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Sample records for adipocyte fatty acid

  1. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected

  2. Kaempferol Isolated from Nelumbo nucifera Inhibits Lipid Accumulation and Increases Fatty Acid Oxidation Signaling in Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bonggi; Kwon, Misung; Choi, Jae Sue; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

    2015-12-01

    Stamens of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn have been used as a Chinese medicine due to its antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and antiatherogenic activity. However, the effects of kaempferol, a main component of N. nucifera, on obesity are not fully understood. We examined the effect of kaempferol on adipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Kaempferol reduced cytoplasmic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in dose and time-dependent manners during adipocyte differentiation. Accumulation of TG was rapidly reversed by retrieving kaempferol treatment. Kaempferol broadly decreased mRNA or protein levels of adipogenic transcription factors and their target genes related to lipid accumulation. Kaempferol also suppressed glucose uptake and glucose transporter GLUT4 mRNA expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, protein docking simulation suggests that Kaempferol can directly bind to and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α by forming hydrophobic interactions with VAL324, THR279, and LEU321 residues of PPARα. The binding affinity was higher than a well-known PPARα agonist fenofibrate. Consistently, mRNA expression levels of PPARα target genes were increased. Our study indicates while kaempferol inhibits lipogenic transcription factors and lipid accumulation, it may bind to PPARα and stimulate fatty acid oxidation signaling in adipocytes.

  3. FABP4 reversed the regulation of leptin on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in mice adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lu; Liu, Zhenjiang; Cao, Weina; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), plays key role in fatty acid transportation and oxidation, and increases with leptin synergistically during adipose inflammation process. However, the regulation mechanism between FABP4 and leptin on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation remains unclear. In this study, we found that FABP4 reduced the expression of leptin, CPT-1 and AOX1 in mice adipocytes. Conversely, FABP4 was down-regulated in a time-dependent manner by leptin treatment. Additionally, forced expression of FABP4 attenuated the expression of PGC1-α, UCP2, CPT-1, AOX1 and COX2 compared with leptin incubation. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential, fatty acid oxidation enzyme medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) and Cyt C levels were reduced in response to the overexpression of FABP4. These reductions correspond well with the reduced release of free fatty acid and the inactivation of mitochondrial complexes I and III by FABP4 overexpression. Furthermore, addition of the Akt/mTOR pathway-specific inhibitor (MK2206) blocked the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and respiration factors, whereas interference of FABP4 overcame these effects. Taken together, FABP4 could reverse the activation of the leptin-induced mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, and the inhibition of Akt/mTOR signal pathway played a key role in this process. PMID:26310911

  4. Branched short-chain fatty acids modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in primary adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Heimann, Emilia; Nyman, Margareta; Pålbrink, Ann-Ki; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin; Degerman, Eva

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), e.g. acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid, generated through colonic fermentation of dietary fibers, have been shown to reach the systemic circulation at micromolar concentrations. Moreover, SCFAs have been conferred anti-obesity properties in both animal models and human subjects. Branched SCFAs (BSCFAs), e.g., isobutyric and isovaleric acid, are generated by fermentation of branched amino acids, generated from undigested protein reaching colon. However, BSCFAs have been sparsely investigated when referring to effects on energy metabolism. Here we primarily investigate the effects of isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid on glucose and lipid metabolism in primary rat and human adipocytes. BSCFAs inhibited both cAMP-mediated lipolysis and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis at 10 mM, whereas isobutyric acid potentiated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by all concentrations (1, 3 and 10 mM) in rat adipocytes. For human adipocytes, only SCFAs inhibited lipolysis at 10 mM. In both in vitro models, BSCFAs and SCFAs reduced phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase, a rate limiting enzyme in lipolysis. In addition, BSCFAs and SCFAs, in contrast to insulin, inhibited lipolysis in the presence of wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase inhibitor and OPC3911, a phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor in rat adipocytes. Furthermore, BSCFAs and SCFAs reduced insulin-mediated phosphorylation of protein kinase B. To conclude, BSCFAs have effects on adipocyte lipid and glucose metabolism that can contribute to improved insulin sensitivity in individuals with disturbed metabolism. PMID:27994949

  5. Inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis prevents adipocyte lipotoxicity on human osteoblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, Alexandre; Wu, Xiying; Rivas, Daniel; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Duque, Gustavo

    2010-04-01

    Although increased bone marrow fat in age-related bone loss has been associated with lower trabecular mass, the underlying mechanism responsible remains unknown. We hypothesized that marrow adipocytes exert a lipotoxic effect on osteoblast function and survival through the reversible biosynthesis of fatty acids (FA) into the bone marrow microenvironment. We have used a two-chamber system to co-culture normal human osteoblasts (NHOst) with differentiating pre-adipocytes in the absence or presence of an inhibitor of FA synthase (cerulenin) and separated by an insert that allowed unidirectional trafficking of soluble factors only and prevented direct cell-cell contact. Supernatants were assayed for the presence of FA using mass spectophotometry. After 3 weeks in co-culture, NHOst showed significantly lower levels of differentiation and function based on lower mineralization and expression of alkaline phosphatase, osterix, osteocalcin and Runx2. In addition, NHOst survival was affected by the presence of adipocytes as determined by MTS-formazan and TUNEL assays as well as higher activation of caspases 3/7. These toxic effects were inhibited by addition of cerulenin. Furthermore, culture of NHOst with either adipocyte-conditioned media alone in the absence of adipocytes themselves or with the addition of the most predominant FA (stearate or palmitate) produced similar toxic results. Finally, Runx2 nuclear binding was affected by addition of either adipocyte conditioned media or FA into the osteogenic media. We conclude that the presence of FA within the marrow milieu can contribute to the age-related changes in bone mass and can be prevented by the inhibition of FA synthase.

  6. Inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis prevents adipocyte lipotoxicity on human osteoblasts in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz, Alexandre; Wu, Xiying; Rivas, Daniel; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Duque, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Although increased bone marrow fat in age-related bone loss has been associated with lower trabecular mass, the underlying mechanism responsible remains unknown. We hypothesized that marrow adipocytes exert a lipotoxic effect on osteoblast function and survival through the reversible biosynthesis of fatty acids (FA) into the bone marrow microenvironment. We have used a two-chamber system to co-culture normal human osteoblasts (NHOst) with differentiating pre-adipocytes in the absence or presence of an inhibitor of FA synthase (cerulenin) and separated by an insert that allowed unidirectional trafficking of soluble factors only and prevented direct cell–cell contact. Supernatants were assayed for the presence of FA using mass spectophotometry. After 3 weeks in co-culture, NHOst showed significantly lower levels of differentiation and function based on lower mineralization and expression of alkaline phosphatase, osterix, osteocalcin and Runx2. In addition, NHOst survival was affected by the presence of adipocytes as determined by MTS-formazan and TUNEL assays as well as higher activation of caspases 3/7. These toxic effects were inhibited by addition of cerulenin. Furthermore, culture of NHOst with either adipocyte-conditioned media alone in the absence of adipocytes themselves or with the addition of the most predominant FA (stearate or palmitate) produced similar toxic results. Finally, Runx2 nuclear binding was affected by addition of either adipocyte conditioned media or FA into the osteogenic media. We conclude that the presence of FA within the marrow milieu can contribute to the age-related changes in bone mass and can be prevented by the inhibition of FA synthase. PMID:19382912

  7. Selective mobilization of saturated fatty acids in isolated adipocytes of hibernating 13-lined ground squirrels Ictidomys tridecemlineatus.

    PubMed

    Price, Edwin R; Armstrong, Christopher; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Staples, James F

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are not mobilized from adipocyte triacylglycerols uniformly but rather some are preferentially mobilized while others are preferentially retained. In many vertebrate species, the pattern of differential mobilization is determined by the physical and chemical properties of each fatty acid. Fatty acids with shorter chains and more double bonds tend to be more readily mobilized than others, a pattern observed both in whole-animal studies and in isolated adipocytes. Several hibernating species seem to break this pattern, however, and retain 18:2ω6 (linoleic acid) while mobilizing saturated fatty acids such as 18:0. We sought to confirm this pattern in adipocytes of a hibernator, the 13-lined ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, and to investigate mobilization patterns for the first time at hibernation temperature. We isolated adipocytes from summer active and winter torpid squirrels and incubated them with 1 μM norepinephrine at 4°C (7 h) and 37°C (90 min). We measured the proportion of each fatty acid in the adipose tissue and in the buffer at the end of incubation. Patterns of mobilization were similar in both seasons and incubation temperatures. Saturated fatty acids (18:0 and 16:0) were highly mobilized relative to the average, while some unsaturated fatty acids (notably, 18:1ω9 and 18:2ω6) were retained. We conclude that hibernators have unique mechanisms at the level of adipose tissue that preferentially mobilize saturated fatty acids. Additionally, we found that adipocytes from hibernating squirrels produced more glycerol than those from summer squirrels (regardless of temperature), indicating a higher lipolytic capacity in hibernating squirrels.

  8. Structural analysis of ibuprofen binding to human adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (FABP4).

    PubMed

    González, Javier M; Fisher, S Zoë

    2015-02-01

    Inhibition of human adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (FABP4) has been proposed as a treatment for type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. However, FABP4 displays a naturally low selectivity towards hydrophobic ligands, leading to the possibility of side effects arising from cross-inhibition of other FABP isoforms. In a search for structural determinants of ligand-binding selectivity, the binding of FABP4 towards a group of small molecules structurally related to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen was analyzed through X-ray crystallography. Several specific hydrophobic interactions are shown to enhance the binding affinities of these compounds, whereas an aromatic edge-to-face interaction is proposed to determine the conformation of bound ligands, highlighting the importance of aromatic interactions in hydrophobic environments.

  9. White-to-brite conversion in human adipocytes promotes metabolic reprogramming towards fatty acid anabolic and catabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Barquissau, V.; Beuzelin, D.; Pisani, D.F.; Beranger, G.E.; Mairal, A.; Montagner, A.; Roussel, B.; Tavernier, G.; Marques, M.-A.; Moro, C.; Guillou, H.; Amri, E.-Z.; Langin, D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fat depots with thermogenic activity have been identified in humans. In mice, the appearance of thermogenic adipocytes within white adipose depots (so-called brown-in-white i.e., brite or beige adipocytes) protects from obesity and insulin resistance. Brite adipocytes may originate from direct conversion of white adipocytes. The purpose of this work was to characterize the metabolism of human brite adipocytes. Methods Human multipotent adipose-derived stem cells were differentiated into white adipocytes and then treated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ or PPARα agonists between day 14 and day 18. Gene expression profiling was determined using DNA microarrays and RT-qPCR. Variations of mRNA levels were confirmed in differentiated human preadipocytes from primary cultures. Fatty acid and glucose metabolism was investigated using radiolabelled tracers, Western blot analyses and assessment of oxygen consumption. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) knockdown was achieved using siRNA. In vivo, wild type and PPARα-null mice were treated with a β3-adrenergic receptor agonist (CL316,243) to induce appearance of brite adipocytes in white fat depot. Determination of mRNA and protein levels was performed on inguinal white adipose tissue. Results PPAR agonists promote a conversion of white adipocytes into cells displaying a brite molecular pattern. This conversion is associated with transcriptional changes leading to major metabolic adaptations. Fatty acid anabolism i.e., fatty acid esterification into triglycerides, and catabolism i.e., lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation, are increased. Glucose utilization is redirected from oxidation towards glycerol-3-phophate production for triglyceride synthesis. This metabolic shift is dependent on the activation of PDK4 through inactivation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. In vivo, PDK4 expression is markedly induced in wild-type mice in response to CL316,243, while this increase is blunted

  10. A key role of nuclear factor Y in the refeeding response of fatty acid synthase in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Nishi-Tatsumi, Makiko; Yahagi, Naoya; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Toya, Naoki; Takarada, Ayako; Murayama, Yuki; Aita, Yuichi; Sawada, Yoshikazu; Piao, Xiaoying; Oya, Yukari; Shikama, Akito; Masuda, Yukari; Kubota, Midori; Izumida, Yoshihiko; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Sekiya, Motohiro; Iizuka, Yoko; Kawakami, Yasushi; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2017-03-09

    Fatty acid synthase (Fasn) is a key component of energy metabolism that is dynamically induced by food intake. Although extensive studies have revealed a number of transcription factors involved in the fasting/refeeding transition of Fasn expression in hepatocytes, much less evidence is available for adipocytes. Using the in vivo Ad-luc analytical system, we identified the inverted CCAAT element (ICE) around -100 nucleotides in the Fasn promoter as a critical cis-element for the refeeding response in adipocytes. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation show that nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) binds to ICE specifically in refeeding states. Notably, the NF-Y binding to ICE is differently regulated between adipocytes and hepatocytes. These findings provide insights into the specific mechanisms controlling energy metabolism in adipocytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Bone Marrow Adipocytes Facilitate Fatty Acid Oxidation Activating AMPK and a Transcriptional Network Supporting Survival of Acute Monocytic Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Tabe, Yoko; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Saitoh, Kaori; Sekihara, Kazumasa; Monma, Norikazu; Ikeo, Kazuho; Mogushi, Kaoru; Shikami, Masato; Ruvolo, Vivian; Ishizawa, Jo; Hail, Numsen; Kazuno, Saiko; Igarashi, Mamoru; Matsushita, Hiromichi; Yamanaka, Yasunari; Arai, Hajime; Nagaoka, Isao; Miida, Takashi; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Konopleva, Marina; Andreeff, Michael

    2017-03-15

    Leukemia cells in the bone marrow must meet the biochemical demands of increased cell proliferation and also survive by continually adapting to fluctuations in nutrient and oxygen availability. Thus, targeting metabolic abnormalities in leukemia cells located in the bone marrow is a novel therapeutic approach. In this study, we investigated the metabolic role of bone marrow adipocytes in supporting the growth of leukemic blasts. Prevention of nutrient starvation-induced apoptosis of leukemic cells by bone marrow adipocytes, as well as the metabolic and molecular mechanisms involved in this process, was investigated using various analytic techniques. In acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL) cells, the prevention of spontaneous apoptosis by bone marrow adipocytes was associated with an increase in fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) along with the upregulation of PPARγ, FABP4, CD36, and BCL2 genes. In AMoL cells, bone marrow adipocyte coculture increased adiponectin receptor gene expression and its downstream target stress response kinase AMPK, p38 MAPK with autophagy activation, and upregulated antiapoptotic chaperone HSPs. Inhibition of FAO disrupted metabolic homeostasis, increased reactive oxygen species production, and induced the integrated stress response mediator ATF4 and apoptosis in AMoL cells cocultured with bone marrow adipocytes. Our results suggest that bone marrow adipocytes support AMoL cell survival by regulating their metabolic energy balance and that the disruption of FAO in bone marrow adipocytes may be an alternative, novel therapeutic strategy for AMoL therapy. Cancer Res; 77(6); 1453-64. ©2017 AACR.

  12. Fatty acid binding protein 4 expression marks a population of adipocyte progenitors in white and brown adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tizhong; Liu, Weiyi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissues regulate metabolism, reproduction, and life span. The development and growth of adipose tissue are due to increases of both adipocyte cell size and cell number; the latter is mediated by adipocyte progenitors. Various markers have been used to identify either adipocyte progenitors or mature adipocytes. The fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), commonly known as adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), has been extensively used as a marker for differentiated adipocytes. However, whether aP2 is expressed in adipogenic progenitors is controversial. Using Cre/LoxP-based cell lineage tracing in mice, we have identified a population of aP2-expressing progenitors in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of both white and brown adipose tissues. The aP2-lineage progenitors reside in the adipose stem cell niche and express adipocyte progenitor markers, including CD34, Sca1, Dlk1, and PDGFRα. When isolated and grown in culture, the aP2-expressing SVF cells proliferate and differentiate into adipocytes upon induction. Conversely, ablation of the aP2 lineage greatly reduces the adipogenic potential of SVF cells. When grafted into wild-type mice, the aP2-lineage progenitors give rise to adipose depots in recipient mice. Therefore, the expression of aP2 is not limited to mature adipocytes, but also marks a pool of undifferentiated progenitors associated with the vasculature of adipose tissues. Our finding adds to the repertoire of adipose progenitor markers and points to a new regulator of adipose plasticity.

  13. Association of androgen with gender difference in serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical investigations have indicated women have higher levels of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) than men. The present study aimed to identify factors related to gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. A total of 507 participants (194 men, 132 premenopausal women, and 181 postmenopausal women) were enrolled in the present study. Serum A-FABP levels increased in the order from men to premenopausal women to postmenopausal women in both body mass index categories (<25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m2; all P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that after adjustment for factors related to serum A-FABP levels, the trunk fat mass was an independent and positive factor of serum A-FABP levels. For men, total testosterone was associated independently and inversely with serum A-FABP levels. For pre- and postmenopausal women, bioavailable testosterone and total testosterone were independent and positive factors associated with serum A-FABP levels, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the androgen was correlated with the serum A-FABP levels negatively in men, but positively in women. With these effects on the fat content, especially trunk fat, androgen might contribute to the gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. PMID:27270834

  14. Catabolism of Branched Chain Amino Acids Contributes Significantly to Synthesis of Odd-Chain and Even-Chain Fatty Acids in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Crown, Scott B.; Marze, Nicholas; Antoniewicz, Maciek R.

    2015-01-01

    The branched chain amino acids (BCAA) valine, leucine and isoleucine have been implicated in a number of diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, although the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Adipose tissue plays an important role in BCAA homeostasis by actively metabolizing circulating BCAA. In this work, we have investigated the link between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using parallel 13C-labeling experiments, mass spectrometry and model-based isotopomer data analysis. Specifically, we performed parallel labeling experiments with four fully 13C-labeled tracers, [U-13C]valine, [U-13C]leucine, [U-13C]isoleucine and [U-13C]glutamine. We measured mass isotopomer distributions of fatty acids and intracellular metabolites by GC-MS and analyzed the data using the isotopomer spectral analysis (ISA) framework. We demonstrate that 3T3-L1 adipocytes accumulate significant amounts of even chain length (C14:0, C16:0 and C18:0) and odd chain length (C15:0 and C17:0) fatty acids under standard cell culture conditions. Using a novel GC-MS method, we demonstrate that propionyl-CoA acts as the primer on fatty acid synthase for the production of odd chain fatty acids. BCAA contributed significantly to the production of all fatty acids. Leucine and isoleucine contributed at least 25% to lipogenic acetyl-CoA pool, and valine and isoleucine contributed 100% to lipogenic propionyl-CoA pool. Our results further suggest that low activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and mass action kinetics of propionyl-CoA on fatty acid synthase result in high rates of odd chain fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Overall, this work provides important new insights into the connection between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in adipocytes and underscores the high capacity of adipocytes for metabolizing BCAA. PMID:26710334

  15. Parabens inhibit fatty acid amide hydrolase: A potential role in paraben-enhanced 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kodani, Sean D; Overby, Haley B; Morisseau, Christophe; Chen, Jiangang; Zhao, Ling; Hammock, Bruce D

    2016-11-16

    Parabens are a class of small molecules that are regularly used as preservatives in a variety of personal care products. Several parabens, including butylparaben and benzylparaben, have been found to interfere with endocrine signaling and to stimulate adipocyte differentiation. We hypothesized these biological effects could be due to interference with the endocannabinoid system and identified fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) as the direct molecular target of parabens. FAAH inhibition by parabens yields mixed-type and time-independent kinetics. Additionally, structure activity relationships indicate FAAH inhibition is selective for the paraben class of compounds and the more hydrophobic parabens have higher potency. Parabens enhanced 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation in a dose dependent fashion, different from two other FAAH inhibitors URB597 and PF622. Moreover, parabens, URB597 and PF622 all failed to enhance AEA-induced differentiation. Furthermore, rimonabant, a cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1)-selective antagonist, did not attenuate paraben-induced adipocyte differentiation. Thus, adipogenesis mediated by parabens likely occurs through modulation of endocannabinoids, but cell differentiation is independent of direct activation of CB1 by endocannabinoids.

  16. Taking control over intracellular fatty acid levels is essential for the analysis of thermogenic function in cultured primary brown and brite/beige adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongguo; Fromme, Tobias; Schweizer, Sabine; Schöttl, Theresa; Klingenspor, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipocytes, conferred by mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), is receiving great attention because metabolically active brown adipose tissue may protect humans from metabolic diseases. In particular, the thermogenic function of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue, known as brite (or beige) adipocytes, is currently of prime interest. A valid procedure to quantify the specific contribution of UCP1 to thermogenesis is thus of vital importance. Adrenergic stimulation of lipolysis is a common way to activate UCP1. We here report, however, that in this frequently applied setup, taking control over intracellular fatty acid levels is essential for the analysis of thermogenic function in cultured brown and brite adipocytes. By the application of these findings, we demonstrate that UCP1 is functionally thermogenic in intact brite adipocytes and adrenergic UCP1 activation is largely dependent on adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) rather than hormone sensitive lipase (HSL). PMID:25135951

  17. Regulation of thrombospondin-1 expression in alternatively activated macrophages and adipocytes: role of cellular cross talk and omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Finlin, Brian S; Zhu, Beibei; Starnes, Catherine P; McGehee, Robert E; Peterson, Charlotte A; Kern, Philip A

    2013-09-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) expression in human adipose positively correlates with body mass index and may contribute to adipose dysfunction by activating transforming growth factor-β and/or inhibiting angiogenesis. Our objective was to determine how TSP-1 is regulated in adipocytes and polarized macrophages using a coculture system and to determine whether fatty acids, including the ω-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), regulate TSP-1 expression. Coculture of M1, M2a or M2c macrophages with adipocytes induced TSP-1 gene expression in adipocytes (from 2.4- to 4.2-fold, P<.05), and adipocyte coculture induced TSP-1 gene expression in M1 and M2c macrophages (M1: 8.6-fold, M2c: 26-fold; P<.05). TSP-1 protein levels in the shared media of adipocytes and M2c cells were also strongly induced by coculture (>10-fold, P<.05). DHA treatment during the coculture of adipocytes and M2c macrophages potently inhibited the M2c macrophage TSP-1 mRNA level (97% inhibition, P<.05). Adipocyte coculture induced interleukin (IL)-10 expression in M2c macrophages (10.1-fold, P<.05), and this increase in IL-10 mRNA expression was almost completely blocked with DHA treatment (96% inhibition, P<.05); thus, IL-10 expression closely paralleled TSP-1 expression. Since IL-10 has been shown to regulate TSP-1 in other cell types, we reduced IL-10 expression with siRNA in the M2c cells and found that this caused TSP-1 to be reduced in response to adipocyte coculture by 60% (P<.05), suggesting that IL-10 regulates TSP-1 expression in M2c macrophages. These results suggest that supplementation with dietary ω-3 fatty acids could potentially be beneficial to adipose tissue in obesity by reducing TSP-1 and fibrosis.

  18. The ω6-fatty acid, arachidonic acid, regulates the conversion of white to brite adipocyte through a prostaglandin/calcium mediated pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pisani, Didier F.; Ghandour, Rayane A.; Beranger, Guillaume E.; Le Faouder, Pauline; Chambard, Jean-Claude; Giroud, Maude; Vegiopoulos, Alexandros; Djedaini, Mansour; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Tauc, Michel; Herzig, Stephan; Langin, Dominique; Ailhaud, Gérard; Duranton, Christophe; Amri, Ez-Zoubir

    2014-01-01

    Objective Brite adipocytes are inducible energy-dissipating cells expressing UCP1 which appear within white adipose tissue of healthy adult individuals. Recruitment of these cells represents a potential strategy to fight obesity and associated diseases. Methods/Results Using human Multipotent Adipose-Derived Stem cells, able to convert into brite adipocytes, we show that arachidonic acid strongly inhibits brite adipocyte formation via a cyclooxygenase pathway leading to secretion of PGE2 and PGF2α. Both prostaglandins induce an oscillatory Ca++ signaling coupled to ERK pathway and trigger a decrease in UCP1 expression and in oxygen consumption without altering mitochondriogenesis. In mice fed a standard diet supplemented with ω6 arachidonic acid, PGF2α and PGE2 amounts are increased in subcutaneous white adipose tissue and associated with a decrease in the recruitment of brite adipocytes. Conclusion Our results suggest that dietary excess of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids present in Western diets, may also favor obesity by preventing the “browning” process to take place. PMID:25506549

  19. Visceral fat adipocytes from obese and colorectal cancer subjects exhibit distinct secretory and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles and deliver immunosuppressive signals to innate immunity cells

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Lucia; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Varì, Rosaria; Donninelli, Gloria; Varano, Barbara; Giammarioli, Stefania; De Meo, Simone; Silecchia, Gianfranco; Pennestrì, Francesco; Persiani, Roberto; Masella, Roberta; Gessani, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a low-grade chronic inflammatory state representing an important risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Adipocytes strongly contribute to inflammation by producing inflammatory mediators. In this study we investigated the role of human visceral fat adipocytes in regulating the functions of innate immunity cells. Adipocyte-conditioned media (ACM) from obese (n = 14) and CRC (lean, n = 14; obese, n = 13) subjects released higher levels of pro-inflammatory/immunoregulatory factors as compared to ACM from healthy lean subjects (n = 13). Dendritic cells (DC), differentiated in the presence of ACM from obese and CRC subjects, expressed elevated levels of the inhibitory molecules PD-L1 and PD-L2, and showed a reduced IL-12/IL-10 ratio in response to both TLR ligand- and γδ T lymphocyte-induced maturation. Furthermore, CRC patient-derived ACM inhibited DC-mediated γδ T cell activation. The immunosuppressive signals delivered by ACM from obese and CRC individuals were associated with a pro-inflammatory secretory and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid profile of adipocytes. Interestingly, STAT3 activation in adipocytes correlated with dihomo-γlinolenic acid content and was further induced by arachidonic acid, which conversely down-modulated PPARγ. These results provide novel evidence for a cross-talk between human adipocytes and innate immunity cells whose alteration in obesity and CRC may lead to immune dysfunctions, thus setting the basis for cancer development. PMID:27494857

  20. Free fatty acids and IL-6 induce adipocyte galectin-3 which is increased in white and brown adipose tissues of obese mice.

    PubMed

    Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina; Hader, Yvonne; Buechler, Christa

    2014-10-01

    Galectin-3 regulates immune cell function and clearance of advanced glycation end products. Galectin-3 is increased in serum of obese humans and mice and most studies suggest that this protein protects from inflammation in metabolic diseases. Current data show that galectin-3 is markedly elevated in the liver, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat depots of mice fed a high fat diet and ob/ob mice. Galectin-3 is also increased in brown adipose tissues of these animals and immunohistochemistry confirms higher levels in adipocytes. Raised galectin-3 in obese white adipocytes has been described in the literature and regulation of adipocyte galectin-3 by metabolites with a role in obesity has been analyzed. Galectin-3 is expressed in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and human preadipocytes and is modestly induced in mature adipocytes. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes galectin-3 is localized in the cytoplasm and is also detected in cell supernatants. Glucose does not alter soluble galectin-3. Lipopolysaccharide has no effect while TNF reduces and IL-6 raises this lectin in cell supernatants. Palmitate and oleate modestly elevate soluble galectin-3. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in the presence of 100 μM and 200 μM linoleate induces soluble galectin-3 and cellular levels are upregulated by the higher concentration. Current data suggest that free fatty acids and IL-6 increase galectin-3 in adipocytes and thereby may contribute to higher levels in obesity.

  1. Inhibitory effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) extract on proliferation of cancer cells and adipocytes via inhibiting fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Tian, Wei-Xi; Ma, Xiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are widely used in the food industry for its nutritional and aromatic properties. Our studies showed that ethyl acetate extract of onion (EEO) had potent inhibitory effects on animal fatty acid synthase (FAS), and could induce apoptosis in FAS over-expressing human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, this apoptosis was accompanied by reduction of intracellular FAS activity and could be rescued by 25 mM or 50 mM exogenous palmitic acids, the final product of FAS catalyzed synthesis. These results suggest that the apoptosis induced by EEO occurs via inhibition of FAS. We also found that EEO could suppress lipid accumulation during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which was also related to its inhibition of intracellular FAS activity. Since obesity is closely related to breast cancer and obese patients are at elevated risk of developing various cancers, these findings suggested that onion might be useful for preventing obesity-related malignancy.

  2. Lipolysis, lipogenesis, and adiposity are reduced while fatty acid oxidation is increased in visceral and subcutaneous adipocytes of endurance-trained rats

    PubMed Central

    Pistor, Kathryn E; Sepa-Kishi, Diane M; Hung, Steven; Ceddia, Rolando B

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the alterations in triglyceride (TG) breakdown and storage in subcutaneous inguinal (SC Ing) and epididymal (Epid) fat depots following chronic endurance training. Male Wistar rats were either kept sedentary (Sed) or subjected to endurance training (Ex) at 70–85% peak VO2 for 6 weeks. At weeks 0, 3, and 6 blood was collected at rest and immediately after a bout of submaximal exercise of similar relative intensity to assess whole-body lipolysis. At week 6, adipocytes were isolated from Epid and SC Ing fat pads for the determination of lipolysis under basal or isoproterenol- and forskolin-stimulated conditions, basal and insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into lipids, and fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Body weight, fat pad mass, and insulin were reduced by endurance training. Also, circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were 33% lower in Ex than Sed rats when exercising at the same relative intensity. This coincided with reduced isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in the Epid (27%) and SC Ing (25%) adipocytes in Ex rats. Similarly, forskolin-stimulated lipolysis was reduced in Epid (51%) and SC Ing (49%) adipocytes from Ex rats. Insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into lipids in adipocytes from both fat depots from Ex rats was also lower (∼43%) than Sed controls. Conversely, FAO was increased in Epid (1.71-fold) and SC Ing (1.82-fold) adipocytes of Ex rats. In conclusion, chronic endurance exercise reduced lipolysis and lipogenesis while increasing FAO in Epid and SC Ing adipocytes. These are compatible with an energy-sparing adaptive response to reduced adiposity under chronic endurance training conditions. PMID:26167399

  3. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Prevented Adipocyte Hypertrophy by Downregulating DGAT-2 and FABP-4 in a Sex-Dependent Fashion.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Kayode A; Cheema, Sukhinder K

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increase in fat mass primarily as a result of adipocyte hypertrophy. Diets enriched in omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are suggested to reduce obesity, however, the mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated the effect of n-3 PUFA on adipocyte hypertrophy and the key genes involved in adipocyte hypertrophy. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed semi-purified diets (20 % w/w fat) containing high n-3 PUFA before mating, during pregnancy, and until weaning. Male and female offspring were continued on high n-3 PUFA (10 % w/w), medium n-3 PUFA (4 % w/w), or low n-3 PUFA (2 % w/w) diet for 16 weeks postweaning. Adipocyte area was quantified using microscopy, and gonadal mRNA expression of acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT-2), fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP-4) and leptin were measured. The high n-3 PUFA group showed higher levels of total n-3 PUFA in gonadal TAG compared to the medium and low n-3 PUFA groups (P < 0.001). The high n-3 PUFA male group had a lower adipocyte area compared to the medium and low n-3 PUFA group (P < 0.001); however, no difference was observed in females. The high n-3 PUFA male group showed lower mRNA expression of FABP-4, DGAT-2 and leptin compared to the low n-3 PUFA group, with no difference in females. Plasma lipid levels were lower in the high n-3 PUFA group compared to the other groups. Our findings show for the first time that n-3 PUFA prevents adipocyte hypertrophy by downregulating FABP-4, DGAT-2 and leptin; the effects are however sex-specific.

  4. The dietary fatty acid 10E12Z-CLA induces epiregulin expression through COX-2 dependent PGF(2α) synthesis in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Belda, Benjamin J; Thompson, Jerry T; Sinha, Raghu; Prabhu, K Sandeep; Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2012-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are a group of dietary fatty acids that are widely marketed as weight loss supplements. The isomer responsible for this effect is the trans-10, cis-12 CLA (10E12Z-CLA) isomer. 10E12Z-CLA treatment during differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes induces expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (Cyclooxygenase-2; COX-2). This work demonstrates that COX-2 is also induced in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes after a single treatment of 10E12Z-CLA at both the mRNA (20-40 fold) and protein level (7 fold). Furthermore, prostaglandin (PG)F(2α), but not PGE(2), is significantly increased 10 fold. In female BALB/c mice fed 0.5% 10E12Z-CLA for 10 days, COX-2 was induced in uterine adipose (2 fold). In vitro, pharmacological COX-2 inhibition did not block the effect of 10E12Z-CLA on adipocyte-specific gene expression although PGF(2α) was dose-dependently decreased. These studies demonstrate that PGF(2α) was not by itself responsible for the reduction in adipocyte character due to 10E12Z-CLA treatment. However, PGF(2α), either exogenously or endogenously in response to 10E12Z-CLA, increased the expression of the potent mitogen and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) ligand epiregulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Blocking PGF(2α) signaling with the PGF(2α) receptor (FP) antagonist AL-8810 returned epiregulin mRNA levels back to baseline. Although this pathway is not directly responsible for adipocyte dependent gene expression, these results suggest that this signaling pathway may still have broad effect on the adipocyte and surrounding cells.

  5. High Serum Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jer-Chuan; Wu, Du-An; Hou, Jia-Sian; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Chen, Hsin-Dean

    2016-01-01

    Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) is a key mediator of obesity-related metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between A-FABP concentration and MetS in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Fasting blood samples were obtained from 165 type 2 DM volunteers. MetS and its components were defined using diagnostic criteria from the International Diabetes Federation. Among 165 DM patients, 113 patients (68.5%) had MetS. Diabetic persons who had MetS had significantly higher A-FABP levels (P < 0.001) than those without MetS. Female DM persons had higher A-FABP level than man (P < 0.001). No statistically significant differences in A-FABP levels were found in use of statin, fibrate, or antidiabetic drugs. Multivariate forward stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that body fat mass (P < 0.001), logarithmically transformed creatinine (log-creatinine; P < 0.001), female DM patients (P < 0.001), and logarithmically transformed high sensitive C-reactive protein (log-hs-CRP; P = 0.013) were positively correlated, while albumin (P = 0.004) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR; P = 0.043) were negatively correlated with serum A-FABP levels in type 2 DM patients. In this study, higher serum A-FABP level was positively associated with MetS in type 2 DM patients. PMID:28042581

  6. Uncoupling of Obesity from Insulin Resistance Through a Targeted Mutation in aP2, the Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotamisligil, Gokhan S.; Johnson, Randall S.; Distel, Robert J.; Ellis, Ramsey; Papaioannou, Virginia E.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    1996-11-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are small cytoplasmic proteins that are expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner and bind to fatty acids such as oleic and retinoic acid. Mice with a null mutation in aP2, the gene encoding the adipocyte FABP, were developmentally and metabolically normal. The aP2-deficient mice developed dietary obesity but, unlike control mice, they did not develop insulin resistance or diabetes. Also unlike their obese wild-type counterparts, obese aP2-/- animals failed to express in adipose tissue tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a molecule implicated in obesity-related insulin resistance. These results indicate that aP2 is central to the pathway that links obesity to insulin resistance, possibly by linking fatty acid metabolism to expression of TNF-α.

  7. LXRα fuels fatty acid-stimulated oxygen consumption in white adipocytes[S

    PubMed Central

    Dib, Lea; Bugge, Anne; Collins, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are transcription factors known for their role in hepatic cholesterol and lipid metabolism. Though highly expressed in fat, the role of LXR in this tissue is not well characterized. We generated adipose tissue LXRα knockout (ATaKO) mice and showed that these mice gain more weight and fat mass on a high-fat diet compared with wild-type controls. White adipose tissue (WAT) accretion in ATaKO mice results from both a decrease in WAT lipolytic and oxidative capacities. This was demonstrated by decreased expression of the β2- and β3-adrenergic receptors, reduced level of phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase, and lower oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) in WAT of ATaKO mice. Furthermore, LXR activation in vivo and in vitro led to decreased adipocyte size in WAT and increased glycerol release from primary adipocytes, respectively, with a concomitant increase in OCR in both models. Our findings show that absence of LXRα in adipose tissue results in elevated adiposity through a decrease in WAT oxidation, secondary to attenuated FA availability. PMID:24259533

  8. Serum adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (FABP4) levels in women from Mexico exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Martínez, Ángeles C; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia G; González-Palomo, Ana K; Almendarez-Reyna, Claudia I; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a very important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Correspondingly, adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (FABP4, also known as aP2 and AFABP) has been proposed as a new, meaningful and useful biomarker to predict metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate serum FABP4 levels in Mexican women exposed to PAHs. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene ((1-OHP), exposure biomarker for PAHs) levels were quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique, and serum FABP4 concentrations were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit. The mean urinary 1-OHP level found in women participating in this study was 1.30 ± 1.10 μmol/mol creatinine (2.45 ± 2.10 μg/g creatinine). Regarding serum FABP4 concentrations, the levels ranged from 3.80 to 62.5 ng/mL in the assessed population. Moreover, a significant association (p < 0.001) was found between urinary 1-OHP levels and serum FABP4 concentrations in women after adjusting for potential confounding variables. The presented data in this study can be considered only as a starting point for further studies. Then, in order to elucidate whether FABP4 represents a risk factor for CVD disease in humans exposed to air contaminants (such as PAHs), large epidemiological studies are necessary.

