Kittell, Aaron W.; Hyde, James S.
2015-01-01
Non-adiabatic rapid passage (NARS) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was introduced by Kittell, A.W., Camenisch, T.G., Ratke, J.J. Sidabras, J.W., Hyde, J.S., 2011 as a general purpose technique to collect the pure absorption response. The technique has been used to improve sensitivity relative to sinusoidal magnetic field modulation, increase the range of inter-spin distances that can be measured under near physiological conditions, and enhance spectral resolution in copper (II) spectra. In the present work, the method is extended to CW microwave power saturation of spin-labeled T4 Lysozyme (T4L). As in the cited papers, rapid triangular sweep of the polarizing magnetic field was superimposed on slow sweep across the spectrum. Adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) effects were encountered in samples undergoing very slow rotational diffusion as the triangular magnetic field sweep rate was increased. The paper reports results of variation of experimental parameters at the interface of adiabatic and non-adiabatic rapid sweep conditions. Comparison of the forward (up) and reverse (down) triangular sweeps is shown to be a good indicator of the presence of rapid passage effects. Spectral turning points can be distinguished from spectral regions between turning points in two ways: differential microwave power saturation and differential passage effects. Oxygen accessibility data are shown under NARS conditions that appear similar to conventional field modulation data. However, the sensitivity is much higher, permitting, in principle, experiments at substantially lower protein concentrations. Spectral displays were obtained that appear sensitive to rotational diffusion in the range of rotational correlation times of 10−3 to 10−7 s in a manner that is analogous to saturation transfer spectroscopy. PMID:25917132
Microscopic Description of Spontaneous Emission in Stark Chirped Rapid Adiabatic Passages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Xuan; Yuan, Hao; Zhao, Hong-Quan
2018-01-01
A microscopic approach describing the effect of spontaneous emission in the stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passages (SCRAPs) for quantum computation is presented. Apart from the phenomenological model, this microscopic one can investigate the dependence of the population dynamics both on the temperature of the environment and the decay rate γ. With flux-biased Josephson qubits as a specifical example, we study the efficiency of the SCRAP for realizing the basic Pauli-X and iSWAP gates. Our results show clearly that the behavior of the population transfer described by the microscopic model is similar with the phenomenological one at zero temperature. In the limit of very high temperature, the population probabilities of the qubit states exhibit strong stability properties. High efficiency for the quantum gate manipulations in SCRAPs is available against the weak decay rate γ ≪ 1 at low temperature.
Far-field nanoscopy on a semiconductor quantum dot via a rapid-adiabatic-passage-based switch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaldewey, Timo; Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Valentin, Sascha R.; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Warburton, Richard J.
2018-02-01
The diffraction limit prevents a conventional optical microscope from imaging at the nanoscale. However, nanoscale imaging of molecules is possible by exploiting an intensity-dependent molecular switch1-3. This switch is translated into a microscopy scheme, stimulated emission depletion microscopy4-7. Variants on this scheme exist3,8-13, yet all exploit an incoherent response to the lasers. We present a scheme that relies on a coherent response to a laser. Quantum control of a two-level system proceeds via rapid adiabatic passage, an ideal molecular switch. We implement this scheme on an ensemble of quantum dots. Each quantum dot results in a bright spot in the image with extent down to 30 nm (λ/31). There is no significant loss of intensity with respect to confocal microscopy, resulting in a factor of 10 improvement in emitter position determination. The experiments establish rapid adiabatic passage as a versatile tool in the super-resolution toolbox.
Wei, Yu-Jia; He, Yu-Ming; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Hu, Yi-Nan; He, Yu; Wu, Dian; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2014-11-12
Single photons are attractive candidates of quantum bits (qubits) for quantum computation and are the best messengers in quantum networks. Future scalable, fault-tolerant photonic quantum technologies demand both stringently high levels of photon indistinguishability and generation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate deterministic and robust generation of pulsed resonance fluorescence single photons from a single semiconductor quantum dot using adiabatic rapid passage, a method robust against fluctuation of driving pulse area and dipole moments of solid-state emitters. The emitted photons are background-free, have a vanishing two-photon emission probability of 0.3% and a raw (corrected) two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interference visibility of 97.9% (99.5%), reaching a precision that places single photons at the threshold for fault-tolerant surface-code quantum computing. This single-photon source can be readily scaled up to multiphoton entanglement and used for quantum metrology, boson sampling, and linear optical quantum computing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eilam, A.; Shapiro, M.
2012-01-01
We present a fully quantum-mechanical theory of the mutual light-matter effects when two laser pulses interact with three discrete states coupled to a (quasi)continuum. Our formulation uses a single set of equations to describe the time dependence of the discrete and continuum populations, as well as pulse propagation in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) situations, for both weak and strong laser pulses. The theory gives a mechanistic picture of the “slowing down of light” and the state of spontaneously emitted photons during this process. Surprising features regarding the time dependence of material and radiative transients as well as limitations on quantum light storage and retrieval are unraveled.
Adiabatic passage in photon-echo quantum memories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demeter, Gabor
2013-11-01
Photon-echo-based quantum memories use inhomogeneously broadened, optically thick ensembles of absorbers to store a weak optical signal and employ various protocols to rephase the atomic coherences for information retrieval. We study the application of two consecutive, frequency-chirped control pulses for coherence rephasing in an ensemble with a “natural” inhomogeneous broadening. Although propagation effects distort the two control pulses differently, chirped pulses that drive adiabatic passage can rephase atomic coherences in an optically thick storage medium. Combined with spatial phase-mismatching techniques to prevent primary echo emission, coherences can be rephased around the ground state to achieve secondary echo emission with close to unit efficiency. Potential advantages over similar schemes working with π pulses include greater potential signal fidelity, reduced noise due to spontaneous emission, and better capability for the storage of multiple memory channels.
Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in physics, chemistry, and beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitanov, Nikolay V.; Rangelov, Andon A.; Shore, Bruce W.; Bergmann, Klaas
2017-01-01
The technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), which allows efficient and selective population transfer between quantum states without suffering loss due to spontaneous emission, was introduced in 1990 by Gaubatz et al.. Since then STIRAP has emerged as an enabling methodology with widespread successful applications in many fields of physics, chemistry, and beyond. This article reviews the many applications of STIRAP emphasizing the developments since 2001, the time when the last major review on the topic was written (Vitanov, Fleischhauer et al.). A brief introduction into the theory of STIRAP and the early applications for population transfer within three-level systems is followed by the discussion of several extensions to multilevel systems, including multistate chains and tripod systems. The main emphasis is on the wide range of applications in atomic and molecular physics (including atom optics, cavity quantum electrodynamics, formation of ultracold molecules, etc.), quantum information (including single- and two-qubit gates, entangled-state preparation, etc.), solid-state physics (including processes in doped crystals, nitrogen-vacancy centers, superconducting circuits, semiconductor quantum dots and wells), and even some applications in classical physics (including waveguide optics, polarization optics, frequency conversion, etc.). Promising new prospects for STIRAP are also presented (including processes in optomechanics, precision experiments, detection of parity violation in molecules, spectroscopy of core-nonpenetrating Rydberg states, population transfer with x-ray pulses, etc.).
Connection between optimal control theory and adiabatic-passage techniques in quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Assémat, E.; Sugny, D.
2012-08-01
This work explores the relationship between optimal control theory and adiabatic passage techniques in quantum systems. The study is based on a geometric analysis of the Hamiltonian dynamics constructed from Pontryagin's maximum principle. In a three-level quantum system, we show that the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique can be associated to a peculiar Hamiltonian singularity. One deduces that the adiabatic pulse is solution of the optimal control problem only for a specific cost functional. This analysis is extended to the case of a four-level quantum system.
Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a three-level superconducting circuit
Kumar, K. S.; Vepsäläinen, A.; Danilin, S.; Paraoanu, G. S.
2016-01-01
The adiabatic manipulation of quantum states is a powerful technique that opened up new directions in quantum engineering—enabling tests of fundamental concepts such as geometrical phases and topological transitions, and holding the promise of alternative models of quantum computation. Here we benchmark the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage for circuit quantum electrodynamics by employing the first three levels of a transmon qubit. In this ladder configuration, we demonstrate a population transfer efficiency >80% between the ground state and the second excited state using two adiabatic Gaussian-shaped control microwave pulses. By doing quantum tomography at successive moments during the Raman pulses, we investigate the transfer of the population in time domain. Furthermore, we show that this protocol can be reversed by applying a third adiabatic pulse, we study a hybrid nondiabatic–adiabatic sequence, and we present experimental results for a quasi-degenerate intermediate level. PMID:26902454
Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a three-level superconducting circuit.
Kumar, K S; Vepsäläinen, A; Danilin, S; Paraoanu, G S
2016-02-23
The adiabatic manipulation of quantum states is a powerful technique that opened up new directions in quantum engineering--enabling tests of fundamental concepts such as geometrical phases and topological transitions, and holding the promise of alternative models of quantum computation. Here we benchmark the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage for circuit quantum electrodynamics by employing the first three levels of a transmon qubit. In this ladder configuration, we demonstrate a population transfer efficiency >80% between the ground state and the second excited state using two adiabatic Gaussian-shaped control microwave pulses. By doing quantum tomography at successive moments during the Raman pulses, we investigate the transfer of the population in time domain. Furthermore, we show that this protocol can be reversed by applying a third adiabatic pulse, we study a hybrid nondiabatic-adiabatic sequence, and we present experimental results for a quasi-degenerate intermediate level.
He, Shuang; Su, Shi-Lei; Wang, Dong-Yang; Sun, Wen-Mei; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou
2016-01-01
We propose an effective scheme of shortcuts to adiabaticity for generating a three-dimensional entanglement of two atoms trapped in a cavity using the transitionless quantum driving (TQD) approach. The key point of this approach is to construct an effective Hamiltonian that drives the dynamics of a system along instantaneous eigenstates of a reference Hamiltonian to reproduce the same final state as that of an adiabatic process within a much shorter time. In this paper, the shortcuts to adiabatic passage are constructed by introducing two auxiliary excited levels in each atom and applying extra cavity modes and classical fields to drive the relevant transitions. Thereby, the three-dimensional entanglement is obtained with a faster rate than that in the adiabatic passage. Moreover, the influences of atomic spontaneous emission and photon loss on the fidelity are discussed by numerical simulation. The results show that the speed of entanglement implementation is greatly improved by the use of adiabatic shortcuts and that this entanglement implementation is robust against decoherence. This will be beneficial to the preparation of high-dimensional entanglement in experiment and provides the necessary conditions for the application of high-dimensional entangled states in quantum information processing. PMID:27499169
He, Shuang; Su, Shi-Lei; Wang, Dong-Yang; Sun, Wen-Mei; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou
2016-08-08
We propose an effective scheme of shortcuts to adiabaticity for generating a three-dimensional entanglement of two atoms trapped in a cavity using the transitionless quantum driving (TQD) approach. The key point of this approach is to construct an effective Hamiltonian that drives the dynamics of a system along instantaneous eigenstates of a reference Hamiltonian to reproduce the same final state as that of an adiabatic process within a much shorter time. In this paper, the shortcuts to adiabatic passage are constructed by introducing two auxiliary excited levels in each atom and applying extra cavity modes and classical fields to drive the relevant transitions. Thereby, the three-dimensional entanglement is obtained with a faster rate than that in the adiabatic passage. Moreover, the influences of atomic spontaneous emission and photon loss on the fidelity are discussed by numerical simulation. The results show that the speed of entanglement implementation is greatly improved by the use of adiabatic shortcuts and that this entanglement implementation is robust against decoherence. This will be beneficial to the preparation of high-dimensional entanglement in experiment and provides the necessary conditions for the application of high-dimensional entangled states in quantum information processing.
Fast CNOT gate between two spatially separated atoms via shortcuts to adiabatic passage.
Liang, Yan; Song, Chong; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou
2015-09-07
Quantum logic gate is indispensable to quantum computation. One of the important qubit operations is the quantum controlled-not (CNOT) gate that performs a NOT operation on a target qubit depending on the state of the control qubit. In this paper we present a scheme to realize the quantum CNOT gate between two spatially separated atoms via shortcuts to adiabatic passage. The influence of various decoherence processes on the fidelity is discussed. The strict numerical simulation results show that the fidelity for the CNOT gate is relatively high.
Optimum conditions for producing Cs2 molecular condensates by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Zhifang; Li, Weidong; Wang, Lirong; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang
2009-10-01
The optimum conditions for producing Cs2 molecular condensates from Cs atomic condensates with high transfer efficiency by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage are presented. Under the extended “two-photon” resonance condition, including the two-photon process, the mean-field correction, and the tunneling coupling between two upper excited molecular levels, a high and stable conversion efficiency is realized. The high conversion efficiency could be achieved by following two methods under experimentally less demanding conditions (relatively small effective Rabi frequency for pump laser pulse). One is adjusting the detuning difference between two laser pulses for same effective Rabi frequencies with up to 87.2% transfer efficiency. Another one is adjusting the effective Rabi frequency, the detuning of dump laser for given effective Rabi frequency, and the detuning of pump laser with up to 80.7% transfer efficiency.
A high-field adiabatic fast passage ultracold neutron spin flipper for the UCNA experiment.
Holley, A T; Broussard, L J; Davis, J L; Hickerson, K; Ito, T M; Liu, C-Y; Lyles, J T M; Makela, M; Mammei, R R; Mendenhall, M P; Morris, C L; Mortensen, R; Pattie, R W; Rios, R; Saunders, A; Young, A R
2012-07-01
The UCNA collaboration is making a precision measurement of the β asymmetry (A) in free neutron decay using polarized ultracold neutrons (UCN). A critical component of this experiment is an adiabatic fast passage neutron spin flipper capable of efficient operation in ambient magnetic fields on the order of 1 T. The requirement that it operate in a high field necessitated the construction of a free neutron spin flipper based, for the first time, on a birdcage resonator. The design, construction, and initial testing of this spin flipper prior to its use in the first measurement of A with UCN during the 2007 run cycle of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center's 800 MeV proton accelerator is detailed. These studies determined the flipping efficiency of the device, averaged over the UCN spectrum present at the location of the spin flipper, to be ̅ε=0.9985(4).
Cross-coupling effects in circuit-QED stimulated Raman adiabatic passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vepsäläinen, A.; Paraoanu, G. S.
2018-03-01
Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage is a quantum protocol that can be used for robust state preparation in a three-level system. It has been commonly employed in quantum optics, but recently this technique has drawn attention also in circuit quantum electrodynamics. The protocol relies on two slowly varying drive pulses that couple the initial and the target state via an intermediate state, which remains unpopulated. Here we study the detrimental effect of the parasitic couplings of the drives into transitions other than those required by the protocol. The effect is most prominent in systems with almost harmonic energy level structure, such as the transmon. We show that under these conditions in the presence of decoherence there exists an optimal STIRAP amplitude for population transfer.
Adiabatic and fast passage ultra-wideband inversion in pulsed EPR.
Doll, Andrin; Pribitzer, Stephan; Tschaggelar, René; Jeschke, Gunnar
2013-05-01
We demonstrate that adiabatic and fast passage ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses can achieve inversion over several hundreds of MHz and thus enhance the measurement sensitivity, as shown by two selected experiments. Technically, frequency-swept pulses are generated by a 12 GS/s arbitrary waveform generator and upconverted to X-band frequencies. This pulsed UWB source is utilized as an incoherent channel in an ordinary pulsed EPR spectrometer. We discuss experimental methodologies and modeling techniques to account for the response of the resonator, which can strongly limit the excitation bandwidth of the entire non-linear excitation chain. Aided by these procedures, pulses compensated for bandwidth or variations in group delay reveal enhanced inversion efficiency. The degree of bandwidth compensation is shown to depend critically on the time available for excitation. As a result, we demonstrate optimized inversion recovery and double electron electron resonance (DEER) experiments. First, virtually complete inversion of the nitroxide spectrum with an adiabatic pulse of 128ns length is achieved. Consequently, spectral diffusion between inverted and non-inverted spins is largely suppressed and the observation bandwidth can be increased to increase measurement sensitivity. Second, DEER is performed on a terpyridine-based copper (II) complex with a nitroxide-copper distance of 2.5nm. As previously demonstrated on this complex, when pumping copper spins and observing nitroxide spins, the modulation depth is severely limited by the excitation bandwidth of the pump pulse. By using fast passage UWB pulses with a maximum length of 64ns, we achieve up to threefold enhancement of the modulation depth. Associated artifacts in distance distributions when increasing the bandwidth of the pump pulse are shown to be small. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Detuning-induced stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in dense two-level systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Li; Lin, Gongwei; Niu, Yueping; Gong, Shangqing
2018-05-01
We investigate the coherence generation in dense two-level systems under detuning-induced stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (D-STIRAP). In the dense two-level system, the near dipole-dipole (NDD) interaction should be taken into consideration. With the increase in the strength of the NDD interaction, it is found that a switchlike transition of the generated coherence from maximum value to zero appears. Meanwhile, the adiabatic condition of the D-STIRAP is destroyed in the presence of the NDD interaction. In order to avoid the sudden decrease in the generated coherence and maintain the maximum value, we can use stronger detuning pulse or pump pulse, between which increasing the intensity of the detuning pulse is of more efficiency. Except for taking advantage of such maximum coherence in the high density case into areas like enhancing the four-wave mixing process, we also point out that the phenomenon of the coherence transition can be applied as an optical switch.
Chen, Ye-Hong; Xia, Yan; Song, Jie; Chen, Qing-Qin
2015-10-28
Berry's approach on "transitionless quantum driving" shows how to set a Hamiltonian which drives the dynamics of a system along instantaneous eigenstates of a reference Hamiltonian to reproduce the same final result of an adiabatic process in a shorter time. In this paper, motivated by transitionless quantum driving, we construct shortcuts to adiabatic passage in a three-atom system to create the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states with the help of quantum Zeno dynamics and of non-resonant lasers. The influence of various decoherence processes is discussed by numerical simulation and the result proves that the scheme is fast and robust against decoherence and operational imperfection.
Stabilized 1762 nm Laser for Barium Ion Qubit Readout via Adiabatic Passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salacka, Joanna
2008-05-01
Trapped ions are one of the most promising candidates for the implementation of quantum computation. We are trapping single ions of Ba^137 to serve as our qubit, because the hyperfine structure of its ground state and its various visible-wavelength transitions make it favorable for quantum computation. The two hyperfine ground levels will serve as our |1> and |0> qubit states. The readout of the qubit will be accomplished by first selectively shelving the ion directly to the metastable 5D5/2 state using a 1762 nm narrow band fiber laser. Next, the cooling and repumping lasers are turned on and the fluorescence of the ion is measured. Since the 5D5/2 state is decoupled from the laser cooling transitions, the ion will remain dark when shelved. Thus if fluorescence is seen we know that the qubit was in the |0> state, and if no fluorescence is seen it was in the |1> state. The laser is actively stabilized to a temperature-controlled, high-finesse 1.76 um Zerodur optical cavity. The shelving to the 5D5/2 state is most efficiently achieved with adiabatic passage, which requires a smooth scan of the laser frequency across the transition resonance. To accomplish this, the laser frequency is modulated by an AOM driven by a smooth frequency sweep of adjustable amplitude and duration.
Baranowski, M; Woźniak-Braszak, A; Jurga, K
2016-01-01
The paper presents the benefits of using fast adiabatic passage for the study of molecular dynamics in the solid state heteronuclear systems in the laboratory frame. A homemade pulse spectrometer operating at the frequency of 30.2MHz and 28.411MHz for protons and fluorines, respectively, has been enhanced with microcontroller direct digital synthesizer DDS controller [1-4]. This work briefly describes how to construct a low-cost and easy-to-assemble adiabatic extension set for homemade and commercial spectrometers based on recently very popular Arduino shields. The described set was designed for fast adiabatic generation. Timing and synchronization problems are discussed. The cross-relaxation experiments with different initial states of the two spin systems have been performed. Contrary to our previous work [5] where the steady-state NOE experiments were conducted now proton spins (1)H are polarized in the magnetic field B0 while fluorine spins (19)F are perturbed by selective saturation for a short time and then the system is allowed to evolve for a period in the absence of a saturating field. The adiabatic passage application leads to a reversal of magnetization of fluorine spins and increases the amplitude of the signal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perreault, William; Mukherjee, Nandini; Zare, Richard
2017-04-01
Stark induced adiabatic Raman passage (SARP) allows us to prepare an appreciable concentration of isolated molecules in a specific highly excited vibrational level. As a demonstration, we transfer nearly 100% of the HD (v =0, J =0) in a supersonically expanded molecular beam of HD molecules to HD (v =4, J =0). This is achieved with a sequence of partially overlapping nanosecond pump (355 nm) and Stokes (680 nm) single-mode laser pulses of unequal intensities. The experimental spectral broadening with pump to Stokes delay and saturation against Stokes power suggest that complete population transfer has been achieved from the initial HD (v =0, J =0) to the target (v =4, J =0). By comparing our experimental data with our theoretical calculations we are able to draw two important conclusions: (1) using SARP a large population (>1010 molecules per laser pulse) is prepared in the (v =4, J =0) level of HD, and (2) the polarizability α00 , 40 (0.6 x 10-41Cm2V-1) for the (v =0, J =0) to (v =4, J =0) Raman overtone transition is only about five times smaller than α00 , 10 for the (v =0, J =0) to (v =1, J =0) fundamental Raman transition. This capability of preparing selected, highly excited vibrational quantum states of molecules opens new opportunities for fundamental scattering experiments. This work has been supported by the U.S. Army Research Office under ARO Grant No. W911NF-16-1-1061, and MURI Grant No. W911NF-12-1-0476.
Rapid-Adiabatic Control of Ro-Vibrational Populations in Polyatomic Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zak, Emil J.; Yachmenev, Andrey
2017-06-01
We present a simple method for control of ro-vibrational populations in polyatomic molecules in the presence of inhomogeneous electric fields [1]. Cooling and trapping of heavy polar polyatomic molecules has become one of the frontier goals in high-resolution molecular spectroscopy, especially in the context of parity violation measurement in chiral compounds [2]. A key step toward reaching this goal would be development of a robust and efficient protocol for control of populations of ro-vibrational states in polyatomic, often floppy molecules. Here we demonstrate a modification of the stark-chirped rapid-adiabatic-passage technique (SCRAP) [3], designed for achieving high levels of control of ro-vibrational populations over a selected region in space. The new method employs inhomogeneous electric fields to generate space- and time- controlled Stark-shifts of energy levels in molecules. Adiabatic passage between ro-vibrational states is enabled by the pump pulse, which raises the value of the Rabi frequency. This Stark-chirped population transfer can be used in manipulation of population differences between high-field-seeking and low-field-seeking states of molecules in the Stark decelerator [4]. Appropriate timing of voltages on electric rods located along the decelerator combined with a single pump laser renders our method as potentially more efficient than traditional Stark decelerator techniques. Simulations for NH_3 show significant improvement in effectiveness of cooling, with respect to the standard 'moving-potential' method [5]. At the same time a high phase-space acceptance of the molecular packet is maintained. E. J. Zak, A. Yachmenev (submitted). C. Medcraft, R. Wolf, M. Schnell, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 53, 43, 11656-11659 (2014) M. Oberst, H. Munch, T. Halfman, PRL 99, 173001 (2007). K. Wohlfart, F. Grätz, F. Filsinger, H. Haak, G. Meijer, J. Küpper, Phys. Rev. A 77, 031404(R) (2008). H. L. Bethlem, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Mei; Chen, Qing-Qin
2018-05-01
We propose an efficient scheme to generate the maximal entangle states in an atom–cavity system between two three-level atoms in cavity quantum electronic dynamics system based on shortcuts to adiabatic passage. In the accelerate scheme, there is no need to design a time-varying coupling coefficient for the cavity. We only need to tactfully design time-dependent lasers to drive the system into the desired entangled states. Controlling the detuning between the cavity mode and lasers, we deduce a determinate analysis formula for this quantum information processing. The lasers do not need to distinguish which atom is to be affected, therefore the implementation of the experiment is simpler. The method is also generalized to generate a W state. Moreover, the accelerated program can be extended to a multi-body system and an analytical solution in a higher-dimensional system can be achieved. The influence of decoherence and variations of the parameters are discussed by numerical simulation. The results show that the maximally entangled states can be quickly prepared in a short time with high fidelity, and which are robust against both parameter fluctuations and dissipation. Our study enriches the physics and applications of multi-particle quantum entanglement preparation via shortcuts to adiabatic passage in quantum electronic dynamics.
A homonuclear spin-pair filter for solid-state NMR based on adiabatic-passage techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verel, René; Baldus, Marc; Ernst, Matthias; Meier, Beat H.
1998-05-01
A filtering scheme for the selection of spin pairs (and larger spin clusters) under fast magic-angle spinning is proposed. The scheme exploits the avoided level crossing in spin pairs during an adiabatic amplitude sweep through the so-called HORROR recoupling condition. The advantages over presently used double-quantum filters are twofold. (i) The maximum theoretical filter efficiency is, due to the adiabatic variation, 100% instead of 73% as for transient methods. (ii) Since the filter does not rely on the phase-cycling properties of the double-quantum coherence, there is no need to obtain the full double-quantum intensity for all spins in the sample at one single point in time. The only important requirement is that all coupled spins pass through a two-spin state during the amplitude sweep. This makes the pulse scheme robust with respect to rf-amplitude missetting, rf-field inhomogeneity and chemical-shift offset.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beterov, I. I.; Hamzina, G. N.; Yakshina, E. A.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Entin, V. M.; Ryabtsev, I. I.
2018-03-01
High-fidelity entangled Bell states are of great interest in quantum physics. Entanglement of ultracold neutral atoms in two spatially separated optical dipole traps is promising for implementation of quantum computing and quantum simulation and for investigation of Bell states of material objects. We propose a method to entangle two atoms via long-range Rydberg-Rydberg interaction. Alternative to previous approaches, based on Rydberg blockade, we consider radio-frequency-assisted Stark-tuned Förster resonances in Rb Rydberg atoms. To reduce the sensitivity of the fidelity of Bell states to the fluctuations of interatomic distance, we propose to use the double adiabatic passage across the radio-frequency-assisted Stark-tuned Förster resonances, which results in a deterministic phase shift of the collective two-atom state.
Jirauschek, Christian; Huber, Robert
2015-01-01
We analyze the physics behind the newest generation of rapidly wavelength tunable sources for optical coherence tomography (OCT), retaining a single longitudinal cavity mode during operation without repeated build up of lasing. In this context, we theoretically investigate the currently existing concepts of rapidly wavelength-swept lasers based on tuning of the cavity length or refractive index, leading to an altered optical path length inside the resonator. Specifically, we consider vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirrors as well as Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) and Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg reflector (VT-DBR) lasers. Based on heuristic arguments and exact analytical solutions of Maxwell’s equations for a fundamental laser resonator model, we show that adiabatic wavelength tuning is achieved, i.e., hopping between cavity modes associated with a repeated build up of lasing is avoided, and the photon number is conserved. As a consequence, no fundamental limit exists for the wavelength tuning speed, in principle enabling wide-range wavelength sweeps at arbitrary tuning speeds with narrow instantaneous linewidth. PMID:26203373
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panda, C. D.; O'Leary, B. R.; West, A. D.; Baron, J.; Hess, P. W.; Hoffman, C.; Kirilov, E.; Overstreet, C. B.; West, E. P.; DeMille, D.; Doyle, J. M.; Gabrielse, G.
2016-05-01
Experimental searches for the electron electric-dipole moment (EDM) probe new physics beyond the standard model. The current best EDM limit was set by the ACME Collaboration [Science 343, 269 (2014), 10.1126/science.1248213], constraining time-reversal symmetry (T ) violating physics at the TeV energy scale. ACME used optical pumping to prepare a coherent superposition of ThO H3Δ1 states that have aligned electron spins. Spin precession due to the molecule's internal electric field was measured to extract the EDM. We report here on an improved method for preparing this spin-aligned state of the electron by using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). We demonstrate a transfer efficiency of 75 %±5 % , representing a significant gain in signal for a next-generation EDM experiment. We discuss the particularities of implementing STIRAP in systems such as ours, where molecular ensembles with large phase-space distributions are transferred via weak molecular transitions with limited laser power and limited optical access.
Moving Difference (MDIFF) Non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) EPR of copper(II)
Hyde, James S.; Bennett, Brian; Kittell, Aaron W.; Kowalski, Jason M.; Sidabras, Jason W.
2014-01-01
Non Adiabatic Rapid Sweep (NARS) EPR spectroscopy has been introduced for application to nitroxide-labeled biological samples (AW Kittell et al, (2011)). Displays are pure absorption, and are built up by acquiring data in spectral segments that are concatenated. In this paper we extend the method to frozen solutions of copper-imidazole, a square planar copper complex with four in-plane nitrogen ligands. Pure absorption spectra are created from concatenation of 170 5-gauss segments spanning 850 G at 1.9 GHz. These spectra, however, are not directly useful since nitrogen superhyperfine couplings are barely visible. Application of the moving difference (MDIFF) algorithm to the digitized NARS pure absorption spectrum is used to produce spectra that are analogous to the first harmonic EPR. The signal intensity is about 4 times higher than when using conventional 100 kHz field modulation, depending on line shape. MDIFF not only filters the spectrum, but also the noise, resulting in further improvement of the SNR for the same signal acquisition time. The MDIFF amplitude can be optimized retrospectively, different spectral regions can be examined at different amplitudes, and an amplitude can be used that is substantially greater than the upper limit of the field modulation amplitude of a conventional EPR spectrometer, which improves the signal-to-noise ratio of broad lines. PMID:24036469
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Nandini; Dong, Wenrui; Perreault, William; Zare, Richard
2017-04-01
We prepare a large ensemble of rovibrationally excited (v = 1, J = 2) H2 molecules in a coherent superposition of M-states using Stark-induced adiabatic Raman passage (SARP) with linearly polarized single mode pump (532 nm) and Stokes (699 nm) laser pulses of duration 6 ns and 4 ns. A biaxial superposition state, | ψ〉 = 1/ √2 [ | v = 1, J = 2, M = -2〉- | v = 1, J = 2, M = + 2〉], is prepared using SARP with a sequence of a pump laser pulse partially overlapping with a cross polarized Stokes laser pulse co-propagating along the quantization z-axis. The degree of phase coherence is measured by recording interference fringes in the ion signal produced using the O(2) line of 2 +1 resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) from the rovibrationally excited (v = 1, J = 2) level as a function of REMPI laser polarization angle. The ion signal is measured using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Nearly 60% population transfer from H2 (v = 0, J = 0) ground state to the superposition state in H2 (v = 1, J = 2) is measured from the depletion of Q(0) REMPI signal of the (v = 0, J = 0) ground state. The M-state superposition behaves much like a multi-slit interferometer where the number of slits, i.e. the number of M-states, and their separations, i.e. the relative phase, can be varied experimentally. This work has been supported by the U.S. Army Research Office.
Chirped quantum cascade laser induced rapid passage signatures in an optically thick gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Northern, J. H.; Ritchie, G. A. D.; Smakman, E. P.; van Helden, J. H.; Walker, R. J.; Duxbury, G.
2011-01-01
We report observations of rapid passage signals induced in samples of N2O and CH4 present in a multipass cell with an optical path length of 5 m. The effect of laser power and chirp rate upon the signals has been studied by utilising two different chirped quantum cascade lasers operating around 8 μm. The rapid passage signals exhibit an increasing delay in the switch from absorption to emission as a function of increased gas pressure (up to 8 Torr of gas). By comparing a selection of transitions in N2O and CH4, we show that, unlike ammonia, this `pressure shift' is independent of the transition dipole moment, spectroscopic branch probed and laser chirp rate. As the transition dipole moment is much larger in nitrous oxide than methane, we believe that this indicates that N2O-N2O collisions are more efficient at removing coherence from the polarised sample than CH4-CH4 collisions. We have also observed this pressure shift in a short path length of 40 cm, although with a much reduced value, indicating that propagation effects are important in this optically thick minimally damped system.
Adiabatic quantum computation along quasienergies
Tanaka, Atushi; Nemoto, Kae; National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 101-8430
2010-02-15
The parametric deformations of quasienergies and eigenvectors of unitary operators are applied to the design of quantum adiabatic algorithms. The conventional, standard adiabatic quantum computation proceeds along eigenenergies of parameter-dependent Hamiltonians. By contrast, discrete adiabatic computation utilizes adiabatic passage along the quasienergies of parameter-dependent unitary operators. For example, such computation can be realized by a concatenation of parameterized quantum circuits, with an adiabatic though inevitably discrete change of the parameter. A design principle of adiabatic passage along quasienergy was recently proposed: Cheon's quasienergy and eigenspace anholonomies on unitary operators is available to realize anholonomic adiabatic algorithms [A. Tanaka and M.more » Miyamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 160407 (2007)], which compose a nontrivial family of discrete adiabatic algorithms. It is straightforward to port a standard adiabatic algorithm to an anholonomic adiabatic one, except an introduction of a parameter |v>, which is available to adjust the gaps of the quasienergies to control the running time steps. In Grover's database search problem, the costs to prepare |v> for the qualitatively different (i.e., power or exponential) running time steps are shown to be qualitatively different.« less
Implementation speed of deterministic population passages compared to that of Rabi pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jingwei; Wei, L. F.
2015-02-01
Fast Rabi π -pulse technique has been widely applied to various coherent quantum manipulations, although it requires precise designs of the pulse areas. Relaxing the precise pulse designs, various rapid adiabatic passage (RAP) approaches have been alternatively utilized to implement various population passages deterministically. However, the usual RAP protocol could not be implemented desirably fast, as the relevant adiabatic condition should be robustly satisfied during the passage. Here, we propose a modified shortcut to adiabaticity (STA) technique to accelerate significantly the desired deterministic quantum state population passages. This transitionless technique is beyond the usual rotating wave approximation (RWA) performed in the recent STA protocols, and thus can be applied to deliver various fast quantum evolutions wherein the relevant counter-rotating effects cannot be neglected. The proposal is demonstrated specifically with the driven two- and three-level systems. Numerical results show that with the present STA technique beyond the RWA the usual Stark-chirped RAPs and stimulated Raman adiabatic passages could be significantly speeded up; the deterministic population passages could be implemented as fast as the widely used fast Rabi π pulses, but are insensitive to the applied pulse areas.
Kittell, Aaron W.; Camenisch, Theodore G.; Ratke, Joseph J.; Sidabras, Jason W.; Hyde, James S.
2011-01-01
A continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum is typically displayed as the first harmonic response to the application of 100 kHz magnetic field modulation, which is used to enhance sensitivity by reducing the level of 1/f noise. However, magnetic field modulation of any amplitude causes spectral broadening and sacrifices EPR spectral intensity by at least a factor of two. In the work presented here, a CW rapid-scan spectroscopic technique that avoids these compromises and also provides a means of avoiding 1/f noise is developed. This technique, termed non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) EPR, consists of repetitively sweeping the polarizing magnetic field in a linear manner over a spectral fragment with a small coil at a repetition rate that is sufficiently high that receiver noise, microwave phase noise, and environmental microphonics, each of which has 1/f characteristics, are overcome. Nevertheless, the rate of sweep is sufficiently slow that adiabatic responses are avoided and the spin system is always close to thermal equilibrium. The repetitively acquired spectra from the spectral fragment are averaged. Under these conditions, undistorted pure absorption spectra are obtained without broadening or loss of signal intensity. A digital filter such as a moving average is applied to remove high frequency noise, which is approximately equivalent in bandwidth to use of an integrating time constant in conventional field modulation with lock-in detection. Nitroxide spectra at L- and X-band are presented. PMID:21741868
McCormack, E A; Lowth, H S; Bell, M T; Weidmann, D; Ritchie, G A D
2012-07-21
A continuous wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) operating at 10 μm has been used to record absorption spectra of low pressure samples of OCS in an astigmatic Herriott cell. As a result of the frequency chirp of the laser, the spectra show clearly the effects of rapid passage on the absorption line shape. At the low chirp rates that can be obtained with the cw-QCL, population transfer between rovibrational quantum states is predicted to be much more efficient than in typical pulsed QCL experiments. This optical pumping is investigated by solving the Maxwell Bloch equations to simulate the propagation of the laser radiation through an inhomogeneously broadened two-level system. The calculated absorption profiles show good quantitative agreement with those measured experimentally over a range of chirp rates and optical thicknesses. It is predicted that at a low chirp rate of 0.13 MHz ns(-1), the population transfer between rovibrational quantum states is 12%, considerably more than that obtained at the higher chirp rates utilised in pulsed QCL experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pietruszka, A. J.; Marske, J. P.; Weis, D.; Garcia, M. O.; Rhodes, J. M.
2006-12-01
There are few quantitative estimates for the size, shape, and distribution of small-scale compositional heterogeneities within the Hawaiian mantle plume. The chemistry of recent lavas from the two most active Hawaiian volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa, provide a snapshot of the heterogeneous structure of the plume beneath Hawaii. We present Pb and Sr isotope ratios of two suites of young prehistoric lavas from these volcanoes: (1) Kilauea lavas from AD 1000 to 1500, and (2) 14C-dated Mauna Loa flows from ~2,650- 140 years BP. Prior to this study, the Pb and Sr isotope ratios of lavas from these volcanoes were thought to be completely distinct (e.g., Abouchami et al., 2005). However, these prehistoric Kilauea and Mauna Loa lavas display a systematic isotopic fluctuation, and the Kilauea lavas (in particular) span the Pb and Sr isotopic divide that was previously thought to exist between these two volcanoes. For a brief period from AD 250 to 1500, the Pb and Sr isotope ratios of Kilauea and Mauna Loa lavas departed from values typical for each volcano's historical period, moved towards a common isotopic composition, and subsequently, returned to more typical values. This transient magmatic event was probably caused by the rapid passage of a small-scale compositional heterogeneity though the melting regions of these volcanoes. The heterogeneity is thought to be either a single body that extends between the summits of both Kilauea and Mauna Loa (~35 km long) or the ubiquitous plume matrix itself. The time scale of this event (centuries) is much shorter than previously noted for variations in the isotopic composition of Hawaiian lavas due to the upwelling of heterogeneities within the plume (thousands to tens of thousands of years; Blichert-Toft et al., 2003; Kurz et al., 2004). Calculations based on the duration of the isotopic excursion suggest a maximum thickness for the melting region (and thus, the heterogeneity) of only ~5-10 km.
Quantum adiabatic computation and adiabatic conditions
Wei Zhaohui; Ying Mingsheng
2007-08-15
Recently, quantum adiabatic computation has attracted more and more attention in the literature. It is a novel quantum computation model based on adiabatic approximation, and the analysis of a quantum adiabatic algorithm depends highly on the adiabatic conditions. However, it has been pointed out that the traditional adiabatic conditions are problematic. Thus, results obtained previously should be checked and sufficient adiabatic conditions applicable to adiabatic computation should be proposed. Based on a result of Tong et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 150402 (2007)], we propose a modified adiabatic criterion which is more applicable to the analysis of adiabatic algorithms. Asmore » an example, we prove the validity of the local adiabatic search algorithm by employing our criterion.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marske, Jared P.; Pietruszka, Aaron J.; Weis, Dominique; Garcia, Michael O.; Rhodes, J. Michael
2007-07-01
Recent Kilauea and Mauna Loa lavas provide a snapshot of the size, shape, and distribution of compositional heterogeneities within the Hawaiian mantle plume. Here we present a study of the Pb, Sr, and Nd isotope ratios of two suites of young prehistoric lavas from these volcanoes: (1) Kilauea summit lavas erupted from AD 900 to 1400, and (2) 14C-dated Mauna Loa flows erupted from ˜ 2580-140 yr before present (relative to AD 1950). These lavas display systematic isotopic fluctuations, and the Kilauea lavas span the Pb isotopic divide that was previously thought to exist between these two volcanoes. For a brief period from AD 250 to 1400, the 206Pb/ 204Pb and 87Sr/ 86Sr isotope ratios and ɛNd values of Kilauea and Mauna Loa lavas departed from values typical for each volcano (based on historical and other young prehistoric lavas), moved towards an intermediate composition, and subsequently returned to typical values. This is the only known period in the eruptive history of these volcanoes when such a simultaneous convergence of Pb, Sr, and Nd isotope ratios has occurred. The common isotopic composition of lavas erupted from both Kilauea and Mauna Loa during this transient magmatic event was probably caused by the rapid passage of a small-scale compositional heterogeneity through the melting regions of both volcanoes. This heterogeneity is thought to have been either a single body (˜ 35 km long based on the distance between the summits of these volcanoes) or the plume matrix itself (which would be expected to be present beneath both volcanoes). The time scale of this event (centuries) is much shorter than previously noted for variations in the isotopic composition of Hawaiian lavas due to the upwelling of heterogeneities within the plume (thousands to tens of thousands of years). Calculations based on the timing of the isotopic convergence suggest a maximum thickness for the melting region (and thus, the heterogeneity) of ˜ 5-10 km. The small size of the
Kittell, Aaron W.; Hustedt, Eric J.; Hyde, James S.
2014-01-01
Site-directed spin-labeling electron paramagnetic resonance (SDSL EPR) provides insight into the local structure and motion of a spin probe strategically attached to a molecule. When a second spin is introduced to the system, macromolecular information can be obtained through measurement of inter-spin distances either by continuous wave (CW) or pulsed electron double resonance (ELDOR) techniques. If both methodologies are considered, inter-spin distances of 8 to 80 Å can be experimentally determined. However, there exists a region at the upper limit of the conventional X-band (9.5 GHz) CW technique and the lower limit of the four-pulse double electron-electron resonance (DEER) experiment where neither method is particularly reliable. The work presented here utilizes L-band (1.9 GHz) in combination with non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) EPR to address this opportunity by increasing the upper limit of the CW technique. Because L-band linewidths are three to seven times narrower than those at X-band, dipolar broadenings that are small relative to the X-band inhomogeneous linewidth become observable, but the signal loss due to the frequency dependence of the Boltzmann factor, has made L-band especially challenging. NARS has been shown to increase sensitivity by a factor of five, and overcomes much of this loss, making L-band distance determination more feasible [1]. Two different systems are presented and distances of 18–30 Å have been experimentally determined at physiologically relevant temperatures. Measurements are in excellent agreement with a helical model and values determined by DEER. PMID:22750251
Broadband photonic transport between waveguides by adiabatic elimination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oukraou, Hassan; Coda, Virginie; Rangelov, Andon A.; Montemezzani, Germano
2018-02-01
We propose an adiabatic method for the robust transfer of light between the two outer waveguides in a three-waveguide directional coupler. Unlike the established technique inherited from stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), the method proposed here is symmetric with respect to an exchange of the left and right waveguides in the structure and permits the transfer in both directions. The technique uses the adiabatic elimination of the middle waveguide together with level crossing and adiabatic passage in an effective two-state system involving only the external waveguides. It requires a strong detuning between the outer and the middle waveguide and does not rely on the adiabatic transfer state (dark state) underlying the STIRAP process. The suggested technique is generalized to an array of N waveguides and verified by numerical beam propagation calculations.
Experimental realization of noise-induced adiabaticity in nuclear magnetic resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bi-Xue; Xin, Tao; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Wei, Shi-Jie; Ruan, Dong; Long, Gui-Lu
2018-04-01
The adiabatic evolution is the dynamics of an instantaneous eigenstate of a slowly varing Hamiltonian. Recently, an interesting phenomenon shows up that white noises can enhance and even induce adiabaticity, which is in contrast to previous perception that environmental noises always modify and even ruin a designed adiabatic passage. We experimentally realized a noise-induced adiabaticity in a nuclear magnetic resonance system. Adiabatic Hadamard gate and entangled state are demonstrated. The effect of noise on adiabaticity is experimentally exhibited and compared with the noise-free process. We utilized a noise-injected method, which can be applied to other quantum systems.
2010-10-19
ISS025-E-008371 (20 Oct. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Doug Wheelock, Expedition 25 commander, uses Neurospat hardware to perform a science session with the European Space Agency PASSAGES experiment in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station. PASSAGES is designed to test how astronauts interpret visual information in weightlessness. It aims at studying the effects of microgravity on the use of the ‘Eye-Height’ strategy for estimating allowed actions in an environment, and whether this could possibly decrease after a long exposure to weightlessness.
Colotelo, Alison HA; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Brown, Richard S.
Fish passing downstream through hydroelectric facilities may pass through hydroturbines where they experience a rapid decrease in barometric pressure as they pass by turbine blades, which can lead to barotraumas including swim bladder rupture, exopthalmia, emboli, and hemorrhaging. In juvenile Chinook salmon, the main mechanism for injury is thought to be expansion of existing gases (particularly those present in the swim bladder) and the rupture of the swim bladder ultimately leading to exopthalmia, emboli and hemorrhaging. In fish that lack a swim bladder, such as lamprey, the rate and severity of barotraumas due to rapid decompression may be reduced however;more » this has yet to be extensively studied. Another mechanism for barotrauma can be gases coming out of solution and the rate of this occurrence may vary among species. In this study, juvenile brook and Pacific lamprey acclimated to 146.2 kPa (equivalent to a depth of 4.6 m) were subjected to rapid (<1 sec; brook lamprey only) or sustained decompression (17 minutes) to a very low pressure (13.8 kPa) using a protocol previously applied to juvenile Chinook salmon. No mortality or evidence of barotraumas, as indicated by the presence of hemorrhages, emboli or exopthalmia, were observed during rapid or sustained decompression, nor following recovery for up to 120 h following sustained decompression. In contrast, mortality or injury would be expected for 97.5% of juvenile Chinook salmon exposed to a similar rapid decompression to these very low pressures. Additionally, juvenile Chinook salmon experiencing sustained decompression died within 7 minutes, accompanied by emboli in the fins and gills and hemorrhaging in the tissues. Thus, juvenile lamprey may not be susceptible to barotraumas associated with hydroturbine passage to the same degree as juvenile salmonids, and management of these species should be tailored to their specific morphological and physiological characteristics.« less
Consistency of the adiabatic theorem.
Amin, M H S
2009-06-05
The adiabatic theorem provides the basis for the adiabatic model of quantum computation. Recently the conditions required for the adiabatic theorem to hold have become a subject of some controversy. Here we show that the reported violations of the adiabatic theorem all arise from resonant transitions between energy levels. In the absence of fast driven oscillations the traditional adiabatic theorem holds. Implications for adiabatic quantum computation are discussed.
Oreshkov, Ognyan; Calsamiglia, John
2010-07-30
We propose a theory of adiabaticity in quantum markovian dynamics based on a decomposition of the Hilbert space induced by the asymptotic behavior of the Lindblad semigroup. A central idea of our approach is that the natural generalization of the concept of eigenspace of the Hamiltonian in the case of markovian dynamics is a noiseless subsystem with a minimal noisy cofactor. Unlike previous attempts to define adiabaticity for open systems, our approach deals exclusively with physical entities and provides a simple, intuitive picture at the Hilbert-space level, linking the notion of adiabaticity to the theory of noiseless subsystems. As two applications of our theory, we propose a general framework for decoherence-assisted computation in noiseless codes and a dissipation-driven approach to holonomic computation based on adiabatic dragging of subsystems that is generally not achievable by nondissipative means.
Adiabatic Compression in a Fire Syringe.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hayn, Carl H.; Baird, Scott C.
1985-01-01
Suggests using better materials in fire syringes to obtain more effective results during demonstrations which show the elevation in temperature upon a very rapid (adiabatic) compression of air. Also describes an experiment (using ignition temperatures) which introduces students to the use of thermocouples for high temperature measurements. (DH)
Quantum adiabatic machine learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pudenz, Kristen L.; Lidar, Daniel A.
2013-05-01
We develop an approach to machine learning and anomaly detection via quantum adiabatic evolution. This approach consists of two quantum phases, with some amount of classical preprocessing to set up the quantum problems. In the training phase we identify an optimal set of weak classifiers, to form a single strong classifier. In the testing phase we adiabatically evolve one or more strong classifiers on a superposition of inputs in order to find certain anomalous elements in the classification space. Both the training and testing phases are executed via quantum adiabatic evolution. All quantum processing is strictly limited to two-qubit interactions so as to ensure physical feasibility. We apply and illustrate this approach in detail to the problem of software verification and validation, with a specific example of the learning phase applied to a problem of interest in flight control systems. Beyond this example, the algorithm can be used to attack a broad class of anomaly detection problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bednyakova, Anastasia; Turitsyn, Sergei K.
2015-03-01
The key to generating stable optical pulses is mastery of nonlinear light dynamics in laser resonators. Modern techniques to control the buildup of laser pulses are based on nonlinear science and include classical solitons, dissipative solitons, parabolic pulses (similaritons) and various modifications and blending of these methods. Fiber lasers offer remarkable opportunities to apply one-dimensional nonlinear science models for the design and optimization of very practical laser systems. Here, we propose a new concept of a laser based on the adiabatic amplification of a soliton pulse in the cavity—the adiabatic soliton laser. The adiabatic change of the soliton parameters during evolution in the resonator relaxes the restriction on the pulse energy inherent in traditional soliton lasers. Theoretical analysis is confirmed by extensive numerical modeling.
Adiabatic Quantum Computation: Coherent Control Back Action.
Goswami, Debabrata
2006-11-22
Though attractive from scalability aspects, optical approaches to quantum computing are highly prone to decoherence and rapid population loss due to nonradiative processes such as vibrational redistribution. We show that such effects can be reduced by adiabatic coherent control, in which quantum interference between multiple excitation pathways is used to cancel coupling to the unwanted, non-radiative channels. We focus on experimentally demonstrated adiabatic controlled population transfer experiments wherein the details on the coherence aspects are yet to be explored theoretically but are important for quantum computation. Such quantum computing schemes also form a back-action connection to coherent control developments.
Speeding up adiabatic population transfer in a Josephson qutrit via counter-diabatic driving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Zhi-Bo; Lu, Xiao-Jing; Li, M.; Yan, Run-Ying; Zhou, Yun-Qing
2017-12-01
We propose a theoretical scheme to speed up adiabatic population transfer in a Josephson artificial qutrit by transitionless quantum driving. At a magic working point, an effective three-level subsystem can be chosen to constitute our qutrit. With Stokes and pump driving, adiabatic population transfer can be achieved in the qutrit by means of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. Assisted by a counter-diabatic driving, the adiabatic population transfer can be sped up drastically with accessible parameters. Moreover, the accelerated operation is flexibly reversible and highly robust against decoherence effects. Thanks to these distinctive advantages, the present protocol could offer a promising avenue for optimal coherent operations in Josephson quantum circuits.
Wu, Jin-Lei; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou
2017-01-01
We propose a dressed-state scheme to achieve shortcuts to adiabaticity in atom-cavity quantum electrodynamics for speeding up adiabatic two-atom quantum state transfer and maximum entanglement generation. Compared with stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, the dressed-state scheme greatly shortens the operation time in a non-adiabatic way. By means of some numerical simulations, we determine the parameters which can guarantee the feasibility and efficiency both in theory and experiment. Besides, numerical simulations also show the scheme is robust against the variations in the parameters, atomic spontaneous emissions and the photon leakages from the cavity. PMID:28397793
Bacon, Dave; Flammia, Steven T
2009-09-18
The difficulty in producing precisely timed and controlled quantum gates is a significant source of error in many physical implementations of quantum computers. Here we introduce a simple universal primitive, adiabatic gate teleportation, which is robust to timing errors and many control errors and maintains a constant energy gap throughout the computation above a degenerate ground state space. This construction allows for geometric robustness based upon the control of two independent qubit interactions. Further, our piecewise adiabatic evolution easily relates to the quantum circuit model, enabling the use of standard methods from fault-tolerance theory for establishing thresholds.
Adiabatic topological quantum computing
Cesare, Chris; Landahl, Andrew J.; Bacon, Dave
Topological quantum computing promises error-resistant quantum computation without active error correction. However, there is a worry that during the process of executing quantum gates by braiding anyons around each other, extra anyonic excitations will be created that will disorder the encoded quantum information. Here, we explore this question in detail by studying adiabatic code deformations on Hamiltonians based on topological codes, notably Kitaev’s surface codes and the more recently discovered color codes. We develop protocols that enable universal quantum computing by adiabatic evolution in a way that keeps the energy gap of the system constant with respect to the computationmore » size and introduces only simple local Hamiltonian interactions. This allows one to perform holonomic quantum computing with these topological quantum computing systems. The tools we develop allow one to go beyond numerical simulations and understand these processes analytically.« less
Semiconductor adiabatic qubits
Carroll, Malcolm S.; Witzel, Wayne; Jacobson, Noah Tobias; Ganti, Anand; Landahl, Andrew J.; Lilly, Michael; Nguyen, Khoi Thi; Bishop, Nathaniel; Carr, Stephen M.; Bussmann, Ezra; Nielsen, Erik; Levy, James Ewers; Blume-Kohout, Robin J.; Rahman, Rajib
2016-12-27
A quantum computing device that includes a plurality of semiconductor adiabatic qubits is described herein. The qubits are programmed with local biases and coupling terms between qubits that represent a problem of interest. The qubits are initialized by way of a tuneable parameter, a local tunnel coupling within each qubit, such that the qubits remain in a ground energy state, and that initial state is represented by the qubits being in a superposition of |0> and |1> states. The parameter is altered over time adiabatically or such that relaxation mechanisms maintain a large fraction of ground state occupation through decreasing the tunnel coupling barrier within each qubit with the appropriate schedule. The final state when tunnel coupling is effectively zero represents the solution state to the problem represented in the |0> and |1> basis, which can be accurately read at each qubit location.
