exceeds this critical value, dynamical timescale mass transfer ensues. In common envelope evolution, the dissipation of orbital energy of the

  3. Influence of viscosity and the adiabatic index on planetary migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsch, B.; Boley, A.; Kley, W.

    2013-02-01

    Context. The strength and direction of migration of low mass embedded planets depends on the disk's thermodynamic state. It has been shown that in active disks, where the internal dissipation is balanced by radiative transport, migration can be directed outwards, a process which extends the lifetime of growing embryos. Very important parameters determining the structure of disks, and hence the direction of migration, are the viscosity and the adiabatic index. Aims: In this paper we investigate the influence of different viscosity prescriptions (α-type and constant) and adiabatic indices on disk structures. We then determine how this affects the migration rate of planets embedded in such disks. Methods: We perform three-dimensional numerical simulations of accretion disks with embedded planets. We use the explicit/implicit hydrodynamical code NIRVANA that includes full tensor viscosity and radiation transport in the flux-limited diffusion approximation, as well as a proper equation of state for molecular hydrogen. The migration of embedded 20 MEarth planets is studied. Results: Low-viscosity disks have cooler temperatures and the migration rates of embedded planets tend toward the isothermal limit. Hence, in these disks, planets migrate inwards even in the fully radiative case. The effect of outward migration can only be sustained if the viscosity in the disk is large. Overall, the differences between the treatments for the equation of state seem to play a more important role in disks with higher viscosity. A change in the adiabatic index and in the viscosity changes the zero-torque radius that separates inward from outward migration. Conclusions: For larger viscosities, temperatures in the disk become higher and the zero-torque radius moves to larger radii, allowing outward migration of a 20-MEarth planet to persist over an extended radial range. In combination with large disk masses, this may allow for an extended period of the outward migration of growing

  4. Hadamard transform visible Raman spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tilotta, D.C.; Freeman, R.D.; Fateley, W.G.

    1987-11-01

    The successful application of LC-SLM Hadamard transform spectrometry as a simultaneous multiwavelength detection system to Raman spectroscopy is presented. Multiplexed Raman data are obtained with the use of an Ar/sup +/ laser lasing at 514.5 nm and a room-temperature silicon photodiode. A conventional 90/sup 0/ scattering geometry is employed for measurements. It is demonstrated that the LC-SLM Hadamard transform Raman spectrometer possesses the capability of performing spectral subtraction and the ability to obtain depolarization ratios of Raman bands, and can function as a selectively tunable optical filter for both Rayleigh line rejection and optical band notching. It is also demonstrated that, for the Hadamard transform Raman experiment, the silicon photodiode used as the detector produces spectra with slightly better signal-to-noise ratios than those obtained with the photomultiplier tube (PMT) used as the detector, although the PMT shows an increase in sensitivity.

  5. Kibble-Zurek mechanism beyond adiabaticity: Finite-time scaling with critical initial slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yingyi; Yin, Shuai; Hu, Qijun; Zhong, Fan

    2016-01-01

    The Kibble-Zurek mechanism demands an initial adiabatic stage before an impulse stage to have a frozen correlation length that generates topological defects in a cooling phase transition. Here we study such a driven critical dynamics but with an initial condition that is near the critical point and that is far away from equilibrium. In this case, there is no initial adiabatic stage at all and thus adiabaticity is broken. However, we show that there again exists a finite length scale arising from the driving that divides the evolution into three stages. A relaxation-finite-time-scaling-adiabatic scenario is then proposed in place of the adiabatic-impulse-adiabatic scenario of the original Kibble-Zurek mechanism. A unified scaling theory, which combines finite-time scaling with critical initial slip, is developed to describe the universal behavior and is confirmed with numerical simulations of a two-dimensional classical Ising model.

  6. Optimized sympathetic cooling of atomic mixtures via fast adiabatic strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Stephen; Sundaram, Bala; Onofrio, Roberto

    2011-11-15

    We discuss fast frictionless cooling techniques in the framework of sympathetic cooling of cold atomic mixtures. It is argued that optimal cooling of an atomic species--in which the deepest quantum degeneracy regime is achieved--may be obtained by means of sympathetic cooling with another species whose trapping frequency is dynamically changed to maintain constancy of the Lewis-Riesenfeld adiabatic invariant. Advantages and limitations of this cooling strategy are discussed, with particular regard to the possibility of cooling Fermi gases to a deeper degenerate regime.

  7. Magnetic shielding for a spaceborne adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Brent A.; Shirron, Peter J.; Castles, Stephen H.; Serlemitsos, Aristides T.