  9. Long-term ritonavir exposure increases fatty acid and glycerol recycling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes as compensatory mechanisms for increased triacylglycerol hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Adler-Wailes, Diane C; Guiney, Evan L; Wolins, Nathan E; Yanovski, Jack A

    2010-05-01

    Lipodystrophy with high nonesterified fatty acid (FA) efflux is reported in humans receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to treat HIV infection. Ritonavir, a common component of HAART, alters adipocyte FA efflux, but the mechanism for this effect is not established. To investigate ritonavir-induced changes in FA flux and recycling through acylglycerols, we exposed differentiated murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes to ritonavir for 14 d. FA efflux, uptake, and incorporation into acylglycerols were measured. To identify a mediator of FA efflux, we measured adipocyte triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) transcript and protein. To determine whether ritonavir-treated adipocytes increased glycerol backbone synthesis for FA reesterification, we measured labeled glycerol and pyruvate incorporation into triacylglycerol (TAG). Ritonavir-treated cells had increased FA efflux, uptake, and incorporation into TAG (all P < 0.01). Ritonavir increased FA efflux without consistently increasing glycerol release or changing TAG mass, suggesting increased partial TAG hydrolysis. Ritonavir-treated adipocytes expressed significantly more ATGL mRNA (P < 0.05) and protein (P < 0.05). Ritonavir increased glycerol (P < 0.01) but not pyruvate (P = 0.41), utilization for TAG backbone synthesis. Consistent with this substrate utilization, glycerol kinase transcript (required for glycerol incorporation into TAG backbone) was up-regulated (P < 0.01), whereas phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase transcript (required for pyruvate utilization) was down-regulated (P < 0.001). In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, long-term ritonavir exposure perturbs FA metabolism by increasing ATGL-mediated partial TAG hydrolysis, thus increasing FA efflux, and leads to compensatory increases in FA reesterification with glycerol and acylglycerols. These changes in FA metabolism may, in part, explain the increased FA efflux observed in ritonavir-associated lipodystrophy.

  10. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid has an anti-oxidant effect via the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kusunoki, Chisato; Yang, Liu; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Ishikado, Atsushi; Kondo, Motoyuki; Morino, Katsutaro; Sekine, Osamu; Ugi, Satoshi; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA has a direct anti-oxidant effect in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPA and DHA induce HO-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA and its end-product, 4-HHE, activates the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA protects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Oxidative stress is produced in adipose tissue of obese subjects and has been associated with obesity-related disorders. Recent studies have shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ({omega}3-PUFA) has beneficial effects in preventing atherosclerotic diseases and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. However, the role of {omega}3-PUFA on adipocytes has not been elucidated. In this study, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE). {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein levels of the anti-oxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); whereas no changes in the well-known anti-oxidant molecules, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were observed. Knockdown of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) significantly reduced EPA, DHA or 4-HHE-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. Also, pretreatment with {omega}3-PUFA prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity in a HO-1 dependent manner. In conclusion, treatment with EPA and DHA induced HO-1 through the activation of Nrf-2 and prevented oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This anti-oxidant defense may be of high therapeutic value for clinical conditions associated with systemic oxidative stress.

  11. X-ray crystallographic analysis of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2) modified with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal

    SciTech Connect

    Hellberg, Kristina; Grimsrud, Paul A.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Banaszak, Leonard J.; Ohlendorf, Douglas H.; Bernlohr, David A.

    2012-07-11

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) have been characterized as facilitating the intracellular solubilization and transport of long-chain fatty acyl carboxylates via noncovalent interactions. More recent work has shown that the adipocyte FABP is also covalently modified in vivo on Cys117 with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a bioactive aldehyde linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. To evaluate 4-HNE binding and modification, the crystal structures of adipocyte FABP covalently and noncovalently bound to 4-HNE have been solved to 1.9 {angstrom} and 2.3 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. While the 4-HNE in the noncovalently modified protein is coordinated similarly to a carboxylate of a fatty acid, the covalent form show a novel coordination through a water molecule at the polar end of the lipid. Other defining features between the two structures with 4-HNE and previously solved structures of the protein include a peptide flip between residues Ala36 and Lys37 and the rotation of the side chain of Phe57 into its closed conformation. Representing the first structure of an endogenous target protein covalently modified by 4-HNE, these results define a new class of in vivo ligands for FABPs and extend their physiological substrates to include bioactive aldehydes.

  12. Spexin is a Novel Human Peptide that Reduces Adipocyte Uptake of Long Chain Fatty Acids and Causes Weight Loss in Rodents with Diet-induced Obesity*

    PubMed Central

    Walewski, José L.; Ge, Fengxia; Lobdell, Harrison; Levin, Nancy; Schwartz, Gary J.; Vasselli, Joseph; Pomp, Afons; Dakin, Gregory; Berk, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Microarray studies identified Ch12:orf39 (Spexin) as the most dysregulated gene in obese human fat. Therefore we examined its role in obesity pathogenesis. Design and Methods Spexin effects on food intake, meal patterns, body weight, Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER), and locomotor activity were monitored electronically in C57BL/6J mice or Wistar rats with dietary-induced obesity (DIO). Its effects on adipocyte [3H]-oleate uptake were determined. Results In humans, Spexin gene expression was down-regulated 14.9-fold in obese omental and subcutaneous fat. Circulating Spexin changed in parallel, correlating (r = −0.797) with Leptin. In rats, Spexin (35 μg/kg/day s.c) reduced caloric intake ~32% with corresponding weight loss. Meal patterns were unaffected. In mice, Spexin (25 μg/kg/day i.p.) significantly reduced the RER at night, and increased locomotion. Spexin incubation in vitro significantly inhibited facilitated fatty acid (FA) uptake into DIO mouse adipocytes. Conditioned taste aversion testing (70μg/kg/day i.p.) demonstrated no aversive Spexin effects. Conclusions Spexin gene expression is markedly down-regulated in obese human fat. The peptide produces weight loss in DIO rodents. Its effects on appetite and energy regulation are presumably central; those on adipocyte FA uptake appear direct and peripheral. Spexin is a novel hormone involved in weight regulation, with potential for obesity therapy. PMID:24550067

  13. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  14. Ethanol extracts of chickpeas alter the total lipid content and expression levels of genes related to fatty acid metabolism in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Shigeo; Gu, Yuanjun; Yang, Ying; Furuta, Yasuo; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yue, Xiaohua; Wang, Weiqing; Kitano, Masaru; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Desi-type chickpeas, which have long been used as a natural treatment for diabetes, have been reported to lower visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance induced by a chronic high-fat diet in rats. In this study, in order to examine the effects of chickpeas of this type in an in vitro system, we used the 3T3-L1 mouse cell line, a subclone of Swiss 3T3 cells, which can differentiate into cells with an adipocyte-like phenotype, and we used ethanol extracts of chickpeas (ECP) instead of chickpeas. Treatment of the 3T3-L1 cells with ECP led to a decrease in the lipid content in the cells. The desaturation index, defined as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)/saturated fatty acids (SFAs), was also decreased by ECP due to an increase in the cellular content of SFAs and a decrease in the content of MUFAs. The decrease in this index may reflect a decreased reaction from SFA to MUFA, which is essential for fat storage. To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted a western blot analysis, which revealed a reduction in the amount of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), a key enzyme catalyzing the reaction from SFA to MUFA. We observed simultaneous inactivations of enzymes participating in lipogenesis, i.e., liver kinase B1 (LKB1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and AMPK, by phosphorylation, which may lead to the suppression of reactions from acetyl-CoA to SFA via malonyl-CoA in lipogenesis. We also investigated whether lipolysis is affected by ECP. The amount of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), an enzyme important for the oxidation of fatty acids, was increased by ECP treatment. ECP also led to an increase in uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), reported as a key protein for the oxidation of fatty acids. All of these results obtained regarding lipogenesis and fatty acid metabolism in our in vitro system are consistent with the results previously shown in rats. We also examined the effects on SCD1 and lipid contents of ethanol extracts of Kabuli

  15. Ethanol extracts of chickpeas alter the total lipid content and expression levels of genes related to fatty acid metabolism in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Shigeo; Gu, Yuanjun; Yang, Ying; Furuta, Yasuo; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yue, Xiaohua; Wang, Weiqing; Kitano, Masaru; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Desi-type chickpeas, which have long been used as a natural treatment for diabetes, have been reported to lower visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance induced by a chronic high-fat diet in rats. In this study, in order to examine the effects of chickpeas of this type in an in vitro system, we used the 3T3-L1 mouse cell line, a subclone of Swiss 3T3 cells, which can differentiate into cells with an adipocyte-like phenotype, and we used ethanol extracts of chickpeas (ECP) instead of chickpeas. Treatment of the 3T3-L1 cells with ECP led to a decrease in the lipid content in the cells. The desaturation index, defined as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)/saturated fatty acids (SFAs), was also decreased by ECP due to an increase in the cellular content of SFAs and a decrease in the content of MUFAs. The decrease in this index may reflect a decreased reaction from SFA to MUFA, which is essential for fat storage. To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted a western blot analysis, which revealed a reduction in the amount of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), a key enzyme catalyzing the reaction from SFA to MUFA. We observed simultaneous inactivations of enzymes participating in lipogenesis, i.e., liver kinase B1 (LKB1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and AMPK, by phosphorylation, which may lead to the suppression of reactions from acetyl-CoA to SFA via malonyl-CoA in lipogenesis. We also investigated whether lipolysis is affected by ECP. The amount of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), an enzyme important for the oxidation of fatty acids, was increased by ECP treatment. ECP also led to an increase in uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), reported as a key protein for the oxidation of fatty acids. All of these results obtained regarding lipogenesis and fatty acid metabolism in our in vitro system are consistent with the results previously shown in rats. We also examined the effects on SCD1 and lipid contents of ethanol extracts of Kabuli-type chickpeas, which are

  16. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induces Human Adipocyte Delipidation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Chung, Soonkyu; Fabiyi, Olowatoyin; Morrison, Ron F.; Mandrup, Susanne; McIntosh, Michael K.

    2005-01-01

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces body fat in animals and some humans. Here we show that trans-10, cis-12 CLA, but not cis-9, trans-11 CLA, when added to cultures of stromal vascular cells containing newly differentiated human adipocytes, caused a time-dependent decrease in triglyceride content, insulin-stimulated glucose and fatty acid uptake, incorporation into lipid, and oxidation compared with controls. In parallel, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and many of its downstream targets were diminished by trans-10, cis-12 CLA, whereas leptin gene expression was increased. Prior to changes in gene expression and metabolism, trans-10, cis-12 CLA caused a robust and sustained activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase (MEK/ERK) signaling. Furthermore, the trans-10, cis-12 CLA-mediated activation of MEK/ERK could be attenuated by pretreatment with U0126 and pertussis toxin. In parallel, pretreatment with U0126 blocked the ability of trans-10, cis-12 CLA to alter gene expression and attenuate glucose and fatty acid uptake of the cultures. Intriguingly, the induction by CLA of MEK/ERK signaling was linked to hypersecretion of adipocytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-8. Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time that trans-10, cis-12 CLA decreases the triglyceride content of newly differentiated human adipocytes by inducing MEK/ERK signaling through the autocrine/paracrine actions of interleukins-6 and 8. PMID:15067015

  17. Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein Potentiates Toxic Lipids-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Macrophages via Inhibition of Janus Kinase 2-dependent Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Shu, Lingling; Cheng, Kenneth K. Y.; Wu, Xiaoping; Liao, Boya; Wu, Donghai; Zhou, Zhiguang; Xu, Aimin

    2017-01-01

    Lipotoxicity is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related inflammatory complications by promoting macrophage infiltration and activation. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) play key roles in obesity and mediate inflammatory activity through similar signaling pathways. However, little is known about their interplay in lipid-induced inflammatory responses. Here, we showed that prolonged treatment of palmitic acid (PA) increased ER stress and expression of A-FABP, which was accompanied by reduced autophagic flux in macrophages. Over-expression of A-FABP impaired PA-induced autophagy associating with enhanced ER stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, while genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of A-FABP reversed the conditions. PA-induced expression of autophagy-related protein (Atg)7 was attenuated in A-FABP over-expressed macrophages, but was elevated in A-FABP-deficient macrophages. Mechanistically, A-FABP potentiated the effects of PA by inhibition of Janus Kinase (JAK)2 activity, thus diminished PA-induced Atg7 expression contributing to impaired autophagy and further augmentation of ER stress. These findings suggest that A-FABP acts as autophagy inhibitor to instigate toxic lipids-induced ER stress through inhibition of JAK2-dependent autophagy, which in turn triggers inflammatory responses in macrophages. A-FABP-JAK2 axis may represent an important pathological pathway contributing to obesity-related inflammatory diseases. PMID:28094778

  18. Dietary vitamin A restriction affects adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat in Iberian pigs.

    PubMed

    Ayuso, M; Óvilo, C; Rodríguez-Bertos, A; Rey, A I; Daza, A; Fenández, A; González-Bulnes, A; López-Bote, C J; Isabel, B

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary vitamin A level is associated with differences in adipocyte differentiation or lipid accumulation in Iberian pigs at early growing (35.8kg live weight) and at finishing (158kg live weight). Iberian pigs of 16.3kg live weight were allocated to two feeding groups, one group received 10,000IU of vitamin A/kg diet (control); the other group received a diet with 0IU of vitamin A (var) for the whole experimental period. The dietary vitamin A level had no effect on growth performance and carcass traits. The early suppression of vitamin A increased the preadipocyte number in Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle in the early growth period (P<0.001) and the neutral lipid content and composition (higher MUFA and lower SFA content) at the end of the finishing period (P<0.05). Vitamin A restriction in young pigs increases their lipogenic potential without affecting carcass traits.

  19. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... other health conditions > Fatty acid oxidation disorders Fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... these disorders, go to genetests.org . What fatty acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? ...

  20. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  1. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine evidence for the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE PubMed was searched for articles on the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. Level I and II evidence indicates that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in improving cardiovascular outcomes. MAIN MESSAGE Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids has declined by 80% during the last 100 years, while intake of omega-6 fatty acids has greatly increased. Omega-3 fatty acids are cardioprotective mainly due to beneficial effects on arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and thrombosis. There is also evidence that they improve endothelial function, lower blood pressure, and significantly lower triglycerides. CONCLUSION There is good evidence in the literature that increasing intake of omega-3 fatty acids improves cardiac outcomes. Physicians need to integrate dietary recommendations for consumption of omega-3 fatty acids into their usual cardiovascular care. PMID:16812965

  3. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  4. Phytanic acid, a novel activator of uncoupling protein-1 gene transcription and brown adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Agatha; Barberá, Maria José; Iglesias, Roser; Giralt, Marta; Villarroya, Francesc

    2002-01-01

    Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) is a phytol-derived branched-chain fatty acid present in dietary products. Phytanic acid increased uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) mRNA expression in brown adipocytes differentiated in culture. Phytanic acid induced the expression of the UCP1 gene promoter, which was enhanced by co-transfection with a retinoid X receptor (RXR) expression vector but not with other expression vectors driving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, PPARgamma or a form of RXR devoid of ligand-dependent sensitivity. The effect of phytanic acid on the UCP1 gene required the 5' enhancer region of the gene and the effects of phytanic acid were mediated in an additive manner by three binding sites for RXR. Moreover, phytanic acid activates brown adipocyte differentiation: long-term exposure of brown preadipocytes to phytanic acid promoted the acquisition of the brown adipocyte morphology and caused a co-ordinate induction of the mRNAs for gene markers of brown adipocyte differentiation, such as UCP1, adipocyte lipid-binding protein aP2, lipoprotein lipase, the glucose transporter GLUT4 or subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase. In conclusion, phytanic acid is a natural product of phytol metabolism that activates brown adipocyte thermogenic function. It constitutes a potential nutritional signal linking dietary status to adaptive thermogenesis. PMID:11829740

  5. Subcutaneous adipocytes promote melanoma cell growth by activating the Akt signaling pathway: role of palmitic acid.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Hiu Yee; Fu, Xiuqiong; Liu, Bin; Chao, Xiaojuan; Chan, Chi Leung; Cao, Huihui; Su, Tao; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Fong, Wang Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2014-10-31

    Tumorigenesis involves constant communication between tumor cells and neighboring normal cells such as adipocytes. The canonical function of adipocytes is to store triglyceride and release fatty acids for other tissues. This study was aimed to find out if adipocytes promoted melanoma cell growth and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Here we isolated adipocytes from inguinal adipose tissue in mice and co-cultured with melanoma cells. We found that the co-cultured melanoma had higher lipid accumulation compared with mono-cultured melanoma. In addition, fluorescently labeled fatty acid BODIPY® FLC16 signal was detected in melanoma co-cultured with the adipocytes that had been loaded with the fluorescent dye, suggesting that the adipocytes provide fatty acids to melanoma cells. Compared with mono-cultured melanoma, co-cultured melanoma cells had a higher proliferation and phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) expression. Overexpression of Akt mutants in melanoma cells reduced the co-culture-enhanced proliferation. A lipidomic study showed that the co-cultured melanoma had an elevated palmitic acid level. Interestingly, we found that palmitic acid stimulated melanoma cell proliferation, changed the cell cycle distribution, and increased phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) and PI3K but not phospho-PTEN (phosphophosphatase and tensin homolog) expressions. More importantly, the palmitic acid-stimulated proliferation was further enhanced in the Akt-overexpressed melanoma cells and was reduced by LY294002 or knockdown of endogenous Akt or overexpression of Akt mutants. We also found that palmitic acid-pretreated B16F10 cells were grown to a significantly larger tumor in mice compared with control cells. Taken together, we suggest that adipocytes may serve as an exogenous source of palmitic acid that promotes melanoma cell growth by activating Akt.

  6. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the 3'-UTR region of the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 gene is associated with prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenmiao; Yuan, Peng; Yu, Dianke; Du, Feng; Zhu, Anjie; Li, Qing; Zhang, Pin; Lin, Dongxin; Xu, Binghe

    2016-04-05

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer with poor prognosis and high heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to screen patients for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the prognosis of TNBC. Database-derived SNPs (NextBio, Ensembl, NCBI and MirSNP) located in the 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of genes that are differentially expressed in breast cancer were selected. The possible associations between 111 SNPs and progression risk among 323 TNBC patients were investigated using a two-step case-control study with a discovery cohort (n=162) and a validation cohort (n=161). We identified the rs1054135 SNP in the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) gene as a predictor of TNBC recurrence. The G allele of rs1054135 was associated with a reduced risk of disease progression as well as a prolonged disease-free survival time (DFS), with a hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence in the combined sample of 0.269 [95%CI: 0.098-0.735;P=0.001]. Notably, for individuals having the rs1054135 SNP with the AA/AG genotype, the magnitude of increased tumour recurrence risk for overweight patients (BMI≥25kg/m2) was significantly elevated (HR2.53; 95%CI: 1.06-6.03). Immunohistochemical staining of adipocytes adjacent to TNBC tissues showed that the expression level of FABP4 was statistically significantly lower in patients with the rs1054135-GG genotype and those in the disease-free group (P=0.0004 and P=0.0091, respectively). These results suggested that the expression of a lipid metabolism-related gene and an important SNP in the 3'-UTR of FABP4 are associated with TNBC prognosis, which may aid in the screening of high-risk patients with TNBC recurrence and the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents.

  7. Facilitated Long Chain Fatty Acid Uptake by Adipocytes Remains Upregulated Relative to BMI for More Than a Year After Major Bariatric Surgical Weight Loss*

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Fengxia; Walewski, José L; Torghabeh, Mehyar Hefazi; Lobdell, Harrison; Hu, Chunguang; Zhou, Shengli; Dakin, Greg; Pomp, Alfons; Bessler, Marc; Schrope, Beth; Ude-Welcome, Aku; Inabnet, William B; Feng, Tianshu; Carras-Terzian, Elektra; Anglade, Dieunine; Ebel, Faith E.; Berk, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether changes in adipocyte LCFA uptake kinetics explain the weight regain increasingly observed post bariatric surgery. Design Three groups (10 patients each) were studied: patients who were not obese (NO: BMI 24.2±2.3 kg/m2); patients with obesity (O: BMI 49.8±11.9); and patients classified as super obese (SO: BMI 62.6±2.8). NO patients underwent omental & subcutaneous fat biopsies during clinically indicated abdominal surgeries; O were biopsied during bariatric surgery, and SO during both a sleeve gastrectomy and at another bariatric operation 16±2 months later, after losing 113±13 lbs. Adipocyte sizes & [3H]-LCFA uptake kinetics were determined in all biopsies. Results Vmax for facilitated LCFA uptake by omental adipocytes increased exponentially from 5.1±0.95 to 21.3±3.20 to 68.7±9.45 pmol/sec/50,000 cells in NO, O, and SO patients, respectively, correlating with BMI (r = 0.99, p < 0.001). Subcutaneous results were virtually identical. By the 2nd operation, the mean BMI (SO patients) fell significantly (p<0.01) to 44.4±2.4 kg/m2, similar to the O group. However, Vmax (40.6±11.5) in this weight-reduced group remained ~2X that predicted from the BMI:Vmax regression among NO, O, & SO patients. Conclusions Facilitated adipocyte LCFA uptake remains significantly up-regulated ≥1 year after bariatric surgery, possibly contributing to weight re-gain. PMID:26584686

  8. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  9. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  10. Fatty acid transport and activation and the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid trafficking.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Angel; Fraisl, Peter; Arias-Barrau, Elsa; Dirusso, Concetta C; Singer, Diane; Sealls, Whitney; Black, Paul N

    2008-09-15

    These studies defined the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid transport, activation and trafficking using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and established the kinetic constants of fatty acid transport in an effort to define whether vectorial acylation represents a common mechanism in different cell types (3T3-L1 fibroblasts and adipocytes, Caco-2 and HepG2 cells and three endothelial cell lines (b-END3, HAEC, and HMEC)). As expected, fatty acid transport protein (FATP)1 and long-chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl)1 were the predominant isoforms expressed in adipocytes consistent with their roles in the transport and activation of exogenous fatty acids destined for storage in the form of triglycerides. In cells involved in fatty acid processing including Caco-2 (intestinal-like) and HepG2 (liver-like), FATP2 was the predominant isoform. The patterns of Acsl expression were distinct between these two cell types with Acsl3 and Acsl5 being predominant in Caco-2 cells and Acsl4 in HepG2 cells. In the endothelial lines, FATP1 and FATP4 were the most highly expressed isoforms; the expression patterns for the different Acsl isoforms were highly variable between the different endothelial cell lines. The transport of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid C(1)-BODIPY-C(12) in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and 3T3-L1 adipocytes followed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics; the apparent efficiency (k(cat)/K(T)) of this process increases over 2-fold (2.1 x 10(6)-4.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)) upon adipocyte differentiation. The V(max) values for fatty acid transport in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells were essentially the same, yet the efficiency was 55% higher in Caco-2 cells (2.3 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1) versus 1.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)). The kinetic parameters for fatty acid transport in three endothelial cell types demonstrated they were the least efficient cell types for this process giving V(max) values that were nearly 4-fold lower than those defined form 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Caco-2 cells and HepG2 cells. The

  11. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  12. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  13. Ageing, adipose tissue, fatty acids and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pararasa, Chathyan; Bailey, Clifford J; Griffiths, Helen R

    2015-04-01

    A common feature of ageing is the alteration in tissue distribution and composition, with a shift in fat away from lower body and subcutaneous depots to visceral and ectopic sites. Redistribution of adipose tissue towards an ectopic site can have dramatic effects on metabolic function. In skeletal muscle, increased ectopic adiposity is linked to insulin resistance through lipid mediators such as ceramide or DAG, inhibiting the insulin receptor signalling pathway. Additionally, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease is increased with elevated visceral adipose distribution. In ageing, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional, with the pathway of differentiation of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes becoming impaired; this results in dysfunctional adipocytes less able to store fat and subsequent fat redistribution to ectopic sites. Low grade systemic inflammation is commonly observed in ageing, and may drive the adipose tissue dysfunction, as proinflammatory cytokines are capable of inhibiting adipocyte differentiation. Beyond increased ectopic adiposity, the effect of impaired adipose tissue function is an elevation in systemic free fatty acids (FFA), a common feature of many metabolic disorders. Saturated fatty acids can be regarded as the most detrimental of FFA, being capable of inducing insulin resistance and inflammation through lipid mediators such as ceramide, which can increase risk of developing atherosclerosis. Elevated FFA, in particular saturated fatty acids, maybe a driving factor for both the increased insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease risk and inflammation in older adults.

  14. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  15. Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR[gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R.S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR{gamma}. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR{gamma} discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

  16. Screening somatic cell nuclear transfer parameters for generation of transgenic cloned cattle with intragenomic integration of additional gene copies that encode bovine adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yong; Li, Hejuan; Wang, Ying; Yan, Xingrong; Sheng, Xihui; Chang, Di; Qi, Xiaolong; Wang, Xiangguo; Liu, Yunhai; Li, Junya; Ni, Hemin

    2017-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is frequently used to produce transgenic cloned livestock, but it is still associated with low success rates. To our knowledge, we are the first to report successful production of transgenic cattle that overexpress bovine adipocyte-type fatty acid binding proteins (A-FABPs) with the aid of SCNT. Intragenomic integration of additional A-FABP gene copies has been found to be positively correlated with the intramuscular fat content in different farm livestock species. First, we optimized the cloning parameters to produce bovine embryos integrated with A-FABP by SCNT, such as applied voltage field strength and pulse duration for electrofusion, morphology and size of donor cells, and number of donor cells passages. Then, bovine fibroblast cells from Qinchuan cattle were transfected with A-FABP and used as donor cells for SCNT. Hybrids of Simmental and Luxi local cattle were selected as the recipient females for A-FABP transgenic SCNT-derived embryos. The results showed that a field strength of 2.5 kV/cm with two 10-μs duration electrical pulses was ideal for electrofusion, and 4-6th generation circular smooth type donor cells with diameters of 15-25 μm were optimal for producing transgenic bovine embryos by SCNT, and resulted in higher fusion (80%), cleavage (73%), and blastocyst (27%) rates. In addition, we obtained two transgenic cloned calves that expressed additional bovine A-FABP gene copies, as detected by PCR-amplified cDNA sequencing. We proposed a set of optimal protocols to produce transgenic SCNT-derived cattle with intragenomic integration of ectopic A-FABP-inherited exon sequences.

  17. Adipocyte membrane glycerol permeability is involved in the anti-adipogenic effect of conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Martins, Susana V; Madeira, Ana; Lopes, Paula A; Pires, Virgínia M R; Alfaia, Cristina M; Prates, José A M; Moura, Teresa; Soveral, Graça

    2015-03-06

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a group of minor fatty acids from ruminant origin, has long been recognized as a body fat lowering agent. Given the trans(t)10,cis(c)12-CLA well documented interference on lipolysis, we hypothesized for adipocytes altered permeation to glycerol when supplemented with this isomer. 3T3-L1 murine differentiated adipocytes were medium supplemented with linoleic acid (LA) and individual or combined c9,t11 and t10,c12-CLA isomers. Adipocytes treated with the t10,c12-CLA isomer and CLA mixture showed reduced triacylglycerols content (p < 0.001), re-enforcing the t10,c12-CLA as the anti-adipogenic CLA isomer. This finding was supported by decreased Δ9-desaturase index and adipocyte differentiation markers for the t10,c12-CLA group (p < 0.001), which suggest reduced lipogenesis and differentiation, respectively. The glycerol permeability was higher in all CLA treated cells compared to control and LA groups (p < 0.05). The increase in glycerol permeability agrees with both reduced triacylglycerols and non-osmotic cellular volume in the t10,c12-CLA and CLA mixture groups. Taken together, our data suggest that the increased adipocyte plasma membrane glycerol fluxes may be part of the anti-adipogenic response to CLA treatments.

  18. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  20. Phytic acid and myo-inositol support adipocyte differentiation and improve insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

    2014-08-01

    Phytic acid, also known as myo-inositol hexaphosphate, has been shown to lower blood glucose levels and to improve insulin sensitivity in rodents. We investigated the effects of phytic acid and myo-inositol on differentiation, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and lipolysis of adipocytes to test the hypothesis that the antidiabetic properties of phytic acid and myo-inositol are mediated directly through adipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells were treated with 10, 50, or 200 μmol/L of phytic acid or myo-inositol. Oil Red O staining and an intracellular triacylglycerol assay were used to determine lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. Immunoblotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to evaluate expression of transcription factors, a target protein, and insulin signaling molecules. Phytic acid and myo-inositol exposures increased lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner (P < .01). The expression of key transcription factors associated with adipocyte differentiation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, and the expression of fatty acid synthase increased upon treatments with phytic acid and myo-inositol (P < .05). Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mature adipocytes increased with phytic acid and myo-inositol treatments (P < .01). In addition, mRNA levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), mRNA levels of glucose transporter 4, and phosphorylation of tyrosine in IRS1 increased upon phytic acid and myo-inositol treatments. In fully differentiated adipocytes, phytic acid and myo-inositol reduced basal lipolysis dose dependently (P < .01). These results suggest that phytic acid and myo-inositol increase insulin sensitivity in adipocytes by increasing lipid storage capacity, improving glucose uptake, and inhibiting lipolysis.

  1. Generation and esterification of electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes in triacylglycerides.

    PubMed

    Fazzari, Marco; Khoo, Nicholas; Woodcock, Steven R; Li, Lihua; Freeman, Bruce A; Schopfer, Francisco J

    2015-10-01

    Electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes (NO(2)-FA) are products of nitric oxide and nitrite-mediated unsaturated fatty acid nitration. These electrophilic products induce pleiotropic signaling actions that modulate metabolic and inflammatory responses in cell and animal models. The metabolism of NO(2)-FA includes reduction of the vinyl nitro moiety by prostaglandin reductase-1, mitochondrial β-oxidation, and Michael addition with low molecular weight nucleophilic amino acids. Complex lipid reactions of fatty acid nitroalkenes are not well defined. Herein we report the detection and characterization of NO(2)-FA-containing triacylglycerides (NO(2)-FA-TAG) via mass spectrometry-based methods. In this regard, unsaturated fatty acids of dietary triacylglycerides are targets for nitration reactions during gastric acidification, where NO(2)-FA-TAG can be detected in rat plasma after oral administration of nitro-oleic acid (NO(2)-OA). Furthermore, the characterization and profiling of these species, including the generation of beta oxidation and dehydrogenation products, could be detected in NO(2)-OA-supplemented adipocytes. These data revealed that NO(2)-FA-TAG, formed by either the direct nitration of esterified unsaturated fatty acids or the incorporation of nitrated free fatty acids into triacylglycerides, contribute to the systemic distribution of these reactive electrophilic mediators and may serve as a depot for subsequent mobilization by lipases to in turn impact adipocyte homeostasis and tissue signaling events.

  2. Generation and esterification of electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes in triacylglycerides

    PubMed Central

    Fazzari, Marco; Khoo, Nicholas; Woodcock, Steven R.; Li, Lihua; Freeman, Bruce A.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes (NO2-FA) are products of nitric oxide and nitrite-mediated unsaturated fatty acid nitration. These electrophilic products induce pleiotropic signaling actions that modulate metabolic and inflammatory responses in cell and animal models. The metabolism of NO2-FA includes reduction of the vinyl nitro moiety by prostaglandin reductase-1, mitochondrial β–oxidation and Michael addition with low molecular weight nucleophilic amino acids. Complex lipid reactions of fatty acid nitroalkenes are not well defined. Herein we report the detection and characterization of NO2-FA-containing triacylglycerides (NO2-FA-TAG) via mass spectrometry-based methods. In this regard, unsaturated fatty acids of dietary triacylglycerides are targets for nitration reactions during gastric acidification, where NO2-FA-TAG can be detected in rat plasma after oral administration of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA). Furthermore, the characterization and profiling of these species, including the generation of beta oxidation and dehydrogenation products, could be detected in NO2-OA supplemented adipocytes. These data revealed that NO2-FA-TAG, formed by either the direct nitration of esterified unsaturated fatty acids or the incorporation of nitrated free fatty acids into triacylglycerides, contribute to the systemic distribution of these reactive electrophilic mediators and may serve as a depot for subsequent mobilization by lipases to in turn impact adipocyte homeostasis and tissue signaling events. PMID:26066303

  3. Evaluation of New Diagnostic Biomarkers in Pediatric Sepsis: Matrix Metalloproteinase-9, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1, Mid-Regional Pro-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide, and Adipocyte Fatty-Acid Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Mashael F; Smith, Craig M; Weiss, Scott L; Dawson, Susan; Ralay Ranaivo, Hantamalala; Wainwright, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (mrProANP), and adipocyte fatty-acid-binding proteins (A-FaBPs) have been investigated as biomarkers for sepsis or detection of acute neurological injuries in adults, but not children. We carried out a single-center, prospective observational study to determine if these measures could serve as biomarkers to identify children with sepsis. A secondary aim was to determine if these biomarkers could identify children with neurologic complications of sepsis. A total of 90 patients ≤ 18 years-old were included in this study. 30 with severe sepsis or septic shock were compared to 30 age-matched febrile and 30 age-matched healthy controls. Serial measurements of each biomarker were obtained, beginning on day 1 of ICU admission. In septic patients, MMP9-/TIMP-1 ratios (Median, IQR, n) were reduced on day 1 (0.024, 0.004-0.174, 13), day 2 (0.020, 0.002-0.109, 10), and day 3 (0.018, 0.003-0.058, 23) compared with febrile (0.705, 0.187-1.778, 22) and healthy (0.7, 0.4-1.2, 29) (p< 0.05) controls. A-FaBP and mrProANP (Median, IQR ng/mL, n) were elevated in septic patients compared to control groups on first 2 days after admission to the PICU (p <0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) for MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio, mrProANP, and A-FaBP to distinguish septic patients from healthy controls were 0.96, 0.99, and 0.76, respectively. MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio was inversely and mrProANP was directly related to PIM-2, PELOD, and ICU and hospital LOS (p<0.05). A-FaBP level was associated with PELOD, hospital and ICU length of stay (p<0.05). MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio associated with poor Glasgow Outcome Score (p<0.05). A-FaBP levels in septic patients with neurological dysfunction (29.3, 17.2-54.6, 7) were significantly increased compared to septic patients without neurological dysfunction (14.6, 13.3-20.6, 11). MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios were

  4. Evaluation of New Diagnostic Biomarkers in Pediatric Sepsis: Matrix Metalloproteinase-9, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1, Mid-Regional Pro-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide, and Adipocyte Fatty-Acid Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Mashael F.; Smith, Craig M.; Weiss, Scott L.; Dawson, Susan; Ralay Ranaivo, Hantamalala; Wainwright, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (mrProANP), and adipocyte fatty-acid-binding proteins (A-FaBPs) have been investigated as biomarkers for sepsis or detection of acute neurological injuries in adults, but not children. We carried out a single-center, prospective observational study to determine if these measures could serve as biomarkers to identify children with sepsis. A secondary aim was to determine if these biomarkers could identify children with neurologic complications of sepsis. A total of 90 patients ≤ 18 years-old were included in this study. 30 with severe sepsis or septic shock were compared to 30 age-matched febrile and 30 age-matched healthy controls. Serial measurements of each biomarker were obtained, beginning on day 1 of ICU admission. In septic patients, MMP9-/TIMP-1 ratios (Median, IQR, n) were reduced on day 1 (0.024, 0.004–0.174, 13), day 2 (0.020, 0.002–0.109, 10), and day 3 (0.018, 0.003–0.058, 23) compared with febrile (0.705, 0.187–1.778, 22) and healthy (0.7, 0.4–1.2, 29) (p< 0.05) controls. A-FaBP and mrProANP (Median, IQR ng/mL, n) were elevated in septic patients compared to control groups on first 2 days after admission to the PICU (p <0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) for MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio, mrProANP, and A-FaBP to distinguish septic patients from healthy controls were 0.96, 0.99, and 0.76, respectively. MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio was inversely and mrProANP was directly related to PIM-2, PELOD, and ICU and hospital LOS (p<0.05). A-FaBP level was associated with PELOD, hospital and ICU length of stay (p<0.05). MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio associated with poor Glasgow Outcome Score (p<0.05). A-FaBP levels in septic patients with neurological dysfunction (29.3, 17.2–54.6, 7) were significantly increased compared to septic patients without neurological dysfunction (14.6, 13.3–20.6, 11). MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios

  5. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  6. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  7. Prohibitin/annexin 2 interaction regulates fatty acid transport in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, Ahmad; Daquinag, Alexes C.; Staquicini, Daniela I.; An, Zhiqiang; Pasqualini, Renata; Kolonin, Mikhail G.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously identified prohibitin (PHB) and annexin A2 (ANX2) as proteins interacting on the surface of vascular endothelial cells in white adipose tissue (WAT) of humans and mice. Here, we demonstrate that ANX2 and PHB also interact in adipocytes. Mice lacking ANX2 have normal WAT vascularization, adipogenesis, and glucose metabolism but display WAT hypotrophy due to reduced fatty acid uptake by WAT endothelium and adipocytes. By using cell culture systems in which ANX2/PHB binding is disrupted either genetically or through treatment with a blocking peptide, we show that fatty acid transport efficiency relies on this protein complex. We also provide evidence that the interaction between ANX2 and PHB mediates fatty acid transport from the endothelium into adipocytes. Moreover, we demonstrate that ANX2 and PHB form a complex with the fatty acid transporter CD36. Finally, we show that the colocalization of PHB and CD36 on adipocyte surface is induced by extracellular fatty acids. Together, our results suggest that an unrecognized biochemical interaction between ANX2 and PHB regulates CD36-mediated fatty acid transport in WAT, thus revealing a new potential pathway for intervention in metabolic diseases. PMID:27468426

  8. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  9. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances.