Adiabatic topological quantum computing
Cesare, Chris; Landahl, Andrew J.; Bacon, Dave; ...
2015-07-31
Topological quantum computing promises error-resistant quantum computation without active error correction. However, there is a worry that during the process of executing quantum gates by braiding anyons around each other, extra anyonic excitations will be created that will disorder the encoded quantum information. Here, we explore this question in detail by studying adiabatic code deformations on Hamiltonians based on topological codes, notably Kitaev’s surface codes and the more recently discovered color codes. We develop protocols that enable universal quantum computing by adiabatic evolution in a way that keeps the energy gap of the system constant with respect to the computationmore » size and introduces only simple local Hamiltonian interactions. This allows one to perform holonomic quantum computing with these topological quantum computing systems. The tools we develop allow one to go beyond numerical simulations and understand these processes analytically.« less
Quantum Adiabatic Brachistochrone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezakhani, A. T.; Kuo, W.-J.; Hamma, A.; Lidar, D. A.; Zanardi, P.
2009-08-01
We formulate a time-optimal approach to adiabatic quantum computation (AQC). A corresponding natural Riemannian metric is also derived, through which AQC can be understood as the problem of finding a geodesic on the manifold of control parameters. This geometrization of AQC is demonstrated through two examples, where we show that it leads to improved performance of AQC, and sheds light on the roles of entanglement and curvature of the control manifold in algorithmic performance.
Quantum adiabatic brachistochrone.
Rezakhani, A T; Kuo, W-J; Hamma, A; Lidar, D A; Zanardi, P
2009-08-21
We formulate a time-optimal approach to adiabatic quantum computation (AQC). A corresponding natural Riemannian metric is also derived, through which AQC can be understood as the problem of finding a geodesic on the manifold of control parameters. This geometrization of AQC is demonstrated through two examples, where we show that it leads to improved performance of AQC, and sheds light on the roles of entanglement and curvature of the control manifold in algorithmic performance.
Cheng, B. L.; Kwan, T. J. T.; Wang, Y. M.; ...
2018-05-18
In the last five years, large amounts of high quality experimental data in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) were produced at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). From the NIF data, we have significantly advanced our scientific understanding of the physics of thermonuclear (TN) ignition in ICF and identified the critical physical issues important to achieve ignition, such as implosion energetics, pusher adiabat, tamping effects in fuel confinement, and confinement time. In this article, we will present recently developed TN ignition theory and implosion scaling laws [1, 2] characterizing the thermodynamic properties of the hot spot and the TN ignition metrics atmore » NIF. We compare our theoretical predictions with NIF data with good agreement between theory and experiments. We will also demonstrate the fundamental effects of the pusher adiabat on the energy partition between the cold shell and the hot deuterium-tritium and on the neutron yields of ICF capsules. Applications [3–5] to NIF experiments and physical explanations of the discrepancies among theory, data and simulations will be presented. In our theory, the actual adiabat of the cold DT fuel can be inferred from neutron image data of a burning capsule. With the experimentally inferred hot spot mix, the CH mix in the cold fuel could be estimated, as well as the preheat. Finally, possible path forwards to reach high yields are discussed.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, B.; Kwan, T. J. T.; Wang, Y. M.; Yi, S. A.; Batha, S. H.; Wysocki, F.
2018-07-01
In the last five years, large amounts of high quality data on inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments were produced at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). From this data we have significantly advanced our scientific understanding of the physics of thermonuclear (TN) ignition and identified critical issues that must be addressed to achieve a burning hotspot, such as implosion energetics, pusher adiabat, tamping effects, and confinement time. In this paper we present a review of recently developed TN ignition and implosion scaling theory (Cheng et al 2013 Phys. Rev. E 88 041101; Cheng et al 2014 Phys. Plasmas 21 10270) that characterizes the thermodynamic properties of the hotspot and the ignition criteria for ICF. We compare our theoretical predictions with NIF data and find good agreement between theory and experiments. We demonstrate the fundamental effects of the pusher adiabat on the energy partition between the cold shell and the hot deuterium–tritium (DT) gas, and thus on the integrated performance of ICF capsules. Theoretical analysis of NIF experiments (Cheng et al 2015 Phys. Plasmas 22 082704; Melvin et al 2015 Phys. Plasmas 22 022708; Cheng et al 2016 Phys. Plasmas 23 120702) and physical explanations of the discrepancies between theory, data, and simulations are presented. It is shown that the true experimental adiabat of the cold DT fuel can be inferred from neutron image data of a capsule implosion. We show that the ablator mix and preheat in the cold fuel can be estimated from the experimentally inferred hotspot mix. Finally, possible paths forward to reach higher yields at NIF implied by the theory are discussed.
Geometrizing adiabatic quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezakhani, Ali; Kuo, Wan-Jung; Hamma, Alioscia; Lidar, Daniel; Zanardi, Paolo
2010-03-01
A time-optimal approach to adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is formulated. The corresponding natural Riemannian metric is also derived, through which AQC can be understood as the problem of finding a geodesic on the manifold of control parameters. We demonstrate this geometrization through some examples, where we show that it leads to improved performance of AQC, and sheds light on the roles of entanglement and curvature of the control manifold in algorithmic performance. The underlying connection with quantum phase transitions is also explored.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.
2018-01-01
Adiabatic quantum computing (AQC) started as an approach to solving optimization problems and has evolved into an important universal alternative to the standard circuit model of quantum computing, with deep connections to both classical and quantum complexity theory and condensed matter physics. This review gives an account of the major theoretical developments in the field, while focusing on the closed-system setting. The review is organized around a series of topics that are essential to an understanding of the underlying principles of AQC, its algorithmic accomplishments and limitations, and its scope in the more general setting of computational complexity theory. Several variants are presented of the adiabatic theorem, the cornerstone of AQC, and examples are given of explicit AQC algorithms that exhibit a quantum speedup. An overview of several proofs of the universality of AQC and related Hamiltonian quantum complexity theory is given. Considerable space is devoted to stoquastic AQC, the setting of most AQC work to date, where obstructions to success and their possible resolutions are discussed.
Adiabatic transfer of energy fluctuations between membranes inside an optical cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garg, Devender; Chauhan, Anil K.; Biswas, Asoka
2017-08-01
A scheme is presented for the adiabatic transfer of average fluctuations in the phonon number between two membranes in an optical cavity. We show that by driving the cavity modes with external time-delayed pulses, one can obtain an effect analogous to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in the atomic systems. The adiabatic transfer of fluctuations from one membrane to the other is attained through a "dark" mode, which is robust against decay of the mediating cavity mode. The results are supported with analytical and numerical calculations with experimentally feasible parameters.
Geometry of the Adiabatic Theorem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lobo, Augusto Cesar; Ribeiro, Rafael Antunes; Ribeiro, Clyffe de Assis; Dieguez, Pedro Ruas
2012-01-01
We present a simple and pedagogical derivation of the quantum adiabatic theorem for two-level systems (a single qubit) based on geometrical structures of quantum mechanics developed by Anandan and Aharonov, among others. We have chosen to use only the minimum geometric structure needed for the understanding of the adiabatic theorem for this case.…
Interacting adiabatic quantum motor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruch, Anton; Kusminskiy, Silvia Viola; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix
2018-05-01
We present a field-theoretic treatment of an adiabatic quantum motor. We explicitly discuss a motor called the Thouless motor which is based on a Thouless pump operating in reverse. When a sliding periodic potential is considered to be the motor degree of freedom, a bias voltage applied to the electron channel sets the motor in motion. We investigate a Thouless motor whose electron channel is modeled as a Luttinger liquid. Interactions increase the gap opened by the periodic potential. For an infinite Luttinger liquid the coupling-induced friction is enhanced by electron-electron interactions. When the Luttinger liquid is ultimately coupled to Fermi liquid reservoirs, the dissipation reduces to its value for a noninteracting electron system for a constant motor velocity. Our results can also be applied to a motor based on a nanomagnet coupled to a quantum spin Hall edge.
Fast Quasi-Adiabatic Gas Cooling: An Experiment Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oss, S.; Gratton, L. M.; Calza, G.; Lopez-Arias, T.
2012-01-01
The well-known experiment of the rapid expansion and cooling of the air contained in a bottle is performed with a rapidly responsive, yet very cheap thermometer. The adiabatic, low temperature limit is approached quite closely and measured with our apparatus. A straightforward theoretical model for this process is also presented and discussed.…
Decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.
2015-06-01
Recent experiments with increasingly larger numbers of qubits have sparked renewed interest in adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular quantum annealing. A central question that is repeatedly asked is whether quantum features of the evolution can survive over the long time scales used for quantum annealing relative to standard measures of the decoherence time. We reconsider the role of decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation and quantum annealing using the adiabatic quantum master-equation formalism. We restrict ourselves to the weak-coupling and singular-coupling limits, which correspond to decoherence in the energy eigenbasis and in the computational basis, respectively. We demonstrate that decoherence in the instantaneous energy eigenbasis does not necessarily detrimentally affect adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular that a short single-qubit T2 time need not imply adverse consequences for the success of the quantum adiabatic algorithm. We further demonstrate that boundary cancellation methods, designed to improve the fidelity of adiabatic quantum computing in the closed-system setting, remain beneficial in the open-system setting. To address the high computational cost of master-equation simulations, we also demonstrate that a quantum Monte Carlo algorithm that explicitly accounts for a thermal bosonic bath can be used to interpolate between classical and quantum annealing. Our study highlights and clarifies the significantly different role played by decoherence in the adiabatic and circuit models of quantum computing.
Stimulated Raman adiabatic control of a nuclear spin in diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coto, Raul; Jacques, Vincent; Hétet, Gabriel; Maze, Jerónimo R.
2017-08-01
Coherent manipulation of nuclear spins is a highly desirable tool for both quantum metrology and quantum computation. However, most of the current techniques to control nuclear spins lack fast speed, impairing their robustness against decoherence. Here, based on stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, and its modification including shortcuts to adiabaticity, we present a fast protocol for the coherent manipulation of nuclear spins. Our proposed Λ scheme is implemented in the microwave domain and its excited-state relaxation can be optically controlled through an external laser excitation. These features allow for the initialization of a nuclear spin starting from a thermal state. Moreover we show how to implement Raman control for performing Ramsey spectroscopy to measure the dynamical and geometric phases acquired by nuclear spins.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemaire, Joseph; Pierrard, Viviane; Darrouzet, Fabien
2013-04-01
Using European arrays of magnetometers and the cross-phase analysis to determine magnetic field line resonance frequencies, it has been found by Kale et al. (2009) that the plasma mass density within plasmaspheric flux tubes increased rapidly after the SSC of the Hallowe'en 2003 geomagnetic storms. These observations tend to confirm other independent experimental results, suggesting that heavy ion up-flow from the ionosphere is responsible for the observed plasma density increases during main phases of geomagnetic storms. The aim of our contribution is to point out that, during main phases, reversible Betatron effect induced by the increase of the southward Dst-magnetic field component (|Δ Bz|), diminishes slightly the perpendicular kinetic energy (W?) of charged particles spiraling along field lines. Furthermore, due to the conservation of the first adiabatic invariant (μ = Wm/ Bm) the mirror points of all ionospheric ions and electrons are lifted up to higher altitudes i.e. where the mirror point magnetic field (Bm) is slightly smaller. Note that the change of the mirror point altitude is given by: Δ hm = -1/3 (RE + hm) Δ Bm / Bm. It is independent of the ion species and it does not depend of their kinetic energy. The change of kinetic energy is determined by: Δ Wm = Wm Δ Bm / Bm. Both of these equations have been verified numerically by Lemaire et al. (2005; doi: 10.1016/S0273-1177(03)00099-1) using trajectory calculations in a simple time-dependant B-field model: i.e. the Earth's magnetic dipole, plus an increasing southward B-field component: i.e. the Dst magnetic field whose intensity becomes more and more negative during the main phase of magnetic storms. They showed that a variation of Bz (or Dst) by more than - 50 nT significantly increases the mirror point altitudes by more than 100 km which is about equal to scale height of the plasma density in the topside ionosphere where particles are almost collisionless (see Fig. 2 in Lemaire et al., 2005
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pal, Arnab; Reuveni, Shlomi
2017-01-01
First passage under restart has recently emerged as a conceptual framework suitable for the description of a wide range of phenomena, but the endless variety of ways in which restart mechanisms and first passage processes mix and match hindered the identification of unifying principles and general truths. Hope that these exist came from a recently discovered universality displayed by processes under optimal, constant rate, restart—but extensions and generalizations proved challenging as they marry arbitrarily complex processes and restart mechanisms. To address this challenge, we develop a generic approach to first passage under restart. Key features of diffusion under restart—the ultimate poster boy for this wide and diverse class of problems—are then shown to be completely universal.
2011-10-06
ISS029-E-021636 (6 Oct. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 29 flight engineer, uses Neurospat hardware to perform a science session with the European Space Agency PASSAGES experiment in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station. PASSAGES is designed to test how astronauts interpret visual information in weightlessness. It aims at studying the effects of microgravity on the use of the 'Eye-Height' strategy for estimating allowed actions in an environment, and whether this could possibly decrease after a long exposure to weightlessness.
2011-10-06
ISS029-E-021641 (6 Oct. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 29 commander, uses Neurospat hardware to perform a science session with the European Space Agency PASSAGES experiment in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station. PASSAGES is designed to test how astronauts interpret visual information in weightlessness. It aims at studying the effects of microgravity on the use of the 'Eye-Height' strategy for estimating allowed actions in an environment, and whether this could possibly decrease after a long exposure to weightlessness.
Thermally assisted adiabatic quantum computation.
Amin, M H S; Love, Peter J; Truncik, C J S
2008-02-15
We study the effect of a thermal environment on adiabatic quantum computation using the Bloch-Redfield formalism. We show that in certain cases the environment can enhance the performance in two different ways: (i) by introducing a time scale for thermal mixing near the anticrossing that is smaller than the adiabatic time scale, and (ii) by relaxation after the anticrossing. The former can enhance the scaling of computation when the environment is super-Ohmic, while the latter can only provide a prefactor enhancement. We apply our method to the case of adiabatic Grover search and show that performance better than classical is possible with a super-Ohmic environment, with no a priori knowledge of the energy spectrum.
Pressure Oscillations in Adiabatic Compression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stout, Roland
2011-01-01
After finding Moloney and McGarvey's modified adiabatic compression apparatus, I decided to insert this experiment into my physical chemistry laboratory at the last minute, replacing a problematic experiment. With insufficient time to build the apparatus, we placed a bottle between two thick textbooks and compressed it with a third textbook forced…
Transitionless driving on adiabatic search algorithm
Oh, Sangchul, E-mail: soh@qf.org.qa; Kais, Sabre, E-mail: kais@purdue.edu; Department of Chemistry, Department of Physics and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907
We study quantum dynamics of the adiabatic search algorithm with the equivalent two-level system. Its adiabatic and non-adiabatic evolution is studied and visualized as trajectories of Bloch vectors on a Bloch sphere. We find the change in the non-adiabatic transition probability from exponential decay for the short running time to inverse-square decay in asymptotic running time. The scaling of the critical running time is expressed in terms of the Lambert W function. We derive the transitionless driving Hamiltonian for the adiabatic search algorithm, which makes a quantum state follow the adiabatic path. We demonstrate that a uniform transitionless driving Hamiltonian,more » approximate to the exact time-dependent driving Hamiltonian, can alter the non-adiabatic transition probability from the inverse square decay to the inverse fourth power decay with the running time. This may open up a new but simple way of speeding up adiabatic quantum dynamics.« less
Adiabatic quantum computation in open systems.
Sarandy, M S; Lidar, D A
2005-12-16
We analyze the performance of adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) subject to decoherence. To this end, we introduce an inherently open-systems approach, based on a recent generalization of the adiabatic approximation. In contrast to closed systems, we show that a system may initially be in an adiabatic regime, but then undergo a transition to a regime where adiabaticity breaks down. As a consequence, the success of AQC depends sensitively on the competition between various pertinent rates, giving rise to optimality criteria.
Nonlinear Stimulated Raman Exact Passage by Resonance-Locked Inverse Engineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorier, V.; Gevorgyan, M.; Ishkhanyan, A.; Leroy, C.; Jauslin, H. R.; Guérin, S.
2017-12-01
We derive an exact and robust stimulated Raman process for nonlinear quantum systems driven by pulsed external fields. The external fields are designed with closed-form expressions from the inverse engineering of a given efficient and stable dynamics. This technique allows one to induce a controlled population inversion which surpasses the usual nonlinear stimulated Raman adiabatic passage efficiency.
Failure of geometric electromagnetism in the adiabatic vector Kepler problem
Anglin, J.R.; Schmiedmayer, J.
2004-02-01
The magnetic moment of a particle orbiting a straight current-carrying wire may precess rapidly enough in the wire's magnetic field to justify an adiabatic approximation, eliminating the rapid time dependence of the magnetic moment and leaving only the particle position as a slow degree of freedom. To zeroth order in the adiabatic expansion, the orbits of the particle in the plane perpendicular to the wire are Keplerian ellipses. Higher-order postadiabatic corrections make the orbits precess, but recent analysis of this 'vector Kepler problem' has shown that the effective Hamiltonian incorporating a postadiabatic scalar potential ('geometric electromagnetism') fails to predict themore » precession correctly, while a heuristic alternative succeeds. In this paper we resolve the apparent failure of the postadiabatic approximation, by pointing out that the correct second-order analysis produces a third Hamiltonian, in which geometric electromagnetism is supplemented by a tensor potential. The heuristic Hamiltonian of Schmiedmayer and Scrinzi is then shown to be a canonical transformation of the correct adiabatic Hamiltonian, to second order. The transformation has the important advantage of removing a 1/r{sup 3} singularity which is an artifact of the adiabatic approximation.« less
Adiabatic Mass Loss Model in Binary Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, H. W.
2012-07-01
Rapid mass transfer process in the interacting binary systems is very complicated. It relates to two basic problems in the binary star evolution, i.e., the dynamically unstable Roche-lobe overflow and the common envelope evolution. Both of the problems are very important and difficult to be modeled. In this PhD thesis, we focus on the rapid mass loss process of the donor in interacting binary systems. The application to the criterion of dynamically unstable mass transfer and the common envelope evolution are also included. Our results based on the adiabatic mass loss model could be used to improve the binary evolution theory, the binary population synthetic method, and other related aspects. We build up the adiabatic mass loss model. In this model, two approximations are included. The first one is that the energy generation and heat flow through the stellar interior can be neglected, hence the restructuring is adiabatic. The second one is that he stellar interior remains in hydrostatic equilibrium. We model this response by constructing model sequences, beginning with a donor star filling its Roche lobe at an arbitrary point in its evolution, holding its specific entropy and composition profiles fixed. These approximations are validated by the comparison with the time-dependent binary mass transfer calculations and the polytropic model for low mass zero-age main-sequence stars. In the dynamical time scale mass transfer, the adiabatic response of the donor star drives it to expand beyond its Roche lobe, leading to runaway mass transfer and the formation of a common envelope with its companion star. For donor stars with surface convection zones of any significant depth, this runaway condition is encountered early in mass transfer, if at all; but for main sequence stars with radiative envelopes, it may be encountered after a prolonged phase of thermal time scale mass transfer, so-called delayed dynamical instability. We identify the critical binary mass ratio for the
Zheng, Shi-Biao
2005-08-19
We propose a new approach to quantum phase gates via the adiabatic evolution. The conditional phase shift is neither of dynamical nor geometric origin. It arises from the adiabatic evolution of the dark state itself. Taking advantage of the adiabatic passage, this kind of quantum logic gates is robust against moderate fluctuations of experimental parameters. In comparison with the geometric phase gates, it is unnecessary to drive the system to undergo a desired cyclic evolution to obtain a desired solid angle. Thus, the procedure is simplified, and the fidelity may be further improved since the errors in obtaining the required solid angle are avoided. We illustrate such a kind of quantum logic gates in the ion trap system. The idea can also be realized in other systems, opening a new perspective for quantum information processing.
Laser cooling by adiabatic transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norcia, Matthew; Cline, Julia; Bartolotta, John; Holland, Murray; Thompson, James
2017-04-01
We have demonstrated a new method of laser cooling applicable to particles with narrow linewidth optical transitions. This simple and robust cooling mechanism uses a frequency-swept laser to adiabatically transfer atoms between internal and motional states. The role of spontaneous emission is reduced (though is still critical) compared to Doppler cooling. This allows us to achieve greater slowing forces than would be possible with Doppler cooling, and may make this an appealing technique for cooling molecules. In this talk, I will present a demonstration of this technique in a cold strontium system. DARPA QUASAR, NIST, NSF PFC.
Adiabatic Wankel type rotary engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kamo, R.; Badgley, P.; Doup, D.
1988-01-01
This SBIR Phase program accomplished the objective of advancing the technology of the Wankel type rotary engine for aircraft applications through the use of adiabatic engine technology. Based on the results of this program, technology is in place to provide a rotor and side and intermediate housings with thermal barrier coatings. A detailed cycle analysis of the NASA 1007R Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engine was performed which concluded that applying thermal barrier coatings to the rotor should be successful and that it was unlikely that the rotor housing could be successfully run with thermal barrier coatings as the thermal stresses were extensive.
A Phase Matching, Adiabatic Accelerator
Lemery, Francois; Flöttmann, Klaus; Kärtner, Franz
2017-05-01
Tabletop accelerators are a thing of the future. Reducing their size will require scaling down electromagnetic wavelengths; however, without correspondingly high field gradients, particles will be more susceptible to phase-slippage – especially at low energy. We investigate how an adiabatically-tapered dielectric-lined waveguide could maintain phase-matching between the accelerating mode and electron bunch. We benchmark our simple model with CST and implement it into ASTRA; finally we provide a first glimpse into the beam dynamics in a phase-matching accelerator.
Predicting the effect of relaxation during frequency-selective adiabatic pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfaff, Annalise R.; McKee, Cailyn E.; Woelk, Klaus
2017-11-01
Adiabatic half and full passages are invaluable for achieving uniform, B1-insensitive excitation or inversion of macroscopic magnetization across a well-defined range of NMR frequencies. To accomplish narrow frequency ranges with adiabatic pulses (<100 Hz), long pulse durations at low RF power levels are necessary, and relaxation during these pulses may no longer be negligible. A numerical, discrete recursive combination of the Bloch equations for longitudinal and transverse relaxation with the optimized equation for adiabatic angular motion of magnetization is used to calculate the trajectory of magnetization including its relaxation during adiabatic hyperbolic secant pulses. The agreement of computer-calculated data with experimental results demonstrates that, in non-viscous, small-molecule fluids, it is possible to model magnetization and relaxation by considering standard T1 and T2 relaxation in the traditional rotating frame. The proposed model is aimed at performance optimizations of applications in which these pulses are employed. It differs from previous reports which focused on short high-power adiabatic pulses and relaxation that is governed by dipole-dipole interactions, cross polarization, or chemical exchange.
Enhanced diffusion weighting generated by selective adiabatic pulse trains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Ziqi; Bartha, Robert
2007-09-01
A theoretical description and experimental validation of the enhanced diffusion weighting generated by selective adiabatic full passage (AFP) pulse trains is provided. Six phantoms (Ph-1-Ph-6) were studied on a 4 T Varian/Siemens whole body MRI system. Phantoms consisted of 2.8 cm diameter plastic tubes containing a mixture of 10 μm ORGASOL polymer beads and 2 mM Gd-DTPA dissolved in 5% agar (Ph-1) or nickel(II) ammonium sulphate hexahydrate doped (56.3-0.8 mM) water solutions (Ph-2-Ph-6). A customized localization by adiabatic selective refocusing (LASER) sequence containing slice selective AFP pulse trains and pulsed diffusion gradients applied in the phase encoding direction was used to measure 1H 2O diffusion. The b-value associated with the LASER sequence was derived using the Bloch-Torrey equation. The apparent diffusion coefficients measured by LASER were comparable to those measured by a conventional pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) sequence for all phantoms. Image signal intensity increased in Ph-1 and decreased in Ph-2-Ph-6 as AFP pulse train length increased while maintaining a constant echo-time. These experimental results suggest that such AFP pulse trains can enhance contrast between regions containing microscopic magnetic susceptibility variations and homogeneous regions in which dynamic dephasing relaxation mechanisms are dominant.
Dispersive Readout of Adiabatic Phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Sigmund
2017-11-01
We propose a protocol for the measurement of adiabatic phases of periodically driven quantum systems coupled to an open cavity that enables dispersive readout. It turns out that the cavity transmission exhibits peaks at frequencies determined by a resonance condition that involves the dynamical and the geometric phase. Since these phases scale differently with the driving frequency, one can determine them by fitting the peak positions to the theoretically expected behavior. For the derivation of the resonance condition and for a numerical study, we develop a Floquet theory for the dispersive readout of ac driven quantum systems. The feasibility is demonstrated for two test cases that generalize Landau-Zener-Stückelberg-Majorana interference to two-parameter driving.
PIPER Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kimball, Mark O.; Shirron, Peter J.; Canavan, Edgar R.; James, Bryan L.; Sampson, Michael A.; Letmate, Richard V.
2017-01-01
We report upon the development and testing of a 4-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) capable of continuous cooling at 0.100 Kelvin. This cooler is being built to cool the detector array aboard NASA's Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) observatory. The goal of this balloon mission is to measure the primordial gravitational waves that should exist if the theory of cosmological inflation is correct. At altitude, the ADR will hold the array of transition-edge sensors at 100 mK continuously while periodically rejecting heat to a 1.2 K pumped helium bath. During testing on ground, the array is held at the same temperature but heat is rejected to a 4.2 K helium bath indicating the flexibility in this coolers design.
Quantum gates with controlled adiabatic evolutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hen, Itay
2015-02-01
We introduce a class of quantum adiabatic evolutions that we claim may be interpreted as the equivalents of the unitary gates of the quantum gate model. We argue that these gates form a universal set and may therefore be used as building blocks in the construction of arbitrary "adiabatic circuits," analogously to the manner in which gates are used in the circuit model. One implication of the above construction is that arbitrary classical boolean circuits as well as gate model circuits may be directly translated to adiabatic algorithms with no additional resources or complexities. We show that while these adiabatic algorithms fail to exhibit certain aspects of the inherent fault tolerance of traditional quantum adiabatic algorithms, they may have certain other experimental advantages acting as quantum gates.
Quantum and classical dynamics in adiabatic computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crowley, P. J. D.; Äńurić, T.; Vinci, W.; Warburton, P. A.; Green, A. G.
2014-10-01
Adiabatic transport provides a powerful way to manipulate quantum states. By preparing a system in a readily initialized state and then slowly changing its Hamiltonian, one may achieve quantum states that would otherwise be inaccessible. Moreover, a judicious choice of final Hamiltonian whose ground state encodes the solution to a problem allows adiabatic transport to be used for universal quantum computation. However, the dephasing effects of the environment limit the quantum correlations that an open system can support and degrade the power of such adiabatic computation. We quantify this effect by allowing the system to evolve over a restricted set of quantum states, providing a link between physically inspired classical optimization algorithms and quantum adiabatic optimization. This perspective allows us to develop benchmarks to bound the quantum correlations harnessed by an adiabatic computation. We apply these to the D-Wave Vesuvius machine with revealing—though inconclusive—results.
Membrane with supported internal passages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Salinas, Carlos E. (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)
2000-01-01
The invention provides an improved proton exchange membrane for use in electrochemical cells having internal passages parallel to the membrane surface comprising permanent tubes preferably placed at the ends of the fluid passages. The invention also provides an apparatus and process for making the membrane, membrane and electrode assemblies fabricated using the membrane, and the application of the membrane and electrode assemblies to a variety of devices, both electrochemical and otherwise. The passages in the membrane extend from one edge of the membrane to another and allow fluid flow through the membrane and give access directly to the membrane.
Adiabatic heating in impulsive solar flares
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maetzler, C.; Bai, T.; Crannell, C. J.; Frost, K. J.
1977-01-01
The dynamic X-ray spectra of two simple, impulsive solar flares are examined together with H alpha, microwave and meter wave radio observations. X-ray spectra of both events were characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung from single temperature plasmas. The symmetry between rise and fall was found to hold for the temperature and emission measure. The relationship between temperature and emission measure was that of an adiabatic compression followed by adiabatic expansion; the adiabatic index of 5/3 indicated that the electron distribution remained isotropic. Observations in H alpha provided further evidence for compressive energy transfer.
Energy consumption for shortcuts to adiabaticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torrontegui, E.; Lizuain, I.; González-Resines, S.; Tobalina, A.; Ruschhaupt, A.; Kosloff, R.; Muga, J. G.
2017-08-01
Shortcuts to adiabaticity let a system reach the results of a slow adiabatic process in a shorter time. We propose to quantify the "energy cost" of the shortcut by the energy consumption of the system enlarged by including the control device. A mechanical model where the dynamics of the system and control device can be explicitly described illustrates that a broad range of possible values for the consumption is possible, including zero (above the adiabatic energy increment) when friction is negligible and the energy given away as negative power is stored and reused by perfect regenerative braking.
A Passage into Critical Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lynn, Steven
1990-01-01
Shows how a single passage might be handled by New Criticism, structuralism, deconstructionism, psychological criticism, and feminist criticism. Concludes that a plurality of critical approaches is better than a unity of approach. (RS)
Non-equilibrium scale invariance and shortcuts to adiabaticity in a one-dimensional Bose gas
Rohringer, W.; Fischer, D.; Steiner, F.; Mazets, I. E.; Schmiedmayer, J.; Trupke, M.
2015-01-01
We present experimental evidence for scale invariant behaviour of the excitation spectrum in phase-fluctuating quasi-1d Bose gases after a rapid change of the external trapping potential. Probing density correlations in free expansion, we find that the temperature of an initial thermal state scales with the spatial extension of the cloud as predicted by a model based on adiabatic rescaling of initial eigenmodes with conserved quasiparticle occupation numbers. Based on this result, we demonstrate that shortcuts to adiabaticity for the rapid expansion or compression of the gas do not induce additional heating. PMID:25867640
Bridging Quantum, Classical and Stochastic Shortcuts to Adiabaticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patra, Ayoti
Adiabatic invariants - quantities that are preserved under the slow driving of a system's external parameters - are important in classical mechanics, quantum mechanics and thermodynamics. Adiabatic processes allow a system to be guided to evolve to a desired final state. However, the slow driving of a quantum system makes it vulnerable to environmental decoherence, and for both quantum and classical systems, it is often desirable and time-efficient to speed up a process. Shortcuts to adiabaticity are strategies for preserving adiabatic invariants under rapid driving, typically by means of an auxiliary field that suppresses excitations, otherwise generated during rapid driving. Several theoretical approaches have been developed to construct such shortcuts. In this dissertation we focus on two different approaches, namely counterdiabatic driving and fast-forward driving, which were originally developed for quantum systems. The counterdiabatic approach introduced independently by Dermirplak and Rice [J. Phys. Chem. A, 107:9937, 2003], and Berry [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor., 42:365303, 2009] formally provides an exact expression for the auxiliary Hamiltonian, which however is abstract and difficult to translate into an experimentally implementable form. By contrast, the fast-forward approach developed by Masuda and Nakamura [Proc. R. Soc. A, 466(2116):1135, 2010] provides an auxiliary potential that may be experimentally implementable but generally applies only to ground states. The central theme of this dissertation is that classical shortcuts to adiabaticity can provide useful physical insights and lead to experimentally implementable shortcuts for analogous quantum systems. We start by studying a model system of a tilted piston to provide a proof of principle that quantum shortcuts can successfully be constructed from their classical counterparts. In the remainder of the dissertation, we develop a general approach based on flow-fields which produces simple expressions
Adiabatic Quantum Search in Open Systems.
Wild, Dominik S; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Knap, Michael; Yao, Norman Y; Lukin, Mikhail D
2016-10-07
Adiabatic quantum algorithms represent a promising approach to universal quantum computation. In isolated systems, a key limitation to such algorithms is the presence of avoided level crossings, where gaps become extremely small. In open quantum systems, the fundamental robustness of adiabatic algorithms remains unresolved. Here, we study the dynamics near an avoided level crossing associated with the adiabatic quantum search algorithm, when the system is coupled to a generic environment. At zero temperature, we find that the algorithm remains scalable provided the noise spectral density of the environment decays sufficiently fast at low frequencies. By contrast, higher order scattering processes render the algorithm inefficient at any finite temperature regardless of the spectral density, implying that no quantum speedup can be achieved. Extensions and implications for other adiabatic quantum algorithms will be discussed.
Simulation of periodically focused, adiabatic thermal beams
Chen, C.; Akylas, T. R.; Barton, T. J.
2012-12-21
Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are performed to verify earlier theoretical predictions of adiabatic thermal beams in a periodic solenoidal magnetic focusing field [K.R. Samokhvalova, J. Zhou and C. Chen, Phys. Plasma 14, 103102 (2007); J. Zhou, K.R. Samokhvalova and C. Chen, Phys. Plasma 15, 023102 (2008)]. In particular, results are obtained for adiabatic thermal beams that do not rotate in the Larmor frame. For such beams, the theoretical predictions of the rms beam envelope, the conservations of the rms thermal emittances, the adiabatic equation of state, and the Debye length are verified in the simulations. Furthermore, the adiabatic thermal beam ismore » found be stable in the parameter regime where the simulations are performed.« less
Adiabatic Quantum Computing with Neutral Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hankin, Aaron; Biedermann, Grant; Burns, George; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Johnson, Cort; Kemme, Shanalyn; Landahl, Andrew; Mangan, Michael; Parazzoli, L. Paul; Schwindt, Peter; Armstrong, Darrell
2012-06-01
We are developing, both theoretically and experimentally, a neutral atom qubit approach to adiabatic quantum computation. Using our microfabricated diffractive optical elements, we plan to implement an array of optical traps for cesium atoms and use Rydberg-dressed ground states to provide a controlled atom-atom interaction. We will develop this experimental capability to generate a two-qubit adiabatic evolution aimed specifically toward demonstrating the two-qubit quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) routine.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity using flow fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patra, Ayoti; Jarzynski, Christopher
2017-12-01
A shortcut to adiabaticity is a recipe for generating adiabatic evolution at an arbitrary pace. Shortcuts have been developed for quantum, classical and (most recently) stochastic dynamics. A shortcut might involve a counterdiabatic (CD) Hamiltonian that causes a system to follow the adiabatic evolution at all times, or it might utilize a fast-forward (FF) potential, which returns the system to the adiabatic path at the end of the process. We develop a general framework for constructing shortcuts to adiabaticity from flow fields that describe the desired adiabatic evolution. Our approach encompasses quantum, classical and stochastic dynamics, and provides surprisingly compact expressions for both CD Hamiltonians and FF potentials. We illustrate our method with numerical simulations of a model system, and we compare our shortcuts with previously obtained results. We also consider the semiclassical connections between our quantum and classical shortcuts. Our method, like the FF approach developed by previous authors, is susceptible to singularities when applied to excited states of quantum systems; we propose a simple, intuitive criterion for determining whether these singularities will arise, for a given excited state.
Symmetry of the Adiabatic Condition in the Piston Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anacleto, Joaquim; Ferreira, J. M.
2011-01-01
This study addresses a controversial issue in the adiabatic piston problem, namely that of the piston being adiabatic when it is fixed but no longer so when it can move freely. It is shown that this apparent contradiction arises from the usual definition of adiabatic condition. The issue is addressed here by requiring the adiabatic condition to be…
Magnetization transfer and adiabatic R 1ρ MRI in the brainstem of Parkinson's disease.
Tuite, Paul J; Mangia, Silvia; Tyan, Andrew E; Lee, Michael K; Garwood, Michael; Michaeli, Shalom
2012-06-01
In addition to classic midbrain pathology, Parkinson's disease (PD) is accompanied by changes in pontine and medullary brainstem structures. These additional abnormalities may underlie non-motor features as well as play a role in motor disability. Using novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods based on rotating frame adiabatic R(1ρ) (i.e., measurements of longitudinal relaxation during adiabatic full passage pulses) and modified magnetization transfer (MT) MRI mapping, we sought to identify brainstem alterations in nine individuals with mild-moderate PD (off medication) and ten age-matched controls at 4 T. We discovered significant differences in MRI parameters between midbrain and medullary brainstem structures in control subjects as compared to PD patients. These findings support the presence of underlying functional/structural brainstem changes in mild-moderate PD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Assessment of total efficiency in adiabatic engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitianiec, W.
2016-09-01
The paper presents influence of ceramic coating in all surfaces of the combustion chamber of SI four-stroke engine on working parameters mainly on heat balance and total efficiency. Three cases of engine were considered: standard without ceramic coating, fully adiabatic combustion chamber and engine with different thickness of ceramic coating. Consideration of adiabatic or semi-adiabatic engine was connected with mathematical modelling of heat transfer from the cylinder gas to the cooling medium. This model takes into account changeable convection coefficient based on the experimental formulas of Woschni, heat conductivity of multi-layer walls and also small effect of radiation in SI engines. The simulation model was elaborated with full heat transfer to the cooling medium and unsteady gas flow in the engine intake and exhaust systems. The computer program taking into account 0D model of engine processes in the cylinder and 1D model of gas flow was elaborated for determination of many basic engine thermodynamic parameters for Suzuki DR-Z400S 400 cc SI engine. The paper presents calculation results of influence of the ceramic coating thickness on indicated pressure, specific fuel consumption, cooling and exhaust heat losses. Next it were presented comparisons of effective power, heat losses in the cooling and exhaust systems, total efficiency in function of engine rotational speed and also comparison of temperature inside the cylinder for standard, semi-adiabatic and full adiabatic engine. On the basis of the achieved results it was found higher total efficiency of adiabatic engines at 2500 rpm from 27% for standard engine to 37% for full adiabatic engine.
Adiabatic expansion, early X-ray data and the central engine in GRBs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barniol Duran, R.; Kumar, P.
2009-05-01
The Swift satellite early X-ray data show a very steep decay in most of the gamma-ray bursts light curves. This decay is either produced by the rapidly declining continuation of the central engine activity or by some leftover radiation starting right after the central engine shuts off. The latter scenario consists of the emission from an `ember' that cools via adiabatic expansion and, if the jet angle is larger than the inverse of the source Lorentz factor, the large angle emission. In this work, we calculate the temporal and spectral properties of the emission from such a cooling ember, providing a new treatment for the microphysics of the adiabatic expansion. We use the adiabatic invariance of p2⊥/B (p⊥ is the component of the electrons' momentum normal to the magnetic field, B) to calculate the electrons' Lorentz factor during the adiabatic expansion; the electron momentum becomes more and more aligned with the local magnetic field as the expansion develops. We compare the theoretical expectations of the adiabatic expansion (and the large angle emission) with the current observations of the early X-ray data and find that only ~20 per cent of our sample of 107 bursts are potentially consistent with this model. This leads us to believe that, for most bursts, the central engine does not turn off completely during the steep decay of the X-ray light curve; therefore, this phase is produced by the continued rapidly declining activity of the central engine.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babajanova, Gulmira; Matrasulov, Jasur; Nakamura, Katsuhiro
2018-04-01
With use of the scheme of fast forward which realizes quasistatic or adiabatic dynamics in shortened timescale, we investigate a thermally isolated ideal quantum gas confined in a rapidly dilating one-dimensional (1D) cavity with the time-dependent size L =L (t ) . In the fast-forward variants of equation of states, i.e., Bernoulli's formula and Poisson's adiabatic equation, the force or 1D analog of pressure can be expressed as a function of the velocity (L ˙) and acceleration (L ̈) of L besides rapidly changing state variables like effective temperature (T ) and L itself. The force is now a sum of nonadiabatic (NAD) and adiabatic contributions with the former caused by particles moving synchronously with kinetics of L and the latter by ideal bulk particles insensitive to such a kinetics. The ratio of NAD and adiabatic contributions does not depend on the particle number (N ) in the case of the soft-wall confinement, whereas such a ratio is controllable in the case of hard-wall confinement. We also reveal the condition when the NAD contribution overwhelms the adiabatic one and thoroughly changes the standard form of the equilibrium equation of states.
PNNL Tests Fish Passage System
Colotelo, Alison
2018-01-16
Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.
PNNL Tests Fish Passage System
Colotelo, Alison
2015-03-13
Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.
Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps.
Barbara, Thomas M
2016-04-01
A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adiabatic Quantum Anomaly Detection and Machine Learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pudenz, Kristen; Lidar, Daniel
2012-02-01
We present methods of anomaly detection and machine learning using adiabatic quantum computing. The machine learning algorithm is a boosting approach which seeks to optimally combine somewhat accurate classification functions to create a unified classifier which is much more accurate than its components. This algorithm then becomes the first part of the larger anomaly detection algorithm. In the anomaly detection routine, we first use adiabatic quantum computing to train two classifiers which detect two sets, the overlap of which forms the anomaly class. We call this the learning phase. Then, in the testing phase, the two learned classification functions are combined to form the final Hamiltonian for an adiabatic quantum computation, the low energy states of which represent the anomalies in a binary vector space.
On the adiabatic limit of Hadamard states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drago, Nicolò; Gérard, Christian
2017-08-01
We consider the adiabatic limit of Hadamard states for free quantum Klein-Gordon fields, when the background metric and the field mass are slowly varied from their initial to final values. If the Klein-Gordon field stays massive, we prove that the adiabatic limit of the initial vacuum state is the (final) vacuum state, by extending to the symplectic framework the adiabatic theorem of Avron-Seiler-Yaffe. In cases when only the field mass is varied, using an abstract version of the mode decomposition method we can also consider the case when the initial or final mass vanishes, and the initial state is either a thermal state or a more general Hadamard state.
Complexity of the Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hen, Itay
2013-01-01
The Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm (QAA) has been proposed as a mechanism for efficiently solving optimization problems on a quantum computer. Since adiabatic computation is analog in nature and does not require the design and use of quantum gates, it can be thought of as a simpler and perhaps more profound method for performing quantum computations that might also be easier to implement experimentally. While these features have generated substantial research in QAA, to date there is still a lack of solid evidence that the algorithm can outperform classical optimization algorithms.
Self-similar expansion of adiabatic electronegative dusty plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahmansouri, M.; Bemooni, A.; Mamun, A. A.
2017-12-01
The self-similar expansion of an adiabatic electronegative dusty plasma (consisting of inertialess adiabatic electrons, inertialess adiabatic ions and inertial adiabatic negatively charged dust fluids) is theoretically investigated by employing the self-similar approach. It is found that the effects of the plasma adiabaticity (represented by the adiabatic index ) and dusty plasma parameters (determined by dust temperature and initial dust population) significantly modify the nature of the plasma expansion. The implications of our results are expected to play an important role in understanding the physics of the expansion of space and laboratory electronegative dusty plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papell, S. S.
1984-11-01
The thermal film-cooling footprints observed by infrared imagery for three coolant-passage configurations embedded in adiabatic-test plates are discussed. The configurations included a standard round-hole cross section and two orientations of a vortex-generating flow passage. Both orientations showed up to factors of four increases in both film-cooling effectiveness and surface coverage over that obtained with the round coolant passage. The crossflow data covered a range of tunnel velocities from 15.5 to 45 m/sec with blowing rates from 0.20 to 2.05. A photographic streakline flow visualization technique supported the concept of the counterrotating apability of the flow passage design and gave visual credence to its role in inhibiting flow separation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Papell, S. S.
1984-01-01
The thermal film-cooling footprints observed by infrared imagery for three coolant-passage configurations embedded in adiabatic-test plates are discussed. The configurations included a standard round-hole cross section and two orientations of a vortex-generating flow passage. Both orientations showed up to factors of four increases in both film-cooling effectiveness and surface coverage over that obtained with the round coolant passage. The crossflow data covered a range of tunnel velocities from 15.5 to 45 m/sec with blowing rates from 0.20 to 2.05. A photographic streakline flow visualization technique supported the concept of the counterrotating apability of the flow passage design and gave visual credence to its role in inhibiting flow separation.
Complexity of the Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hen, Itay
2013-03-01
The Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm (QAA) has been proposed as a mechanism for efficiently solving optimization problems on a quantum computer. Since adiabatic computation is analog in nature and does not require the design and use of quantum gates, it can be thought of as a simpler and perhaps more profound method for performing quantum computations that might also be easier to implement experimentally. While these features have generated substantial research in QAA, to date there is still a lack of solid evidence that the algorithm can outperform classical optimization algorihms. Here, we discuss several aspects of the quantum adiabatic algorithm: We analyze the efficiency of the algorithm on several ``hard'' (NP) computational problems. Studying the size dependence of the typical minimum energy gap of the Hamiltonians of these problems using quantum Monte Carlo methods, we find that while for most problems the minimum gap decreases exponentially with the size of the problem, indicating that the QAA is not more efficient than existing classical search algorithms, for other problems there is evidence to suggest that the gap may be polynomial near the phase transition. We also discuss applications of the QAA to ``real life'' problems and how they can be implemented on currently available (albeit prototypical) quantum hardware such as ``D-Wave One'', that impose serious restrictions as to which type of problems may be tested. Finally, we discuss different approaches to find improved implementations of the algorithm such as local adiabatic evolution, adaptive methods, local search in Hamiltonian space and others.
Stopping power beyond the adiabatic approximation
Caro, M.; Correa, A. A.; Artacho, E.
2017-06-01
Energetic ions traveling in solids deposit energy in a variety of ways, being nuclear and electronic stopping the two avenues in which dissipation is usually treated. This separation between electrons and ions relies on the adiabatic approximation in which ions interact via forces derived from the instantaneous electronic ground state. In a more detailed view, in which non-adiabatic effects are explicitly considered, electronic excitations alter the atomic bonding, which translates into changes in the interatomic forces. In this work, we use time dependent density functional theory and forces derived from the equations of Ehrenfest dynamics that depend instantaneously on themore » time-dependent electronic density. With them we analyze how the inter-ionic forces are affected by electronic excitations in a model of a Ni projectile interacting with a Ni target, a metallic system with strong electronic stopping and shallow core level states. We find that the electronic excitations induce substantial modifications to the inter-ionic forces, which translate into nuclear stopping power well above the adiabatic prediction. Particularly, we observe that most of the alteration of the adiabatic potential in early times comes from the ionization of the core levels of the target ions, not readily screened by the valence electrons.« less
Towards fault tolerant adiabatic quantum computation.
Lidar, Daniel A
2008-04-25
I show how to protect adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) against decoherence and certain control errors, using a hybrid methodology involving dynamical decoupling, subsystem and stabilizer codes, and energy gaps. Corresponding error bounds are derived. As an example, I show how to perform decoherence-protected AQC against local noise using at most two-body interactions.
Adiabatic and Non-adiabatic quenches in a Spin-1 Bose Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boguslawski, Matthew; Hebbe Madhusudhana, Bharath; Anquez, Martin; Robbins, Bryce; Barrios, Maryrose; Hoang, Thai; Chapman, Michael
2016-05-01
A quantum phase transition (QPT) is observed in a wide range of phenomena. We have studied the dynamics of a spin-1 ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic quenches through a QPT. At the quantum critical point (QCP), finite size effects lead to a non-zero gap, which makes an adiabatic quench possible through the QPT. We experimentally demonstrate such a quench, which is forbidden at the mean field level. For faster quenches through the QCP, the vanishing energy gap causes the reaction timescale of the system to diverge, preventing the system from adiabatically following the ground state. We measure the temporal evolution of the spin populations for different quench speeds and determine the exponents characterizing the scaling of the onset of excitations, which are in good agreement with the predictions of Kibble-Zurek mechanism.
Communication: Adiabatic and non-adiabatic electron-nuclear motion: Quantum and classical dynamics
Albert, Julian; Kaiser, Dustin; Engel, Volker
2016-05-07
Using a model for coupled electronic-nuclear motion we investigate the range from negligible to strong non-adiabatic coupling. In the adiabatic case, the quantum dynamics proceeds in a single electronic state, whereas for strong coupling a complete transition between two adiabatic electronic states takes place. It is shown that in all coupling regimes the short-time wave-packet dynamics can be described using ensembles of classical trajectories in the phase space spanned by electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom. We thus provide an example which documents that the quantum concept of non-adiabatic transitions is not necessarily needed if electronic and nuclear motion ismore » treated on the same footing.« less
Adiabatic burst evaporation from bicontinuous nanoporous membranes
Ichilmann, Sachar; Rücker, Kerstin; Haase, Markus; Enke, Dirk
2015-01-01
Evaporation of volatile liquids from nanoporous media with bicontinuous morphology and pore diameters of a few 10 nm is an ubiquitous process. For example, such drying processes occur during syntheses of nanoporous materials by sol–gel chemistry or by spinodal decomposition in the presence of solvents as well as during solution impregnation of nanoporous hosts with functional guests. It is commonly assumed that drying is endothermic and driven by non-equilibrium partial pressures of the evaporating species in the gas phase. We show that nearly half of the liquid evaporates in an adiabatic mode involving burst-like liquid-to-gas conversions. During single adiabatic burst evaporation events liquid volumes of up to 107 μm3 are converted to gas. The adiabatic liquid-to-gas conversions occur if air invasion fronts get unstable because of the built-up of high capillary pressures. Adiabatic evaporation bursts propagate avalanche-like through the nanopore systems until the air invasion fronts have reached new stable configurations. Adiabatic cavitation bursts thus compete with Haines jumps involving air invasion front relaxation by local liquid flow without enhanced mass transport out of the nanoporous medium and prevail if the mean pore diameter is in the range of a few 10 nm. The results reported here may help optimize membrane preparation via solvent-based approaches, solution-loading of nanopore systems with guest materials as well as routine use of nanoporous membranes with bicontinuous morphology and may contribute to better understanding of adsorption/desorption processes in nanoporous media. PMID:25926406
Hot Wax Sweeps Debris From Narrow Passages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ricklefs, Steven K.
1990-01-01
Safe and effective technique for removal of debris and contaminants from narrow passages involves entrainment of undesired material in thermoplastic casting material. Semisolid wax slightly below melting temperature pushed along passage by pressurized nitrogen to remove debris. Devised to clean out fuel passages in main combustion chamber of Space Shuttle main engine. Also applied to narrow, intricate passages in internal-combustion-engine blocks, carburetors, injection molds, and other complicated parts.
Adiabatic Compression Sensitivity of Liquid Fuels and Monopropellants
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ismail, Ismail M. K.; Hawkins, Tom W.
2000-01-01
Liquid rocket propellants can be sensitive to rapid compression. Such liquids may undergo decomposition and their handling may be accompanied with risk. Decomposition produces small gas bubbles in the liquid, which upon rapid compression may cause catastrophic explosions. The rapid compression can result from mechanical shocks applied on the tank containing the liquid or from rapid closure of the valves installed on the lines. It is desirable to determine the conditions that may promote explosive reactions. At Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), we constructed an apparatus and established a safe procedure for estimating the sensitivity of propellant materials towards mechanical shocks (Adiabatic Compression Tester). A sample is placed on a stainless steel U-tube, held isothermally at a temperature between 20 and 150 C then exposed to an abrupt mechanical shock of nitrogen gas at a pressure between 6.9 and 20.7 MPa (1000 to 3000 psi). The apparatus is computer interfaced and is driven with LABTECH NOTEBOOK-pro (registered) Software. In this presentation, the design of the apparatus is shown, the operating procedure is outlined, and the safety issues are addressed. The results obtained on different energetic materials are presented.
Adiabatic Quantum Simulation of Quantum Chemistry
Babbush, Ryan; Love, Peter J.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2014-01-01
We show how to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm directly to the quantum computation of molecular properties. We describe a procedure to map electronic structure Hamiltonians to 2-body qubit Hamiltonians with a small set of physically realizable couplings. By combining the Bravyi-Kitaev construction to map fermions to qubits with perturbative gadgets to reduce the Hamiltonian to 2-body, we obtain precision requirements on the coupling strengths and a number of ancilla qubits that scale polynomially in the problem size. Hence our mapping is efficient. The required set of controllable interactions includes only two types of interaction beyond the Ising interactions required to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm to combinatorial optimization problems. Our mapping may also be of interest to chemists directly as it defines a dictionary from electronic structure to spin Hamiltonians with physical interactions. PMID:25308187
Adiabatic quantum simulation of quantum chemistry.
Babbush, Ryan; Love, Peter J; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2014-10-13
We show how to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm directly to the quantum computation of molecular properties. We describe a procedure to map electronic structure Hamiltonians to 2-body qubit Hamiltonians with a small set of physically realizable couplings. By combining the Bravyi-Kitaev construction to map fermions to qubits with perturbative gadgets to reduce the Hamiltonian to 2-body, we obtain precision requirements on the coupling strengths and a number of ancilla qubits that scale polynomially in the problem size. Hence our mapping is efficient. The required set of controllable interactions includes only two types of interaction beyond the Ising interactions required to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm to combinatorial optimization problems. Our mapping may also be of interest to chemists directly as it defines a dictionary from electronic structure to spin Hamiltonians with physical interactions.
Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall
Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.
Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are storedmore » in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.« less
Ramsey numbers and adiabatic quantum computing.
Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane
2012-01-06
The graph-theoretic Ramsey numbers are notoriously difficult to calculate. In fact, for the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n) with m, n≥3, only nine are currently known. We present a quantum algorithm for the computation of the Ramsey numbers R(m,n). We show how the computation of R(m,n) can be mapped to a combinatorial optimization problem whose solution can be found using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate this adiabatic quantum algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(2,s) for 5≤s≤7. We then discuss the algorithm's experimental implementation, and close by showing that Ramsey number computation belongs to the quantum complexity class quantum Merlin Arthur.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory
Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian
2015-10-23
A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts tomore » adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.« less
Adiabatic Theorem for Quantum Spin Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bachmann, S.; De Roeck, W.; Fraas, M.