    1991-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center has studied magnetic shielding for an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. Four types of shielding were studied: active coils, passive ferromagnetic shells, passive superconducting coils, and passive superconducting shells. The passive superconducting shells failed by allowing flux penetration. The other three methods were successful, singly or together. Experimental studies of passive ferromagnetic shielding are compared with calculations made using the Poisson Group of programs, distributed by the Los Alamos Accelerator Code Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Agreement between calculation and experiment is good. The ferromagnetic material is a silicon iron alloy.

  8. Modeling of the Adiabatic and Isothermal Methanation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porubova, Jekaterina; Bazbauers, Gatis; Markova, Darja

    2011-01-01

    Increased use of biomass offers one of the ways to reduce anthropogenic impact on the environment. Using various biomass conversion processes, it is possible to obtain different types of fuels: • solid, e.g. bio-carbon; • liquid, e.g. biodiesel and ethanol; • gaseous, e.g. biomethane. Biomethane can be used in the transport and energy sector, and the total methane production efficiency can reach 65%. By modeling adiabatic and isothermal methanation processes, the most effective one from the methane production point of view is defined. Influence of the process parameters on the overall efficiency of the methane production is determined.

  9. Relativistic blast waves in two dimensions. I - The adiabatic case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Approximate solutions are presented for the dynamical evolution of strong adiabatic relativistic blast waves which result from a point explosion in an ambient gas in which the density varies both with distance from the explosion center and with polar angle in axisymmetry. Solutions are analytical or quasi-analytical for the extreme relativistic case and numerical for the arbitrarily relativistic case. Some general properties of nonplanar relativistic shocks are also discussed, including the incoherence of spherical ultrarelativistic blast-wave fronts on angular scales greater than the reciprocal of the shock Lorentz factor, as well as the conditions for producing blast-wave acceleration.

  10. Nonlinear effects generation in non-adiabatically tapered fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palací, Jesús; Mas, Sara; Monzón-Hernández, David; Martí, Javier

    2015-12-01

    Nonlinear effects are observed in a non-adiabatically tapered optical fibre. The designed structure allows for the introduction of self-phase modulation, which is observed through pulse breaking and spectral broadening, in approximately a centimetre of propagation using a commercial telecom laser. These devices are simple to fabricate and suitable to generate and control a variety of nonlinear effects in practical applications because they do not experience short-term degradation as previously reported approaches. Experimental and theoretical results are obtained, showing a good agreement.

  11. Plasma heating via adiabatic magnetic compression-expansion cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avinash, K.; Sengupta, M.; Ganesh, R.

    2016-06-01

    Heating of collisionless plasmas in closed adiabatic magnetic cycle comprising of a quasi static compression followed by a non quasi static constrained expansion against a constant external pressure is proposed. Thermodynamic constraints are derived to show that the plasma always gains heat in cycles having at least one non quasi static process. The turbulent relaxation of the plasma to the equilibrium state at the end of the non quasi static expansion is discussed and verified via 1D Particle in Cell (PIC) simulations. Applications of this scheme to heating plasmas in open configurations (mirror machines) and closed configurations (tokamak, reverse field pinche) are discussed.

  12. Ultrasonic velocity and adiabatic compressibility in dioxane-water mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciupe, A.; Auslaender, D.

    1974-01-01

    Using a method of diffraction of light on an ultrasonic beam, the velocity of ultrasounds and the adiabatic compressibility in dioxane-water mixtures were determined. The dependence of these quantities on the temperature (in the 15-50 C range) and on the concentration (0-100%) were studied. For each temperature there was found a velocity maximum and a compressibility minimum for a given value of the dioxane concentration. The different behavior of these mixtures is due to intense interactions between the molecules of the two liquids composing the mixture.

  13. Quantum corrections during inflation and conservation of adiabatic perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, David

    2010-02-15

    The possibility that quantum corrections break the conservation of superhorizon adiabatic perturbations in single field inflation is examined. I consider the lowest order corrections from massless matter fields in the Hamiltonian formalism. Particular emphasis is therefore laid on the renormalization. The counterterms are the same as in the Lagrangian formalism. The renormalized value of the tadpole is zero. I find a possible secular dependence of the power spectrum at one loop due to the trace anomaly, but this result depends on the approximation of the modes and is inconclusive. The symmetry (not) violated by the quantum corrections is the invariance by dilatation. Perspectives on the backreaction problem are briefly discussed.