    PubMed

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-04

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  10. Role of bioactive fatty acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Hernández, Eva; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Uribe, Misael; Barbero-Becerra, Varenka J

    2016-08-02

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat deposition in hepatocytes, and a strong association with nutritional factors. Dietary fatty acids are classified according to their biochemical properties, which confer their bioactive roles. Monounsaturated fatty acids have a dual role in various human and murine models. In contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibit antiobesity, anti steatosic and anti-inflammatory effects. The combination of these forms of fatty acids-according to dietary type, daily intake and the proportion of n-6 to n-3 fats-can compromise hepatic lipid metabolism. A chemosensory rather than a nutritional role makes bioactive fatty acids possible biomarkers for NAFLD. Bioactive fatty acids provide health benefits through modification of fatty acid composition and modulating the activity of liver cells during liver fibrosis. More and better evidence is necessary to elucidate the role of bioactive fatty acids in nutritional and clinical treatment strategies for patients with NAFLD.

  11. Net release of individual fatty acids from white adipose tissue during lipolysis in vitro: evidence for selective fatty acid re-uptake.

    PubMed Central

    Raclot, T; Oudart, H

    2000-01-01

    During lipolysis, adipose tissue triacylglycerols (TAG) undergo concurrent breakdown and synthesis because some of the newly hydrolysed and released non-esterified ('free') fatty acids (NEFA) can subsequently be taken up and re-esterified. The present study examines whether and how the release of individual fatty acids is affected by the re-uptake of some of the newly hydrolysed fatty acids in vitro during lipolysis. To alter fatty acid release and re-uptake, adipose tissue fragments and isolated adipocytes from rats were incubated under various conditions, i.e. several cell concentrations or adipose fragment quantities, with or without glucose. In the various conditions tested, the NEFA/glycerol molar ratio ranged from 1.5 to 2.9. Whatever the incubation conditions, including those resulting in very low, medium or high fatty acid re-uptake (as assessed by the NEFA/glycerol ratio), the percentage weight of fatty acids in NEFA was significantly different from that in TAG for 20-24 of the 35 fatty acids that were considered. Thus the greater the fatty acid re-uptake, the higher the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the lower the proportion of long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in NEFA. Moreover, the relative mobilization (%NEFA/%TAG) of the least readily mobilized fatty acid (C(22:1,n-11)) was 6.2-fold lower than that of the most readily mobilized fatty acid (C(20:5,n-3)) under conditions of very low fatty acid re-uptake, and 14.8-fold lower under conditions of high fatty acid re-uptake, indicating a widening of the range of relative mobilizations. We conclude that the composition of the NEFA pool is affected by the rate of fatty acid re-uptake. This provides strong evidence for the selective re-uptake of adipose tissue fatty acids during lipolysis. PMID:10794723

  12. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acid composition in hepatic and abdominal adipose tissue of sucrose-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Berruezo, Silvia; Hernández-Diaz, Guillermo; Angulo, Ofelia; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish oil to determine whether the effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the reversion of metabolic syndrome in these rats is associated to changes in the fatty acid composition of hepatocyte and adipocyte membrane lipids. Animals with metabolic syndrome were divided into a corn-canola oil diet group and a fish oil diet group, and tissues fatty acids composition were analyzed after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. Fatty acid profiles of the total membrane lipids were modified by the fatty acid composition of the diets fed to rats. N-3 PUFAs levels in animals receiving the fish oil diet plus sucrose in drinking water were significantly higher than in animals under corn-canola oil diets. It is concluded that in sucrose-induced obese rats, consumption of dietary fish oil had beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and that such effects would be conditioned by the changes in the n-3 PUFAs composition in hepatic and adipose tissues because they alter membrane properties and modify the type of substrates available for the production of active lipid metabolites acting on insulin resistance and obesity.

  13. Abiotic synthesis of fatty acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, W. W.; Nooner, D. W.; Oro, J.

    1978-01-01

    The formation of fatty acids by Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis was investigated with ferric oxide, ammonium carbonate, potassium carbonate, powdered Pueblito de Allende carbonaceous chondrite, and filings from the Canyon Diablo meteorite used as catalysts. Products were separated and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Iron oxide, Pueblito de Allende chondrite, and Canyon Diablo filings in an oxidized catalyst form yielded no fatty acids. Canyon Diablo filings heated overnight at 500 C while undergoing slow purging by deuterium produced fatty acids only when potassium carbonate was admixed; potassium carbonate alone also produced these compounds. The active catalytic combinations gave relatively high yields of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; substantial amounts of n-alkenes were almost invariably observed when fatty acids were produced; the latter were in the range C6 to C18, with maximum yield in C9 or 10.

  14. Fatty acids and lymphocyte functions.

    PubMed

    Calder, P C; Yaqoob, P; Thies, F; Wallace, F A; Miles, E A

    2002-01-01

    The immune system acts to protect the host against pathogenic invaders. However, components of the immune system can become dysregulated such that their activities are directed against host tissues, so causing damage. Lymphocytes are involved in both the beneficial and detrimental effects of the immune system. Both the level of fat and the types of fatty acid present in the diet can affect lymphocyte functions. The fatty acid composition of lymphocytes, and other immune cells, is altered according to the fatty acid composition of the diet and this alters the capacity of those cells to produce eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E2, which are involved in immunoregulation. A high fat diet can impair lymphocyte function. Cell culture and animal feeding studies indicate that oleic, linoleic, conjugated linoleic, gamma-linolenic, dihomo-gamma-linolenic, arachidonic, alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids can all influence lymphocyte proliferation, the production of cytokines by lymphocytes, and natural killer cell activity. High intakes of some of these fatty acids are necessary to induce these effects. Among these fatty acids the long chain n-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid, appear to be the most potent when included in the human diet. Although not all studies agree, it appears that fish oil, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid, down regulates the T-helper 1-type response which is associated with chronic inflammatory disease. There is evidence for beneficial effects of fish oil in such diseases; this evidence is strongest for rheumatoid arthritis. Since n-3 fatty acids also antagonise the production of inflammatory eicosanoid mediators from arachidonic acid, there is potential for benefit in asthma and related diseases. Recent evidence indicates that fish oil may be of benefit in some asthmatics but not others.

  15. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Leads to Downregulation of PPAR Transcription in Broiler Chickens and Reduction of Adipocyte Cellularity

    PubMed Central

    Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Meng, Goh Yong; Sheau Wei, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) act as an important ligand for nuclear receptors in adipogenesis and fat deposition in mammals and avian species. This study aimed to determine whether similar effects are plausible on avian abdominal fat adipocyte size, as well as abdominal adipogenic transcriptional level. CLA was supplemented at different levels, namely, (i) basal diet without CLA (5% palm oil) (CON), (ii) basal diet with 2.5% CLA and 2.5% palm oil (LCLA), and (iii) basal diet with 5% CLA (HCLA).The content of cis-9, trans-11 CLA was between 1.69- and 2.3-fold greater (P < 0.05) than that of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the abdominal fat of the LCLA and HCLA group. The adipogenic capacity of the abdominal fat depot in LCLA and HCLA fed chicken is associated with a decreased proportion of adipose cells and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The transcriptional level of adipocyte protein (aP2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was downregulated by 1.08- to 2.5-fold in CLA supplemented diets, respectively. It was speculated that feeding CLA to broiler chickens reduced adipocyte size and downregulated PPARγ and aP2 that control adipocyte cellularity. Elevation of CLA isomers into their adipose tissue provides a potential CLA-rich source for human consumption. PMID:25309587

  16. Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation for elucidating the type II FAS pathways in other bacteria (White et al., 2005). However, fatty acid biosynthesis is more diverse in the phylum Actinobacteria: Mycobacterium, possess both FAS systems while Streptomyces species have only the multi-enzyme FAS II system and Corynebacterium species exclusively FAS I. In this review we present an overview of the genome organization, biochemical properties and physiological relevance of the two FAS systems in the three genera of actinomycetes mentioned above. We also address in detail the biochemical and structural properties of the acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCases) that catalyzes the first committed step of fatty acid synthesis in actinomycetes, and discuss the molecular bases of their substrate specificity and the structure-based identification of new ACCase inhibitors with anti-mycobacterial properties. PMID:21204864

  17. Selective mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue in migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Price, Edwin R; Krokfors, Anna; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2008-01-01

    During times of high energy demand, stored fatty acids are mobilized from adipocytes. This mobilization has previously been shown to be a non-random process, with more hydrophilic fatty acids being mobilized most readily. The objectives of this study were to characterize the relative mobilization of fatty acids from adipocytes in two migratory bird species and to investigate possible changes in selective fatty acid mobilization associated with the migratory period. Captive ruffs (Philomachus pugnax) and white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys) were studied. The sparrows were divided into two treatments: 'winter' (photoperiod 8 h:16 h L:D) and 'migrant' (in which migratory condition was induced with a photoperiodic manipulation of 8 h:16 h L:D, followed by 16 h:8 h L:D). Adipose tissue was removed from ruffs and sparrows and incubated for 90 min after stimulation with epinephrine. The proportions of individual fatty acid species released into the incubation medium were compared with their proportions in the adipocytes to determine relative mobilizations. We found that patterns of relative mobilization in ruffs and sparrows are similar to those of mammals, with shorter chain lengths and more double bonds leading to higher relative mobilization. Seasonal condition in sparrows did not alter this pattern. This pattern of relative mobilization from adipocytes seems to be a general rule amongst birds and mammals and should be considered before inferring functionality about selective retention or mobilization of certain fatty acids. The composition of adipose stores in birds may affect migratory performance; however, our results indicate that patterns of relative mobilization at the adipocytes do not vary with season in migratory birds.

  18. Alpha-tocopheryl-phosphate regulation of gene expression in pre-adipocytes and adipocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A correct function of adipocytes in connection with cellular fatty acid loading and release is a vital aspect of energy homeostasis; dysregulation of these reactions can result in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, adipocytes have been proposed to play a major role in preventing lipo...

  19. Heart-type Fatty Acid-binding Protein Is Essential for Efficient Brown Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Oxidation and Cold Tolerance*

    PubMed Central

    Vergnes, Laurent; Chin, Robert; Young, Stephen G.; Reue, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue has a central role in thermogenesis to maintain body temperature through energy dissipation in small mammals and has recently been verified to function in adult humans as well. Here, we demonstrate that the heart-type fatty acid-binding protein, FABP3, is essential for cold tolerance and efficient fatty acid oxidation in mouse brown adipose tissue, despite the abundant expression of adipose-type fatty acid-binding protein, FABP4 (also known as aP2). Fabp3−/− mice exhibit extreme cold sensitivity despite induction of uncoupling and oxidative genes and hydrolysis of brown adipose tissue lipid stores. However, using FABP3 gain- and loss-of-function approaches in brown adipocytes, we detected a correlation between FABP3 levels and the utilization of exogenous fatty acids. Thus, Fabp3−/− brown adipocytes fail to oxidize exogenously supplied fatty acids, whereas enhanced Fabp3 expression promotes more efficient oxidation. These results suggest that FABP3 levels are a determinant of fatty acid oxidation efficiency by brown adipose tissue and that FABP3 represents a potential target for modulation of energy dissipation. PMID:21044951

  20. Oleic acid attenuates trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-mediated inflammatory gene expression in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Meaghan; Gobern, Semone; Martinez, Kristina; Shen, Wan; Reid, Tanya; McIntosh, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The weight loss supplement conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of an equal mixture of trans-10,cis-12 (10,12) and cis-9,trans-11 (9,11) isomers. However, high levels of mixed CLA isomers, or the 10,12 isomer, causes chronic inflammation, lipodystrophy, or insulin resistance. We previously demonstrated that 10,12 CLA decreases de novo lipid synthesis along with the abundance and activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1, a δ-9 desaturase essential for the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Thus, we hypothesized that the 10,12 CLA-mediated decrease in SCD-1, with the subsequent decrease in MUFA, was responsible for the observed effects. To test this hypothesis, 10,12 CLA-treated human adipocytes were supplemented with oleic acid for 12 h to 7 days, and inflammatory gene expression, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and lipid content were measured. Oleic acid reduced inflammatory gene expression in a dose-dependent manner, and restored the lipid content of 10,12 CLA-treated adipocytes without improving insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In contrast, supplementation with stearic acid, a substrate for SCD-1, or 9,11 CLA did not prevent inflammatory gene expression by 10,12 CLA. Notably, 10,12 CLA impacted the expression of several G-protein coupled receptors that was attenuated by oleic acid. Collectively, these data show that oleic acid attenuates 10,12 CLA-induced inflammatory gene expression and lipid content, possibly by alleviating cell stress caused by the inhibition of MUFA needed for phospholipid and neutral lipid synthesis.

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your baby gets most ... eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important family of building ...

  2. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  3. A new atherogenic effect of saturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Poledne, R

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary saturated fatty acids (SAFA) have not only an indirect atherogenic effect due to increasing LDL-cholesterol concentration but also a direct effect by activating the inflammation process. This review summarizes several recent publications in this field. The effect of SAFA on the inflammation process mediated by Toll-like receptor 4/NF-kappaB pathway has been well documented in various in vitro culture studies of macrophages and adipocytes or in their co-culture. In contrast to these in vitro data, in vivo epidemiological studies or clinical experiments in men are less consistent. Well controlled cross-over studies in volunteers might enlighten the differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids dietary intake and proatherogenic inflammation effects.

  4. [The titration of double bonds in fatty acids of blood plasma in patients in testing of glucose tolerance].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Sazhina, N N; Evteeva, N M; Aripovskiĭ, A V; Tkhagalizhokova, E M

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with per oral glucose tolerance test applied to 20 patients with arterial hypertension. The blood plasma was analyzed to detect content of individual fatty acids, double bounds, glucose, insulin and metabolites of fatty acids. In patients with different resistance to insulin content of non-etherized fatty acids decreased approximatively up to 3 times. Without insulin resistance secretion of insulin in 2 hours after glucose load increased up to 3 times and content of individual fatty acids decreases in greater extent. Under insulin resistance secretion of insulin increases up to 8 times and decreasing of content of fatty acids is less expressed. The decrease in blood plasma of content of oleic and linoleic fatty acids and double bounds reflects effectiveness of effect of insulin--blockade of hydrolysis of triglycerides in subcutaneous adipocytes. The concentration of insulin positively correlates with initial content of palmitic fatty acid in the pool of lipids of blood plasma.

  5. Nitrated fatty acids: synthesis and measurement.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Steven R; Bonacci, Gustavo; Gelhaus, Stacy L; Schopfer, Francisco J

    2013-06-01

    Nitrated fatty acids are the product of nitrogen dioxide reaction with unsaturated fatty acids. The discovery of peroxynitrite and peroxidase-induced nitration of biomolecules led to the initial reports of endogenous nitrated fatty acids. These species increase during ischemia/reperfusion, but concentrations are often at or near the limits of detection. Here, we describe multiple methods for nitrated fatty acid synthesis and sample extraction from complex biological matrices and a rigorous method of qualitative and quantitative detection of nitrated fatty acids by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, optimized instrument conditions and caveats regarding data interpretation are discussed.

  6. Nitrated fatty acids: Synthesis and measurement

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Steven R.; Bonacci, Gustavo; Gelhaus, Stacy L.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrated fatty acids are the product of nitrogen dioxide reaction with unsaturated fatty acids. The discovery of peroxynitrite and peroxidase-induced nitration of biomolecules led to the initial reports of endogenous nitrated fatty acids. These species increase during ischemia reperfusion, but concentrations are often at or near the limits of detection. Here, we describe multiple methods for nitrated fatty acid synthesis, sample extraction from complex biological matrices, and a rigorous method of qualitative and quantitative detection of nitrated fatty acids by LC-MS. In addition, optimized instrument conditions and caveats regarding data interpretation are discussed. PMID:23200809

  7. New radiohalogenated alkenyl tellurium fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kabalka, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids have diagnostic value as radiopharmaceutical tools in myocardial imaging. Some applications of these fatty acids are limited due to their natural metabolic degradation in vivo with subsequent washout of the radioactivity from the myocardium. The identification of structural features that will increase the myocardial residence time without decreasing the heart uptake of long-chain fatty acids is of interest. Fatty acids containing the tellurium heteroatom were the first modified fatty acids developed that show unique prolonged myocardial retention and low blood levels. Our detailed studies with radioiodinated vinyliodide substituted tellurium fatty acids demonstrate that heart uptake is a function of the tellurium position. New techniques of tellurium and organoborane chemistry have been developed for the synthesis of a variety of radioiodinated iodoalkenyl tellurium fatty acids. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Fatty acid composition of selected prosthecate bacteria.

    PubMed

    Carter, R N; Schmidt, J M

    1976-10-11

    The cellular fatty acid composition of 14 strains of Caulobacter speices and types, two species of Prosthecomicrobium, and two species of Asticcacaulis was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. In most of these bacteria, the major fatty acids were octadecenoic acid (C18:1), hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0). Some cyclopropane and branched chain fatty acids were detected in addition to the straight chained acids. Hydroxytetradecanoic acid was an important component of P.enhydrum but significant amounts of hydroxy acids were not detected in other prosthecate bacteria examined.

  9. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E; Bharathi, Sivakama S; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B; Goetzman, Eric S

    2017-01-08

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders.

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Young, Genevieve; Conquer, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that dietary consumption of the long chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), commonly found in fish or fish oil, may modify the risk for certain neuropsychiatric disorders. As evidence, decreased blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids have been associated with several neuropsychiatric conditions, including Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder, Alzheimer's Disease, Schizophrenia and Depression. Supplementation studies, using individual or combination omega-3 fatty acids, suggest the possibility for decreased symptoms associated with some of these conditions. Thus far, however, the benefits of supplementation, in terms of decreasing disease risk and/or aiding in symptom management, are not clear and more research is needed. The reasons for blood fatty acid alterations in these disorders are not known, nor are the potential mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may function in normal neuronal activity and neuropsychiatric disease prevention and/or treatment. It is clear, however, that DHA is the predominant n-3 fatty acid found in the brain and that EPA plays an important role as an anti-inflammatory precursor. Both DHA and EPA can be linked with many aspects of neural function, including neurotransmission, membrane fluidity, ion channel and enzyme regulation and gene expression. This review summarizes the knowledge in terms of dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and metabolism, as well as evidence pointing to potential mechanisms of omega-3 fatty acids in normal brain functioning, development of neuropsychiatric disorders and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in terms of symptom management.

  11. Saturated Fatty Acid Requirer of Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Susan A.; Keith, Alec D.

    1971-01-01

    Dietary saturated fatty acids containing 12- to 18-carbon atoms satisfy growth requirements of Neurospora crassa mutant cel (previously named ol; Perkins et al., reference 11); unsaturated fatty acids are synthesized by direct desaturation when an appropriate saturate is available. Odd-chain saturates, 15 carbons and 17 carbons long, satisfy the requirement, and elaidic acid (18:1 Δ9trans) results in slow growth. Oleic acid and other cis-unsaturated fatty acids do not satisfy growth requirements; however, oleic acid plus elaidic acid result in growth at a faster rate than elaidate alone. The use of a spin-label fatty acid reveals that hyphae produced by cel during a slow basal level of growth have lipids that reflect a relatively rigid state of viscosity compared to wild type. cel Supplemented with fatty acids and wild type supplemented in the same way have lipids of the same viscosities as reflected by electron spin resonance. PMID:4323964

  12. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  13. Fatty acid profile of kenaf seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profile of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil has been the subject of several previous reports in the literature. These reports vary considerably regarding the presence and amounts of specific fatty acids, notably epoxyoleic acid but also cyclic (cyclopropene and cyclopropane) fa...

  14. Free fatty acids normalize a rosiglitazone-induced visfatin release.

    PubMed

    Haider, Dominik G; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Schaller, Georg; Artwohl, Michaela; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Prager, Gerhard; Roden, Michael; Wolzt, Michael

    2006-11-01

    The detrimental effect of elevated free fatty acids (FFAs) on insulin sensitivity can be improved by thiazolidinediones (TZDs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is unknown whether this salutary action of TZD is associated with altered release of the insulin-mimetic adipocytokine visfatin. In this study, we investigated whether visfatin concentrations are altered by FFA and TZD treatment. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study 16 healthy volunteers received an infusion of triglycerides/heparin to increase plasma FFA after 3 wk of treatment with rosiglitazone (8 mg/day, n = 8) or placebo (n = 8), and circulating plasma visfatin was measured. As a corollary, human adipocytes were incubated with synthetic fatty acids and rosiglitazone to assess visfatin release in vitro. The results were that rosiglitazone treatment increased systemic plasma visfatin concentrations from 0.6 +/- 0.1 to 1.7 +/- 0.2 ng/ml (P < 0.01). Lipid infusion caused a marked elevation of plasma FFA but had no effect on circulating visfatin in controls. In contrast, elevated visfatin concentrations in subjects receiving rosiglitazone were normalized by lipid infusion. In isolated adipocytes, visfatin was released into supernatant medium by acute addition and long-term treatment of rosiglitazone. This secretion was blocked by synthetic fatty acids and by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or Akt. In conclusion, release of the insulin-mimetic visfatin may represent a major mechanism of metabolic TZD action. The presence of FFA antagonizes this action, which may have implications for visfatin bioactivity.

  15. The linoleic acid and trans fatty acids of margarines.

    PubMed

    Beare-Rogers, J L; Gray, L M; Hollywood, R

    1979-09-01

    Fifty brands of margarine were analysed for cis-polyunsaturated acids by lipoxidase, for trans fatty acid by infared spectroscopy, and for fatty acid composition by gas-liquid chromatography. High concentrations of trans fatty acids tended to be associated with low concentrations of linoleic acid. Later analyses on eight of the brands, respresenting various proportions of linoleic to trans fatty acids, indicated that two of them contained still higher levels of trans fatty acids (greater than 60%) and negligible amounts of linoleic acid. It is proposed that margarine could be a vehicle for the distribution of some dietary linoleic acid and that the level of linoleic acid and the summation of the saturated plus trans fatty acids be known to ascertain nutritional characteristics.

  16. Serum fatty acid binding protein 4, free fatty acids and metabolic risk markers

    PubMed Central

    Karakas, Sidika E.; Almario, Rogelio U.; Kim, Kyoungmi

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein (FABP) 4 chaperones free fatty acids (FFA) in the adipocytes during lipolysis. Serum FFA relates to Metabolic Syndrome (METS) and serum FABP4 is emerging as a novel risk marker. In 36 overweight/obese women, serum FABP4 and FFA were measured hourly during 5-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin resistance was determined using frequently sampled intravenous GTT (FS-IVGTT). Serum lipids and inflammation markers were measured at fasting. During OGTT, serum FABP4 decreased by 40%, reaching its nadir at 3h (from 45.3±3.1 to 31.9±1.6 ng/mL) and stayed below the baseline at 5 h (35.9±2.2 ng/mL) (p < 0.0001 for both, compared to the baseline). Serum FFA decreased by 10 fold, reaching a nadir at 2h (from 0.611±0.033 to 0.067±0.004 mmol/L), then rebounded to 0.816±0.035 mmol/ L at 5h (p < 0.001 for both, compared to baseline). Both fasting-FABP4 and nadir-FABP4 correlated with obesity. Nadir-FABP4 correlated also with insulin resistance parameters from FS-IVGTT and with inflammation. Nadir-FFA, but not fasting-FFA, correlated with the METS-parameters. In conclusion, fasting-FABP4 related to metabolic risk markers more strongly than fasting-FFA. Nadir-FABP4 and nadir-FFA measured after glucose loading may provide better risk assessment than the fasting values. PMID:19394980

  17. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  18. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  19. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290....1290 Fatty acids test system. (a) Identification. A fatty acids test system is a device intended to measure fatty acids in plasma and serum. Measurements of fatty acids are used in the diagnosis...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290....1290 Fatty acids test system. (a) Identification. A fatty acids test system is a device intended to measure fatty acids in plasma and serum. Measurements of fatty acids are used in the diagnosis...

  2. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  3. Chlorogenic acid from honeysuckle improves hepatic lipid dysregulation and modulates hepatic fatty acid composition in rats with chronic endotoxin infusion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Ruan, Zheng; Wen, Yanmei; Yang, Yuhui; Mi, Shumei; Zhou, Lili; Wu, Xin; Ding, Sheng; Deng, Zeyuan; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2016-03-01

    Chlorogenic acid as a natural hydroxycinnamic acid has protective effect for liver. Endotoxin induced metabolic disorder, such as lipid dysregulation and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated the effect of chlorogenic acid in rats with chronic endotoxin infusion. The Sprague-Dawley rats with lipid metabolic disorder (LD group) were intraperitoneally injected endotoxin. And the rats of chlorogenic acid-LD group were daily received chlorogenic acid by intragastric administration. In chlorogenic acid-LD group, the area of visceral adipocyte was decreased and liver injury was ameliorated, as compared to LD group. In chlorogenic acid-LD group, serum triglycerides, free fatty acids, hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol were decreased, the proportion of C20:1, C24:1 and C18:3n-6, Δ9-18 and Δ6-desaturase activity index in the liver were decreased, and the proportion of C18:3n-3 acid was increased, compared to the LD group. Moreover, levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I, and fatty acid β-oxidation were increased in chlorogenic acid-LD group compared to LD rats, whereas levels of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase were decreased. These findings demonstrate that chlorogenic acid effectively improves hepatic lipid dysregulation in rats by regulating fatty acid metabolism enzymes, stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase activation, and modulating levels of hepatic fatty acids.

  4. Identification of the adipocyte acid phosphatase as a PAO-sensitive tyrosyl phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Shekels, L. L.; Smith, A. J.; Van Etten, R. L.; Bernlohr, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    We have partially purified an 18-kDa cytoplasmic protein from 3T3-L1 cells, which dephosphorylates pNPP and the phosphorylated adipocyte lipid binding protein (ALBP), and have identified it by virtue of kinetic and immunological criteria as an acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2). The cytoplasmic acid phosphatase was inactivated by phenylarsine oxide (PAO) (Kinact = 10 microM), and the inactivation could be reversed by the dithiol, 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (Kreact = 23 microM), but not the monothiol, 2-mercaptoethanol. Cloning of the human adipocyte acid phosphatase revealed that two isoforms exist, termed HAAP alpha and HAAP beta (human adipocyte acid phosphatase), which are distinguished by a 34-amino acid isoform-specific domain. Sequence analysis shows HAAP alpha and HAAP beta share 74% and 90% identity with the bovine liver acid phosphatase, respectively, and 99% identity with both isoenzymes of the human red cell acid phosphatase but no sequence similarity to the protein tyrosine phosphatases (EC 3.1.3.48). HAAP beta has been cloned into Escherichia coli, expressed, and purified as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein. Recombinant HAAP beta was shown to dephosphorylate pNPP and phosphoALBP and to be inactivated by PAO and inhibited by vanadate (Ki = 17 microM). These results describe the adipocyte acid phosphatase as a cytoplasmic enzyme containing conformationally vicinal cysteine residues with properties that suggest it may dephosphorylate tyrosyl phosphorylated cellular proteins. PMID:1304913

  5. Cellular Effects of Perfluorinated Fatty Acids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    TCDD appeared to interfere with fatty acid metabolism leading to an increase in unsaturation. Furthermore, Andersen et al. (2) proposed that such an...increase in cellular unsaturated fatty acids may lead-to excessive membrane fluidity (as indicated by induced changes in red blood cell fragility) and...TASK WORK UNITELEMENT NO. NO. NO. NO. 11. TITLE (include Security Claificati on) ~/~. Cellular Effects of Perfluorinated Fatty Ac ds 12. PERSONAL

  6. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (PMN...

  8. Nickel inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W; Brant, Kelly A; Fabisiak, James P; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-08-07

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy-in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with l-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 h), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis.

  9. Physiological activities of hydroxyl fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the search of value-added products from surplus soybean oil, we produced many new hydroxy fatty acids through microbial bioconversion. Hydroxy fatty acids are used in a wide range of industrial products, such as resins, waxes, nylons plastics, lubricants, cosmetics, and additives in coatings and...

  10. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  11. Historical perspectives on fatty acid chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids are basic renewable chemical building blocks that can be used as intermediates for a multitude of products. Today the global value of fatty acids exceeds 18 billion dollars and is expected to increase to nearly 26 billion over the period from 2014-2019. From it auspicious beginnings, the...

  12. Inhibitory effects of tannic acid on fatty acid synthase and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huijin; Wu, Dan; Tian, Weixi; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2013-07-01

    Tannic acid is a hydrolyzable tannin that exists in many widespread edible plants with a variety of biological activities. In this study, we found that tannic acid potently inhibited the activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS) in a concentration-dependent manner with a half-inhibitory concentration value (IC50) of 0.14 microM. The inhibition kinetic results showed that the inhibition of FAS by tannic acid was mixed competitive and noncompetitive manner with respect to acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, but uncompetitive to NADPH. Tannic acid prevented the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, and thus repressed intracellular lipid accumulation. In the meantime, tannic acid decreased the expression of FAS and down-regulated the mRNA level of FAS and PPARgamma during adipocyte differentiation. Further studies showed that the inhibitory effect of tannic acid did not relate to FAS non-specific sedimentation. Since FAS was believed to be a therapeutic target of obesity, these findings suggested that tannic acid was considered having potential in the prevention of obesity.

  13. Consequences of Essential Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Lands, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA) are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. In this way, the health consequences of specific gene-environment interactions with these nutrients are more extensive than often recognized. The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n-3 and n-6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. In contrast, the formation and action of bioactive mediators during tissue responses to stimuli tend to selectively create more intense consequences for n-6 than n-3 homologs. Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable. This review considers the possibility of preventing imbalances in dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients with informed voluntary food choices. That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health. The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy. PMID:23112921

  14. Relative irritancy of free fatty acids of different chain length.

    PubMed

    Stillman, M A; Maibach, H I; Shalita, A R

    1975-01-01

    Free fatty acids of human skin surface lipids have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris because of their apparent irritant and comedogenic properties. Prior studies on the relative irritancy of free fatty acids revealed the saturated C8 to C14 fatty acids and a C18 dienoic unsaturated fatty acid (linoleic) to be most irritating. Saturated free fatty acids from C3 to C18, and unsaturated C18 free fatty acids were applied daily under occlusive patch tests to human skin until detectable erythema appeared. The most irritating fatty acids were C8 through C12. Of the unsaturated fatty acids tested, only linoleic acid produced irritation.

  15. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid inhibits TNF-α-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the IRE-JNK-perilipin-A signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wenyan; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Lijing; Wang, Linxi; Liu, Xiaoying; Lin, Yichuan; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Jianqing; Liu, Libin

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) on the lipolytic action of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Following treatment with TNF‑α, cell viability was determined by MTT assay to select the optimum concentration and duration of TNF‑α treatment in 3T3‑L1 adipocytes. Intracellular lipid droplet dispersion and glycerin content in culture media were determined to evaluate the effect of TUDCA on TNF‑α‑induced lipolysis in 3T3‑L1 adipocytes. Western blotting was performed to detect protein expression levels of perilipin‑A and protein markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress: Immunoglobulin‑binding protein (BiP), inositol‑requiring enzyme (IRE), c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK), phosphorylated (p)‑IRE and p‑JNK. Following treatment with 50 ng/ml TNF‑α for 24 h, glycerin content increased significantly and lipid droplets were dispersed. Glycerin content was reduced significantly and dispersal of lipid droplets reduced following pretreatment of 3T3‑L1 adipocytes with 1 mmol/l TUDCA. TNF‑α additionally activated the expression of BiP, p‑IRE and p‑JNK in a time‑dependent manner; following pretreatment of 3T3‑L1 adipocytes with 1 mmol/l TUDCA, the expression levels of these three proteins decreased. Therefore, TUDCA may inhibit TNF-α-induced lipolysis in 3T3‑L1 adipocytes and reduce production of free fatty acids. Its underlying molecular mechanisms are potentially associated with the inhibition of activation of the IRE‑JNK signaling pathway, which influences perilipin-A expression levels.

  16. Chemical inhibition of fatty acid absorption and cellular uptake limits lipotoxic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Ahowesso, Constance; Black, Paul N.; Saini, Nipun; Montefusco, David; Chekal, Jessica; Malosh, Chrysa; Lindsley, Craig W.; Stauffer, Shaun R.; DiRusso, Concetta C.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic elevation of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels is commonly associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Experimental evidence indicates FFA and their metabolites contribute to disease development through lipotoxicity. Previously, we identified a specific fatty acid transport inhibitor CB16.2, a.k.a. Lipofermata, using high throughput screening methods. In this study, efficacy of transport inhibition was measured in four cell lines that are models for myocytes (mmC2C12), pancreatic ß-cells (rnINS-1E), intestinal epithelial cells (hsCaco-2), and hepatocytes (hsHepG2), as well as primary human adipocytes. The compound was effective in inhibiting uptake with IC50s between 3 and 6 µM for all cell lines except human adipocytes (39 µM). Inhibition was specific for long and very long chain fatty acids but had no effect on medium chain fatty acids (C6-C10), which are transported by passive diffusion. Derivatives of Lipofermata were evaluated to understand structural contributions to activity. Lipofermata prevented palmitate-mediated oxidative stress, induction of BiP and CHOP, and cell death in a dose-dependent manner in hsHepG2 and rnINS-1E cells, suggesting it will prevent induction of fatty acid-mediated cell death pathways and lipotoxic disease by channeling excess fatty acids to adipose tissue and away from liver and pancreas. Importantly, mice dosed orally with Lipofermata were not able to absorb 13C-oleate demonstrating utility as an inhibitor of fatty acid absorption from the gut. PMID:26394026

  17. Fatty acid mobilization and comparison to milk fatty acid content in northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Mignolet, Eric; Linard, Clementine; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the life history of true seals, bears and baleen whales is lactation while fasting. This study examined the mobilization of fatty acids from blubber and their subsequent partitioning into maternal metabolism and milk production in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). The fatty acid composition of blubber and milk was measured in both early and late lactation. Proportions of fatty acids in milk and blubber were found to display a high degree of similarity both early and late in lactation. Seals mobilized an enormous amount of lipid (~66 kg in 17 days), but thermoregulatory fatty acids, those that remain fluid at low temperatures, were relatively conserved in the outer blubber layer. Despite the stratification, the pattern of mobilization of specific fatty acids conforms to biochemical predictions. Long chain (>20C) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were the least mobilized from blubber and the only class of fatty acids that showed a proportional increase in milk in late lactation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were more mobilized from the blubber, but neither proportion increased in milk at late lactation. These data suggest that of the long chain MUFA mobilized, the majority is directed to milk synthesis. The mother may preferentially use PUFA and SFA for her own metabolism, decreasing the availability for deposition into milk. The potential impacts of milk fatty acid delivery on pup diving development and thermoregulation are exciting avenues for exploration.