2017-08-01
The first proof of the quantum adiabatic theorem was given as early as 1928. Today, this theorem is increasingly applied in a many-body context, e.g., in quantum annealing and in studies of topological properties of matter. In this setup, the rate of variation ɛ of local terms is indeed small compared to the gap, but the rate of variation of the total, extensive Hamiltonian, is not. Therefore, applications to many-body systems are not covered by the proofs and arguments in the literature. In this Letter, we prove a version of the adiabatic theorem for gapped ground states of interacting quantum spin systems, under assumptions that remain valid in the thermodynamic limit. As an application, we give a mathematical proof of Kubo's linear response formula for a broad class of gapped interacting systems. We predict that the density of nonadiabatic excitations is exponentially small in the driving rate and the scaling of the exponent depends on the dimension.
Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis
2014-12-01
Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.
Adiabatic invariance with first integrals of motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adib, Artur B.
2002-10-01
The construction of a microthermodynamic formalism for isolated systems based on the concept of adiabatic invariance is an old but seldom appreciated effort in the literature, dating back at least to P. Hertz [Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 33, 225 (1910)]. An apparently independent extension of such formalism for systems bearing additional first integrals of motion was recently proposed by Hans H. Rugh [Phys. Rev. E 64, 055101 (2001)], establishing the concept of adiabatic invariance even in such singular cases. After some remarks in connection with the formalism pioneered by Hertz, it will be suggested that such an extension can incidentally explain the success of a dynamical method for computing the entropy of classical interacting fluids, at least in some potential applications where the presence of additional first integrals cannot be ignored.
Optics of tunneling from adiabatic nanotapers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sumetsky, M.
2006-12-01
A theory of light propagation along adiabatic photonic nanowire tapers (nanotapers) having diameters significantly less than the radiation wavelength λ˜1 μm is developed. The fundamental mode of a nanotaper primarily consists of an evanescent field, which propagates in the ambient medium and is very sensitive to the nanotaper shape. General analytical expressions for the evanescent field and the radiation loss of adiabatic nanotapers are obtained and applied to the investigation of the optics of tunneling from a nanotaper of a characteristic shape. The radiation loss of this nanotaper occurs locally near a focal circumference of the evanescent field, representing an intersection of a complex caustic surface with real space, where the fundamental mode splits into the radiating and guiding components. The interference of these components gives rise to a sequence of circumferences with zero electromagnetic field.
Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall
Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.
2014-12-22
Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are storedmore » in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.« less
Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes. II - Adiabatic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montesinos, Benjamin; Thomas, John H.
1989-01-01
This paper extends the study of steady siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes surrounded by field-free gas to the case of adiabatic flows. The basic equations governing steady adiabatic siphon flows in a thin, isolated magnetic flux tube are summarized, and qualitative features of adiabatic flows in elevated, arched flux tubes are discussed. The equations are then cast in nondimensional form and the results of numerical computations of adiabatic siphon flows in arched flux tubes are presented along with comparisons between isothermal and adiabatic flows. The effects of making the interior of the flux tube hotter or colder than the surrounding atmosphere at the upstream footpoint of the arch is considered. In this case, is it found that the adiabatic flows are qualitatively similar to the isothermal flows, with adiabatic cooling producing quantitative differences. Critical flows can produce a bulge point in the rising part of the arch and a concentration of magnetic flux above the bulge point.
Computer Code For Turbocompounded Adiabatic Diesel Engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Assanis, D. N.; Heywood, J. B.
1988-01-01
Computer simulation developed to study advantages of increased exhaust enthalpy in adiabatic turbocompounded diesel engine. Subsytems of conceptual engine include compressor, reciprocator, turbocharger turbine, compounded turbine, ducting, and heat exchangers. Focus of simulation of total system is to define transfers of mass and energy, including release and transfer of heat and transfer of work in each subsystem, and relationship among subsystems. Written in FORTRAN IV.
Adiabatic Pumping Mechanism for Ion Motive ATPases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astumian, R. Dean
2003-09-01
An ion motive ATPase is a membrane protein that pumps ions across the membrane at the expense of the chemical energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. Here we describe how an external electric field, by inducing transitions between several protein configurations, can also power this pump. The underlying mechanism may be very similar to that of a recently constructed adiabatic electron pump [
Adiabatic charging of nickel-hydrogen batteries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lurie, Chuck; Foroozan, S.; Brewer, Jeff; Jackson, Lorna
1995-01-01
Battery management during prelaunch activities has always required special attention and careful planning. The transition from nickel-cadium to nickel-hydrogen batteries, with their high self discharge rate and lower charge efficiency, as well as longer prelaunch scenarios, has made this aspect of spacecraft battery management even more challenging. The AXAF-I Program requires high battery state of charge at launch. The use of active cooling, to ensure efficient charging, was considered and proved to be difficult and expensive. Alternative approaches were evaluated. Optimized charging, in the absence of cooling, appeared promising and was investigated. Initial testing was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the 'Adiabatic Charging' approach. Feasibility was demonstrated and additional testing performed to provide a quantitative, parametric data base. The assumption that the battery is in an adiabatic environment during prelaunch charging is a conservative approximation because the battery will transfer some heat to its surroundings by convective air cooling. The amount is small compared to the heat dissipated during battery overcharge. Because the battery has a large thermal mass, substantial overcharge can occur before the cells get too hot to charge efficiently. The testing presented here simulates a true adiabatic environment. Accordingly the data base may be slightly conservative. The adiabatic charge methodology used in this investigation begins with stabilizing the cell at a given starting temperature. The cell is then fully insulated on all sides. Battery temperature is carefully monitored and the charge terminated when the cell temperature reaches 85 F. Charging has been evaluated with starting temperatures from 55 to 75 F.
Universal Quantum Noise in Adiabatic Pumping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herasymenko, Yaroslav; Snizhko, Kyrylo; Gefen, Yuval
2018-06-01
We consider charge pumping in a system of parafermions, implemented at fractional quantum Hall edges. Our pumping protocol leads to a noisy behavior of the pumped current. As the adiabatic limit is approached, not only does the noisy behavior persist but the counting statistics of the pumped current becomes robust and universal. In particular, the resulting Fano factor is given in terms of the system's topological degeneracy and the pumped quasiparticle charge. Our results are also applicable to the more conventional Majorana fermions.
Zhu, Xiaolei; Yarkony, David R
2016-01-28
We have recently introduced a diabatization scheme, which simultaneously fits and diabatizes adiabatic ab initio electronic wave functions, Zhu and Yarkony J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024112 (2014). The algorithm uses derivative couplings in the defining equations for the diabatic Hamiltonian, H(d), and fits all its matrix elements simultaneously to adiabatic state data. This procedure ultimately provides an accurate, quantifiably diabatic, representation of the adiabatic electronic structure data. However, optimizing the large number of nonlinear parameters in the basis functions and adjusting the number and kind of basis functions from which the fit is built, which provide the essential flexibility, has proved challenging. In this work, we introduce a procedure that combines adiabatic state and diabatic state data to efficiently optimize the nonlinear parameters and basis function expansion. Further, we consider using direct properties based diabatizations to initialize the fitting procedure. To address this issue, we introduce a systematic method for eliminating the debilitating (diabolical) singularities in the defining equations of properties based diabatizations. We exploit the observation that if approximate diabatic data are available, the commonly used approach of fitting each matrix element of H(d) individually provides a starting point (seed) from which convergence of the full H(d) construction algorithm is rapid. The optimization of nonlinear parameters and basis functions and the elimination of debilitating singularities are, respectively, illustrated using the 1,2,3,4(1)A states of phenol and the 1,2(1)A states of NH3, states which are coupled by conical intersections.
Adiabatic regularization for gauge fields and the conformal anomaly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Chong-Sun; Koyama, Yoji
2017-03-01
Adiabatic regularization for quantum field theory in conformally flat spacetime is known for scalar and Dirac fermion fields. In this paper, we complete the construction by establishing the adiabatic regularization scheme for the gauge field. We show that the adiabatic expansion for the mode functions and the adiabatic vacuum can be defined in a similar way using Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin-type (WKB-type) solutions as the scalar fields. As an application of the adiabatic method, we compute the trace of the energy momentum tensor and reproduce the known result for the conformal anomaly obtained by the other regularization methods. The availability of the adiabatic expansion scheme for the gauge field allows one to study various renormalized physical quantities of theories coupled to (non-Abelian) gauge fields in conformally flat spacetime, such as conformal supersymmetric Yang Mills, inflation, and cosmology.
Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for space use
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Serlemitsos, A. T.; Warner, B. A.; Castles, S.; Breon, S. R.; San Sebastian, M.; Hait, T.
1990-01-01
An Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) for space use is under development at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The breadboard ADR operated at 100 mK for 400 minutes. Some significant changes to that ADR, designed to eliminate shortcomings revealed during tests, are reported. To increase thermal contact, the ferric ammonium sulfate crystals were grown directly on gold-plated copper wires which serve as the thermal bus. The thermal link to the X-ray sensors was also markedly improved. To speed up the testing required to determine the best design parameters for the gas gap heat switch, the new heat switch has a modular design and is easy to disassemble.
Adiabatic Quantum Computation with Neutral Cesium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hankin, Aaron; Parazzoli, L.; Chou, Chin-Wen; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Burns, George; Young, Amber; Kemme, Shanalyn; Ferdinand, Andrew; Biedermann, Grant; Landahl, Andrew; Ivan H. Deutsch Collaboration; Mark Saffman Collaboration
2013-05-01
We are implementing a new platform for adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) based on trapped neutral atoms whose coupling is mediated by the dipole-dipole interactions of Rydberg states. Ground state cesium atoms are dressed by laser fields in a manner conditional on the Rydberg blockade mechanism, thereby providing the requisite entangling interactions. As a benchmark we study a Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) problem whose solution is found in the ground state spin configuration of an Ising-like model. University of New Mexico: Ivan H. Deutsch, Tyler Keating, Krittika Goyal.
Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for space use
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serlemitsos, A. T.; Warner, B. A.; Castles, S.; Breon, S. R.; San Sebastian, M.; Hait, T.
An Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) for space use is under development at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The breadboard ADR operated at 100 mK for 400 minutes. Some significant changes to that ADR, designed to eliminate shortcomings revealed during tests, are reported. To increase thermal contact, the ferric ammonium sulfate crystals were grown directly on gold-plated copper wires which serve as the thermal bus. The thermal link to the X-ray sensors was also markedly improved. To speed up the testing required to determine the best design parameters for the gas gap heat switch, the new heat switch has a modular design and is easy to disassemble.
Phase avalanches in near-adiabatic evolutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vértesi, T.; Englman, R.
2006-02-01
In the course of slow, nearly adiabatic motion of a system, relative changes in the slowness can cause abrupt and high magnitude phase changes, “phase avalanches,” superimposed on the ordinary geometric phases. The generality of this effect is examined for arbitrary Hamiltonians and multicomponent (>2) wave packets and is found to be connected (through the Blaschke term in the theory of analytic signals) to amplitude zeros in the lower half of the complex time plane. Motion on a nonmaximal circle on the Poincaré-sphere suppresses the effect. A spectroscopic transition experiment can independently verify the phase-avalanche magnitudes.
Relaxation versus adiabatic quantum steady-state preparation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venuti, Lorenzo Campos; Albash, Tameem; Marvian, Milad; Lidar, Daniel; Zanardi, Paolo
2017-04-01
Adiabatic preparation of the ground states of many-body Hamiltonians in the closed-system limit is at the heart of adiabatic quantum computation, but in reality systems are always open. This motivates a natural comparison between, on the one hand, adiabatic preparation of steady states of Lindbladian generators and, on the other hand, relaxation towards the same steady states subject to the final Lindbladian of the adiabatic process. In this work we thus adopt the perspective that the goal is the most efficient possible preparation of such steady states, rather than ground states. Using known rigorous bounds for the open-system adiabatic theorem and for mixing times, we are then led to a disturbing conclusion that at first appears to doom efforts to build physical quantum annealers: relaxation seems to always converge faster than adiabatic preparation. However, by carefully estimating the adiabatic preparation time for Lindbladians describing thermalization in the low-temperature limit, we show that there is, after all, room for an adiabatic speedup over relaxation. To test the analytically derived bounds for the adiabatic preparation time and the relaxation time, we numerically study three models: a dissipative quasifree fermionic chain, a single qubit coupled to a thermal bath, and the "spike" problem of n qubits coupled to a thermal bath. Via these models we find that the answer to the "which wins" question depends for each model on the temperature and the system-bath coupling strength. In the case of the "spike" problem we find that relaxation during the adiabatic evolution plays an important role in ensuring a speedup over the final-time relaxation procedure. Thus, relaxation-assisted adiabatic preparation can be more efficient than both pure adiabatic evolution and pure relaxation.
Adiabatic evolution of decoherence-free subspaces and its shortcuts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, S. L.; Huang, X. L.; Li, H.; Yi, X. X.
2017-10-01
The adiabatic theorem and shortcuts to adiabaticity for time-dependent open quantum systems are explored in this paper. Starting from the definition of dynamical stable decoherence-free subspace, we show that, under a compact adiabatic condition, the quantum state remains in the time-dependent decoherence-free subspace with an extremely high purity, even though the dynamics of the open quantum system may not be adiabatic. The adiabatic condition mentioned here in the adiabatic theorem for open systems is very similar to that for closed quantum systems, except that the operators required to change slowly are the Lindblad operators. We also show that the adiabatic evolution of decoherence-free subspaces depends on the existence of instantaneous decoherence-free subspaces, which requires that the Hamiltonian of open quantum systems be engineered according to the incoherent control protocol. In addition, shortcuts to adiabaticity for adiabatic decoherence-free subspaces are also presented based on the transitionless quantum driving method. Finally, we provide an example that consists of a two-level system coupled to a broadband squeezed vacuum field to show our theory. Our approach employs Markovian master equations and the theory can apply to finite-dimensional quantum open systems.
Effect of local minima on adiabatic quantum optimization.
Amin, M H S
2008-04-04
We present a perturbative method to estimate the spectral gap for adiabatic quantum optimization, based on the structure of the energy levels in the problem Hamiltonian. We show that, for problems that have an exponentially large number of local minima close to the global minimum, the gap becomes exponentially small making the computation time exponentially long. The quantum advantage of adiabatic quantum computation may then be accessed only via the local adiabatic evolution, which requires phase coherence throughout the evolution and knowledge of the spectrum. Such problems, therefore, are not suitable for adiabatic quantum computation.
Risk Taking and Rites of Passage
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Larson, Scott; Martin, Lloyd
2012-01-01
Throughout history, young people earned adult roles through observing, imitating, and interacting with adults around them. Rituals of initiation such as the Jewish bar mitzvah and bat mitzvah are very important rite of passage ceremonies. Many churches confer baptism, confirmation, or catechism as rites of passage to adulthood. Without such…
Turbulence spectra measured during fire front passage
Daisuke Seto; Craig B. Clements; Warren E. Heilman
2013-01-01
Four field experiments were conducted over various fuel and terrain to investigate turbulence generation during the passage of wildland fire fronts. Our results indicate an increase in horizontal mean winds and friction velocity, horizontal and vertical velocity variances as well as a decreased degree of anisotropy in TKE during fire front passage (FFP) due to fire-...
Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities
Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore
2012-01-01
Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.
76 FR 34692 - Inside Passage Electric Cooperative
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-06-14
... Electric Cooperative Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments..., the Inside Passage Electric Cooperative filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to..., Operations Manager, Inside Passage Electric Cooperative, P.O. Box 210149, 12480 Mendenhall Loop Road, Auke...
An Adiabatic Phase-Matching Accelerator
Lemery, Francois; Floettmann, Klaus; Piot, Philippe; ...
2018-05-25
We present a general concept to accelerate non-relativistic charged particles. Our concept employs an adiabatically-tapered dielectric-lined waveguide which supports accelerating phase velocities for synchronous acceleration. We propose an ansatz for the transient field equations, show it satisfies Maxwell's equations under an adiabatic approximation and find excellent agreement with a finite-difference time-domain computer simulation. The fields were implemented into the particle-tracking program {\\sc astra} and we present beam dynamics results for an accelerating field with a 1-mm-wavelength and peak electric field of 100~MV/m. The numerical simulations indicate that amore » $$\\sim 200$$-keV electron beam can be accelerated to an energy of $$\\sim10$$~MeV over $$\\sim 10$$~cm. The novel scheme is also found to form electron beams with parameters of interest to a wide range of applications including, e.g., future advanced accelerators, and ultra-fast electron diffraction.« less
Quantum Adiabatic Algorithms and Large Spin Tunnelling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boulatov, A.; Smelyanskiy, V. N.
2003-01-01
We provide a theoretical study of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm with different evolution paths proposed in this paper. The algorithm is applied to a random binary optimization problem (a version of the 3-Satisfiability problem) where the n-bit cost function is symmetric with respect to the permutation of individual bits. The evolution paths are produced, using the generic control Hamiltonians H (r) that preserve the bit symmetry of the underlying optimization problem. In the case where the ground state of H(0) coincides with the totally-symmetric state of an n-qubit system the algorithm dynamics is completely described in terms of the motion of a spin-n/2. We show that different control Hamiltonians can be parameterized by a set of independent parameters that are expansion coefficients of H (r) in a certain universal set of operators. Only one of these operators can be responsible for avoiding the tunnelling in the spin-n/2 system during the quantum adiabatic algorithm. We show that it is possible to select a coefficient for this operator that guarantees a polynomial complexity of the algorithm for all problem instances. We show that a successful evolution path of the algorithm always corresponds to the trajectory of a classical spin-n/2 and provide a complete characterization of such paths.
An Adiabatic Phase-Matching Accelerator
Lemery, Francois; Floettmann, Klaus; Piot, Philippe
2017-12-22
We present a general concept to accelerate non-relativistic charged particles. Our concept employs an adiabatically-tapered dielectric-lined waveguide which supports accelerating phase velocities for synchronous acceleration. We propose an ansatz for the transient field equations, show it satisfies Maxwell's equations under an adiabatic approximation and find excellent agreement with a finite-difference time-domain computer simulation. The fields were implemented into the particle-tracking program {\\sc astra} and we present beam dynamics results for an accelerating field with a 1-mm-wavelength and peak electric field of 100~MV/m. The numerical simulations indicate that amore » $$\\sim 200$$-keV electron beam can be accelerated to an energy of $$\\sim10$$~MeV over $$\\sim 10$$~cm. The novel scheme is also found to form electron beams with parameters of interest to a wide range of applications including, e.g., future advanced accelerators, and ultra-fast electron diffraction.« less
Adiabatic excitation for 31 P MR spectroscopy in the human heart at 7 T: A feasibility study.
Valkovič, Ladislav; Clarke, William T; Purvis, Lucian A B; Schaller, Benoit; Robson, Matthew D; Rodgers, Christopher T
2017-11-01
Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRS) provides a unique tool for assessing cardiac energy metabolism, often quantified using the phosphocreatine (PCr)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio. Surface coils are typically used for excitation for 31 P-MRS, but they create an inhomogeneous excitation field across the myocardium, producing undesirable, spatially varying partial saturation. Therefore, we implemented adiabatic excitation in a 3D chemical shift imaging (CSI) sequence for cardiac 31 P-MRS at 7 Tesla (T). We optimized an adiabatic half passage pulse with bandwidth sufficient to excite PCr and γ-ATP together. In addition, the CSI sequence was modified to allow interleaved excitation of PCr and γ-ATP, then 2,3-DPG, to enable PCr/ATP determination with blood correction. Nine volunteers were scanned at 2 transmit voltages to confirm that measured PCr/ATP was independent of B1+ (i.e. over the adiabatic threshold). Six septal voxels were evaluated for each volunteer. Phantom experiments showed that adiabatic excitation can be reached at the depth of the heart using our pulse. The mean evaluated cardiac PCr/ATP ratio from all 9 volunteers corrected for blood signal was 2.14 ± 0.16. Comparing the two acquisitions with different voltages resulted in a minimal mean difference of -0.005. Adiabatic excitation is possible in the human heart at 7 T, and gives consistent PCr/ATP ratios. Magn Reson Med 78:1667-1673, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelly, Cynthia
This study examined the impact of different types of text on student achievement in elementary school science. Gender was also examined to see if the type of text passage read had any differential effect on boys' and girls' achievement. This study was a pretest/posttest/retention test design. Eighty-four fourth grade students from a public charter elementary school in South Florida were randomly assigned a passage from a physical science textbook, a physical science nonfiction trade book, a physical science fiction trade book, a biological science textbook or a biological science nonfiction trade book. Results in the physical science content area revealed that students in the textbook passage group had higher posttest and retention test results than students in the nonfiction and fiction trade book passage groups. There was no difference on the posttest results of students in the biological science textbook and nonfiction trade book passage groups. Students in the biological science textbook passage group had higher retention results than students in the biological science nonfiction passage group. Gender results in the physical science content area revealed that boys had a higher retention score than girls in the fiction trade book passage group. There were no gender achievement differences as a result of the text passage read in the biological science content area. It was concluded that no definitive answer as to the efficacy of textbooks versus trade books was possible based upon results of the study. Recommendations for future research include examining the effects of different types of texts in conjunction with other authentic teaching methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, K.; Baba, T.
2018-03-01
We demonstrate an adiabatic wavelength redshift using dynamic carrier depletion. Free carriers are first induced through two-photon absorption of a control pulse and then extracted by a reverse-biased p-i-n diode formed on a Si photonic crystal waveguide, resulting in rapid carrier depletion. A copropagating signal pulse is redshifted by the consequent increase in refractive index. We experimentally evaluated the dynamics of the carrier depletion by the pump-probe method and explored suitable conditions for adiabatic redshift. The signal's redshift was observed, and was confirmed to originate in the dynamic carrier depletion. The redshift was experimentally determined as 0.21 nm.
Traaseth, Nathaniel J; Chao, Fa-An; Masterson, Larry R; Mangia, Silvia; Garwood, Michael; Michaeli, Shalom; Seelig, Burckhard; Veglia, Gianluigi
2012-06-01
NMR relaxation methods probe biomolecular motions over a wide range of timescales. In particular, the rotating frame spin-lock R(1ρ) and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) R(2) experiments are commonly used to characterize μs to ms dynamics, which play a critical role in enzyme folding and catalysis. In an effort to complement these approaches, we introduced the Heteronuclear Adiabatic Relaxation Dispersion (HARD) method, where dispersion in rotating frame relaxation rate constants (longitudinal R(1ρ) and transverse R(2ρ)) is created by modulating the shape and duration of adiabatic full passage (AFP) pulses. Previously, we showed the ability of the HARD method to detect chemical exchange dynamics in the fast exchange regime (k(ex)∼10(4)-10(5) s(-1)). In this article, we show the sensitivity of the HARD method to slower exchange processes by measuring R(1ρ) and R(2ρ) relaxation rates for two soluble proteins (ubiquitin and 10C RNA ligase). One advantage of the HARD method is its nominal dependence on the applied radio frequency field, which can be leveraged to modulate the dispersion in the relaxation rate constants. In addition, we also include product operator simulations to define the dynamic range of adiabatic R(1ρ) and R(2ρ) that is valid under all exchange regimes. We conclude from both experimental observations and simulations that this method is complementary to CPMG-based and rotating frame spin-lock R(1ρ) experiments to probe conformational exchange dynamics for biomolecules. Finally, this approach is germane to several NMR-active nuclei, where relaxation rates are frequency-offset independent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kinetic Theory Derivation of the Adiabatic Law for Ideal Gases.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sobel, Michael I.
1980-01-01
Discusses how the adiabatic law for ideal gases can be derived from the assumption of a Maxwell-Boltzmann (or any other) distribution of velocities--in contrast to the usual derivations from thermodynamics alone, and the higher-order effect that leads to one-body viscosity. An elementary derivation of the adiabatic law is given. (Author/DS)
Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion
Baker, K. L.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J. L.; ...
2015-05-05
Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in this paper in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform formore » both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. Finally, this approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures.« less
The Adiabatic Invariance of the Action Variable in Classical Dynamics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wells, Clive G.; Siklos, Stephen T. C.
2007-01-01
We consider one-dimensional classical time-dependent Hamiltonian systems with quasi-periodic orbits. It is well known that such systems possess an adiabatic invariant which coincides with the action variable of the Hamiltonian formalism. We present a new proof of the adiabatic invariance of this quantity and illustrate our arguments by means of…
Sliding seal materials for adiabatic engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lankford, J.
1985-01-01
The sliding friction coefficients and wear rates of promising carbide, oxide, and nitride materials were measured under temperature, environmental, velocity, loading conditions that are representative of the adiabatic engine environment. In order to provide guidance needed to improve materials for this application, the program stressed fundamental understanding of the mechanisms involved in friction and wear. Microhardness tests were performed on the candidate materials at elevated temperatures, and in atmospheres relevant to the piston seal application, and optical and electron microscopy were used to elucidate the micromechanisms of wear following wear testing. X-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate interface/environment interactions which seemed to be important in the friction and wear process. Electrical effects in the friction and wear processes were explored in order to evaluate the potential usefulness of such effects in modifying the friction and wear rates in service. However, this factor was found to be of negligible significance in controlling friction and wear.
Quantum Adiabatic Optimization and Combinatorial Landscapes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Knysh, S.; Morris, R. D.
2003-01-01
In this paper we analyze the performance of the Quantum Adiabatic Evolution (QAE) algorithm on a variant of Satisfiability problem for an ensemble of random graphs parametrized by the ratio of clauses to variables, gamma = M / N. We introduce a set of macroscopic parameters (landscapes) and put forward an ansatz of universality for random bit flips. We then formulate the problem of finding the smallest eigenvalue and the excitation gap as a statistical mechanics problem. We use the so-called annealing approximation with a refinement that a finite set of macroscopic variables (verses only energy) is used, and are able to show the existence of a dynamic threshold gamma = gammad, beyond which QAE should take an exponentially long time to find a solution. We compare the results for extended and simplified sets of landscapes and provide numerical evidence in support of our universality ansatz.
Design of a spaceworthy adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Serlemitsos, A. T.; Kunes, E.; Sansebastian, M.
1992-01-01
A spaceworthy adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) under development at NASA-Goddard is presented. A baseline model heat switch was tested extensively with an on/off ratio of about 10,000 and a parasitic heat leak of 10 micro-W. Data obtained from the breadboard models were used to design an ADR with improved structural integrity. The core of the ADR is the salt pill which consists of the paramagnetic salt crystal and the thermal bus. When a magnetic field is applied to the salt it forces the alignment of the magnetic moments, thereby decreasing the entropy of the salt. Preliminary tests results showed a net crystal mass of 680 g instead of the expected 740 g, which indicate that there are gaps in the salt pill. A partial fix was accomplished by sealing helium gas in the salt pill at a pressure of 2 bar, which improved the thermal contact during salt magnetization, at about 2 K.
An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for SIRTF
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Timbie, P. T.; Bernstein, G. M.; Richards, P. L.
1989-01-01
An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) has been proposed to cool bolometric infrared detectors on the multiband imaging photometer of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). One such refrigerator has been built which uses a ferric ammonium alum salt pill suspended by nylon threads in a 3-T solenoid. The resonant modes of this suspension are above 100 Hz. The heat leak to the salt pill is less than 0.5 microW. The system has a hold time at 0.1K of more than 12 h. The cold stage temperature is regulated with a feedback loop that controls the magnetic field. A second, similar refrigerator is being built at a SIRTF prototype to fly on a ballon-borne telescope. It will use a ferromagnetic shield. The possibility of using a high-Tc solenoid-actuated heat switch is also discussed.
Number Partitioning via Quantum Adiabatic Computation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Toussaint, Udo
2002-01-01
We study both analytically and numerically the complexity of the adiabatic quantum evolution algorithm applied to random instances of combinatorial optimization problems. We use as an example the NP-complete set partition problem and obtain an asymptotic expression for the minimal gap separating the ground and exited states of a system during the execution of the algorithm. We show that for computationally hard problem instances the size of the minimal gap scales exponentially with the problem size. This result is in qualitative agreement with the direct numerical simulation of the algorithm for small instances of the set partition problem. We describe the statistical properties of the optimization problem that are responsible for the exponential behavior of the algorithm.
The HAWC and SAFIRE Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tuttle, Jim; Shirron, Peter; DiPirro, Michael; Jackson, Michael; Behr, Jason; Kunes, Evan; Hait, Tom; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The High-Resolution Airborne Wide-band Camera (HAWC) and Submillimeter and Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) are far-infrared experiments which will fly on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) aircraft. HAWC's detectors will operate at 0.2 Kelvin, while those of SAFIRE will be at 0.1 Kelvin. Each instrument will include an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to cool its detector stage from the liquid helium bath temperature (HAWC's at 4.2 Kelvin and SAFIRE's pumped to about 1.3 Kelvin) to its operating temperature. Except for the magnets used to achieve the cooling and a slight difference in the heat switch design, the two ADRs are nearly identical. We describe the ADR design and present the results of performance testing.
Adiabatic Quantum Computing via the Rydberg Blockade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keating, Tyler; Goyal, Krittika; Deutsch, Ivan
2012-06-01
We study an architecture for implementing adiabatic quantum computation with trapped neutral atoms. Ground state atoms are dressed by laser fields in a manner conditional on the Rydberg blockade mechanism, thereby providing the requisite entangling interactions. As a benchmark we study the performance of a Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) problem whose solution is found in the ground state spin configuration of an Ising-like model. We model a realistic architecture, including the effects of magnetic level structure, with qubits encoded into the clock states of ^133Cs, effective B-fields implemented through microwaves and light shifts, and atom-atom coupling achieved by excitation to a high-lying Rydberg level. Including the fundamental effects of photon scattering we find a high fidelity for the two-qubit implementation.
Adiabatic/diabatic polarization beam splitter
DeRose, Christopher; Cai, Hong
2017-09-12
The various presented herein relate to an on-chip polarization beam splitter (PBS), which is adiabatic for the transverse magnetic (TM) mode and diabatic for the transverse electric (TE) mode. The PBS comprises a through waveguide and a cross waveguide, wherein an electromagnetic beam comprising TE mode and TM mode components is applied to an input port of the through waveguide. The PBS can be utilized to separate the TE mode component from the TM mode component, wherein the TE mode component exits the PBS via an output port of the through waveguide, and the TM mode component exits the PBS via an output port of the cross waveguide. The PBS has a structure that is tolerant to manufacturing variations and exhibits high polarization extinction ratios over a wide bandwidth.
An Integrated Development Environment for Adiabatic Quantum Programming
Humble, Travis S; McCaskey, Alex; Bennink, Ryan S
2014-01-01
Adiabatic quantum computing is a promising route to the computational power afforded by quantum information processing. The recent availability of adiabatic hardware raises the question of how well quantum programs perform. Benchmarking behavior is challenging since the multiple steps to synthesize an adiabatic quantum program are highly tunable. We present an adiabatic quantum programming environment called JADE that provides control over all the steps taken during program development. JADE captures the workflow needed to rigorously benchmark performance while also allowing a variety of problem types, programming techniques, and processor configurations. We have also integrated JADE with a quantum simulation enginemore » that enables program profiling using numerical calculation. The computational engine supports plug-ins for simulation methodologies tailored to various metrics and computing resources. We present the design, integration, and deployment of JADE and discuss its use for benchmarking adiabatic quantum programs.« less
Generalized shortcuts to adiabaticity and enhanced robustness against decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, Alan C.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.
2018-01-01
Shortcuts to adiabaticity provide a general approach to mimic adiabatic quantum processes via arbitrarily fast evolutions in Hilbert space. For these counter-diabatic evolutions, higher speed comes at higher energy cost. Here, the counter-diabatic theory is employed as a minimal energy demanding scheme for speeding up adiabatic tasks. As a by-product, we show that this approach can be used to obtain infinite classes of transitionless models, including time-independent Hamiltonians under certain conditions over the eigenstates of the original Hamiltonian. We apply these results to investigate shortcuts to adiabaticity in decohering environments by introducing the requirement of a fixed energy resource. In this scenario, we show that generalized transitionless evolutions can be more robust against decoherence than their adiabatic counterparts. We illustrate this enhanced robustness both for the Landau-Zener model and for quantum gate Hamiltonians.
How Important Is Passage Dependence in Reading Comprehension?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hanna, Gerald S.; Oaster, Thomas R.
1978-01-01
A higher than expected correlation between "passages in" and "passages out" scores on reading comprehension tests indicated that the practical importance of passage dependence is probably not as great as has been commonly believed. (Editor)
Terrestrial passage theory of the moon illusion.
Reed, C F
1984-12-01
Theories of the celestial, or moon, illusion have neglected geometric characteristics of movement along and above the surface of the earth. The illusion occurs because the characteristics of terrestrial passage are attributed to celestial passage. In terrestrial passage, the visual angle subtended by an object changes discriminably as an essentially invariant function of elevation above the horizon. In celestial passage, by contrast, change in visual angle is indiscriminable at all elevations. If a terrestrial object gains altitude, its angular subtense fails to follow the expansion projected for an orbital course: Angular diminution or constancy is equivalent to distancing. On the basis of terrestrial projections, a similar failure of celestial objects in successive elevations is also equivalent to distancing. The illusion occurs because of retinal image constancy, not--as traditionally stated--despite it.
Factors for improved fish passage waterway construction.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2011-06-01
Streambeds are important fish passageways in Oregon; they provide for the necessary habitats and spawning cycles of a healthy fish population. Oregon state law requires that hydraulic structures located in water properly provide fish passage. Increas...
Fish passage through retrofitted culverts : final report.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2004-11-01
Long term and short term studies of fish movement were conducted at several retrofitted culverts within Oregon. This was done to assess the effectiveness of retrofitting culverts with baffles to improve fish passage. The long term results showed that...
Skeptical notes on a physics of passage.
Huggett, Nick
2014-10-01
This paper investigates the mathematical representation of time in physics. In existing theories, time is represented by the real numbers, hence their formal properties represent properties of time: these are surveyed. The central question of the paper is whether the existing representation of time is adequate, or whether it can or should be supplemented: especially, do we need a physics incorporating some kind of "dynamical passage" of time? The paper argues that the existing mathematical framework is resistant to such changes, and might have to be rejected by anyone seeking a physics of passage. Then it rebuts two common arguments for incorporating passage into physics, especially the claim that it is an element of experience. Finally, the paper investigates whether, as has been claimed, causal set theory provides a physics of passage. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Passage relevance models for genomics search.
Urbain, Jay; Frieder, Ophir; Goharian, Nazli
2009-03-19
We present a passage relevance model for integrating syntactic and semantic evidence of biomedical concepts and topics using a probabilistic graphical model. Component models of topics, concepts, terms, and document are represented as potential functions within a Markov Random Field. The probability of a passage being relevant to a biologist's information need is represented as the joint distribution across all potential functions. Relevance model feedback of top ranked passages is used to improve distributional estimates of query concepts and topics in context, and a dimensional indexing strategy is used for efficient aggregation of concept and term statistics. By integrating multiple sources of evidence including dependencies between topics, concepts, and terms, we seek to improve genomics literature passage retrieval precision. Using this model, we are able to demonstrate statistically significant improvements in retrieval precision using a large genomics literature corpus.
Liang, Chao; Tong, Wu; Zheng, Hao; Liu, Fei; Wu, Jiqiang; Li, Guoxin; Zhou, En-Min; Tong, Guangzhi
2017-06-01
Emerging variant of pseudorabies virus (PRV) have evaded the antiviral immunity of commercially available PRV vaccine and have led to PRV outbreaks in Chinese pig farms. Here, we attenuated a PRV variant strain by serial passages in vitro and evaluate the protective efficacy of the attenuated strain as a vaccine candidate. The virulent PRV variant strain JS-2012 was continuously passaged in Vero cells at 40°C and attenuated rapidly. After 90 passages in Vero cells, the passaged virus lost its ability to cause death in 2-week-old piglets. The 120th passage virus was avirulent in the sucking piglets. An attenuated strain, JS-2012-F120 derived from the 120th passage virus by three rounds of plaque cloning grew better than its parent strain JS-2012 in Vero cells and showed notably different cytopathic effects and plaque morphology from JS-2012. PCR combined with sequence analysis showed that JS-2012-F120 contained a 2307-bp deletion covering nucleotide 487 of gE gene to 531 of US2 gene. After inoculation with JS-2012-F120, young piglets were completely protected from challenge with the classical and emerging virulent PRVs. Moreover, the piglets did not develop specific gE antibodies. Thus, JS-2012-F120 appears to be a promising marker vaccine to control PRV variant circulating in Chinese pig farms, and the high-temperature passaging in vitro was an efficient method to attenuated alphaherpesvirus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brook trout passage performance through culverts
Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Bergeron, Normand
2016-01-01
Culverts can restrict access to habitat for stream-dwelling fishes. We used passive integrated transponder telemetry to quantify passage performance of >1000 wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) attempting to pass 13 culverts in Quebec under a range of hydraulic and environmental conditions. Several variables influenced passage success, including complex interactions between physiology and behavior, hydraulics, and structural characteristics. The probability of successful passage was greater through corrugated metal culverts than through smooth ones, particularly among smaller fish. Trout were also more likely to pass at warmer temperatures, but this effect diminished above 15 °C. Passage was impeded at higher flows, through culverts with steep slopes, and those with deep downstream pools. This study provides insight on factors influencing brook trout capacity to pass culverts as well as a model to estimate passage success under various conditions, with an improved resolution and accuracy over existing approaches. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate passage success of other species, with implications for connectivity of the riverscape.
Adiabatic perturbation theory of electronic stopping in insulators
Horsfield, Andrew P.; Lim, Anthony; Foulkes, W. M. C.; ...
2016-06-02
A model able to explain the complicated structure of electronic stopping at low velocities in insulating materials is presented. It is shown to be in good agreement with results obtained from time-dependent density-functional theory for the stopping of a channeling Si atom in a Si crystal. If we define the repeat frequency f=v/λ, where λ is the periodic repeat length of the crystal along the direction the channeling atom is traveling, and v is the velocity of the channeling atom, we find that electrons experience a perturbing force that varies in time at integer multiples l of f. This enablesmore » electronic excitations at low atom velocity, but their contributions diminish rapidly with increasing values of l. The expressions for stopping power are derived using adiabatic perturbation theory for many-electron systems, and they are then specialized to the case of independent electrons. Lastly, a simple model for the nonadiabatic matrix elements is described, along with the procedure for determining its parameters.« less
4. BASEMENT WALL BENEATH SOUTH PASSAGE SHOWING STEAM TUNNEL OPENING ...
4. BASEMENT WALL BENEATH SOUTH PASSAGE SHOWING STEAM TUNNEL OPENING IN SOUTH WALL. - Pennsylvania Railroad Station, South Baggage Passage & Canopy, 1101 Liberty Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA
Piecewise adiabatic following in non-Hermitian cycling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Jiangbin; Wang, Qing-hai
2018-05-01
The time evolution of periodically driven non-Hermitian systems is in general nonunitary but can be stable. It is hence of considerable interest to examine the adiabatic following dynamics in periodically driven non-Hermitian systems. We show in this work the possibility of piecewise adiabatic following interrupted by hopping between instantaneous system eigenstates. This phenomenon is first observed in a computational model and then theoretically explained, using an exactly solvable model, in terms of the Stokes phenomenon. In the latter case, the piecewise adiabatic following is shown to be a genuine critical behavior and the precise phase boundary in the parameter space is located. Interestingly, the critical boundary for piecewise adiabatic following is found to be unrelated to the domain for exceptional points. To characterize the adiabatic following dynamics, we also advocate a simple definition of the Aharonov-Anandan (AA) phase for nonunitary cyclic dynamics, which always yields real AA phases. In the slow driving limit, the AA phase reduces to the Berry phase if adiabatic following persists throughout the driving without hopping, but oscillates violently and does not approach any limit in cases of piecewise adiabatic following. This work exposes the rich features of nonunitary dynamics in cases of slow cycling and should stimulate future applications of nonunitary dynamics.
Probing coherence aspects of adiabatic quantum computation and control.
Goswami, Debabrata
2007-09-28
Quantum interference between multiple excitation pathways can be used to cancel the couplings to the unwanted, nonradiative channels resulting in robustly controlling decoherence through adiabatic coherent control approaches. We propose a useful quantification of the two-level character in a multilevel system by considering the evolution of the coherent character in the quantum system as represented by the off-diagonal density matrix elements, which switches from real to imaginary as the excitation process changes from being resonant to completely adiabatic. Such counterintuitive results can be explained in terms of continuous population exchange in comparison to no population exchange under the adiabatic condition.
Dynamics of Charged Particles in an Adiabatic Thermal Beam Equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chiping; Wei, Haofei
2010-11-01
Charged-particle motion is studied in the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of a well-matched, intense charged-particle beam and an applied periodic solenoidal magnetic focusing field. The beam is assumed to be in a state of adiabatic thermal equilibrium. The phase space is analyzed and compared with that of the well-known Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV)-type beam equilibrium. It is found that the widths of nonlinear resonances in the adiabatic thermal beam equilibrium are narrower than those in the KV-type beam equilibrium. Numerical evidence is presented, indicating almost complete elimination of chaotic particle motion in the adiabatic thermal beam equilibrium.
Adiabatic Quantum Computation with Neutral Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biedermann, Grant
2013-03-01
We are implementing a new platform for adiabatic quantum computation (AQC)[2] based on trapped neutral atoms whose coupling is mediated by the dipole-dipole interactions of Rydberg states. Ground state cesium atoms are dressed by laser fields in a manner conditional on the Rydberg blockade mechanism,[3,4] thereby providing the requisite entangling interactions. As a benchmark we study a Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) problem whose solution is found in the ground state spin configuration of an Ising-like model. In collaboration with Lambert Parazzoli, Sandia National Laboratories; Aaron Hankin, Center for Quantum Information and Control (CQuIC), University of New Mexico; James Chin-Wen Chou, Yuan-Yu Jau, Peter Schwindt, Cort Johnson, and George Burns, Sandia National Laboratories; Tyler Keating, Krittika Goyal, and Ivan Deutsch, Center for Quantum Information and Control (CQuIC), University of New Mexico; and Andrew Landahl, Sandia National Laboratories. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories
Adiabatically describing rare earths using microscopic deformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nobre, Gustavo; Dupuis, Marc; Herman, Michal; Brown, David
2017-09-01
Recent works showed that reactions on well-deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region are very well described by an adiabatic method. This assumes a spherical optical potential (OP) accounting for non-rotational degrees of freedom while the deformed configuration is described by couplings to states of the g.s. rotational band. This method has, apart from the global OP, only the deformation parameters as inputs, with no additional fit- ted variables. For this reason, it has only been applied to nuclei with well-measured deformations. With the new computational capabilities, microscopic large-scale calculations of deformation parameters within the HFB method based on the D1S Gogny force are available in the literature. We propose to use such microscopic deformations in our adi- abatic method, allowing us to reproduce the cross sections agreements observed in stable nuclei, and to reliably extend this description to nuclei far from stability, describing the whole rare-earth region. Since all cross sections, such as capture and charge exchange, strongly depend on the correct calculation of absorption from the incident channel (from direct reaction mechanisms), this approach significantly improves the accuracy of cross sections and transitions relevant to astrophysical studies. The work at BNL was sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Physics, Office of Science of the US Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC.
Design of the PIXIE Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark Oliver; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan J.; Li, Xiaoyi; DiPirro, Michael
2012-01-01
The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is a proposed mission to densely map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. It will operate in a scanning mode from a sun-synchronous orbit, using low temperature detectors (at 0.1 K) and located inside a teslescope that is cooled to approximately 2.73 K - to match the background temperature. A mechanical cryocooler operating at 4.5 K establishes a low base temperature from which two adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) assemblies will cool the telescope and detectors. To achieve continuous scanning capability, the ADRs must operate continuously. Complicating the design are two factors: 1) the need to systematically vary the temperature of various telescope components in order to separate the small polarization signal variations from those that may arise from temperature drifts and changing gradients within the telescope, and 2) the orbital and monthly variations in lunar irradiance into the telescope barrels. These factors require the telescope ADR to reject quasi-continuous heat loads of 2-3 millwatts, while maintaining a peak heat reject rate of less than 12 milliwatts. The detector heat load at 0.1 K is comparatively small at 1-2 microwatts. This paper will describe the 3-stage and 2-stage continuous ADRs that will be used to meet the cooling power and temperature stability requirements of the PIXIE detectors and telescope.
Zhu, Xiaolei, E-mail: virtualzx@gmail.com; Yarkony, David R., E-mail: yarkony@jhu.edu
2016-01-28
We have recently introduced a diabatization scheme, which simultaneously fits and diabatizes adiabatic ab initio electronic wave functions, Zhu and Yarkony J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024112 (2014). The algorithm uses derivative couplings in the defining equations for the diabatic Hamiltonian, H{sup d}, and fits all its matrix elements simultaneously to adiabatic state data. This procedure ultimately provides an accurate, quantifiably diabatic, representation of the adiabatic electronic structure data. However, optimizing the large number of nonlinear parameters in the basis functions and adjusting the number and kind of basis functions from which the fit is built, which provide the essential flexibility,more » has proved challenging. In this work, we introduce a procedure that combines adiabatic state and diabatic state data to efficiently optimize the nonlinear parameters and basis function expansion. Further, we consider using direct properties based diabatizations to initialize the fitting procedure. To address this issue, we introduce a systematic method for eliminating the debilitating (diabolical) singularities in the defining equations of properties based diabatizations. We exploit the observation that if approximate diabatic data are available, the commonly used approach of fitting each matrix element of H{sup d} individually provides a starting point (seed) from which convergence of the full H{sup d} construction algorithm is rapid. The optimization of nonlinear parameters and basis functions and the elimination of debilitating singularities are, respectively, illustrated using the 1,2,3,4{sup 1}A states of phenol and the 1,2{sup 1}A states of NH{sub 3}, states which are coupled by conical intersections.« less
Numerical simulation of blade-passage noise.
Yauwenas, Yendrew; Zajamšek, Branko; Reizes, John; Timchenko, Victoria; Doolan, Con J
2017-09-01
Numerical simulations are used to investigate the noise generated by the passage of a rotor blade past a fixed object (the blade-passage effects), which was studied by simulating a three-bladed rotor that is supported by a vertical cylindrical tower. To isolate the blade-passage effects, no incoming wind was introduced in the simulation. The symmetric blade was set to zero pitch angle relative to the plane of rotation and two blade-tower distances were investigated. The sliding mesh method was used to simulate the rotation of the blades and Curle's acoustic analogy was used to predict the noise generated from the simulated flow data. Intense force fluctuations occur during the interaction on both the tower and the passing blade, and these are the primary sources of blade-passage noise. The contribution of the force fluctuations on the support tower to blade-passage noise, which previously had been ignored, was revealed to be more significant than that of the blades. The numerical model successfully predicts the noise spectra, which are validated by the very good agreement with experimental measurements. The simulations provide a framework to better understand blade-tower interaction noise in various applications.
Diffusion Monte Carlo approach versus adiabatic computation for local Hamiltonians
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bringewatt, Jacob; Dorland, William; Jordan, Stephen P.; Mink, Alan
2018-02-01
Most research regarding quantum adiabatic optimization has focused on stoquastic Hamiltonians, whose ground states can be expressed with only real non-negative amplitudes and thus for whom destructive interference is not manifest. This raises the question of whether classical Monte Carlo algorithms can efficiently simulate quantum adiabatic optimization with stoquastic Hamiltonians. Recent results have given counterexamples in which path-integral and diffusion Monte Carlo fail to do so. However, most adiabatic optimization algorithms, such as for solving MAX-k -SAT problems, use k -local Hamiltonians, whereas our previous counterexample for diffusion Monte Carlo involved n -body interactions. Here we present a 6-local counterexample which demonstrates that even for these local Hamiltonians there are cases where diffusion Monte Carlo cannot efficiently simulate quantum adiabatic optimization. Furthermore, we perform empirical testing of diffusion Monte Carlo on a standard well-studied class of permutation-symmetric tunneling problems and similarly find large advantages for quantum optimization over diffusion Monte Carlo.
Bipolar membranes with fluid distribution passages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Archer, Shivaun (Inventor); Tennakoon, Charles L. (Inventor); Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor)
1999-01-01
The present invention provides a bipolar membrane and methods for making and using the membrane. The bipolar membrane comprises a cation-selective region, an anion-selective region, an interfacial region between the anion-selective region and the cation-selective region, and means for delivering fluid directly into the interfacial region. The means for delivering fluid includes passages that may comprise a fluid-permeable material, a wicking material, an open passage disposed within the membrane or some combination thereof. The passages may be provided in many shapes, sizes and configurations, but preferably deliver fluid directly to the interfacial region so that the rate of electrodialysis is no longer limited by the diffusion of fluid through the cation- or anion-selective regions to the interfacial region.
Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method
Jones, Daniel O.
2000-01-01
A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.
A connection between mix and adiabat in ICF capsules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas; Wang, Yi-Ming; Yi, Sunghuan (Austin); Batha, Steven
2016-10-01
We study the relationship between instability induced mix, preheat and the adiabat of the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel in fusion capsule experiments. Our studies show that hydrodynamic instability not only directly affects the implosion, hot spot shape and mix, but also affects the thermodynamics of the capsule, such as, the adiabat of the DT fuel, and, in turn, affects the energy partition between the pusher shell (cold DT) and the hot spot. It was found that the adiabat of the DT fuel is sensitive to the amount of mix caused by Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities at the material interfaces due to its exponential dependence on the fuel entropy. An upper limit of mix allowed maintaining a low adiabat of DT fuel is derived. Additionally we demonstrated that the use of a high adiabat for the DT fuel in theoretical analysis and with the aid of 1D code simulations could explain some aspects of the 3D effects and mix in the capsule experiments. Furthermore, from the observed neutron images and our physics model, we could infer the adiabat of the DT fuel in the capsule and determine the possible amount of mix in the hot spot (LA-UR-16-24880). This work was conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.
Extension in Mona Passage, Northeast Caribbean
Chaytor, J.D.; ten Brink, Uri S.
2010-01-01
As shown by the recent Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake, intra-arc deformation, which accompanies the subduction process, can present seismic and tsunami hazards to nearby islands. Spatially-limited diffuse tectonic deformation within the Northeast Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone likely led to the development of the submerged Mona Passage between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. GPS geodetic data and a moderate to high level of seismicity indicate that extension within the region is ongoing. Newly-collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles and previously-collected samples are used here to determine the tectonic evolution of the Mona Passage intra-arc region. The passage is floored almost completely by Oligocene-Pliocene carbonate platform strata, which have undergone submarine and subaerial erosion. Structurally, the passage is characterized by W- to NNW-trending normal faults that offset the entire thickness of the Oligo-Pliocene carbonate platform rocks. The orientation of these faults is compatible with the NE-oriented extension vector observed in GPS data. Fault geometry best fits an oblique extension model rather than previously proposed single-phase, poly-phase, bending-moment, or rotation extension models. The intersection of these generally NW-trending faults in Mona Passage with the N-S oriented faults of Mona Canyon may reflect differing responses of the brittle upper-crust, along an arc-forearc rheological boundary, to oblique subduction along the Puerto Rico trench. Several faults within the passage, if ruptured completely, are long enough to generate earthquakes with magnitudes on the order of Mw 6.5-7. ?? 2010.
Passage of Trojan peptoids into plant cells.
Eggenberger, Kai; Birtalan, Esther; Schröder, Tina; Bräse, Stefan; Nick, Peter
2009-10-12
Efficient drug delivery is essential for many therapeutic applications. In this context, Trojan peptoids have attracted attention as powerful tools to deliver bioactive molecules into living cells. Certain cell-penetrating peptides, peptide mimetics, and peptoids have been shown to be endowed with a transport function and the structural features of this function have been characterized. However, most of the research has been done by using mammalian cell cultures as model organisms and the actual cellular mechanism of membrane passage has not been elucidated. Plant cells, which are encased in a cellulosic cell wall and differ in membrane composition, represent an alternative experimental system to address this issue, but so far, have attracted only little attention for both peptide- and peptoid-based carrier systems. Moreover, efficient delivery of nonproteinaceous bioactive macromolecules into living plant cells could complement genetic engineering in biotechnological applications, such as metabolic engineering and molecular farming. In the present study, we investigated carrier peptoids with or without guanidinium side chains with regard to their uptake into plant cells, the cellular mechanism of uptake, and intracellular localization. We can show that in contrast to polyamine peptoids (polylysine-like) fluorescently labeled polyguanidine peptoids (polyarginine-like) enter rapidly into tobacco BY-2 cells without affecting the viability of these cells. A quantitative comparison of this uptake with endocytosis of fluorescently labeled dextranes indicates that the main uptake of the guanidinium peptoids occurs between 30-60 min after the start of incubation and clearly precedes endocytosis. Dual visualization with the endosomal marker FM4-64 shows that the intracellular guanidinium peptoid is distinct from endocytotic vesicles. Once the polyguanidine peptoids have entered the cell, they associate with actin filaments and microtubules. By pharmacological manipulation
Modeling the adiabatic connection in H2.