  14. More bang for your buck: Super-adiabatic quantum engines

    PubMed Central

    Campo, A. del; Goold, J.; Paternostro, M.

    2014-01-01

    The practical untenability of the quasi-static assumption makes any realistic engine intrinsically irreversible and its operating time finite, thus implying friction effects at short cycle times. An important technological goal is thus the design of maximally efficient engines working at the maximum possible power. We show that, by utilising shortcuts to adiabaticity in a quantum engine cycle, one can engineer a thermodynamic cycle working at finite power and zero friction. Our findings are illustrated using a harmonic oscillator undergoing a quantum Otto cycle. PMID:25163421

  15. Salt materials testing for a spacecraft adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M. L.; Kittel, P.; Roellig, T.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a technology development effort to qualify adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators for use in a NASA spacecraft, such as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, a study of low temperature characteristics, heat capacity and resistance to dehydration was conducted for different salt materials. This report includes results of testing with cerrous metaphosphate, several synthetic rubies, and chromic potassium alum (CPA). Preliminary results show that CPA may be suitable for long-term spacecraft use, provided that the salt is property encapsulated. Methods of salt pill construction and testing for all materials are discussed, as well as reliability tests. Also, the temperature regulation scheme and the test cryostat design are briefly discussed.

  16. Gravitational radiation reaction and inspiral waveforms in the adiabatic limit.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Scott A; Drasco, Steve; Flanagan, Eanna E; Franklin, Joel

    2005-06-10

    We describe progress evolving an important limit of binaries in general relativity: stellar mass compact objects spiraling into much larger black holes. Such systems are of great observational interest. We have developed tools to compute for the first time the radiation from generic orbits. Using global conservation laws, we find the orbital evolution and waveforms for special cases. For generic orbits, inspirals and waveforms can be found by augmenting our approach with an adiabatic self-force rule due to Mino. Such waveforms should be accurate enough for gravitational-wave searches. PMID:16090377

  17. From Classical Nonlinear Integrable Systems to Quantum Shortcuts to Adiabaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Manaka; Takahashi, Kazutaka

    2016-08-01

    Using shortcuts to adiabaticity, we solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation that is reduced to a classical nonlinear integrable equation. For a given time-dependent Hamiltonian, the counterdiabatic term is introduced to prevent nonadiabatic transitions. Using the fact that the equation for the dynamical invariant is equivalent to the Lax equation in nonlinear integrable systems, we obtain the counterdiabatic term exactly. The counterdiabatic term is available when the corresponding Lax pair exists and the solvable systems are classified in a unified and systematic way. Multisoliton potentials obtained from the Korteweg-de Vries equation and isotropic X Y spin chains from the Toda equations are studied in detail.

  18. More bang for your buck: super-adiabatic quantum engines.

    PubMed

    del Campo, A; Goold, J; Paternostro, M

    2014-01-01

    The practical untenability of the quasi-static assumption makes any realistic engine intrinsically irreversible and its operating time finite, thus implying friction effects at short cycle times. An important technological goal is thus the design of maximally efficient engines working at the maximum possible power. We show that, by utilising shortcuts to adiabaticity in a quantum engine cycle, one can engineer a thermodynamic cycle working at finite power and zero friction. Our findings are illustrated using a harmonic oscillator undergoing a quantum Otto cycle. PMID:25163421

  19. Local shortcut to adiabaticity for quantum many-body systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Victor; Montangero, Simone; Fazio, Rosario

    2016-06-01

    We study the environmentally assisted local transitionless dynamics in closed spin systems driven through quantum critical points. In general the shortcut to adaiabaticity (STA) in quantum critical systems requires highly nonlocal control Hamiltonians. In this work we develop an approach to achieve local shortcuts to adiabaticity (LSTA) in spin chains, using local control fields which scale polynomially with the system size, following universal critical exponents. We relate the control fields to reduced fidelity susceptibility and use the transverse Ising model in one dimension to exemplify our generic results. We also extend our analysis to achieve LSTA in central spin models.

  20. Inverse Raman bands in ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xueqiong; Li, Xiuting; Niu, Kai; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2011-10-01

    Ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy (URLS) is equivalent to anti-Stokes femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS), using a broadband probe pulse that extends to the blue of the narrow bandwidth Raman pump, and can be described as inverse Raman scattering (IRS). Using the Feynman dual time-line diagram, the third-order polarization for IRS with finite pulses can be written down in terms of a four-time correlation function. An analytic expression is obtained for the latter in the harmonic approximation which facilitates computation. We simulated the URLS of crystal violet (CV) for various resonance Raman pump excitation wavelengths using the IRS polarization expression with finite pulses. The calculated results agreed well with the experimental results of S. Umapathy et al., J. Chem. Phys. 133, 024505 (2010). In the limit of monochromatic Raman pump and probe pulses, we obtain the third-order susceptibility for multi-modes, and for a single mode we recover the well-known expression for the third-order susceptibility, χ _{IRS}^{(3)}, for IRS. The latter is used to understand the mode dependent phase changes as a function of Raman pump excitation in the URLS of CV.