  18. Fatty acid synthesis is inhibited by inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids for glycerolipid assembly

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Philip D.; Johnson, Sean R.; Cao, Xia; Li, Jia; Nam, Jeong-Won; Jaworski, Jan G.; Ohlrogge, John B.; Browse, John

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of unusual fatty acids through β-oxidation within transgenic plants has long been hypothesized as a major factor limiting the production of industrially useful unusual fatty acids in seed oils. Arabidopsis seeds expressing the castor fatty acid hydroxylase accumulate hydroxylated fatty acids up to 17% of total fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols; however, total seed oil is also reduced up to 50%. Investigations into the cause of the reduced oil phenotype through in vivo [14C]acetate and [3H]2O metabolic labeling of developing seeds surprisingly revealed that the rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis within the transgenic seeds was approximately half that of control seeds. RNAseq analysis indicated no changes in expression of fatty acid synthesis genes in hydroxylase-expressing plants. However, differential [14C]acetate and [14C]malonate metabolic labeling of hydroxylase-expressing seeds indicated the in vivo acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity was reduced to approximately half that of control seeds. Therefore, the reduction of oil content in the transgenic seeds is consistent with reduced de novo fatty acid synthesis in the plastid rather than fatty acid degradation. Intriguingly, the coexpression of triacylglycerol synthesis isozymes from castor along with the fatty acid hydroxylase alleviated the reduced acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity, restored the rate of fatty acid synthesis, and the accumulation of seed oil was substantially recovered. Together these results suggest a previously unidentified mechanism that detects inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids within the endoplasmic reticulum and activates an endogenous pathway for posttranslational reduction of fatty acid synthesis within the plastid. PMID:24398521

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids.

  20. All-trans retinoic acid induces oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondria biogenesis in adipocytes[S

    PubMed Central

    Tourniaire, Franck; Musinovic, Hana; Gouranton, Erwan; Astier, Julien; Marcotorchino, Julie; Arreguin, Andrea; Bernot, Denis; Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M. Luisa; Ribot, Joan; Landrier, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    A positive effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on white adipose tissue (WAT) oxidative and thermogenic capacity has been described and linked to an in vivo fat-lowering effect of ATRA in mice. However, little is known about the effects of ATRA on mitochondria in white fat. Our objective has been to characterize the effect of ATRA on mitochondria biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in mature white adipocytes. Transcriptome analysis, oxygraphy, analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and flow cytometry-based analysis of mitochondria density were performed in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes after 24 h incubation with ATRA (2 µM) or vehicle. Selected genes linked to mitochondria biogenesis and function and mitochondria immunostaining were analyzed in WAT tissues of ATRA-treated as compared with vehicle-treated mice. ATRA upregulated the expression of a large set of genes linked to mtDNA replication and transcription, mitochondrial biogenesis, and OXPHOS in adipocytes, as indicated by transcriptome analysis. Oxygen consumption rate, mtDNA content, and staining of mitochondria were increased in the ATRA-treated adipocytes. Similar results were obtained in WAT depots of ATRA-treated mice. We conclude that ATRA impacts mitochondria in adipocytes, leading to increased OXPHOS capacity and mitochondrial content in these cells. PMID:25914170

  1. All-trans retinoic acid induces oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondria biogenesis in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Tourniaire, Franck; Musinovic, Hana; Gouranton, Erwan; Astier, Julien; Marcotorchino, Julie; Arreguin, Andrea; Bernot, Denis; Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa; Ribot, Joan; Landrier, Jean-François

    2015-06-01

    A positive effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on white adipose tissue (WAT) oxidative and thermogenic capacity has been described and linked to an in vivo fat-lowering effect of ATRA in mice. However, little is known about the effects of ATRA on mitochondria in white fat. Our objective has been to characterize the effect of ATRA on mitochondria biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in mature white adipocytes. Transcriptome analysis, oxygraphy, analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and flow cytometry-based analysis of mitochondria density were performed in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes after 24 h incubation with ATRA (2 µM) or vehicle. Selected genes linked to mitochondria biogenesis and function and mitochondria immunostaining were analyzed in WAT tissues of ATRA-treated as compared with vehicle-treated mice. ATRA upregulated the expression of a large set of genes linked to mtDNA replication and transcription, mitochondrial biogenesis, and OXPHOS in adipocytes, as indicated by transcriptome analysis. Oxygen consumption rate, mtDNA content, and staining of mitochondria were increased in the ATRA-treated adipocytes. Similar results were obtained in WAT depots of ATRA-treated mice. We conclude that ATRA impacts mitochondria in adipocytes, leading to increased OXPHOS capacity and mitochondrial content in these cells.

  2. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation reverses cystic fibrosis-related fatty acid abnormalities in CFTR-/- mice by suppressing fatty acid desaturases.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Sarah W; Laposata, Michael; Boyd, Kelli L; Seegmiller, Adam C

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients and model systems exhibit consistent abnormalities in metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids that appear to play a role in disease pathophysiology. Recent in vitro studies have suggested that these changes are due to overexpression of fatty acid desaturases that can be reversed by supplementation with the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate. However, these findings have not been tested in vivo. The current study aimed to test these results in an in vivo model system, the CFTR(-/-) knockout mouse. When compared with wild-type mice, the knockout mice exhibited fatty acid abnormalities similar to those seen in cystic fibrosis patients and other model systems. The abnormalities were confined to lung, ileum and pancreas, tissues that are affected by the disease. Similar to in vitro models, these fatty acid changes correlated with increased expression of Δ5- and Δ6-desaturases and elongase 5. Dietary supplementation with high-dose free docosahexaenoate or a combination of lower-dose docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate in triglyceride form corrected the fatty acid abnormalities and reduced expression of the desaturase and elongase genes in the ileum and liver of knockout mice. Only the high-dose docosahexaenoate reduced histologic evidence of disease, reducing mucus accumulation in ileal sections. These results provide in vivo support for the hypothesis that fatty acid abnormalities in cystic fibrosis result from abnormal expression and activity of metabolic enzymes in affected cell types. They further demonstrate that these changes can be reversed by dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation, highlighting the potential therapeutic benefit for cystic fibrosis patients.

  3. Adipocyte and adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aus Tariq; Hochfeld, Warren E; Myburgh, Renier; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    Adipocytes are the main constituent of adipose tissue and are considered to be a corner stone in the homeostatic control of whole body metabolism. Their primary function is to control energy balance by storing triacylglycerol in periods of energy excess and mobilizing it during energy deprivation. Besides the classical function of storing fat, adipocytes secrete numerous lipid and protein factors. Collectively they are considered to constitute a major endocrine organ which has a profound impact on the metabolism of other tissues, the regulation of appetite, insulin sensitivity, immunological responses and vascular disease. Adipogenesis is the process during which fibroblast like preadipocytes developed into mature adipocytes. Adipogenesis is a well-orchestrated multistep process that requires the sequential activation of numerous transcription factors, including the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) gene family and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). In order to reach maturity, these cells must go through two vital steps: adipocyte determination and adipocyte differentiation. Although many of the molecular details of adipogenesis are still unknown, several factors involved in this processes have been identified. Some stimulators include peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-l), macrophage colony stimulating factor, fatty acids, prostaglandins and glucocorticoids. Inhibitors include glycoproteins, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), inflammatory cytokines and growth hormone. Beside these factors, there are others for example age, gender and life style that may affect this process in one way or another. An increase in the number and size of adipocytes causes white adipose tissue (WAT) to expand and this can lead to obesity. Adipogenesis can lead to central obesity if it occurs in the abdominal fat depot and peripheral obesity if it occurs in subcutaneous tissue.

  4. Introduction to fatty acids and lipids.

    PubMed

    Burdge, Graham C; Calder, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the structure, function and metabolism of fatty acids and lipids that are of particular importance in the context of parenteral nutrition. Lipids are a heterogeneous group of molecules that share the common property of hydrophobicity. Lipids range in structure from simple short hydrocarbon chains to more complex molecules, including triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sterols and their esters. Lipids within each class may differ structurally. Fatty acids are common components of complex lipids, and these differ according to chain length and the presence, number and position of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain. Structural variation among complex lipids and among fatty acids gives rise to functional differences that result in different impacts upon metabolism and upon cell and tissue responses. Fatty acids and complex lipids exhibit a variety of structural variations that influence their metabolism and their functional effects.

  5. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Auestad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO{sub 2} in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO{sub 2} and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and {omega}-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by {beta}-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the {omega}-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the {beta}-ketothiolase step of the {beta}-oxidation pathway. The ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the (1-{sup 14}C)labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the ({omega}-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1.

  6. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified in this section may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-,...

  7. [The content of individual fatty acids and numbers of double bonds, insulin, C-peptide and unesterified fatty acids in blood plasma in testing tolerance to glucose].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Sazhina, N N; Aripovskiĭ, A V; Evteeva, N M; Tkhagalizhokova, É M; Parkhimovich, R M

    2014-10-01

    The glucose tolerance test demonstrates that content of unesterified fatty acids in blood plasma decreases up to three times and the content of oleic and linoleic acids is more decreased in the pool of fatty acids lipids. Out of resistance to insulin, hormone secretion increases up to three times. The decreasing of level of individual fatty acids occurs in a larger extent. Under resistance to insulin secretion of insulin is increasing up to eight times. The decreasing of level of each fatty acid is less expressed. The effect of insulin reflects decreasing of content of double bonds in blood plasma. The number of double bonds characterizes the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids in lipids of blood plasma. The higher number of double bonds is in the pool of unesterified fatty acids the more active is the effect of insulin. The hyper-secretion of insulin is directly proportional to content of palmitic fatty acid in lipids of blood plasma on fasting. According the phylogenetic theory of general pathology, the effect of insulin on metabolism of glucose is mediated by fatty acids. The insulin is blocking lipolysis in insulin-depended subcutaneous adipocytes and decreases content of unesterified fatty acids in blood plasma. The insulin is depriving all cells of possibility to absorb unesterified fatty acids and "forces" them to absorb glucose increasing hereby number of GLUT4 on cell membrane. The resistance to insulin is manifested in high concentration of unesterfied fatty acids, hyperinsulinemia, hyperalbuminemia and increasing of concentration of C-reactive protein-monomer. The resistance to insulin is groundlessly referred to as a symptom of diabetes mellitus type II. The resistance to insulin is only a functional disorder lasting for years. It can be successfully arrested. The diabetes mellitus is developed against the background of resistance to insulin only after long-term hyper-secretion of insulin and under emaciation and death of β-cells. The diabetes

  8. ADMET: ADipocyte METabolism mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Micheloni, Alessio; Orsi, Gianni; De Maria, Carmelo; Vozzi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    White fat cells have an important physiological role in maintaining triglyceride and free fatty acid levels due to their fundamental storage property, as well as determining insulin resistance. ADipocyte METabolism is a mathematical model that mimics the main metabolic pathways of human white fat cell, connecting inputs (composition of culture medium) to outputs (glycerol and free fatty acid release). It is based on a set of nonlinear differential equations, implemented in Simulink® and controlled by cellular energetic state. The validation of this model is based on a comparison between the simulation results and a set of experimental data collected from the literature.

  9. Effects of Increased Free Fatty Acid Availability on Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage in Men

    PubMed Central

    Mundi, Manpreet S.; Koutsari, Chistina

    2014-01-01

    Context: A portion of free fatty acids (FFA) released from adipose tissue lipolysis are re-stored in adipocytes via direct uptake. Rates of direct adipose tissue FFA storage are much greater in women than men, but women also have greater systemic FFA flux and more body fat. Objective: We tested the hypotheses that experimental increases in FFA in men would equalize the rates of direct adipose tissue FFA storage in men and women. Design: We used a lipid emulsion infusion to raise FFA in men to levels seen in post-absorptive women. Direct FFA storage (μmol·kg fat−1·min−1) rates in abdominal and femoral fat was assessed using stable isotope tracer infusions to measure FFA disappearance rates and an iv FFA radiotracer bolus/timed biopsy. Setting: These studies were performed in a Clinical Research Center. Participants: Data from 13 non-obese women was compared with that from eight obese and eight non-obese men. Intervention: The men received a lipid emulsion infusion to raise FFA. Main Outcome Measures: We measured the rates of direct FFA storage in abdominal and femoral adipose tissue. Results: The three groups were similar in age and FFA flux by design; obese men had similar body fat percentage as non-obese women. Despite matching for FFA concentrations and flux, FFA storage per kg abdominal (P < .01) and femoral (P < .001) fat was less in both lean and obese men than in non-obese women. Abdominal FFA storage rates were correlated with proteins/enzymes in the FFA uptake/triglyceride synthesis pathway in men. Conclusion: The lesser rates of direct FFA adipose tissue in men compared with women cannot be explained by reduced FFA availability. PMID:25192251

  10. Omega 3 fatty acids and the eye.

    PubMed

    Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay

    2008-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil have been known for decades. Most of the health benefits of fish oil can be attributed to the presence of omega-3 essential fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Clinical studies have suggested that DHA and EPA lower triglycerides; slow the buildup of atherosclerotic plaques; lower blood pressure slightly; as well as reduce the risk of death, heart attack, and arrhythmias. Studies have also shown that omega-3 fatty acids may slow the progression of vision loss from AMD and reverse the signs of dry eye syndrome.

  11. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander; Grewal, Thomas; Heeren, Joerg

    2015-09-10

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  12. Expression of fatty acid synthase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Christoph; Riener, Marc-Oliver; Kirovski, Georgi; Saugspier, Michael; Steib, Kathrin; Weiss, Thomas S; Gäbele, Erwin; Kristiansen, Glen; Hartmann, Arndt; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2010-03-25

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation which starts with simple hepatic steatosis and may progress toward inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) catalyzes the last step in fatty acid biosynthesis, and thus, it is believed to be a major determinant of the maximal hepatic capacity to generate fatty acids by de novo lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between hepatic steatosis and inflammation with FASN expression. In vitro incubation of primary human hepatocytes with fatty acids dose-dependently induced cellular lipid-accumulation and FASN expression, while stimulation with TNF did not affect FASN levels. Further, hepatic FASN expression was significantly increased in vivo in a murine model of hepatic steatosis without significant inflammation but not in a murine NASH model as compared to control mice. Also, FASN expression was not increased in mice subjected to bile duct ligation, an experimental model characterized by severe hepatocellular damage and inflammation. Furthermore, FASN expression was analyzed in 102 human control or NAFLD livers applying tissue micro array technology and immunohistochemistry, and correlated significantly with the degree of hepatic steatosis, but not with inflammation or ballooning of hepatocytes. Quantification of FASN mRNA expression in human liver samples confirmed significantly higher FASN levels in hepatic steatosis but not in NASH, and expression of SREBP1, which is the main transcriptional regulator of FASN, paralleled FASN expression levels in human and experimental NAFLD. In conclusion, the transcriptional induction of FASN expression in hepatic steatosis is impaired in NASH, while hepatic inflammation in the absence of steatosis does not affect FASN expression, suggesting that FASN may serve as a new diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for the progression of NAFLD.

  13. Differential expression of fatty acid uptake in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, D.; Bernlohr, D.A.

    1987-05-01

    Cultured 3T3-L1 cells have been used as a model system to investigate the mechanism of fatty acid uptake by adipose tissue. Using a 1:1 molar ratio of /sup 14/C-oleate and defatted bovine serum albumin (BSA), fatty acid (FA) uptake was quantitated at 4/sup 0/ and 37/sup 0/ as cell associated radioactivity. The profile of FA uptake in preadipocytes and adipocytes was biphasic; an initial rapid phase (1-20s) followed by a second slower phase (60-480s). At 37/sup 0/ the initial rate of FA accumulation in preadipocytes was identical to that in adipocytes, whereas the rate of accumulation during the second phase increased 7-fold (100 ..mu..M total FA) as a consequence of adipose conversion. When uptake measurements were made at 4/sup 0/ in adipocytes, the initial rate was identical to that at 37/sup 0/, however the rate of second phase decreased 5-fold. Incubation of /sup 14/C-BSA and nonradiolabeled FA with adipocyte monolayers (100 ..mu..M total FA) resulted in the rapid association (t/sub 1/2/ = 20s) of the BSA-FA complex with the cell surface. Incubation of 100, 10, and 1 ..mu..M total FA with adipocytes resulted in a 50-fold change in FA accumulation during the second phase. These results suggest that (1) FA uptake is significantly increased after differentiation, suggesting the participation of specialized proteins, (2) the temperature-insensitive initial FA accumulation can be attributed to rapid association of the BSA-FA complex to the cell surface, (3) the second phase of FA accumulation represents uptake.

  14. Ferritin couples iron and fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bu, Weiming; Liu, Renyu; Cheung-Lau, Jasmina C; Dmochowski, Ivan J; Loll, Patrick J; Eckenhoff, Roderic G

    2012-06-01

    A physiological relationship between iron, oxidative injury, and fatty acid metabolism exists, but transduction mechanisms are unclear. We propose that the iron storage protein ferritin contains fatty acid binding sites whose occupancy modulates iron uptake and release. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, we found that arachidonic acid binds ferritin specifically and with 60 μM affinity. Arachidonate binding by ferritin enhanced iron mineralization, decreased iron release, and protected the fatty acid from oxidation. Cocrystals of arachidonic acid and horse spleen apoferritin diffracted to 2.18 Å and revealed specific binding to the 2-fold intersubunit pocket. This pocket shields most of the fatty acid and its double bonds from solvent but allows the arachidonate tail to project well into the ferrihydrite mineralization site on the ferritin L-subunit, a structural feature that we implicate in the effects on mineralization by demonstrating that the much shorter saturated fatty acid, caprylate, has no significant effects on mineralization. These combined effects of arachidonate binding by ferritin are expected to lower both intracellular free iron and free arachidonate, thereby providing a previously unrecognized mechanism for limiting lipid peroxidation, free radical damage, and proinflammatory cascades during times of cellular stress.

  15. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-(/sup 14/C)palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C)acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO/sup 2/ and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ..mu..M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ..mu..M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine.

  16. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the... salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty...

  17. Effects of cardiotrophin on adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zvonic, Sanjin; Hogan, Jessica C; Arbour-Reily, Patricia; Mynatt, Randall L; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2004-11-12

    Cardiotrophin (CT-1) is a naturally occurring protein member of the interleukin (IL)-6 cytokine family and signals through the gp130/leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) heterodimer. The formation of gp130/LIFR complex triggers the auto/trans-phosphorylation of associated Janus kinases, leading to the activation of Janus kinase/STAT and MAPK (ERK1 and -2) signaling pathways. Since adipocytes express both gp130 and LIFR proteins and are responsive to other IL-6 family cytokines, we examined the effects of CT-1 on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our studies have shown that CT-1 administration results in a dose- and time-dependent activation and nuclear translocation of STAT1, -3, -5A, and -5B as well as ERK1 and -2. We also confirmed the ability of CT-1 to induce signaling in fat cells in vivo. Our studies revealed that neither CT-1 nor ciliary neurotrophic factor treatment affected adipocyte differentiation. However, acute CT-1 treatment caused an increase in SOCS-3 mRNA in adipocytes and a transient decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) mRNA that was regulated by the binding of STAT1 to the PPARgamma2 promoter. The effects of CT-1 on SOCS-3 and PPARgamma mRNA were independent of MAPK activation. Chronic administration of CT-1 to 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in a decrease of both fatty acid synthase and insulin receptor substrate-1 protein expression yet did not effect the expression of a variety of other adipocyte proteins. Moreover, chronic CT-1 treatment resulted in the development of insulin resistance as judged by a decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In summary, CT-1 is a potent regulator of signaling in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo, and our current efforts are focused on determining the role of this cardioprotective cytokine on adipocyte physiology.

  18. DNA methylation landscape of fat deposits and fatty acid composition in obese and lean pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shunhua; Shen, Linyuan; Xia, Yudong; Yang, Qiong; Li, Xuewei; Tang, Guoqing; Jiang, Yanzhi; Wang, Jinyong; Li, Mingzhou; Zhu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Obese and lean type pig breeds exhibit differences in their fat deposits and fatty acid composition. Here, we compared the effect of genome-wide DNA methylation on fatty acid metabolism between Landrace pigs (LP, leaner) and Rongchang pigs (RP, fatty). We found that LP backfat (LBF) had a higher polyunsaturated fatty acid content but a lower adipocyte volume than RP backfat (RBF). LBF exhibited higher global DNA methylation levels at the genome level than RBF. A total of 483 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were located in promoter regions, mainly affecting olfactory and sensory activity and lipid metabolism. In LBF, the promoters of genes related to ATPase activity had significantly stronger methylation. This fact may suggest lower energy metabolism levels, which may result in less efficient lipid synthesis in LBF. Furthermore, we identified a DMR in the miR-4335 and miR-378 promoters and validated their methylation status by bisulfite sequencing PCR. The hypermethylation of the promoters of miR-4335 and miR-378 in LBF and the resulting silencing of the target genes may result in LBF’s low content in saturated fatty acids and fat deposition capacity. This study provides a solid basis for exploring the epigenetic mechanisms affecting fat deposition and fatty acid composition. PMID:27721392

  19. Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase 3 Is the Key Enzyme for Incorporating Arachidonic Acid into Glycerophospholipids during Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Eto, Miki; Shindou, Hideo; Koeberle, Andreas; Harayama, Takeshi; Yanagida, Keisuke; Shimizu, Takao

    2012-01-01

    Cellular membranes contain glycerophospholipids, which have important structural and functional roles in cells. Glycerophospholipids are first formed in the de novo pathway (Kennedy pathway) and are matured in the remodeling pathway (Lands’ cycle). Recently, lysophospholipid acyltransferases functioning in Lands’ cycle were identified and characterized. Several enzymes involved in glycerophospholipid biosynthesis have been reported to have important roles in adipocytes. However, the role of Lands’ cycle in adipogenesis has not yet been reported. Using C3H10T1/2, a cell line capable of differentiating to adipocyte-like cells in vitro, changes of lysophospholipid acyltransferase activities were investigated. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase (LPEAT) and lysophosphatidylserine acyltransferase (LPSAT) activities were enhanced, especially with 18:2-CoA and 20:4-CoA as donors. Correspondingly, mRNA expression of LPCAT3, which possesses LPCAT, LPEAT and LPSAT activities with high specificity for 18:2- and 20:4-CoA, was upregulated during adipogenesis. Analysis of acyl-chain compositions of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) showed a change in their profiles between preadipocytes and adipocytes, including an increase in the percentage of arachidonic acid-containing phospholipids. These changes are consistent with the activities of LPCAT3. Therefore, it is possible that enhanced phospholipid remodeling by LPCAT3 may be associated with adipocyte differentiation. PMID:23208369

  20. Retinoic acid inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Koo, Bon-Sun; Kang, Mi-Kyung; Rho, Hye-Won; Sohn, Hee-Sook; Jhee, Eun-Chung; Park, Jin-Woo

    2002-11-30

    The present study was undertaken to explore whether retinoids, which are known to have immunomodulatory actions, could attenuate tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes incubated with TNF induced dose- and time-dependent accumulation of nitrite in the culture medium through the iNOS induction as confirmed by Western blotting. Treatment of cells with TNF in the presence of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) significantly decreased their ability to produce nitrite and iNOS induction. Both 13-cis- and all- trans-RA-induced suppression was dose-dependent, and all-trans-RA was somewhat potent than 13-cis-RA. The inhibitory effect of RA on TNF-induced iNOS induction was reversible, completely recovered after 2 days, and was exerted through the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation. TNF also suppressed the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. RA could not reverse the TNF- induced LPL suppression at RA levels causing near complete inhibition of the TNF-induced NO production. These results indicate that RAs attenuate iNOS expression reversibly in TNF-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and that the TNF-induced LPL suppression is not the result of NO overproduction.

  1. The Association of Fatty Acids With Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-09

    Experimental studies have shown that omega-6 fatty acids enhance and omega - 3 fatty acids suppress oncogenesis. Correlational studies also indicate...that breast cancer incidence is positively linked to omega-6 consumption but is negatively related to intake of omega - 3 fatty acids, derived mainly from...arachidonic acid), and omega - 3 fatty acids (20:5n3, eicosapentaenoic acid; 22:6n-3, docosahexaenoic acid) were similar in cases and controls

  2. Amino and fatty acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of two carbonaceous meteorites have provided much of the latest evidence which seems to support Oparin's theory on the origin of life. The meteorites involved are the Murray meteorite, which fell in 1950, and the Murchison meteorite, which fell in 1969. The amino acids in the two meteorites are similar in composition. Eight of the twenty amino acids found belong to amino acids present in proteins. A number of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic fatty acids were also found in the meteorites.

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid increases cellular adiponectin mRNA and secreted adiponectin protein, as well as PPARγ mRNA, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Oster, Richard T; Tishinsky, Justine M; Yuan, Zongfei; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2010-12-01

    Adiponectin, a protein secreted from adipose tissue, has been shown to have anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects, but its regulation is not completely understood. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) may be involved in adiponectin regulation as they are potential ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a key transcription factor for the adiponectin gene. To examine this, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with 125 µmol·L-1 EPA, DHA, palmitic, or oleic acids complexed to albumin, or with albumin alone (control) for 24 h. Adipocytes were also incubated for 24 h with EPA and DHA plus bisphenol-A-diglycidyl ether (BADGE), a PPARγ antagonist. Both EPA and DHA increased (p < 0.05) secreted adiponectin concentration compared with the control (44% and 102%, respectively), but did not affect cellular adiponectin protein content. Incubation with BADGE and DHA inhibited increases in secreted adiponectin protein, suggesting that DHA may act through a PPARγ-dependent mechanism. However, BADGE had no effect on EPA-induced increases in secreted adiponectin protein. Only DHA enhanced (p < 0.05) PPARγ and adiponectin mRNA expression compared wtih the control. Our results demonstrate that DHA increases cellular adiponectin mRNA and secreted adiponectin protein in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, possibly by a mechanism involving PPARγ. Moreover, DHA increased adiponectin concentration to a greater extent (40% more, p < 0.05) compared with EPA, emphasizing the need to consider the independent actions of EPA and DHA in adipocytes.

  4. Fatty acid transport protein-2 inhibitor Grassofermata/CB5 protects cells against lipid accumulation and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Saini, Nipun; Black, Paul N.; Montefusco, David; DiRusso, Concetta C.

    2015-09-25

    The inhibition of the fatty acid uptake into non-adipose tissues provides an attractive target for prevention of lipotoxicity leading to obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are bifunctional proteins involved in the uptake and activation of fatty acids by esterification with coenzyme A. Here we characterize Grassofermata/CB5, previously identified as a fatty acid uptake inhibitor directed against HsFATP2. The compound was effective in inhibiting the uptake of fatty acids in the low micro-molar range (IC{sub 50} 8–11 μM) and prevented palmitate-mediated lipid accumulation and cell death in cell lines that are models for intestines, liver, muscle and pancreas. In adipocytes, uptake inhibition was less effective (IC{sub 50} 58 μM). Inhibition was specific for long chain fatty acids and was ineffective toward medium chain fatty acids, which are transported by diffusion. Kinetic analysis of Grassofermata-dependent FA transport inhibition verified a non-competitive mechanism. By comparison with Grassofermata, several atypical antipsychotic drugs previously implicated as inhibitors of FA uptake were ineffectual. In mice Grassofermata decreased absorption of {sup 13}C-oleate demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent. - Highlights: • Grassofermata is a small compound inhibitor of FATP2. • Uptake inhibition is specific for long chain fatty acids. • Uptake kinetics shows low specificity for adipocytes compared to other cell types. • Inhibition is by a non-competitive mechanism. • Atypical antipsychotics do not inhibit FA uptake by comparison with Grassofermata.

  5. Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

  6. Fatty Acid Synthetase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Harold P.; Volkmann, Carol M.; Chao, Fu-Chuan

    1967-01-01

    A light particle fraction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, obtained from the crude ribosomal material, and containing the fatty acid synthetase, consisted primarily of 27S and 47S components. This fraction has a protein-ribonucleic acid ratio of about 13. Electron micrographs showed particles ranging in diameter between 100 and 300 A in this material. By use of density gradient analysis, the fatty acid synthetase was found in the 47S component. This component contained particles which were predominantly 300 A in diameter and which were considerably flatter than ribosomes, and it consisted almost entirely of protein. Images PMID:6025308

  7. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  8. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2005-08-30

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  9. Soya protein hydrolysates modify the expression of various pro-inflammatory genes induced by fatty acids in ovine phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Politis, Ioannis; Theodorou, Georgios; Lampidonis, Antonios D; Chronopoulou, Roubini; Baldi, Antonella

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that fatty acids are the circulating mediators acting in a pro-inflammatory manner towards activated circulating ovine monocyte/macrophages and neutrophils. Furthermore, whether soya protein hydrolysates (SPH) inhibit the fatty acid-induced increase in the production of pro-inflammatory responses by ovine phagocytes was tested in vitro. All the fatty acids tested (myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic) increased (P<0·01; C18>C16>C14) membrane-bound urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) and u-PA free binding sites in cell membranes of activated ovine blood monocytes/macrophages, but only the C18 fatty acids (stearic, oleic) were effective towards blood neutrophils. The C18 fatty acids up-regulated (P<0·05) the gene expression of u-PA, u-PA receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and inducible NO synthase (in monocytes) but not that of cyclo-oxygenase-2, integrin α X and plasminogen activator inhibitor types 1 and 2 by ovine phagocytes. SPH blocked completely or partially all C18 fatty acid-induced changes in the expression of various pro-inflammatory genes. In conclusion, fatty acids selectively 'activate' ovine phagocytes, suggesting that these cells 'sense' metabolic signals derived from adipocytes. Soya protein peptides inhibit all changes in gene expression induced by fatty acids in ovine phagocytes in vitro. This constitutes a novel mechanism of action.

  10. Probing fatty acid metabolism in bacteria, cyanobacteria, green microalgae and diatoms with natural and unnatural fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Beld, Joris; Abbriano, Raffaela; Finzel, Kara; Hildebrand, Mark; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fatty acid synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acids in an iterative process, extending the fatty acid by two carbon units every cycle. Thus, odd numbered fatty acids are rarely found in nature. We tested whether representatives of diverse microbial phyla have the ability to incorporate odd-chain fatty acids as substrates for their fatty acid synthases and their downstream enzymes. We fed various odd and short chain fatty acids to the bacterium Escherichia coli, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Major differences were observed, specifically in the ability among species to incorporate and elongate short chain fatty acids. We demonstrate that E. coli, C. reinhardtii, and T. pseudonana can produce longer fatty acid products from short chain precursors (C3 and C5), while Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks this ability. However, Synechocystis can incorporate and elongate longer chain fatty acids due to acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasS) activity, and knockout of this protein eliminates the ability to incorporate these fatty acids. In addition, expression of a characterized AasS from Vibrio harveyii confers a similar capability to E. coli. The ability to desaturate exogenously added fatty acids was only observed in Synechocystis and C. reinhardtii. We further probed fatty acid metabolism of these organisms by feeding desaturase inhibitors to test the specificity of long-chain fatty acid desaturases. In particular, supplementation with thia fatty acids can alter fatty acid profiles based on the location of the sulfur in the chain. We show that coupling sensitive gas chromatography mass spectrometry to supplementation of unnatural fatty acids can reveal major differences between fatty acid metabolism in various organisms. Often unnatural fatty acids have antibacterial or even therapeutic properties. Feeding of short

  11. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    PubMed Central

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  12. Fatty acid production in genetically modified cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyao; Sheng, Jie; Curtiss III, Roy

    2011-01-01

    To avoid costly biomass recovery in photosynthetic microbial biofuel production, we genetically modified cyanobacteria to produce and secrete fatty acids. Starting with introducing an acyl–acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene, we made six successive generations of genetic modifications of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 wild type (SD100). The fatty acid secretion yield was increased to 197 ± 14 mg/L of culture in one improved strain at a cell density of 1.0 × 109 cells/mL by adding codon-optimized thioesterase genes and weakening polar cell wall layers. Although these strains exhibited damaged cell membranes at low cell densities, they grew more rapidly at high cell densities in late exponential and stationary phase and exhibited less cell damage than cells in wild-type cultures. Our results suggest that fatty acid secreting cyanobacteria are a promising technology for renewable biofuel production. PMID:21482809

  13. Contrasting Cellularity and Fatty Acid Composition in Fat Depots from Alentejana and Barrosã Bovine Breeds Fed High and Low Forage Diets

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Ana S.H.; Lopes, Paula A.; Estevão, Marta; Martins, Susana V.; Alves, Susana P.; Pinto, Rui M.A.; Pissarra, Hugo; Correia, Jorge J.; Pinho, Mário; Fontes, Carlos M.G.A.; Prates, José A.M.

    2012-01-01

    During the finishing phase of bovines, large amounts of subcutaneous and visceral fats are deposited leading to production inefficiencies with major impact on meat quality. A better understanding of the cellularity features of the main fat depots could provide strategies for adipose tissue manipulation. This study assessed the effect of feeding diets with distinct forage to concentrate ratios on the cellularity of two fat depots of beef cattle and their implications on the fatty acid profile. Thus, two phylogenetically distant Portuguese bovine breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected. The results did not show differences in subcutaneous fat deposition nor in visceral fat depots partitioning. Plasma adipokines concentration failed to show a consistent relationship with fatness, as leptin remained constant in all experimental groups, whereas interleukin-6 was influenced by breed. Fat depot seems to determine the area and number of adipocytes, with larger adipocytes and a lower number of cells in subcutaneous fat than in mesenteric fat. Neither breed nor diet influenced adipocytes area and number. The contents of total fatty acids, partial sums of fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomeric profile were affected by breed and fat depot. The incorporation of saturated fatty acids (SFA), trans fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) was higher in mesenteric fat depot, whereas subcutaneous fat depot had greater percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In addition, SFA and MUFA proportions seem to be breed-related. In spite of the less relevant role of diet, the percentages of PUFA and BCFA were influenced by this factor. Under these experimental conditions, the effect of fat depot on cellularity and fatty acid composition prevails over breed or diet, as reinforced by the principal component analysis. PMID:22253565

  14. Adipocyte amino acid sensing controls adult germline stem cell number via the amino acid response pathway and independently of Target of Rapamycin signaling in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Alissa R; Laws, Kaitlin M; Drummond-Barbosa, Daniela

    2014-12-01

    How adipocytes contribute to the physiological control of stem cells is a critical question towards understanding the link between obesity and multiple diseases, including cancers. Previous studies have revealed that adult stem cells are influenced by whole-body physiology through multiple diet-dependent factors. For example, nutrient-dependent pathways acting within the Drosophila ovary control the number and proliferation of germline stem cells (GSCs). The potential role of nutrient sensing by adipocytes in modulating stem cells in other organs, however, remains largely unexplored. Here, we report that amino acid sensing by adult adipocytes specifically modulates the maintenance of GSCs through a Target of Rapamycin-independent mechanism. Instead, reduced amino acid levels and the consequent increase in uncoupled tRNAs trigger activation of the GCN2-dependent amino acid response pathway within adipocytes, causing increased rates of GSC loss. These studies reveal a new step in adipocyte-stem cell crosstalk.

  15. Fatty Acid Transport Protein-2 inhibitor Grassofermata/CB5 protects cells against lipid accumulation and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Nipun; Black, Paul N.; Montefusco, David; DiRusso, Concetta C.