Peach, Michael J G; Teale, Andrew M; Tozer, David J
2007-06-28
Full configuration interaction (FCI) data are used to quantify the accuracy of approximate adiabatic connection (AC) forms in describing the ground state potential energy curve of H2, within spin-restricted density functional theory (DFT). For each internuclear separation R, accurate properties of the AC are determined from large basis set FCI calculations. The parameters in the approximate AC form are then determined so as to reproduce these FCI values exactly, yielding an exchange-correlation energy expressed entirely in terms of FCI-derived quantities. This is combined with other FCI-derived energy components to give the total electronic energy; comparison with the FCI energy quantifies the accuracy of the AC form. Initial calculations focus on a [1/1]-Padé-based form. The potential energy curve determined using the procedure is a notable improvement over those from existing DFT functionals. The accuracy near equilibrium is quantified by calculating the bond length and vibrational wave numbers; errors in the latter are below 0.5%. The molecule dissociates correctly, which can be traced to the use of virtual orbital eigenvalues in the slope in the noninteracting limit, capturing static correlation. At intermediate R, the potential energy curve exhibits an unphysical barrier, similar to that noted previously using the random phase approximation. Alternative forms of the AC are also considered, paying attention to size extensivity and the behavior in the strong-interaction limit; none provide an accurate potential energy curve for all R, although good accuracy can be achieved near equilibrium. The study demonstrates how data from correlated ab initio calculations can provide valuable information about AC forms and highlight areas where further theoretical progress is required.
Passage Independence within Standardized Reading Comprehension Tests
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roy-Charland, Annie; Colangelo, Gabrielle; Foglia, Victoria; Reguigui, Leïla
2017-01-01
In tests used to measure reading comprehension, validity is important in obtaining accurate results. Unfortunately, studies have shown that people can correctly answer some questions of these tests without reading the related passage. These findings bring forth the need to address whether this phenomenon is observed in multiple-choice only tests…
Schooling as a Rational Rite of Passage
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dimitrijevic, Ivan
2017-01-01
Starting from Illich's identification of the compulsory schooling process with the rational initiation rite to the modern, free-market, society, the paper aims to detach the philosophical premises this expensive and unequal ritual is grounded in. After having referred to Van Gennep's conception of the rites of passage, we shall show that the…
Navigable windows of the Northwest Passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xing-he; Ma, Long; Wang, Jia-yue; Wang, Ye; Wang, Li-na
2017-09-01
Artic sea ice loss trends support a greater potential for Arctic shipping. The information of sea ice conditions is important for utilizing Arctic passages. Based on the shipping routes given by ;Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report;, the navigable windows of these routes and the constituent legs were calculated by using sea ice concentration product data from 2006 to 2015, by which a comprehensive knowledge of the sea ice condition of the Northwest Passage was achieved. The results showed that Route 4 (Lancaster Sound - Barrow Strait - Prince Regent Inlet and Bellot Strait - Franklin Strait - Larsen Sound - Victoria Strait - Queen Maud Gulf - Dease Strait - Coronation Gulf - Dolphin and Union Strait - Amundsen Gulf) had the best navigable expectation, Route 2 (Parry Channel - M'Clure Strait) had the worst, and the critical legs affecting the navigation of Northwest Passage were Viscount Melville Sound, Franklin Strait, Victoria Strait, Bellot Strait, M'Clure Strait and Prince of Wales Strait. The shortest navigable period of the routes of Northwest Passage was up to 69 days. The methods used and the results of the study can help the selection and evaluation of Arctic commercial routes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonetti, Rita M.; Reinfelds, Ivars V.; Butler, Gavin L.; Walsh, Chris T.; Broderick, Tony J.; Chisholm, Laurie A.
2016-05-01
Natural barriers such as waterfalls, cascades, rapids and riffles limit the dispersal and in-stream range of migratory fish, yet little is known of the interplay between these gradient dependent landforms, their hydraulic characteristics and flow rates that facilitate fish passage. The resurgence of dam construction in numerous river basins world-wide provides impetus to the development of robust techniques for assessment of the effects of downstream flow regime changes on natural fish passage barriers and associated consequences as to the length of rivers available to migratory species. This paper outlines a multi-scale technique for quantifying the relative magnitude of natural fish passage barriers in river systems and flow rates that facilitate passage by fish. First, a GIS-based approach is used to quantify channel gradients for the length of river or reach under investigation from a high resolution DEM, setting the magnitude of identified passage barriers in a longer context (tens to hundreds of km). Second, LiDAR, topographic and bathymetric survey-based hydrodynamic modelling is used to assess flow rates that can be regarded as facilitating passage across specific barriers identified by the river to reach scale gradient analysis. Examples of multi-scale approaches to fish passage assessment for flood-flow and low-flow passage issues are provided from the Clarence and Shoalhaven Rivers, NSW, Australia. In these river systems, passive acoustic telemetry data on actual movements and migrations by Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata) provide a means of validating modelled assessments of flow rates associated with successful fish passage across natural barriers. Analysis of actual fish movements across passage barriers in these river systems indicates that two dimensional hydraulic modelling can usefully quantify flow rates associated with the facilitation of fish passage across natural barriers by a majority of individual fishes for use in management
A model study of assisted adiabatic transfer of population in the presence of collisional dephasing
Masuda, Shumpei, E-mail: shumpei.masuda@aalto.fi; Rice, Stuart A., E-mail: s-rice@uchicago.edu
2015-06-28
Previous studies have demonstrated that when experimental conditions generate non-adiabatic dynamics that prevents highly efficient population transfer between states of an isolated system by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), the addition of an auxiliary counter-diabatic field (CDF) can restore most or all of that efficiency. This paper examines whether that strategy is also successful in a non-isolated system in which the energies of the states fluctuate, e.g., when a solute is subject to collisions with solvent. We study population transfer in two model systems: (i) the three-state system used by Demirplak and Rice [J. Chem. Phys. 116, 8028 (2002)] andmore » (ii) a four-state system, derived from the simulation studies of Demirplak and Rice [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 194517 (2006)], that mimics HCl in liquid Ar. Simulation studies of the vibrational manifold of HCl in dense fluid Ar show that the collision induced vibrational energy level fluctuations have asymmetric distributions. Representations of these asymmetric energy level fluctuation distributions are used in both models (i) and (ii). We identify three sources of degradation of the efficiency of STIRAP generated selective population transfer in model (ii): too small pulse areas of the laser fields, unwanted interference arising from use of strong fields, and the vibrational detuning. For both models (i) and (ii), our examination of the efficiency of STIRAP + CDF population transfer under the influence of the asymmetric distribution of the vibrational energy fluctuations shows that there is a range of field strengths and pulse durations under which STIRAP + CDF control of population transfer has greater efficiency than does STIRAP generated population transfer.« less
Adiabatic cooling processes in frustrated magnetic systems with pyrochlore structure.
Jurčišinová, E; Jurčišin, M
2017-11-01
We investigate in detail the process of adiabatic cooling in the framework of the exactly solvable antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Ising model in the presence of the external magnetic field on an approximate lattice with pyrochlore structure. The behavior of the entropy of the model is studied and exact values of the residual entropies of all ground states are found. The temperature variation of the system under adiabatic (de)magnetization is investigated and the central role of the macroscopically degenerated ground states in cooling processes is explicitly demonstrated. It is shown that the model parameter space of the studied geometrically frustrated system is divided into five disjunct regions with qualitatively different processes of the adiabatic cooling. The effectiveness of the adiabatic (de)magnetization cooling in the studied model is compared to the corresponding processes in paramagnetic salts. It is shown that the processes of the adiabatic cooling in the antiferromagnetic frustrated systems are much more effective especially in nonzero external magnetic fields. It means that the frustrated magnetic materials with pyrochlore structure can be considered as very promising refrigerants mainly in the situations with nonzero final values of the magnetic field.
Adiabatic cooling processes in frustrated magnetic systems with pyrochlore structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.
2017-11-01
We investigate in detail the process of adiabatic cooling in the framework of the exactly solvable antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Ising model in the presence of the external magnetic field on an approximate lattice with pyrochlore structure. The behavior of the entropy of the model is studied and exact values of the residual entropies of all ground states are found. The temperature variation of the system under adiabatic (de)magnetization is investigated and the central role of the macroscopically degenerated ground states in cooling processes is explicitly demonstrated. It is shown that the model parameter space of the studied geometrically frustrated system is divided into five disjunct regions with qualitatively different processes of the adiabatic cooling. The effectiveness of the adiabatic (de)magnetization cooling in the studied model is compared to the corresponding processes in paramagnetic salts. It is shown that the processes of the adiabatic cooling in the antiferromagnetic frustrated systems are much more effective especially in nonzero external magnetic fields. It means that the frustrated magnetic materials with pyrochlore structure can be considered as very promising refrigerants mainly in the situations with nonzero final values of the magnetic field.
Effects of rotation on coolant passage heat transfer. Volume 1: Coolant passages with smooth walls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hajek, T. J.; Wagner, J. H.; Johnson, B. V.; Higgins, A. W.; Steuber, G. D.
1991-01-01
An experimental program was conducted to investigate heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of rotating multipass passages, for configurations and dimensions typical of modern turbine blades. The immediate objective was the generation of a data base of heat transfer and pressure loss data required to develop heat transfer correlations and to assess computational fluid dynamic techniques for rotating coolant passages. Experiments were conducted in a smooth wall large scale heat transfer model.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity for accelerated quantum state transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baksic, Alexandre; Ribeiro, Hugo; Clerk, Aashish A.
Adiabatic transfer protocols are among the most powerful and interesting approaches to move quantum states between two different systems. While having many advantages, those schemes are necessarily slow, and hence can suffer from dissipation and noise in the target and/or source system. In this talk, we present an approach that allows to operate a state transfer much faster, without suffering from non-adiabatic errors. The key idea is to work with a basis of dressed states whose very definition incorporates the matrix elements which give rise to non-adiabatic transitions. By introducing additional control fields, we can ensure that the system ``rides'' these new dressed states during the protocol, thus allowing for a fast high fidelity state transfer. We discuss a recent experimental implementation of these ideas in an NV-center Λ-system, as well as extensions to state transfer problems involving propagating states.
Lower bound on the time complexity of local adiabatic evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhenghao; Koh, Pang Wei; Zhao, Yan
2006-11-01
The adiabatic theorem of quantum physics has been, in recent times, utilized in the design of local search quantum algorithms, and has been proven to be equivalent to standard quantum computation, that is, the use of unitary operators [D. Aharonov in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Symposium on the Foundations of Computer Science, 2004, Rome, Italy (IEEE Computer Society Press, New York, 2004), pp. 42-51]. Hence, the study of the time complexity of adiabatic evolution algorithms gives insight into the computational power of quantum algorithms. In this paper, we present two different approaches of evaluating the time complexity for local adiabatic evolution using time-independent parameters, thus providing effective tests (not requiring the evaluation of the entire time-dependent gap function) for the time complexity of newly developed algorithms. We further illustrate our tests by displaying results from the numerical simulation of some problems, viz. specially modified instances of the Hamming weight problem.
Compact beam splitters in coupled waveguides using shortcuts to adiabaticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xi; Wen, Rui-Dan; Shi, Jie-Long; Tseng, Shuo-Yen
2018-04-01
There are various works on adiabatic (three) waveguide coupler devices but most are focused on the quantum optical analogies and the physics itself. We successfully apply shortcuts to adiabaticity techniques to the coupled waveguide system with a suitable length for integrated optics devices. Especially, the counter-diabatic driving protocol followed by unitary transformation overcomes the previously unrealistic implemention, and is used to design feasible and robust 1 × 2 and 1 × 3 beam splitters for symmetric and asymmetric three waveguide couplers. Numerical simulations with the beam propagation method demonstrate that these shortcut designs for beam splitters are shorter than the adiabatic ones, and also have a better tolerance than parallel waveguides resonant beam splitters with respect to spacing errors and wavelength variation.
Adiabatic Expansion of Electron Gas in a Magnetic Nozzle.
Takahashi, Kazunori; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod; Ando, Akira
2018-01-26
A specially constructed experiment shows the near perfect adiabatic expansion of an ideal electron gas resulting in a polytropic index greater than 1.4, approaching the adiabatic value of 5/3, when removing electric fields from the system, while the polytropic index close to unity is observed when the electrons are trapped by the electric fields. The measurements were made on collisionless electrons in an argon plasma expanding in a magnetic nozzle. The collision lengths of all electron collision processes are greater than the scale length of the expansion, meaning the system cannot be in thermodynamic equilibrium, yet thermodynamic concepts can be used, with caution, in explaining the results. In particular, a Lorentz force, created by inhomogeneities in the radial plasma density, does work on the expanding magnetic field, reducing the internal energy of the electron gas that behaves as an adiabatically expanding ideal gas.
Adiabatic Expansion of Electron Gas in a Magnetic Nozzle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Kazunori; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod; Ando, Akira
2018-01-01
A specially constructed experiment shows the near perfect adiabatic expansion of an ideal electron gas resulting in a polytropic index greater than 1.4, approaching the adiabatic value of 5 /3 , when removing electric fields from the system, while the polytropic index close to unity is observed when the electrons are trapped by the electric fields. The measurements were made on collisionless electrons in an argon plasma expanding in a magnetic nozzle. The collision lengths of all electron collision processes are greater than the scale length of the expansion, meaning the system cannot be in thermodynamic equilibrium, yet thermodynamic concepts can be used, with caution, in explaining the results. In particular, a Lorentz force, created by inhomogeneities in the radial plasma density, does work on the expanding magnetic field, reducing the internal energy of the electron gas that behaves as an adiabatically expanding ideal gas.
Terrestrial-passage theory: failing a test.
Reed, Charles F; Krupinski, Elizabeth A
2009-01-01
Terrestrial-passage theory proposes that the 'moon' and 'sky' illusions occur because observers learn to expect an elevation-dependent transformation of visual angle. The transformation accompanies daily movement through ordinary environments of fixed-altitude objects. Celestial objects display the same visual angle at all elevations, and hence are necessarily non-conforming with the ordinary transformation. On hypothesis, observers should target angular sizes to appear greater at elevation than at horizon. However, in a sample of forty-eight observers there was no significant difference between the perceived angular size of a constellation of stars at horizon and that predicted for a specific elevation. Occurrence of the illusion was not restricted to those observers who expected angular expansion. These findings fail to support the terrestrial-passage theory of the illusion.
Global adiabaticity and non-Gaussianity consistency condition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romano, Antonio Enea; Mooij, Sander; Sasaki, Misao
2016-10-01
In the context of single-field inflation, the conservation of the curvature perturbation on comoving slices, Rc, on super-horizon scales is one of the assumptions necessary to derive the consistency condition between the squeezed limit of the bispectrum and the spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation. However, the conservation of Rc holds only after the perturbation has reached the adiabatic limit where the constant mode of Rc dominates over the other (usually decaying) mode. In this case, the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation defined in the thermodynamic sense, δPnad ≡ δP - cw2 δρ where cw2 = P ˙ / ρ ˙ , usually becomes also negligible on superhorizon scales. Therefore one might think that the adiabatic limit is the same as thermodynamic adiabaticity. This is in fact not true. In other words, thermodynamic adiabaticity is not a sufficient condition for the conservation of Rc on super-horizon scales. In this paper, we consider models that satisfy δPnad = 0 on all scales, which we call global adiabaticity (GA), which is guaranteed if cw2 = cs2, where cs is the phase velocity of the propagation of the perturbation. A known example is the case of ultra-slow-roll (USR) inflation in which cw2 = cs2 = 1. In order to generalize USR we develop a method to find the Lagrangian of GA K-inflation models from the behavior of background quantities as functions of the scale factor. Applying this method we show that there indeed exists a wide class of GA models with cw2 = cs2, which allows Rc to grow on superhorizon scales, and hence violates the non-Gaussianity consistency condition.
Partial Opening of the Northwest Passage
2017-12-08
There was a time when the Northwest Passage was a sort of maritime Holy Grail, a route so desired and sought after, but so elusive. For most of the recorded history of North America, the Passage has been nearly impassable and often deadly. But with the modernization of ships and the warming of the Earth, cruising and sailing through the Canadian Archipelago from Baffin Bay to the Beaufort Sea has grown more common and easier. But it’s not necessarily easy. The top image above shows the Northwest Passage as it appeared on August 31, 2015, to the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi-NPP satellite. Read more: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=86589 NASA Earth Observatory images by Jesse Allen, using VIIRS data from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership. Suomi NPP is the result of a partnership between NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Department of Defense. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram
Complete tooth loss as status passage.
Gibson, Barry John; Sussex, Philip V; Fitzgerald, Ruth P; Thomson, William Murray
2017-03-01
The aim of this article is to add to the literature on the sociology of oral health and dentistry by presenting the relevance of status passage to the study of complete tooth loss. The article reports on an analysis of data taken from participants residing in the Nelson region of New Zealand. In total the data include interviews from 20 participants, all of whom had their remaining natural teeth removed before 1960. In total, 12 women and eight men were interviewed. All were from a European background with an age range of 71 to 101 years. Following a narrative approach, participants were interviewed on the nature of the social factors that resulted in complete tooth loss by starting with their family history and then focusing on the factors and events leading up to their total tooth loss. Data were analysed using the methods and techniques of grounded theory. This article provides an outline of the importance of scheduling, prescribing, social factors, 'compound awareness contexts' and reversibility to the status passage into complete tooth loss. We conclude by arguing that the theory of status passage may enable a detailed analysis of the 'time-space extensionality' of trajectories into complete tooth loss. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Implementation of adiabatic geometric gates with superconducting phase qubits.
Peng, Z H; Chu, H F; Wang, Z D; Zheng, D N
2009-01-28
We present an adiabatic geometric quantum computation strategy based on the non-degenerate energy eigenstates in (but not limited to) superconducting phase qubit systems. The fidelity of the designed quantum gate was evaluated in the presence of simulated thermal fluctuations in a superconducting phase qubits circuit and was found to be quite robust against random errors. In addition, it was elucidated that the Berry phase in the designed adiabatic evolution may be detected directly via the quantum state tomography developed for superconducting qubits. We also analyze the effects of control parameter fluctuations on the experimental detection of the Berry phase.
First-Order Phase Transition in the Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm
2010-01-14
London) 400, 133 (1999). [19] T. Jörg, F. Krzakala, G . Semerjian, and F. Zamponi, arXiv:0911.3438. PRL 104, 020502 (2010) P HY S I CA L R EV I EW LE T T E R S week ending 15 JANUARY 2010 020502-4 ...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm, Monte Carlo, Quantum Phase Transition A. P . Young, V...documentation. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ... 56290.2-PH-QC First-Order Phase Transition in the Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm A. P
3. INTERIOR OF SOUTH BAGGAGE PASSAGE LOOKING EAST, SHOWING ROOF ...
3. INTERIOR OF SOUTH BAGGAGE PASSAGE LOOKING EAST, SHOWING ROOF OF WOOD, GLASS, AND STEEL (TARRED ON EXTERIOR, PAINTED ON INTERIOR) - Pennsylvania Railroad Station, South Baggage Passage & Canopy, 1101 Liberty Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA
Passage Equivalency and Predictive Validity of Oral Reading Fluency Measures
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Checca, Christopher Jason
2012-01-01
The use of oral reading fluency (ORF) passages within a Response to Intervention (RTI) framework is examined. Significant limitations within the current ORF research are discussed. The passage equivalency and readability scores for DIBELS Next, AIMSweb, and a school district's curriculum's ORF passages are evaluated using Generalizability Theory…
FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores
Scully, M. O.; Kattawar, G. W.; Lucht, R. P.; Opatrný, T.; Pilloff, H.; Rebane, A.; Sokolov, A. V.; Zubairy, M. S.
2002-01-01
Airborne contaminants, e.g., bacterial spores, are usually analyzed by time-consuming microscopic, chemical, and biological assays. Current research into real-time laser spectroscopic detectors of such contaminants is based on e.g., resonance fluorescence. The present approach derives from recent experiments in which atoms and molecules are prepared by one (or more) coherent laser(s) and probed by another set of lasers. However, generating and using maximally coherent oscillation in macromolecules having an enormous number of degrees of freedom is challenging. In particular, the short dephasing times and rapid internal conversion rates are major obstacles. However, adiabatic fast passage techniques and the ability to generate combs of phase-coherent femtosecond pulses provide tools for the generation and utilization of maximal quantum coherence in large molecules and biopolymers. We call this technique FAST CARS (femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques for coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy), and the present article proposes and analyses ways in which it could be used to rapidly identify preselected molecules in real time. PMID:12177405
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, C S; Collins, J H
1932-01-01
Results of motoring tests are presented showing the effect of passage diameter on chamber and cylinder compression pressures, maximum pressure differences, and f.m.e.p. over a speed range from 300 to 1,750 r.p.m. Results of engine performance tests are presented which show the effect of passage diameter on m.e.p., explosion pressures, specific fuel consumption, and rates of pressure rise for a range of engine speeds from 500 to 1,500 r.p.m. The cylinder compression pressure, the maximum pressure difference, and the f.m.e.p. decreased rapidly as the passage diameter increased to 29/64 inch, whereas further increase in passage diameter effected only a slight change. The most suitable passage diameter for good engine performance and operating characteristics was 29/64 inch. Passage diameter became less critical with a decrease in engine speed. Therefore, the design should be based on maximum operating speed. Optimum performance and satisfactory combustion control could not be obtained by means of any single diameter of the connecting passage.
Observations of a diapycnal shortcut to adiabatic upwelling of Antarctic Circumpolar Deep Water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silvester, J. Mead; Lenn, Yueng-Djern; Polton, Jeff A.; Rippeth, Tom P.; Maqueda, M. Morales
2014-11-01
In the Southern Ocean, small-scale turbulence causes diapycnal mixing which influences important water mass transformations, in turn impacting large-scale ocean transports such as the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC), a key controller of Earth's climate. We present direct observations of mixing over the Antarctic continental slope between water masses that are part of the Southern Ocean MOC. A 12 h time series of microstructure turbulence measurements, hydrography, and velocity observations off Elephant Island, north of the Antarctic Peninsula, reveals two concurrent bursts of elevated dissipation of O(10-6) W kg-1, resulting in heat fluxes ˜10 times higher than basin-integrated Drake Passage estimates. This occurs across the boundary between adjacent adiabatic upwelling and downwelling overturning cells. Ray tracing to nearby topography shows mixing between 300 and 400 m is consistent with the breaking of locally generated internal tidal waves. Since similar conditions extend to much of the Antarctic continental slope where these water masses outcrop, diapycnal mixing may contribute significantly to upwelling.
Cosmological solutions in spatially curved universes with adiabatic particle production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aresté Saló, Llibert; de Haro, Jaume
2017-03-01
We perform a qualitative and thermodynamic study of two models when one takes into account adiabatic particle production. In the first one, there is a constant particle production rate, which leads to solutions depicting the current cosmic acceleration but without inflation. The other one has solutions that unify the early and late time acceleration. These solutions converge asymptotically to the thermal equilibrium.
A Kinetic Study of the Adiabatic Polymerization of Acrylamide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomson, R. A. M.
1986-01-01
Discusses theory, procedures, and results for an experiment which demonstrates the application of basic physics to chemical problems. The experiment involves the adiabatic process, in which polymerization carried out in a vacuum flask is compared to the theoretical prediction of the model with the temperature-time curve obtained in practice. (JN)
Evaluation of holonomic quantum computation: adiabatic versus nonadiabatic.
Cen, LiXiang; Li, XinQi; Yan, YiJing; Zheng, HouZhi; Wang, ShunJin
2003-04-11
Based on the analytical solution to the time-dependent Schrödinger equations, we evaluate the holonomic quantum computation beyond the adiabatic limit. Besides providing rigorous confirmation of the geometrical prediction of holonomies, the present dynamical resolution offers also a practical means to study the nonadiabaticity induced effects for the universal qubit operations.
Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit.
Barends, R; Shabani, A; Lamata, L; Kelly, J; Mezzacapo, A; Las Heras, U; Babbush, R; Fowler, A G; Campbell, B; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z; Chiaro, B; Dunsworth, A; Jeffrey, E; Lucero, E; Megrant, A; Mutus, J Y; Neeley, M; Neill, C; O'Malley, P J J; Quintana, C; Roushan, P; Sank, D; Vainsencher, A; Wenner, J; White, T C; Solano, E; Neven, H; Martinis, John M
2016-06-09
Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable.
When an Adiabatic Irreversible Expansion or Compression Becomes Reversible
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anacleto, Joaquim; Ferreira, J. M.; Soares, A. A.
2009-01-01
This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the concepts of a "reversible process" and "entropy". For this purpose, an adiabatic irreversible expansion or compression is analysed, by considering that an ideal gas is expanded (compressed), from an initial pressure P[subscript i] to a final pressure P[subscript f], by being placed in…
Building an adiabatic quantum computer simulation in the classroom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-Laguna, Javier; Santalla, Silvia N.
2018-05-01
We present a didactic introduction to adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) via the explicit construction of a classical simulator of quantum computers. This constitutes a suitable route to introduce several important concepts for advanced undergraduates in physics: quantum many-body systems, quantum phase transitions, disordered systems, spin-glasses, and computational complexity theory.
Reversibility and energy dissipation in adiabatic superconductor logic.
Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
2017-03-06
Reversible computing is considered to be a key technology to achieve an extremely high energy efficiency in future computers. In this study, we investigated the relationship between reversibility and energy dissipation in adiabatic superconductor logic. We analyzed the evolution of phase differences of Josephson junctions in the reversible quantum-flux-parametron (RQFP) gate and confirmed that the phase differences can change time reversibly, which indicates that the RQFP gate is physically, as well as logically, reversible. We calculated energy dissipation required for the RQFP gate to perform a logic operation and numerically demonstrated that the energy dissipation can fall below the thermal limit, or the Landauer bound, by lowering operation frequencies. We also investigated the 1-bit-erasure gate as a logically irreversible gate and the quasi-RQFP gate as a physically irreversible gate. We calculated the energy dissipation of these irreversible gates and showed that the energy dissipation of these gate is dominated by non-adiabatic state changes, which are induced by unwanted interactions between gates due to logical or physical irreversibility. Our results show that, in reversible computing using adiabatic superconductor logic, logical and physical reversibility are required to achieve energy dissipation smaller than the Landauer bound without non-adiabatic processes caused by gate interactions.
Dark energy and dark matter from an additional adiabatic fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunsby, Peter K. S.; Luongo, Orlando; Reverberi, Lorenzo
2016-10-01
The dark sector is described by an additional barotropic fluid which evolves adiabatically during the Universe's history and whose adiabatic exponent γ is derived from the standard definitions of specific heats. Although in general γ is a function of the redshift, the Hubble parameter and its derivatives, we find that our assumptions lead necessarily to solutions with γ =constant in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe. The adiabatic fluid acts effectively as the sum of two distinct components, one evolving like nonrelativistic matter and the other depending on the value of the adiabatic index. This makes the model particularly interesting as a way of simultaneously explaining the nature of both dark energy and dark matter, at least at the level of the background cosmology. The Λ CDM model is included in this family of theories when γ =0 . We fit our model to supernovae Ia, H (z ) and baryonic acoustic oscillation data, discussing the model selection criteria. The implications for the early Universe and the growth of small perturbations in this model are also discussed.
Turbine engine component with cooling passages
Arrell, Douglas J [Oviedo, FL; James, Allister W [Orlando, FL
2012-01-17
A component for use in a turbine engine including a first member and a second member associated with the first member. The second member includes a plurality of connecting elements extending therefrom. The connecting elements include securing portions at ends thereof that are received in corresponding cavities formed in the first member to attach the second member to the first member. The connecting elements are constructed to space apart a first surface of the second member from a first surface of the first member such that at least one cooling passage is formed between adjacent connecting elements and the first surface of the second member and the first surface of the first member.
Understanding cell passage through constricted microfluidic channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cartas-Ayala, Marco A.; Karnik, Rohit
2012-11-01
Recently, several microfluidic platforms have been proposed to characterize cells based on their behaviour during cell passage through constricted channels. Variables like transit time have been analyzed in disease states like sickle cell anemia, malaria and sepsis. Nevertheless, it is hard to make direct comparisons between different platforms and cell types. We present experimental results of the relationship between solid deformable particle properties, i.e. stiffness and relative particle size, and flow properties, i.e. particle's velocity. We measured the hydrodynamic variables during the flow of HL-60 cells, a white myeloid cell type, in narrow microfluidic square channels using a microfluidic differential manometer. We measured the flow force required to move cells of different sizes through microchannels and quantified friction forces opposing cell passage. We determined the non-dimensional parameters that influence the flow of cells and we used them to obtain a non dimensional expression that can be used to predict the forces needed to drive cells through microchannels. We found that the friction force needed to flow HL-60 through a microfluidic channel is the sum of two parts. The first part is a static friction force that is proportional to the force needed to keep the force compressed. The second part is a factor that is proportional to the cell velocity, hence a dynamic term, and slightly sensitive to the compressive force. We thank CONACYT (Mexican Science and Technology Council) for supporting this project, grant 205899.
Non-adiabatic quantum reactive scattering in hyperspherical coordinates
Kendrick, Brian K.
A new electronically non-adiabatic quantum reactive scattering methodology is presented based on a time-independent coupled channel formalism and the adiabatically adjusting principal axis hyperspherical coordinates of Pack and Parker [J. Chem. Phys. 87, 3888 (1987)]. The methodology computes the full state-to-state scattering matrix for A + B 2(v, j) ↔ AB(v', j') + B and A + AB(v, j) → A + AB(v', j') reactions that involve two coupled electronic states which exhibit a conical intersection. The methodology accurately treats all six degrees of freedom relative to the center-of-mass which includes non-zero total angular momentum J and identical particle exchangemore » symmetry. The new methodology is applied to the ultracold hydrogen exchange reaction for which large geometric phase effects have been recently reported [B. K. Kendrick et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 153201 (2015)]. Rate coefficients for the H/D + HD(v = 4, j = 0) → H/D + HD(v', j') reactions are reported for collision energies between 1 μK and 100 K (total energy ≈1.9 eV). A new diabatic potential energy matrix is developed based on the Boothroyd, Keogh, Martin, and Peterson (BKMP2) and double many body expansion plus single-polynomial (DSP) adiabatic potential energy surfaces for the ground and first excited electronic states of H 3, respectively. The rate coefficients computed using the new non-adiabatic methodology and diabatic potential matrix reproduce the recently reported rates that include the geometric phase and are computed using a single adiabatic ground electronic state potential energy surface (BKMP2). The dramatic enhancement and suppression of the ultracold rates due to the geometric phase are confirmed as well as its effects on several shape resonances near 1 K. In conclusion, the results reported here represent the first fully non-adiabatic quantum reactive scattering calculation for an ultracold reaction and validate the importance of the geometric phase on the Wigner
Non-adiabatic quantum reactive scattering in hyperspherical coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kendrick, Brian K.
2018-01-01
A new electronically non-adiabatic quantum reactive scattering methodology is presented based on a time-independent coupled channel formalism and the adiabatically adjusting principal axis hyperspherical coordinates of Pack and Parker [J. Chem. Phys. 87, 3888 (1987)]. The methodology computes the full state-to-state scattering matrix for A + B2(v , j) ↔ AB(v ', j') + B and A + AB(v , j) → A + AB(v ', j') reactions that involve two coupled electronic states which exhibit a conical intersection. The methodology accurately treats all six degrees of freedom relative to the center-of-mass which includes non-zero total angular momentum J and identical particle exchange symmetry. The new methodology is applied to the ultracold hydrogen exchange reaction for which large geometric phase effects have been recently reported [B. K. Kendrick et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 153201 (2015)]. Rate coefficients for the H/D + HD(v = 4, j = 0) → H/D + HD(v ', j') reactions are reported for collision energies between 1 μK and 100 K (total energy ≈1.9 eV). A new diabatic potential energy matrix is developed based on the Boothroyd, Keogh, Martin, and Peterson (BKMP2) and double many body expansion plus single-polynomial (DSP) adiabatic potential energy surfaces for the ground and first excited electronic states of H3, respectively. The rate coefficients computed using the new non-adiabatic methodology and diabatic potential matrix reproduce the recently reported rates that include the geometric phase and are computed using a single adiabatic ground electronic state potential energy surface (BKMP2). The dramatic enhancement and suppression of the ultracold rates due to the geometric phase are confirmed as well as its effects on several shape resonances near 1 K. The results reported here represent the first fully non-adiabatic quantum reactive scattering calculation for an ultracold reaction and validate the importance of the geometric phase on the Wigner threshold behavior.
Non-adiabatic quantum reactive scattering in hyperspherical coordinates
Kendrick, Brian K.
2018-01-28
A new electronically non-adiabatic quantum reactive scattering methodology is presented based on a time-independent coupled channel formalism and the adiabatically adjusting principal axis hyperspherical coordinates of Pack and Parker [J. Chem. Phys. 87, 3888 (1987)]. The methodology computes the full state-to-state scattering matrix for A + B 2(v, j) ↔ AB(v', j') + B and A + AB(v, j) → A + AB(v', j') reactions that involve two coupled electronic states which exhibit a conical intersection. The methodology accurately treats all six degrees of freedom relative to the center-of-mass which includes non-zero total angular momentum J and identical particle exchangemore » symmetry. The new methodology is applied to the ultracold hydrogen exchange reaction for which large geometric phase effects have been recently reported [B. K. Kendrick et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 153201 (2015)]. Rate coefficients for the H/D + HD(v = 4, j = 0) → H/D + HD(v', j') reactions are reported for collision energies between 1 μK and 100 K (total energy ≈1.9 eV). A new diabatic potential energy matrix is developed based on the Boothroyd, Keogh, Martin, and Peterson (BKMP2) and double many body expansion plus single-polynomial (DSP) adiabatic potential energy surfaces for the ground and first excited electronic states of H 3, respectively. The rate coefficients computed using the new non-adiabatic methodology and diabatic potential matrix reproduce the recently reported rates that include the geometric phase and are computed using a single adiabatic ground electronic state potential energy surface (BKMP2). The dramatic enhancement and suppression of the ultracold rates due to the geometric phase are confirmed as well as its effects on several shape resonances near 1 K. In conclusion, the results reported here represent the first fully non-adiabatic quantum reactive scattering calculation for an ultracold reaction and validate the importance of the geometric phase on the Wigner
Non-adiabatic dynamics of molecules in optical cavities
Kowalewski, Markus, E-mail: mkowalew@uci.edu; Bennett, Kochise; Mukamel, Shaul, E-mail: smukamel@uci.edu
2016-02-07
Strong coupling of molecules to the vacuum field of micro cavities can modify the potential energy surfaces thereby opening new photophysical and photochemical reaction pathways. While the influence of laser fields is usually described in terms of classical field, coupling to the vacuum state of a cavity has to be described in terms of dressed photon-matter states (polaritons) which require quantized fields. We present a derivation of the non-adiabatic couplings for single molecules in the strong coupling regime suitable for the calculation of the dressed state dynamics. The formalism allows to use quantities readily accessible from quantum chemistry codes likemore » the adiabatic potential energy surfaces and dipole moments to carry out wave packet simulations in the dressed basis. The implications for photochemistry are demonstrated for a set of model systems representing typical situations found in molecules.« less
Adiabatic tapered optical fiber fabrication in two step etching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chenari, Z.; Latifi, H.; Ghamari, S.; Hashemi, R. S.; Doroodmand, F.
2016-01-01
A two-step etching method using HF acid and Buffered HF is proposed to fabricate adiabatic biconical optical fiber tapers. Due to the fact that the etching rate in second step is almost 3 times slower than the previous droplet etching method, terminating the fabrication process is controllable enough to achieve a desirable fiber diameter. By monitoring transmitted spectrum, final diameter and adiabaticity of tapers are deduced. Tapers with losses about 0.3 dB in air and 4.2 dB in water are produced. The biconical fiber taper fabricated using this method is used to excite whispering gallery modes (WGMs) on a microsphere surface in an aquatic environment. So that they are suitable to be used in applications like WGM biosensors.
Quantum dynamics by the constrained adiabatic trajectory method
Leclerc, A.; Jolicard, G.; Guerin, S.
2011-03-15
We develop the constrained adiabatic trajectory method (CATM), which allows one to solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation constraining the dynamics to a single Floquet eigenstate, as if it were adiabatic. This constrained Floquet state (CFS) is determined from the Hamiltonian modified by an artificial time-dependent absorbing potential whose forms are derived according to the initial conditions. The main advantage of this technique for practical implementation is that the CFS is easy to determine even for large systems since its corresponding eigenvalue is well isolated from the others through its imaginary part. The properties and limitations of the CATM are exploredmore » through simple examples.« less
Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poulin, E.; Demier, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.
1984-01-01
Steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat which projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks were studied. Steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance were analyzed. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state of the art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. The costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with aftercooling with the same total output were compared, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increase initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability are considered and the cost and performance of advanced systes are evaluated.
Adiabatic Berry phase in an atom-molecule conversion system
Fu Libin; Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100084; Liu Jie, E-mail: liu_jie@iapcm.ac.c
2010-11-15
We investigate the Berry phase of adiabatic quantum evolution in the atom-molecule conversion system that is governed by a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. We find that the Berry phase consists of two parts: the usual Berry connection term and a novel term from the nonlinearity brought forth by the atom-molecule coupling. The total geometric phase can be still viewed as the flux of the magnetic field of a monopole through the surface enclosed by a closed path in parameter space. The charge of the monopole, however, is found to be one third of the elementary charge of the usual quantized monopole.more » We also derive the classical Hannay angle of a geometric nature associated with the adiabatic evolution. It exactly equals minus Berry phase, indicating a novel connection between Berry phase and Hannay angle in contrast to the usual derivative form.« less
Xu, Kebiao; Xie, Tianyu; Li, Zhaokai; Xu, Xiangkun; Wang, Mengqi; Ye, Xiangyu; Kong, Fei; Geng, Jianpei; Duan, Changkui; Shi, Fazhan; Du, Jiangfeng
2017-03-31
The adiabatic quantum computation is a universal and robust method of quantum computing. In this architecture, the problem can be solved by adiabatically evolving the quantum processor from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to that of a final one, which encodes the solution of the problem. Adiabatic quantum computation has been proved to be a compatible candidate for scalable quantum computation. In this Letter, we report on the experimental realization of an adiabatic quantum algorithm on a single solid spin system under ambient conditions. All elements of adiabatic quantum computation, including initial state preparation, adiabatic evolution (simulated by optimal control), and final state read-out, are realized experimentally. As an example, we found the ground state of the problem Hamiltonian S_{z}I_{z} on our adiabatic quantum processor, which can be mapped to the factorization of 35 into its prime factors 5 and 7.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Kebiao; Xie, Tianyu; Li, Zhaokai; Xu, Xiangkun; Wang, Mengqi; Ye, Xiangyu; Kong, Fei; Geng, Jianpei; Duan, Changkui; Shi, Fazhan; Du, Jiangfeng
2017-03-01
The adiabatic quantum computation is a universal and robust method of quantum computing. In this architecture, the problem can be solved by adiabatically evolving the quantum processor from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to that of a final one, which encodes the solution of the problem. Adiabatic quantum computation has been proved to be a compatible candidate for scalable quantum computation. In this Letter, we report on the experimental realization of an adiabatic quantum algorithm on a single solid spin system under ambient conditions. All elements of adiabatic quantum computation, including initial state preparation, adiabatic evolution (simulated by optimal control), and final state read-out, are realized experimentally. As an example, we found the ground state of the problem Hamiltonian SzIz on our adiabatic quantum processor, which can be mapped to the factorization of 35 into its prime factors 5 and 7.
Probing the energy reactance with adiabatically driven quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ludovico, María Florencia; Arrachea, Liliana; Moskalets, Michael; Sánchez, David
2018-02-01
The tunneling Hamiltonian describes a particle transfer from one region to another. Although there is no particle storage in the tunneling region itself, it has an associated amount of energy. The corresponding energy flux was named reactance since, such as an electrical reactance, it manifests itself in time-dependent transport only. We show here that the existence of the energy reactance leads to the universal response of a mesoscopic thermometer, a floating contact coupled to an adiabatically driven quantum dot.
The Adiabatic Piston and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crosignani, Bruno; Di Porto, Paolo; Conti, Claudio
2002-11-01
A detailed analysis of the adiabatic-piston problem reveals peculiar dynamical features that challenge the general belief that isolated systems necessarily reach a static equilibrium state. In particular, the fact that the piston behaves like a perpetuum mobile, i.e., it never stops but keeps wandering, undergoing sizable oscillations, around the position corresponding to maximum entropy, has remarkable implications on the entropy variations of the system and on the validity of the second law when dealing with systems of mesoscopic dimensions.
Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots.
Pečar, P; Ramšak, A; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I
2008-12-10
The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.
Adiabatic Quantum Transistors (Open Access, Publisher’s Version)
2013-06-14
states are the entangled states originally used to perform measurement-based quantum computation [9,19]. To de- fine the Hamiltonian of our system, we need...carries over to our model. Note that fault-tolerant QC requires expunging entropy (usually via measurement), but this can always be placed at the end... entropy of quantum er- rors, and the latter is important for building architectures that are modular and synchronous. A. Adiabatic measurement amplifier
Adiabaticity and gravity theory independent conservation laws for cosmological perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romano, Antonio Enea; Mooij, Sander; Sasaki, Misao
2016-04-01
We carefully study the implications of adiabaticity for the behavior of cosmological perturbations. There are essentially three similar but different definitions of non-adiabaticity: one is appropriate for a thermodynamic fluid δPnad, another is for a general matter field δPc,nad, and the last one is valid only on superhorizon scales. The first two definitions coincide if cs2 = cw2 where cs is the propagation speed of the perturbation, while cw2 = P ˙ / ρ ˙ . Assuming the adiabaticity in the general sense, δPc,nad = 0, we derive a relation between the lapse function in the comoving slicing Ac and δPnad valid for arbitrary matter field in any theory of gravity, by using only momentum conservation. The relation implies that as long as cs ≠cw, the uniform density, comoving and the proper-time slicings coincide approximately for any gravity theory and for any matter field if δPnad = 0 approximately. In the case of general relativity this gives the equivalence between the comoving curvature perturbation Rc and the uniform density curvature perturbation ζ on superhorizon scales, and their conservation. This is realized on superhorizon scales in standard slow-roll inflation. We then consider an example in which cw =cs, where δPnad = δPc,nad = 0 exactly, but the equivalence between Rc and ζ no longer holds. Namely we consider the so-called ultra slow-roll inflation. In this case both Rc and ζ are not conserved. In particular, as for ζ, we find that it is crucial to take into account the next-to-leading order term in ζ's spatial gradient expansion to show its non-conservation, even on superhorizon scales. This is an example of the fact that adiabaticity (in the thermodynamic sense) is not always enough to ensure the conservation of Rc or ζ.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Adiabatic mass loss in binary stars. II. (Ge+, 2015)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, H.; Webbink, R. F.; Chen, X.; Han, Z.
2016-02-01
In the limit of extremely rapid mass transfer, the response of a donor star in an interacting binary becomes asymptotically one of adiabatic expansion. We survey here adiabatic mass loss from Population I stars (Z=0.02) of mass 0.10M⊙-100M⊙ from the zero-age main sequence to the base of the giant branch, or to central hydrogen exhaustion for lower main sequence stars. The logarithmic derivatives of radius with respect to mass along adiabatic mass-loss sequences translate into critical mass ratios for runaway (dynamical timescale) mass transfer, evaluated here under the assumption of conservative mass transfer. For intermediate- and high-mass stars, dynamical mass transfer is preceded by an extended phase of thermal timescale mass transfer as the star is stripped of most of its envelope mass. The critical mass ratio qad (throughout this paper, we follow the convention of defining the binary mass ratio as q{equiv}Mdonor/Maccretor) above which this delayed dynamical instability occurs increases with advancing evolutionary age of the donor star, by ever-increasing factors for more massive donors. Most intermediate- or high-mass binaries with nondegenerate accretors probably evolve into contact before manifesting this instability. As they approach the base of the giant branch, however, and begin developing a convective envelope, qad plummets dramatically among intermediate-mass stars, to values of order unity, and a prompt dynamical instability occurs. Among low-mass stars, the prompt instability prevails throughout main sequence evolution, with qad declining with decreasing mass, and asymptotically approaching qad=2/3, appropriate to a classical isentropic n=3/2 polytrope. Our calculated qad values agree well with the behavior of time-dependent models by Chen & Han (2003MNRAS.341..662C) of intermediate-mass stars initiating mass transfer in the Hertzsprung gap. Application of our results to cataclysmic variables, as systems that must be stable against rapid mass
Partially turbulated trailing edge cooling passages for gas turbine nozzles
Thatcher, Jonathan Carl; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian
2001-01-01
A plurality of passages are spaced one from the other along the length of a trailing edge of a nozzle vane in a gas turbine. The passages lie in communication with a cavity in the vane for flowing cooling air from the cavity through the passages through the tip of the trailing edge into the hot gas path. Each passage is partially turbulated and includes ribs in an aft portion thereof to provide enhanced cooling effects adjacent the tip of the trailing edge. The major portions of the passages are smooth bore. By this arrangement, reduced temperature gradients across the trailing edge metal are provided. Additionally, the inlets to each of the passages have a restriction whereby a reduced magnitude of compressor bleed discharge air is utilized for trailing edge cooling purposes.
Adiabatic leakage elimination operator in an experimental framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhao-Ming; Byrd, Mark S.; Jing, Jun; Wu, Lian-Ao
2018-06-01
Adiabatic evolution is used in a variety of quantum information processing tasks. However, the elimination of errors is not as well developed as it is for circuit model processing. Here, we present a strategy to improve the performance of a quantum adiabatic process by adding leakage elimination operators (LEOs) to the evolution. These are a sequence of pulse controls acting in an adiabatic subspace to eliminate errors by suppressing unwanted transitions. Using the Feshbach P Q partitioning technique, we obtain an analytical solution for a set of pulse controls. The effectiveness of the LEO is independent of the specific form of the pulse but depends on the average frequency of the control function. By observing that the evolution of the target eigenstate is governed by a periodic function appearing in the integral of the control function, we show that control parameters can be chosen in such a way that the instantaneous eigenstates of the system are unchanged, yet a speedup can be achieved by suppressing transitions. Furthermore, we give the exact expression of the control function for a counter unitary transformation to be used in experiments which provides a clear physical meaning for the LEO, aiding in the implementation.
Irreconcilable difference between quantum walks and adiabatic quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Thomas G.; Meyer, David A.
2016-06-01
Continuous-time quantum walks and adiabatic quantum evolution are two general techniques for quantum computing, both of which are described by Hamiltonians that govern their evolutions by Schrödinger's equation. In the former, the Hamiltonian is fixed, while in the latter, the Hamiltonian varies with time. As a result, their formulations of Grover's algorithm evolve differently through Hilbert space. We show that this difference is fundamental; they cannot be made to evolve along each other's path without introducing structure more powerful than the standard oracle for unstructured search. For an adiabatic quantum evolution to evolve like the quantum walk search algorithm, it must interpolate between three fixed Hamiltonians, one of which is complex and introduces structure that is stronger than the oracle for unstructured search. Conversely, for a quantum walk to evolve along the path of the adiabatic search algorithm, it must be a chiral quantum walk on a weighted, directed star graph with structure that is also stronger than the oracle for unstructured search. Thus, the two techniques, although similar in being described by Hamiltonians that govern their evolution, compute by fundamentally irreconcilable means.
Narrow-line laser cooling by adiabatic transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norcia, Matthew A.; Cline, Julia R. K.; Bartolotta, John P.; Holland, Murray J.; Thompson, James K.
2018-02-01
We propose and demonstrate a novel laser cooling mechanism applicable to particles with narrow-linewidth optical transitions. By sweeping the frequency of counter-propagating laser beams in a sawtooth manner, we cause adiabatic transfer back and forth between the ground state and a long-lived optically excited state. The time-ordering of these adiabatic transfers is determined by Doppler shifts, which ensures that the associated photon recoils are in the opposite direction to the particle’s motion. This ultimately leads to a robust cooling mechanism capable of exerting large forces via a weak transition and with reduced reliance on spontaneous emission. We present a simple intuitive model for the resulting frictional force, and directly demonstrate its efficacy for increasing the total phase-space density of an atomic ensemble. We rely on both simulation and experimental studies using the 7.5 kHz linewidth 1S0 to 3P1 transition in 88Sr. The reduced reliance on spontaneous emission may allow this adiabatic sweep method to be a useful tool for cooling particles that lack closed cycling transitions, such as molecules.
Non-Adiabatic Molecular Dynamics Methods for Materials Discovery
Furche, Filipp; Parker, Shane M.; Muuronen, Mikko J.
2017-04-04
The flow of radiative energy in light-driven materials such as photosensitizer dyes or photocatalysts is governed by non-adiabatic transitions between electronic states and cannot be described within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation commonly used in electronic structure theory. The non-adiabatic molecular dynamics (NAMD) methods based on Tully surface hopping and time-dependent density functional theory developed in this project have greatly extended the range of molecular materials that can be tackled by NAMD simulations. New algorithms to compute molecular excited state and response properties efficiently were developed. Fundamental limitations of common non-linear response methods were discovered and characterized. Methods for accurate computations ofmore » vibronic spectra of materials such as black absorbers were developed and applied. It was shown that open-shell TDDFT methods capture bond breaking in NAMD simulations, a longstanding challenge for single-reference molecular dynamics simulations. The methods developed in this project were applied to study the photodissociation of acetaldehyde and revealed that non-adiabatic effects are experimentally observable in fragment kinetic energy distributions. Finally, the project enabled the first detailed NAMD simulations of photocatalytic water oxidation by titania nanoclusters, uncovering the mechanism of this fundamentally important reaction for fuel generation and storage.« less
NMR implementation of adiabatic SAT algorithm using strongly modulated pulses.
Mitra, Avik; Mahesh, T S; Kumar, Anil
2008-03-28
NMR implementation of adiabatic algorithms face severe problems in homonuclear spin systems since the qubit selective pulses are long and during this period, evolution under the Hamiltonian and decoherence cause errors. The decoherence destroys the answer as it causes the final state to evolve to mixed state and in homonuclear systems, evolution under the internal Hamiltonian causes phase errors preventing the initial state to converge to the solution state. The resolution of these issues is necessary before one can proceed to implement an adiabatic algorithm in a large system where homonuclear coupled spins will become a necessity. In the present work, we demonstrate that by using "strongly modulated pulses" (SMPs) for the creation of interpolating Hamiltonian, one can circumvent both the problems and successfully implement the adiabatic SAT algorithm in a homonuclear three qubit system. This work also demonstrates that the SMPs tremendously reduce the time taken for the implementation of the algorithm, can overcome problems associated with decoherence, and will be the modality in future implementation of quantum information processing by NMR.
Quantum trajectories for time-dependent adiabatic master equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yip, Ka Wa; Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.
2018-02-01
We describe a quantum trajectories technique for the unraveling of the quantum adiabatic master equation in Lindblad form. By evolving a complex state vector of dimension N instead of a complex density matrix of dimension N2, simulations of larger system sizes become feasible. The cost of running many trajectories, which is required to recover the master equation evolution, can be minimized by running the trajectories in parallel, making this method suitable for high performance computing clusters. In general, the trajectories method can provide up to a factor N advantage over directly solving the master equation. In special cases where only the expectation values of certain observables are desired, an advantage of up to a factor N2 is possible. We test the method by demonstrating agreement with direct solution of the quantum adiabatic master equation for 8-qubit quantum annealing examples. We also apply the quantum trajectories method to a 16-qubit example originally introduced to demonstrate the role of tunneling in quantum annealing, which is significantly more time consuming to solve directly using the master equation. The quantum trajectories method provides insight into individual quantum jump trajectories and their statistics, thus shedding light on open system quantum adiabatic evolution beyond the master equation.
Dynamics of Quantum Adiabatic Evolution Algorithm for Number Partitioning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Toussaint, U. V.; Timucin, D. A.
2002-01-01
We have developed a general technique to study the dynamics of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm applied to random combinatorial optimization problems in the asymptotic limit of large problem size n. We use as an example the NP-complete Number Partitioning problem and map the algorithm dynamics to that of an auxiliary quantum spin glass system with the slowly varying Hamiltonian. We use a Green function method to obtain the adiabatic eigenstates and the minimum excitation gap. g min, = O(n 2(exp -n/2), corresponding to the exponential complexity of the algorithm for Number Partitioning. The key element of the analysis is the conditional energy distribution computed for the set of all spin configurations generated from a given (ancestor) configuration by simultaneous flipping of a fixed number of spins. For the problem in question this distribution is shown to depend on the ancestor spin configuration only via a certain parameter related to 'the energy of the configuration. As the result, the algorithm dynamics can be described in terms of one-dimensional quantum diffusion in the energy space. This effect provides a general limitation of a quantum adiabatic computation in random optimization problems. Analytical results are in agreement with the numerical simulation of the algorithm.
Quasi-adiabatic calorimeter for direct electrocaloric measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanlialp, Mehmet; Shvartsman, Vladimir V.; Faye, Romain; Karabasov, Maksim O.; Molin, Christian; Gebhardt, Sylvia; Defay, Emmanuel; Lupascu, Doru C.
2018-03-01
The electrocaloric effect (ECE) in ferroelectric materials is a promising candidate for small, effective, low cost, and environmentally friendly solid state cooling applications. Instead of the commonly used indirect estimates based on Maxwell's relations, direct measurements of the ECE are required to obtain reliable values. In this work, we report on a custom-made quasi-adiabatic calorimeter for direct ECE measurements. The ECE is measured for two promising lead-free materials: Ba(Zr0.12Ti0.88)O3 and Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 bulk ceramics. Adiabatic temperature changes of ΔTEC = 0.5 K at 355 K and ΔTEC = 0.3 K at 314 K were achieved under the application of an electric field of 2 kV/mm for the Ba(Zr0.12Ti0.88)O3 and Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 samples, respectively. The quasi-adiabatic ECE measurements reliably match other direct EC measurements using a differential scanning calorimeter or an infrared camera. The data are compared to indirect EC estimations based on Maxwell's relations and show that the indirect measurements typically underestimate the effect to a certain degree.