  1. Automated passage control for security, cost efficiency, and convenience

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe new methods of passage control through automatic computer processes and electromechanical identity and surveillance devices. It is now possible for a person to be identified with objective certainty by computer without interaction of a guard or duty officer. In addition, the presence of just one person is also confirmed automatically BEFORE passage is allowed into a secured area. There can be no tailgating of intruders during a valid, authorized entry process. The advantage to the facility using this new equipment is improved security through elimination of the subjective decision process of guards who may be right on or who may be off that day. The objective decisions of the automated passage control computers determine a positive identity and passage authority, or else interdicts the passage attempt. There can be no indecision, argument, or waffling about authorization to enter. Each person's Logical Presence is known at all times, and a permanent audit trail is maintained. There is an almost immediate return on investment through the furloughing of expensive guards and inspectors at entry points.

  2. Tunneling conductance through the half-metal/conical magnet/superconductor junctions in the adiabatic and non-adiabatic regimes: Self-consistent calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, P.; Zegrodnik, M.; Rzeszotarski, B.; Adamowski, J.

    2016-09-01

    The tunneling conductance through the half-metal/conical magnet/superconductor (HM/CM/SC) junctions is investigated with the use of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations in the framework of Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism. Due to the spin band separation in the HM, the conductance in the subgap region is mainly determined by the anomalous Andreev reflection, the probability of which strongly depends on the spin transmission in the CM layer. We show that the spins of electrons injected from the HM can be transmitted through the CM to the SC either adiabatically or non-adiabatically depending on the period of the spatial modulation of the exchange field. We find that the conductance in the subgap region oscillates as a function of the CM layer thickness wherein the oscillations transform from the irregular pattern in the non-adiabatic regime to the regular one in the adiabatic regime. For both adiabatic and non-adiabatic transport regimes the conductance is studied over a broad range of parameters determining the spiral magnetization in the CM. We find that in the non-adiabatic regime, the decrease of the exchange field amplitude in the CM leads to the emergence of the conductance peak for the particular CM thickness in agreement with recent experiments.

  3. Raman Vibrational Shifts of Small Clusters of Hydrogen Isotopologues.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Matthew; Fernández, José M; Faruk, Nabil; Nooijen, Marcel; Le Roy, Robert J; Morilla, Juan H; Tejeda, Guzmán; Montero, Salvador; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2015-12-17

    Raman vibrational shifts of small parahydrogen (pH2), orthodeuterium (oD2), and paratritium (pT2) clusters with respect to the free molecules are calculated by combining a first order perturbation theory approach with Langevin equation Path Integral Ground State (LePIGS) simulations [ J. Phys. Chem. A 2013 , 117 , 7461 ]. Our theoretical predictions are compared to existing cryogenic free jet expansion results for pure (pH2)N clusters [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 2004 , 92 , 223401 ] and to new measurements for (oD2)N clusters reported here. This method has been successfully used before to predict the Raman vibrational shifts of (pH2)N clusters [ J. Chem. Phys. 2014 , 141 , 014310 ]. The 6-D interaction potential of Hinde [ J. Chem. Phys. 2008 , 128 , 154308 ] is reduced to 1-D using the Adiabatic Hindered Rotor approximation to yield effective pair potentials for both molecules being in the ground vibrational state, and for one of them carrying one quantum of vibrational excitation. These reduced 1-D potentials are fitted to a Morse Long Range analytic form for later convenience. Good agreement between experiment and theory is found for the smaller clusters, but significant deviations remain for the larger ones. PMID:26517305

  4. Electron-phonon interaction and Raman scattering in nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimin, S. N.; Pokatilov, E. P.; Fomin, V. M.; Devreese, J. T.; Gladilin, V. N.; Balaban, S. N.