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of the fatty acid uptake into non-adipose tissues provides an attractive target for prevention of lipotoxicity leading to obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are bifunctional proteins involved in the uptake and activation of fatty acids by esterification with coenzyme A. Here we characterize Grassofermata/CB5, previously identified as a fatty acid uptake inhibitor directed against HsFATP2. The compound was effective in inhibiting the uptake of fatty acids in the low micro-molar range (IC50 8–11μM) and prevented palmitate-mediated lipid accumulation and cell death in cell lines that are models for intestines, liver, muscle and pancreas. In adipocytes, uptake inhibition was less effective (IC50 58μM). Inhibition was specific for long chain fatty acids and was ineffective toward medium chain fatty acids, which are transported by diffusion. Kinetic analysis of Grassofermata-dependent FA transport inhibition verified a non-competitive mechanism. By comparison with Grassofermata, several atypical antipsychotic drugs previously implicated as inhibitors of FA uptake were ineffectual. In mice Grassofermata decreased absorption of 13C-oleate demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent. PMID:26284975

  16. SLC27 fatty acid transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Courtney M; Stahl, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The uptake and metabolism of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) are critical to many physiological and cellular processes. Aberrant accumulation or depletion of LCFA underlie the pathology of numerous metabolic diseases. Protein-mediated transport of LCFA has been proposed as the major mode of LCFA uptake and activation. Several proteins have been identified to be involved in LCFA uptake. This review focuses on the SLC27 family of fatty acid transport proteins, also known as FATPs, with an emphasis on the gain- and loss-of-function animal models that elucidate the functions of FATPs in vivo and how these transport proteins play a role in physiological and pathological situations.

  17. Abnormal nonshivering thermogenesis in mice with inherited defects of fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, C; Koza, R A; Walsh, K; Kurtz, D M; Wood, P A; Kozak, L P

    1998-01-01

    When placed in the cold (4 degreesC), BALB/cByJ mice of both genders rapidly lose body temperature as compared with the control strain, C57BL/6J. This sensitivity to cold resembles that previously described for mice with a defect in nonshivering thermogenesis due to the targeted inactivation of the brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial uncoupling protein gene, Ucp1. Genetic mapping of the trait placed the gene on chromosome 5 near Acads, a gene encoding the short chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase, which is mutated in BALB/cByJ mice. The analysis of candidate genes in the region indicated a defect only in the expression of Acads. Confirmation of the importance of fatty acid oxidation to thermogenesis came from our finding that mice carrying the targeted inactivation of the long chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase gene (Acadl) are also sensitive to the cold. Both of these mutations attenuate the induction of genes normally responsive to adrenergic signaling in brown adipocytes. These results suggest that the action of fatty acids as regulators of gene expression has been perturbed in the mutant mice. From a clinical perspective, it is important to determine whether defects in thermogenesis may be a phenotype in human neonates with inherited deficiencies in fatty acid beta-oxidation. PMID:9802886

  18. Trans fatty acids and fatty acid composition of mature breast milk in turkish women and their association with maternal diet's.

    PubMed

    Samur, Gülhan; Topcu, Ali; Turan, Semra

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid composition and trans fatty acid and fatty acid contents of breast milk in Turkish women and to find the effect of breastfeeding mothers' diet on trans fatty acid and fatty acid composition. Mature milk samples obtained from 50 Turkish nursing women were analyzed. Total milk lipids extracts were transmethylated and analyzed by using gas liquid chromatography to determine fatty acids contents. A questionnaire was applied to observe eating habits and 3 days dietary records from mothers were obtained. Daily dietary intake of total energy and nutrients were estimated by using nutrient database. The mean total trans fatty acids contents was 2.13 +/- 1.03%. The major sources of trans fatty acids in mothers' diets were margarines-butter (37.0%), bakery products and confectionery (29.6%). Mothers who had high level of trans isomers in their milk consumed significantly higher amounts of these products. Saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids of human milk constituted 40.7 +/- 4.7%, 26.9 +/- 4.2% and 30.8 +/- 0.6% of the total fatty acids, respectively. The levels of fatty acids in human milk may reflect the current diet of the mother as well as the diet consumed early in pregnancy. Margarines, bakery products and confectionery are a major source of trans fatty acids in maternal diet in Turkey.

  19. [THE EXCESS OF PALMITIC FATTY ACID IN FOOD AS MAIN CAUSE OF LIPOIDOSIS OF INSULIN-DEPENDENT CELLS: SKELETAL MYOCYTES, CARDIO-MYOCYTES, PERIPORTAL HEPATOCYTES, KUPFFER MACROPHAGES AND B-CELLS OF PANCREAS].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N

    2016-02-01

    In phylogenesis, becoming of biologicalfunctions and biological reactions proceeds with the purpose ofpermanent increasing of "kinetic perfection ". The main role belongs to factors ofphysical, chemical and biological kinetics, their evaluation using systemic approach technique under permanent effect of natural selection. The late-in-phylogenesis insulin, proceeded with, in development of biological function of locomotion, specialization of insulin-dependent cells: skeletal myocytes, syncytium of cardiomyocytes, subcutaneous adipocytes, periportal hepatocytes, Kupffer's macrophages and β-cells of islets of pancreas. The insulin initiated formation of new, late in phylogenesis, large pool of fatty cells-subcutaneous adipocytes that increased kinetic parameters of biological function of locomotion. In realization of biological function of locomotion only adipocytes absorb exogenous mono unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the form of triglycerides in composition of oleic and palmitic lipoproteins of very low density using apoE/B-100 endocytosis. The rest of insulin-dependent cells absorb fatty acids in the form of unesterified fatty acids from associates with albumin and under effect of CD36 of translocase offatty acids. The insulin in all insulin-depended cells inhibits biological reaction of lipolysis enhancing contributing into development of lipoidosis. The insulin expresses transfer offatty acids in the form of unsaturated fatty acids from adipocytes into matrix of mitochondria. The insulin supplies insulin-dependent cells with substrates for acquiring energy subject to that in pool of unsaturated fatty acids in adipocytes prevails hydrophobic palmitic unsaturated fatiy acid that slowly passes into matrix through external membrane ofmitochondria; oxidases of mitochondria so slowly implement its β-oxidation that content of exogenous palmitic unsaturatedfatty acid can't be higher than phylogenetic, physiological level - 15% of all amount offatty acids

  20. Fatty Acids as Surfactants on Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tervahattu, H.; Juhanoja, J.; Niemi, J.

    2003-12-01

    Fatty acids (n-alcanoic acids) are common compounds in numerous anthropogenic and natural emissions. According to Rogge et al. (1993), catalyst-equipped automobiles emitted more than 600 μg km-1 of fatty acids which was over 50% of all identified organics in fine aerosol emissions. Coal burning produces fatty acids ranging from about 1700 mg kg-1 for bituminous coal to over 10000 mg kg-1 for lignite (Oros and Simoneit, 2000). Similarly, biomass burning is an important source for aerosol fatty acids. They are the major identified compound group in deciduous tree smoke, their total emission factor being measured as 1589 mg kg-1 which was 56% of all identified organic compounds (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a). Large amounts of fatty acid are also emitted from burning of conifer trees and grass (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a; Simoneit, 2002). Fatty acids have been reported to be major constituents of marine aerosols in many investigations (Barger and Garrett, 1976; Gagosian et. al, 1981; Sicre et al., 1990; Stephanou, 1992). It has been suggested that as the marine aerosol particles form, they acquire a coating of organic surfactants (Blanchard, 1964; Gill et al., 1983; Middlebrook et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999). Amphiphilic molecules, including lipids, can be assembled as monomolecular layers at air/water interfaces as well as transported to a solid support. Recently, we could show by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry that fatty acids are important ingredients of the outermost surface layer of the sea-salt aerosol particles (Tervahattu et al., 2002). In their TOF-SIMS studies on the surface composition of atmospheric aerosols, Peterson and Tyler (2002) found fatty acids on the surface of Montana forest fire particles. In this work we have studied by TOF-SIMS the surface chemical composition of aerosol particles emitted from field fires in the Baltic and other East European countries and transported to Finland as well as aerosol particles transported from

  1. Acute effects of dietary fatty acids on the fatty acids of human milk.

    PubMed

    Francois, C A; Connor, S L; Wander, R C; Connor, W E

    1998-02-01

    Although it is known that the fatty acid profile of human milk is altered by diet, the rapidity with which this occurs has not been addressed. We hypothesized that after absorption the fatty acids of a given meal would be transferred rapidly from the chylomicrons of the blood into human milk. Fourteen lactating women drank six test formulas, each containing a different fat: menhaden oil, herring oil, safflower oil, canola oil, coconut oil, or cocoa butter. The subjects collected a midfeeding milk sample before consuming the breakfast test formula and additional samples at 6, 10, 14, and 24 h and then once daily for 4-7 d. Fatty acids of special interest included eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from menhaden oil, cetoleic acid from herring oil, linoleic acid from safflower oil, linolenic acid from canola oil, lauric acid from coconut oil, and palmitic and stearic acids from cocoa butter. Each of these fatty acids increased significantly in human milk within 6 h of consumption of the test formulas (P < 0.001). Maximum increases occurred 10 h after safflower oil; 14 h after cocoa utter, coconut oil, canola oil, and menhaden oil (eicosapentaenoic acid); and 24 h after herring oil and menhaden oil (docosahexaenoic acid). All of these fatty acids remained significantly elevated in milk (P < 0.05) for 10-24 h, except for docosahexaenoic acid, which remained significantly elevated for 2 d, and eicosapentaenoic acid, which remained elevated for 3 d. These data support the hypothesis that there is a rapid transfer of dietary fatty acids from chylomicrons into human milk.

  2. Branched Chain Amino Acids Cause Liver Injury in Obese/Diabetic Mice by Promoting Adipocyte Lipolysis and Inhibiting Hepatic Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuyang; Zhao, Shihao; Yan, Wenjun; Xia, Yunlong; Chen, Xiyao; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jinglong; Gao, Chao; Peng, Cheng; Yan, Feng; Zhao, Huishou; Lian, Kun; Lee, Yan; Zhang, Ling; Lau, Wayne Bond; Ma, Xinliang; Tao, Ling

    2016-11-01

    The Western meat-rich diet is both high in protein and fat. Although the hazardous effect of a high fat diet (HFD) upon liver structure and function is well recognized, whether the co-presence of high protein intake contributes to, or protects against, HF-induced hepatic injury remains unclear. Increased intake of branched chain amino acids (BCAA, essential amino acids compromising 20% of total protein intake) reduces body weight. However, elevated circulating BCAA is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and injury. The mechanisms responsible for this quandary remain unknown; the role of BCAA in HF-induced liver injury is unclear. Utilizing HFD or HFD+BCAA models, we demonstrated BCAA supplementation attenuated HFD-induced weight gain, decreased fat mass, activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), inhibited hepatic lipogenic enzymes, and reduced hepatic triglyceride content. However, BCAA caused significant hepatic damage in HFD mice, evidenced by exacerbated hepatic oxidative stress, increased hepatic apoptosis, and elevated circulation hepatic enzymes. Compared to solely HFD-fed animals, plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) in the HFD+BCAA group are significantly further increased, due largely to AMPKα2-mediated adipocyte lipolysis. Lipolysis inhibition normalized plasma FFA levels, and improved insulin sensitivity. Surprisingly, blocking lipolysis failed to abolish BCAA-induced liver injury. Mechanistically, hepatic mTOR activation by BCAA inhibited lipid-induced hepatic autophagy, increased hepatic apoptosis, blocked hepatic FFA/triglyceride conversion, and increased hepatocyte susceptibility to FFA-mediated lipotoxicity. These data demonstrated that BCAA reduces HFD-induced body weight, at the expense of abnormal lipolysis and hyperlipidemia, causing hepatic lipotoxicity. Furthermore, BCAA directly exacerbate hepatic lipotoxicity by reducing lipogenesis and inhibiting autophagy in the hepatocyte.

  3. [THE FATTY ACIDS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Sanhueza Catalán, Julio; Durán Agüero, Samuel; Torres García, Jairo

    2015-09-01

    The functionality of the eukaryotic cell depends on the cell membrane, the genetic information and action of different organelles with or without the presence of membranes. The functionality of the cell membrane and organelles containing it depends primarily on the type and location of fatty acids in the phospholipids and the type of enzymes associated with them, this allows the fatty acids to be metabolized to new species that exert various functions. From this perspective, some essential fatty acids (EFAs) that produce metabolites that exert health benefits are identified, (for example antiinflammatory, neuroprotection, etc) and exert negative effects metabolites (eg inflammation, necrosis promoters, atheroma, etc.) are also generated. In general, these adverse or beneficial effects depend on the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 obtained in the diet. Thus, the higher this ratio is more negative effect; therefore the challenge of the current supply is obtained through food consumption, lower ratios in these fatty acids. The present review aims to present recent evidence on the effects of some AGEs, and the role of diet in maintaining health.

  4. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from (1-{sup 14}C)acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 {mu}M acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl{sub 2}, 1 mM each of the MnCl{sub 2} and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO{sub 3}, and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 {mu}g/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO{sub 3}, divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg{sup 2+} and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor.

  5. Melting of saturated fatty acid zinc soaps.

    PubMed

    Barman, S; Vasudevan, S

    2006-11-16

    The melting of alkyl chains in the saturated fatty acid zinc soaps of different chain lengths, Zn(C(n)H(2n+1)COO)(2); n = 11, 13, 15, and 17, have been investigated by powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and vibrational spectroscopy. These compounds have a layer structure with the alkyl chains arranged as tilted bilayers and with all methylene chains adopting a planar, all-trans conformation at room temperature. The saturated fatty acid zinc soaps exhibit a single reversible melting transition with the associated enthalpy change varying linearly with alkyl chain length, but surprisingly, the melting temperature remaining constant. Melting is associated with changes in the conformation of the alkyl chains and in the nature of coordination of the fatty acid to zinc. By monitoring features in the infrared spectra that are characteristic of the global conformation of the alkyl chains, a quantitative relation between conformational disorder and melting is established. It is found that, irrespective of the alkyl chain length, melting occurs when 30% of the chains in the soap are disordered. These results highlight the universal nature of the melting of saturated fatty acid zinc soaps and provide a simple explanation for the observed phenomena.

  6. n-3 Fatty acids and asthma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aishwarya; Mastana, Sarabjit S; Lindley, Martin R

    2016-06-01

    Asthma is one of the most common and prevalent problems worldwide affecting over 300 million individuals. There is some evidence from observational and intervention studies to suggest a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA in inflammatory diseases, specifically asthma. Marine-based n-3 PUFA have therefore been proposed as a possible complementary/alternative therapy for asthma. The proposed anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 fatty acids may be linked to a change in cell membrane composition. This altered membrane composition following n-3 fatty acid supplementation (primarily EPA and DHA) can modify lipid mediator generation via the production of eicosanoids with a reduced inflammatory potential/impact. A recently identified group of lipid mediators derived from EPA including E-series resolvins are proposed to be important in the resolution of inflammation. Reduced inflammation attenuates the severity of asthma including symptoms (dyspnoea) and exerts a bronchodilatory effect. There have been no major health side effects reported with the dietary supplementation of n-3 fatty acids or their mediators; consequently supplementing with n-3 fatty acids is an attractive non-pharmacological intervention which may benefit asthma.

  7. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in emerging psychosis.

    PubMed

    Mossaheb, Nilufar; Schloegelhofer, Monika; Schaefer, Miriam R; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Smesny, Stefan; McGorry, Pat; Berger, Gregor; Amminger, G Paul

    2012-01-01

    The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites for the cause and treatment of psychotic disorders are widely discussed. The efficacy as an augmenting agent in chronic schizophrenia seems to be small or not present, however epidemiological data, as well as some recent controlled studies in emerging psychosis point towards possible preventive effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in early and very early stages of psychotic disorders and some potential secondary or tertiary beneficial long-term effects in later, more chronic stages, in particular for metabolic or extra-pyramidal side effects. In this comprehensive review, we describe the physiology and metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids, phospholipases, epidemiological evidence and the effect of these fatty acids on the brain and neurodevelopment. Furthermore, we examine the available evidence in indicated prevention in emerging psychosis, monotherapy, add-on therapy and tolerability. The neuroprotective potential of n-3 LC-PUFAs for indicated prevention, i.e. delaying transition to psychosis in high-risk populations needs to be further explored.

  8. Fatty acid composition of California grown almonds.

    PubMed

    Sathe, S K; Seeram, N P; Kshirsagar, H H; Heber, D; Lapsley, K A

    2008-11-01

    Eight almond (Prunus dulcis L.) cultivars from 12 different California counties, collected during crop years 2004 to 2005 and 2005 to 2006, were extracted with petroleum ether. The extracts were subjected to GC-MS analyses to determine fatty acid composition of soluble lipids. Results indicated palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), and alpha-linolenic (C18:3) acid, respectively, accounted for 5.07% to 6.78%, 57.54% to 73.94%, 19.32% to 35.18%, and 0.04% to 0.10%; of the total lipids. Oleic and linoleic acid were inversely correlated (r=-0.99, P= 0.05) and together accounted for 91.16% to 94.29% of the total soluble lipids. Statistically, fatty acid composition was significantly affected by cultivar and county.

  9. Effects of pyrazinamide on fatty acid synthesis by whole mycobacterial cells and purified fatty acid synthase I.

    PubMed

    Boshoff, Helena I; Mizrahi, Valerie; Barry, Clifton E

    2002-04-01

    The effects of low extracellular pH and intracellular accumulation of weak organic acids were compared with respect to fatty acid synthesis by whole cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The profile of fatty acids synthesized during exposure to benzoic, nicotinic, or pyrazinoic acids, as well as that observed during intracellular hydrolysis of the corresponding amides, was not a direct consequence of modulation of fatty acid synthesis by these compounds but reflected the response to inorganic acid stress. Analysis of fatty acid synthesis in crude mycobacterial cell extracts demonstrated that pyrazinoic acid failed to directly modulate the fatty acid synthase activity catalyzed by fatty acid synthase I (FAS-I). However, fatty acid synthesis was irreversibly inhibited by 5-chloro-pyrazinamide in a time-dependent fashion. Moreover, we demonstrate that pyrazinoic acid does not inhibit purified mycobacterial FAS-I, suggesting that this enzyme is not the immediate target of pyrazinamide.

  10. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  11. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: structure elucidation and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D John; Burkart, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field.

  12. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: Structure elucidation and metabolic engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John; Burkart, Michael D.

    2014-10-20

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. Lastly, in this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field.

  13. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Revisited: Structure Elucidation and Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases’ many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field. PMID:25360565

  14. Manipulation of Galactolipid Fatty Acid Composition with Substituted Pyridazinones

    PubMed Central

    John, Judith B. St.

    1976-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the major lipids of the chloroplast membranes, the mono- and digalactosyl diglycerides, can be definably altered with various substituted pyridazinones. Galactolipid fatty acid composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can be altered so that there is a decrease in linolenic acid accompanied by an increase in linoleic acid without a shift in the relative proportion of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids; the fatty acid composition can be shifted toward a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids; or the fatty acid composition of the monogalactosyl diglycerides can be altered in preference to the digalactosyl diglycerides. Also, the light-mediated parallel accumulation of chlorophyll and linolenic acid can be separated with a substituted pyridazinone. The substituted pyridazinones may be useful tools in clarifying the role the galactolipids and their component fatty acids play in the structure and function of chloroplast membranes in higher plants. PMID:16659420

  15. Fatty acid production from amino acids and alpha-keto acids by Brevibacterium linens BL2.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Seefeldt, Kimberly; Weimer, Bart C

    2004-11-01

    Low concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, such as isobutyric and isovaleric acids, develop during the ripening of hard cheeses and contribute to the beneficial flavor profile. Catabolism of amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids, by bacteria via aminotransferase reactions and alpha-keto acids is one mechanism to generate these flavorful compounds; however, metabolism of alpha-keto acids to flavor-associated compounds is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of Brevibacterium linens BL2 to produce fatty acids from amino acids and alpha-keto acids and determine the occurrence of the likely genes in the draft genome sequence. BL2 catabolized amino acids to fatty acids only under carbohydrate starvation conditions. The primary fatty acid end products from leucine were isovaleric acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid. In contrast, logarithmic-phase cells of BL2 produced fatty acids from alpha-keto acids only. BL2 also converted alpha-keto acids to branched-chain fatty acids after carbohydrate starvation was achieved. At least 100 genes are potentially involved in five different metabolic pathways. The genome of B. linens ATCC 9174 contained these genes for production and degradation of fatty acids. These data indicate that brevibacteria have the ability to produce fatty acids from amino and alpha-keto acids and that carbon metabolism is important in regulating this event.

  16. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao-Wei; Chien, Yi-Shan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Ajuwon, Kolapo M.; Mersmann, Harry M.; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1) lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2) energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3) inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27735847

  17. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  18. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  19. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  20. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  1. Adenovirusmediated interference of FABP4 regulates ADIPOQ, LEP and LEPR expression in bovine adipocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 plays an important role in fatty acid transportation in adipocytes and its expression is related to obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and intramuscular fat content. Yet little is understood about FABP4 functions at the cellular level in the bovine. Thus, we...

  2. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10691 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10691... Substances § 721.10691 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-13-267) is...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10520 - Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetylated fatty acid glycerides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10520 Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... acetylated fatty acid glycerides (PMN P-11-160) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10520 - Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetylated fatty acid glycerides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10520 Acetylated fatty acid glycerides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... acetylated fatty acid glycerides (PMN P-11-160) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10463 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10463... Substances § 721.10463 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10687 - Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10687 Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (PMNs P-13-201, P-13-203, P-13-204, P-13-205, P-13-206, P-13-207,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10680 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10680... Substances § 721.10680 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMNs...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 75 FR 71556 - Polyoxyalkylated Glycerol Fatty Acid Esters; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyoxyalkylated Glycerol Fatty Acid Esters; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of polyoxyalkylated glycerol fatty acid esters; the... unsaturated, fatty acids containing up to 15% water by weight reacted with a minimum of three moles of...

  17. 75 FR 14082 - Ammonium Salts of Fatty Acids (C8

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Ammonium Salts of Fatty Acids (C 8 -C 18 Saturated); Exemption from the... fatty acids (C 8 -C 18 saturated) applied pre- and post-harvest on all raw agricultural commodities when... eliminates the need to establish a maximum permissible level for residues of ammonium salts of fatty acids...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  19. Naturally occurring fatty acids: source, chemistry and uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10463 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10463... Substances § 721.10463 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMN...

  1. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Causes Changes in the Concentrations of Adipocyte Fatty Acid–Binding Protein and Other Adipocytokines in Cord Blood

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Senovilla, Henar; Schaefer-Graf, Ute; Meitzner, Katrin; Abou-Dakn, Michael; Graf, Kristof; Kintscher, Ulrich; Herrera, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the concentrations of adipocyte fatty acid–binding protein (AFABP) and other adipocytokines in maternal and cord serum of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and of control subjects and to relate them to indexes of insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In 86 control and 98 GDM pregnant women, venous blood was collected before vaginal delivery and arterial blood from cord immediately after delivery. Serum insulin and adipocytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS GDM women had higher prepregnancy BMI, and data were adjusted for it. Maternal serum insulin, insulin-to-glucose ratio, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), AFABP, and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) were higher and adiponectin was lower in GDM than in control subjects, whereas serum glucose, insulin, insulin-to-glucose ratio, HOMA, nonesterified fatty acids, and RBP4 were higher and glycerol, AFABP, and adiponectin were lower in cord blood serum of GDM than of control subjects. AFABP and adiponectin in cord serum of control subjects were higher than in maternal serum; in GDM women no difference was found for AFABP in cord versus maternal serum, although adiponectin remained higher in cord. Values of leptin in both groups were lower in cord than in maternal serum, and those of RBP4 were lower in only GDM women. CONCLUSIONS It is suggested that fetal tissues are the main source of cord arterial serum AFABP, and in GDM fetuses AFABP values correlate with adiposity markers. A downregulation of adiponectin and upregulation of RBP4 in GDM mothers and their fetuses may be related to their insulin-resistant condition, whereas changes in AFABP do not seem to be related. PMID:21775757

  2. Gas chromatographic analysis of infant formulas for total fatty acids, including trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Satchithanandam, Subramaniam; Fritsche, Jan; Rader, Jeanne I

    2002-01-01

    Twelve powdered and 13 liquid infant formulas were analyzed by using an extension of AOAC Official Method 996.01 for fat analysis in cereal products. Samples were hydrolyzed with 8 N HCl and extracted with ethyl and petroleum ethers. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared by refluxing the mixed ether extracts with methanolic sodium hydroxide in the presence of 14% boron trifluoride in methanol. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. In powdered formulas, saturated fatty acid (SFA) content (mean +/- SD; n = 12) was 41.05 +/- 3.94%, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content was 36.97 +/- 3.38%, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content was 20.07 +/- 3.08%, and total trans fatty acid content was 1.30 +/- 1.27%. In liquid formulas, SFA content (mean +/- SD; n = 13) was 42.29 +/- 2.98%, MUFA content was 36.05 +/- 2.47%, PUFA content was 20.65 +/- 2.40%, and total trans fatty acid content was 0.88 +/- 0.54%. Total fat content in powdered formulas ranged from 4.4 to 5.5 g/100 kcal and linoleic acid content ranged from 868 to 1166 mg/100 kcal. In liquid formulas, total fat content ranged from 4.1 to 5.1 g/100 kcal and linoleic acid content ranged from 820 to 1100 mg/100 kcal. There were no significant differences between powdered and liquid infant formulas in concentrations of total fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or trans fatty acids.

  3. Fatty acid facts, Part I. Essential fatty acids as treatment for depression, or food for mood?

    PubMed

    Pawels, E K J; Volterrani, D

    2008-10-01

    The epidemic character of depressive disorders has prompted further research into dietary habits that could make an etiological contribution. One clear change in the diet of the population in developed countries has been the replacement of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by saturated fats and trans-fats as well as by omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids, and the members of the -3 and -6 series are crucial for human health. In biochemical processes there is a competition between these two series. A higher dietary intake of omega-6 results in the excessive incorporation of these molecules in the cell membrane with numerous pathological consequences, presumably due to the formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids. Members of the omega-3 family and their derivatives modulate the inflammatory action. Essential fatty acids play a major role in brain development and brain functioning. The omega-3 series members docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) provide fluidity to the cell membrane, facilitating certain processes including neurotransmission and ion channel flow. It is thought that omega-3 deficiency during the fetal and postnatal period may have a long-term effect at various levels. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a positive association between omega-3 deficits and mood disorders. As for treatment, there is convincing evidence that add-on omega-3 fatty acids to standard antidepressant pharmacotherapy results in improved mood. There is no evidence that fatty acid monotherapy has a mood-elevating effect, with a possible exception for childhood depression. There are indications that omega-3 has a prophylactic effect on perinatal depression and has a negative effect on natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function. These observations need further study in view of the popularity of self-medication.

  4. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in Lepidopteran caterpillars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in Noctuid as well as Sphingid caterpillar oral secretions and especially volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-Glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants...

  5. Metabolic diversity in biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria involving conjugated fatty acid production.

    PubMed

    Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2009-08-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum AKU 1009a effectively transforms linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acids of cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) and trans-9,trans-11-18:2. The transformation of various polyunsaturated fatty acids by washed cells of L. plantarum AKU 1009a was investigated. Besides linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid [cis-9,cis-12,cis-15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3)], gamma-linolenic acid (cis-6,cis-9,cis-12-18:3), columbinic acid (trans-5,cis-9,cis-12-18:3), and stearidonic acid [cis-6,cis-9,cis-12,cis-15-octadecatetraenoic acid (18:4)] were found to be transformed. The fatty acids transformed by the strain had the common structure of a C18 fatty acid with the cis-9,cis-12 diene system. Three major fatty acids were produced from alpha-linolenic acid, which were identified as cis-9,trans-11,cis-15-18:3, trans-9,trans-11,cis-15-18:3, and trans-10,cis-15-18:2. Four major fatty acids were produced from gamma-linolenic acid, which were identified as cis-6,cis-9,trans-11-18:3, cis-6,trans-9,trans-11-18:3, cis-6,trans-10-18:2, and trans-10-octadecenoic acid. The strain transformed the cis-9,cis-12 diene system of C18 fatty acids into conjugated diene systems of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-9,trans-11. These conjugated dienes were further saturated into the trans-10 monoene system by the strain. The results provide valuable information for understanding the pathway of biohydrogenation by anaerobic bacteria and for establishing microbial processes for the practical production of conjugated fatty acids, especially those produced from alpha-linolenic acid and gamma-linolenic acid.

  6. Ligand specificity and conformational stability of human fatty acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, A W; van Moerkerk, H T; Veerkamp, J H

    2001-09-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are small cytosolic proteins with virtually identical backbone structures that facilitate the solubility and intracellular transport of fatty acids. At least eight different types of FABP occur, each with a specific tissue distribution and possibly with a distinct function. To define the functional characteristics of all eight human FABPs, viz. heart (H), brain (B), myelin (M), adipocyte (A), epidermal (E), intestinal (I), liver (L) and ileal lipid-binding protein (I-LBP), we studied their ligand specificity, their conformational stability and their immunological crossreactivity. Additionally, binding of bile acids to I-LBP was studied. The FABP types showed differences in fatty acid binding affinity. Generally, the affinity for palmitic acid was lower than for oleic and arachidonic acid. All FABP types, except E-FABP, I-FABP and I-LBP interacted with 1-anilinonaphtalene-8-sulphonic acid (ANS). Only L-FABP, I-FABP and M-FABP showed binding of 11-((5-dimethylaminonaphtalene-1-sulfonyl)amino)undecanoic acid (DAUDA). I-LBP showed increasing binding of bile acids in the order taurine-conjugated>glycine-conjugated>unconjugated bile acids. A hydroxylgroup of bile acids at position 7 decreased and at position 12 increased the binding affinity to I-LBP. The fatty acid-binding affinity and the conformation of FABP types were differentially affected in the presence of urea. Our results demonstrate significant differences in ligand binding, conformational stability and surface properties between different FABP types which may point to a specific function in certain cells and tissues. The preference of I-LBP (but not L-FABP) for conjugated bile acids is in accordance with a specific role in bile acid reabsorption in the ileum.

  7. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid amide (erucamide) using fatty acid and urea.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Neeraj Praphulla; Singh, R P

    2007-01-01

    Ammonolysis of fatty acids to the corresponding fatty acid amides is efficiently catalysed by Candida antartica lipase (Novozym 435). In the present paper lipase-catalysed synthesis of erucamide by ammonolysis of erucic acid and urea in organic solvent medium was studied and optimal conditions for fatty amides synthesis were established. In this process erucic acid gave 88.74 % pure erucamide after 48 hour and 250 rpm at 60 degrees C with 1:4 molar ratio of erucic acid and urea, the organic solvent media is 50 ml tert-butyl alcohol (2-methyl-2-propanol). This process for synthesis is economical as we used urea in place of ammonia or other amidation reactant at atmospheric pressure. The amount of catalyst used is 3 %.

  8. Research on food and nutrition characteristics of conjugated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the physiological effects of fatty acids with conjugated double bonds were widely examined in vitro and in vivo. Initially, a method for determination of conjugated fatty acids in food and biological samples was established. I then clarified that the oxidative stability of conjugated fatty acids was improved by the form of triacylglycerol and addition of an antioxidant, and the influence of this effect on the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of conjugated fatty acids was clarified in vivo. In addition, antitumor, anti-angiogenesis, and antiobesity effects of conjugated fatty acids were found for the first time, thus demonstrating the usefulness of conjugated fatty acids. This communication mainly outlines the data obtained for conjugated linolenic acid. In addition, this review summarizes my research on conjugated fatty acid.

  9. Inhibition of Ileal Water Absorption by Intraluminal Fatty Acids INFLUENCE OF CHAIN LENGTH, HYDROXYLATION, AND CONJUGATION OF FATTY ACIDS

    PubMed Central

    Ammon, Helmut V.; Phillips, Sidney F.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of fatty acids on ileal absorption of water, electrolytes, glucose, and taurocholate was examined in Thirty-Vella fistulas in five mongrel dogs. Fatty acid absorption also was measured. Segments of terminal ileum were perfused at steady state with isotonic electrolyte solutions containing 11.2 mM glucose, 4.5 mM taurocholate, and 0.1-5.0 mM fatty acid. Three C18 fatty acids, oleic acid, 10(9)-hydroxystearic acid, and ricinoleic acid, completely inhibited water absorption at 5 mM. Sodium, chloride, and potassium absorptions were inhibited in parallel with absorption of water. Differences between the potencies of C18 fatty acids were apparent when lesser concentrations were perfused. Dodecanoic and decanoic acids were as effective as C18 fatty acids at 5 mM but octanoic and hexanoic acids were ineffective. The polar group of C18 fatty acids was modified by conjugating oleic and ricinoleic acids with taurine. When these compounds and a substituted C18 fatty acid, p-n-decylbenzenesulfonate, were perfused, water absorption was also inhibited. Short-chain fatty acids (C3 and C4) and their hydroxylated derivatives were ineffective at 5 mM. When water absorption was inhibited, absorption of glucose and taurocholate was decreased. We speculate that the phenomenon of inhibition of water and electrolyte absorption by fatty acids may be relevant to steatorrhea and diarrhea in man. Images PMID:4808636

  10. Identification of fatty acids in canine seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Díaz, R; Inostroza, K; Risopatrón, J; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N

    2014-03-01

    Seminal plasma contains various biochemical components associated with sperm function. However, there is limited information regarding the fatty acid composition of seminal plasma and their effect on sperm. The aim of this study was to identify the fatty acid content in canine seminal plasma using gas chromatography. Twelve ejaculates were studied, the seminal plasma was obtained by centrifugation and then the lipids were extracted, methylated and analysed by chromatography. The total lipids in the seminal plasma were 2.5 ± 0.3%, corresponding to 85% saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 15% unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). The greatest proportions of SFA were palmitic acid (30.4%), stearic acid (23.4%) and myristic acid (5.3%) and of UFA oleic acid (9.0%). Therefore, the protocols and techniques used enabled the identification of 18 different fatty acids in canine seminal plasma, which constitutes a good method to evaluate and quantify the fatty acid profile in this species.

  11. Fatty acid profile of unconventional oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha; Sathish Kumar, M H

    2012-01-01

    The continued increase in human population has resulted in the rise in the demand as well as the price of edible oils, leading to the search for alternative unconventional sources of oils, particularly in the developing countries. There are hundreds of un- or underexplored plant seeds rich in oil suitable for edible or industrial purposes. Many of them are rich in polyunsaturated essential fatty acids, which establish their utility as "healthy oils." Some agrowaste products such as rice bran have gained importance as a potential source of edible oil. Genetic modification has paved the way for increasing the oil yields and improving the fatty acid profiles of traditional as well as unconventional oilseeds. Single cell oils are also novel sources of edible oil. Some of these unconventional oils may have excellent potential for medicinal and therapeutic uses, even if their low oil contents do not promote commercial production as edible oils.

  12. Fatty acid effects on fibroblast cholesterol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shireman, R.B.; Muth, J.; Lopez, C.

    1987-05-01

    Two cell lines of normal (CRL 1475, GM5565) and of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (CM 486,488) fibroblasts were preincubated with medium containing the growth factor ITS, 2.5 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA, or 35.2 ..mu..mol/ml of these fatty acids complexed with 2.5 mg BSA/ml: stearic (18:0), caprylic (8:0), oleic (18:1;9), linoleic (18:2;9,12), linolenic (18:3;9,12,15), docosahexaenoic (22:6;4,7,10,13,16,19)(DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (20:5;5,8,11,14,17)(EPA). After 20 h, cells were incubated for 2 h with 0.2 ..mu..Ci (/sup 14/C)acetate/ml. Cells were hydrolyzed; an aliquot was quantitated for radioactivity and protein. After saponification and extraction with hexane, radioactivity in the aqueous and organic phases was determined. The FH cells always incorporated 30-90% more acetate/mg protein than normal cells but the pattern of the fatty acid effects was similar in both types. When the values were normalized to 1 for the BSA-only group, cells with ITS had the greatest (/sup 14/C)acetate incorporation (1.45) followed by the caprylic group (1.14). Cells incubated with 18:3, 20:6 or 22:6 incorporated about the same amount as BSA-only. Those preincubated with 18:2, 18:1, 18:0 showed the least acetate incorporation (0.87, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively). The percentage of total /sup 14/C counts which extracted into hexane was much greater in FH cells; however, these values varied with the fatty acid, e.g., 1.31(18:0) and 0.84(8:0) relative to 1(BSA).