Dynamics of Quantum Adiabatic Evolution Algorithm for Number Partitioning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smelyanskiy, Vadius; vonToussaint, Udo V.; Timucin, Dogan A.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We have developed a general technique to study the dynamics of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm applied to random combinatorial optimization problems in the asymptotic limit of large problem size n. We use as an example the NP-complete Number Partitioning problem and map the algorithm dynamics to that of an auxiliary quantum spin glass system with the slowly varying Hamiltonian. We use a Green function method to obtain the adiabatic eigenstates and the minimum exitation gap, gmin = O(n2(sup -n/2)), corresponding to the exponential complexity of the algorithm for Number Partitioning. The key element of the analysis is the conditional energy distribution computed for the set of all spin configurations generated from a given (ancestor) configuration by simultaneous flipping of a fixed number of spins. For the problem in question this distribution is shown to depend on the ancestor spin configuration only via a certain parameter related to the energy of the configuration. As the result, the algorithm dynamics can be described in terms of one-dimensional quantum diffusion in the energy space. This effect provides a general limitation of a quantum adiabatic computation in random optimization problems. Analytical results are in agreement with the numerical simulation of the algorithm.
Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics by accelerated semiclassical Monte Carlo
White, Alexander J.; Gorshkov, Vyacheslav N.; Tretiak, Sergei; ...
2015-07-07
Non-adiabatic dynamics, where systems non-radiatively transition between electronic states, plays a crucial role in many photo-physical processes, such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, and photoisomerization. Methods for the simulation of non-adiabatic dynamics are typically either numerically impractical, highly complex, or based on approximations which can result in failure for even simple systems. Recently, the Semiclassical Monte Carlo (SCMC) approach was developed in an attempt to combine the accuracy of rigorous semiclassical methods with the efficiency and simplicity of widely used surface hopping methods. However, while SCMC was found to be more efficient than other semiclassical methods, it is not yet as efficientmore » as is needed to be used for large molecular systems. Here, we have developed two new methods: the accelerated-SCMC and the accelerated-SCMC with re-Gaussianization, which reduce the cost of the SCMC algorithm up to two orders of magnitude for certain systems. In many cases shown here, the new procedures are nearly as efficient as the commonly used surface hopping schemes, with little to no loss of accuracy. This implies that these modified SCMC algorithms will be of practical numerical solutions for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics in realistic molecular systems.« less
Adiabatic shear mechanisms for the hard cutting process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Caixu; Wang, Bo; Liu, Xianli; Feng, Huize; Cai, Chunbin
2015-05-01
The most important consequence of adiabatic shear phenomenon is formation of sawtooth chip. Lots of scholars focused on the formation mechanism of sawtooth, and the research often depended on experimental approach. For the present, the mechanism of sawtooth chip formation still remains some ambiguous aspects. This study develops a combined numerical and experimental approach to get deeper understanding of sawtooth chip formation mechanism for Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN) tools orthogonal cutting hard steel GCr15. By adopting the Johnson-Cook material constitutive equations, the FEM simulation model established in this research effectively overcomes serious element distortions and cell singularity in high strain domain caused by large material deformation, and the adiabatic shear phenomenon is simulated successfully. Both the formation mechanism and process of sawtooth are simulated. Also, the change features regarding the cutting force as well as its effects on temperature are studied. More specifically, the contact of sawtooth formation frequency with cutting force fluctuation frequency is established. The cutting force and effect of cutting temperature on mechanism of adiabatic shear are investigated. Furthermore, the effects of the cutting condition on sawtooth chip formation are researched. The researching results show that cutting feed has the most important effect on sawtooth chip formation compared with cutting depth and speed. This research contributes a better understanding of mechanism, feature of chip formation in hard turning process, and supplies theoretical basis for the optimization of hard cutting process parameters.
Adiabatic corrections to density functional theory energies and wave functions.
Mohallem, José R; Coura, Thiago de O; Diniz, Leonardo G; de Castro, Gustavo; Assafrão, Denise; Heine, Thomas
2008-09-25
The adiabatic finite-nuclear-mass-correction (FNMC) to the electronic energies and wave functions of atoms and molecules is formulated for density-functional theory and implemented in the deMon code. The approach is tested for a series of local and gradient corrected density functionals, using MP2 results and diagonal-Born-Oppenheimer corrections from the literature for comparison. In the evaluation of absolute energy corrections of nonorganic molecules the LDA PZ81 functional works surprisingly better than the others. For organic molecules the GGA BLYP functional has the best performance. FNMC with GGA functionals, mainly BLYP, show a good performance in the evaluation of relative corrections, except for nonorganic molecules containing H atoms. The PW86 functional stands out with the best evaluation of the barrier of linearity of H2O and the isotopic dipole moment of HDO. In general, DFT functionals display an accuracy superior than the common belief and because the corrections are based on a change of the electronic kinetic energy they are here ranked in a new appropriate way. The approach is applied to obtain the adiabatic correction for full atomization of alcanes C(n)H(2n+2), n = 4-10. The barrier of 1 mHartree is approached for adiabatic corrections, justifying its insertion into DFT.
Liu, Fuxiao; Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Lin; Zou, Yanli; Liu, Shan; Wang, Zhiliang
2016-08-01
The genus Morbillivirus is classified into the family Paramyxoviridae, and is composed of 6 members, namely measles virus (MV), rinderpest virus (RPV), peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV), canine distemper virus (CDV), phocine distemper virus (PDV) and cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV). The MV, RPV, PPRV and CDV have been successfully attenuated through their serial passages in vitro for the production of live vaccines. It has been demonstrated that the morbilliviral virulence in animals was progressively attenuated with their consecutive passages in vitro. However, only a few reports were involved in explanation of an attenuation-related mechanism on them until many years after the establishment of a quasispecies theory. RNA virus quasispecies arise from rapid evolution of viruses with high mutation rate during genomic replication, and play an important role in gradual loss of viral virulence by serial passages. Here, we overviewed the development of live-attenuated vaccine strains against morbilliviruses by consecutive passages in vitro, and further discussed a related mechanism concerning the relationship between virulence attenuation and viral evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Novel developments and applications of the classical adiabatic dynamics technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosso, Lula
The present work aims to apply and develop modern molecular dynamics techniques based on a novel analysis of the classical adiabatic dynamics approach. In the first part of this thesis, Car-Parrinello ab-initio molecular dynamics, a successful technique based on adiabatic dynamics, is used to study the charge transport mechanism in solid ammonium perchlorate (AP) crystal exposed to an ammonia-rich environment. AP is a solid-state proton conductor composed of NH+4 and ClO-4 units that can undergo a decomposition process at high temperature, leading to its use such as rocket fuel. After computing IR spectra and carefully analysing the dynamics at different temperatures, we found that the charge transport mechanism in the pure crystal is dominated by diffusion of the ammonium ions and that the translational diffusion is strongly coupled to rotational diffusion of the two types of ions present. When the pure ammonium-perchlorate crystal is doped with neutral ammonia, another mechanism comes into play, namely, the Grotthuss proton hopping mechanism via short-lived N2H+7 complexes. In the second part of this thesis, adiabatic dynamics will be used to develop an alternative approach to the calculation of free energy profiles along reaction paths. The new method (AFED) is based on the creation of an adiabatic separation between the reaction coordinate subspace and the remaining degrees of freedom within a molecular dynamics run. This is achieved by associating with the reaction coordinate(s) a high temperature and large mass. These conditions allow the activated process to occur while permitting the remaining degrees of freedom to respond adiabatically. In this limit, by applying a formal multiple time scale Liouville operator factorization, it can be rigorously shown that the free energy profile is obtained directly from the probability distribution of the reaction coordinate subspace and, therefore, no postprocessing of the output data is required. The new method is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Yan-Mei; Chen, Xi; Lin, Xu-Dong; Tan, Ning
The mean first passage time (MFPT) in a phenomenological gene transcriptional regulatory model with non-Gaussian noise is analytically investigated based on the singular perturbation technique. The effect of the non-Gaussian noise on the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) is then disclosed based on a new combination of adiabatic elimination and linear response approximation. Compared with the results in the Gaussian noise case, it is found that bounded non-Gaussian noise inhibits the transition between different concentrations of protein, while heavy-tailed non-Gaussian noise accelerates the transition. It is also found that the optimal noise intensity for SR in the heavy-tailed noise case is smaller, while the optimal noise intensity in the bounded noise case is larger. These observations can be explained by the heavy-tailed noise easing random transitions.
Comparative Study of Barotrauma Risk during Fish Passage through Kaplan Turbines
Richmond, Marshall C.; Romero-Gomez, Pedro; Serkowski, John A.
Rapid pressure changes in hydroelectric turbine flows can cause barotrauma that can be hazardous to the passage of fish, in particular migratory juvenile salmonids. Although numerous laboratory tests have evaluated the effect of rapid decompression in fish species of relevance, numerical modeling studies offer the advantage of predicting, for new turbine designs, the potential risks of mortality and injury from rapid pressure change during turbine passage. However, rapid pressure change is only one of several hydraulic risks encountered by fish during turbine passage in addition to blade strike, shear, and turbulence. To better understand the role of rapid pressure changes,more » the present work focuses on the application of a computational fluid dynamics based method for evaluating the risk of pressure-related mortality to fish passing through an early 1960s era original hydroelectric Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam (Columbia River, Washington), and a modern advanced Kaplan turbine installed in 2005. The results show that the modeling approach acceptably reproduced the nadir pressure distributions compared to field data previously collected at the site using an autonomous sensor. Our findings show that the new advanced-design unit performs better, in terms of reduced barotrauma risk to fish from exposure to low pressures, than the original turbine unit. The outcomes allow for comparative analyses of turbine designs and operations prior to installation, an advantage that can potentially be integrated in the process of designing new turbine units to achieve superior environmental performance. Overall, the results show that modern turbine designs can achieve the multiple objectives of increasing power generation, lowering cavitation potential, and reducing barotrauma risks to passing fish.« less
A comparison of metrics to evaluate the effects of hydro-facility passage stressors on fish
Colotelo, Alison H.; Goldman, Amy E.; Wagner, Katie A.
Hydropower is the most common form of renewable energy, and countries worldwide are considering expanding hydropower to new areas. One of the challenges of hydropower deployment is mitigation of the environmental impacts including water quality, habitat alterations, and ecosystem connectivity. For fish species that inhabit river systems with hydropower facilities, passage through the facility to access spawning and rearing habitats can be particularly challenging. Fish moving downstream through a hydro-facility can be exposed to a number of stressors (e.g., rapid decompression, shear forces, blade strike and collision, and turbulence), which can all affect fish survival in direct and indirect ways.more » Many studies have investigated the effects of hydro-turbine passage on fish; however, the comparability among studies is limited by variation in the metrics and biological endpoints used. Future studies investigating the effects of hydro-turbine passage should focus on using metrics and endpoints that are easily comparable. This review summarizes four categories of metrics that are used in fisheries research and have application to hydro-turbine passage (i.e., mortality, injury, molecular metrics, behavior) and evaluates them based on several criteria (i.e., resources needed, invasiveness, comparability among stressors and species, and diagnostic properties). Additionally, these comparisons are put into context of study setting (i.e., laboratory vs. field). Overall, injury and molecular metrics are ideal for studies in which there is a need to understand the mechanisms of effect, whereas behavior and mortality metrics provide information on the whole body response of the fish. The study setting strongly influences the comparability among studies. In laboratory-based studies, stressors can be controlled by both type and magnitude, allowing for easy comparisons among studies. In contrast, field studies expose fish to realistic passage environments but the
Middle Passage in the Triangular Slave Trade: The West Indies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sawh, Ruth; Scales, Alice M.
2006-01-01
Our narrative focuses on the middle passage of the slave trade in the West Indies. Herein we describe why more men, women, and children were imported in the West Indies than other islands. Specifically, our aim was to address how slaves in the middle passage of the triangular slave trade were treated, how they sustained themselves, and how they…
33 CFR 151.2020 - Vessels in innocent passage.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vessels in innocent passage. 151.2020 Section 151.2020 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... United States § 151.2020 Vessels in innocent passage. A foreign vessel that is merely traversing the...
33 CFR 151.2020 - Vessels in innocent passage.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vessels in innocent passage. 151.2020 Section 151.2020 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... United States § 151.2020 Vessels in innocent passage. A foreign vessel that is merely traversing the...
33 CFR 151.2020 - Vessels in innocent passage.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vessels in innocent passage. 151.2020 Section 151.2020 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... United States § 151.2020 Vessels in innocent passage. A foreign vessel that is merely traversing the...
Optimal Number of Gaps in C-Test Passages
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baghaei, Purya
2011-01-01
This study addresses the issue of the optimal number of gaps in C-Test passages. An English C-Test battery containing four passages each having 40 blanks was given to 104 undergraduate students of English. The data were entered into SPSS spreadsheet. Out of the complete data with 160 blanks seven additional datasets were constructed. In the first…
Model for Predicting Passage of Invasive Fish Species Through Culverts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neary, V.
2010-12-01
Conservation efforts to promote or inhibit fish passage include the application of simple fish passage models to determine whether an open channel flow allows passage of a given fish species. Derivations of simple fish passage models for uniform and nonuniform flow conditions are presented. For uniform flow conditions, a model equation is developed that predicts the mean-current velocity threshold in a fishway, or velocity barrier, which causes exhaustion at a given maximum distance of ascent. The derivation of a simple expression for this exhaustion-threshold (ET) passage model is presented using kinematic principles coupled with fatigue curves for threatened and endangered fish species. Mean current velocities at or above the threshold predict failure to pass. Mean current velocities below the threshold predict successful passage. The model is therefore intuitive and easily applied to predict passage or exclusion. The ET model’s simplicity comes with limitations, however, including its application only to uniform flow, which is rarely found in the field. This limitation is addressed by deriving a model that accounts for nonuniform conditions, including backwater profiles and drawdown curves. Comparison of these models with experimental data from volitional swimming studies of fish indicates reasonable performance, but limitations are still present due to the difficulty in predicting fish behavior and passage strategies that can vary among individuals and different fish species.
Bilingual Listeners' Perception of Temporally Manipulated English Passages
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shi, Lu-Feng; Farooq, Nadia
2012-01-01
Purpose: The current study measured, objectively and subjectively, how changes in speech rate affect recognition of English passages in bilingual listeners. Method: Ten native monolingual, 20 English-dominant bilingual, and 20 non-English-dominant bilingual listeners repeated target words in English passages at five speech rates (unprocessed, two…
Studies of the Seriousness of Three Threats to Passage Dependence.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hanna, Gerald S.; Oaster, Thomas R.
1980-01-01
Certain kinds of multiple-choice reading comprehension questions may be answered correctly at the higher-than-chance level when they are administered without the accompanying passage. These high risk questions do not necessarily lead to passage dependence invalidity. They threaten but do not prove invalidity. (Author/CP)
Changing Sea Ice Conditions in the Northwest Passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tivy, A. C.; Howell, S.; Agnew, T.; Derksen, C.
2010-12-01
The Northwest Passage lies in the middle of Canadian Arctic Archipelago providing a potential deepwater route that links the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Discovered by Sir Robert M’Clure in the 1850s, ever-present multi-year ice (MYI) has always prevented its practical navigation. 2007 marked extreme low MYI conditions in the Arctic and temporarily cleared the Northwest Passage. However, is one single clearing event within the Northwest Passage over the past 40 years indicative of future clearings? This analysis addressed two inter-related questions: i) why has the Northwest Passage contained historically heavy amounts of MYI? and ii) will decreases in MYI within the Northwest Passage continue into the future? Results indicate that for nearly 4 decades, the southern regions of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago have continuously operated as a drain-trap for MYI and this mechanism is responsible for maintaining the heavy MYI conditions within the Northwest Passage. The oldest and thickest MYI in the world resides along the northern flank of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago therefore, as the transition to a sea ice-free Arctic continues, MYI from this region will continue to migrate southward to the channels of the Northwest Passage. Results also find that 2007 was indeed an anomalously light sea ice year in the Northwest Passage but record low ice conditions have since been observed as of mid-August 2010.
The Use of Ritual in Rites of Passage.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferguson, Gary
2001-01-01
Humans move through difficult transitions best when guided by ceremony and ritual. The components of traditional rites of passage mirror exactly many of today's most promising psychological theories. Four components of rites of passage that comprise life transitions are discussed: letting go of an old identity, the wandering, the new identity, and…
INTERIOR VIEW, PASSAGE AND DOOR LETTING ONTO THE SOUTHEAST BED ...
INTERIOR VIEW, PASSAGE AND DOOR LETTING ONTO THE SOUTHEAST BED CHAMBER. THE ANGLED PASSAGE RUNS PARALLEL TO WHAT WAS AN EXTERIOR WALL OF THE THREE-SIDED WINDOW BOW PRESENT IN THE HOUSES ORIGINAL CA. 1770 STATE - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Last Passage Percolation and Traveling Fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Comets, Francis; Quastel, Jeremy; Ramírez, Alejandro F.
2013-08-01
We consider a system of N particles with a stochastic dynamics introduced by Brunet and Derrida (Phys. Rev. E 70:016106, 2004). The particles can be interpreted as last passage times in directed percolation on {1,…, N} of mean-field type. The particles remain grouped and move like a traveling front, subject to discretization and driven by a random noise. As N increases, we obtain estimates for the speed of the front and its profile, for different laws of the driving noise. As shown in Brunet and Derrida (Phys. Rev. E 70:016106, 2004), the model with Gumbel distributed jumps has a simple structure. We establish that the scaling limit is a Lévy process in this case. We study other jump distributions. We prove a result showing that the limit for large N is stable under small perturbations of the Gumbel. In the opposite case of bounded jumps, a completely different behavior is found, where finite-size corrections are extremely small.
Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages
Mittal, B.; Deutsch, M.; Iwatsuki, S.
The records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) were analyzed to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodesmore » (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From the data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. The authors have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed.« less
Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages.
Mittal, B; Deutsch, M; Iwatsuki, S
1985-04-01
We analyzed the records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From our data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. We have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ravi, M. U.; Reddy, C. P.; Ravindranath, K.
2013-04-01
In view of fast depletion of fossil fuels and the rapid rate at which the fuel consumption is taking place all over the world, scientists are searching for alternate fuels for maintaining the growth industrially and economically. Hence search for alternate fuel(s) has become imminent. Out of the limited options for internal combustion engines, the bio diesel fuel appears to be the best. Many advanced countries are implementing several biodiesel initiatives and developmental programmes in order to become self sufficient and reduce the import bills. Biodiesel is biodegradable and renewable fuel with the potential to enhance the performance and reduce engine exhaust emissions. This is due to ready usage of existing diesel engines, fuel distribution pattern, reduced emission profiles, and eco-friendly properties of biodiesel. Simarouba biodiesel (SBD), the methyl ester of Simarouba oil is one such alternative fuel which can be used as substitute to conventional petro-diesel. The present work involves experimental investigation on the use of SBD blends as fuel in conventional diesel engine and semi-adiabatic diesel engine. The oil was triple filtered to eliminate particulate matter and then transesterified to obtain biodiesel. The project envisaged aims at conducting analysis of diesel with SBD blends (10, 20, 30 and 40 %) in conventional engine and semi-adiabatic engine. Also it was decided to vary the injection pressure (180, 190 and 200 bar) and observe its effect on performance and also suggest better value of injection pressure. The engine was made semi adiabatic by coating the piston crown with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). Kirloskar AV I make (3.67 kW) vertical, single cylinder, water cooled diesel engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer with suitable measuring instrumentation/accessories used for the study. Experiments were initially carried out using pure diesel fuel to provide base line data. The test results were compared based on the performance
Modeling of First-Passage Processes in Financial Markets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Hino, Hikaru; Sazuka, Naoya; Scalas, Enrico
2010-03-01
In this talk, we attempt to make a microscopic modeling the first-passage process (or the first-exit process) of the BUND future by minority game with market history. We find that the first-passage process of the minority game with appropriate history length generates the same properties as the BTP future (the middle and long term Italian Government bonds with fixed interest rates), namely, both first-passage time distributions have a crossover at some specific time scale as is the case for the Mittag-Leffler function. We also provide a macroscopic (or a phenomenological) modeling of the first-passage process of the BTP future and show analytically that the first-passage time distribution of a simplest mixture of the normal compound Poisson processes does not have such a crossover.
Krix, David; Nienhaus, Hermann, E-mail: hermann.nienhaus@uni-due.de
2014-08-21
Thin potassium films grown on Si(001) substrates are used to measure internal chemicurrents and the external emission of exoelectrons simultaneously during adsorption of molecular oxygen on K surfaces at 120 K. The experiments clarify the dynamics of electronic excitations at a simple metal with a narrow valence band. X-ray photoemission reveals that for exposures below 5 L almost exclusively peroxide K{sub 2}O{sub 2} is formed, i.e., no dissociation of the molecule occurs during interaction. Still a significant chemicurrent and a delayed exoelectron emission are detected due to a rapid injection of unoccupied molecular levels below the Fermi level. Since themore » valence band width of potassium is approximately equal to the potassium work function (2.4 eV) the underlying mechanism of exoemission is an Auger relaxation whereas chemicurrents are detected after resonant charge transfer from the metal valence band into the injected level. The change of the chemicurrent and exoemission efficiencies with oxygen coverage can be deduced from the kinetics of the reaction and the recorded internal and external emission currents traces. It is shown that the non-adiabaticity of the reaction increases with coverage due to a reduction of the electronic density of states at the surface while the work function does not vary significantly. Therefore, the peroxide formation is one of the first reaction systems which exhibits varying non-adiabaticity and efficiencies during the reaction. Non-adiabatic calculations based on model Hamiltonians and density functional theory support the picture of chemicurrent generation and explain the rapid injection of hot hole states by an intramolecular motion, i.e., the expansion of the oxygen molecule on the timescale of a quarter of a vibrational period.« less
Adiabatic quantum computing with spin qubits hosted by molecules.
Yamamoto, Satoru; Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Sugisaki, Kenji; Sato, Kazunobu; Toyota, Kazuo; Shiomi, Daisuke; Takui, Takeji
2015-01-28
A molecular spin quantum computer (MSQC) requires electron spin qubits, which pulse-based electron spin/magnetic resonance (ESR/MR) techniques can afford to manipulate for implementing quantum gate operations in open shell molecular entities. Importantly, nuclear spins, which are topologically connected, particularly in organic molecular spin systems, are client qubits, while electron spins play a role of bus qubits. Here, we introduce the implementation for an adiabatic quantum algorithm, suggesting the possible utilization of molecular spins with optimized spin structures for MSQCs. We exemplify the utilization of an adiabatic factorization problem of 21, compared with the corresponding nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) case. Two molecular spins are selected: one is a molecular spin composed of three exchange-coupled electrons as electron-only qubits and the other an electron-bus qubit with two client nuclear spin qubits. Their electronic spin structures are well characterized in terms of the quantum mechanical behaviour in the spin Hamiltonian. The implementation of adiabatic quantum computing/computation (AQC) has, for the first time, been achieved by establishing ESR/MR pulse sequences for effective spin Hamiltonians in a fully controlled manner of spin manipulation. The conquered pulse sequences have been compared with the NMR experiments and shown much faster CPU times corresponding to the interaction strength between the spins. Significant differences are shown in rotational operations and pulse intervals for ESR/MR operations. As a result, we suggest the advantages and possible utilization of the time-evolution based AQC approach for molecular spin quantum computers and molecular spin quantum simulators underlain by sophisticated ESR/MR pulsed spin technology.
First passage times and asymmetry of DNA translocation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lua, Rhonald C.; Grosberg, Alexander Y.
2005-12-01
Motivated by experiments in which single-stranded DNA with a short hairpin loop at one end undergoes unforced diffusion through a narrow pore, we study the first passage times for a particle, executing one-dimensional Brownian motion in an asymmetric sawtooth potential, to exit one of the boundaries. We consider the first passage times for the case of classical diffusion, characterized by a mean-square displacement of the form ⟨(Δx)2⟩˜t , and for the case of anomalous diffusion or subdiffusion, characterized by a mean-square displacement of the form ⟨(Δx)2⟩˜tγ with 0<γ<1 . In the context of classical diffusion, we obtain an expression for the mean first passage time and show that this quantity changes when the direction of the sawtooth is reversed or, equivalently, when the reflecting and absorbing boundaries are exchanged. We discuss at which numbers of “teeth” N (or number of DNA nucleotides) and at which heights of the sawtooth potential this difference becomes significant. For large N , it is well known that the mean first passage time scales as N2 . In the context of subdiffusion, the mean first passage time does not exist. Therefore, we obtain instead the distribution of first passage times in the limit of long times. We show that the prefactor in the power relation for this distribution is simply the expression for the mean first passage time in classical diffusion. We also describe a hypothetical experiment to calculate the average of the first passage times for a fraction of passage events that each end within some time t* . We show that this average first passage time scales as N2/γ in subdiffusion.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity by counterdiabatic driving for trapped-ion displacement in phase space
An, Shuoming; Lv, Dingshun; del Campo, Adolfo; Kim, Kihwan
2016-01-01
The application of adiabatic protocols in quantum technologies is severely limited by environmental sources of noise and decoherence. Shortcuts to adiabaticity by counterdiabatic driving constitute a powerful alternative that speed up time-evolution while mimicking adiabatic dynamics. Here we report the experimental implementation of counterdiabatic driving in a continuous variable system, a shortcut to the adiabatic transport of a trapped ion in phase space. The resulting dynamics is equivalent to a ‘fast-motion video' of the adiabatic trajectory. The robustness of this protocol is shown to surpass that of competing schemes based on classical local controls and Fourier optimization methods. Our results demonstrate that shortcuts to adiabaticity provide a robust speedup of quantum protocols of wide applicability in quantum technologies. PMID:27669897
Simulating a topological transition in a superconducting phase qubit by fast adiabatic trajectories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tenghui; Zhang, Zhenxing; Xiang, Liang; Gong, Zhihao; Wu, Jianlan; Yin, Yi
2018-04-01
The significance of topological phases has been widely recognized in the community of condensed matter physics. The well controllable quantum systems provide an artificial platform to probe and engineer various topological phases. The adiabatic trajectory of a quantum state describes the change of the bulk Bloch eigenstates with the momentum, and this adiabatic simulation method is however practically limited due to quantum dissipation. Here we apply the "shortcut to adiabaticity" (STA) protocol to realize fast adiabatic evolutions in the system of a superconducting phase qubit. The resulting fast adiabatic trajectories illustrate the change of the bulk Bloch eigenstates in the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. A sharp transition is experimentally determined for the topological invariant of a winding number. Our experiment helps identify the topological Chern number of a two-dimensional toy model, suggesting the applicability of the fast adiabatic simulation method for topological systems.
Adiabatic dynamics of one-dimensional classical Hamiltonian dissipative systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pritula, G. M.; Petrenko, E. V.; Usatenko, O. V.
2018-02-01
A linearized plane pendulum with the slowly varying mass and length of string and the suspension point moving at a slowly varying speed is presented as an example of a simple 1D mechanical system described by the generalized harmonic oscillator equation, which is a basic model in discussion of the adiabatic dynamics and geometric phase. The expression for the pendulum geometric phase is obtained by three different methods. The pendulum is shown to be canonically equivalent to the damped harmonic oscillator. This supports the mathematical conclusion, not widely accepted in physical community, of no difference between the dissipative and Hamiltonian 1D systems.
The adiabatic piston: a perpetuum mobile in the mesoscopic realm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crosignani, Bruno; Porto, Paolo; Conti, Claudio
2004-03-01
A detailed analysis of the adiabatic-piston problem reveals, for a finely-tuned choice of the spatial dimensions of the system, peculiar dynamical features that challenge the statement that an isolated system necessarily reaches a time-independent equilibrium state. In particular, the piston behaves like a perpetuum mobile, i.e., it never comes to a stop but keeps wandering, undergoing sizeable oscillations around the position corresponding to maximum entropy; this has remarkable implications on the entropy changes of a mesoscopic isolated system and on the limits of validity of the second law of thermodynamics in the mesoscopic realm.
Adiabatic invariants in stellar dynamics. 2: Gravitational shocking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinberg, Martin D.
1994-01-01
A new theory of gravitational shocking based on time-dependent perturbation theory shows that the changes in energy and angular momentum due to a slowly varying disturbance are not exponentially small for stellar dynamical systems in general. It predicts significant shock heating by slowly varying perturbations previously thought to be negligible according to the adiabatic criterion. The theory extends the scenarios traditionally computed only with the impulse approximation and is applicable to a wide class of disturbances. The approach is applied specifically to the problem of disk shocking of star clusters.
Adiabatic Faraday effect in a two-level Hamiltonian formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dasgupta, Basudeb; Raffelt, Georg G.
2010-12-01
The helicity of a photon traversing a magnetized plasma can flip when the B field along the trajectory slowly reverses. Broderick and Blandford have recently shown that this intriguing effect can profoundly change the usual Faraday effect for radio waves. We study this phenomenon in a formalism analogous to neutrino flavor oscillations: the evolution is governed by a Schrödinger equation for a two-level system consisting of the two photon helicities. Our treatment allows for a transparent physical understanding of this system and its dynamics. In particular, it allows us to investigate the nature of transitions at intermediate adiabaticities.
More bang for your buck: super-adiabatic quantum engines.
del Campo, A; Goold, J; Paternostro, M
2014-08-28
The practical untenability of the quasi-static assumption makes any realistic engine intrinsically irreversible and its operating time finite, thus implying friction effects at short cycle times. An important technological goal is thus the design of maximally efficient engines working at the maximum possible power. We show that, by utilising shortcuts to adiabaticity in a quantum engine cycle, one can engineer a thermodynamic cycle working at finite power and zero friction. Our findings are illustrated using a harmonic oscillator undergoing a quantum Otto cycle.
More bang for your buck: Super-adiabatic quantum engines
Campo, A. del; Goold, J.; Paternostro, M.
2014-01-01
The practical untenability of the quasi-static assumption makes any realistic engine intrinsically irreversible and its operating time finite, thus implying friction effects at short cycle times. An important technological goal is thus the design of maximally efficient engines working at the maximum possible power. We show that, by utilising shortcuts to adiabaticity in a quantum engine cycle, one can engineer a thermodynamic cycle working at finite power and zero friction. Our findings are illustrated using a harmonic oscillator undergoing a quantum Otto cycle. PMID:25163421
Adiabatic transport of qubits around a black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viennot, David; Moro, Olivia
2017-03-01
We consider localized qubits evolving around a black hole following a quantum adiabatic dynamics. We develop a geometric structure (based on fibre bundles) permitting to describe the quantum states of a qubit and the spacetime geometry in a single framework. The quantum decoherence induced by the black hole on the qubit is analysed in this framework (the role of the dynamical and geometric phases in this decoherence is treated), especially for the quantum teleportation protocol when one qubit falls to the event horizon. A simple formula to compute the fidelity of the teleportation is derived. The case of a Schwarzschild black hole is analysed.
Adiabatic electron thermal pressure fluctuations in tokamak plasmas.
Meier, M A; Bengtson, R D; Hallock, G A; Wootton, A J
2001-08-20
Electron thermal pressure fluctuations measured in the edge plasma of the Texas Experimental Tokamak Upgrade are a fundamental component of plasma turbulence on both sides of the velocity shear layer. The ratio of specific heats, estimated from fluctuations in electron temperature and electron number density measured simultaneously at the same electrode, indicates that observed fluctuations are adiabatic. The observations are made by means of a novel Langmuir probe technique, the time domain triple-probe method, which concurrently measures multiple plasma properties at each of two electrodes with the temporal and the spatial resolution required to estimate thermodynamic properties in a turbulent plasma.
Salt materials testing for a spacecraft adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Savage, M. L.; Kittel, P.; Roellig, T.
1990-01-01
As part of a technology development effort to qualify adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators for use in a NASA spacecraft, such as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, a study of low temperature characteristics, heat capacity and resistance to dehydration was conducted for different salt materials. This report includes results of testing with cerrous metaphosphate, several synthetic rubies, and chromic potassium alum (CPA). Preliminary results show that CPA may be suitable for long-term spacecraft use, provided that the salt is property encapsulated. Methods of salt pill construction and testing for all materials are discussed, as well as reliability tests. Also, the temperature regulation scheme and the test cryostat design are briefly discussed.
Non-adiabatic pumping in an oscillating-piston model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chuchem, Maya; Dittrich, Thomas; Cohen, Doron
2012-05-01
We consider the prototypical "piston pump" operating on a ring, where a circulating current is induced by means of an AC driving. This can be regarded as a generalized Fermi-Ulam model, incorporating a finite-height moving wall (piston) and non-trivial topology (ring). The amount of particles transported per cycle is determined by a layered structure of phase space. Each layer is characterized by a different drift velocity. We discuss the differences compared with the adiabatic and Boltzmann pictures, and highlight the significance of the "diabatic" contribution that might lead to a counter-stirring effect.
Adiabatic quantum computation with neutral atoms via the Rydberg blockade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goyal, Krittika; Deutsch, Ivan
2011-05-01
We study a trapped-neutral-atom implementation of the adiabatic model of quantum computation whereby the Hamiltonian of a set of interacting qubits is changed adiabatically so that its ground state evolves to the desired output of the algorithm. We employ the ``Rydberg blockade interaction,'' which previously has been used to implement two-qubit entangling gates in the quantum circuit model. Here it is employed via off-resonant virtual dressing of the excited levels, so that atoms always remain in the ground state. The resulting dressed-Rydberg interaction is insensitive to the distance between the atoms within a certain blockade radius, making this process robust to temperature and vibrational fluctuations. Single qubit interactions are implemented with global microwaves and atoms are locally addressed with light shifts. With these ingredients, we study a protocol to implement the two-qubit Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) problem. We model atom trapping, addressing, coherent evolution, and decoherence. We also explore collective control of the many-atom system and generalize the QUBO problem to multiple qubits. We study a trapped-neutral-atom implementation of the adiabatic model of quantum computation whereby the Hamiltonian of a set of interacting qubits is changed adiabatically so that its ground state evolves to the desired output of the algorithm. We employ the ``Rydberg blockade interaction,'' which previously has been used to implement two-qubit entangling gates in the quantum circuit model. Here it is employed via off-resonant virtual dressing of the excited levels, so that atoms always remain in the ground state. The resulting dressed-Rydberg interaction is insensitive to the distance between the atoms within a certain blockade radius, making this process robust to temperature and vibrational fluctuations. Single qubit interactions are implemented with global microwaves and atoms are locally addressed with light shifts. With these
High-Energy, Multi-Octave-Spanning Mid-IR Sources via Adiabatic Difference Frequency Generation
2016-10-17
plan. We have evaluated a brand -new concept in nonlinear optics, adiabatic difference frequency generation (ADFG) for the efficient transfer of...achieved the main goals of our research plan. We have evaluated a brand -new concept in nonlinear optics, adiabatic difference frequency generation (ADFG...research plan. We have evaluated a brand -new concept in nonlinear optics, adiabatic difference frequency generation (ADFG) for the efficient transfer of
Singularity of the time-energy uncertainty in adiabatic perturbation and cycloids on a Bloch sphere
Oh, Sangchul; Hu, Xuedong; Nori, Franco; Kais, Sabre
2016-01-01
Adiabatic perturbation is shown to be singular from the exact solution of a spin-1/2 particle in a uniformly rotating magnetic field. Due to a non-adiabatic effect, its quantum trajectory on a Bloch sphere is a cycloid traced by a circle rolling along an adiabatic path. As the magnetic field rotates more and more slowly, the time-energy uncertainty, proportional to the length of the quantum trajectory, calculated by the exact solution is entirely different from the one obtained by the adiabatic path traced by the instantaneous eigenstate. However, the non-adiabatic Aharonov- Anandan geometric phase, measured by the area enclosed by the exact path, approaches smoothly the adiabatic Berry phase, proportional to the area enclosed by the adiabatic path. The singular limit of the time-energy uncertainty and the regular limit of the geometric phase are associated with the arc length and arc area of the cycloid on a Bloch sphere, respectively. Prolate and curtate cycloids are also traced by different initial states outside and inside of the rolling circle, respectively. The axis trajectory of the rolling circle, parallel to the adiabatic path, is shown to be an example of transitionless driving. The non-adiabatic resonance is visualized by the number of cycloid arcs. PMID:26916031
Floquet protocols of adiabatic state flips and reallocation of exceptional points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halpern, Dashiell; Li, Huanan; Kottos, Tsampikos
2018-04-01
We introduce the notion of adiabatic state flip of a Floquet Hamiltonian associated with a non-Hermitian system that it is subjected to two driving schemes with clear separation of time scales. The fast (Floquet) modulation scheme is utilized to reallocate the exceptional points in the parameter space of the system and redefine the topological features of an adiabatic cyclic modulation associated with the slow driving scheme. Such topological reorganization can be used in order to control the adiabatic transport between two eigenmodes of the Floquet Hamiltonian. The proposed scheme provides a degree of reconfigurability of adiabatic state transfer which can find applications in system control in photonics and microwave domains.
The vibrationally adiabatic torsional potential energy surface of trans-stilbene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chowdary, Praveen D.; Martinez, Todd J.; Gruebele, Martin
2007-05-01
The effect of vibrational Zero Point Energy (ZPE) on the torsional barriers of trans-stilbene is studied in the adiabatic approximation. The two torsional modes corresponding to phenyl rotation are explicitly separated, and the remaining modes are treated as normal coordinates. ZPE reduces the adiabatic barrier along the in-phase torsion from 198 to 13 cm -1. A one-dimensional adiabatic potential for the anti-phase torsion, including the ZPE of the in-phase torsion, reduces the adiabatic barrier from 260 to 58 cm -1. Comparison with recent electronic structure benchmark calculations suggests that vibrational corrections play a significant role in trans-stilbene's experimentally observed planar structure.
Tick Passage Results in Enhanced Attenuation of Babesia bovis
McElwain, Terry F.; Ueti, Massaro W.; Scoles, Glen A.; Reif, Kathryn E.; Lau, Audrey O. T.
2014-01-01
Serial blood passage of virulent Babesia bovis in splenectomized cattle results in attenuated derivatives that do not cause neurologic disease. Tick transmissibility can be lost with attenuation, but when retained, attenuated B. bovis can revert to virulence following tick passage. This study provides data showing that tick passage of the partially attenuated B. bovis T2Bo derivative strain further decreased virulence compared with intravenous inoculation of the same strain in infected animals. Ticks that acquired virulent or attenuated parasites by feeding on infected cattle were transmission fed on naive, splenectomized animals. While there was no significant difference between groups in the number of parasites in the midgut, hemolymph, or eggs of replete female ticks after acquisition feeding, animals infected with the attenuated parasites after tick transmission showed no clinical signs of babesiosis, unlike those receiving intravenous challenge with the same attenuated strain prior to tick passage. Additionally, there were significantly fewer parasites in blood and tissues of animals infected with tick-passaged attenuated parasites. Sequencing analysis of select B. bovis genes before and after tick passage showed significant differences in parasite genotypes in both peripheral blood and cerebral samples. These results provide evidence that not only is tick transmissibility retained by the attenuated T2Bo strain, but also it results in enhanced attenuation and is accompanied by expansion of parasite subpopulations during tick passage that may be associated with the change in disease phenotype. PMID:25114111
Highly parallel implementation of non-adiabatic Ehrenfest molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanai, Yosuke; Schleife, Andre; Draeger, Erik; Anisimov, Victor; Correa, Alfredo
2014-03-01
While the adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approximation tremendously lowers computational effort, many questions in modern physics, chemistry, and materials science require an explicit description of coupled non-adiabatic electron-ion dynamics. Electronic stopping, i.e. the energy transfer of a fast projectile atom to the electronic system of the target material, is a notorious example. We recently implemented real-time time-dependent density functional theory based on the plane-wave pseudopotential formalism in the Qbox/qb@ll codes. We demonstrate that explicit integration using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme is very suitable for modern highly parallelized supercomputers. Applying the new implementation to systems with hundreds of atoms and thousands of electrons, we achieved excellent performance and scalability on a large number of nodes both on the BlueGene based ``Sequoia'' system at LLNL as well as the Cray architecture of ``Blue Waters'' at NCSA. As an example, we discuss our work on computing the electronic stopping power of aluminum and gold for hydrogen projectiles, showing an excellent agreement with experiment. These first-principles calculations allow us to gain important insight into the the fundamental physics of electronic stopping.
Optimizing Adiabaticity in a Trapped-Ion Quantum Simulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richerme, Phil; Senko, Crystal; Korenblit, Simcha; Smith, Jacob; Lee, Aaron; Monroe, Christopher
2013-05-01
Trapped-ion quantum simulators are a leading platform for the study of interacting spin systems, such as fully-connected Ising models with transverse and axial fields. Phonon-mediated spin-dependent optical dipole forces act globally on a linear chain of trapped Yb-171+ ions to generate the spin-spin couplings, with the form and range of such couplings controlled by laser frequencies and trap voltages. The spins are initially prepared along an effective transverse magnetic field, which is large compared to the Ising couplings and slowly ramped down during the quantum simulation. The system remains in the ground state throughout the evolution if the ramp is adiabatic, and the spin ordering is directly measured by state-dependent fluorescence imaging of the ions onto a camera. Two techniques can improve the identification of the ground state at the end of simulations that are unavoidably diabatic. First, we show an optimized ramp protocol that gives a maximal probability of measuring the true ground state given a finite ramp time. Second, we show that no spin ordering is more prevalent than the ground state(s), even for non-adiabatic ramps. This work is supported by grants from the U.S. Army Research Office with funding from the DARPA OLE program, IARPA, and the MURI program; and the NSF Physics Frontier Center at JQI.
An Adiabatic Quantum Algorithm for Determining Gracefulness of a Graph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini, Sayed Mohammad; Davoudi Darareh, Mahdi; Janbaz, Shahrooz; Zaghian, Ali
2017-07-01
Graph labelling is one of the noticed contexts in combinatorics and graph theory. Graceful labelling for a graph G with e edges, is to label the vertices of G with 0, 1, ℒ, e such that, if we specify to each edge the difference value between its two ends, then any of 1, 2, ℒ, e appears exactly once as an edge label. For a given graph, there are still few efficient classical algorithms that determine either it is graceful or not, even for trees - as a well-known class of graphs. In this paper, we introduce an adiabatic quantum algorithm, which for a graceful graph G finds a graceful labelling. Also, this algorithm can determine if G is not graceful. Numerical simulations of the algorithm reveal that its time complexity has a polynomial behaviour with the problem size up to the range of 15 qubits. A general sufficient condition for a combinatorial optimization problem to have a satisfying adiabatic solution is also derived.
Efficient Online Optimized Quantum Control for Adiabatic Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quiroz, Gregory
Adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) relies on controlled adiabatic evolution to implement a quantum algorithm. While control evolution can take many forms, properly designed time-optimal control has been shown to be particularly advantageous for AQC. Grover's search algorithm is one such example where analytically-derived time-optimal control leads to improved scaling of the minimum energy gap between the ground state and first excited state and thus, the well-known quadratic quantum speedup. Analytical extensions beyond Grover's search algorithm present a daunting task that requires potentially intractable calculations of energy gaps and a significant degree of model certainty. Here, an in situ quantum control protocol is developed for AQC. The approach is shown to yield controls that approach the analytically-derived time-optimal controls for Grover's search algorithm. In addition, the protocol's convergence rate as a function of iteration number is shown to be essentially independent of system size. Thus, the approach is potentially scalable to many-qubit systems.
Release adiabat measurements on minerals: The effect of viscosity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jeanloz, R.; Ahrens, T. J.
1979-01-01
The current inversion of pressure-particle velocity data for release from a high pressure shock state to a pressure-density path is analyzed. It is assumed that the release process is isentropic. It was shown that for geological materials below stresses of 150 GPa, the effective viscosity must be 1000 kg/m/s in order that the viscous (irreversible) work carried out on the material in the shock state remains small compared to the mechanical work recovered upon adiabatic rarefaction. The available data pertaining to the offset of the Rayleigh line from the Hugoniot for minerals, the magnitude of the shear stress in the high pressure shock state for minerals, and the direct measurements of the viscosities of several engineering materials shocked to pressures below 150 GPa yield effective viscosities of 1000 kg/m/s or less. An inferance that this indicates that the conditions for isentropic release of minerals from shock states are achieved, and a conclusion that the application of the Riemann integral to obtain pressure-density states along the release adiabats of minerals in shock experiments is valid are made.
Electronically non-adiabatic interactions of molecules at metal surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wodtke, Alec M.; Tully, John C.; Auerbach, Daniel J.
When neutral molecules with low levels of vibrational excitation collide at metal surfaces, vibrational coupling to electron-hole pairs (EHPs) is not thought to be strong unless incidence energies are high. However, there is accumulating evidence that coupling of large-amplitude molecular vibration to metallic electron degrees of freedom can be much stronger even at the lowest accessible incidence energies. As reaching a chemical transition-state also involves large-amplitude vibrational motion, we pose the basic question: are electronically non-adiabatic couplings important at transition states of reactions at metal surfaces? We have indirect evidence in at least one example that the dynamics and rates of chemical reactions at metal surfaces may be strongly influenced by electronically non-adiabatic coupling. This implies that theoretical approaches relying on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA) may not accurately reflect the nature of transition-state traversal in reactions of catalytic importance. Developing a predictive understanding of surface reactivity beyond the BOA represents one of the most important challenges to current research in physical chemistry. This article reviews the experimental evidence and underlying theoretical framework concerning these and related topics.
Conditions for super-adiabatic droplet growth after entrainment mixing
Yang, Fan; Shaw, Raymond; Xue, Huiwen
Cloud droplet response to entrainment and mixing between a cloud and its environment is considered, accounting for subsequent droplet growth during adiabatic ascent following a mixing event. The vertical profile for liquid water mixing ratio after a mixing event is derived analytically, allowing the reduction to be predicted from the mixing fraction and from the temperature and humidity for both the cloud and environment. It is derived for the limit of homogeneous mixing. The expression leads to a critical height above the mixing level: at the critical height the cloud droplet radius is the same for both mixed and unmixedmore » parcels, and the critical height is independent of the updraft velocity and mixing fraction. Cloud droplets in a mixed parcel are larger than in an unmixed parcel above the critical height, which we refer to as the “super-adiabatic” growth region. Analytical results are confirmed with a bin microphysics cloud model. Using the model, we explore the effects of updraft velocity, aerosol source in the environmental air, and polydisperse cloud droplets. Results show that the mixed parcel is more likely to reach the super-adiabatic growth region when the environmental air is humid and clean. It is also confirmed that the analytical predictions are matched by the volume-mean cloud droplet radius for polydisperse size distributions. Lastly, these findings have implications for the origin of large cloud droplets that may contribute to onset of collision–coalescence in warm clouds.« less
Universal Adiabatic Quantum Computing using Double Quantum Dot Charge Qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryan-Anderson, Ciaran; Jacobson, N. Tobias; Landahl, Andrew
Adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) provides one path to achieving universal quantum computing in experiment. Computation in the AQC model occurs by starting with an easy to prepare groundstate of some simple Hamiltonian and then adiabatically evolving the Hamiltonian to obtain the groundstate of a final, more complex Hamiltonian. It has been shown that the circuit model can be mapped to AQC Hamiltonians and, thus, AQC can be made universal. Further, these Hamiltonians can be made planar and two-local. We propose using double quantum dot charge qubits (DQDs) to implement such universal AQC Hamiltonians. However, the geometry and restricted set of interactions of DQDs make the application of even these 2-local planar Hamiltonians non-trivial. We present a construction tailored to DQDs to overcome the geometric and interaction contraints and allow for universal AQC. These constraints are dealt with in this construction by making use of perturbation gadgets, which introduce ancillary qubits to mediate interactions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Conditions for super-adiabatic droplet growth after entrainment mixing
Yang, Fan; Shaw, Raymond; Xue, Huiwen
2016-07-29
Cloud droplet response to entrainment and mixing between a cloud and its environment is considered, accounting for subsequent droplet growth during adiabatic ascent following a mixing event. The vertical profile for liquid water mixing ratio after a mixing event is derived analytically, allowing the reduction to be predicted from the mixing fraction and from the temperature and humidity for both the cloud and environment. It is derived for the limit of homogeneous mixing. The expression leads to a critical height above the mixing level: at the critical height the cloud droplet radius is the same for both mixed and unmixedmore » parcels, and the critical height is independent of the updraft velocity and mixing fraction. Cloud droplets in a mixed parcel are larger than in an unmixed parcel above the critical height, which we refer to as the “super-adiabatic” growth region. Analytical results are confirmed with a bin microphysics cloud model. Using the model, we explore the effects of updraft velocity, aerosol source in the environmental air, and polydisperse cloud droplets. Results show that the mixed parcel is more likely to reach the super-adiabatic growth region when the environmental air is humid and clean. It is also confirmed that the analytical predictions are matched by the volume-mean cloud droplet radius for polydisperse size distributions. Lastly, these findings have implications for the origin of large cloud droplets that may contribute to onset of collision–coalescence in warm clouds.« less
Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing
Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; ...
2015-01-28
We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ +/σ - orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipolemore » forces acting on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. As a result, for reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in < 10 μs with error probability on the order of 10 -3.« less
Sliding Seal Materials for Adiabatic Engines, Phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lankford, J.; Wei, W.
1986-01-01
An essential task in the development of the heavy-duty adiabatic diesel engine is identification and improvements of reliable, low-friction piston seal materials. In the present study, the sliding friction coefficients and wear rates of promising carbide, oxide, and nitride materials were measured under temperature, environmental, velocity, and loading conditions that are representative of the adiabatic engine environment. In addition, silicon nitride and partially stabilized zirconia disks were ion implanted with TiNi, Ni, Co, and Cr, and subsequently run against carbide pins, with the objective of producing reduced friction via solid lubrication at elevated temperature. In order to provide guidance needed to improve materials for this application, the program stressed fundamental understanding of the mechanisms involved in friction and wear. Electron microscopy was used to elucidate the micromechanisms of wear following wear testing, and Auger electron spectroscopy was used to evaluate interface/environment interactions which seemed to be important in the friction and wear process. Unmodified ceramic sliding couples were characterized at all temperatures by friction coefficients of 0.24 and above. The coefficient at 800 C in an oxidizing environment was reduced to below 0.1, for certain material combinations, by the ion implanation of TiNi or Co. This beneficial effect was found to derive from lubricious Ti, Ni, and Co oxides.
Adiabatic-nuclei calculations of positron scattering from molecular hydrogen
Zammit, Mark Christian; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Savage, Jeremy S.; ...
2017-02-06
The single-center adiabatic-nuclei convergent close-coupling method is used to investigate positron collisions with molecular hydrogen (H 2) in the ground and first vibrationally excited states. Cross sections are presented over the energy range from 1 to 1000 eV for elastic scattering, vibrational excitation, total ionization, and the grand total cross section. The present adiabatic-nuclei positron- H 2 scattering length is calculated as A = $-$ 2.70 a 0 for the ground state and A = $-$ 3.16 a 0 for the first vibrationally excited state. The present elastic differential cross sections are also used to “correct” the low-energy grand totalmore » cross-section measurements of the Trento group [A. Zecca et al., Phys. Rev. A 80, 032702 (2009)] for the forward-angle-scattering effect. In general, the comparison with experiment is good. In conclusion, by performing convergence studies, we estimate that our R m = 1.448 a 0 fixed-nuclei results are converged to within ± 5 % for the major scattering integrated cross sections.« less
The relativistic titls of Giza pyramids' entrance-passages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aboulfotouh, H.
The tilts of Giza pyramids' entrance-passages have never been considered as if they were the result of relativistic mathematical equations, and never been thought to encode the Earth's obliquity parameters. This paper presents an attempt to retrieve the method of establishing the equations that the pyramids' designer used to quantify the entrance-passages' tilts of these architectonic masterpieces. It proves that the pyramids' designer was able to include the geographic, astronomical and time parameters in one relativistic equation, encoding the date of the design of the Giza pyramids in the tilt of the entrance passage of the great pyramid.
Removal of cyanobacterial toxins by sediment passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruetzmacher, G.; Boettcher, G.; Chorus, I.; Bartel, H.
2003-04-01
Cyanbacterial toxins ("Cyanotoxins") comprise a wide range of toxic substances produced by cyanobacteria ("blue-green algae"). Cyanobacteria occur in surface water word wide and can be found in high concentrations during so-called algal blooms when conditions are favourable (e.g. high nutrient levels, high temperatures). Some cyanobacteria produce hepato- or neurotoxins, of which the hepatotoxic microcystins are the most common in Germany. The WHO guideline value for drinking water was set at 1 μg/L. However, maximum concentrations in surface water can reach 25 mg/L, so that a secure method for toxin elimination has to be found when this water is used as source water for drinking water production. In order to assess if cyanotoxins can be removed by sediment passage the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) conducted laboratory- and field scale experiments as well as observations on bank filtration field sites. Laboratory experiments (batch- and column experiments for adsorption and degradation parameters) were conducted in order to vary a multitude of experimental conditions. These experiments were followed by field scale experiments on the UBA's experimental field in Berlin. This plant offers the unique possibility to conduct experiments on the behaviour of various agents - such as harmful substances - during infiltration and bank filtration under well-defined conditions on a field scale, and without releasing these substances to the environment. Finally the development of microcystin concentrations was observed between infiltrating surface water and a drinking water well along a transsecte of observation wells. The results obtained show that infiltration and bank filtration normally seem to be secure treatment methods for source water contaminated by microcystins. However, elimination was shown to be difficult under the following circumstances: - dying cyanobacterial population due to insufficient light and / or nutrients, low temperatures or application of
BLDG 101, CENTRAL ENTRY/ PASSAGE SHOWING LEAD FLOOR, STEEL WALLS ...