    1997-03-01

    The vibrational eigenmodes of a nanocrystal are derived by diagonalization of the equations of motion for the ionic displacement taking into account a non-parabolic dispersion with electrostatic and mechanical boundary conditions. A finite width of the Brillouin zone leads automatically to a finite basis of vibrational modes. The developed method can be applicable to nanostructures of an arbitrary geometry. For a spherical nanocrystal, a dispersion equation contains the effective multimode dielectric function. The resulting eigenmodes are mixed bulk-like and interface waves, especially in the short-wavelength region. Using the obtained Hamiltonian, the one-phonon and two-phonon resonant Raman scattering spectra are calculated for a spherical CdSe nanocrystal in the borosilicate glass. The valence band mixing dramatically enhances relative intensities of the two-phonon peaks and makes the adiabatic approximation inapplicable. Hence, the Huang-Rhys parameter is not an adequate characteristic of the optical spectra. Using a direct expansion of the evolution operator, a good agreement has been achieved between the calculated and the experimentally observed [1] Raman spectra. [1] M. C. Klein, F. Hache, D. Ricard, and C. Flytzanis, Phys. Rev. B 42, 11123 (1990).

  5. Singularity of the time-energy uncertainty in adiabatic perturbation and cycloids on a Bloch sphere.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sangchul; Hu, Xuedong; Nori, Franco; Kais, Sabre

    2016-01-01

    Adiabatic perturbation is shown to be singular from the exact solution of a spin-1/2 particle in a uniformly rotating magnetic field. Due to a non-adiabatic effect, its quantum trajectory on a Bloch sphere is a cycloid traced by a circle rolling along an adiabatic path. As the magnetic field rotates more and more slowly, the time-energy uncertainty, proportional to the length of the quantum trajectory, calculated by the exact solution is entirely different from the one obtained by the adiabatic path traced by the instantaneous eigenstate. However, the non-adiabatic Aharonov-Anandan geometric phase, measured by the area enclosed by the exact path, approaches smoothly the adiabatic Berry phase, proportional to the area enclosed by the adiabatic path. The singular limit of the time-energy uncertainty and the regular limit of the geometric phase are associated with the arc length and arc area of the cycloid on a Bloch sphere, respectively. Prolate and curtate cycloids are also traced by different initial states outside and inside of the rolling circle, respectively. The axis trajectory of the rolling circle, parallel to the adiabatic path, is shown to be an example of transitionless driving. The non-adiabatic resonance is visualized by the number of cycloid arcs. PMID:26916031

  6. Singularity of the time-energy uncertainty in adiabatic perturbation and cycloids on a Bloch sphere

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sangchul; Hu, Xuedong; Nori, Franco; Kais, Sabre

    2016-01-01

    Adiabatic perturbation is shown to be singular from the exact solution of a spin-1/2 particle in a uniformly rotating magnetic field. Due to a non-adiabatic effect, its quantum trajectory on a Bloch sphere is a cycloid traced by a circle rolling along an adiabatic path. As the magnetic field rotates more and more slowly, the time-energy uncertainty, proportional to the length of the quantum trajectory, calculated by the exact solution is entirely different from the one obtained by the adiabatic path traced by the instantaneous eigenstate. However, the non-adiabatic Aharonov- Anandan geometric phase, measured by the area enclosed by the exact path, approaches smoothly the adiabatic Berry phase, proportional to the area enclosed by the adiabatic path. The singular limit of the time-energy uncertainty and the regular limit of the geometric phase are associated with the arc length and arc area of the cycloid on a Bloch sphere, respectively. Prolate and curtate cycloids are also traced by different initial states outside and inside of the rolling circle, respectively. The axis trajectory of the rolling circle, parallel to the adiabatic path, is shown to be an example of transitionless driving. The non-adiabatic resonance is visualized by the number of cycloid arcs. PMID:26916031

  7. Schedule path optimization for adiabatic quantum computing and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lishan; Zhang, Jun; Sarovar, Mohan

    2016-04-01

    Adiabatic quantum computing and optimization have garnered much attention recently as possible models for achieving a quantum advantage over classical approaches to optimization and other special purpose computations. Both techniques are probabilistic in nature and the minimum gap between the ground state and first excited state of the system during evolution is a major factor in determining the success probability. In this work we investigate a strategy for increasing the minimum gap and success probability by introducing intermediate Hamiltonians that modify the evolution path between initial and final Hamiltonians. We focus on an optimization problem relevant to recent hardware implementations and present numerical evidence for the existence of a purely local intermediate Hamiltonian that achieve the optimum performance in terms of pushing the minimum gap to one of the end points of the evolution. As a part of this study we develop a convex optimization formulation of the search for optimal adiabatic schedules that makes this computation more tractable, and which may be of independent interest. We further study the effectiveness of random intermediate Hamiltonians on the minimum gap and success probability, and empirically find that random Hamiltonians have a significant probability of increasing the success probability, but only by a modest amount.