  13. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  14. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  15. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  16. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as a component in the manufacture of...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  18. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  20. Modulation of Nitro-fatty Acid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Vitturi, Dario A.; Chen, Chen-Shan; Woodcock, Steven R.; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Bonacci, Gustavo; Koenitzer, Jeffrey R.; Stewart, Nicolas A.; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Kensler, Thomas W.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation, characterized by the activation of both resident and infiltrated immune cells, is accompanied by increased production of oxidizing and nitrating species. Nitrogen dioxide, the proximal nitrating species formed under these conditions, reacts with unsaturated fatty acids to yield nitroalkene derivatives. These electrophilic products modulate protein function via post-translational modification of susceptible nucleophilic amino acids. Nitroalkenes react with Keap1 to instigate Nrf2 signaling, activate heat shock response gene expression, and inhibit NF-κB-mediated signaling, inducing net anti-inflammatory and tissue-protective metabolic responses. We report the purification and characterization of a NADPH-dependent liver enzyme that reduces the nitroalkene moiety of nitro-oleic acid, yielding the inactive product nitro-stearic acid. Prostaglandin reductase-1 (PtGR-1) was identified as a nitroalkene reductase by protein purification and proteomic studies. Kinetic measurements, inhibition studies, immunological and molecular biology approaches as well as clinical analyses confirmed this identification. Overexpression of PtGR-1 in HEK293T cells promoted nitroalkene metabolism to inactive nitroalkanes, an effect that abrogated the Nrf2-dependent induction of heme oxygenase-1 expression by nitro-oleic acid. These results situate PtGR-1 as a critical modulator of both the steady state levels and signaling activities of fatty acid nitroalkenes in vivo. PMID:23878198

  1. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis during development.

    PubMed

    Girard, J; Duée, P H; Ferré, P; Pégorier, J P; Escriva, F; Decaux, J F

    1985-01-01

    Fatty acids are the preferred oxidative substrates of the heart, skeletal muscles, kidney cortex and liver in adult mammals. They are supplied to these tissues either as nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), or as triglycerides after hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase. During fetal life, tissue capacity to oxidize NEFA is very low, even in species in which the placental transfer of NEFA and carnitine is high. At birth, the ability to oxidize NEFA from endogenous sources or from milk (a high-fat diet) develops rapidly in various tissues and remains very high throughout the suckling period. Ketogenesis appears in the liver by 6 to 12 hrs after birth, and the ketone bodies are used as oxidative fuels by various tissues during the suckling period. At the time of weaning, the transition from a high-fat to a high-carbohydrate diet is attended by a progressive decrease in the ketogenic capacity of the liver, whereas other tissues (skeletal muscle, heart, kidney) maintain a high capacity for NEFA oxidation. The nutritional and hormonal factors involved in changes in fatty acid oxidation during development are discussed.

  2. Unsaturated fatty acids, desaturases, and human health.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungjae; Park, Woo Jung

    2014-02-01

    With the increasing concern for health and nutrition, dietary fat has attracted considerable attention. The composition of fatty acids in a diet is important since they are associated with major diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) requires the expression of dietary fat-associated genes, such as SCD, FADS1, FADS2, and FADS3, which encode a variety of desaturases, to catalyze the addition of a double bond in a fatty acid chain. Recent studies using new molecular techniques and genomics, as well as clinical trials have shown that these genes and UFA are closely related to physiological conditions and chronic diseases; it was found that the existence of alternative transcripts of the desaturase genes and desaturase isoforms might affect human health and lipid metabolism in different ways. In this review, we provide an overview of UFA and desaturases associated with human health and nutrition. Moreover, recent findings of UFA, desaturases, and their associated genes in human systems are discussed. Consequently, this review may help elucidate the complicated physiology of UFA in human health and diseases.

  3. Cadmium modulates adipocyte functions in metallothionein-null mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, Takashige; Nishiyama, Kaori; Kadota, Yoshito; Sato, Masao; Inoue, Masahisa; Suzuki, Shinya

    2013-11-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that exposure to cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, causes a reduction of adipocyte size and the modulation of adipokine expression. To further investigate the significance of the Cd action, we studied the effect of Cd on the white adipose tissue (WAT) of metallothionein null (MT{sup −/−}) mice, which cannot form atoxic Cd–MT complexes and are used for evaluating Cd as free ions, and wild type (MT{sup +/+}) mice. Cd administration more significantly reduced the adipocyte size of MT{sup −/−} mice than that of MT{sup +/+} mice. Cd exposure also induced macrophage recruitment to WAT with an increase in the expression level of Ccl2 (MCP-1) in the MT{sup −/−} mice. The in vitro exposure of Cd to adipocytes induce triglyceride release into culture medium, decrease in the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and lipid hydrolysis at 24 h, and at 48 h increase in phosphorylation of the lipid-droplet-associated protein perilipin, which facilitates the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes. Therefore, the reduction in adipocyte size by Cd may arise from an imbalance between lipid synthesis and lipolysis. In addition, the expression levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin decreased in adipocytes. Taken together, exposure to Cd may induce unusually small adipocytes and modulate the expression of adipokines differently from the case of physiologically small adipocytes, and may accelerate the risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. - Highlights: • Cd causes a marked reduction in adipocyte size in MT-null mice. • Cd enhances macrophage migration into adipose tissue and disrupt adipokine secretion. • MT gene alleviates Cd-induced adipocyte dysfunctions. • Cd enhances the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes, mediated by perilipin. • Cd induces unusually small adipocytes and the abnormal expression of adipokines.

  4. Fatty acids of Thespesia populnea: Mass spectrometry of picolinyl esters of cyclopropene fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thespesia populnea belongs to the plant family of Malvaceae which contain cyclopropane and cyclopropene fatty acids. However, previous literature reports vary regarding the content of these compounds in Thespesia populnea seed oil. In this work, the content of malvalic acid (8,9-methylene-9-heptade...

  5. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty...

  6. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  11. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants.

  12. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  13. Temperature Affects Fatty Acids In Methylococcus Capsulatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.

    1993-01-01

    According to report, temperature of growth of thermotolerant, methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) affects both proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and cis/trans ratio of these acids in cell membrane. Because suboptimum growth temperature is potential stress factor, it may be possible to use such cis/trans ratios as indices of stresses upon methane-oxidizing microbial communities. Research in microbiology of methanotrophs increasing because of possible commercial exploitation of these organisms as biocatalysts or as sources of useful polymers; knowledge of effect of temperature on ability of methanotrophs to utilize methane useful in optimization of conditions of growth.

  14. Engineered Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid in Escherichia coli Using Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Fatma, Zia; Wajid, Saima; Abdin, Malik Z.; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyric acid, have a broad range of applications in chemical and fuel industries. Worldwide demand of sustainable fuels and chemicals has encouraged researchers for microbial synthesis of SCFAs. In this study we compared three thioesterases, i.e., TesAT from Anaerococcus tetradius, TesBF from Bryantella formatexigens and TesBT from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, for production of SCFAs in Escherichia coli utilizing native fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway and modulated the genetic and bioprocess parameters to improve its yield and productivity. E. coli strain expressing tesBT gene yielded maximum butyric acid titer at 1.46 g L-1, followed by tesBF at 0.85 g L-1 and tesAT at 0.12 g L-1. The titer of butyric acid varied significantly depending upon the plasmid copy number and strain genotype. The modulation of genetic factors that are known to influence long chain fatty acid production, such as deletion of the fadD and fadE that initiates the fatty acid degradation cycle and overexpression of fadR that is a global transcriptional activator of fatty acid biosynthesis and repressor of degradation cycle, did not improve the butyric acid titer significantly. Use of chemical inhibitor cerulenin, which restricts the fatty acid elongation cycle, increased the butyric acid titer by 1.7-fold in case of TesBF, while it had adverse impact in case of TesBT. In vitro enzyme assay indicated that cerulenin also inhibited short chain specific thioesterase, though inhibitory concentration varied according to the type of thioesterase used. Further process optimization followed by fed-batch cultivation under phosphorous limited condition led to production of 14.3 g L-1 butyric acid and 17.5 g L-1 total free fatty acid at 28% of theoretical yield. This study expands our understanding of SCFAs production in E. coli through FASII pathway and highlights role of genetic and process optimization to enhance the desired product. PMID:27466817

  15. Epoxygenated Fatty Acids Inhibit Retinal Vascular Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Capozzi, Megan E.; Hammer, Sandra S.; McCollum, Gary W.; Penn, John S.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of elevating epoxygenated fatty acids on retinal vascular inflammation. To stimulate inflammation we utilized TNFα, a potent pro-inflammatory mediator that is elevated in the serum and vitreous of diabetic patients. In TNFα-stimulated primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells, total levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), but not epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs), were significantly decreased. Exogenous addition of 11,12-EET or 19,20-EDP when combined with 12-(3-adamantane-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA), an inhibitor of epoxide hydrolysis, inhibited VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression and protein levels; conversely the diol product of 19,20-EDP hydrolysis, 19,20-DHDP, induced VCAM1 and ICAM1 expression. 11,12-EET and 19,20-EDP also inhibited leukocyte adherence to human retinal microvascular endothelial cell monolayers and leukostasis in an acute mouse model of retinal inflammation. Our results indicate that this inhibition may be mediated through an indirect effect on NFκB activation. This is the first study demonstrating a direct comparison of EET and EDP on vascular inflammatory endpoints, and we have confirmed a comparable efficacy from each isomer, suggesting a similar mechanism of action. Taken together, these data establish that epoxygenated fatty acid elevation will inhibit early pathology related to TNFα-induced inflammation in retinal vascular diseases. PMID:27966642

  16. Bioavailability of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Supplements have reached a prominent role in improving the supply of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5n-3) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3). Similar to other nutrients, the availability of omega-3 fatty acids is highly variable and determined by numerous factors. However, the question of omega-3 fatty acids bioavailability has long been disregarded, which may have contributed to the neutral or negative results concerning their effects in several studies. This review provides an overview of the influence of chemical binding form (free fatty acids bound in ethylesters, triacylglycerides or phospholipids), matrix effects (capsule ingestion with concomitant intake of food, fat content in food) or galenic form (i.e. microencapsulation, emulsification) on the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids. There is a need to systematically investigate the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids formulations, which might be a key to designing more effective studies in the future.

  17. Iodothyronine Interactions with the System L1 Amino Acid Exchanger in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Fiona E; Roy, Lisa A; Taylor, Peter M

    2010-06-24

    Thyroid hormones enter isolated white adipocytes largely by a System L1-type amino acid transporter en route to exerting genomic actions. Differentiated 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes in culture express mRNA for LAT1 (the catalytic subunit of high-affinity System L1). L-[(125)I]-T(3) uptake into 3T3-L1 adipocytes included a substantial saturable component inhibited by leucine. L-[(3)H]phenylalanine uptake into 3T3-L1 cells was saturable (K(m) of 31 μM), competitively inhibited by T(3) (K(i) of 1.2 μM) and blocked by leucine, BCH, and rT(3) as expected for substrate interactions of System L1. Efflux of preloaded L-[(3)H]phenylalanine from 3T3-L1 adipocytes was trans stimulated by external leucine, demonstrating the obligatory exchange mechanism of System L1 transport. T(3) (10 μM) did not significantly trans stimulate L-[(3)H]phenylalanine efflux, but did competitively inhibit the trans stimulatory effect of 10 μM leucine. The results highlight strong competitive interactions between iodothyronines (T(3), rT(3)) and amino acids for transport by System L1 in adipocytes, which may impact cellular iodothyronine exchanges during altered states of protein nutrition.

  18. Fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, T; Sumiyoshi, M; Okuda, H

    1999-12-01

    The fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was characterized using bovine milk LPL. Synthesizing activities were determined in an aqueous medium using oleic acid or trioleylglycerol as the acyl donor and equimolar amounts of long-chain alcohols as the acyl acceptor. When oleic acid and hexadecanol emulsified with gum arabic were incubated with LPL, palmityl oleate was synthesized, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Apo-very low density lipoprotein (apoVLDL) stimulated LPL-catalyzed palmityl oleate synthesis. The apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/oleic acid was estimated using a high concentration of LPL and a long (20 h) incubation period. The equilibrium ratio was affected by the incubation pH and the alcohol chain length. When the incubation pH was below pH 7.0 and long chain fatty acyl alcohols were used as substrates, the fatty acid alcohol ester/free fatty acid equilibrium ratio favored ester formation, with an apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/fatty acid of about 0.9/0.1. The equilibrium ratio decreased sharply at alkaline pH (above pH 8.0). The ratio also decreased when fatty alcohols with acyl chains shorter than dodecanol were used. When a trioleoylglycerol/fatty acyl alcohol emulsion was incubated with LPL, fatty acid alcohol esters were synthesized in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Fatty acid alcohol esters were easily synthesized from trioleoylglycerol when fatty alcohols with acyl chains longer than dodecanol were used, but synthesis was decreased with fatty alcohols with acyl chain lengths shorter than decanol, and little synthesizing activity was detected with shorter-chain fatty alcohols such as butanol or ethanol.

  19. Neurological benefits of omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Dyall, S C; Michael-Titus, A T

    2008-01-01

    The central nervous system is highly enriched in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the omega-6 and omega-3 series. The presence of these fatty acids as structural components of neuronal membranes influences cellular function both directly, through effects on membrane properties, and also by acting as a precursor pool for lipid-derived messengers. An adequate intake of omega-3 PUFA is essential for optimal visual function and neural development. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that increased intake of the long-chain omega-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may confer benefits in a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders, and in particular neurodegenerative conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are still poorly understood. Recent evidence also indicates that in addition to the positive effects seen in chronic neurodegenerative conditions, omega-3 PUFA may also have significant neuroprotective potential in acute neurological injury. Thus, these compounds offer an intriguing prospect as potentially new therapeutic approaches in both chronic and acute conditions. The purpose of this article is to review the current evidence of the neurological benefits of omega-3 PUFA, looking specifically at neurodegenerative conditions and acute neurological injury.

  20. Metabolomics of Dietary Fatty Acid Restriction in Patients with Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Mütze, Ulrike; Beblo, Skadi; Kortz, Linda; Matthies, Claudia; Koletzko, Berthold; Bruegel, Mathias; Rohde, Carmen; Thiery, Joachim; Kiess, Wieland; Ceglarek, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. Methodology/Principal Findings 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6–C18) in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re-) absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6) a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 and thromboxane B3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. Conclusion/Significance Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. No functional

  1. Identification of Characteristic Fatty Acids to Quantify Triacylglycerols in Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Pei-Li; Wang, Hai-Tao; Pan, Yan-Fei; Meng, Ying-Ying; Wu, Pei-Chun; Xue, Song

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally enriched in polar lipids, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG). Each species has characteristic fatty acids, and their content is positively or negatively correlated with TAGs. The marine oleaginous diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was used as the paradigm to determine the quantitative relationship between TAG and characteristic fatty acid content. Fatty acid profiles and TAG content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined in a time course. C16:0/C16:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) were identified as characteristic fatty acids in TAGs and polar lipids, respectively. The percentage of those characteristic fatty acids in total fatty acids had a significant linear relationship with TAG content, and thus, the correlation coefficient presenting r2 were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.97, respectively. The fatty acid-based method for TAG quantification could also be applied to other microalgae such as Nannochloropsis oceanica in which the r2 of C16:0 and EPA were 0.94 and 0.97, respectively, and in Chlorella pyrenoidosa r2-values for C18:1 and C18:3 with TAG content were 0.91 and 0.99, repectively. This characteristic fatty acid-based method provided a distinct way to quantify TAGs in microalgae, by which TAGs could be measured precisely by immediate transesterification from wet biomass rather than using conventional methods. This procedure simplified the operation and required smaller samples than conventional methods. PMID:26941747

  2. Applications of cellular fatty acid analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, D F

    1991-01-01

    More than ever, new technology is having an impact on the tools of clinical microbiologists. The analysis of cellular fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) has become markedly more practical with the advent of the fused-silica capillary column, computer-controlled chromatography and data analysis, simplified sample preparation, and a commercially available GLC system dedicated to microbiological applications. Experience with applications in diagnostic microbiology ranges from substantial success in work with mycobacteria, legionellae, and nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli to minimal involvement with fungi and other nonbacterial agents. GLC is a good alternative to other means for the identification of mycobacteria or legionellae because it is rapid, specific, and independent of other specialized testing, e.g., DNA hybridization. Nonfermenters show features in their cellular fatty acid content that are useful in identifying species and, in some cases, subspecies. Less frequently encountered nonfermenters, including those belonging to unclassified groups, can ideally be characterized by GLC. Information is just beginning to materialize on the usefulness of cellular fatty acids for the identification of gram-positive bacteria and anaerobes, despite the traditional role of GLC in detecting metabolic products as an aid to identification of anaerobes. When species identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci is called for, GLC may offer an alternative to biochemical testing. Methods for direct analysis of clinical material have been developed, but in practical and economic terms they are not yet ready for use in the clinical laboratory. Direct analysis holds promise for detecting markers of infection due to an uncultivable agent or in clinical specimens that presently require cultures and prolonged incubation to yield an etiologic agent. PMID:1747860

  3. Metabolism of fatty acids in rat brain in microsomal membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Aeberhard, E.E.; Gan-Elepano, M.; Mead, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Using a technique in which substrate fatty acids are incorporated into microsomal membranes followd by comparison of their rates of desaturation or elongation with those of exogenous added fatty acids it has been found that the desaturation rate is more rapid for the membrane-bound substrate than for the added fatty acid. Moreover, the product of the membrane-bound substrate is incorporated into membrane phospholipid whereas the product of the exogenous substrate is found in di- and triacyl glycerols and in free fatty acids as well. These and other findings point to a normal sequence of reaction of membrane liqids with membrane-bound substrates involving transfer of fatty acid from phospholipid to the coupled enzyme systems without ready equilibration with the free fatty acid pool.

  4. Hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle fatty acid trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Kanaley, Jill A.; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T.; Guo, ZengKui

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that insulin alters plasma free fatty acid (FFA) trafficking into intramyocellular (im) long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) and triglycerides (imTG). Overnight-fasted adults (n = 41) received intravenous infusions of [U-13C]palmitate (0400–0900 h) and [U-13C]oleate (0800–1400 h) to label imTG and imLCAC. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (1.0 mU·kg fat-free mass−1·min−1) clamp (0800–1400 h) and two muscle biopsies (0900 h, 1400 h) were performed. The patterns of [U-13C]palmitate incorporation into imTG-palmitate and palmitoylcarnitine were similar to those we reported in overnight postabsorptive adults (saline control); the intramyocellular palmitoylcarnitine enrichment was not different from and correlated with imTG-palmitate enrichment for both the morning (r = 0.38, P = 0.02) and afternoon (r = 0.44, P = 0.006) biopsy samples. Plasma FFA concentrations, flux, and the incorporation of plasma oleate into imTG-oleate during hyperinsulinemia were ∼1/10th of that observed in the previous saline control studies (P < 0.001). At the time of the second biopsy, the enrichment in oleoylcarnitine was <25% of that in imTG-oleate and was not correlated with imTG-oleate enrichment. The intramyocellular nonesterified fatty acid-palmitate-to-imTG-palmitate enrichment ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in women than men, suggesting that sex differences in intramyocellular palmitate trafficking may occur under hyperinsulinemic conditions. We conclude that plasma FFA trafficking into imTG during hyperinsulinemia is markedly suppressed, and these newly incorporated FFA fatty acids do not readily enter the LCAC preoxidative pools. Hyperinsulinemia does not seem to inhibit the entry of fatty acids from imTG pools that were labeled under fasting conditions, possibly reflecting the presence of two distinct imTG pools that are differentially regulated by insulin. PMID:23820622

  5. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids...

  6. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be...

  7. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be...

  8. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10682 - Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10682 Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substances... fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (PMNs P-13-63, P-13-64, P-13-65, P-13-69, P-13-70, P-13-71, P-13-72,...

  10. Fatty acid biosynthesis in novel ufa mutants of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Goodrich-Tanrikulu, M; Stafford, A E; Lin, J T; Makapugay, M I; Fuller, G; McKeon, T A

    1994-10-01

    New mutants of Neurospora crassa having the ufa phenotype have been isolated. Two of these mutants, like previously identified ufa mutants, require an unsaturated fatty acid for growth and are almost completely blocked in the de novo synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. The new mutations map to a different chromosomal location than previously characterized ufa mutations. This implies that at least one additional genetic locus controls the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in Neurospora.

  11. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  12. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid ester (PMN P-03-248) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid ester (PMN P-03-248) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid ester (PMN P-03-248) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  16. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  17. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  18. Cellular fatty acid composition of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus aphrophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Braunthal, S D; Holt, S C; Tanner, A C; Socransky, S S

    1980-01-01

    Strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans isolated from deep pockets of patients with juvenile periodontitis were analyzed for their content of cellular fatty acids. Oral Haemophilus strains, morphologically and biochemically similar to Haemophilus aphrophilus, were also examined for their content of cellular fatty acids. The extractable lipids of the actinobacilli represented approximately 10% of the cell dry weight, with the bound lipids representing 2 to 5%. The major fatty acids consisted of myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids and a C16:1 acid, possibly palmitoleic acid, accounting for 21, 35, and 31% of the total extractable fatty acids, respectively. Haemophilus strains had a similar cellular fatty acid content. PMID:7430333

  19. Polyunsaturated fatty acid inhibition of fatty acid synthase transcription is independent of PPAR activation.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S D; Turini, M; Jump, D B; Abraham, S; Reedy, M

    1998-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the (n-6) and (n-3) families inhibit the rate of gene transcription for a number of hepatic lipogenic and glycolytic genes, e.g., fatty acid synthase (FAS). In contrast, saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids have no inhibitory capability. The suppression of gene transcription resulting from the addition of PUFA to a high carbohydrate diet: occurs quickly (< 3 h) after its addition to a high glucose diet; can be recreated with hepatocytes cultured in a serum-free medium containing insulin and glucocorticoids; can be demonstrated in diabetic rats fed fructose; and is independent of glucagon. While the nature of the intracellular PUFA inhibitor is unclear, it appears that delta-6 desaturation is a required step in the process. Recently, the fatty acid activated nuclear factor, peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) was suggested to be the PUFA-response factor. However, the potent PPAR activators ETYA and Wy-14643 did not suppress hepatic expression of FAS, but did induce the PPAR-responsive gene, acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX). Similarly, treating rat hepatocytes with 20:4 (n-6) suppressed FAS expression but had no effect on AOX. Thus, it appears that the PUFA regulation of gene transcription involves a PUFA-response factor that is independent from PPAR.

  20. Engineering fungal de novo fatty acid synthesis for short chain fatty acid production

    PubMed Central

    Gajewski, Jan; Pavlovic, Renata; Fischer, Manuel; Boles, Eckhard; Grininger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are considered strategically important platform compounds that can be accessed by sustainable microbial approaches. Here we report the reprogramming of chain-length control of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid synthase (FAS). Aiming for short-chain FAs (SCFAs) producing baker's yeast, we perform a highly rational and minimally invasive protein engineering approach that leaves the molecular mechanisms of FASs unchanged. Finally, we identify five mutations that can turn baker's yeast into a SCFA producing system. Without any further pathway engineering, we achieve yields in extracellular concentrations of SCFAs, mainly hexanoic acid (C6-FA) and octanoic acid (C8-FA), of 464 mg l−1 in total. Furthermore, we succeed in the specific production of C6- or C8-FA in extracellular concentrations of 72 and 245 mg l−1, respectively. The presented technology is applicable far beyond baker's yeast, and can be plugged into essentially all currently available FA overproducing microorganisms. PMID:28281527

  1. Algal swimming velocities signal fatty acid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Travis J; Hondzo, Miki; Mashek, Mara T; Mashek, Douglas G; Lefebvre, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    The use of microalgae for biofuel production will be beneficial to society if we can produce biofuels at large scales with minimal mechanical energy input in the production process. Understanding micro-algal physiological responses under variable environmental conditions in bioreactors is essential for the optimization of biofuel production. We demonstrate that measuring micro-algal swimming speed provides information on culture health and total fatty acid accumulation. Three strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were grown heterotrophically on acetate and subjected to various levels of nitrogen starvation. Other nutrient levels were explored to determine their effect on micro-algal kinetics. Swimming velocities were measured with two-dimensional micro-particle tracking velocimetry. The results show an inverse linear relationship between normalized total fatty acid mass versus swimming speed of micro-algal cells. Analysis of RNA sequencing data confirms these results by demonstrating that the biological processes of cell motion and the generation of energy precursors are significantly down-regulated. Experiments demonstrate that changes in nutrient concentration in the surrounding media also affect swimming speed. The findings have the potential for the in situ and indirect assessment of lipid content by measuring micro-algal swimming kinetics.

  2. Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS), have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene. PMID:22433663

  3. Fatty acids profiling reveals potential candidate markers of semen quality.

    PubMed

    Zerbinati, C; Caponecchia, L; Rago, R; Leoncini, E; Bottaccioli, A G; Ciacciarelli, M; Pacelli, A; Salacone, P; Sebastianelli, A; Pastore, A; Palleschi, G; Boccia, S; Carbone, A; Iuliano, L

    2016-11-01

    Previous reports showed altered fatty acid content in subjects with altered sperm parameters compared to normozoospermic individuals. However, these studies focused on a limited number of fatty acids, included a short number of subjects and results varied widely. We conducted a case-control study involving 155 patients allocated into four groups, including normozoospermia (n = 33), oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (n = 32), asthenozoospermia (n = 25), and varicocoele (n = 44). Fatty acid profiling, including 30 species, was analyzed by a validated gas chromatography (GC) method on the whole seminal fluid sample. Multinomial logistic regression modeling was used to identify the associations between fatty acids and the four groups. Specimens from 15 normozoospermic subjects were also analyzed for fatty acids content in the seminal plasma and spermatozoa to study the distribution in the two compartments. Fatty acids lipidome varied markedly between the four groups. Multinomial logistic regression modeling revealed that high levels of palmitic acid, behenic acid, oleic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) confer a low risk to stay out of the normozoospermic group. In the whole population, seminal fluid stearic acid was negatively correlated (r = -0.53), and DHA was positively correlated (r = 0.65) with sperm motility. Some fatty acids were preferentially accumulated in spermatozoa and the highest difference was observed for DHA, which was 6.2 times higher in spermatozoa than in seminal plasma. The results of this study highlight complete fatty acids profile in patients with different semen parameters. Given the easy-to-follow and rapid method of analysis, fatty acid profiling by GC method can be used for therapeutic purposes and to measure compliance in infertility trials using fatty acids supplements.

  4. [Raman spectrometry of several saturated fatty acids and their salts].

    PubMed

    Luo, Man; Guan, Ping; Liu, Wen-hui; Liu, Yan

    2006-11-01

    Saturated fatty acids and their salts widely exist in the nature, and they are well known as important chemical materials. Their infrared spectra have been studied in detail. Nevertheless, few works on the Raman spectra characteristics of saturated fatty acids and their salts have been published before. Man-made crystals of acetic acid, stearic acid, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, calcium stearate and magnesium stearate were investigated by means of Fourier transform Raman spectrometry for purpose of realizing their Raman spectra. Positive ions can cause the distinctions between the spectra of saturated fatty acids and their salts. The differences in mass and configuration between Ca2+ and Mg2+ result in the Raman spectra's diversity between calcium and magnesium salts of saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it is considered that the long carbon chain weakened the influence of different positive ions on the salts of saturated fatty acids.

  5. Resolution and quantification of isomeric fatty acids by silver ion HPLC: fatty acid composition of aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    Denev, Roumen V; Kuzmanova, Ivalina S; Momchilova, Svetlana M; Nikolova-Damyanova, Boryana M

    2011-01-01

    A silver ion HPLC procedure is described that is suitable to determine the fatty acid composition of plant seed oils. After conversion of fatty acids to p-methoxyphenacyl derivatives, it was possible to achieve baseline resolution of all fatty acid components with 0 to 3 double bonds, including the positionally isomeric 18:1 fatty acids oleic acid (cis 9-18:1), petroselinic acid (cis 6-18:1), and cis-vaccenic acid (cis 11-18:1), in aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae) by a single gradient run on a single cation exchange column laboratory converted to the silver ion form. The UV detector response (280 nm) was linearly related to the fatty acid concentration in the range 0.01 to 3.5 mg/mL.

  6. Overproduction of fatty acids in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Guo, Daoyi; Cheng, Yongbo; Zhu, Fayin; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2014-09-01

    The long hydrocarbon fatty acyl chain is energy rich, making it an ideal precursor for liquid transportation fuels and high-value oleo chemicals. As Saccharomyces cerevisiae has many advantages for industrial production compared to Escherichia coli. Here, we attempted to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for overproduction of fatty acids. First, disruption of the beta-oxidation pathway, elimination of the acyl-CoA synthetases, overexpression of different thioesterases and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC1, and engineering the supply of precursor acetyl-CoA. The engineered strain XL122 produced more than 120 mg/L of fatty acids. In parallel, we inactivated ADH1, the dominant gene for ethanol production, to redirect the metabolic flux to fatty acids synthesis. The engineered strain DG005 produced about 140 mg/L fatty acids. Additionally, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase was identified as a critical bottleneck of fatty acids synthesis in S. cerevisiae with a cell-free system. However, overexpression of ACC1 has little effect on fatty acids biosynthesis. As it has been reported that phosphorylation of ACC1 may influent its activity, so phosphorylation sites of ACC1 were further identified. Although the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear, our results provide rationale for future studies to target this critical step. All these efforts, particularly the discovery of the limiting step are critical for developing a "cell factory" for the overproduction of fatty acids by using type I fatty acids synthase in yeast or other fungi.

  7. Fat intake leads to differential response of rat adipocytes to glucose, insulin and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Diaz, Diego F; Campion, Javier; Arellano, Arianna V; Milagro, Fermin I; Moreno-Aliaga, Maria J; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2012-04-01

    Antioxidant-based treatments have emerged as novel and interesting approaches to counteract fat accumulation in obesity and associated metabolic disturbances. Adipocytes from rats that were fed on chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for 50 d were isolated (primary adipocytes) and incubated (72 h) on low (LG; 5.6 mmol/L) or high (HG; 25 mmol/L) glucose levels, in the presence or absence of 1.6 nmol/L insulin and 200 μmol/L vitamin C (VC). Adipocytes from HFD-fed animals presented lower insulin-induced glucose uptake, lower lactate and glycerol release, and lower insulin-induced secretion of some adipokines as compared with controls. HG treatment restored the blunted response to insulin regarding apelin secretion in adipocytes from HFD-fed rats. VC treatment inhibited the levels of nearly all variables, irrespective of the adipocytes' dietary origin. The HG treatment reduced adipocyte viability, and VC protected from this toxic effect, although more drastically in control adipocytes. Summing up, in vivo chow or HFD intake determines a differential response to insulin and glucose treatments that appears to be dependent on the insulin-resistance status of the adipocytes, while VC modifies some responses from adipocytes independently of the previous dietary intake of the animals.

  8. [The positional isomers of triglycerides in oils, fats and apoB-100 lipoproteins: palmitic and oleic modes of metabolism of fatty acids-substrates for energy acquiring].

    PubMed

    Kotkina, T I; Titov V N

    2014-01-01

    Even total resemblance of content of fatty acids in triglycerides has both no standing for their functional unity nor even identity of their physical chemical characteristics. The etherification of fatty acids in various positions of three-atomic glycerin separates triglycerides on palmitic and oleic substrates for energy acquiring by cells. The kinetic parameters of biochemical reactions under palmitic mode of metabolism of fatty acids are always low. The myocytes in biological reaction of exotrophy experience deficiency of exogenous fatty acids which in vivo is to permanently supply through activation of biological reaction of endotrophy--enhancement of lipolysis in adipocytes. The biological role of insulin is to prevent formation in vivo of palmitic mode of metabolism of saturated and monoenic fatty acids. Under this condition, the necessity to activate lipolysis and to increase in blood plasma concentration of unesteritied fatty acids forms syndrome of resistance to insulin. The surplus of palmitic fatty acid in food and deficiency of insulin show in vivo unidirectional a physiologic action. The formation of palmitic mode of metabolism of energy substrates--portion of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty infiltration of liver and partiallly essential arterial hypertension.

  9. Constitutive adipocyte mTORC1 activation enhances mitochondrial activity and reduces visceral adiposity in mice.

    PubMed

    Magdalon, Juliana; Chimin, Patricia; Belchior, Thiago; Neves, Rodrigo X; Vieira-Lara, Marcel A; Andrade, Maynara L; Farias, Talita S; Bolsoni-Lopes, Andressa; Paschoal, Vivian A; Yamashita, Alex S; Kowaltowski, Alicia J; Festuccia, William T

    2016-05-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) loss of function reduces adiposity whereas partial mTORC1 inhibition enhances fat deposition. Herein we evaluated how constitutive mTORC1 activation in adipocytes modulates adiposity in vivo. Mice with constitutive mTORC1 activation in adipocytes induced by tuberous sclerosis complex (Tsc)1 deletion and littermate controls were evaluated for body mass, energy expenditure, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial function, mRNA and protein contents. Adipocyte-specific Tsc1 deletion reduced visceral, but not subcutaneous, fat mass, as well as adipocyte number and diameter, phenotypes that were associated with increased lipolysis, UCP-1 content (browning) and mRNA levels of pro-browning transcriptional factors C/EBPβ and ERRα. Adipocyte Tsc1 deletion enhanced mitochondrial oxidative activity, fatty acid oxidation and the expression of PGC-1α and PPARα in both visceral and subcutaneous fat. In brown adipocytes, however, Tsc1 deletion did not affect UCP-1 content and basal respiration. Adipocyte Tsc1 deletion also reduced visceral adiposity and enhanced glucose tolerance, liver and muscle insulin signaling and adiponectin secretion in mice fed with purified low- or high-fat diet. In conclusion, adipocyte-specific Tsc1 deletion enhances mitochondrial activity, induces browning and reduces visceral adiposity in mice.

  10. [Possible route for thiamine participation in fatty acid synthesis].

    PubMed

    Buko, V U; Larin, F S

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of thiamine partaking in the synthesis of fatty acids through the functions unrelated to the catalytic properties of thiamine-diphosphate was studied. Rats kept on a fat-free ration devoid of thiamine were given thiamine of thiochrome with no vitaminic properties. The total fatty acids content in different tissues and incorporation therein of tagged acetate and pyruvate was determined, while the fatty acids composition of the liver was investigated by using gas chromatography. Thiamine and thiochrome produced a similar effect on a number of the study factors, i.e. they forced down the total acids level in the spleen, intensified incorporation of tagged acetate and pyruvate in fatty acids of the heart and uniformly changed the fatty acids composition in the liver. It is suggested that the unindirectional effects of thiamine and thiochrome is due to the oxidative transformation of thiamine into thiochrome.

  11. Escherichia coli Unsaturated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Youjun; Cronan, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Although the unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) synthetic pathway of Escherichia coli is the prototype of such pathways, several unresolved issues have accumulated over the years. The key players are the fabA and fabB genes. Earlier studies of fabA transcription showed that the gene was transcribed from two promoters, with one being positively regulated by the FadR protein. The other weaker promoter (which could not be mapped with the technology then available) was considered constitutive because its function was independent of FadR. However, the FabR negative regulator was recently shown to represses fabA transcription. We report that the weak promoter overlaps the FadR-dependent promoter and is regulated by FabR. This promoter is strictly conserved in all E. coli and Salmonella enterica genomes sequenced to date and is thought to provide insurance against inappropriate regulation of fabA transcription by exogenous saturated fatty acids. Also, the fabAup promoter, a mutant promoter previously isolated by selection for increased FabA activity, was shown to be a promoter created de novo by a four-base deletion within the gene located immediately upstream of fabA. Demonstration of the key UFA synthetic reaction catalyzed by FabB has been elusive, although it was known to catalyze an elongation reaction. Strains lacking FabB are UFA auxotrophs indicating that the enzyme catalyzes an essential step in UFA synthesis. Using thioesterases specific for hydrolysis of short chain acyl-ACPs, the intermediates of the UFA synthetic pathway have been followed in vivo for the first time. These experiments showed that a fabB mutant strain accumulated less cis-5-dodecenoic acid than the parental wild-type strain. These data indicate that the key reaction in UFA synthesis catalyzed by FabB is elongation of the cis-3-decenoyl-ACP produced by FabA. PMID:19679654

  12. Effects of Fatty Acid Quality and Quantity in the Japanese Diet on the Suppression of Lipid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yu; Yamamoto, Kazushi; Hatakeyama, Yu; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Japan has been known as a healthy country since its life expectancy became among the highest in the world in the 1980s. The influence of the Japanese diet is one of the factors explaining Japan's high life expectancy. Our recent study that fed representative freeze-dried and powdered Japanese diets from 1960, 1975, 1990, and 2005 based on National Health and Nutrition Research to mice showed the 1975 Japanese diet exhibited the strongest visceral fat accumulation suppression and overall health benefits. However, it is unclear why. We investigated the effects of the fatty acid composition in Japanese diets on visceral fat accumulation in mice. ICR mice were fed diets replicating the fatty acid composition and macronutrient ratios of Japanese diets from 1960, 1975, 1990, and 2005 for four weeks. The 1975 diet suppressed visceral fat accumulation and adipocyte hypertrophy. DNA microarray analysis showed the 1975 diet suppressed Acyl-CoA synthetase and prostaglandin D2 synthase mRNA expressions in white adipose tissue. As the effects of the 1975 diet are likely due to differences in fatty acid intake and/or composition, we investigated test diets that replicated only the fatty acid composition of Japanese diets. There were no significant differences in visceral fat mass. Therefore, both the quality and quantity of fatty acids are involved in the anti-obesity effects of the 1975 Japanese diet.