BLDG 101, CENTRAL ENTRY/ PASSAGE SHOWING LEAD FLOOR, STEEL WALLS AND ASBESTOS CEILING - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Operational Storage Building, Fifteenth Street near Kolekole Road intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight ...
35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight opening, view to northwest - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA
49 CFR 192.150 - Passage of internal inspection devices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... devices; or (ii) If the design includes taps for lateral connections, the operator can demonstrate, based... circumstances to the use of a tap that will obstruct the passage of instrumented internal inspection devices...
Culvert roughness elements for native Utah fish passage : phase II.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2012-04-01
Native fishes have become an increasingly important concern when designing fish passable culverts. Many operational culverts constrict waterways which increase velocities and prevent upstream passage of small fish species. The current method to ensur...
INTERIOR VIEW, PASSAGE EXTENDING FROM AN EXTERIOR DOOR TO THE ...
INTERIOR VIEW, PASSAGE EXTENDING FROM AN EXTERIOR DOOR TO THE KITCHEN, WITH THE OFFICE TO THE RIGHT. THIS VIEW CLEARLY DEMONSTRATES THE UTILIZATION AND FUNCTION OF BORROWED LIGHT THROUGHOUT THE HOUSE - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Development of a Nebraska culvert aquatic organism passage screening tool.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2012-12-01
Culverts channelize water relative to natural stream reaches, which can increase the velocity of water passing through them. Increased water velocities can alter stream morphology and create a possible barrier or obstacle to fish passage, which may a...
Upper York Creek Dam Removal, Fish Passage, and Ecosystem Restoration
Information about the Upper York Creek Dam Removal, Fish Passage, and Ecosystem Restoration part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.
Culvert Length and Interior Lighting Impacts to Topeka Shiner Passage
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2017-11-01
Culverts can act as barriers to fish passage for a number of reasons including insufficient water depth or excess velocity. In addition, concern is being raised over behavioral barriers where culvert conditions elicit an avoidance response that deter...
Cell block four exercise yard with original passage to cell ...
Cell block four exercise yard with original passage to cell re-exposed, looking from the baseball field, facing west, with scale - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Juvenile and resident salmonid movement and passage through culverts
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1998-07-01
An outcome of the Washington State Department of Transportation's Juvenile Fish Passage Workshop on September 24, 1997, was agreement that a literature review was necessary to determine the state of knowledge about juvenile salmonid movement and pass...
Detail view of keystone sculpted head in the arched passage ...
Detail view of keystone sculpted head in the arched passage to the lobby vestibule - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
Williams, Greg D.; Evans, Nathan R.; Pearson, Walter H.
2001-10-30
The primary goal of our research this spring/ summer was to refine techniques and examine scenarios under which a standardized protocol could be applied to assess juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch) passage through road culverts. Field evaluations focused on capture-mark- recapture methods that allowed analysis of fish movement patterns, estimates of culvert passability, and potential identification of cues inducing these movements. At this stage, 0+ age coho salmon fry 30 mm to 65 mm long (fork length) were the species and age class of interest. Ultimately, the protocol will provide rapid, statistically rigorous methods for trained personnel to perform standardizedmore » biological assessments of culvert passability to a number of juvenile salmon species. Questions to be addressed by the research include the following: ? Do hydraulic structures such as culverts restrict habitat for juvenile salmonids? ? How do existing culverts and retrofits perform relative to juvenile salmonid passage? ? Do some culvert characteristics and hydraulic conditions provide better passage than others? ? Does the culvert represent a barrier to certain size classes of fish? Recommendations addressed issues of study site selection, initial capture, marking, recapture/observations, and estimating movement.« less
Kinetic energy equations for the average-passage equation system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Richard W.; Adamczyk, John J.
1989-01-01
Important kinetic energy equations derived from the average-passage equation sets are documented, with a view to their interrelationships. These kinetic equations may be used for closing the average-passage equations. The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation used is formed by subtracting the mean kinetic energy equation from the averaged total instantaneous kinetic energy equation. The aperiodic kinetic energy equation, averaged steady kinetic energy equation, averaged unsteady kinetic energy equation, and periodic kinetic energy equation, are also treated.
The future of fish passage science, engineering, and practice
Silva, Ana T.; Lucas, Martyn C.; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Katopodis, Christos; Baumgartner, Lee J.; Thiem, Jason D.; Aarestrup, Kim; Pompeu, Paulo S.; O'Brien, Gordon C.; Braun, Douglas C.; Burnett, Nicholas J.; Zhu, David Z.; Fjeldstad, Hans-Petter; Forseth, Torbjorn; Rajarathnam, Nallamuthu; Williams, John G.; Cooke, Steven J.
2018-01-01
Much effort has been devoted to developing, constructing and refining fish passage facilities to enable target species to pass barriers on fluvial systems, and yet, fishway science, engineering and practice remain imperfect. In this review, 17 experts from different fish passage research fields (i.e., biology, ecology, physiology, ecohydraulics, engineering) and from different continents (i.e., North and South America, Europe, Africa, Australia) identified knowledge gaps and provided a roadmap for research priorities and technical developments. Once dominated by an engineering‐focused approach, fishway science today involves a wide range of disciplines from fish behaviour to socioeconomics to complex modelling of passage prioritization options in river networks. River barrier impacts on fish migration and dispersal are currently better understood than historically, but basic ecological knowledge underpinning the need for effective fish passage in many regions of the world, including in biodiversity hotspots (e.g., equatorial Africa, South‐East Asia), remains largely unknown. Designing efficient fishways, with minimal passage delay and post‐passage impacts, requires adaptive management and continued innovation. While the use of fishways in river restoration demands a transition towards fish passage at the community scale, advances in selective fishways are also needed to manage invasive fish colonization. Because of the erroneous view in some literature and communities of practice that fish passage is largely a proven technology, improved international collaboration, information sharing, method standardization and multidisciplinary training are needed. Further development of regional expertise is needed in South America, Asia and Africa where hydropower dams are currently being planned and constructed.
Algorithms for Brownian first-passage-time estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adib, Artur B.
2009-09-01
A class of algorithms in discrete space and continuous time for Brownian first-passage-time estimation is considered. A simple algorithm is derived that yields exact mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for linear potentials in one dimension, regardless of the lattice spacing. When applied to nonlinear potentials and/or higher spatial dimensions, numerical evidence suggests that this algorithm yields MFPT estimates that either outperform or rival Langevin-based (discrete time and continuous space) estimates.
Simple proof of equivalence between adiabatic quantum computation and the circuit model.
Mizel, Ari; Lidar, Daniel A; Mitchell, Morgan
2007-08-17
We prove the equivalence between adiabatic quantum computation and quantum computation in the circuit model. An explicit adiabatic computation procedure is given that generates a ground state from which the answer can be extracted. The amount of time needed is evaluated by computing the gap. We show that the procedure is computationally efficient.
Unintended consequences and trade-offs of fish passage
McLaughlin, Robert L.; Smyth, Eric R.; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Jones, Michael L.; Koops, Marten A.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Vélez-Espino, Luis-Antonio
2012-01-01
We synthesized evidence for unintended consequences and trade-offs associated with the passage of fishes. Provisioning of fish passageways at dams and dam removals are being carried out increasingly as resource managers seek ways to reduce fragmentation of migratory fish populations and restore biodiversity and nature-like ecosystem services in tributaries altered by dams. The benefits of provisioning upstream passage are highlighted widely. Possible unwanted consequences and trade-offs of upstream passage are coming to light, but remain poorly examined and underappreciated. Unintended consequences arise when passage of native and desirable introduced fishes is delayed, undone (fallback), results in patterns of movement and habitat use that reduce Darwinian fitness (e.g. ecological traps), or is highly selective taxonomically and numerically. Trade-offs arise when passage decisions intended to benefit native species interfere with management decisions intended to control the unwanted spread of non-native fishes and aquatic invertebrates, or genes, diseases and contaminants carried by hatchery and wild fishes. These consequences and trade-offs will vary in importance from system to system and can result in large economic and environmental costs. For some river systems, decisions about how to manage fish passage involve substantial risks and could benefit from use of a formal, structured process that allows transparent, objective and, where possible, quantitative evaluation of these risks. Such a process can also facilitate the design of an adaptive framework that provides valuable insights into future decisions.
Shape design of internal cooling passages within a turbine blade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nowak, Grzegorz; Nowak, Iwona
2012-04-01
The article concerns the optimization of the shape and location of non-circular passages cooling the blade of a gas turbine. To model the shape, four Bezier curves which form a closed profile of the passage were used. In order to match the shape of the passage to the blade profile, a technique was put forward to copy and scale the profile fragments into the component, and build the outline of the passage on the basis of them. For so-defined cooling passages, optimization calculations were carried out with a view to finding their optimal shape and location in terms of the assumed objectives. The task was solved as a multi-objective problem with the use of the Pareto method, for a cooling system composed of four and five passages. The tool employed for the optimization was the evolutionary algorithm. The article presents the impact of the population on the task convergence, and discusses the impact of different optimization objectives on the Pareto optimal solutions obtained. Due to the problem of different impacts of individual objectives on the position of the solution front which was noticed during the calculations, a two-step optimization procedure was introduced. Also, comparative optimization calculations for the scalar objective function were carried out and set up against the non-dominated solutions obtained in the Pareto approach. The optimization process resulted in a configuration of the cooling system that allows a significant reduction in the temperature of the blade and its thermal stress.
Flow in Rotating Serpentine Coolant Passages With Skewed Trip Strips
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tse, David G.N.; Steuber, Gary
1996-01-01
Laser velocimetry was utilized to map the velocity field in serpentine turbine blade cooling passages with skewed trip strips. The measurements were obtained at Reynolds and Rotation numbers of 25,000 and 0.24 to assess the influence of trips, passage curvature and Coriolis force on the flow field. The interaction of the secondary flows induced by skewed trips with the passage rotation produces a swirling vortex and a corner recirculation zone. With trips skewed at +45 deg, the secondary flows remain unaltered as the cross-flow proceeds from the passage to the turn. However, the flow characteristics at these locations differ when trips are skewed at -45 deg. Changes in the flow structure are expected to augment heat transfer, in agreement with the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. The present results show that trips are skewed at -45 deg in the outward flow passage and trips are skewed at +45 deg in the inward flow passage maximize heat transfer. Details of the present measurements were related to the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. to relate fluid flow and heat transfer measurements.
All the adiabatic bound states of NO{sub 2}
Salzgeber, R.F.; Mandelshtam, V.; Schlier, C.
1998-07-01
We calculated all 2967 even and odd bound states of the adiabatic ground state of NO{sub 2}, using a modification of the abthinspinitio potential energy surface of Leonardi {ital et al.} [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 105}, 9051 (1996)]. The calculation was performed by harmonic inversion of the Chebyshev correlation function generated by a DVR Hamiltonian in Radau coordinates. The relative error for the computed eigenenergies (measured from the potential minimum), is 10{sup {minus}4} or better, corresponding to an absolute error of less than about 2.5thinspcm{sup {minus}1}. Near the dissociation threshold the average density of states is about 0.2/cm{sup {minus}1} formore » each symmetry. Statistical analysis of the states shows some interesting structure of the rigidity parameter {Delta}{sub 3} as a function of energy. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}« less
Adiabatic photo-steering theory in topological insulators.
Inoue, Jun-Ichi
2014-12-01
Feasible external control of material properties is a crucial issue in condensed matter physics. A new approach to achieving this aim, named adiabatic photo-steering, is reviewed. The core principle of this scheme is that several material constants are effectively turned into externally tunable variables by irradiation of monochromatic laser light. Two-dimensional topological insulators are selected as the optimal systems that exhibit a prominent change in their properties following the application of this method. Two specific examples of photo-steered quantum phenomena, which reflect topological aspects of the electronic systems at hand, are presented. One is the integer quantum Hall effect described by the Haldane model, and the other is the quantum spin Hall effect described by the Kane-Mele model. The topological quantities associated with these phenomena are the conventional Chern number and spin Chern number, respectively. A recent interesting idea, time-reversal symmetry breaking via a temporary periodic external stimulation, is also discussed.
Adiabatic photo-steering theory in topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, Jun-ichi
2014-12-01
Feasible external control of material properties is a crucial issue in condensed matter physics. A new approach to achieving this aim, named adiabatic photo-steering, is reviewed. The core principle of this scheme is that several material constants are effectively turned into externally tunable variables by irradiation of monochromatic laser light. Two-dimensional topological insulators are selected as the optimal systems that exhibit a prominent change in their properties following the application of this method. Two specific examples of photo-steered quantum phenomena, which reflect topological aspects of the electronic systems at hand, are presented. One is the integer quantum Hall effect described by the Haldane model, and the other is the quantum spin Hall effect described by the Kane-Mele model. The topological quantities associated with these phenomena are the conventional Chern number and spin Chern number, respectively. A recent interesting idea, time-reversal symmetry breaking via a temporary periodic external stimulation, is also discussed.
Adiabatic invariants in stellar dynamics. 1: Basic concepts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinberg, Martin D.
1994-01-01
The adiabatic criterion, widely used in astronomical dynamics, is based on the harmonic oscillator. It asserts that the change in action under a slowly varying perturbation is exponentially small. Recent mathematical results that precisely define the conditions for invariance show that this model does not apply in general. In particular, a slowly varying perturbation may cause significant evolution stellar dynamical systems even if its time scale is longer than any internal orbital time scale. This additional 'heating' may have serious implications for the evolution of star clusters and dwarf galaxies which are subject to long-term environmental forces. The mathematical developments leading to these results are reviewed, and the conditions for applicability to and further implications for stellar systems are discussed. Companion papers present a computational method for a general time-dependent disturbance and detailed example.
Experimental Raman adiabatic transfer of optical states in rubidium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Appel, Jürgen; Figueroa, Eden; Vewinger, Frank; Marzlin, Karl-Peter; Lvovsky, Alexander
2007-06-01
An essential element of a quantum optical communication network is a tool for transferring and/or distributing quantum information between optical modes (possibly of different frequencies) in a loss- and decoherence-free fashion. We present a theory [1] and an experimental demonstration [2] of a protocol for routing and frequency conversion of optical quantum information via electromagnetically-induced transparency in an atomic system with multiple excited levels. Transfer of optical states between different signal modes is implemented by adiabatically changing the control fields. The proof-of-principle experiment is performed using the hyperfine levels of the rubidium D1 line. [1] F. Vewinger, J. Appel, E. Figueroa, A. I. Lvovsky, quant-ph/0611181 [2] J. Appel, K.-P. Marzlin, A. I. Lvovsky, Phys. Rev. A 73, 013804 (2006)
Investigating the adiabatic beam grouping at the NICA accelerator complex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brovko, O. I.; Butenko, A. V.; Grebentsov, A. Yu.; Eliseev, A. V.; Meshkov, I. N.; Svetov, A. L.; Sidorin, A. O.; Slepnev, V. M.
2016-12-01
The NICA complex comprises the Booster and Nuclotron synchrotrons for accelerating particle beams to the required energy and the Collider machine, in which particle collisions are investigated. The experimental heavy-ion program deals with ions up to Au+79. The light-ion program deals with polarized deuterons and protons. Grouping of a beam coasting in an ion chamber is required in many parts of the complex. Beam grouping may effectively increase the longitudinal emittance and particle losses. To avoid these negative effects, various regimes of adiabatic grouping have been simulated and dedicated experiments with a deuteron beam have been conducted at the Nuclotron machine. As a result, we are able to construct and optimize the beam-grouping equipment, which provides a capture efficiency near 100% either retaining or varying the harmonic multiplicity of the HF system.
Active Thermochemical Tables: The Adiabatic Ionization Energy of Hydrogen Peroxide.
Changala, P Bryan; Nguyen, T Lam; Baraban, Joshua H; Ellison, G Barney; Stanton, John F; Bross, David H; Ruscic, Branko
2017-11-22
The adiabatic ionization energy of hydrogen peroxide (HOOH) is investigated, both by means of theoretical calculations and theoretically assisted reanalysis of previous experimental data. Values obtained by three different approaches: 10.638 ± 0.012 eV (purely theoretical determination), 10.649 ± 0.005 eV (reanalysis of photoelectron spectrum), and 10.645 ± 0.010 eV (reanalysis of photoionization spectrum) are in excellent mutual agreement. Further refinement of the latter two values to account for asymmetry of the rotational profile of the photoionization origin band leads to a reduction of 0.007 ± 0.006 eV, which tends to bring them into even closer alignment with the purely theoretical value. Detailed analysis of this fundamental quantity by the Active Thermochemical Tables approach, using the present results and extant literature, gives a final estimate of 10.641 ± 0.006 eV.
Adiabatic description of superfocusing of femtosecond plasmon polaritons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golovinski, P. A.; Manuylovich, E. S.; Astapenko, V. A.
2018-05-01
A surface plasmon polariton is a collective oscillation of free electrons at a metal-dielectric interface. As wave phenomena, surface plasmon polaritons can be focused with the use of an appropriate excitation geometry of metal structures. In the adiabatic approximation, we demonstrate a possibility to control nanoscale short pulse superfocusing based on generation of a radially polarized surface plasmon polariton mode of a conical metal needle in view of wave reflection. The results of numerical simulations of femtosecond pulse propagation along a nanoneedle are discussed. The space-time evolution of a pulse for the near field strongly depends on a linear chirp of an initial laser pulse, which can partially compensate wave dispersion. The field distribution is calculated for different metals, chirp parameters, cone opening angles and propagation distances. The electric field near a sharp tip is described as a field of a fictitious time-dependent electric dipole located at the tip apex.
Electron Correlation from the Adiabatic Connection for Multireference Wave Functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pernal, Katarzyna
2018-01-01
An adiabatic connection (AC) formula for the electron correlation energy is derived for a broad class of multireference wave functions. The AC expression recovers dynamic correlation energy and assures a balanced treatment of the correlation energy. Coupling the AC formalism with the extended random phase approximation allows one to find the correlation energy only from reference one- and two-electron reduced density matrices. If the generalized valence bond perfect pairing model is employed a simple closed-form expression for the approximate AC formula is obtained. This results in the overall M5 scaling of the computation cost making the method one of the most efficient multireference approaches accounting for dynamic electron correlation also for the strongly correlated systems.
Collective effects and dynamics of non-adiabatic flame balls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Angelo, Yves; Joulin, Guy
2001-03-01
The dynamics of a homogeneous, polydisperse collection of non-adiabatic flame balls (FBs) is investigated by analytical/numerical means. A strongly temperature-dependent Arrhenius reaction rate is assumed, along with a light enough reactant characterized by a markedly less than unity Lewis number (Le). Combining activation-energy asymptotics with a mean-field type of treatment, the analysis yields a nonlinear integro-differential evolution equation (EE) for the FB population. The EE accounts for heat losses inside each FB and unsteadiness around it, as well as for its interactions with the entire FB population, namely mutual heating and faster (Le<1) consumption of the reactant pool. The initial FB number density and size distribution enter the EE explicitly. The latter is studied analytically at early times, then for small total FB number densities; it is subsequently solved numerically, yielding the whole population evolution and its lifetime. Generalizations and open questions relating to `spotty' turbulent combustion are finally evoked.
Differential geometric treewidth estimation in adiabatic quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chi; Jonckheere, Edmond; Brun, Todd
2016-10-01
The D-Wave adiabatic quantum computing platform is designed to solve a particular class of problems—the Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) problems. Due to the particular "Chimera" physical architecture of the D-Wave chip, the logical problem graph at hand needs an extra process called minor embedding in order to be solvable on the D-Wave architecture. The latter problem is itself NP-hard. In this paper, we propose a novel polynomial-time approximation to the closely related treewidth based on the differential geometric concept of Ollivier-Ricci curvature. The latter runs in polynomial time and thus could significantly reduce the overall complexity of determining whether a QUBO problem is minor embeddable, and thus solvable on the D-Wave architecture.
Adiabatic pumping solutions in global AdS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carracedo, Pablo; Mas, Javier; Musso, Daniele; Serantes, Alexandre
2017-05-01
We construct a family of very simple stationary solutions to gravity coupled to a massless scalar field in global AdS. They involve a constantly rising source for the scalar field at the boundary and thereby we name them pumping solutions. We construct them numerically in D = 4. They are regular and, generically, have negative mass. We perform a study of linear and nonlinear stability and find both stable and unstable branches. In the latter case, solutions belonging to different sub-branches can either decay to black holes or to limiting cycles. This observation motivates the search for non-stationary exactly timeperiodic solutions which we actually construct. We clarify the role of pumping solutions in the context of quasistatic adiabatic quenches. In D = 3 the pumping solutions can be related to other previously known solutions, like magnetic or translationally-breaking backgrounds. From this we derive an analytic expression.
In orbit adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration for bolometric and microcalorimetric detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hepburn, I. D.; Ade, P. A. R.; Davenport, I.; Smith, A.; Sumner, T. J.
1992-12-01
The new generation of photon detectors for satellite based mm/submm and X-ray astronomical observations require cooling to temperatures in the range 60 to 300 mK. At present Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigeration (ADR) is the best proposed technique for producing these temperatures in orbit due to its inherent simplicity and gravity independent operation. For the efficient utilization of an ADR it is important to realize long operational times at base temperature with short recycle times. These criteria are dependent on several parameters; the required operating temperature, the cryogen bath temperature, the amount of heat leakage to the paramagnetic salt, the volume and type of salt and the maximum obtainable magnetic field. For space application these parameters are restricted by the limitations imposed on the physical size, the mass, the available electrical power and the cooling power available. The design considerations required in order to match these parameters are described and test data from a working laboratory system is presented.
Properties of a two stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuda, H.; Ueda, S.; Arai, R.; Li, J.; Saito, A. T.; Nakagome, H.; Numazawa, T.
2015-12-01
Currently, many space missions using cryogenic temperatures are being planned. In particular, high resolution sensors such as Transition Edge Sensors need very low temperatures, below 100 mK. It is well known that the adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is one of most useful tools for producing ultra-low temperatures in space because it is gravity independent. We studied a continuous ADR system consisting of 4 stages and demonstrated it could provide continuous temperatures around 100 mK. However, there was some heat leakage from the power leads which resulted in reduced cooling power. Our efforts to upgrade our ADR system are presented. We show the effect of using the HTS power leads and discuss a cascaded Carnot cycle consisting of 2 ADR units.
Passive gas-gap heat switch for adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); Di Pirro, Michael J. (Inventor)
2005-01-01
A passive gas-gap heat switch for use with a multi-stage continuous adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The passive gas-gap heat switch turns on automatically when the temperature of either side of the switch rises above a threshold value and turns off when the temperature on either side of the switch falls below this threshold value. One of the heat switches in this multistage process must be conductive in the 0.25? K to 0.3? K range. All of the heat switches must be capable of switching off in a short period of time (1-2 minutes), and when off to have a very low thermal conductance. This arrangement allows cyclic cooling cycles to be used without the need for separate heat switch controls.
Optical waveguide device with an adiabatically-varying width
Watts,; Michael R. , Nielson; Gregory, N [Albuquerque, NM
2011-05-10
Optical waveguide devices are disclosed which utilize an optical waveguide having a waveguide bend therein with a width that varies adiabatically between a minimum value and a maximum value of the width. One or more connecting members can be attached to the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width thereof to support the waveguide bend or to supply electrical power to an impurity-doped region located within the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width. The impurity-doped region can form an electrical heater or a semiconductor junction which can be activated with a voltage to provide a variable optical path length in the optical waveguide. The optical waveguide devices can be used to form a tunable interferometer (e.g. a Mach-Zehnder interferometer) which can be used for optical modulation or switching. The optical waveguide devices can also be used to form an optical delay line.
Quasi-adiabatic compression heating of selected foods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landfeld, Ales; Strohalm, Jan; Halama, Radek; Houska, Milan
2011-03-01
The quasi-adiabatic temperature increase due to compression heating, during high-pressure (HP) processing (HPP), was studied using specially designed equipment. The temperature increase was evaluated as the difference in temperature, during compression, between atmospheric pressure and nominal pressure. The temperature was measured using a thermocouple in the center of a polyoxymethylene cup, which contained the sample. Fresh meat balls, pork meat pate, and tomato purée temperature increases were measured at three initial temperature levels between 40 and 80 °C. Nominal pressure was either 400 or 500 MPa. Results showed that the fat content had a positive effect on temperature increases. Empirical equations were developed to calculate the temperature increase during HPP at different initial temperatures for pressures of 400 and 500 MPa. This thermal effect data can be used for numerical modeling of temperature histories of foods during HP-assisted pasteurization or sterilization processes.
Design of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for studies in astrophysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Castles, S.
1983-01-01
An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator was designed for cooling infrared bolometers for studies in astrophysics and aeronomy. The design was tailored to the requirements of a Shuttle sortie experiment. The refrigerator should be capable of maintaining three bolometers at 0.1 K with a 90% cycle. The advantage are of operations the bolometer at 0.1K. greater sensitivity, faster response time, and the ability to use larger bolometer elements without compromising the response time. The design presented is the first complete design of an ADR intended for use in space. The most important of these specifications are to survive a Shuttle launch, to operate with 1.5 K - 2.0 K space-pumped liquid helium as a heat sink, to have a 90% duty cycle, and to be highly efficient.
Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library adopting minimalist design
Takeuchi, Naoki, E-mail: takeuchi-naoki-kx@ynu.jp; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
We herein build an adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) cell library adopting minimalist design and a symmetric layout. In the proposed minimalist design, every logic cell is designed by arraying four types of building block cells: buffer, NOT, constant, and branch cells. Therefore, minimalist design enables us to effectively build and customize an AQFP cell library. The symmetric layout reduces unwanted parasitic magnetic coupling and ensures a large mutual inductance in an output transformer, which enables very long wiring between logic cells. We design and fabricate several logic circuits using the minimal AQFP cell library so as to test logic cells inmore » the library. Moreover, we experimentally investigate the maximum wiring length between logic cells. Finally, we present an experimental demonstration of an 8-bit carry look-ahead adder designed using the minimal AQFP cell library and demonstrate that the proposed cell library is sufficiently robust to realize large-scale digital circuits.« less
Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library adopting minimalist design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
2015-05-01
We herein build an adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) cell library adopting minimalist design and a symmetric layout. In the proposed minimalist design, every logic cell is designed by arraying four types of building block cells: buffer, NOT, constant, and branch cells. Therefore, minimalist design enables us to effectively build and customize an AQFP cell library. The symmetric layout reduces unwanted parasitic magnetic coupling and ensures a large mutual inductance in an output transformer, which enables very long wiring between logic cells. We design and fabricate several logic circuits using the minimal AQFP cell library so as to test logic cells in the library. Moreover, we experimentally investigate the maximum wiring length between logic cells. Finally, we present an experimental demonstration of an 8-bit carry look-ahead adder designed using the minimal AQFP cell library and demonstrate that the proposed cell library is sufficiently robust to realize large-scale digital circuits.
Novel latch for adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron logic
Takeuchi, Naoki, E-mail: takeuchi-naoki-kx@ynu.jp; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
2014-03-14
We herein propose the quantum-flux-latch (QFL) as a novel latch for adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic. A QFL is very compact and compatible with AQFP logic gates and can be read out in one clock cycle. Simulation results revealed that the QFL operates at 5 GHz with wide parameter margins of more than ±22%. The calculated energy dissipation was only ∼0.1 aJ/bit, which yields a small energy delay product of 20 aJ·ps. We also designed shift registers using QFLs to demonstrate more complex circuits with QFLs. Finally, we experimentally demonstrated correct operations of the QFL and a 1-bit shift register (a D flip-flop)
Effects of preheat and mix on the fuel adiabat of an imploding capsule
Cheng, B.; Kwan, T. J. T.; Wang, Y. M.; ...
2016-12-01
We demonstrate the effect of preheat, hydrodynamic mix and vorticity on the adiabat of the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel in fusion capsule experiments. We show that the adiabat of the DT fuel increases resulting from hydrodynamic mixing due to the phenomenon of entropy of mixture. An upper limit of mix, M clean=M DT ≥ 0:98 is found necessary to keep the DT fuel on a low adiabat. We demonstrate in this study that the use of a high adiabat for the DT fuel in theoretical analysis and with the aid of 1D code simulations could explain some aspects of 3D effectsmore » and mix in capsule implosion. Furthermore, we can infer from our physics model and the observed neutron images the adiabat of the DT fuel in the capsule and the amount of mix produced on the hot spot.« less
Adiabatic approximation with exponential accuracy for many-body systems and quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lidar, Daniel A.; Rezakhani, Ali T.; Hamma, Alioscia
2009-10-01
We derive a version of the adiabatic theorem that is especially suited for applications in adiabatic quantum computation, where it is reasonable to assume that the adiabatic interpolation between the initial and final Hamiltonians is controllable. Assuming that the Hamiltonian is analytic in a finite strip around the real-time axis, that some number of its time derivatives vanish at the initial and final times, and that the target adiabatic eigenstate is nondegenerate and separated by a gap from the rest of the spectrum, we show that one can obtain an error between the final adiabatic eigenstate and the actual time-evolved state which is exponentially small in the evolution time, where this time itself scales as the square of the norm of the time derivative of the Hamiltonian divided by the cube of the minimal gap.
Effects of preheat and mix on the fuel adiabat of an imploding capsule
Cheng, B.; Kwan, T. J. T.; Wang, Y. M.
We demonstrate the effect of preheat, hydrodynamic mix and vorticity on the adiabat of the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel in fusion capsule experiments. We show that the adiabat of the DT fuel increases resulting from hydrodynamic mixing due to the phenomenon of entropy of mixture. An upper limit of mix, M clean=M DT ≥ 0:98 is found necessary to keep the DT fuel on a low adiabat. We demonstrate in this study that the use of a high adiabat for the DT fuel in theoretical analysis and with the aid of 1D code simulations could explain some aspects of 3D effectsmore » and mix in capsule implosion. Furthermore, we can infer from our physics model and the observed neutron images the adiabat of the DT fuel in the capsule and the amount of mix produced on the hot spot.« less
Is the addition of an assisted driving Hamiltonian always useful for adiabatic evolution?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Jie; Lu, Songfeng; Li, Li
2017-04-01
It has been known that when an assisted driving item is added to the main system Hamiltonian, the efficiency of the resultant adiabatic evolution can be significantly improved. In some special cases, it can be seen that only through adding an assisted driving Hamiltonian can the resulting adiabatic evolution be made not to fail. Thus the additional driving Hamiltonian plays an important role in adiabatic computing. In this paper, we show that if the driving Hamiltonian is chosen inappropriately, the adiabatic computation may still fail. More importantly, we find that the adiabatic computation can only succeed if the assisted driving Hamiltonian has a relatively fixed form. This may help us understand why in the related literature all of the driving Hamiltonians used share the same form.
Quantum adiabatic computation with a constant gap is not useful in one dimension.
Hastings, M B
2009-07-31
We show that it is possible to use a classical computer to efficiently simulate the adiabatic evolution of a quantum system in one dimension with a constant spectral gap, starting the adiabatic evolution from a known initial product state. The proof relies on a recently proven area law for such systems, implying the existence of a good matrix product representation of the ground state, combined with an appropriate algorithm to update the matrix product state as the Hamiltonian is changed. This implies that adiabatic evolution with such Hamiltonians is not useful for universal quantum computation. Therefore, adiabatic algorithms which are useful for universal quantum computation either require a spectral gap tending to zero or need to be implemented in more than one dimension (we leave open the question of the computational power of adiabatic simulation with a constant gap in more than one dimension).
Flow in serpentine coolant passages with trip strips
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tse, D. G.-N.
1995-01-01
Under the subject contract, an effort is being conducted at Scientific Research Associates, Inc. (SRA) to obtain flow field measurements in the coolant passage of a rotating turbine blade with ribbed walls, both in the stationary and rotating frames. The data obtained will be used for validation of computational tools and assessment of turbine blade cooling strategies. The configuration of the turbine blade passage model is given, and the measuring plane locations are given. The model has a four-pass passage with three 180 turns. This geometry was chosen to allow analyses of the velocity measurements corresponding to the heat transfer results obtained by Wagner. Two passes of the passage have a rectangular cross-section of 1.0 in x 0.5 in. Another two passes have a square cross-section of 0.5 in x 0.5 in. Trips with a streamwise pitch to trip height (P/e) = 5 and trip height to coolant passage width (e/Z) = 0.1, were machined along the leading and trailing walls. These dimensions are typical of those used in turbine blade coolant passages. The trips on these walls are staggered by the half-pitch. The trips are skewed at +/- 45 deg, and this allows the effect of trip orientation to be examined. Experiments will be conducted with flow entering the model through the 1.0 in x 0.5 in rectangular passage (Configuration C) and the 0.5 in x 0. 5 in square passage (Configuration D) to examine the effect of passage aspect ratio. Velocity measurements were obtained with a Reynolds number (Re) of 25,000, based on the hydraulic diameter of and bulk mean velocity in the half inch square passage. The coordinate system used in presenting the results for configurations C and D, respectively, is shown. The first, second and third passes of the passage will be referred to as the first, second and third passages, respectively, in later discussion. Streamwise distance (x) from the entrance is normalized by the hydraulic diameter (D). Vertical (y) and tangential (z) distances are
Phase relations and adiabats in boiling seafloor geothermal systems
Bischoff, J.L.; Pitzer, Kenneth S.
1985-01-01
Observations of large salinity variations and vent temperatures in the range of 380-400??C suggest that boiling or two-phase separation may be occurring in some seafloor geothermal systems. Consideration of flow rates and the relatively small differences in density between vapors and liquids at the supercritical pressures at depth in these systems suggests that boiling is occurring under closed-system conditions. Salinity and temperature of boiling vents can be used to estimate the pressure-temperature point in the subsurface at which liquid seawater first reached the two-phase boundary. Data are reviewed to construct phase diagrams of coexisting brines and vapors in the two-phase region at pressures corresponding to those of the seafloor geothermal systems. A method is developed for calculating the enthalpy and entropy of the coexisting mixtures, and results are used to construct adiabats from the seafloor to the P-T two-phase boundary. Results for seafloor vents discharging at 2300 m below sea level indicate that a 385??C vent is composed of a brine (7% NaCl equivalent) in equilibrium with a vapor (0.1% NaCl). Brine constitutes 45% by weight of the mixture, and the fluid first boiled at approximately 1 km below the seafloor at 415??C, 330 bar. A 400??C vent is primarily vapor (88 wt.%, 0.044% NaCl) with a small amount of brine (26% NaCl) and first boiled at 2.9 km below the seafloor at 500??C, 520 bar. These results show that adiabatic decompression in the two-phase region results in dramatic cooling of the fluid mixture when there is a large fraction of vapor. ?? 1985.
Observational tests of non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carneiro, S.; Pigozzo, C.
2014-10-01
In a previous paper [1] it was shown that any dark sector model can be mapped into a non-adiabatic fluid formed by two interacting components, one with zero pressure and the other with equation-of-state parameter ω = -1. It was also shown that the latter does not cluster and, hence, the former is identified as the observed clustering matter. This guarantees that the dark matter power spectrum does not suffer from oscillations or instabilities. It applies in particular to the generalised Chaplygin gas, which was shown to be equivalent to interacting models at both background and perturbation levels. In the present paper we test the non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas against the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae, the position of the first acoustic peak in the anisotropy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background and the linear power spectrum of large scale structures. We consider two different compilations of SNe Ia, namely the Constitution and SDSS samples, both calibrated with the MLCS2k2 fitter, and for the power spectrum we use the 2dFGRS catalogue. The model parameters to be adjusted are the present Hubble parameter, the present matter density and the Chaplygin gas parameter α. The joint analysis best fit gives α ≈ - 0.5, which corresponds to a constant-rate energy flux from dark energy to dark matter, with the dark energy density decaying linearly with the Hubble parameter. The ΛCDM model, equivalent to α = 0, stands outside the 3σ confidence interval.
Wigner phase space distribution via classical adiabatic switching
Bose, Amartya; Makri, Nancy; Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801
2015-09-21
Evaluation of the Wigner phase space density for systems of many degrees of freedom presents an extremely demanding task because of the oscillatory nature of the Fourier-type integral. We propose a simple and efficient, approximate procedure for generating the Wigner distribution that avoids the computational difficulties associated with the Wigner transform. Starting from a suitable zeroth-order Hamiltonian, for which the Wigner density is available (either analytically or numerically), the phase space distribution is propagated in time via classical trajectories, while the perturbation is gradually switched on. According to the classical adiabatic theorem, each trajectory maintains a constant action if themore » perturbation is switched on infinitely slowly. We show that the adiabatic switching procedure produces the exact Wigner density for harmonic oscillator eigenstates and also for eigenstates of anharmonic Hamiltonians within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. We generalize the approach to finite temperature by introducing a density rescaling factor that depends on the energy of each trajectory. Time-dependent properties are obtained simply by continuing the integration of each trajectory under the full target Hamiltonian. Further, by construction, the generated approximate Wigner distribution is invariant under classical propagation, and thus, thermodynamic properties are strictly preserved. Numerical tests on one-dimensional and dissipative systems indicate that the method produces results in very good agreement with those obtained by full quantum mechanical methods over a wide temperature range. The method is simple and efficient, as it requires no input besides the force fields required for classical trajectory integration, and is ideal for use in quasiclassical trajectory calculations.« less
Observational tests of non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas
Carneiro, S.; Pigozzo, C., E-mail: saulo.carneiro@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: cpigozzo@ufba.br
2014-10-01
In a previous paper [1] it was shown that any dark sector model can be mapped into a non-adiabatic fluid formed by two interacting components, one with zero pressure and the other with equation-of-state parameter ω = -1. It was also shown that the latter does not cluster and, hence, the former is identified as the observed clustering matter. This guarantees that the dark matter power spectrum does not suffer from oscillations or instabilities. It applies in particular to the generalised Chaplygin gas, which was shown to be equivalent to interacting models at both background and perturbation levels. In the present papermore » we test the non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas against the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae, the position of the first acoustic peak in the anisotropy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background and the linear power spectrum of large scale structures. We consider two different compilations of SNe Ia, namely the Constitution and SDSS samples, both calibrated with the MLCS2k2 fitter, and for the power spectrum we use the 2dFGRS catalogue. The model parameters to be adjusted are the present Hubble parameter, the present matter density and the Chaplygin gas parameter α. The joint analysis best fit gives α ≈ - 0.5, which corresponds to a constant-rate energy flux from dark energy to dark matter, with the dark energy density decaying linearly with the Hubble parameter. The ΛCDM model, equivalent to α = 0, stands outside the 3σ confidence interval.« less
Proceedings of a workshop on American Eel passage technologies
Haro, Alexander J.
2013-01-01
Recent concerns regarding a decline in recruitment of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) have prompted efforts to restore this species to historic habitats by providing passage for both upstream migrant juveniles and downstream migrant adults at riverine barriers, including low-head and hydroelectric dams (Castonguay et al. 1994, Haro et al. 2000). These efforts include development of management plans and stock assessment reviews in both the US and Canada (COSEWIC 2006, Canadian Eel Working Group 2009, DFO 2010, MacGregor et al. 2010, ASMFC 2000, ASMFC 2006, ASMFC 2008, Williams and Threader 2007), which target improvement of upstream and downstream passage for eels, as well as identification and prioritization of research needs for development of new and more effective passage technologies for American eels. Traditional upstream fish passage structures, such as fishways and fish lifts, are often ineffective passing juvenile eels, and specialized passage structures for this species are needed. Although designs for such passage structures are available and diverse (Knights and White 1998, Porcher 2002, FAO/DVWK 2002, Solomon and Beach 2004a,b, Environment Agency UK 2011), many biologists, managers, and engineers are unfamiliar with eel pass design and operation, or unaware of the technical options available for upstream eel passage, Better coordination is needed to account for eel passage requirements during restoration efforts for other diadromous fish species. Also, appropriately siting eel passes at hydropower projects is critical, and siting can be difficult and complex due to physical restrictions in access to points of natural concentrations of eels, dynamic hydraulics of tailrace areas, and presence of significant competing flows from turbine outfalls or spill. As a result, some constructed eel passes are sited poorly and may pass only a fraction of the number of eels attempting to pass the barrier. When sited and constructed appropriately, however, eel passes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shirron, Peter J.
2014-01-01
Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADR), based on the magnetocaloric effect, are solid-state coolers that were the first to achieve cooling well into the sub-kelvin regime. Although supplanted by more powerful dilution refrigerators in the 1960s, ADRs have experienced a revival due to the needs of the space community for cooling astronomical instruments and detectors to temperatures below 100 mK. The earliest of these were single-stage refrigerators using superfluid helium as a heat sink. Their modest cooling power (<1 µW at 60 mK[1]) was sufficient for the small (6x6) detector arrays[2], but recent advances in arraying and multiplexing technologies[3] are generating a need for higher cooling power (5-10 µW), and lower temperature (<30 mK). Single-stage ADRs have both practical and fundamental limits to their operating range, as mass grows very rapidly as the operating range is expanded. This has led to the development of new architectures that introduce multi-staging as a way to improve operating range, efficiency and cooling power. Multi-staging also enables ADRs to be configured for continuous operation, which greatly improves cooling power per unit mass. This paper reviews the current field of adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration, beginning with a description of the magnetocaloric effect and its application in single-stage systems, and then describing the challenges and capabilities of multi-stage and continuous ADRs.
Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage Through Bonneville Dam in 2005
Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.
2006-12-04
The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2005. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of two studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 16 and Julymore » 15, 2005, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, and (2) smolt approach and fate at B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C from the B1 forebay. Some of the large appendices are only presented on the compact disk (CD) that accompanies the final report. Examples include six large comma-separated-variable (.CSV) files of hourly fish passage, hourly variances, and Project operations for spring and summer from Appendix E, and large Audio Video Interleave (AVI) files with DIDSON-movie clips of the area upstream of B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C (Appendix H). Those video clips show smolts approaching the outlet, predators feeding on smolts, and vortices that sometimes entrained approaching smolts into turbines. The CD also includes Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Files (PDF) of the entire report and appendices.« less
Franklin, Abigail E.; Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Noreika, John
2012-01-01
Nature-like fishways have been designed with the intent to reconnect river corridors and provide passage for all species occurring in a system. The approach is gaining popularity both in Europe and North America, but performance of these designs has not been quantitatively evaluated in a field setting for any North American species. Two nature-like fishways and three technical fishways in New England were evaluated for passage of anadromous adult alewives Alosa pseudoharengus by using passive integrated transponder (PIT) telemetry. A perturbation boulder rock ramp (32 m long; 4.2% slope) constructed in Town Brook (Plymouth, Massachusetts) passed 94% of the fish that made passage attempts, with most fish ascending the ramp in less than 22 min. In the East River (Guilford, Connecticut), a step-pool bypass design (48 m long; 7.1% slope) passed only 40% of attempting fish, with a median transit time of 75 min. In Town Brook, a technical pool-and-weir fishway (14 m long; 14.3% slope) exhibited poor entry and poor passage for the fish. In contrast, in the East River, two technical steeppass fishways (3 m long; 29.6% and 9.6% slopes) passed the majority of available fish, although one of these steeppass fishways may have lacked sufficient flow to attract fish to the entrance. In both Town Brook and the East River, tagged fish passed rapidly downstream through all fishways after spawning. In the East River, the amount of time fish spent in the spawning habitat before migrating downstream ranged from 1 to 41 d. These studies demonstrate that some nature-like and technical fishway designs can effectively facilitate passage of alewives, but a fishway's location in relation to a spillway is important, and further evaluations are required to more precisely identify the influence of the vertical drop per pool and the specific local hydraulics on alewife behaviors and passage performance.
First passage Brownian functional properties of snowmelt dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubey, Ashutosh; Bandyopadhyay, Malay
2018-04-01
In this paper, we model snow-melt dynamics in terms of a Brownian motion (BM) with purely time dependent drift and difusion and examine its first passage properties by suggesting and examining several Brownian functionals which characterize the lifetime and reactivity of such stochastic processes. We introduce several probability distribution functions (PDFs) associated with such time dependent BMs. For instance, for a BM with initial starting point x0, we derive analytical expressions for : (i) the PDF P(tf|x0) of the first passage time tf which specify the lifetime of such stochastic process, (ii) the PDF P(A|x0) of the area A till the first passage time and it provides us numerous valuable information about the total fresh water availability during melting, (iii) the PDF P(M) associated with the maximum size M of the BM process before the first passage time, and (iv) the joint PDF P(M; tm) of the maximum size M and its occurrence time tm before the first passage time. These P(M) and P(M; tm) are useful in determining the time of maximum fresh water availability and in calculating the total maximum amount of available fresh water. These PDFs are examined for the power law time dependent drift and diffusion which matches quite well with the available data of snowmelt dynamics.
Mitra, Avik; Ghosh, Arindam; Das, Ranabir; Patel, Apoorva; Kumar, Anil
2005-12-01
Quantum adiabatic algorithm is a method of solving computational problems by evolving the ground state of a slowly varying Hamiltonian. The technique uses evolution of the ground state of a slowly varying Hamiltonian to reach the required output state. In some cases, such as the adiabatic versions of Grover's search algorithm and Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm, applying the global adiabatic evolution yields a complexity similar to their classical algorithms. However, using the local adiabatic evolution, the algorithms given by J. Roland and N.J. Cerf for Grover's search [J. Roland, N.J. Cerf, Quantum search by local adiabatic evolution, Phys. Rev. A 65 (2002) 042308] and by Saurya Das, Randy Kobes, and Gabor Kunstatter for the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm [S. Das, R. Kobes, G. Kunstatter, Adiabatic quantum computation and Deutsh's algorithm, Phys. Rev. A 65 (2002) 062301], yield a complexity of order N (where N=2(n) and n is the number of qubits). In this paper, we report the experimental implementation of these local adiabatic evolution algorithms on a 2-qubit quantum information processor, by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.
Recent developments in trapping and manipulation of atoms with adiabatic potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garraway, Barry M.; Perrin, Hélène
2016-09-01
A combination of static and oscillating magnetic fields can be used to ‘dress’ atoms with radio-frequency (RF), or microwave, radiation. The spatial variation of these fields can be used to create an enormous variety of traps for ultra-cold atoms and quantum gases. This article reviews the type and character of these adiabatic traps and the applications which include atom interferometry and the study of low-dimensional quantum systems. We introduce the main concepts of magnetic traps leading to adiabatic dressed traps. The concept of adiabaticity is discussed in the context of the Landau-Zener model. The first bubble trap experiment is reviewed together with the method used for loading it. Experiments based on atom chips show the production of double wells and ring traps. Dressed atom traps can be evaporatively cooled with an additional RF field, and a weak RF field can be used to probe the spectroscopy of the adiabatic potentials. Several approaches to ring traps formed from adiabatic potentials are discussed, including those based on atom chips, time-averaged adiabatic potentials and induction methods. Several proposals for adiabatic lattices with dressed atoms are also reviewed.
On the adiabatic representation of Meyer-Miller electronic-nuclear dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cotton, Stephen J.; Liang, Ruibin; Miller, William H.
2017-08-01
The Meyer-Miller (MM) classical vibronic (electronic + nuclear) Hamiltonian for electronically non-adiabatic dynamics—as used, for example, with the recently developed symmetrical quasiclassical (SQC) windowing model—can be written in either a diabatic or an adiabatic representation of the electronic degrees of freedom, the two being a canonical transformation of each other, thus giving the same dynamics. Although most recent applications of this SQC/MM approach have been carried out in the diabatic representation—because most of the benchmark model problems that have exact quantum results available for comparison are typically defined in a diabatic representation—it will typically be much more convenient to work in the adiabatic representation, e.g., when using Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surfaces (PESs) and derivative couplings that come from electronic structure calculations. The canonical equations of motion (EOMs) (i.e., Hamilton's equations) that come from the adiabatic MM Hamiltonian, however, in addition to the common first-derivative couplings, also involve second-derivative non-adiabatic coupling terms (as does the quantum Schrödinger equation), and the latter are considerably more difficult to calculate. This paper thus revisits the adiabatic version of the MM Hamiltonian and describes a modification of the classical adiabatic EOMs that are entirely equivalent to Hamilton's equations but that do not involve the second-derivative couplings. The second-derivative coupling terms have not been neglected; they simply do not appear in these modified adiabatic EOMs. This means that SQC/MM calculations can be carried out in the adiabatic representation, without approximation, needing only the PESs and the first-derivative coupling elements. The results of example SQC/MM calculations are presented, which illustrate this point, and also the fact that simply neglecting the second-derivative couplings in Hamilton's equations (and presumably also in
An adiabatic quantum flux parametron as an ultra-low-power logic device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeuchi, Naoki; Ozawa, Dan; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
2013-03-01
Ultra-low-power adiabatic quantum flux parametron (QFP) logic is investigated since it has the potential to reduce the bit energy per operation to the order of the thermal energy. In this approach, nonhysteretic QFPs are operated slowly to prevent nonadiabatic energy dissipation occurring during switching events. The designed adiabatic QFP gate is estimated to have a dynamic energy dissipation of 12% of IcΦ0 for a rise/fall time of 1000 ps. It can be further reduced by reducing circuit inductances. Three stages of adiabatic QFP NOT gates were fabricated using a Nb Josephson integrated circuit process and their correct operation was confirmed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimova, E.; Steflekova, V.; Karatodorov, S.; Kyoseva, E.
2018-03-01
We propose a way of achieving efficient and robust second-harmonic generation. The technique proposed is similar to the adiabatic population transfer in a two-state quantum system with crossing energies. If the phase mismatching changes slowly, e.g., due to a temperature gradient along the crystal, and makes the phase match for second-harmonic generation to occur, then the energy would be converted adiabatically to the second harmonic. As an adiabatic technique, the second-harmonic generation scheme presented is stable to variations in the crystal parameters, as well as in the input light, crystal length, input intensity, wavelength and angle of incidence.
Upper ocean response to the passage of two sequential typhoons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Renhao; Li, Chunyan
2018-02-01
Two sequential typhoons, separated by five days, Chan-hom and Nangka in the summer of 2015, provided a unique opportunity to study the oceanic response and cold wake evolution. The upper ocean response to the passage of these two typhoons was investigated using multi-satellite, Argo float data and HYCOM global model output. The sea surface cooling (SSC) induced by Chan-hom was gradually enhanced along its track when the storm was intensified while moving over the ocean with shallow mixed layer. The location of maximum cooling of sea surface was determined by the storm's translation speed as well as pre-typhoon oceanic conditions. As a fast-moving storm, Chan-hom induced significant SSC on the right side of its track. Localized maximum cooling patches are found over a cyclonic eddy (CE). An analysis of data from Argo floats near the track of Chan-hom demonstrated that the mixed layer temperature (MLT) and mixed layer depth (MLD) had more variabilities on the right side than those on the left side of Chan-hom's track, while mixed layer salinity (MLS) response was different from those of MLT and MLD with an increase in salinity to the right side and a decrease in salinity to the left side of the track. Subsequently, because of the remnant effect of Chan-hom, the strong upwelling induced by Typhoon Nangka, the pre-existing CE as well as a slow translation speed (<2 m s-1) of the storm, the most significant SSC ( 6 °C) was observed over the CE region in the wake of the storm. Further, Nangka experienced a rapid weakening suggesting immediate negative feedback from the intensified SSC occurred in the CE region. After these two typhoons, the CE was enhanced and the sea surface height of eddy core was depressed by 10 cm. It took more than one month for SSC to restore to its pre-typhoon conditions, with the anomalous geostrophic current advection playing an important role in the process. The enhancement of chlorophyll-a concentrations was also noticed at both the CE region
Size illusion, distance illusion, and terrestrial passage: comment on reed.
Loftus, G R
1985-03-01
Two assumptions of Reed's (1984) terrestrial passage theory are questioned. First, Reed assumes that the moon's failure to increase in visual subtense while elevating is accounted for strictly by perceptual distancing. This allows a formal account of the moon distance illusion, but at the expense of a compelling explanation of the moon size illusion. Second, in order to explain the distance illusion, Reed assumes that all objects, regardless of their perceived altitude, are perceived to start from a common point at the horizon. Several alternative application of Reed's terrestrial-passage foundation to the actual illusions are suggested.
Flexible and experimentally feasible shortcut to quantum Zeno dynamic passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wenlin; Zhang, Fengyang; Jiang, Yunfeng; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan
2016-10-01
We propose and discuss a theoretical scheme to speed up Zeno dynamic passage by an external acceleration Hamiltonian. This scheme is a flexible and experimentally feasible acceleration because the acceleration Hamiltonian does not adhere rigidly to an invariant relationship, whereas it can be a more general form ∑uj (t)Hcj. Here Hcj can be arbitrarily selected without any limitation, and therefore one can always construct an acceleration Hamiltonian by only using realizable Hcj. Applying our scheme, we finally design an experimentally feasible Hamiltonian as an example to speed up an entanglement preparation passage.
Northwest passage: Trade route for large air cushion vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, J. L.