  8. Sliding Seal Materials for Adiabatic Engines, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lankford, J.; Wei, W.

    1986-01-01

    An essential task in the development of the heavy-duty adiabatic diesel engine is identification and improvements of reliable, low-friction piston seal materials. In the present study, the sliding friction coefficients and wear rates of promising carbide, oxide, and nitride materials were measured under temperature, environmental, velocity, and loading conditions that are representative of the adiabatic engine environment. In addition, silicon nitride and partially stabilized zirconia disks were ion implanted with TiNi, Ni, Co, and Cr, and subsequently run against carbide pins, with the objective of producing reduced friction via solid lubrication at elevated temperature. In order to provide guidance needed to improve materials for this application, the program stressed fundamental understanding of the mechanisms involved in friction and wear. Electron microscopy was used to elucidate the micromechanisms of wear following wear testing, and Auger electron spectroscopy was used to evaluate interface/environment interactions which seemed to be important in the friction and wear process. Unmodified ceramic sliding couples were characterized at all temperatures by friction coefficients of 0.24 and above. The coefficient at 800 C in an oxidizing environment was reduced to below 0.1, for certain material combinations, by the ion implanation of TiNi or Co. This beneficial effect was found to derive from lubricious Ti, Ni, and Co oxides.

  9. Fast Ion Non-adiabaticity in Spherical Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    V.A. Yavorskij; D. Darrow; V.Ya. Goloborod'ko; S.N. Reznik; U. Holzmueller-Steinacker; N. Gorelenkov; K. Schoepf

    2002-08-01

    Transport processes of fast ions in axisymmetric low-aspect-ratio spherical torus (ST) plasmas are investigated, which are induced by the non-conservation of the magnetic moment {mu}. The reason for non-conservation of {mu} of fast ions in ST's is the relatively large adiabaticity parameter epsilon typically exceeding the value 0.1 (epsilon = ratio of ion gyroradius to the gradient scale length of the magnetic field). Both analytical and numerical evaluations of the magnitude of nonadiabatic variations of {mu} are performed. Nonadiabaticity effects are shown to be most significant for fast ions for which the bounce oscillations are in resonance with the gyromotion, i.e., for ions with omega(subscript)B - lomega(subscript)b = 0, where omega(subscript)B and omega(subscript)b represent the bounce-averaged gyrofrequency and the bounce frequency, respectively, and l is an integer. The critical threshold of the adiabaticity parameter, epsilon(subscript)cr, to be exceeded for the transition to stochastic behavior of fast ions in axisymmetric ST's is inspected. Nonadiabatic variations of {mu} are shown to lead to collisionless transformation of trapped orbits into circulating ones and vice versa. For the case of strong nonadiabaticity, epsilon > epsilon(subscript)cr, we assess the transport coefficients describing intense collisionless pitch-angle diffusion, whereas, in the case of weak nonadiabaticity, epsilon > epsilon(subscript)cr, the more substantial coefficients of enhanced collisional radial diffusion and convection of fast ions gyrating resonantly with the bounce oscillations are estimated.

  10. Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan -Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.

    2015-01-28

    We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ+- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. As a result, for reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in < 10 μs with error probability on the order of 10-3.

  11. Adiabatic cooling of the artificial Porcupine plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruizhin, Iu. Ia.; Treumann, R. A.; Bauer, O. H.; Moskalenko, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the plasma density obtained during the interaction of the artificial plasma jet, fired into the ionosphere with the body of the Porcupine main payload, have been analyzed for times when there was a well-developed wake effect. Using wake theory, the maximum temperature of the quasi-neutral xenon ion beam has been determined for an intermediate distance from the ion beam source when the beam has left the diamagnetic region but is still much denser than the ionospheric background plasma. The beam temperature is found to be about 4 times less than the temperature at injection. This observation is very well explained by adiabatic cooling of the beam during its initial diamagnetic and current-buildup phases at distances r smaller than 10 m. Outside this region, the beam conserves the temperature achieved. The observation proves that the artificial plasma jet passes through an initial gas-like diamagnetic phase restricted to the vicinity of the beam source, where it expands adiabatically. Partial cooling also takes place outside the diamagnetic region where the beam current still builds up. The observations also support a recently developed current-closure model of the quasi-neutral ion beam.

  12. The 0.1K bolometers cooled by adiabatic demagnetization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, T.; Lesyna, L.; Kittel, P.; Werner, M.