  13. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Gil, A

    2002-10-01

    Inflammation is overall a protective response, whose main goal is to liberate the human being of cellular lesions caused by micro-organisms, toxins, allergens, etc., as well as its consequences, and of death cells and necrotic tissues. Chronic inflammation, which is detrimental to tissues, is the basic pathogenic mechanism of hypersensitivity reactions against xenobiotics. Other frequent pathologies, for instance atherosclerosis, chronic hepatitis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), liver cirrhosis, lung fibrosis, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis are also chronic inflammatory diseases. Chemical mediators of inflammation are derived from blood plasma or different cell-type activity. Biogenic amines, eicosanoids and cytokines are within the most important mediators of inflammatory processes. The different activities of eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) versus those derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) are one of the most important mechanisms to explain why n-3, or omega-3, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in many inflammatory diseases. Dietary supplements ranging 1-8 g per day of n-3 PUFA have been reportedly beneficial in the treatment of IBD, eczema, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, recent experimental studies in rats with experimental ulcerative colitis, induced by intrarectal injection of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid, have documented that treatment with n-3 long-chain PUFA reduces mucosal damage as assessed by biochemical and histological markers of inflammation. Moreover, the defence antioxidant system in this model is enhanced in treated animals, provided that the n-3 PUFA supply is adequately preserved from oxidation.

  14. Reevaluation of lipolytic activity of growth hormone in rabbit adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Barenton, B; Batifol, V; Combarnous, Y; Dulor, J P; Durand, P; Vezinhet, A

    1984-07-18

    The lipolytic activities of porcine pituitary fractions and purified growth hormone (GH) from human (h), porcine (p), ovine (o) and rabbit (Rb) origin as well as ovine placental lactogen (oPL), were compared to that of ACTH on rabbit adipocytes. All the GH preparations and oPL were equivalent in inhibiting the binding of labelled oGH to liver plasma membranes from pregnant rabbits. ACTH, and to a lesser extent porcine pituitary fractions and hGH, stimulated free fatty acid production by isolated adipocytes. The sensitivity of the adipocytes to these factors was increased when adenosine deaminase was added to the incubation medium. But, RbGH, pGH, oGH and oPL had no effect. We conclude that GH is not directly involved in the control of lipolysis in rabbit adipocytes and that the effect of hGH is rather due to a contamination of this preparation by other pituitary factors.

  15. Sex Steroid Modulation of Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Ockner, Robert K.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.; Monroe, Scott E.; Burnett, David A.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism by which sex steroids influence very low density hepatic lipoprotein triglyceride production has not been fully elucidated. In previous studies we showed that [14C]oleate utilization and incorporation into triglycerides were greater in hepatocyte suspensions from adult female rats than from males. The sex differences were not related to activities of the enzymes of triglyceride biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid binding protein (FABP) concentration in liver cytosol was greater in females. These findings suggested that sex differences in lipoprotein could reflect a sex steroid influence on the availability of fatty acids for hepatocellular triglyceride biosynthesis. In the present studies, sex steroid effects on hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization and FABP concentration were investigated directly. Hepatocytes from immature (30-d-old) rats exhibited no sex differences in [14C]oleate utilization. With maturation, total [14C]oleate utilization and triglyceride biosynthesis increased moderately in female cells and decreased markedly in male cells; the profound sex differences in adults were maximal by age 60 d. Fatty acid oxidation was little affected. Rats were castrated at age 30 d, and received estradiol, testosterone, or no hormone until age 60 d, when hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization was studied. Castration virtually eliminated maturational changes and blunted the sex differences in adults. Estradiol or testosterone largely reproduced the appropriate adult pattern of [14C]oleate utilization regardless of the genotypic sex of the treated animal. In immature females and males, total cytosolic FABP concentrations were similar. In 60-d-old animals, there was a striking correlation among all groups (females, males, castrates, and hormone-treated) between mean cytosolic FABP concentration on the one hand, and mean total [14C]oleate utilization (r = 0.91) and incorporation into triglycerides (r = 0.94) on the other. In 30-d-old animals rates of [14C

  16. Site-selective Alkane Dehydrogenation of Fatty Acids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-14

    dehydrogenation of fatty acids Contract/Grant#: FA9550-10-1-0532 Final Reporting Period: 15 September 2011 to 14 September 2011...directly incorporate fatty acids into the ligand. The preparation of the acyl phosphines (1-5) was easily accomplished starting from the corresponding...AFOSR Final Report Final Report 
 The proposed research examines the site-selective dehydrogenation of alkanes. The alkanes employed were fatty

  17. Adipocyte lipolysis and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Morigny, Pauline; Houssier, Marianne; Mouisel, Etienne; Langin, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    Obesity-induced insulin resistance is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Basal fat cell lipolysis (i.e., fat cell triacylglycerol breakdown into fatty acids and glycerol in the absence of stimulatory factors) is elevated during obesity and is closely associated with insulin resistance. Inhibition of adipocyte lipolysis may therefore be a promising therapeutic strategy for treating insulin resistance and preventing obesity-associated type 2 diabetes. In this review, we explore the relationship between adipose lipolysis and insulin sensitivity. After providing an overview of the components of fat cell lipolytic machinery, we describe the hypotheses that may support the causality between lipolysis and insulin resistance. Excessive circulating fatty acids may ectopically accumulate in insulin-sensitive tissues and impair insulin action. Increased basal lipolysis may also modify the secretory profile of adipose tissue, influencing whole body insulin sensitivity. Finally, excessive fatty acid release may also worsen adipose tissue inflammation, a well-known parameter contributing to insulin resistance. Partial genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of fat cell lipases in mice as well as short term clinical trials using antilipolytic drugs in humans support the benefit of fat cell lipolysis inhibition on systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, which occurs without an increase of fat mass. Modulation of fatty acid fluxes and, putatively, of fat cell secretory pattern may explain the amelioration of insulin sensitivity whereas changes in adipose tissue immune response do not seem involved.

  18. Fatty acid composition of two Tunisian pine seed oils.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Nizar; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Hammami, Mohamed; Triki, Saida

    2005-01-01

    Oils were extracted from fully ripen Pinus pinea L. and Pinus halepensis Mill seeds and fatty acid composition has been established by capillary gas chromatography. Seeds are rich in lipids, 34.63-48.12% on a dry weight basis. Qualitatively, fatty acid composition of both species is identical. For P. halepensis linoleic acid is the major fatty acid (56.06% of total fatty acids) followed by oleic (24.03%) and palmitic (5.23%) acids. For P. pinea, the same fatty acids are found with the proportions 47.28%, 36.56%, and 6.67%, respectively. Extracted fatty acids from both species are mainly unsaturated, respectively, 89.87% and 88.01%. Pinus halepensis cis-5 olefinic acids are more abundant (7.84% compared to 2.24%). Results will be important as a good indication of the potential nutraceutical value of Pinus seeds as new sources of fruit oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and cis-5 olefinic acids.

  19. Sources and Bioactive Properties of Conjugated Dietary Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Alan A; Ross, Paul R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The group of conjugated fatty acids known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been extensively studied with regard to their bioactive potential in treating some of the most prominent human health malignancies. However, CLA isomers are not the only group of potentially bioactive conjugated fatty acids currently undergoing study. In this regard, isomers of conjugated α-linolenic acid, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid and conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid, to name but a few, have undergone experimental assessment. These studies have indicated many of these conjugated fatty acid isomers commonly possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties, a number of which will be discussed in this review. The mechanisms through which these bioactivities are mediated have not yet been fully elucidated. However, existing evidence indicates that these fatty acids may play a role in modulating the expression of several oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, and genes associated with energy metabolism. Despite such bioactive potential, interest in these conjugated fatty acids has remained low relative to the CLA isomers. This may be partly attributed to the relatively recent emergence of these fatty acids as bioactives, but also due to a lack of awareness regarding sources from which they can be produced. In this review, we will also highlight the common sources of these conjugated fatty acids, including plants, algae, microbes and chemosynthesis.

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tejada, Silvia; Martorell, Miquel; Capó, Xavier; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni; Sureda, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with multiple double bonds. Linolenic and alpha-linolenic acids are omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs, precursors for the synthesis of long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (omega-6 PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (omega-3 PUFAs). The three most important omega-3 fatty acids are alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, which cannot be synthesized in enough amounts by the body, and therefore they must be supplied by the diet. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the correct functioning of the organism and participate in many physiological processes in the brain. Epilepsy is a common and heterogeneous chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures leading to neuropsychiatric disabilities. The prevalence of epilepsy is high achieving about 1% of the general population. There is evidence suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids may have neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects and, accordingly, may have a potential use in the treatment of epilepsy. In the present review, the potential use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of epilepsy, and the possible proposed mechanisms of action are discussed. The present article summarizes the recent knowledge of the potential protective role of dietary omega-3 fatty acids in epilepsy.

  1. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in lepidopteran caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Naoko; Alborn, Hans T; Nakanishi, Tomoaki; Suckling, David M; Nishida, Ritsuo; Tumlinson, James H; Mori, Naoki

    2010-03-01

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in noctuid as well as sphingid caterpillar oral secretions; in particular, volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants. These induced volatiles, in turn, attract natural enemies of the caterpillars. In a previous study, we showed that N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine in larval Spodoptera litura plays an important role in nitrogen assimilation which might be an explanation for caterpillars synthesizing FACs despite an increased risk of attracting natural enemies. However, the presence of FACs in lepidopteran species outside these families of agricultural interest is not well known. We conducted FAC screening of 29 lepidopteran species, and found them in 19 of these species. Thus, FACs are commonly synthesized through a broad range of lepidopteran caterpillars. Since all FAC-containing species had N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine and/or N-linoleoyl-L-glutamine in common, and the evolutionarily earliest species among them had only these two FACs, these glutamine conjugates might be the evolutionarily older FACs. Furthermore, some species had glutamic acid conjugates, and some had hydroxylated FACs. Comparing the diversity of FACs with lepidopteran phylogeny indicates that glutamic acid conjugates can be synthesized by relatively primitive species, while hydroxylation of fatty acids is limited mostly to larger and more developed macrolepidopteran species.

  2. Incorporated Fish Oil Fatty Acids Prevent Action Potential Shortening Induced by Circulating Fish Oil Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Ruijter, Hester M. Den; Verkerk, Arie O.; Coronel, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long-term ω3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated ω3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated ω3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (ω3) or sunflower oil (ω9, as control) for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch-clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered ω3-PUFAs. Plasma of ω3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and isolated myocytes of ω3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, ω3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than ω9 myocytes. In the ω9 myocytes, but not in the ω3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA + DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated ω3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered ω3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac ω3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term ω3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy. PMID:21423389

  3. 6-methyl-8-hexadecenoic acid: A novel fatty acid from the marine spongeDesmapsama anchorata.

    PubMed

    Carballeira, N M; Maldonado, M E

    1988-07-01

    The novel fatty acid 7-methyl-8-hexadecenoic (1) was identified in the marine spongeDesmapsama anchorata. Other interesting fatty acids identified were 14-methyl-8-hexadecenoic (2), better known through its methyl ester as one of the components of the sex attractant of the female dermestid beetle, and the saturated fatty acid 3-methylheptadecanoic (3), known to possess larvicidal activity. The main phospholipid fatty acids encountered inD. anchorata were palmitic (16∶0), behenic (22∶0) and 5,9-hexacosadienoic acid (26∶2), which together accounted for 50% of the total phospholipid fatty acid mixture.

  4. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  6. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters...

  7. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters...

  8. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172.848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters...

  9. Fatty acid amides from freshwater green alga Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, V M; Shkrob, I; Rozentsvet, O A

    2000-08-01

    Freshwater green algae Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum growing in the Ural Mountains were examined for their fatty acid amides using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight fatty acid amides were identified by GC-MS. (Z)-9-octadecenamide was found to be the major component (2.26%).

  10. An overview of the properties of fatty acid alkyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid alkyl esters of plant oils, especially in the form of methyl esters, have numerous applications with fuel use having received the most attention in recent times due to the potential high volume. Various properties imparted by neat fatty acid alkyl esters have been shown to influence fuel ...

  11. Distillation of natural fatty acids and their chemical derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Well over 1,000 different fatty acids are known which are natural components of fats, oils (triacylglycerols), and other related compounds. These fatty acids can have different alkyl chain lengths, 0-6 carbon-carbon double bonds possessing cis- or trans-geometry, and can contain a variety of functio...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  15. DETERGENCY OF THE 12 TO 18 CARBON SATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    saturated fatty acids ) were explored to determine the relationship of the detergencies of such systems to the physico-chemical nature (HLB, hydrophile...suggested that in such systems the chief action is van der Waals adsorption between hydr oxide mole ratio adducts of tridecyl alcohol are poor detergents of the saturated fatty acids .

  16. Fatty acid profile of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the fatty acid profiles of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks for the production of bio-based fuels and chemicals. Lipids were extracted using hexane from oil-bearing seeds using a standard Soxhlet apparatus. Fatty acid profiles were measured using gas chromatography-flame ionization...

  17. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: Structure elucidation and metabolic engineering

    DOE PAGES

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John; Burkart, Michael D.

    2014-10-20

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understandingmore » of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. Lastly, in this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field.« less

  18. Associations of erythrocyte fatty acid patterns with insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Synergistic and/or additive effects on cardiometabolic risk may be missed by examining individual fatty acids (FA). A pattern analysis may be a more useful approach. As well, it remains unclear whether erythrocyte fatty acid composition relates to insulin resistance among Hispanic/Latino...

  19. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, seeds of seven Tilia species (limes or linden trees) were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extractio...

  20. Obesogenic diets enriched in oleic acid vs saturated fatty acids differentially modify polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in liver and visceral adipose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence indicates that the fatty acid composition of obesogenic diets impacts physiologic outcomes. Much attention is focused on the biologic effects of consuming monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) vs saturated fatty acids (SFA). We investigated the extent to which an obesogenic diet high ...

  1. Production of extracellular fatty acid using engineered Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As an alternative for economic biodiesel production, the microbial production of extracellular fatty acid from renewable resources is receiving more concerns recently, since the separation of fatty acid from microorganism cells is normally involved in a series of energy-intensive steps. Many attempts have been made to construct fatty acid producing strains by targeting genes in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, while few studies focused on the cultivation process and the mass transfer kinetics. Results In this study, both strain improvements and cultivation process strategies were applied to increase extracellular fatty acid production by engineered Escherichia coli. Our results showed overexpressing ‘TesA and the deletion of fadL in E. coli BL21 (DE3) improved extracellular fatty acid production, while deletion of fadD didn’t strengthen the extracellular fatty acid production for an undetermined mechanism. Moreover, the cultivation process controls contributed greatly to extracellular fatty acid production with respect to titer, cell growth and productivity by adjusting the temperature, adding ampicillin and employing on-line extraction. Under optimal conditions, the E. coli strain (pACY-‘tesA-ΔfadL) produced 4.8 g L−1 extracellular fatty acid, with the specific productivity of 0.02 g h−1 g−1dry cell mass, and the yield of 4.4% on glucose, while the ratios of cell-associated fatty acid versus extracellular fatty acid were kept below 0.5 after 15 h of cultivation. The fatty acids included C12:1, C12:0, C14:1, C14:0, C16:1, C16:0, C18:1, C18:0. The composition was dominated by C14 and C16 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Using the strain pACY-‘tesA, similar results appeared under the same culture conditions and the titer was also much higher than that ever reported previously, which suggested that the supposedly superior strain did not necessarily perform best for the efficient production of desired product. The strain p

  2. Transgenic expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (fat-1) in C57/BL6 mice: Effects on glucose homeostasis and body weight.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shaonin; Hardy, Robert W; Wood, Philip A

    2009-07-01

    The fat-1 gene, derived from Caenorhabditis elegans, encodes for a fatty acid n-3 desaturase. In order to study the potential metabolic benefits of n-3 fatty acids, independent of dietary fatty acids, we developed seven lines of fat-1 transgenic mice (C57/BL6) controlled by the regulatory sequences of the adipocyte protein-2 (aP2) gene for adipocyte-specific expression (AP-lines). We were unable to obtain homozygous fat-1 transgenic offspring from the two highest expressing lines, suggesting that excessive expression of this enzyme may be lethal during gestation. Serum fatty acid analysis of fat-1 transgenic mice (AP-3) fed a high n-6 unsaturated fat (HUSF) diet had an n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio reduced by 23% (P < 0.025) and the n-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration increased by 61% (P < 0.020). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was increased by 19% (P < 0.015) in white adipose tissue. Male AP-3-fat-1 line of mice had improved glucose tolerance and reduced body weight with no change in insulin sensitivity when challenged with a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet. In contrast, the female AP-3 mice had reduced glucose tolerance and no change in insulin sensitivity or body weight. These findings indicate that male transgenic fat-1 mice have improved glucose tolerance likely due to increased insulin secretion while female fat-1 mice have reduced glucose tolerance compared to wild-type mice. Finally the inability of fat-1 transgenic mice to generate homozygous offspring suggests that prolonged exposure to increased concentrations of n-3 fatty acids may be detrimental to reproduction.

  3. Influence of changes in dietary fatty acids during pregnancy on placental and fetal fatty acid profile in the rat.

    PubMed

    Amusquivar, Encarnación; Herrera, Emilio

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether the composition of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could be modified in the fetus by maternal dietary fatty acids, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed semipurified diets that differed only in the non-vitamin lipid component. The diets contained either 10 g palm, sunflower, olive or fish oil (FOD)/100 g diet. A total of 5-6 rats were studied in each group. At day 20 of gestation, corresponding to 1.5 days prior parturition, the fatty acids in maternal adipose tissue were closely related to the fatty acid composition in the corresponding diet. An important proportion of arachidonic acid (AA) appeared in maternal liver and plasma, although it was lower in the FOD than in the other groups. Except for saturated fatty acids, the proportion of individual fatty acids in the placenta correlated linearly with that in maternal plasma. Also, PUFA in fetal plasma and liver showed significant correlations with PUFA in maternal plasma. Again, AA showed the lowest proportion in the plasma and liver of the FOD group. Therefore, the maternal dietary fatty acid composition influences maternal and fetal plasma and tissue composition, and an increase in dietary omega-3 fatty acids decreases the amount of AA in maternal and fetal tissues.

  4. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  5. Determination of free fatty acids in beer.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the presence of saturated FAs is related sometimes to gushing problems in beer. The aim of this research was to validate an analytical method for the determination of FFAs in beer. The extraction of FFAs in beer was achieved via Liquid-Liquid Cartridge Extraction (LLCE), the FFAs extract was purified by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), methylated by boron trifluoride in methanol, and injected into GC-FID system. The performance criteria demonstrate that this method is suitable for the analysis of medium and long chain FFAs in beer. The proposed method was tested on four experimental beers.

  6. Trans-fatty acids and cardiovascular risk: does origin matter?

    PubMed

    Dawczynski, Christine; Lorkowski, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have aimed to unravel the contribution of different types of dietary fatty acids to human health and disease. Investigations have consistently shown that high consumption of industrially produced trans-fatty acids from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils is harmful to human health, in particular cardiovascular health. Therefore, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced that partially hydrogenated oils are no longer 'generally recognized as safe', and trans-fatty acids are not permitted in the U.S. food supply. On the other hand, recent studies analyzing the association between circulating trans-fatty acids and disease have revealed that some ruminant-specific trans-fatty acids are associated with a reduction in incidence of disease. In this special report, we highlight recent findings and point out perspectives for future studies on this topic.

  7. Fatty acids as modulators of neutrophil recruitment, function and survival.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Hosana G; Takeo Sato, Fabio; Curi, Rui; Vinolo, Marco A R

    2016-08-15

    Neutrophils are well-known to act in the destruction of invading microorganisms. They have also been implicated in the activation of other immune cells including B- and T-lymphocytes and in the resolution of inflammation and tissue regeneration. Neutrophils are produced in the bone marrow and released into the circulation from where they migrate to tissues to perform their effector functions. Neutrophils are in constant contact with fatty acids that can modulate their function, activation and fate (survival or cell death) through different mechanisms. In this review, the effects of fatty acids pertaining to five classes, namely, long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCSFAs), short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and omega-3 (n-3), omega-6 (n-6) and omega-9 (n-9) unsaturated fatty acids, on neutrophils and the relevance of these effects for disease development are discussed.

  8. Fatty acid composition of selected macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Patarra, R F; Leite, J; Pereira, R; Baptista, J; Neto, A I

    2013-04-01

    The content of total lipids and the fatty acid (FA) profile were determined for eight macroalgae (Cystoseira abies-marina, Fucus spiralis, Chaetomorpha pachynema, Codium elisabethae, Porphyra sp., Osmundea pinnatifida, Pterocladiella capillacea and Sphaeroccoccus coronopifolius). Total lipids were extracted using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform (2/1, v/v) and further derivatised to FA methyl esters (FAME). The analyses of FAME samples were performed by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionisation detector. The total lipid content ranged from 0.06 to 3.54 g (per 100 g). The most abundant saturated FA were palmitic (C16:0) and myristic (C14:0), while oleic (C18:1 n-9) was the dominant monounsaturated acid. All seaweeds contained linoleic FA (C18:2 n-6). The α-linolenic (C18:3 n-3) and eicosapentaenoic (20:5 n-3) acids were present only in Porphyra sp. (3.34% ± 0.13) and C. pachynema (0.47% ± 0.12), respectively. The n-6/n-3 and h/H ratios were low, suggesting a high nutritional value of the algae studied.

  9. Cloning and functional expression of the first plant fatty acid elongase specific for Delta(6)-polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Zank, T K; Zähringer, U; Lerchl, J; Heinz, E

    2000-12-01

    In order to elucidate the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plants we searched for a cDNA encoding a Delta(6)-specific PUFA elongase from Physcomitrella patens, which is known to contain high proportions of arachidonic acid (20:4 Delta(5,8,11,14)). An EST clone from P. patens was identified by its low homology to the yeast gene ELO1, which is required for the elongation of medium-chain fatty acids. We functionally characterized this cDNA by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in the presence of several fatty acids. Analysis of the fatty acid profile of the transgenic yeast revealed that the cDNA encodes a protein that leads to the elongation of the C(18) Delta(6)-polyunsaturated fatty acids gamma-linolenic acid (18:3 Delta(6,9,12)) and stearidonic acid (18:4 Delta(6,9,12,15)), which were recovered to 45-51% as their elongation products. In contrast, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids were hardly elongated and we could not measure any elongation of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (including 18:1 Delta(6)), indicating that the elongase is highly specific for the polyunsaturated nature of the fatty acid acting as substrate.

  10. Effects of Rosuvastatin Alone or in Combination with Omega-3 Fatty Acid on Adiponectin Levels and Cardiometabolic Profile

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M.; Al-Gareeb, Ali I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin is an important adipocyte-related protein that has been postulated to participate in prevention of the development of metabolic syndrome. The relationship between adiponectin serum levels and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) has been widely investigated and remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of rosuvastatin and/or omega-3 fatty acid on adiponectin serum levels in patients with insulin resistance (IR) and CAD. Patients and Methods: This study involved 87 patients with CADs and IR of different etiology, the patients were divided into three groups; 24 patients on treatment with rosuvastatin, 22 patients on treatment with omega-3 fatty acid, 23 patients on treatment with omega-3 fatty acid and rosuvastatin, 18 patients were not previously or currently treated with either rosuvastatin or omega-3 fatty acid, those regarded as control patients. Anthropometric measures, adiponectin serum levels, and other biochemical parameters were assessed in each treated group. Results: Rosuvastatin therapy leads to a significant elevation in adiponectin serum levels from 4.1 ± 0.99 ng/mL to 6.76 ± 1.03 ng/mL compared to control P < 0.01. Omega-3 fatty acid therapy leads to a significant elevation in adiponectin serum levels from 4.1 ± 0.99 ng/mL to 6.11 ± 1.29 ng/mL compared to control P < 0.01. Rosuvastatin plus omega-3 fatty acid therapy lead to a significant elevation in adiponectin serum levels from 4.1 ± 0.99 ng/mL to 7.99 ± 1.76 ng/mL compared to control P < 0.01. Conclusions: Rosuvastatin and/or omega-3 fatty acid lead to significant cardiometabolic protection through an increment in adiponectin serum levels. PMID:28104968

  11. Study of the proinflammatory role of human differentiated omental adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Bassols, Judit; Ortega, Francisco J; Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Peral, Belén; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, Jose-Manuel

    2009-08-15

    Infiltration of monocyte-derived macrophages into adipose tissue has been associated with tissue and systemic inflammation. It has been suggested that macrophage infiltration affects fat expansion through a paracrine action on adipocyte differentiation. Our working hypothesis is that factors released by monocytes/macrophages may also affect mature adipocyte biology. Human differentiated omental adipocytes were incubated with LPS and conditioned media obtained from human macrophage-like cell line THP-1, previously activated or not with LPS. We show that LPS greatly increased the secretion levels of pro-inflammatory adipokines including IL-6, IL-8, GRO, and MCP-1. Macrophage-conditioned medium also upregulated IL-6, IL-8, GRO, and MCP-1 mRNA expression and protein levels and led to the novo secretion of ICAM-1, IL-1 beta, IP-10, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, VEGF, and TNFalpha. Human differentiated adipocytes treated by macrophage-conditioned medium displayed marked reduction of adipocyte function as assessed by decreased phosphorylation levels of ERK1, ERK2, and p38 alpha and reduced gene expression of lipogenic markers including PPAR-gamma and fatty acid synthase. These data show that macrophage-secreted factors not only inhibit the formation of mature adipocytes but alter their function, suggesting that human differentiated omental adipocytes might also contribute to systemic chronic low-grade inflammation associated with human obesity.

  12. Sulforaphane induces adipocyte browning and promotes glucose and lipid utilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui Q.; Chen, Shi Y.; Wang, An S.; Yao, An J.; Fu, Jian F.; Zhao, Jin S.; Chen, Fen; Zou, Zu Q.; Shan, Yu J.; Bao, Yong P.

    2016-01-01

    1 Scope Obesity is closely related to the imbalance of white adipose tissue storing excess calories, and brown adipose tissue dissipating energy to produce heat in mammals. Recent studies revealed that acquisition of brown characteristics by white adipocytes, termed “browning,” may positively contribute to cellular bioenergetics and metabolism homeostasis. The goal was to investigate the putative effects of natural antioxidant sulforaphane (1‐isothiocyanate‐4‐methyl‐sulfonyl butane; SFN) on browning of white adipocytes. 2 Methods and results 3T3‐L1 mature white adipocytes were treated with SFN for 48 h, and then the mitochondrial content, function, and energy utilization were assessed. SFN was found to induce 3T3‐L1 adipocytes browning based on the increased mitochondrial content and activity of respiratory chain enzymes, whereas the mechanism involved the upregulation of nuclear factor E2‐related factor 2/sirtuin1/peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha signaling. SFN enhanced uncoupling protein 1 expression, a marker for brown adipocyte, leading to the decrease in cellular ATP. SFN also enhanced glucose uptake and oxidative utilization, lipolysis, and fatty acid oxidation in 3T3‐L1 adipocytes. 3 Conclusion SFN‐induced browning of white adipocytes enhanced the utilization of cellular fuel, and application of SFN is a promising strategy to combat obesity and obesity‐related metabolic disorder. PMID:27218607

  13. Effect of mevalonic acid on cholesterol synthesis in bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomu; You, Wei; Cheng, Haijian; Zhang, Qingfeng; Song, Enliang; Wan, Fachun; Han, Hong; Liu, Guifen

    2016-02-01

    Mevalonic acid (MVA) is a key material in the synthesis of cholesterol; indeed, intracellular cholesterol synthesis is also called the mevalonic acid pathway. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is an essential enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. This study suggests that MVA may play an important role in the differentiation of bovine adipose tissue in vivo. We investigated differential mRNA expression in bovine intramuscular preadipocytes (BIPs) and bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes (BSPs) by culturing cells from the longissimus dorsi muscle and subcutaneous fat tissues of Luxi yellow cattle. The morphology of lipid accumulation of bovine preadipocytes was detected by Oil Red O staining, and total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) levels were measured. Temporospatial expression of HMGR was investigated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The TC, LDLC, and HDLC content did not significantly differ over time but increased slowly with increasing MVA concentration. HMGR expression increased over time and with increasing concentrations of MVA. MVA increased adipose cell proliferation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. MVA stimulated HMGR expression in two cell types and its influence on adipocyte differentiation.

  14. Inhibition of in vitro cholesterol synthesis by fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, M; Endo, A

    1976-01-18

    Inhibitory effect of 44 species of fatty acids on cholesterol synthesis has been examined with a rat liver enzyme system. In the case of saturated fatty acids, the inhibitory activity increased with chain length to a maximum at 11 to 14 carbons, after which activity decreased rapidly. The inhibition increased with the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids. Introduction of a hydroxy group at the alpha-position of fatty acids abolished the inhibition, while the inhibition was enhanced by the presence of a hydroxy group located in an intermediate position of the chain. Branched chain fatty acids having a methyl group at the terminal showed much higher activity than the corresponding saturated straight chain fatty acids with the same number of carbons. With respect to the mechanism for inhibition, tridecanoate was found to inhibit acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase specifically without affecting the other reaction steps in the cholesterol synthetic pathway. The highly unsaturated fatty acids, arachidonate and linoleate, were specific inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase. On the other hand, ricinoleate (hydroxy acid) and phytanate (branched-chain acid) diminished the conversion of mevalonate to sterols by inhibiting a step or steps between squalene and lanosterol.

  15. Prenatal omega-3 fatty acids: review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Robin G

    2010-01-01

    The influence of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on health outcomes is widely recognized. The adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acids docasahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in particular can increase gestation length and improve infant cognitive and visual performance. Adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids have also been shown to reduce the incidence of preterm birth in some populations. Research on prenatal omega-3 intake and other outcomes, such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, is inconclusive. Women in the United States consume low levels of omega-3 fatty acids compared to omega-6 fatty acids; this dietary pattern is associated with poor health outcomes. Omega-3 fatty acids are found primarily in fish, yet many pregnant women avoid fish because of concerns about potential mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl contamination. It is important for prenatal care providers to assess women's diets for omega-3 fatty acid intake and ensure that pregnant women are consuming between 200 and 300 mg daily from safe food sources. Purified fish, algal oil supplements, and DHA-enriched eggs are alternative sources for pregnant women who do not eat fish.

  16. Fatty acids are precursors of alkylamines in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, R; Huang, Y

    1992-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans contains novel phospholipids of which the structures of three have been previously described. These three lipids contain both fatty acids and alkylamines. Both the fatty acid and alkylamine constituents were found to be composed of a mixture of species, of which C15, C16, and C17 saturated and monounsaturated alkyl chains predominated. Alkylamines contained a relatively higher proportion of saturated species. Progression of bacterial growth through the mid-log to stationary phases was accompanied by an increase in the proportions of C15 and C17 alkyl chains in both fatty acid and alkylamine constituents. Radiolabeled palmitic acid was found to be rapidly incorporated into both fatty acid and alkylamine components of phosphatidylglyceroylalkylamine, which is the precursor of the more-complex phosphoglycolipids found in major amounts in D. radiodurans. After culturing D. radiodurans in the presence of a mixture of palmitic acids labeled with 14C and 3H in the 1 and 9,10 positions, respectively, the same 14C/3H ratio was recovered in both fatty acid and alkylamine constituents, strongly suggesting that alkylamines are derived from intact fatty acids rather than by a de novo pathway. The results identify a novel product of fatty acid metabolism which has not to date been observed in any other organism. Images PMID:1429439

  17. Analysis of mixtures of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yilan; Chen, Ting; Yang, Maohua; Wang, Caixia; Huo, Weiyan; Yan, Daojiang; Chen, Jinjin; Zhou, Jiemin; Xing, Jianmin

    2014-01-03

    Microbial production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols has attracted increasing concerns because of energy crisis and environmental impact of fossil fuels. Therefore, simple and efficient methods for the extraction and quantification of these compounds become necessary. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection (HPLC-RID) method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in these samples. The optimum chromatographic conditions are C18 column eluted with methanol:water:acetic acid (90:9.9:0.1, v/v/v); column temperature, 26°C; flow rate, 1.0mL/min. Calibration curves of all selected analytes showed good linearity (r(2)≥0.9989). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the 10 compounds were less than 4.46% and 5.38%, respectively, which indicated that the method had good repeatability and precision. Besides, a method for simultaneous extraction of fatty acids and fatty alcohols from fermentation broth was optimized by orthogonal design. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: solvent, ethyl acetate; solvent to sample ratio, 0.5:1; rotation speed, 2min at 260rpm; extraction temperature, 10°C. This study provides simple and fast methods to simultaneously extract and quantify fatty acids and fatty alcohols for the first time. It will be useful for the study of microbial production of these products.

  18. Recent trends in the advanced analysis of bioactive fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Reglero, Guillermo; Ibañez, Elena

    2010-01-20

    The consumption of dietary fats have been long associated to chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, asthma, and cardiovascular disease; although some controversy still exists in the role of dietary fats in human health, certain fats have demonstrated their positive effect in the modulation of abnormal fatty acid and eicosanoid metabolism, both of them associated to chronic diseases. Among the different fats, some fatty acids can be used as functional ingredients such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), stearidonic acid (STA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), among others. The present review is focused on recent developments in FAs analysis, covering sample preparation methods such as extraction, fractionation and derivatization as well as new advances in chromatographic methods such as GC and HPLC. Special attention is paid to trans fatty acids due its increasing interest for the food industry.

  19. Erythrocyte stearidonic acid and other n-3 fatty acids and CHD in the Physicians’ Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake of marine-based n-3 fatty acids (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid and DHA) is recommended to prevent CHD. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based n-3 fatty acid, is a precursor of EPA and may be more readily converted to EPA than a-linolenic acid (ALA). While transgenic soyabeans might supply SDA at ...

  20. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  1. Regulation of hepatic gene expression by saturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Vallim, T; Salter, A M

    2010-01-01

    Diets rich in saturated fatty acids have long been associated with increased plasma cholesterol concentrations and hence increased risk of cardiovascular disease. More recently, they have also been suggested to promote the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. While there is now considerable evidence to suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids exert many of their effects through regulating the activity of transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, sterol regulatory binding proteins (SREBPs) and liver X receptor, our understanding of how saturated fatty acids act is still limited. Here we review the potential mechanisms whereby saturated fatty acids modulate hepatic lipid metabolism thereby impacting on the synthesis, storage and secretion of lipids. Evidence is presented that their effects are, at least partly, mediated through modulation of the activity of the SREBP family of transcription factors.