1973-01-01
A conceptual vehicle and powerplant (10,000-ton) nuclear-powered air-cushion vehicle (ACV) that could open the Northwest Passage and other Arctic passages to commercial traffic is identified. The report contains a description of the conceptual vehicle, including the powerplant and operations, an assessment of technical feasibility, estimates of capital and operating costs, and identification of eligible cargo and markets. A comparison of the nuclear ACV freighter with nuclear container ships shows that for containerized or roll-on/roll-off cargo the ACV would provide greatly reduced transit time between North Atlantic and North Pacific ports at a competitive cost.
View of FE Fossum working on the ESA PASSAGES Experiment
2011-06-16
ISS028-E-008393 (16 June 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, uses Neurospat hardware to perform a science session with the European Space Agency PASSAGES experiment in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station. PASSAGES is designed to test how astronauts interpret visual information in weightlessness. It aims at studying the effects of microgravity on the use of the 'Eye-Height' strategy for estimating allowed actions in an environment, and whether this could possibly decrease after a long exposure to weightlessness.
FUNCTIONS OF VATA (BASED ON CHARAKA) A Passage from Vaatkalaakaleeyam.
Trivedi, A R
1982-04-01
The author has chosen 12(th) Chapter from the Sutra Sthana of this great epic containing 12,000 verses and passages which is replete with materials to revive the whole art of healing even if the whole medical literatures is lost. The passage puts in a nutshell the key role played by Vayu / Vata in the working of the tantra and yantra of the body. Though exploration of the humours is yet to be done by modern physiologists to explain the Ayurvedic Vata which is responsible to no less than 18 functions of the normal body mechanism.
Thermodynamics Analysis of Refinery Sludge Gasification in Adiabatic Updraft Gasifier
Ahmed, Reem; Sinnathambi, Chandra M.; Eldmerdash, Usama; Subbarao, Duvvuri
2014-01-01
Limited information is available about the thermodynamic evaluation for biomass gasification process using updraft gasifier. Therefore, to minimize errors, the gasification of dry refinery sludge (DRS) is carried out in adiabatic system at atmospheric pressure under ambient air conditions. The objectives of this paper are to investigate the physical and chemical energy and exergy of product gas at different equivalent ratios (ER). It will also be used to determine whether the cold gas, exergy, and energy efficiencies of gases may be maximized by using secondary air injected to gasification zone under various ratios (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5) at optimum ER of 0.195. From the results obtained, it is indicated that the chemical energy and exergy of producer gas are magnified by 5 and 10 times higher than their corresponding physical values, respectively. The cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies of DRS gasification are in the ranges of 22.9–55.5%, 43.7–72.4%, and 42.5–50.4%, respectively. Initially, all 3 efficiencies increase until they reach a maximum at the optimum ER of 0.195; thereafter, they decline with further increase in ER values. The injection of secondary air to gasification zone is also found to increase the cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies. A ratio of secondary air to primary air of 0.5 is found to be the optimum ratio for all 3 efficiencies to reach the maximum values. PMID:24672368
Nonequilibrium adiabatic molecular dynamics simulations of methane clathrate hydrate decomposition.
Alavi, Saman; Ripmeester, J A
2010-04-14
Nonequilibrium, constant energy, constant volume (NVE) molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the decomposition of methane clathrate hydrate in contact with water. Under adiabatic conditions, the rate of methane clathrate decomposition is affected by heat and mass transfer arising from the breakup of the clathrate hydrate framework and release of the methane gas at the solid-liquid interface and diffusion of methane through water. We observe that temperature gradients are established between the clathrate and solution phases as a result of the endothermic clathrate decomposition process and this factor must be considered when modeling the decomposition process. Additionally we observe that clathrate decomposition does not occur gradually with breakup of individual cages, but rather in a concerted fashion with rows of structure I cages parallel to the interface decomposing simultaneously. Due to the concerted breakup of layers of the hydrate, large amounts of methane gas are released near the surface which can form bubbles that will greatly affect the rate of mass transfer near the surface of the clathrate phase. The effects of these phenomena on the rate of methane hydrate decomposition are determined and implications on hydrate dissociation in natural methane hydrate reservoirs are discussed.
Shortcuts to Adiabaticity in Transport of a Single Trapped Ion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Shuoming; Lv, Dingshun; Campo, Adolfo Del; Kim, Kihwan
2015-05-01
We report an experimental study on shortcuts to adiabaticity in the transport of a single 171Yb+ ion trapped in a harmonic potential. In these driving schemes, the application of a force induces a nonadiabatic dynamics in which excitations are tailored so as to preserve the ion motional state in the ground state upon completion of the process. We experimentally apply the laser induced force and realize three different protocols: (1) a transitionless driving with a counterdiabatic term out of phase with the displacement force, (2) a classical protocol assisted by counterdiabatic fields in phase with the main force, (3) and an engineered transport protocol based on the Fourier transform of the trap acceleration. We experimentally compare and discuss the robustness of these protocols under given experimental limitations such as trap frequency drifts. This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grants No. 2011CBA00300 (No. 2011CBA00301), the National Natural Science Foundation of China 11374178, and the University of Massachusetts Boston (No. P20150000029279).
Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for use in zero gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dingus, Michael L.
1988-01-01
In this effort, a new design concept for an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) that is capable of operation in zero gravity has been developed. The design uses a vortex precooler to lower the initial temperature of magnetic salt from the initial space superfluid helium dewar of 1.8 K to 1.1 K. This reduces the required maximum magnetic field from 4 Tesla to 2 Tesla. The laboratory prototype vortex precooler reached a minimum temperature of 0.78 K, and had a cooling power of 1 mW at 1.1 K. A study was conducted to determine the dependence of vortex cooler performance on system element configuration. A superfluid filled capillary heat switch was used in the design. The laboratory prototype ADR reached a minimum temperature of 0.107 K, and maintained temperatures below 0.125 K for 90 minutes. Demagnetization was carried out from a maximum field of 2 T. A soft iron shield was developed that reduced the radial central field to 1 gauss at 0.25 meters.
Random Matrix Approach to Quantum Adiabatic Evolution Algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boulatov, Alexei; Smelyanskiy, Vadier N.
2004-01-01
We analyze the power of quantum adiabatic evolution algorithms (Q-QA) for solving random NP-hard optimization problems within a theoretical framework based on the random matrix theory (RMT). We present two types of the driven RMT models. In the first model, the driving Hamiltonian is represented by Brownian motion in the matrix space. We use the Brownian motion model to obtain a description of multiple avoided crossing phenomena. We show that the failure mechanism of the QAA is due to the interaction of the ground state with the "cloud" formed by all the excited states, confirming that in the driven RMT models. the Landau-Zener mechanism of dissipation is not important. We show that the QAEA has a finite probability of success in a certain range of parameters. implying the polynomial complexity of the algorithm. The second model corresponds to the standard QAEA with the problem Hamiltonian taken from the Gaussian Unitary RMT ensemble (GUE). We show that the level dynamics in this model can be mapped onto the dynamics in the Brownian motion model. However, the driven RMT model always leads to the exponential complexity of the algorithm due to the presence of the long-range intertemporal correlations of the eigenvalues. Our results indicate that the weakness of effective transitions is the leading effect that can make the Markovian type QAEA successful.
Adiabatic theory in regions of strong field gradients. [in magnetosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whipple, E. C.; Northrop, T. G.; Birmingham, T. J.
1986-01-01
The theory for the generalized first invariant for adiabatic motion of charged particles in regions where there are large gradients in magnetic or electric fields is developed. The general condition for an invariant to exist in such regions is that the potential well in which the particle oscillates change its shape slowly as the particle drifts. It is shown how the Kruskal (1962) procedure can be applied to obtain expressions for the invariant and for drift velocities that are asymptotic in a smallness parameter epsilon. The procedure is illustrated by obtaining the invariant and drift velocities for particles traversing a perpendicular shock, and the generalized invariant is compared with the magnetic moment, and the drift orbits with the actual orbits, for a particular case. In contrast to the magnetic moment, the generalized first invariant is better for large gyroradii (large kinetic energies) than for small gyroradii. Expressions for the invariant when an electrostatic potential jump is imposed across the perpendicular shock, and when the particle traverses a rotational shear layer with a small normal component of the magnetic field are given.
Salt pill design and fabrication for adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirron, Peter J.; McCammon, Dan
2014-07-01
The performance of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is critically dependent on the design and construction of the salt pills that produce cooling. In most cases, the primary goal is to obtain the largest cooling capacity at the low temperature end of the operating range. The realizable cooling capacity depends on a number of factors, including refrigerant mass, and how efficiently it absorbs heat from the various instrument loads. The design and optimization of “salt pills” for ADR systems depend not only on the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of the refrigerant, but also on the range of heat fluxes that the salt pill must accommodate. Despite the fairly wide variety of refrigerants available, those used at very low temperature tend to be hydrated salts that require a dedicated thermal bus and must be hermetically sealed, while those used at higher temperature - greater than about 0.5 K - tend to be single- or poly-crystals that have much simpler requirements for thermal and mechanical packaging. This paper presents a summary of strategies and techniques for designing, optimizing and fabricating salt pills for both low- and mid-temperature applications.
Progress in the Development of a Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shirron, Peter; Canavan, Edgar; DiPirro, Michael; Jackson, Michael; King, Todd; Tuttle, James; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We report on recent progress in the development of a continuous adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (CADR). Continuous operation avoids the constraints of long hold times and short recycle times that lead to the generally large mass of single-shot ADRs, allowing us to achieve an order of magnitude larger cooling power per unit mass. Our current design goal is 10 micro W of cooling at 50 mK using a 6-10 K heat sink. The estimated mass is less than 10 kg, including magnetic shielding of each stage. The relatively high heat rejection capability allows it to operate with a mechanical cryocooler as part of a cryogen-free, low temperature cooling system. This has the advantages of long mission life and reduced complexity and cost. We have assembled a three-stage CADR and have demonstrated continuous cooling using a superfluid helium bath as the heat sink. The temperature stability is 8 micro K rms or better over the entire cycle, and the cooling power is 2.5 micro W at 60 mK rising to 10 micro W at 100 mK.
Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerators for Future Sub-Millimetre Space Missions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hepburn, I. D.; Davenport, I.; Smith, A.
1995-10-01
Space worthy refrigeration capable of providing a 100 mK and below heat load sink for bolometric detectors will be required for the next generation of sub-millimetre space missions. Adiabatic demagnetisation refrigeration (ADR), being a gravity independent laboratory method for obtaining such temperatures, is a favourable technique for utilisation in space. We show that by considering a 3 salt pill refrigerator rather than the classic single salt pill design the space prohibitive laboratory ADR properties of high magnetic field (6 Tesla) and a<2 K environment (provided by a bath of liquid4He) can be alleviated, while maintaining a sufficient low temperature hold time and short recycle time. The additional salt pills, composed of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG) provide intermediate cooling stages, enabling operation from a 4 K environment provided by a single 4 K mechanical cooler, thereby providing consumable free operation. Such ADRs could operate with fields as low as 1 Tesla allowing the use of high temperature, mechanically cooled superconducting magnets and so effectively remove the risk of quenching. We discuss the possibility of increasing the hold time from 3 hours, for the model presented, to between 40 and 80 hours, plus reducing the number of salt pills to two, through the use of a more efficient Garnet. We believe the technical advances necessitated by the envisaged ADRs are minimal and conclude that such ADRs offer a long orbital life time, consumable free, high efficiency means of milli-Kelvin cooling, requiring relatively little laboratory development.
Active Thermochemical Tables: The Adiabatic Ionization Energy of Hydrogen Peroxide
Changala, P. Bryan; Nguyen, T. Lam; Baraban, Joshua H.; ...
2017-09-07
The adiabatic ionization energy of hydrogen peroxide (HOOH) is investigated, both by means of theoretical calculations and theoretically-assisted reanalysis of previous experimental data. Values obtained by three different approaches: 10.638 ± 0.012 eV (purely theoretical determination), 10.649 ± 0.005 eV (reanalysis of photoelectron spectrum) and 10.645 ± 0.010 eV (reanalysis of photoionization spectrum) are in excellent mutual agreement. Further refinement of the latter two values to account for asymmetry of the rotational profile of the photoionization origin band leads to a reduction of 0.007 ± 0.006 eV, which tends to bring them into even closer alignment with the purely theoreticalmore » value. As a result, detailed analysis of this fundamental quantity by the Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) approach, using the present results and extant literature, gives a final estimate of 10.641 ± 0.006 eV.« less
Quadratic constrained mixed discrete optimization with an adiabatic quantum optimizer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandra, Rishabh; Jacobson, N. Tobias; Moussa, Jonathan E.; Frankel, Steven H.; Kais, Sabre
2014-07-01
We extend the family of problems that may be implemented on an adiabatic quantum optimizer (AQO). When a quadratic optimization problem has at least one set of discrete controls and the constraints are linear, we call this a quadratic constrained mixed discrete optimization (QCMDO) problem. QCMDO problems are NP-hard, and no efficient classical algorithm for their solution is known. Included in the class of QCMDO problems are combinatorial optimization problems constrained by a linear partial differential equation (PDE) or system of linear PDEs. An essential complication commonly encountered in solving this type of problem is that the linear constraint may introduce many intermediate continuous variables into the optimization while the computational cost grows exponentially with problem size. We resolve this difficulty by developing a constructive mapping from QCMDO to quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) such that the size of the QUBO problem depends only on the number of discrete control variables. With a suitable embedding, taking into account the physical constraints of the realizable coupling graph, the resulting QUBO problem can be implemented on an existing AQO. The mapping itself is efficient, scaling cubically with the number of continuous variables in the general case and linearly in the PDE case if an efficient preconditioner is available.
A Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator for Use with Mechanical Coolers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shirron, P.; Abbondante, N.; Canavan, E.; DiPirro, M.; Grabowski, M.; Hirsch, M.; Jackson, M.; Tuttle, J.
2000-01-01
We have begun developing an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) which can produce continuous cooling at temperatures of 50 mK or lower, with high cooling power (goal of 10 PW). The design uses multiple stages to cascade heat from a continuously-cooled stage up to a heat sink. The serial arrangement makes it possible to add stages to extend the operating range to lower temperature, or to raise the heat rejection temperature. Compared to conventional single-shot ADRS, this system achieves higher cooling power per unit mass and is able to reject its heat at a more uniform rate. For operation with a mechanical cryocooler, this latter feature stabilizes the heat sink temperature and allows both the ADR and cryocooler to operate more efficiently. The ADR is being designed to operate with a heat sink as warm as 10-12 K to make it compatible with a wide variety of mechanical coolers as part of a versatile, cryogen-free low temperature cooling system. A two-stage system has been constructed and a proof-of-principle demonstration was conducted at 100 mK. Details of the design and test results, as well as the direction of future work, are discussed.
Development of a semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter
Venkata Krishnan, R.; Jogeswararao, G.; Parthasarathy, R.
2014-12-15
A semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter has been indigenously developed. The measurement system comprises modules for sensitive temperature measurement probe, signal processing, data collection, and joule calibration. The sensitivity of the temperature measurement module was enhanced by using a sensitive thermistor coupled with a lock-in amplifier based signal processor. A microcontroller coordinates the operation and control of these modules. The latter in turn is controlled through personal computer (PC) based custom made software developed with LabView. An innovative summing amplifier concept was used to cancel out the base resistance of the thermistor. The latter was placed in the dewar. The temperaturemore » calibration was carried out with a standard platinum resistance (PT100) sensor coupled with an 8½ digit multimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by using electrical calibration with the joule calibrator. The experimentally measured values of the quantum of heat were validated by measuring heats of dissolution of pure KCl (for endotherm) and tris (hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (for exotherm). The uncertainity in the measurements was found to be within ±3%.« less
Adiabatic quantum pump in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon junction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lin
2015-11-01
The adiabatic electron transport is theoretically studied in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) junction with two time-dependent pumping electric fields. By modeling a ZGNR p-n junction and applying the Keldysh Green’s function method, we find that a pumped charge current is flowing in the device at a zero external bias, which mainly comes from the photon-assisted tunneling process and the valley selection rule in an even-chain ZGNR junction. The pumped charge current and its ON and OFF states can be efficiently modulated by changing the system parameters such as the pumping frequency, the pumping phase difference, and the Fermi level. A ferromagnetic ZGNR device is also studied to generate a pure spin current and a fully polarized spin current due to the combined spin pump effect and the valley valve effect. Our finding might pave the way to manipulate the degree of freedom of electrons in a graphene-based electronic device. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 110704033), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK2010416), and the Natural Science Foundation for Colleges and Universities in Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. 13KJB140005).
General background conditions for K-bounce and adiabaticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romano, Antonio Enea
2017-03-01
We study the background conditions for a bounce uniquely driven by a single scalar field model with a generalized kinetic term K( X), without any additional matter field. At the background level we impose the existence of two turning points where the derivative of the Hubble parameter H changes sign and of a bounce point where the Hubble parameter vanishes. We find the conditions for K( X) and the potential which ensure the above requirements. We then give the examples of two models constructed according to these conditions. One is based on a quadratic K( X), and the other on a K( X) which is avoiding divergences of the second time derivative of the scalar field, which may otherwise occur. An appropriate choice of the initial conditions can lead to a sequence of consecutive bounces, or oscillations of H. In the region where these models have a constant potential they are adiabatic on any scale and because of this they may not conserve curvature perturbations on super-horizon scales. While at the perturbation level one class of models is free from ghosts and singularities of the classical equations of motion, in general gradient instabilities are present around the bounce time, because the sign of the squared speed of sound is opposite to the sign of the time derivative of H. We discuss how this kind of instabilities could be avoided by modifying the Lagrangian by introducing Galilean terms in order to prevent a negative squared speed of sound around the bounce.
Nonequilibrium adiabatic molecular dynamics simulations of methane clathrate hydrate decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alavi, Saman; Ripmeester, J. A.
2010-04-01
Nonequilibrium, constant energy, constant volume (NVE) molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the decomposition of methane clathrate hydrate in contact with water. Under adiabatic conditions, the rate of methane clathrate decomposition is affected by heat and mass transfer arising from the breakup of the clathrate hydrate framework and release of the methane gas at the solid-liquid interface and diffusion of methane through water. We observe that temperature gradients are established between the clathrate and solution phases as a result of the endothermic clathrate decomposition process and this factor must be considered when modeling the decomposition process. Additionally we observe that clathrate decomposition does not occur gradually with breakup of individual cages, but rather in a concerted fashion with rows of structure I cages parallel to the interface decomposing simultaneously. Due to the concerted breakup of layers of the hydrate, large amounts of methane gas are released near the surface which can form bubbles that will greatly affect the rate of mass transfer near the surface of the clathrate phase. The effects of these phenomena on the rate of methane hydrate decomposition are determined and implications on hydrate dissociation in natural methane hydrate reservoirs are discussed.
Salt Pill Design and Fabrication for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shirron, Peter J.; Mccammon, Dan
2014-01-01
The performance of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is critically dependent on the design and construction of the salt pills that produce cooling. In most cases, the primary goal is to obtain the largest cooling capacity at the low temperature end of the operating range. The realizable cooling capacity depends on a number of factors, including refrigerant mass, and how efficiently it absorbs heat from the various instrument loads. The design and optimization of "salt pills" for ADR systems depend not only on the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of the refrigerant, but also on the range of heat fluxes that the salt pill must accommodate. Despite the fairly wide variety of refrigerants available, those used at very low temperature tend to be hydrated salts that require a dedicated thermal bus and must be hermetically sealed, while those used at higher temperature - greater than about 0.5 K - tend to be single-- or poly--crystals that have much simpler requirements for thermal and mechanical packaging. This paper presents a summary of strategies and techniques for designing, optimizing and fabricating salt pills for both low-- and mid--temperature applications.
Intermittent strong transport of the quasi-adiabatic plasma state.
Kim, Chang-Bae; An, Chan-Yong; Min, Byunghoon
2018-06-05
The dynamics of the fluctuating electrostatic potential and the plasma density couched in the resistive-drift model at nearly adiabatic state are simulated. The linear modes are unstable if the phase difference between the potential and the density are positive. Exponential growth of the random small perturbations slows down due to the nonlinear E × B flows that work in two ways. They regulate the strength of the fluctuations by transferring the energy from the energy-producing scale to neighboring scales and reduce the cross phase at the same time. During quasi-steady relaxation sporadic appearance of very strong turbulent particle flux is observed that is characterized by the flat energy spectrum and the broad secondary peak in the mesoscale of the order of the gyro-radius. Such boost of the transport is found to be caused by presence of relatively large cross phase as the E × B flows are not effective in cancelling out the cross phase.
Evolution of fNL to the adiabatic limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elliston, Joseph; Mulryne, David J.; Seery, David; Tavakol, Reza
2011-11-01
We study inflationary perturbations in multiple-field models, for which ζ typically evolves until all isocurvature modes decay — the "adiabatic limit". We use numerical methods to explore the sensitivity of the local-shape bispectrum to the process by which this limit is achieved, finding an appreciable dependence on model-specific data such as the time at which slow-roll breaks down or the timescale of reheating. In models with a sum-separable potential where the isocurvature modes decay before the end of the slow-roll phase we give an analytic criterion for the asymptotic value of fNL to be large. Other examples can be constructed using a waterfall field to terminate inflation while fNL is transiently large, caused by descent from a ridge or convergence into a valley. We show that these two types of evolution are distinguished by the sign of the bispectrum, and give approximate expressions for the peak fNL.
Adiabatic model and design of a translating field reversed configuration
Intrator, T. P.; Siemon, R. E.; Sieck, P. E.
We apply an adiabatic evolution model to predict the behavior of a field reversed configuration (FRC) during decompression and translation, as well as during boundary compression. Semi-empirical scaling laws, which were developed and benchmarked primarily for collisionless FRCs, are expected to remain valid even for the collisional regime of FRX-L experiment. We use this approach to outline the design implications for FRX-L, the high density translated FRC experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A conical theta coil is used to accelerate the FRC to the largest practical velocity so it can enter a mirror bounded compression region, where it mustmore » be a suitable target for a magnetized target fusion (MTF) implosion. FRX-L provides the physics basis for the integrated MTF plasma compression experiment at the Shiva-Star pulsed power facility at Kirtland Air Force Research Laboratory, where the FRC will be compressed inside a flux conserving cylindrical shell.« less
ADIABATIC MASS LOSS IN BINARY STARS. II. FROM ZERO-AGE MAIN SEQUENCE TO THE BASE OF THE GIANT BRANCH
Ge, Hongwei; Chen, Xuefei; Han, Zhanwen
2015-10-10
In the limit of extremely rapid mass transfer, the response of a donor star in an interacting binary becomes asymptotically one of adiabatic expansion. We survey here adiabatic mass loss from Population I stars (Z = 0.02) of mass 0.10 M{sub ⊙}–100 M{sub ⊙} from the zero-age main sequence to the base of the giant branch, or to central hydrogen exhaustion for lower main sequence stars. The logarithmic derivatives of radius with respect to mass along adiabatic mass-loss sequences translate into critical mass ratios for runaway (dynamical timescale) mass transfer, evaluated here under the assumption of conservative mass transfer. Formore » intermediate- and high-mass stars, dynamical mass transfer is preceded by an extended phase of thermal timescale mass transfer as the star is stripped of most of its envelope mass. The critical mass ratio q{sub ad} (throughout this paper, we follow the convention of defining the binary mass ratio as q ≡ M{sub donor}/M{sub accretor}) above which this delayed dynamical instability occurs increases with advancing evolutionary age of the donor star, by ever-increasing factors for more massive donors. Most intermediate- or high-mass binaries with nondegenerate accretors probably evolve into contact before manifesting this instability. As they approach the base of the giant branch, however, and begin developing a convective envelope, q{sub ad} plummets dramatically among intermediate-mass stars, to values of order unity, and a prompt dynamical instability occurs. Among low-mass stars, the prompt instability prevails throughout main sequence evolution, with q{sub ad} declining with decreasing mass, and asymptotically approaching q{sub ad} = 2/3, appropriate to a classical isentropic n = 3/2 polytrope. Our calculated q{sub ad} values agree well with the behavior of time-dependent models by Chen and Han of intermediate-mass stars initiating mass transfer in the Hertzsprung gap. Application of our results to cataclysmic variables, as
Shortcuts to adiabaticity. Suppression of pair production in driven Dirac dynamics
Deffner, Sebastian
2015-12-21
By achieving effectively adiabatic dynamics in finite time, we have found that it is our ubiquitous goal in virtually all areas of modern physics. So-called shortcuts to adiabaticity refer to a set of methods and techniques that allow us to produce in a short time the same final state that would result from an adiabatic, infinitely slow process. In this paper we generalize one of these methods—the fast-forward technique—to driven Dirac dynamics. We find that our main result shortcuts to adiabaticity for the (1+1)-dimensional Dirac equation are facilitated by a combination of both scalar and pseudoscalar potentials. Our findings aremore » illustrated for two analytically solvable examples, namely charged particles driven in spatially homogeneous and linear vector fields.« less
Adiabatic out-of-equilibrium solutions to the Boltzmann equation in warm inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Ramos, Rudnei O.; Rosa, João G.
2018-02-01
We show that, in warm inflation, the nearly constant Hubble rate and temperature lead to an adiabatic evolution of the number density of particles interacting with the thermal bath, even if thermal equilibrium cannot be maintained. In this case, the number density is suppressed compared to the equilibrium value but the associated phase-space distribution retains approximately an equilibrium form, with a smaller amplitude and a slightly smaller effective temperature. As an application, we explicitly construct a baryogenesis mechanism during warm inflation based on the out-of-equilibrium decay of particles in such an adiabatically evolving state. We show that this generically leads to small baryon isocurvature perturbations, within the bounds set by the Planck satellite. These are correlated with the main adiabatic curvature perturbations but exhibit a distinct spectral index, which may constitute a smoking gun for baryogenesis during warm inflation. Finally, we discuss the prospects for other applications of adiabatically evolving out-of-equilibrium states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter
2012-09-01
We present two simple demonstration experiments recorded with high-speed cameras in the fields of gas dynamics and thermal physics. The experiments feature vapour pressure effects as well as adiabatic cooling observed upon opening a bottle of champagne.
A counterexample and a modification to the adiabatic approximation theorem in quantum mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gingold, H.
1991-01-01
A counterexample to the adiabatic approximation theorem is given when degeneracies are present. A formulation of an alternative version is proposed. A complete asymptotic decomposition for n dimensional self-adjoint Hamiltonian systems is restated and used.
Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Salna, Bridget; Sage, J Timothy; Champion, Paul M
2015-03-21
Analytical models describing the temperature dependence of the deep tunneling rate, useful for proton, hydrogen, or hydride transfer in proteins, are developed and compared. Electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic expressions are presented where the donor-acceptor (D-A) motion is treated either as a quantized vibration or as a classical "gating" distribution. We stress the importance of fitting experimental data on an absolute scale in the electronically adiabatic limit, which normally applies to these reactions, and find that vibrationally enhanced deep tunneling takes place on sub-ns timescales at room temperature for typical H-bonding distances. As noted previously, a small room temperature kinetic isotope effect (KIE) does not eliminate deep tunneling as a major transport channel. The quantum approach focuses on the vibrational sub-space composed of the D-A and hydrogen atom motions, where hydrogen bonding and protein restoring forces quantize the D-A vibration. A Duschinsky rotation is mandated between the normal modes of the reactant and product states and the rotation angle depends on the tunneling particle mass. This tunnel-mass dependent rotation contributes substantially to the KIE and its temperature dependence. The effect of the Duschinsky rotation is solved exactly to find the rate in the electronically non-adiabatic limit and compared to the Born-Oppenheimer (B-O) approximation approach. The B-O approximation is employed to find the rate in the electronically adiabatic limit, where we explore both harmonic and quartic double-well potentials for the hydrogen atom bound states. Both the electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic rates are found to diverge at high temperature unless the proton coupling includes the often neglected quadratic term in the D-A displacement from equilibrium. A new expression is presented for the electronically adiabatic tunnel rate in the classical limit for D-A motion that should be useful to experimentalists working near
Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Salna, Bridget; Sage, J. Timothy
2015-03-21
Analytical models describing the temperature dependence of the deep tunneling rate, useful for proton, hydrogen, or hydride transfer in proteins, are developed and compared. Electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic expressions are presented where the donor-acceptor (D-A) motion is treated either as a quantized vibration or as a classical “gating” distribution. We stress the importance of fitting experimental data on an absolute scale in the electronically adiabatic limit, which normally applies to these reactions, and find that vibrationally enhanced deep tunneling takes place on sub-ns timescales at room temperature for typical H-bonding distances. As noted previously, a small room temperature kinetic isotopemore » effect (KIE) does not eliminate deep tunneling as a major transport channel. The quantum approach focuses on the vibrational sub-space composed of the D-A and hydrogen atom motions, where hydrogen bonding and protein restoring forces quantize the D-A vibration. A Duschinsky rotation is mandated between the normal modes of the reactant and product states and the rotation angle depends on the tunneling particle mass. This tunnel-mass dependent rotation contributes substantially to the KIE and its temperature dependence. The effect of the Duschinsky rotation is solved exactly to find the rate in the electronically non-adiabatic limit and compared to the Born-Oppenheimer (B-O) approximation approach. The B-O approximation is employed to find the rate in the electronically adiabatic limit, where we explore both harmonic and quartic double-well potentials for the hydrogen atom bound states. Both the electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic rates are found to diverge at high temperature unless the proton coupling includes the often neglected quadratic term in the D-A displacement from equilibrium. A new expression is presented for the electronically adiabatic tunnel rate in the classical limit for D-A motion that should be useful to experimentalists
Adiabatic Compression Sensitivity of AF-M315E (Briefing Charts)
2015-07-27
Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Adiabatic Compression Sensitivity of AF - M315E (Briefing Charts) 5a...PA#15402. 14. ABSTRACT The Air Force Research Laboratory developed monopropellant, AF - M315E , has been selected for demonstration under the NASA...Pollux Drive, Edwards AFB, CA 93524-7048. Adiabatic Compression Sensitivity of AF - M315E Phu Quach ERC, Incorporated Air Force Research Laboratory
Measurement-based quantum computation on two-body interacting qubits with adiabatic evolution.
Kyaw, Thi Ha; Li, Ying; Kwek, Leong-Chuan
2014-10-31
A cluster state cannot be a unique ground state of a two-body interacting Hamiltonian. Here, we propose the creation of a cluster state of logical qubits encoded in spin-1/2 particles by adiabatically weakening two-body interactions. The proposal is valid for any spatial dimensional cluster states. Errors induced by thermal fluctuations and adiabatic evolution within finite time can be eliminated ensuring fault-tolerant quantum computing schemes.
2015-11-23
SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The DURIP award provided funds for acquiring a cryogen-free adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator at Syracuse University...The new refrigerator has been installed and is now fully operational. The PI has intensive research efforts in the area of Quantum Information...Aug-2014 24-Aug-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Acquisition of an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator for
"Forward To the Past": Africentric Rites of Passage.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Paul, Jr.
No ceremony or rite exists to usher the African American male youth into proper manhood. Such ceremonies, referred to as rites of passage, mark commonly agreed-upon standards, activities, tasks, and trials that each youth must master to achieve the community-sanctioned title "man." The clear articulation and subsequent implementation of…
Parallel Passages: Contrasting Views from U.S. and Japan.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Becker, James; Wojtan, Linda
Using selected passages from Japanese and U.S. social studies textbooks, this booklet presents contrasting views and interpretations of historical events or circumstances. The textbooks, review, and supplementary materials collected or developed in conjunction with the Japan/U.S. Textbook Study Project provides much of the basic material for the…
Lattice enclosure, cellar passage, main block, looking south. Functioning with ...
Lattice enclosure, cellar passage, main block, looking south. Functioning with vents opened through the masonry in the east and west walls, this partition provided a secure and aerated storage area for foodstuffs used in the nearby kitchen. - Lazaretto Quarantine Station, Wanamaker Avenue and East Second Street, Essington, Delaware County, PA
75 FR 61479 - Western Passage OCGenTM
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-10-05
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12680-004] Western Passage...' express permission. The proposed project would consist of: (1) 2 OCGen\\TM\\ hydrokinetic tidal devices each... turbine-generating units of each device to a shore station; (5) a 2,800-foot-long, 34.5-kilovolt...
17. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad rightofway) ...
17. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad right-of-way) between Paper Machine Building (on left) and Wilder Mill (on right), from inside security fence; view to north. - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA
15. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad rightofway) ...
15. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad right-of-way) between Wilder Mill (on left) and Paper Machine Building (on right), showing collapsed area of stone arch bridge spanning raceway in foreground; view to south - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA
16. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad rightofway) ...
16. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad right-of-way) between Paper Machine Building (on left) and Wilder Mill (on right), from Canal Street; view to north. - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA
Planning Guide for Fish Passage at Pittsburgh District Dams
2013-08-01
attracted to a downstream flow at the entrance gate of the lift. 2) Immigrants pass around a moveable crowder that, when engaged, forces fish into the...might influence fish passage over a large number of sites. REFERENCES Bailey, M. M., J. J. Isely, and W. C. Bridges , Jr. 2004. Movement and
Effect of Altered Prior Knowledge on Passage Recall.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Langer, Judith A.; Nicolich, Mark
A study was conducted to determine: (1) the relationships between prior knowledge and passage recall; (2) the effect of a prereading activity (PReP) on available knowledge; and (3) the effect of the PReP activity on total comprehension scores. The subjects were 161 sixth grade students from a middle class suburban Long Island, New York, public…
Passages: Helping College Students Matriculate through Outdoor Adventure.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stremba, Bob
Since 1985, freshman entering the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Washington, have embarked on a 3-day outdoor adventure program as part of their orientation experience prior to their first semester. Most of the 700-800 freshmen entering the university participate in the program titled "Passages." While half of the group is on…
First-Passage-Time Distribution for Variable-Diffusion Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barney, Liberty; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.
2017-05-01
First-passage-time distribution, which presents the likelihood of a stock reaching a pre-specified price at a given time, is useful in establishing the value of financial instruments and in designing trading strategies. First-passage-time distribution for Wiener processes has a single peak, while that for stocks exhibits a notable second peak within a trading day. This feature has only been discussed sporadically—often dismissed as due to insufficient/incorrect data or circumvented by conversion to tick time—and to the best of our knowledge has not been explained in terms of the underlying stochastic process. It was shown previously that intra-day variations in the market can be modeled by a stochastic process containing two variable-diffusion processes (Hua et al. in, Physica A 419:221-233, 2015). We show here that the first-passage-time distribution of this two-stage variable-diffusion model does exhibit a behavior similar to the empirical observation. In addition, we find that an extended model incorporating overnight price fluctuations exhibits intra- and inter-day behavior similar to those of empirical first-passage-time distributions.
5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage ...
5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage to enter mill (Riverdale Cotton Mill was built into the side of a hill). Partially subterranean area was popular with employees trying to escape the heat of the mill, now an unofficial smoking area. - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Corner of Middle & Lower Streets, Valley, Chambers County, AL
6. STEEL DOORS AND PASSAGES IN SOUTH ROOM OF FAN ...
6. STEEL DOORS AND PASSAGES IN SOUTH ROOM OF FAN HOUSE THAT REGULATE FLOW OF AIR - Sublet Mine No. 6, Fan House, North structure, west side of Willow Creek Valley, east of County Road No. 306, 3 miles north of U.S. Highway 189, Kemmerer, Lincoln County, WY
An image, looking southeast down the passage between E Building ...
An image, looking southeast down the passage between E Building and M Building immediately to the east. The east entrance and the south wing of the building are visible - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH
49 CFR 192.150 - Passage of internal inspection devices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...) of this section, each new transmission line and each replacement of line pipe, valve, fitting, or other line component in a transmission line must be designed and constructed to accommodate the passage... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline...
49 CFR 192.150 - Passage of internal inspection devices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...) of this section, each new transmission line and each replacement of line pipe, valve, fitting, or other line component in a transmission line must be designed and constructed to accommodate the passage... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline...
49 CFR 192.150 - Passage of internal inspection devices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...) of this section, each new transmission line and each replacement of line pipe, valve, fitting, or other line component in a transmission line must be designed and constructed to accommodate the passage... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline...
49 CFR 192.150 - Passage of internal inspection devices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...) of this section, each new transmission line and each replacement of line pipe, valve, fitting, or other line component in a transmission line must be designed and constructed to accommodate the passage... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline...
INTERIOR DETAIL, DINING ROOM PASSAGE AND SERVICE STAIR. THE VISIBLE ...
INTERIOR DETAIL, DINING ROOM PASSAGE AND SERVICE STAIR. THE VISIBLE RETRACTABLE DOOR PANEL AND ITS OPPOSING MATE, NOT VISIBLE IN THE PHOTOGRAPH, COULD BE CLOSED IN ORDER TO CREATE A DISCRETE STAGING AREA FOR SERVICE FUNCTIONS - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Interior view, secondstory passage extending westward from main corridor to ...
Interior view, second-story passage extending westward from main corridor to rooms on the north side of the rotunda in the rotunda extension. The roof and third-floor in this area is completely missing. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Perpendicular Diffusion Coefficient of Comic Rays: The Presence of Weak Adiabatic Focusing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, J. F.; Qin, G.; Ma, Q. M.; Song, T.; Yuan, S. B.
2017-08-01
The influence of adiabatic focusing on particle diffusion is an important topic in astrophysics and plasma physics. In the past, several authors have explored the influence of along-field adiabatic focusing on the parallel diffusion of charged energetic particles. In this paper, using the unified nonlinear transport theory developed by Shalchi and the method of He and Schlickeiser, we derive a new nonlinear perpendicular diffusion coefficient for a non-uniform background magnetic field. This formula demonstrates that the particle perpendicular diffusion coefficient is modified by along-field adiabatic focusing. For isotropic pitch-angle scattering and the weak adiabatic focusing limit, the derived perpendicular diffusion coefficient is independent of the sign of adiabatic focusing characteristic length. For the two-component model, we simplify the perpendicular diffusion coefficient up to the second order of the power series of the adiabatic focusing characteristic quantity. We find that the first-order modifying factor is equal to zero and that the sign of the second order is determined by the energy of the particles.
Perpendicular Diffusion Coefficient of Comic Rays: The Presence of Weak Adiabatic Focusing
Wang, J. F.; Ma, Q. M.; Song, T.
The influence of adiabatic focusing on particle diffusion is an important topic in astrophysics and plasma physics. In the past, several authors have explored the influence of along-field adiabatic focusing on the parallel diffusion of charged energetic particles. In this paper, using the unified nonlinear transport theory developed by Shalchi and the method of He and Schlickeiser, we derive a new nonlinear perpendicular diffusion coefficient for a non-uniform background magnetic field. This formula demonstrates that the particle perpendicular diffusion coefficient is modified by along-field adiabatic focusing. For isotropic pitch-angle scattering and the weak adiabatic focusing limit, the derived perpendicular diffusionmore » coefficient is independent of the sign of adiabatic focusing characteristic length. For the two-component model, we simplify the perpendicular diffusion coefficient up to the second order of the power series of the adiabatic focusing characteristic quantity. We find that the first-order modifying factor is equal to zero and that the sign of the second order is determined by the energy of the particles.« less
'Safe passage': pregnant Iranian Kurdish women's choice of childbirth method.
Shahoei, Roonak; Riji, Haliza Mohd; Saeedi, Zhila Abed
2011-10-01
This article is a report of a grounded theory study of the influence of emotions on women's selection of a method of childbirth. There is substantial evidence to indicate that a pregnant woman's emotions play an important role in the decision-making process of selecting a child delivery method. Despite this, however, there is a notable lack of research about the relationship between pregnant women's emotions and their choice of a childbirth method in developing countries. A qualitative study using the grounded theory approach was conducted. The data were collected from 22 Iranian Kurdish pregnant women in their third trimester using semi-structured interviews. Concurrent data collection and analysis took place between 2008 and 2009. A cumulative process of theoretical sampling and constant comparison was used to identify concepts and then expand, validate, and clarify them. The substantive grounded theory that was identified from data analysis was 'safe passage'. 'Safe passage' involved five phases that were not mutually exclusive in their occurrence. The five phases of the 'safe passage' theory that were identified from the data analysis were: 'safety of baby', 'fear', 'previous experience', 'social support' and 'faith'. The goal of 'safe passage' was to achieve a healthy delivery and to ensure the health of the newborn. 'Safe passage' was a process used to determine how the emotions of pregnant Iranian Kurdish women influenced their choice of the mode of child delivery. More research is needed in this field to develop a body of knowledge beneficial to midwifery education and practice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Formation of Hyaline Cartilage Tissue by Passaged Human Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes.
Bianchi, Vanessa J; Weber, Joanna F; Waldman, Stephen D; Backstein, David; Kandel, Rita A
2017-02-01
When serially passaged in standard monolayer culture to expand cell number, articular chondrocytes lose their phenotype. This results in the formation of fibrocartilage when they are used clinically, thus limiting their use for cartilage repair therapies. Identifying a way to redifferentiate these cells in vitro is critical if they are to be used successfully. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) family members are known to be crucial for regulating differentiation of fetal limb mesenchymal cells and mesenchymal stromal cells to chondrocytes. As passaged chondrocytes acquire a progenitor-like phenotype, the hypothesis of this study was that TGFβ supplementation will stimulate chondrocyte redifferentiation in vitro in serum-free three-dimensional (3D) culture. Human articular chondrocytes were serially passaged twice (P2) in monolayer culture. P2 cells were then placed in high-density (3D) culture on top of membranes (Millipore) and cultured for up to 6 weeks in chemically defined serum-free redifferentiation media (SFRM) in the presence or absence of TGFβ. The tissues were evaluated histologically, biochemically, by immunohistochemical staining, and biomechanically. Passaged human chondrocytes cultured in SFRM supplemented with 10 ng/mL TGFβ3 consistently formed a continuous layer of articular-like cartilage tissue rich in collagen type 2 and aggrecan and lacking collagen type 1 and X in the absence of a scaffold. The tissue developed a superficial zone characterized by expression of lubricin and clusterin with horizontally aligned collagen fibers. This study suggests that passaged human chondrocytes can be used to bioengineer a continuous layer of articular cartilage-like tissue in vitro scaffold free. Further study is required to evaluate their ability to repair cartilage defects in vivo.
Applications and error correction for adiabatic quantum optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pudenz, Kristen
Adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO) is a fast-developing subfield of quantum information processing which holds great promise in the relatively near future. Here we develop an application, quantum anomaly detection, and an error correction code, Quantum Annealing Correction (QAC), for use with AQO. The motivation for the anomaly detection algorithm is the problematic nature of classical software verification and validation (V&V). The number of lines of code written for safety-critical applications such as cars and aircraft increases each year, and with it the cost of finding errors grows exponentially (the cost of overlooking errors, which can be measured in human safety, is arguably even higher). We approach the V&V problem by using a quantum machine learning algorithm to identify charateristics of software operations that are implemented outside of specifications, then define an AQO to return these anomalous operations as its result. Our error correction work is the first large-scale experimental demonstration of quantum error correcting codes. We develop QAC and apply it to USC's equipment, the first and second generation of commercially available D-Wave AQO processors. We first show comprehensive experimental results for the code's performance on antiferromagnetic chains, scaling the problem size up to 86 logical qubits (344 physical qubits) and recovering significant encoded success rates even when the unencoded success rates drop to almost nothing. A broader set of randomized benchmarking problems is then introduced, for which we observe similar behavior to the antiferromagnetic chain, specifically that the use of QAC is almost always advantageous for problems of sufficient size and difficulty. Along the way, we develop problem-specific optimizations for the code and gain insight into the various on-chip error mechanisms (most prominently thermal noise, since the hardware operates at finite temperature) and the ways QAC counteracts them. We finish by showing
Evolution of Self-Organization in Adiabatic Shear Bands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyers, Marc A.; Xue, Qing; Nesterenko, Vitali F.
2001-06-01
The evolution of multiple adiabatic shear bands was investigated in stainless steel, an Fe-15%Cr-15% Ni alloy, titanium, and Ti-6%Al-4%V alloy through the radial collapse of a thick-walled cylinder under high-strain-rate deformation ( 10^4 s-1). The shear-band initiation, propagation, as well as spatial distribution were examined under different global strains(varied from 0 to 0.9). The shear-band spacing is compared with one-dimensional theoretical predictions based on perturbation (Ockendon- Wright and Molinari) and momentum diffusion (Grady-Kipp). The experimentally observed spacing reveals the two-dimensional character of self-organization. These aspects are incorporated into a novel analytical description, in which a distribution of embryos(potential initiation sites) is activated as a function of strain (greater than a threshold) accoding to a Weibull-type distribution. The model incorporates embryo disactivation by stress shielding as well as selective growth of shear bands. The imposed strain rate, embryo distribution, and rates of initiation and propagation determine the evolutionary shear band configurations. The microstructural parameter investigated for stainless steel was the grain size, that was varied from 30 and 500 um. The influence of grain size was found to be minor and through the flow stress. Titanium and Ti-6%Al-4%V displayed drastically different patterns of shear bands,which are explained in terms of the model proposed. Research Supported by US Army Research Office MURI Program (Contract DAAH 04-96-1-0376).
On adiabatic pair potentials of highly charged colloid particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sogami, Ikuo S.
2018-03-01
Generalizing the Debye-Hückel formalism, we develop a new mean field theory for adiabatic pair potentials of highly charged particles in colloid dispersions. The unoccupied volume and the osmotic pressure are the key concepts to describe the chemical and thermodynamical equilibrium of the gas of small ions in the outside region of all of the colloid particles. To define the proper thermodynamic quantities, it is postulated to take an ensemble averaging with respect to the particle configurations in the integrals for their densities consisting of the electric potential satisfying a set of equations that are derived by linearizing the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. With the Fourier integral representation of the electric potential, we calculate first the internal electric energy of the system from which the Helmholtz free energy is obtained through the Legendre transformation. Then, the Gibbs free energy is calculated using both ways of the Legendre transformation with respect to the unoccupied volume and the summation of chemical potentials. The thermodynamic functions provide three types of pair potentials, all of which are inversely proportional to the fraction of the unoccupied volume. At the limit when the fraction factor reduces to unity, the Helmholtz pair potential turns exactly into the well known Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek repulsive potential. The Gibbs pair potential possessing a medium-range strong repulsive part and a long-range weak attractive tail can explain the Schulze-Hardy rule for coagulation in combination with the van der Waals-London potential and describes a rich variety of phenomena of phase transitions observed in the dilute dispersions of highly charged particles.
Classical molecular dynamics simulation of electronically non-adiabatic processes.
Miller, William H; Cotton, Stephen J
2016-12-22
Both classical and quantum mechanics (as well as hybrids thereof, i.e., semiclassical approaches) find widespread use in simulating dynamical processes in molecular systems. For large chemical systems, however, which involve potential energy surfaces (PES) of general/arbitrary form, it is usually the case that only classical molecular dynamics (MD) approaches are feasible, and their use is thus ubiquitous nowadays, at least for chemical processes involving dynamics on a single PES (i.e., within a single Born-Oppenheimer electronic state). This paper reviews recent developments in an approach which extends standard classical MD methods to the treatment of electronically non-adiabatic processes, i.e., those that involve transitions between different electronic states. The approach treats nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom (DOF) equivalently (i.e., by classical mechanics, thereby retaining the simplicity of standard MD), and provides "quantization" of the electronic states through a symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) windowing model. The approach is seen to be capable of treating extreme regimes of strong and weak coupling between the electronic states, as well as accurately describing coherence effects in the electronic DOF (including the de-coherence of such effects caused by coupling to the nuclear DOF). A survey of recent applications is presented to illustrate the performance of the approach. Also described is a newly developed variation on the original SQC model (found universally superior to the original) and a general extension of the SQC model to obtain the full electronic density matrix (at no additional cost/complexity).
Pracheil, Brenda M.; DeRolph, Christopher R.; Schramm, Michael P.; ...
2016-01-01
One-way connectivity maintained by fish passing through hydropower turbines in fragmented rivers can be important to population dynamics, but can introduce a new and significant source of mortality due to turbine-associated mortality. Sources of mortality during downstream turbine passage can come from several sources including blade strike, shear forces, cavitation, or pressure decreases, and parsing the contributions of these individual forces is important for advancing and deploying turbines that minimize these impacts to fishes. We used a national hydropower database and conducted a systematic review of the literature to accomplish three goals: (1) report on the spatial distribution of turbinemore » types and generation capacities in the USA, (2) determine fish mortality rates among turbine types and fish species and (3) examine relationships between physical forces similar to those encountered during fish turbine passage and fish injury and mortality. We found that while Francis turbines generate 56% of all US hydropower and have the highest associated fish mortality of any turbine type, these turbines are proportionally understudied compared to less-common and less injury-associated Kaplan turbines, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. While juvenile salmonid species in actual or simulated Kaplan turbine conditions were the most commonly studied, the highest mortality rates were reported in percid fishes passing through Francis turbines. Also, although there are several mechanisms of turbine-associated injury, barotrauma was the most commonly studied with swim bladder rupture, exopthalmia, eye gas bubbles, and prolapsed cloaca being the most serious symptoms associated with rapid pressure decreases. Future studies should focus on understanding which species are most at-risk to turbine passage mortality and, subsequently, increasing the diversity of taxonomy and turbine types in evaluations of turbine mortality.« less
Pracheil, Brenda M.; DeRolph, Christopher R.; Schramm, Michael P.
One-way connectivity maintained by fish passing through hydropower turbines in fragmented rivers can be important to population dynamics, but can introduce a new and significant source of mortality due to turbine-associated mortality. Sources of mortality during downstream turbine passage can come from several sources including blade strike, shear forces, cavitation, or pressure decreases, and parsing the contributions of these individual forces is important for advancing and deploying turbines that minimize these impacts to fishes. We used a national hydropower database and conducted a systematic review of the literature to accomplish three goals: (1) report on the spatial distribution of turbinemore » types and generation capacities in the USA, (2) determine fish mortality rates among turbine types and fish species and (3) examine relationships between physical forces similar to those encountered during fish turbine passage and fish injury and mortality. We found that while Francis turbines generate 56% of all US hydropower and have the highest associated fish mortality of any turbine type, these turbines are proportionally understudied compared to less-common and less injury-associated Kaplan turbines, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. While juvenile salmonid species in actual or simulated Kaplan turbine conditions were the most commonly studied, the highest mortality rates were reported in percid fishes passing through Francis turbines. Also, although there are several mechanisms of turbine-associated injury, barotrauma was the most commonly studied with swim bladder rupture, exopthalmia, eye gas bubbles, and prolapsed cloaca being the most serious symptoms associated with rapid pressure decreases. Future studies should focus on understanding which species are most at-risk to turbine passage mortality and, subsequently, increasing the diversity of taxonomy and turbine types in evaluations of turbine mortality.« less
Sindhupriya, M; Saravanan, P; Otta, S K; Amarnath, C Bala; Arulraj, R; Bhuvaneswari, T; Praveena, P Ezhil; Jithendran, K P; Ponniah, A G
2014-08-21
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replicates rapidly, can be extremely pathogenic and is a common cause of mass mortality in cultured shrimp. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences present in the open reading frame (ORF)94, ORF125 and ORF75 regions of the WSSV genome have been used widely as genetic markers in epidemiological studies. However, reports that VNTRs might evolve rapidly following even a single transmission through penaeid shrimp or other crustacean hosts have created confusion as to how VNTR data is interpreted. To examine VNTR stability again, 2 WSSV strains (PmTN4RU and LvAP11RU) with differing ORF94 tandem repeat numbers and slight differences in apparent virulence were passaged sequentially 6 times through black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, Indian white shrimp Feneropenaeus indicus or Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. PCR analyses to genotype the ORF94, ORF125 and ORF75 VNTRs did not identify any differences from either of the 2 parental WSSV strains after multiple passages through any of the shrimp species. These data were confirmed by sequence analysis and indicate that the stability of the genome regions containing these VNTRs is quite high at least for the WSSV strains, hosts and number of passages examined and that the VNTR sequences thus represent useful genetic markers for studying WSSV epidemiology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Ma, Q.; Li, J.; Bortnik, J.; Nishimura, Y.; Chen, L.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.
2016-09-01
Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain relativistic electron flux depletions (dropouts) in the Earth's outer radiation belt during storm times: adiabatic expansion of electron drift shells due to a decrease in magnetic field strength, magnetopause shadowing and subsequent outward radial diffusion, and precipitation into the atmosphere (driven by EMIC wave scattering). Which mechanism predominates in causing electron dropouts commonly observed in the outer radiation belt is still debatable. In the present study, we evaluate the physical mechanism that may be primarily responsible for causing the sudden change in relativistic electron pitch angle distributions during a dropout event observed by Van Allen Probes during the main phase of the 27 February 2014 storm. During this event, the phase space density of ultrarelativistic (>1 MeV) electrons was depleted by more than 1 order of magnitude over the entire radial extent of the outer radiation belt (3 < L* < 5) in less than 6 h after the passage of an interplanetary shock. We model the electron pitch angle distribution under a compressed magnetic field topology based on actual solar wind conditions. Although these ultrarelativistic electrons exhibit highly anisotropic (peaked in 90°), energy-dependent pitch angle distributions, which appear to be associated with the typical EMIC wave scattering, comparison of the modeled electron distribution to electron measurements indicates that drift shell splitting is responsible for this rapid change in electron pitch angle distributions. This further indicates that magnetopause loss is the predominant cause of the electron dropout right after the shock arrival.