    1983-01-01

    The most straightforward way of reducing the noise equivalent power of bolometers is to lower their operating temperature. We have been exploring the possibility of using conventionally constructed bolometers at ultra-low temperatures to achieve NEP's suitable to the background environment of cooled space telescopes. We have chosen the technique of adiabatic demagnetization of a paramagnetic salt as a gravity independent, compact, and low power way to achieve temperatures below pumped He-3 (0.3 K). The demagnetization cryostat we used was capable of reaching temperatures below 0.08 K using Chromium Potassium Alum as a salt from a starting temperature of 1.5 K and a starting magnetic field of 30,000 gauss. Computer control of the magnetic field decay allowed a temperature of 0.2 K to be maintained to within 0.5 mK over a time period exceeding 14 hours. The refrigerator duty cycle was over 90 percent at this temperature. The success of these tests has motivated us to construct a more compact portable adiabatic demagnetization cryostat capable of bolometer optical tests and use at the 5m Hale telescope at 1mm wavelengths.

  13. FRW-type cosmologies with adiabatic matter creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, J. A. S.; Germano, A. S. M.; Abramo, L. R. W.

    1996-04-01

    Some properties of cosmological models with matter creation are investigated in the framework of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker line element. For adiabatic matter creation, as developed by Prigogine and co-workers, we derive a simple expression relating the particle number density n and energy density ρ which holds regardless of the matter creation rate. The conditions to generate inflation are discussed and by considering the natural phenomenological matter creation rate ψ=3βnH, where β is a pure number of the order of unity and H is the Hubble parameter, a minimally modified hot big-bang model is proposed. The dynamic properties of such models can be deduced from the standard ones simply by replacing the adiabatic index γ of the equation of state by an effective parameter γ*=γ(1-β). The thermodynamic behavior is determined and it is also shown that ages large enough to agree with observations are obtained even given the high values of H suggested by recent measurements.

  14. Conditions for super-adiabatic droplet growth after entrainment mixing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Fan; Shaw, Raymond; Xue, Huiwen

    2016-07-29

    Cloud droplet response to entrainment and mixing between a cloud and its environment is considered, accounting for subsequent droplet growth during adiabatic ascent following a mixing event. The vertical profile for liquid water mixing ratio after a mixing event is derived analytically, allowing the reduction to be predicted from the mixing fraction and from the temperature and humidity for both the cloud and environment. It is derived for the limit of homogeneous mixing. The expression leads to a critical height above the mixing level: at the critical height the cloud droplet radius is the same for both mixed and unmixedmore » parcels, and the critical height is independent of the updraft velocity and mixing fraction. Cloud droplets in a mixed parcel are larger than in an unmixed parcel above the critical height, which we refer to as the “super-adiabatic” growth region. Analytical results are confirmed with a bin microphysics cloud model. Using the model, we explore the effects of updraft velocity, aerosol source in the environmental air, and polydisperse cloud droplets. Results show that the mixed parcel is more likely to reach the super-adiabatic growth region when the environmental air is humid and clean. It is also confirmed that the analytical predictions are matched by the volume-mean cloud droplet radius for polydisperse size distributions. The findings have implications for the origin of large cloud droplets that may contribute to onset of collision–coalescence in warm clouds.« less

  15. Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan -Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.

    2015-01-28

    We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ+/σ- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces actingmore » on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. As a result, for reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in < 10 μs with error probability on the order of 10-3.« less

  16. Turbulent Density Variations in Non-Adiabatic Interstellar Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higdon, J. C.; Conley, Alex

    1998-05-01

    Analyses of radio scintillation measurements have demonstrated (e.g., Rickett, ARAA, 28, 561, 1990) the existence of ubiquitous turbulent density fluctuations in the interstellar medium. Higdon (ApJ, 309, 342, 1986) and Goldreich and Sridhar (ApJ, 438, 763 1995) have modeled successfully these density variations as entropy structures distorted by convection in anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulent flows. However, the interstellar medium is a heterogeneous non-adiabatic fluid whose thermal properties result ( Field, ApJ, 142, 531 1965) from a balance of heating and cooling rates. The effect of the non-adiabatic nature of interstellar fluids on the properties of turbulent cascades to small scales has not been considered previously. We find that in thermally stable fluids that the required balance of heating and cooling decreases the amplitudes of entropy structures independently of their spatial scale. Consequently, we show that if the time scale for turbulent flows to cascade to small scales is significantly greater than the cooling time of an interstellar fluid, the generation of turbulent denisty density variations at large wave numbers is greatly suppressed. Such results constrain possible values for the turbulent outer scale in models of interstellar turbulent flows.

  17. AB INITIO SIMULATIONS FOR MATERIAL PROPERTIES ALONG THE JUPITER ADIABAT

    SciTech Connect

    French, Martin; Becker, Andreas; Lorenzen, Winfried; Nettelmann, Nadine; Bethkenhagen, Mandy; Redmer, Ronald; Wicht, Johannes

    2012-09-15

    We determine basic thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen-helium-water mixtures for the extreme conditions along Jupiter's adiabat via ab initio simulations, which are compiled in an accurate and consistent data set. In particular, we calculate the electrical and thermal conductivity, the shear and longitudinal viscosity, and diffusion coefficients of the nuclei. We present results for associated quantities like the magnetic and thermal diffusivity and the kinematic shear viscosity along an adiabat that is taken from a state-of-the-art interior structure model. Furthermore, the heat capacities, the thermal expansion coefficient, the isothermal compressibility, the Grueneisen parameter, and the speed of sound are calculated. We find that the onset of dissociation and ionization of hydrogen at about 0.9 Jupiter radii marks a region where the material properties change drastically. In the deep interior, where the electrons are degenerate, many of the material properties remain relatively constant. Our ab initio data will serve as a robust foundation for applications that require accurate knowledge of the material properties in Jupiter's interior, e.g., models for the dynamo generation.

  18. The effect of adiabaticity on strongly quenched Bose Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Hong; Kain, Ben

    2015-05-01

    We study the properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate following a deep quench to a large scattering length during which the condensate fraction nc changes with time. We construct a closed set of equations that highlight the role of the adiabaticity or equivalently, dnc/dt, the rate change of nc, which is to induce an (imaginary) effective interaction between quasiparticles. We show analytically that such a system supports a steady state characterized by a constant condensate density and a steady but periodically changing momentum distribution, whose time average is described exactly by the generalized Gibbs ensemble. We discuss how the nc -induced effective interaction, which cannot be ignored on the grounds of the adiabatic approximation for modes near the gapless Goldstone mode, can significantly affect condensate populations and Tan's contact for a Bose gas that has undergone a deep quench. In particular, we find that even when the Bose gas is quenched to unitarity, nc(t) does not completely deplete, approaching, instead, to a steady state with a finite condensate fraction. ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; KITP, University of Santa Barbara.

  19. Adiabatic Processes Realized with a Trapped Brownian Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Ignacio A.; Roldán, Édgar; Dinis, Luis; Petrov, Dmitri; Rica, Raúl A.

    2015-03-01

    The ability to implement adiabatic processes in the mesoscale is of key importance in the study of artificial or biological micro- and nanoengines. Microadiabatic processes have been elusive to experimental implementation due to the difficulty in isolating Brownian particles from their fluctuating environment. Here we report on the experimental realization of a microscopic quasistatic adiabatic process employing a trapped Brownian particle. We circumvent the complete isolation of the Brownian particle by designing a protocol where both characteristic volume and temperature of the system are changed in such a way that the entropy of the system is conserved along the process. We compare the protocols that follow from either the overdamped or underdamped descriptions, demonstrating that the latter is mandatory in order to obtain a vanishing average heat flux to the particle. We provide analytical expressions for the distributions of the fluctuating heat and entropy and verify them experimentally. Our protocols could serve to implement the first microscopic engine that is able to attain the fundamental limit for the efficiency set by Carnot.

  20. Adiabatic processes realized with a trapped Brownian particle.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ignacio A; Roldán, Édgar; Dinis, Luis; Petrov, Dmitri; Rica, Raúl A

    2015-03-27

    The ability to implement adiabatic processes in the mesoscale is of key importance in the study of artificial or biological micro- and nanoengines. Microadiabatic processes have been elusive to experimental implementation due to the difficulty in isolating Brownian particles from their fluctuating environment. Here we report on the experimental realization of a microscopic quasistatic adiabatic process employing a trapped Brownian particle. We circumvent the complete isolation of the Brownian particle by designing a protocol where both characteristic volume and temperature of the system are changed in such a way that the entropy of the system is conserved along the process. We compare the protocols that follow from either the overdamped or underdamped descriptions, demonstrating that the latter is mandatory in order to obtain a vanishing average heat flux to the particle. We provide analytical expressions for the distributions of the fluctuating heat and entropy and verify them experimentally. Our protocols could serve to implement the first microscopic engine that is able to attain the fundamental limit for the efficiency set by Carnot. PMID:25860731