Hatry, Charles; Thiem, Jason D; Binder, Thomas R; Hatin, Daniel; Dumont, Pierre; Stamplecoskie, Keith M; Molina, Juan M; Smokorowski, Karen E; Cooke, Steven J
2014-01-01
Our understanding of biological criteria to inform fish passage design is limited, partially due to the lack of understanding of biological motivators, cues, and constraints, as well as a lack of biological performance evaluations of structures once they are built. The Vianney-Legendre vertical slot fishway on the Richelieu River, Quebec, Canada, passes large numbers of migrating redhorse (Moxostoma spp.) upriver to spawning grounds each year. We evaluated the physiological capacity and relative swimming ability of three redhorse species (Moxostoma anisurum, Moxostoma carinatum, Moxostoma macrolepidotum; silver, river, and shorthead redhorse, respectively) to determine how these biotic factors relate to variation in fishway passage success and duration. Shorthead redhorse had higher maximum metabolic rates and were faster swimmers than silver and river redhorse at their species-specific peak migration temperatures. Blood lactate and glucose concentrations recovered more quickly for river redhorse than for silver and shorthead redhorse, and river redhorse placed second in terms of metabolic recovery and swim speed. Interestingly, fish sampled from the top of the fishway had nearly identical lactate, glucose, and pH values compared to control fish. Using passive integrated transponders in 2010 and 2012, we observed that passage success and duration were highly variable among redhorse species and were not consistent among years, suggesting that other factors such as water temperature and river flows may modulate passage success. Clearly, additional research is needed to understand how organismal performance, environmental conditions, and other factors (including abundance of conspecifics and other comigrants) interact with fishway features to dictate which fish will be successful and to inform research of future fishways. Our research suggests that there may be an opportunity for a rapid assessment approach where fish chased to exhaustion to determine maximal values
Andronesi, Ovidiu C.; Ramadan, Saadallah; Mountford, Carolyn E.; Sorensen, A. Gregory
2011-01-01
Novel low-power adiabatic sequences are demonstrated for in-vivo localized two-dimensional (2D) correlated MR spectroscopy, such as COSY (Correlated Spectroscopy) and TOCSY (Total Correlated Spectroscopy). The design is based on three new elements for in-vivo 2D MRS: the use of gradient modulated constant adiabaticity GOIA-W(16,4) pulses for i) localization (COSY and TOCSY) and ii) mixing (TOCSY), and iii) the use of longitudinal mixing (z-filter) for magnetization transfer during TOCSY. GOIA-W(16,4) provides accurate signal localization, and more importantly, lowers the SAR for both TOCSY mixing and localization. Longitudinal mixing improves considerably (five-folds) the efficiency of TOCSY transfer. These are markedly different from previous 1D editing TOCSY sequences using spatially non-selective pulses and transverse mixing. Fully adiabatic (adiabatic mixing with adiabatic localization) and semi-adiabatic (adiabatic mixing with non-adiabatic localization) methods for 2D TOCSY are compared. Results are presented for simulations, phantoms, and in-vivo 2D spectra from healthy volunteers and patients with brain tumors obtained on 3T clinical platforms equipped with standard hardware. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of in-vivo adiabatic 2D TOCSY and fully adiabatic 2D COSY. It is expected that these methodological developments will advance the in-vivo applicability of multi(spectrally)dimensional MRS to reliably identify metabolic biomarkers. PMID:20890988
Migratory behavior of adult sea lamprey and cumulative passage performance through four fishways
Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Shi, Xiaotao; Haro, Alexander
2017-01-01
This article describes a study of PIT-tagged sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) ascending four fishways comprising three designs at two dams on the Connecticut River, USA. Migration between dams was rapid (median migration rate = 23 km·day−1). Movement through the fishways was much slower, however (median = 0.02–0.33 km·day−1). Overall delay at dams was substantial (median = 13.6–14.6 days); many fish failed to pass (percent passage ranged from 29% to 55%, depending on fishway), and repeated passage attempts compounded delay for both passers and failers. Cox regression revealed that fishway entry rates were influenced by flow, temperature, and diel cycle, with most lampreys entering at night and at elevated flows, but with no apparent effect of sex or length. Overall delay was influenced by slow movement through the fishways, but repeated failures were the primary factor determining delay. These data suggest that although some lamprey were able to pass fishways, they did so with difficulty, and delays incurred as they attempted to pass may act to limit their distribution within their native range.
The Effect on the Lunar Exosphere of a Coroual Mass Ejection Passage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Killen, R. M.; Hurley, D. M.; Farrell, W. M.
2011-01-01
Solar wind bombardment onto exposed surfaces in the solar system produces an energetic component to the exospheres about those bodies. The solar wind energy and composition are highly dependent on the origin of the plasma. Using the measured composition of the slow wind, fast wind, solar energetic particle (SEP) population, and coronal mass ejection (CME), broken down into their various components, we have estimated the total sputter yield for each type of solar wind. We show that the heavy ion component, especially the He++ and 0+7 can greatly enhance the total sputter yield during times when the heavy ion population is enhanced. Folding in the flux, we compute the source rate for several species during different types of solar wind. Finally, we use a Monte Carlo model developed to simulate the time-dependent evolution of the lunar exosphere to study the sputtering component of the exosphere under the influence of a CME passage. We simulate the background exosphere of Na, K, Ca, and Mg. Simulations indicate that sputtering increases the mass of those constituents in the exosphere a few to a few tens times the background values. The escalation of atmospheric density occurs within an hour of onset The decrease in atmospheric density after the CME passage is also rapid, although takes longer than the increase, Sputtered neutral particles have a high probability of escaping the moon,by both Jeans escape and photo ionization. Density and spatial distribution of the exosphere can be tested with the LADEE mission.
Boggs, David Lee; Baraszu, Daniel James; Foulkes, David Mark; Gomes, Enio Goyannes
1998-01-01
An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine's crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages.
Boggs, D.L.; Baraszu, D.J.; Foulkes, D.M.; Gomes, E.G.
1998-12-29
An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine`s crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages. 4 figs.
Performance of fish passage structures at upstream barriers to migration
Bunt, C.M.; Castro-Santos, T.; Haro, A.
2012-01-01
Attraction and passage efficiency were reviewed and compared from 19 monitoring studies that produced data for evaluations of pool-and-weir, Denil, vertical-slot and nature-like fishways. Data from 26 species of anadromous and potamodromous fishes from six countries were separated by year and taxonomic family into a matrix with 101 records. Attraction performance was highly variable for the following fishway structures: pool-and-weir (attraction range = 29–100%, mean = 77%, median = 81%), vertical-slot (attraction range = 0–100%, mean = 63%, median = 80%), Denil (attraction range = 21–100%, mean = 61%, median = 57%) and nature-like (attraction range = 0–100%, mean = 48%, median = 50%). Mean passage efficiency was inversely related to mean attraction efficiency by fishway structure type, with the highest passage for nature-like fishways (range = 0–100%, mean = 70%, median = 86%), followed by Denil (range = 0–97%, mean = 51%, median = 38%), vertical-slot (range = 0–100%, mean = 45%, median = 43%) and pool-and-weir (range = 0–100%, mean = 40%, median = 34%). Principal components analysis and logistic regression modelling indicated that variation in fish attraction was driven by biological characteristics of the fish that were studied, whereas variation in fish passage was related to fishway type, slope and elevation change. This meta-analysis revealed that the species of fish monitored and structural design of the fishways have strong implications for both attraction and passage performance, and in most cases, existing data are not sufficient to support design recommendations. Many more fishway evaluations are needed over a range of species, fishway types and configurations to characterize, to optimize and to design new fishways. Furthermore, these studies must be performed in a consistent manner to identify the relative contributions of fish attraction and
Griffiths, Sarah; Baraniak, Priya R; Copland, Ian B; Nerem, Robert M; McDevitt, Todd C
2013-12-01
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are clinically useful because of their immunomodulatory and regenerative properties, but MSC therapies are limited by the loss of self-renewal and cell plasticity associated with ex vivo expansion culture and, on transplantation, increased immunogenicity from xenogen exposure during culture. Recently, pooled human platelet lysate (hPL) has been used as a culture supplement to promote MSC growth; however, the effects of hPL on MSCs after fetal bovine serum (FBS) exposure remain unknown. MSCs were cultured in medium containing FBS or hPL for up to 16 passages, and cell size, doubling time and immunophenotype were determined. MSC senescence was assessed by means of a fluorometric assay for endogenous β-galactosidase expression. MSCs cultured with FBS for different numbers of passages were switched to hPL conditions to evaluate the ability of hPL to "rescue" the proliferative capacity of MSCs. hPL culture resulted in more rapid cell proliferation at earlier passages (passage 5 or earlier) than remove FBS; by day 4, hPL (5%) yielded an MSC doubling time of 1.28 days compared with 1.52 days in 16% FBS. MSCs cultured first in FBS and switched to hPL proliferated more and demonstrated less β-galactosidase production and smaller cell sizes than remove MSCs continuously propagated in FBS. hPL enables rapid expansion of MSCs without adversely affecting immunophenotype. hPL culture of aged and senescent MSCs demonstrated cellular rejuvenation, reflected by decreased doubling time and smaller cell size. These results suggest that expansion of MSCs in hPL after FBS exposure can enhance cell phenotype and proliferative capacity. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effects of Drake Passage on the Ocean's Thermal and Mechanical Energy Budget in a Coupled AOGCM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von der Heydt, A. S.; Viebahn, J. P.
2016-12-01
During the Cenozoic Earth's climate has undergone a major long-term transition from `greenhouse' to `icehouse' conditions with extensive ice sheets in the polar regions of both hemispheres. The gradual cooling may be seen as response to the overall slowly decreasing atmospheric CO2-concentration due to weathering processes in the Earth System, however, continental geometry has changed considerably over this period and the long-term gradual trend was interrupted, by several rapid transitions and periods where temperature and greenhouse gas concentrations seem to be decoupled. The Eocene-Oligocene boundary ( 34 Ma, E/O) and mid-Miocene climatic transition ( 13 Ma, MCT) reflect major phases of Antarctic ice sheet build-up and global climate cooling, while Northern Hemisphere ice sheets developed much later ( 2.7Ma). Thresholds in atmospheric CO2-concentration together with feedback mechanisms related to land ice formation are among the favoured mechanisms of these climatic transitions, while the long-proposed ocean circulation changes caused by opening of tectonic gateways seem to play a less direct role. The opening of the Southern Ocean gateways, however, has eventually led to the development of today's strongest ocean current, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, playing a major role in the transport properties of the global ocean circulation. The overall state of the global ocean circulation, therefore, must precondition the climate system to dramatic events such as major ice sheet formation. Closing Drake Passage in ocean-only and coupled climate models under otherwise present-day boundary conditions has become a classic experiment, indicating that there exists a considerable uncertainty in the climate response of those models to a closed Drake Passage. Here we quantify the climate response to a closed Drake Passage in a state-of-the-art coupled climate model (CESM). We show that the ocean gateway mechanism is robust in the sense that the equatorward expansion of
Mule deer passage beneath an overland coal conveyor
Greenwood, C.L.; Dalton, L.B.
1984-07-31
Presently, information pertaining to migration and daily movement patterns of big game in relation to overland conveyors or large diameter pipelines is sparse. A literature review showed that moose, caribou, reindeer, and dall sheep will pass beneath or over large diameter pipeline systems. But no information was found relative to big game crossing coal conveyor systems. Mule deer passage beneath an overland coal conveyor in Carbon County, Utah, was studied during spring 1981. Deer avoided crossing at underpass opportunities where the clearance was less than 50 cm. Clearances between 50 and 90 cm were selected for crossing. Deer passed beneathmore » the conveyor during day and nighttime conditions and while the conveyor was either operating or idle. Recommendations are discussed for designing conveyors and pipelines to facilitate big game passage. 13 references, 2 tables.« less
First-passage and risk evaluation under stochastic volatility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masoliver, Jaume; Perelló, Josep
2009-07-01
We solve the first-passage problem for the Heston random diffusion model. We obtain exact analytical expressions for the survival and the hitting probabilities to a given level of return. We study several asymptotic behaviors and obtain approximate forms of these probabilities which prove, among other interesting properties, the nonexistence of a mean-first-passage time. One significant result is the evidence of extreme deviations—which implies a high risk of default—when certain dimensionless parameter, related to the strength of the volatility fluctuations, increases. We confront the model with empirical daily data and we observe that it is able to capture a very broad domain of the hitting probability. We believe that this may provide an effective tool for risk control which can be readily applicable to real markets both for portfolio management and trading strategies.
Observed and Simulated Eddy Diffusivity Upstream of the Drake Passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tulloch, R.; Ferrari, R. M.; Marshall, J.
2012-12-01
Estimates of eddy diffusivity in the Southern Ocean are poorly constrained due to lack of observations. We compare the first direct estimate of isopycnal eddy diffusivity upstream of the Drake Passage (from Ledwell et al. 2011) with a numerical simulation. The estimate is computed from a point tracer release as part of the Diapycnal and Isopycnal Mixing Experiment in the Southern Ocean (DIMES). We find that the observational diffusivity estimate of about 500m^2/s at 1500m depth is close to that computed in a data-constrained, 1/20th of a degree simulation of the Drake Passage region. This tracer estimate also agrees with Lagrangian float calculations in the model. The role of mean flow suppression of eddy diffusivity at shallower depths will also be discussed.
Anchoring effect on first passage process in Taiwan financial market
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hsing; Liao, Chi-Yo; Ko, Jing-Yuan; Lih, Jiann-Shing
2017-07-01
Empirical analysis of the price fluctuations of financial markets has received extensive attention because a substantial amount of financial market data has been collected and because of advances in data-mining techniques. Price fluctuation trends can help investors to make informed trading decisions, but such decisions may also be affected by a psychological factors-the anchoring effect. This study explores the intraday price time series of Taiwan futures, and applies diffusion model and quantitative methods to analyze the relationship between the anchoring effect and price fluctuations during first passage process. Our results indicate that power-law scaling and anomalous diffusion for stock price fluctuations are related to the anchoring effect. Moreover, microscopic price fluctuations before switching point in first passage process correspond with long-term price fluctuations of Taiwan's stock market. We find that microscopic trends could provide useful information for understanding macroscopic trends in stock markets.
First passage properties of a generalized Pólya urn
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kearney, Michael J.; Martin, Richard J.
2016-12-01
A generalized two-component Pólya urn process, parameterized by a variable α , is studied in terms of the likelihood that due to fluctuations the initially smaller population in a scenario of competing population growth eventually becomes the larger, or is the larger after a certain passage of time. By casting the problem as an inhomogeneous directed random walk we quantify this role-reversal phenomenon through the first passage probability that equality in size is first reached at a given time, and the related exit probability that equality in size is reached no later than a given time. Using an embedding technique, exact results are obtained which complement existing results and provide new insights into behavioural changes (akin to phase transitions) which occur at defined values of α .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faulkner, Ty; Miller, Isaac; Raston, Paul L.
2018-01-01
We report high-resolution infrared spectra of OCS isotopologues embedded in helium nanodroplets that were recorded with a newly built spectrometer. For the normal isotopologue, we observed the relatively weak third bending overtone band, in addition to new high J transitions in the C-O stretching fundamental, which has previously been investigated by diode laser spectroscopy [S. Grebenev et al., J. Chem. Phys. 112, 4485 (2000)]. Similar to the gas phase, the overtone band is (only) 45 cm-1 higher in energy than the fundamental, and this leads to additional broadening due to rapid vibrational relaxation that is accompanied by the creation of real/virtual phonon excitations. We also observed spectra in the C-O stretching fundamental for several minor isotopologues of OCS, including 18OCS, O13CS, and OC33S, in addition to some new peaks for OC34S. A rovibrational analysis allowed for determination of the moment of inertia of helium (ΔIHe) that couples to the rotation of OCS for each isotopologue. In the context of the adiabatic following approximation, the helium density structure that follows the rotation of OCS should essentially remain unchanged between the isotopologues, i.e., there should be no dependence of ΔIHe on the gas phase moment of inertia of OCS (IG). While this behavior was expected for the "heavy" OCS rotor investigated here, we instead found an approximately linear 1:1 relation between ΔIHe and IG, which suggests partial breakdown of the adiabatic following approximation, making OCS the heaviest molecule for which evidence for this effect has been obtained.
60. Interior view, passage, north elevation. Though made larger over ...
60. Interior view, passage, north elevation. Though made larger over time, this circulation space was present since the house's earliest manifestation. The attic stair and closet date from phase II construction (After the mid-1740's). Similarly to the study chamber, the closet on the right was fitted into a former exterior window opening. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Upper Oceanic Energy Response to Tropical Cyclone Passage
2013-04-15
insolation, and the upper ocean stratification . The importance of the upper ocean energy content to TCs, particularly their intensification, has been...similar to those of Shay and Brewster (2010), who showed that the stable stratification of the east Pacific also makes the 100-m mixed layer depth a poor... The upper oceanic temporal response to tropical cyclone (TC) passage is investigated using a 6-yr daily record of data-driven analyses of two
Is motivation important to brook trout passage through culverts?
Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.
2017-01-01
Culverts can restrict movement of stream-dwelling fish. Motivation to enter and ascend these structures is an essential precursor for successful passage. However, motivation is challenging to quantify. Here, we use attempt rate to assess motivation of 447 brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) entering three culverts under a range of hydraulic, environmental, and biological conditions. A passive integrated transponder system allowed for the identification of passage attempts and success of individual fish. Attempt rate was quantified using time-to-event analysis allowing for time-varying covariates and recurrent events. Attempt rate was greatest during the spawning period, at elevated discharge, at dusk, and for longer fish. It decreased during the day and with increasing number of conspecifics downstream of the culvert. Results also show a positive correlation between elevated motivation and successful passage. This study enhances understanding of factors influencing brook trout motivation to ascend culverts and shows that attempt rate is a dynamic phenomenon, variable over time and among individuals. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate other species’ motivation to pass natural or anthropogenic barriers.
Design for fish passage at roadway-stream crossings : synthesis report.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2007-06-01
Cataloging and synthesizing existing methods for the design of roadway-stream crossings for fish passage began in : January 2005 with an extensive literature review covering the topics of culvert design and assessment to facilitate : fish passage. A ...
Computational study of fish passage through circular culverts in Northeast Ohio.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2013-11-01
An investigation has been carried out in Northeast Ohio to determine the percentage of culverts that act : as barriers for fish passage and to identify the design parameters that can be associated with passage : success through stream simulation in t...
Analysis of magnetically immersed electron guns with non-adiabatic fields.
Pikin, Alexander; Alessi, James G; Beebe, Edward N; Raparia, Deepak; Ritter, John
2016-11-01
Electron diode guns, which have strongly varying magnetic or electric fields in a cathode-anode gap, were investigated in order to generate laminar electron beams with high current density using magnetically immersed guns. By creating a strongly varying radial electric field in a cathode-anode gap of the electron gun, it was demonstrated that the optical properties of the gun can be significantly altered, which allows the generation of a laminar, high-current electron beam with relatively low magnetic field on the cathode. The relatively high magnetic compression of the electron beam achieved by this method is important for producing electron beams with high current density. A similar result can be obtained by inducing a strong variation of the magnetic field in a cathode-anode gap. It was observed that creating a dip in the axial magnetic field in the cathode-anode gap of an adiabatic electron gun has an optical effect similar to guns with strong variation of radial electric field. By analyzing the electron trajectories angles and presenting the results in a gun performance map, different geometries of magnetically immersed electron guns with non-adiabatic fields are compared with each other and with a more traditional adiabatic electron gun. Some advantages and limitations of guns with non-adiabatic fields are outlined. The tests' results of a non-adiabatic electron gun with modified magnetic field are presented.
Analysis of magnetically immersed electron guns with non-adiabatic fields
Pikin, Alexander; Alessi, James G.; Beebe, Edward N.
Electron diode guns, which have strongly varying magnetic or electric fields in a cathode-anode gap, were investigated in order to generate laminar electron beams with high current density using magnetically immersed guns. By creating a strongly varying radial electric field in a cathode-anode gap of the electron gun, it was demonstrated that the optical properties of the gun can be significantly altered, which allows the generation of a laminar, high-current electron beam with relatively low magnetic field on the cathode. The relatively high magnetic compression of the electron beam achieved by this method is important for producing electron beams withmore » high current density. A similar result can be obtained by inducing a strong variation of the magnetic field in a cathode-anode gap. It was observed that creating a dip in the axial magnetic field in the cathode-anode gap of an adiabatic electron gun has an optical effect similar to guns with strong variation of radial electric field. By analyzing the electron trajectories angles and presenting the results in a gun performance map different geometries of magnetically immersed electron guns with non-adiabatic fields are compared with each other and with a more traditional adiabatic electron gun. Some advantages and limitations of guns with non-adiabatic fields are outlined. In conclusion, the tests results of non-adiabatic electron gun with modified magnetic field are presented.« less
Analysis of magnetically immersed electron guns with non-adiabatic fields
Pikin, Alexander; Alessi, James G.; Beebe, Edward N.; ...
2016-11-08
Electron diode guns, which have strongly varying magnetic or electric fields in a cathode-anode gap, were investigated in order to generate laminar electron beams with high current density using magnetically immersed guns. By creating a strongly varying radial electric field in a cathode-anode gap of the electron gun, it was demonstrated that the optical properties of the gun can be significantly altered, which allows the generation of a laminar, high-current electron beam with relatively low magnetic field on the cathode. The relatively high magnetic compression of the electron beam achieved by this method is important for producing electron beams withmore » high current density. A similar result can be obtained by inducing a strong variation of the magnetic field in a cathode-anode gap. It was observed that creating a dip in the axial magnetic field in the cathode-anode gap of an adiabatic electron gun has an optical effect similar to guns with strong variation of radial electric field. By analyzing the electron trajectories angles and presenting the results in a gun performance map different geometries of magnetically immersed electron guns with non-adiabatic fields are compared with each other and with a more traditional adiabatic electron gun. Some advantages and limitations of guns with non-adiabatic fields are outlined. In conclusion, the tests results of non-adiabatic electron gun with modified magnetic field are presented.« less
Trade-off between speed and cost in shortcuts to adiabaticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Steve
Recent years have witnessed a surge of interest in the study of thermal nano-machines that are capable of converting disordered forms of energy into useful work. It has been shown for both classical and quantum systems that external drivings can allow a system to evolve adiabatically even when driven in finite time, a technique commonly known as shortcuts to adiabaticity. It was suggested to use such external drivings to render the unitary processes of a thermodynamic cycle quantum adiabatic, while being performed in finite time. However, implementing an additional external driving requires resources that should be accounted for. Furthermore, and in line with natural intuition, these transformations should not be achievable in arbitrarily short times. First, we will present a computable measure of the cost of a shortcut to adiabaticity. Using this, we then examine the speed with which a quantum system can be driven. As a main result, we will establish a rigorous link between this speed, the quantum speed limit, and the (energetic) cost of implementing such a shortcut to adiabaticity. Interestingly, this link elucidates a trade-off between speed and cost, namely that instantaneous manipulation is impossible as it requires an infinite cost.
Adapting the traveling salesman problem to an adiabatic quantum computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warren, Richard H.
2013-04-01
We show how to guide a quantum computer to select an optimal tour for the traveling salesman. This is significant because it opens a rapid solution method for the wide range of applications of the traveling salesman problem, which include vehicle routing, job sequencing and data clustering.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frye, Elizabeth M.; Gosky, Ross
2012-01-01
The present study investigated the relationship between rapid recognition of individual words (Word Recognition Test) and two measures of contextual reading: (1) grade-level Passage Reading Test (IRI passage) and (2) performance on standardized STAR Reading Test. To establish if time of presentation on the word recognition test was a factor in…
Method of creating a controlled interior surface configuration of passages within a substrate
Dembowski, Peter V.; Schilke, Peter W.
1983-01-01
A method of creating a controlled interior surface configuration of passages within a substrate, particularly cooling passages of nozzles or buckets of a gas turbine, involves the hot isostatic pressing of a leachable passage insert whose surface carries the female image of the desired interior surface configuration inside the substrate followed by leaching of the insert from the substrate.
Forgetting of Prose as a Function of Interpolated Passage Content and Organization.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Andre, Thomas; And Others
In three studies subjects read two successive passages and then were tested for retention of the first. Each passage described the characteristics of a series of entities (diseases or countries) along a series of dimensions (symptoms, cause, etc., or climate, soil type, etc.). The first passage described five diseases and was organized by name;…
77 FR 28253 - Safety Zone; America's Cup World Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-05-14
...-AA00 Safety Zone; America's Cup World Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI AGENCY: Coast Guard... navigable waters of the East Passage, Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, during the America's Cup World Series... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Safety Zones; America's Cup World Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, B. V.; Wagner, J. H.; Steuber, G. D.
1993-01-01
An experimental program was conducted to investigate heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of rotating multipass passages, for configurations and dimensions typical of modem turbine blades. This experimental program is one part of the NASA Hot Section Technology (HOST) Initiative, which has as its overall objective the development and verification of improved analysis methods that will form the basis for a design system that will produce turbine components with improved durability. The objective of this program was the generation of a data base of heat transfer and pressure loss data required to develop heat transfer correlations and to assess computational fluid dynamic techniques for rotating coolant passages. The experimental work was broken down into two phases. Phase 1 consists of experiments conducted in a smooth wall large scale heat transfer model. A detailed discussion of these results was presented in volume 1 of a NASA Report. In Phase 2 the large scale model was modified to investigate the effects of skewed and normal passage turbulators. The results of Phase 2 along with comparison to Phase 1 is the subject of this Volume 2 NASA Report.
Rabi oscillations produced by adiabatic pulse due to initial atomic coherence.
Svidzinsky, Anatoly A; Eleuch, Hichem; Scully, Marlan O
2017-01-01
If an electromagnetic pulse is detuned from atomic transition frequency by amount Δ>1/τ, where τ is the turn-on time of the pulse, then atomic population adiabatically follows the pulse intensity without causing Rabi oscillations. Here we show that, if initially, the atom has nonzero coherence, then the adiabatic pulse yields Rabi oscillations of atomic population ρ_{aa}(t), and we obtain analytical solutions for ρ_{aa}(t). Our findings can be useful for achieving generation of coherent light in the backward direction in the QASER scheme in which modulation of the coupling between light and atoms is produced by Rabi oscillations. Initial coherence can be created by sending a short resonant pulse into the medium followed by a long adiabatic pulse, which leads to the light amplification in the backward direction.
Bifurcation-based adiabatic quantum computation with a nonlinear oscillator network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goto, Hayato
2016-02-01
The dynamics of nonlinear systems qualitatively change depending on their parameters, which is called bifurcation. A quantum-mechanical nonlinear oscillator can yield a quantum superposition of two oscillation states, known as a Schrödinger cat state, via quantum adiabatic evolution through its bifurcation point. Here we propose a quantum computer comprising such quantum nonlinear oscillators, instead of quantum bits, to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems. The nonlinear oscillator network finds optimal solutions via quantum adiabatic evolution, where nonlinear terms are increased slowly, in contrast to conventional adiabatic quantum computation or quantum annealing, where quantum fluctuation terms are decreased slowly. As a result of numerical simulations, it is concluded that quantum superposition and quantum fluctuation work effectively to find optimal solutions. It is also notable that the present computer is analogous to neural computers, which are also networks of nonlinear components. Thus, the present scheme will open new possibilities for quantum computation, nonlinear science, and artificial intelligence.
Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation in linear system-bath coupling
Sun, Chunfang; Wang, Gangcheng; Wu, Chunfeng; Liu, Haodi; Feng, Xun-Li; Chen, Jing-Ling; Xue, Kang
2016-01-01
Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation in decoherence-free subspaces protects quantum information from control imprecisions and decoherence. For the non-collective decoherence that each qubit has its own bath, we show the implementations of two non-commutable holonomic single-qubit gates and one holonomic nontrivial two-qubit gate that compose a universal set of non-adiabatic holonomic quantum gates in decoherence-free-subspaces of the decoupling group, with an encoding rate of . The proposed scheme is robust against control imprecisions and the non-collective decoherence, and its non-adiabatic property ensures less operation time. We demonstrate that our proposed scheme can be realized by utilizing only two-qubit interactions rather than many-qubit interactions. Our results reduce the complexity of practical implementation of holonomic quantum computation in experiments. We also discuss the physical implementation of our scheme in coupled microcavities. PMID:26846444
Quantum state conversion in opto-electro-mechanical systems via shortcut to adiabaticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Xiao; Liu, Bao-Jie; Shao, L.-B.; Zhang, Xin-Ding; Xue, Zheng-Yuan
2017-09-01
Adiabatic processes have found many important applications in modern physics, the distinct merit of which is that accurate control over process timing is not required. However, such processes are slow, which limits their application in quantum computation, due to the limited coherent times of typical quantum systems. Here, we propose a scheme to implement quantum state conversion in opto-electro-mechanical systems via a shortcut to adiabaticity, where the process can be greatly speeded up while precise timing control is still not necessary. In our scheme, by modifying only the coupling strength, we can achieve fast quantum state conversion with high fidelity, where the adiabatic condition does not need to be met. In addition, the population of the unwanted intermediate state can be further suppressed. Therefore, our protocol presents an important step towards practical state conversion between optical and microwave photons, and thus may find many important applications in hybrid quantum information processing.
Bifurcation-based adiabatic quantum computation with a nonlinear oscillator network.
Goto, Hayato
2016-02-22
The dynamics of nonlinear systems qualitatively change depending on their parameters, which is called bifurcation. A quantum-mechanical nonlinear oscillator can yield a quantum superposition of two oscillation states, known as a Schrödinger cat state, via quantum adiabatic evolution through its bifurcation point. Here we propose a quantum computer comprising such quantum nonlinear oscillators, instead of quantum bits, to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems. The nonlinear oscillator network finds optimal solutions via quantum adiabatic evolution, where nonlinear terms are increased slowly, in contrast to conventional adiabatic quantum computation or quantum annealing, where quantum fluctuation terms are decreased slowly. As a result of numerical simulations, it is concluded that quantum superposition and quantum fluctuation work effectively to find optimal solutions. It is also notable that the present computer is analogous to neural computers, which are also networks of nonlinear components. Thus, the present scheme will open new possibilities for quantum computation, nonlinear science, and artificial intelligence.
Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation in linear system-bath coupling.
Sun, Chunfang; Wang, Gangcheng; Wu, Chunfeng; Liu, Haodi; Feng, Xun-Li; Chen, Jing-Ling; Xue, Kang
2016-02-05
Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation in decoherence-free subspaces protects quantum information from control imprecisions and decoherence. For the non-collective decoherence that each qubit has its own bath, we show the implementations of two non-commutable holonomic single-qubit gates and one holonomic nontrivial two-qubit gate that compose a universal set of non-adiabatic holonomic quantum gates in decoherence-free-subspaces of the decoupling group, with an encoding rate of (N - 2)/N. The proposed scheme is robust against control imprecisions and the non-collective decoherence, and its non-adiabatic property ensures less operation time. We demonstrate that our proposed scheme can be realized by utilizing only two-qubit interactions rather than many-qubit interactions. Our results reduce the complexity of practical implementation of holonomic quantum computation in experiments. We also discuss the physical implementation of our scheme in coupled microcavities.
Bifurcation-based adiabatic quantum computation with a nonlinear oscillator network
Goto, Hayato
2016-01-01
The dynamics of nonlinear systems qualitatively change depending on their parameters, which is called bifurcation. A quantum-mechanical nonlinear oscillator can yield a quantum superposition of two oscillation states, known as a Schrödinger cat state, via quantum adiabatic evolution through its bifurcation point. Here we propose a quantum computer comprising such quantum nonlinear oscillators, instead of quantum bits, to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems. The nonlinear oscillator network finds optimal solutions via quantum adiabatic evolution, where nonlinear terms are increased slowly, in contrast to conventional adiabatic quantum computation or quantum annealing, where quantum fluctuation terms are decreased slowly. As a result of numerical simulations, it is concluded that quantum superposition and quantum fluctuation work effectively to find optimal solutions. It is also notable that the present computer is analogous to neural computers, which are also networks of nonlinear components. Thus, the present scheme will open new possibilities for quantum computation, nonlinear science, and artificial intelligence. PMID:26899997
Ultrafast adiabatic quantum algorithm for the NP-complete exact cover problem
Wang, Hefeng; Wu, Lian-Ao
2016-01-01
An adiabatic quantum algorithm may lose quantumness such as quantum coherence entirely in its long runtime, and consequently the expected quantum speedup of the algorithm does not show up. Here we present a general ultrafast adiabatic quantum algorithm. We show that by applying a sequence of fast random or regular signals during evolution, the runtime can be reduced substantially, whereas advantages of the adiabatic algorithm remain intact. We also propose a randomized Trotter formula and show that the driving Hamiltonian and the proposed sequence of fast signals can be implemented simultaneously. We illustrate the algorithm by solving the NP-complete 3-bit exact cover problem (EC3), where NP stands for nondeterministic polynomial time, and put forward an approach to implementing the problem with trapped ions. PMID:26923834
Optimal control of the power adiabatic stroke of an optomechanical heat engine.
Bathaee, M; Bahrampour, A R
2016-08-01
We consider the power adiabatic stroke of the Otto optomechanical heat engine introduced in Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 150602 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.112.150602. We derive the maximum extractable work of both optomechanical normal modes in the minimum time while the system experiences quantum friction effects. We show that the total work done by the system in the power adiabatic stroke is optimized by a bang-bang control. The time duration of the power adiabatic stroke is of the order of the inverse of the effective optomechanical-coupling coefficient. The optimal phase-space trajectory of the Otto cycle for both optomechanical normal modes is also obtained.
Bending light via adiabatic optical transition in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices
Han, Bin; Xu, Lei; Dou, Yiling; Xu, Jingjun; Zhang, Guoquan
2015-01-01
Bending light in a controllable way is desired in various applications such as beam steering, navigating and cloaking. Different from the conventional way to bend light by refractive index gradient, transformation optics or special beams through wavefront design such as Airy beams and surface plasmons, we proposed a mechanism to bend light via resonant adiabatic optical transition between Floquet-Bloch (FB) modes from different FB bands in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices. The band structure of longitudinally modulated photonic lattices was calculated by employing the concept of quasi-energy based on the Floquet-Bloch theory, showing the existence of band discontinuities at specific resonant points which cannot be revealed by the coupled-mode theory. Interestingly, different FB bands can be seamlessly connected at these resonant points in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices driven by adiabatically varying the longitudinal modulation period along the propagation direction, which stimulates the adiabatic FB mode transition between different FB bands. PMID:26511890
The best of both Reps—Diabatized Gaussians on adiabatic surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meek, Garrett A.; Levine, Benjamin G.
2016-11-01
When simulating nonadiabatic molecular dynamics, choosing an electronic representation requires consideration of well-known trade-offs. The uniqueness and spatially local couplings of the adiabatic representation come at the expense of an electronic wave function that changes discontinuously with nuclear motion and associated singularities in the nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The quasi-diabatic representation offers a smoothly varying wave function and finite couplings, but identification of a globally well-behaved quasi-diabatic representation is a system-specific challenge. In this work, we introduce the diabatized Gaussians on adiabatic surfaces (DGAS) approximation, a variant of the ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) method that preserves the advantages of both electronic representations while avoiding their respective pitfalls. The DGAS wave function is expanded in a basis of vibronic functions that are continuous in both electronic and nuclear coordinates, but potentially discontinuous in time. Because the time-dependent Schrödinger equation contains only first-order derivatives with respect to time, singularities in the second-derivative nonadiabatic coupling terms (i.e., diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction; DBOC) at conical intersections are rigorously absent, though singular time-derivative couplings remain. Interpolation of the electronic wave function allows the accurate prediction of population transfer probabilities even in the presence of the remaining singularities. We compare DGAS calculations of the dynamics of photoexcited ethene to AIMS calculations performed in the adiabatic representation, including the DBOC. The 28 fs excited state lifetime observed in DGAS simulations is considerably shorter than the 50 fs lifetime observed in the adiabatic simulations. The slower decay in the adiabatic representation is attributable to the large, repulsive DBOC in the neighborhood of conical intersections. These repulsive DBOC terms are artifacts
Brown, Richard S.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Colotelo, Alison HA
2012-06-01
On their seaward migration, juvenile salmonids commonly pass hydroelectric dams. Fish passing by the turbine blade may experience rapid decompression, the severity of which can be highly variable and may result in a number of barotraumas. The mechanisms of these injuries can be due to expansion of existing bubbles or gases coming out of solution; governed by Boyle’s Law and Henry’s Law, respectively. This paper combines re-analysis of published data with new experiments to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury and mortality for fish experiencing rapid decompression associated with hydroturbine passage. From these data it appears thatmore » the majority of decompression related injuries are due to the expansion of existing bubbles in the fish, particularly the expansion and rupture of the swim bladder. This information is particularly useful for fisheries managers and turbine manufacturers, demonstrating that reducing the rate of swim bladder ruptures by reducing the frequency of occurrence and severity of rapid decompression during hydroturbine passage could reduce the rates of injury and mortality for hydroturbine passed juvenile salmonids.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefanatos, Dionisis; Paspalakis, Emmanuel
2018-05-01
In this article we consider a bosonic Josephson junction, a model system composed by two coupled nonlinear quantum oscillators which can be implemented in various physical contexts, initially prepared in a product of weakly populated coherent states. We quantify the maximum achievable entanglement between the modes of the junction and then use shortcuts to adiabaticity, a method developed to speed up adiabatic quantum dynamics, as well as numerical optimization, to find time-dependent controls (the nonlinearity and the coupling of the junction) which bring the system to a maximally entangled state.
Fishman, S., E-mail: fishman@physics.technion.ac.il; Soffer, A., E-mail: soffer@math.rutgers.edu
2016-07-15
We employ the recently developed multi-time scale averaging method to study the large time behavior of slowly changing (in time) Hamiltonians. We treat some known cases in a new way, such as the Zener problem, and we give another proof of the adiabatic theorem in the gapless case. We prove a new uniform ergodic theorem for slowly changing unitary operators. This theorem is then used to derive the adiabatic theorem, do the scattering theory for such Hamiltonians, and prove some classical propagation estimates and asymptotic completeness.
Collision for Li++He System. I. Potential Curves and Non-Adiabatic Coupling Matrix Elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Junichi; O-Ohata, Kiyosi
1984-02-01
The potential curves and the non-adiabatic coupling matrix elements for the Li++He collision system were computed. The SCF molecular orbitals were constructed with the CGTO atomic bases centered on each nucleus and the center of mass of two nuclei. The SCF and CI calculations were done at various internuclear distances in the range of 0.1˜25.0 a.u. The potential energies and the wavefunctions were calculated with good approximation over whole internuclear distance. The non-adiabatic coupling matrix elements were calculated with the tentative method in which the ETF are approximately taken into account.
Adiabatically tapered splice for selective excitation of the fundamental mode in a multimode fiber.
Jung, Yongmin; Jeong, Yoonchan; Brambilla, Gilberto; Richardson, David J
2009-08-01
We propose a simple and effective method to selectively excite the fundamental mode of a multimode fiber by adiabatically tapering a fusion splice to a single-mode fiber. We experimentally demonstrate the method by adiabatically tapering splice (taper waist=15 microm, uniform length=40 mm) between single-mode and multimode fiber and show that it provides a successful mode conversion/connection and allows for almost perfect fundamental mode excitation in the multimode fiber. Excellent beam quality (M(2) approximately 1.08) was achieved with low loss and high environmental stability.
Carlson, Thomas J.; Brown, Richard S.; Stephenson, John R.
Each year, millions of fish have telemetry tags (acoustic, radio, inductive) surgically implanted to assess their passage and survival through hydropower facilities. One route of passage of particular concern is through hydro turbines, in which fish may be exposed to a range of potential injuries, including barotraumas from rapid decompression. The change in pressure from acclimation to exposure (nadir) has been found to be an important factor in predicting the likelihood of mortality and injury for juvenile Chinook salmon undergoing rapid decompression associated with simulated turbine passage. The presence of telemetry tags has also been shown to influence the likelihoodmore » of injury and mortality for juvenile Chinook salmon. This research investigated the likelihood of mortality and injury for juvenile Chinook salmon carrying telemetry tags and exposed to a range of simulated turbine passage. Several factors were examined as predictors of mortal injury for fish undergoing rapid decompression, and the ratio of pressure change and tag burden were determined to be the most predictive factors. As the ratio of pressure change and tag burden increase, the likelihood of mortal injury also increases. The results of this study suggest that previous survival estimates of juvenile Chinook salmon passing through hydro turbines may have been biased due to the presence of telemetry tags, and this has direct implications to the management of hydroelectric facilities. Realistic examples indicate how the bias in turbine passage survival estimates could be 20% or higher, depending on the mass of the implanted tags and the ratio of acclimation to exposure pressures. Bias would increase as the tag burden and pressure ratio increase, and have direct implications on survival estimates. It is recommended that future survival studies use the smallest telemetry tags possible to minimize the potential bias that may be associated with carrying the tag.« less
Digesta passage rates in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
Larkin, Iskande L V; Fowler, Vivienne F; Reep, Roger L
2007-11-01
The Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris (Sirenia: Trichechidae), is an herbivorous marine mammal found within coastal areas throughout the state of Florida, which feeds on both fresh and salt water sea grasses. Manatees, like other Sirenians, are a tropical species with little tolerance for water temperatures below 20 degrees C, rely on a relatively poor nutritional food source, and have a low metabolic rate. Although manatees are hindgut fermenting herbivores, they are very efficient at extracting nutrients from the plants on which they feed. Slow passage rates of digesta have been suggested to be a factor in this increased efficiency. Two studies monitored the digesta passage times and mixing of particulate digesta within the manatee digestive tract using MicroGrits colored corncob grit as a fecal marker. Fecal samples were collected subsequently from four manatees in Study 1 and 3 manatees in Study 2, grit pieces removed, counted, and measured. The digesta passage times ranged from 6 and 10 days in Study 1, and 4.3 and 8.3 days in Study 2, supporting data presented in previous studies. When two different colored markers were administered on sequential days, minimal to no mixing was seen in recovered feces, suggesting that the digesta from a given day traveled through the tract as a bolus. Less than 1% of the marker fed was recovered and we hypothesize that perpendicular folds of the large intestine may be the major contributing factor, with pieces being retained and eventually digested. Zoo Biol 26:503-515, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Reliability Analysis of Systems Subject to First-Passage Failure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lutes, Loren D.; Sarkani, Shahram
2009-01-01
An obvious goal of reliability analysis is the avoidance of system failure. However, it is generally recognized that it is often not feasible to design a practical or useful system for which failure is impossible. Thus it is necessary to use techniques that estimate the likelihood of failure based on modeling the uncertainty about such items as the demands on and capacities of various elements in the system. This usually involves the use of probability theory, and a design is considered acceptable if it has a sufficiently small probability of failure. This report contains findings of analyses of systems subject to first-passage failure.
Sea Ice and Phytoplankton Mix in the Northwestern Passage
2017-12-08
The remnants of sea ice along the Northwestern Passage in northern Canada are seen swirling with the blue green of phytoplankton in this image from the Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor, acquired on August 11, 2013. NASA/NOAA NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram
Experience of Time Passage:. Phenomenology, Psychophysics, and Biophysical Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wackermann, Jiří
2005-10-01
The experience of time's passing appears, from the 1st person perspective, to be a primordial subjective experience, seemingly inaccessible to the 3rd person accounts of time perception (psychophysics, cognitive psychology). In our analysis of the `dual klepsydra' model of reproduction of temporal durations, time passage occurs as a cognitive construct, based upon more elementary (`proto-cognitive') function of the psychophysical organism. This conclusion contradicts the common concepts of `subjective' or `psychological' time as readings of an `internal clock'. Our study shows how phenomenological, experimental and modelling approaches can be fruitfully combined.
First-passage and escape problems in the Feller process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masoliver, Jaume; Perelló, Josep
2012-10-01
The Feller process is an one-dimensional diffusion process with linear drift and state-dependent diffusion coefficient vanishing at the origin. The process is positive definite and it is this property along with its linear character that have made Feller process a convenient candidate for the modeling of a number of phenomena ranging from single-neuron firing to volatility of financial assets. While general properties of the process have long been well known, less known are properties related to level crossing such as the first-passage and the escape problems. In this work we thoroughly address these questions.
Determining entire mean first-passage time for Cayley networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiaoqian; Dai, Meifeng; Chen, Yufei; Zong, Yue; Sun, Yu; Su, Weiyi
In this paper, we consider the entire mean first-passage time (EMFPT) with random walks for Cayley networks. We use Laplacian spectra to calculate the EMFPT. Firstly, we calculate the constant term and monomial coefficient of characteristic polynomial. By using the Vieta theorem, we then obtain the sum of reciprocals of all nonzero eigenvalues of Laplacian matrix. Finally, we obtain the scaling of the EMFPT for Cayley networks by using the relationship between the sum of reciprocals of all nonzero eigenvalues of Laplacian matrix and the EMFPT. We expect that our method can be adapted to other types of self-similar networks, such as vicsek networks, polymer networks.
Glover, William J.; Mori, Toshifumi; Schuurman, Michael S.; ...
2018-04-28
The excited state non-adiabatic dynamics of the smallest polyene, trans 1,3-butadiene (BD), has long been the subject of controversy due to its strong coupling, ultrafast time scales and the difficulties that theory faces in describing the relevant electronic states in a balanced fashion. Here we apply Ab Initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) using state-averaged complete active space multistate second order perturbation theory [SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2] which describes both static and dynamic electron correlation effects, providing a balanced description of both the initially prepared bright 1 1B u (ππ*) state and non-adiabatically coupled dark 2 1A g state of BD. Importantly, AIMS allows formore » on-the-fly calculations of experimental observables. We validate our approach by directly simulating the time resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy results presented in Paper I [A. E. Boguslavskiy et al., J. Chem. Phys. 148, 164302 (2018)], demonstrating excellent agreement with experiment. Our simulations reveal that the initial excitation to the 1 1B u state rapidly evolves via wavepacket dynamics that follow both bright- and dark-state pathways as well as mixtures of these. In order to test the sensitivity of the AIMS results to the relative ordering of states, we considered two hypothetical scenarios biased toward either the bright 1B u or the dark 2 1A g state. In contrast with AIMS/SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2 simulations, neither of these scenarios yields favorable agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that the excited state non-adiabatic dynamics in BD involves both of these ultrafast pathways.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glover, William J.; Mori, Toshifumi; Schuurman, Michael S.; Boguslavskiy, Andrey E.; Schalk, Oliver; Stolow, Albert; Martínez, Todd J.
2018-04-01
The excited state non-adiabatic dynamics of the smallest polyene, trans 1,3-butadiene (BD), has long been the subject of controversy due to its strong coupling, ultrafast time scales and the difficulties that theory faces in describing the relevant electronic states in a balanced fashion. Here we apply Ab Initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) using state-averaged complete active space multistate second order perturbation theory [SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2] which describes both static and dynamic electron correlation effects, providing a balanced description of both the initially prepared bright 11Bu (ππ*) state and non-adiabatically coupled dark 21Ag state of BD. Importantly, AIMS allows for on-the-fly calculations of experimental observables. We validate our approach by directly simulating the time resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy results presented in Paper I [A. E. Boguslavskiy et al., J. Chem. Phys. 148, 164302 (2018)], demonstrating excellent agreement with experiment. Our simulations reveal that the initial excitation to the 11Bu state rapidly evolves via wavepacket dynamics that follow both bright- and dark-state pathways as well as mixtures of these. In order to test the sensitivity of the AIMS results to the relative ordering of states, we considered two hypothetical scenarios biased toward either the bright 1Bu or the dark 21Ag state. In contrast with AIMS/SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2 simulations, neither of these scenarios yields favorable agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that the excited state non-adiabatic dynamics in BD involves both of these ultrafast pathways.
Glover, William J.; Mori, Toshifumi; Schuurman, Michael S.
The excited state non-adiabatic dynamics of the smallest polyene, trans 1,3-butadiene (BD), has long been the subject of controversy due to its strong coupling, ultrafast time scales and the difficulties that theory faces in describing the relevant electronic states in a balanced fashion. Here we apply Ab Initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) using state-averaged complete active space multistate second order perturbation theory [SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2] which describes both static and dynamic electron correlation effects, providing a balanced description of both the initially prepared bright 1 1B u (ππ*) state and non-adiabatically coupled dark 2 1A g state of BD. Importantly, AIMS allows formore » on-the-fly calculations of experimental observables. We validate our approach by directly simulating the time resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy results presented in Paper I [A. E. Boguslavskiy et al., J. Chem. Phys. 148, 164302 (2018)], demonstrating excellent agreement with experiment. Our simulations reveal that the initial excitation to the 1 1B u state rapidly evolves via wavepacket dynamics that follow both bright- and dark-state pathways as well as mixtures of these. In order to test the sensitivity of the AIMS results to the relative ordering of states, we considered two hypothetical scenarios biased toward either the bright 1B u or the dark 2 1A g state. In contrast with AIMS/SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2 simulations, neither of these scenarios yields favorable agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that the excited state non-adiabatic dynamics in BD involves both of these ultrafast pathways.« less
Glover, William J; Mori, Toshifumi; Schuurman, Michael S; Boguslavskiy, Andrey E; Schalk, Oliver; Stolow, Albert; Martínez, Todd J
2018-04-28
The excited state non-adiabatic dynamics of the smallest polyene, trans 1,3-butadiene (BD), has long been the subject of controversy due to its strong coupling, ultrafast time scales and the difficulties that theory faces in describing the relevant electronic states in a balanced fashion. Here we apply Ab Initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) using state-averaged complete active space multistate second order perturbation theory [SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2] which describes both static and dynamic electron correlation effects, providing a balanced description of both the initially prepared bright 1 1 B u (ππ*) state and non-adiabatically coupled dark 2 1 A g state of BD. Importantly, AIMS allows for on-the-fly calculations of experimental observables. We validate our approach by directly simulating the time resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy results presented in Paper I [A. E. Boguslavskiy et al., J. Chem. Phys. 148, 164302 (2018)], demonstrating excellent agreement with experiment. Our simulations reveal that the initial excitation to the 1 1 B u state rapidly evolves via wavepacket dynamics that follow both bright- and dark-state pathways as well as mixtures of these. In order to test the sensitivity of the AIMS results to the relative ordering of states, we considered two hypothetical scenarios biased toward either the bright 1 B u or the dark 2 1 A g state. In contrast with AIMS/SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2 simulations, neither of these scenarios yields favorable agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that the excited state non-adiabatic dynamics in BD involves both of these ultrafast pathways.
Noise Rating Criteria for Elevated Rapid Transit Structures
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1980-05-01
The purpose of this report is to recommend criteria for rating the noise radiated from elevated rapid transit structures during train passages, so that different types of structures can be inter-compared with respect to their noise impact on the imme...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, B. V.; Wagner, J. H.; Steuber, G. D.; Yeh, F. C.
1993-01-01
Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of model orientation as well as buoyancy and Coriolis forces on heat transfer in turbine blade internal coolant passages. Turbine blades have internal coolant passage surfaces at the leading and trailing edges of the airfoil with surfaces at angles which are as large as +/- 50 to 60 degrees to the axis of rotation. Most of the previously-presented, multiple-passage, rotating heat transfer experiments have focused on radial passages aligned with the axis of rotation. Results from serpentine passages with orientations 0 and 45 degrees to the axis of rotation which simulate the coolant passages for the mid chord and trailing edge regions of the rotating airfoil are compared. The experiments were conducted with rotation in both directions to simulate serpentine coolant passages with the rearward flow of coolant or with the forward flow of coolant. The experiments were conducted for passages with smooth surfaces and with 45 degree trips adjacent to airfoil surfaces for the radial portion of the serpentine passages. At a typical flow condition, the heat transfer on the leading surfaces for flow outward in the first passage with smooth walls was twice as much for the model at 45 degrees compared to the model at 0 degrees. However, the differences for the other passages and with trips were less. In addition, the effects of buoyancy and Coriolis forces on heat transfer in the rotating passage were decreased with the model at 45 degrees, compared to the results at 0 degrees. The heat transfer in the turn regions and immediately downstream of the turns in the second passage with flow inward and in the third passage with flow outward was also a function of model orientation with differences as large as 40 to 50 percent occurring between the model orientations with forward flow and rearward flow of coolant.
Straasø, Lasse A.; Shankar, Ravi; Nielsen, Niels Chr.
The homonuclear radio-frequency driven recoupling (RFDR) experiment is commonly used in solid-state NMR spectroscopy to gain insight into the structure of biological samples due to its ease of implementation, stability towards fluctuations/missetting of radio-frequency (rf) field strength, and in general low rf requirements. A theoretical operator-based Floquet description is presented to appreciate the effect of having a temporal displacement of the π-pulses in the RFDR experiment. From this description, we demonstrate improved transfer efficiency for the RFDR experiment by generating an adiabatic passage through the zero-quantum recoupling condition. We have compared the performances of RFDR and the improved sequence tomore » mediate efficient {sup 13}CO to {sup 13}C{sub α} polarization transfer for uniformly {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeled glycine and for the fibril forming peptide SNNFGAILSS (one-letter amino acid codes) uniformly {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeled at the FGAIL residues. Using numerically optimized sweeps, we get experimental gains of approximately 20% for glycine where numerical simulations predict an improvement of 25% relative to the standard implementation. For the fibril forming peptide, using the same sweep parameters as found for glycine, we have gains in the order of 10%–20% depending on the spectral regions of interest.« less