  2. Separation and quantitation of free fatty acids and fatty acid methyl esters by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Aveldano, M I; VanRollins, M; Horrocks, L A

    1983-01-01

    Reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) on octadecylsilyl columns separates mixtures of either free fatty acids or fatty acid methyl esters prepared from mammalian tissue phospholipids. Acetonitrile-water mixtures are used for the elution of esters. Aqueous phosphoric acid is substituted for water for the separation of the free acids. Unsaturated compounds are detected and quantitated by their absorption at 192 nm. Saturates are detected better at 205 nm. The order of elution of fatty acids in complex mixtures varies as a function of acetonitrile concentration. At any given concentration, some compounds overlap. However, by varying the solvent strength, any fatty acid of interest can be resolved including many geometrical and positional isomers. Methyl esters prefractionated according to unsaturation by argentation thin-layer chromatography (TLC) are rapidly and completely separated by elution with CH3CN alone. Argentation TLC-reverse phase HPLC can be used as an analytical as well as a preparative procedure. Octylsilyl columns are used for rapid resolution and improved detection of minor or low ultraviolet-absorbing components in the fractions. For example, monoenoic fatty acids with up to 32 carbons have been detected in bovine brain glycerophospholipids. Specific radioactivities of 3H- and 14C-labeled fatty acids and the distribution of radioactivity among acyl groups from complex lipids are measured. The method is not recommended for complete compositional analysis, but is useful for determinations of specific radioactivities during studies on turnover and metabolic conversions of labeled fatty acids.

  3. [Fatty acid content of sausages manufactured in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Araujo de Vizcarrondo, C; Martín, E

    1997-06-01

    The moisture and lipid content as well as the fatty acid composition of sausages were determined. Lipids were extracted and purified with a mixture of cloroform/methanol 2:1. Fatty acids in the lipid extract were methylated with 4% sulfuric acid/methanol solution and later were separated as methyl esters by gas liquid cromatography (GLC). Sausages presented a lipid content between 7.10% for canned sausages and 35.23% for the cocktail type. Most of the fatty acids were monounsatured with oleic acid as the major component with values between 42.54% for ham sausage and 48.83% for francfort type. Satured fatty acids followed, with palmitic acid as the major component in a range between 21.46% and 26.59% for bologna and Polaca sausage respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were present in less quantities with concentration of linoleic acid between 8.5% (cotto salami type) and 12.60% (cocktail type). Turkey and poultry sausages presented a higher content of polyunsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than the other types of sausages studied.

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers in breast milk are associated with plasma non-esterified and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in lactating women.

    PubMed

    Torres, Alexandre G; Ney, Jacqueline G; Meneses, Flávia; Trugo, Nádia M F

    2006-03-01

    Maternal adipose tissue is a major contributor to breast milk long-chain fatty acids, probably through the pool of plasma NEFA. The fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membrane (EM) is a biochemical index of the intake of fatty acids not synthesized endogenously and of PUFA and long-chain PUFA fatty acid status. The present study investigated the associations between breast milk fatty acid composition and the composition of plasma NEFA and of EM fatty acids with special reference to PUFA, long-chain PUFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The detailed fatty acid composition of mature breast milk was also reported. Thirty-three healthy, lactating Brazilian women donated milk samples; of these, twenty-four also donated blood samples in an observational cross-sectional study. Breast milk fatty acid composition presented several associations with NEFA and EM composition, which explained most (> or =50 %) of the variability of selected milk PUFA, long-chain PUFA and CLA. Milk CLA was associated with fatty acids that are markers of dairy fat intake in the diet, NEFA and EM. In general, breast milk n-3 fatty acids and CLA, but not n-6 fatty acids, were associated with EM composition, whereas both the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and CLA in milk were associated with NEFA composition, possibly owing to its role as a direct source of fatty acids for breast milk. These findings emphasize the contribution of the NEFA pool derived from the adipose tissue to the long-chain fatty acid composition of breast milk.

  5. Fatty acids are potential endogenous regulators of aldosterone secretion.

    PubMed

    Goodfriend, T L; Ball, D L; Elliott, M E; Morrison, A R; Evenson, M A

    1991-05-01

    Adrenal glomerulosa cells washed with delipidated albumin produced increased amounts of aldosterone in response to angiotensin-II (AII) or (Bu)2cAMP. Albumin treatment also increased binding of 125I-labeled AII to high affinity binding sites on adrenal cells. Lipid extracts of albumin solutions that were used to wash cells inhibited AII binding and aldosterone responses by washed glomerulosa cells. Chromatographic fractionation and mass spectroscopic analysis indicated that the inhibitors removed from cells by albumin were long chain fatty acids. Exogenous fatty acids not only inhibited AII binding, but they inhibited basal aldosterone production and increments in aldosterone caused by AII or dbcAMP, suggesting an effect on postreceptor steps in aldosteronogenesis. The most potent and most abundant fatty acids removed from adrenal cells were oleic, linoleic, and arachidonic. These fatty acids inhibited at micromolar concentrations in the absence of albumin and at somewhat higher concentrations in its presence. Cells that had been washed, then inhibited by exogenous oleic acid in vitro, were restored to their enhanced responsiveness by a second albumin wash, making it unlikely that cell damage is the mechanism of inhibition by fatty acids. Responses of fasciculata cells were not potentiated by albumin washes, and cortisol production was less sensitive than aldosterone production to exogenous fatty acids. Binding of ANP to glomerulosa cells was not affected by albumin or fatty acids. These results combined with clinical correlations make it plausible that unesterified fatty acids are naturally occurring regulators of the adrenal glomerulosa. Insulin's ability to lower plasma levels of fatty acids may be one way that it causes sodium retention.

  6. Effect of Glycine on Adipocyte Hypertrophy in a Metabolic Syndrome Rat Model.

    PubMed

    López, Yazmín Reyes; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Zúñiga-Muñoz, Alejandra; Lans, Verónica Guarner; Díaz-Díaz, Eulises; Castro, Elizabeth Soria; Espejel, Rodrigo Velázquez

    2016-01-01

    Glycine (Gly) lowers hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension but its role in preventing adipocyte hypertrophy and modulating enzymatic activity of adipocytes has not been studied. Here we evaluate the effect of 1% Gly in the diet on adipocyte hypertrophy and the modulation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in a metabolic syndrome (MS) rat model with intra-abdominal obesity. 32 Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control (C), MS, MS plus Gly (MS+Gly), and MS+Gly plus strychnine (MS+Gly+S). MS was induced by administering 30% sucrose in the drinking water for 16 weeks. In the MS+Gly and MS+Gly+S groups, the sucrose solution plus 1% Gly and 1 % Gly plus strychnine 10 μM were given during the last 4 weeks of the sucrose treatment. After 16 weeks of treatment, rats were sacrificed and the adipose tissue dissected. Gly in MS rats decreased body weight, intra-abdominal adipose tissue, adipocyte hypertrophy, blood pressure, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-IR index, leptin, total fatty acids, non-esterified fatty acids and LPL activity. It increased fatty acids of the phospholipids, perilipin A expression and it decreased HSL expression, without changing LPL expression. The Gly receptor subunit-β was identified in adipocytes. In conclusion, Gly treatment regulates the activity of enzymes involved in the lipid metabolism of the adipocytes through the Gly receptor and it decreases the effects of the high sucrose diet.

  7. Hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction induced by fatty acids and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Gyamfi, Daniel; Everitt, Hannah E; Tewfik, Ihab; Clemens, Dahn L; Patel, Vinood B

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the key aspects of the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver disease particularly alterations to mitochondrial function remains to be resolved. The role of fatty acids in this regard requires further investigation due to their involvement in fatty liver disease and obesity. This study aimed to characterize the early effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids alone on liver mitochondrial function and during concomitant ethanol exposure using isolated liver mitochondria and VA-13 cells (Hep G2 cells that efficiently express alcohol dehydrogenase). Liver mitochondria or VA-13 cells were treated with increasing concentrations of palmitic or arachidonic acid (1 to 160 μM) for 24 h with or without 100 mM ethanol. The results showed that in isolated liver mitochondria both palmitic and arachidonic acids significantly reduced state 3 respiration in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.001), implicating their ionophoric activities. Increased ROS production occurred in a dose-dependent manner especially in the presence of rotenone (complex I inhibitor), which was significantly more prominent in arachidonic acid at 80 μM (+970%, P<0.001) than palmitic acid (+40%, P<0.01). In VA-13 cells, ethanol alone and both fatty acids (40 μM) were able to decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP levels and increase lipid formation. ROS production was significantly increased with arachidonic acid (+110%, P<0.001) exhibiting a greater effect than palmitic acid (+39%, P<0.05). While in the presence of ethanol, the drop in the mitochondrial membrane potential, cellular ATP levels, and increased lipid formation were further enhanced by both fatty acids, but with greater effect in the case of arachidonic acid, which also correlated with significant cytotoxicity (P<0.001). This study confirms the ability of fatty acids to promote mitochondrial injury in the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  8. Short communication: Association of milk fatty acids with early lactation hyperketonemia and elevated concentration of nonesterified fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Lock, A L; Overton, T R; McArt, J A A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of our study was to extend the limited research available on the association between concentrations of milk fatty acids and elevated nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in early lactation dairy cattle. Measurement of milk fatty acids for detection of cows in excessive negative energy balance has the potential to be incorporated in routine in-line monitoring systems. Blood samples were taken from 84 cows in second or greater lactation 3 times per week between 3 to 14 d in milk. Cows were characterized as hyperketonemic (HYK) if blood BHB concentration was ≥1.2mmol/L at least once and characterized as having elevated concentrations of NEFA (NEFAH) if serum NEFA concentration was ≥1mmol/L at least once. Composition of colostrum and milk fatty acids at wk 2 postpartum was used to investigate the potential diagnostic value of individual fatty acids and fatty acid ratios for the correct classification of cows with NEFA and BHB concentrations above these thresholds, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify thresholds of fatty acid concentration and fatty acid ratios when ROC area under the curve was ≥0.70. Correct classification rate (CCR, %) was calculated as {[(number of true positives + number of true negatives)/total number tested] × 100}. None of the colostrum fatty acids yielded a sufficiently high area under the curve in ROC analysis for the association with HYK and NEFAH. The following fatty acids and fatty acid ratios were identified for an association with NEFAH (threshold, CCR): C15:0 (≤0.65g/100g, 68.3%); cis-9 C16:1 (≥1.85g/100g, 70.7%); cis-9 C18:1 (≥26g/100g, 69.5%), cis-9 C18:1 to C15:0 ratio (≥45, 69.5%); cis-9 C16:1 to C15:0 (≥2.50, 73.2%). Several fatty acids were associated with HYK (threshold, CCR): C6:0 (≤1.68g/100g, 80.5%), C8:0 (≤0.80g/100g, 80.5%), C10:0 (≤1.6g/100g, 79.3%); C12:0 (≤1.42g/100g, 82.9%); C14:0 (≤6.10g/100g, 84

  9. It is all about fluidity: Fatty acids and macrophage phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Julia

    2016-08-15

    Phagocytosis is an early and fundamental step for the effective clearance of disease causing agents. The ability to engulf and kill pathogens is considered as a major effector function of macrophages. In their phagocytic role macrophages are part of the first line of innate immune defense. A number of studies investigating fatty acid effects on macrophage phagocytosis have been conducted over many years. In vitro-data consistently report that alterations in macrophage membrane fatty acid composition are linked to an altered phagocytic capacity, i.e. an increase in membrane unsaturated fatty acid content is associated with an increase in engulfment and killing rate. The mode of action of fatty acids seems to be the modulation of the physical nature of the macrophage plasma membrane. It appears that the saturated-to-unsaturated fatty acid ratio of macrophage membrane phospholipids is of importance in determining macrophage phagocytic capacity. Available in vivo-data are less clear. At present, there is a lack of systematic studies elucidating key factors such as fatty acid efficacy, effective dose or dosing intervals. Without this knowledge the targeted modulation of macrophage phagocytosis in vivo by fatty acids is still a distant possibility.

  10. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  11. Toxicity of fatty acid salts to German and American cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, R W; Koehler, P G; Pereira, R M

    2008-08-01

    The toxicity of fatty acid salts to German, Blattella germanica (L.), and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Potassium and sodium laurate caused up to 95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Even-numbered potassium fatty acid salts, C8-C18 were assessed for toxicity at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% concentrations by a 30-s immersion of cockroaches. The more soluble of the fatty acid salts at 2% concentration caused 65-95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Potassium oleate, C18, was most toxic to both German (LC50 = 0.36%) and American (LC50 = 0.17%) cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions on a substrate were tested by placing cockroaches in contact with treated floor tiles immediately after application (wet) or after the solutions had dried. Sodium laurate and potassium caprate caused mortality of German (62 +/- 17.4 and 58 +/- 12.6%, respectively) and American cockroaches (52 +/- 18.5 and 28 +/- 4.9%, respectively) on wet tiles, whereas potassium oleate caused mortality of German cockroaches (67 +/- 14.1%) only. Dry fatty acids caused no mortality among exposed cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions can be effective in killing German and American cockroaches but only when insects are thoroughly wetted with 1-2% fatty acid salt solutions.

  12. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  13. Saturated fatty acids induce c-Src clustering within membrane subdomains leading to JNK activation

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Ryan G.; Park, Eek-Joong; Li, Ning; Tran, Helen; Chen, Monica; Choi, Crystal; Solinas, Giovanni; Karin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Saturated fatty acids (FA) exert adverse health effects and are more likely to cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes than unsaturated FA, some of which exert protective and beneficial effects. Saturated FA, but not unsaturated FA, activate Jun N terminal kinase (JNK), which has been linked to obesity and insulin resistance in mice and men. However, it is unknown how saturated and unsaturated FA are discriminated. We now demonstrate that saturated FA activate JNK and induce insulin resistance by altering the membrane distribution of c-Src, causing it to partition into intracellular membrane subdomains where it may become activated. Conversely, unsaturated FA with known beneficial effects on glucose metabolism prevent c-Src membrane partitioning and activation, which are dependent on its myristoylation, and block JNK activation. Consumption of a diabetogenic high fat diet causes the partitioning and activation of c-Src within detergent insoluble membrane subdomains of adipocytes. PMID:21962514

  14. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of 9 studies in the CHARGE consortium

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Caren E.; Follis, Jack L.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Foy, Millennia; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Ma, Yiyi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Manichakul, Ani W.; Wu, Hongyu; Chu, Audrey Y.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Ferruci, Luigi; da Chen, Yii-Der I; Rich, Stephen S.; Djoussé, Luc; Ridker, Paul M.; Tang, Weihong; McKnight, Barbara; Tsai, Michael Y.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hu, Frank B.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Arnett, Donna K.; King, Irena B.; Sun, Qi; Wang, Lu; Lumley, Thomas; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Siscovick, David S; Ordovás, José M.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. Objective We evaluated interactions between genetic variants and fatty acid intakes for circulating alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Methods and Results We conducted meta-analyses (N to 11,668) evaluating interactions between dietary fatty acids and genetic variants (rs174538 and rs174548 in FADS1 (fatty acid desaturase 1), rs7435 in AGPAT3 (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate), rs4985167 in PDXDC1 (pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing 1), rs780094 in GCKR (glucokinase regulatory protein) and rs3734398 in ELOVL2 (fatty acid elongase 2)). Stratification by measurement compartment (plasma vs. erthyrocyte) revealed compartment-specific interactions between FADS1 rs174538 and rs174548 and dietary ALA and linoleic acid for DHA and DPA. Conclusion Our findings reinforce earlier reports that genetically-based differences in circulating fatty acids may be partially due to differences in the conversion of fatty acid precursors. Further, fatty acids measurement compartment may modify gene-diet relationships, and considering compartment may improve the detection of gene-fatty acids interactions for circulating fatty acid outcomes. PMID:25626431

  15. Quantification of primary fatty acid amides in commercial tallow and tallow fatty acid methyl esters by HPLC-APCI-MS.

    PubMed

    Madl, Tobias; Mittelbach, Martin

    2005-04-01

    Primary fatty acid amides are a group of biologically highly active compounds which were already identified in nature. Here, these substances were determined in tallow and tallow fatty acid methyl esters for the first time. As tallow is growing in importance as an oleochemical feedstock for the soap manufacturing, the surfactant as well as the biodiesel industry, the amounts of primary fatty acid amides have to be considered. As these compounds are insoluble in tallow as well as in the corresponding product e.g. tallow fatty acid methyl esters, filter plugging can occur. For the quantification in these matrices a purification step and a LC-APCI-MS method were developed. Although quantification of these compounds can be performed by GC-MS, the presented approach omitted any derivatization and increased the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude. Internal standard calibration using heptadecanoic acid amide and validation of the method yielded a limit of detection of 18.5 fmol and recoveries for the tallow and fatty acid methyl ester matrices of 93% and 95%, respectively. A group of commercially available samples were investigated for their content of fatty acid amides resulting in an amount of up to 0.54%m/m (g per 100 g) in tallow and up to 0.16%m/m (g per 100 g) in fatty acid methyl esters.

  16. THE BASIS OF STABILITY IN LYSINE AND ARGININE SALTS OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    LINOLEIC ACID , STABILIZATION), (* FATTY ACIDS , STABILITY), (*AMINO ACIDS , SALTS), (*ANTIOXIDANTS, AMINO ACIDS ), DEHYDRATED FOODS, ADDITIVES...PRESERVATION, COMPLEX COMPOUNDS, ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, INFRARED SPECTRA, NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE, CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS, X RAY DIFFRACTION, CRYSTAL LATTICES, MOLECULAR ISOMERISM, FATTY ACID ESTERS

  17. Retinoic acid stimulates essential fatty acid-supplemented human keratinocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Marcelo, C L; Dunham, W R

    1997-05-01

    The effect of all-trans retinoic acid on the proliferation of essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient and of EFA-supplemented adult human keratinocytes was investigated. EFA-deficient cell strains were supplied with one of four different fatty acid-supplemented media at the P0 to P1 passage. All-trans retinoic acid at 0.5 or 1.0 microM was added to the cultures at the P1 to P2 passage. At passage P3, and 3 and 7 d thereafter, the cell growth rate was determined. The fatty acid content of cultures grown in each medium was measured using gas chromatography. All the EFA media "normalized" the cellular fatty acid composition and drastically decreased the cell number and total DNA and protein of the cultures. All-trans retinoic acid at 1 microM prevented the loss of cell viability and growth usually associated with EFA supplementation but did not affect the control (EFA deficient) or 18:1 fatty acid-supplemented cultures. All-trans retinoic acid at 1 microM altered the fatty acid content of the EFA-supplemented cultures. A statistically significant increase in 14:0, 14:1, 16:1, 18:1, and 20:4 fatty acids occurred, whereas the amounts of 18:0 and 18:2 fatty acids decreased. The largest changes were in 16:1 fatty acid (8-14%) and 18:2 fatty acid (12-5%). All-trans retinoic acid at 0.5 microM also affected both cell growth and fatty acid composition without induction of the CRABP II message. These studies demonstrate that all-trans retinoic acid stimulates the growth of EFA-supplemented keratinocyte cultures while also altering the fatty acid composition of the cells.

  18. Essential fatty acids in health and chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P

    1999-09-01

    Human beings evolved consuming a diet that contained about equal amounts of n-3 and n-6 essential fatty acids. Over the past 100-150 y there has been an enormous increase in the consumption of n-6 fatty acids due to the increased intake of vegetable oils from corn, sunflower seeds, safflower seeds, cottonseed, and soybeans. Today, in Western diets, the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids ranges from approximately 20-30:1 instead of the traditional range of 1-2:1. Studies indicate that a high intake of n-6 fatty acids shifts the physiologic state to one that is prothrombotic and proaggregatory, characterized by increases in blood viscosity, vasospasm, and vasoconstriction and decreases in bleeding time. n-3 Fatty acids, however, have antiinflammatory, antithrombotic, antiarrhythmic, hypolipidemic, and vasodilatory properties. These beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids have been shown in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and, in some patients with renal disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most of the studies were carried out with fish oils [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)]. However, alpha-linolenic acid, found in green leafy vegetables, flaxseed, rapeseed, and walnuts, desaturates and elongates in the human body to EPA and DHA and by itself may have beneficial effects in health and in the control of chronic diseases.

  19. Esterification free fatty acid in palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated rice husk ash catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Arif; Sutrisno, Bachrun

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia, as one of the biggest palm oil producers and exporters in the world, is producing large amounts of low-grade oil such as Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) from palm oil industries. The use of PFAD can reduce the cost of biodiesel production significantly, which makes PFAD a highly potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, the esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) on PFAD was studied using rice husk ash (RHA) as heterogeneous catalyst. The rice husk ash catalyst was synthesized by sulfonation using concentrated sulfuric acid. The RHA catalyst were characterized by using different techniques, such as porosity analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, total number of acid sites and elemental analysis. The effects of the molar ratio of methanol to PFAD (1-10%), the molar ratio of methanol to PFAD (4:1-10:1), and the reaction temperature (40-60°C) were studied for the conversion of FFA to optimize the reaction conditions. The results showed that the optimal conditions were an methanol to PFAD molar ratio of 10:1, the catalyst amount of 10 wt% of PFAD, and reaction temperature of 60°C.

  20. Fatty Acid Structure and Degradation Analysis in Fingerprint Residues.

    PubMed

    Pleik, Stefanie; Spengler, Bernhard; Schäfer, Thomas; Urbach, Dieter; Luhn, Steven; Kirsch, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    GC-MS investigations were carried out to elucidate the aging behavior of unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues and to identify their degradation products in aged samples. For this purpose, a new sample preparation technique for fingerprint residues was developed that allows producing N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) derivatives of the analyzed unsaturated fatty acids and their degradation products. MSTFA derivatization catalyzed by iodotrimethylsilane enables the reliable identification of aldehydes and oxoacids as characteristic MSTFA derivatives in GCMS. The obtained results elucidate the degradation pathway of unsaturated fatty acids. Our study of aged fingerprint residues reveals that decanal is the main degradation product of the observed unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, oxoacids with different chain lengths are detected as specific degradation products of the unsaturated fatty acids. The detection of the degradation products and their chain length is a simple and effective method to determine the double bond position in unsaturated compounds. We can show that the hexadecenoic and octadecenoic acids found in fingerprint residues are not the pervasive fatty acids Δ9-hexadecenoic (palmitoleic acid) and Δ9-octadecenoic (oleic acid) acid but Δ6-hexadecenoic acid (sapienic acid) and Δ8-octadecenoic acid. The present study focuses on the structure identification of human sebum-specific unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues based on the identification of their degradation products. These results are discussed for further investigations and method developments for age determination of fingerprints, which is still a tremendous challenge because of several factors affecting the aging behavior of individual compounds in fingerprints. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  1. Fatty Acid Structure and Degradation Analysis in Fingerprint Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleik, Stefanie; Spengler, Bernhard; Schäfer, Thomas; Urbach, Dieter; Luhn, Steven; Kirsch, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    GC-MS investigations were carried out to elucidate the aging behavior of unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues and to identify their degradation products in aged samples. For this purpose, a new sample preparation technique for fingerprint residues was developed that allows producing N-methyl- N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) derivatives of the analyzed unsaturated fatty acids and their degradation products. MSTFA derivatization catalyzed by iodotrimethylsilane enables the reliable identification of aldehydes and oxoacids as characteristic MSTFA derivatives in GCMS. The obtained results elucidate the degradation pathway of unsaturated fatty acids. Our study of aged fingerprint residues reveals that decanal is the main degradation product of the observed unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, oxoacids with different chain lengths are detected as specific degradation products of the unsaturated fatty acids. The detection of the degradation products and their chain length is a simple and effective method to determine the double bond position in unsaturated compounds. We can show that the hexadecenoic and octadecenoic acids found in fingerprint residues are not the pervasive fatty acids Δ9-hexadecenoic (palmitoleic acid) and Δ9-octadecenoic (oleic acid) acid but Δ6-hexadecenoic acid (sapienic acid) and Δ8-octadecenoic acid. The present study focuses on the structure identification of human sebum-specific unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues based on the identification of their degradation products. These results are discussed for further investigations and method developments for age determination of fingerprints, which is still a tremendous challenge because of several factors affecting the aging behavior of individual compounds in fingerprints.

  2. Antiproliferative activity of synthetic fatty acid amides from renewable resources.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Daiane S; Piovesan, Luciana A; D'Oca, Caroline R Montes; Hack, Carolina R Lopes; Treptow, Tamara G M; Rodrigues, Marieli O; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T G; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; D'Oca, Marcelo G Montes

    2015-01-15

    In the work, the in vitro antiproliferative activity of a series of synthetic fatty acid amides were investigated in seven cancer cell lines. The study revealed that most of the compounds showed antiproliferative activity against tested tumor cell lines, mainly on human glioma cells (U251) and human ovarian cancer cells with a multiple drug-resistant phenotype (NCI-ADR/RES). In addition, the fatty methyl benzylamide derived from ricinoleic acid (with the fatty acid obtained from castor oil, a renewable resource) showed a high selectivity with potent growth inhibition and cell death for the glioma cell line-the most aggressive CNS cancer.

  3. Stabilized epoxygenated fatty acids regulate inflammation, pain, angiogenesis and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guodong; Kodani, Sean; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Epoxygenated fatty acids (EpFAs), which are lipid mediators produced by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases from polyunsaturated fatty acids, are important signaling molecules known to regulate various biological processes including inflammation, pain and angiogenesis. The EpFAs are further metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to form fatty acid diols which are usually less-active. Pharmacological inhibitors of sEH that stabilize endogenous EpFAs are being considered for human clinical uses. Here we review the biology of ω-3 and ω-6 EpFAs on inflammation, pain, angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. PMID:24345640

  4. Intrajejunal volatile fatty acids in the stagnant loop syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chernov, A J; Doe, W F; Gompertz, D

    1972-02-01

    In the stagnant loop syndrome an abnormal anaerobic flora colonizes the small bowel. Anaerobic organisms are characterized by fermentation reactions leading to the production of volatile fatty acids. This paper describes the measurement of intrajejunal volatile fatty acid concentrations in 11 patients with the stagnant loop syndrome. Nine normal persons and 18 patients with gastrointestinal disease without intestinal stasis acted as controls. Acetate and propionate concentrations were greatly increased in the patients with the stagnant loop syndrome and returned to normal in those patients treated with antibiotics. The measurement of intrajejunal volatile fatty acid concentrations as an index of overgrowth of anaerobic organisms is discussed.

  5. Long chain omega-3 fatty acids: micronutrients in disguise.

    PubMed

    Innis, S M; Novak, E M; Keller, B O

    2013-01-01

    Considerable information has accumulated to show that DHA and EPA have unique roles that differ from other n-3 fatty acids and the n-6 fatty acids, with increasing understanding of the mechanisms through which these fatty acids reduce risk of disease. DHA and EPA regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism, but are present in foods of animal origin, which are generally high in protein with variable triglycerides and low carbohydrate. Biological activity at intakes too low to provide significant amounts of energy is consistent with the definition of a vitamin for which needs are modified by life-stage, diet and genetic variables, and disease. Recent studies reveal that DHA may play a central role in co-coordinating complex networks that integrate hepatic glucose, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism for the purpose of efficient utilization of dietary protein, particularly during early development when the milk diet provides large amounts of energy from fat.

  6. White, brown and pink adipocytes: the extraordinary plasticity of the adipose organ.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Antonio; Smorlesi, Arianna; Frontini, Andrea; Barbatelli, Giorgio; Cinti, Saverio

    2014-05-01

    In mammals, adipocytes are lipid-laden cells making up the parenchyma of the multi-depot adipose organ. White adipocytes store lipids for release as free fatty acids during fasting periods; brown adipocytes burn glucose and lipids to maintain thermal homeostasis. A third type of adipocyte, the pink adipocyte, has recently been characterised in mouse subcutaneous fat depots during pregnancy and lactation. Pink adipocytes are mammary gland alveolar epithelial cells whose role is to produce and secrete milk. Emerging evidence suggests that they derive from the transdifferentiation of subcutaneous white adipocytes. The functional response of the adipose organ to a range of metabolic and environmental challenges highlights its extraordinary plasticity. Cold exposure induces an increase in the 'brown' component of the organ to meet the increased thermal demand; in states of positive energy balance, the 'white' component expands to store excess nutrients; finally, the 'pink' component develops in subcutaneous depots during pregnancy to ensure litter feeding. At the cell level, plasticity is provided not only by stem cell proliferation and differentiation but also, distinctively, by direct transdifferentiation of fully differentiated adipocytes by the stimuli that induce genetic expression reprogramming and through it a change in phenotype and, consequently function. A greater understanding of adipocyte transdifferentiation mechanisms would have the potential to shed light on their biology as well as inspire novel therapeutic strategies against metabolic syndrome (browning) and breast cancer (pinking).

  7. Maternal micronutrients, omega-3 fatty acids, and placental PPARγ expression.

    PubMed

    Meher, Akshaya P; Joshi, Asmita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2014-07-01

    An altered one-carbon cycle is known to influence placental and fetal development. We hypothesize that deficiency of maternal micronutrients such as folic acid and vitamin B12 will lead to increased oxidative stress, reduced long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and altered expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPARγ) in the placenta, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to these diets will increase the expression of PPARγ. Female rats were divided into 5 groups: control, folic acid deficient, vitamin B12 deficient, folic acid deficient + omega-3 fatty acid supplemented, and vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid supplemented. Dams were dissected on gestational day 20. Maternal micronutrient deficiency leads to lower (p < 0.05) levels of placental docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, PPARγ expression and higher (p < 0.05) levels of plasma malonidialdehyde, placental IL-6, and TNF-α. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to a vitamin B12 deficient diet normalized the expression of PPARγ and lowered the levels of placental TNF-α. In the case of supplementation to a folic acid deficient diet it lowered the levels of malonidialdehyde and placental IL-6 and TNF-α. This study has implications for fetal growth as oxidative stress, inflammation, and PPARγ are known to play a key role in the placental development.

  8. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  9. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  10. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  11. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  12. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  13. Mammalian fatty acid synthase: closure on a textbook mechanism?

    PubMed

    Leadlay, Peter; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel

    2003-02-01

    Mammalian fatty acid synthase is a classic example of a chain-building multienzyme. A cornerstone of its mechanism has been the obligatory collaboration of two identical subunits, with fatty acyl intermediates transferring between them. Now, fresh evidence has upset this view.

  14. Identification of novel PTEN-binding partners: PTEN interaction with fatty acid binding protein FABP4.

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, O; Panayotou, G; Zhyvoloup, A; Volkova, D; Gout, I; Filonenko, V

    2010-04-01

    PTEN is a tumor suppressor with dual protein and lipid-phosphatase activity, which is frequently deleted or mutated in many human advanced cancers. Recent studies have also demonstrated that PTEN is a promising target in type II diabetes and obesity treatment. Using C-terminal PTEN sequence in pEG202-NLS as bait, yeast two-hybrid screening on Mouse Embryo, Colon Cancer, and HeLa cDNA libraries was carried out. Isolated positive clones were validated by mating assay and identified through automated DNA sequencing and BLAST database searches. Sequence analysis revealed a number of PTEN-binding proteins linking this phosphatase to a number of different signaling cascades, suggesting that PTEN may perform other functions besides tumor-suppressing activity in different cell types. In particular, the interplay between PTEN function and adipocyte-specific fatty-acid-binding protein FABP4 is of notable interest. The demonstrable tautology of PTEN to FABP4 suggested a role for this phosphatase in the regulation of lipid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation. This interaction was further studied using coimmunoprecipitation and gel-filtration assays. Finally, based on Biacore assay, we have calculated the K(D) of PTEN-FABP4 complex, which is around 2.8 microM.

  15. The influence of dietary essential fatty acids on uterine C20 and C22 fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Howie, A; Leaver, H A; Wilson, N H; Yap, P L; Aitken, I D

    1992-06-01

    The effect of dietary fatty acids on uterine fatty acid composition was studied in rats fed control diet or semi-synthetic diet supplemented with 1.5 microliter/g/day evening primrose oil (EPO) or fish oil (FO). Diet-related changes in uterine lipid were detected within 21 days. Changes of 2- to 20-fold were detected in the uterine n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acids (EFA) and in certain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The FO diet was associated with higher uterine C20 and C22 n-3, and the EPO diet, with higher uterine n-6 fatty acid. High uterine C18:2 n-6 was detected in neutral lipid (NL) of rats fed high concentrations of this fatty acid, but there was little evidence of selective incorporation or retention of C18:2 n-6 by uterine NL. The incorporation of EFA into uterine phospholipids (PL) was greater than NL EFA incorporation, and uterine PL n-3/n-6 ratios showed greater diet dependence. Tissue/diet fatty acid ratios in NL and PL also indicated preferential incorporation/synthesis of C16:1 n-9, and C16:0, and there was greater incorporation of C12:0 and C14:0 into uteri of rats fed EPO and FO. Replacement of 50-60% of arachidonate with n-3 EFA in uterine PL may inhibit n-6 EFA metabolism necessary for uterine function at parturition.

  16. Nutritional Signaling via Free Fatty Acid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Junki; Hasegawa, Sae; Kasubuchi, Mayu; Ichimura, Atsuhiko; Nakajima, Akira; Kimura, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Excess energy is stored primarily as triglycerides, which are mobilized when demand for energy arises. Dysfunction of energy balance by excess food intake leads to metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. Free fatty acids (FFAs) provided by dietary fat are not only important nutrients, but also contribute key physiological functions via FFA receptor (FFAR)-mediated signaling molecules, which depend on FFAs’ carbon chain length and the ligand specificity of the receptors. Functional analyses have revealed that FFARs are critical for metabolic functions, such as peptide hormone secretion and inflammation, and contribute to energy homeostasis. In particular, recent studies have shown that the administration of selective agonists of G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 40 and GPR120 improved glucose metabolism and systemic metabolic disorders. Furthermore, the anti-inflammation and energy metabolism effects of short chain FAs have been linked to the activation of GPR41 and GPR43. In this review, we summarize recent progress in research on FFAs and their physiological roles in the regulation of energy metabolism. PMID:27023530

  17. Influence of trans fatty acids on health.

    PubMed

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    The contribution of dietary trans fatty acids (TFAs) on the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) has recently gained further support due to the results from large, prospective, population-based studies. Compared to saturated fat, TFAs are, gram to gram, associated with a considerably (2.5- to >10-fold) higher risk increment for IHD. A negative effect on the human fetus and on newborns and an increase in colon cancer risk in adults are possible but, however, still equivocal. Recent findings justify further studies concerning the effect of TFAs on allergic diseases in children and on the risk of type-2 diabetes in adults. The intake of industrially produced TFAs in European countries is decreasing. However, determination of the TFA content in various popular food items collected in Danish shops showed that it is likely that persons with a frequent intake of, e.g., French fries, microwave oven popcorn, chocolate bars, fast food, etc., consume industrially produced TFAs in amounts far exceeding the average intake, and are thereby exposed to an unnecessary health risk. The Danish government has decided that oils and fats containing more than 2% industrially produced TFAs will not be sold in Denmark after the January 1, 2004.

  18. Fish oil, essential fatty acids, and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lee, R M

    1994-08-01

    A proper balance between the n-3 and n-6 series of essential fatty acids (EFAs) is essential for homeostasis and normal growth in humans. Dietary supplement with fish oil and related n-3 EFAs has been used to study their antihypertensive property in animals and humans with borderline and essential hypertension. In the animal models, chronic treatment of young animals generally only attenuated the development of hypertension. In animals with hypercholesterolemia, n-3 EFA supplement increased the incidence of atherosclerosis. In humans, chronic treatment with fish oil only produced a small reduction in blood pressure. The concerns are that the high dose of fish oil may interfere with the control of blood glucose in diabetic patients, and may cause prolonged bleeding in surgical patients. Studies on the animal models of hypertension showed that n-6 EFAs are more effective than n-3 EFAs in lowering and normalizing the blood pressure of these animals, probably through the production of tissue prostaglandins, which favour vasodilation. The antihypertensive effect of the n-6 EFAs in humans is not well known, because there are only a few studies, usually involving a very small number of patients. A possible side effects of n-6 EFAs for concern is that they might stimulate tumour development. A careful examination of these risk factors is needed before any recommendation can be made concerning the use of EFAs for the control of hypertension for humans.

  19. Stimulation of fatty acid oxidation by a 3-thia fatty acid reduces triacylglycerol secretion in cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Skrede, S; Bremer, J; Berge, R K; Rustan, A C

    1994-08-01

    The present work shows that when mitochondrial beta-oxidation is stimulated by the hypolipemic, non-beta-oxidizable fatty acid analogue tetradecylthioacetic acid, there is a decrease in the secretion of triacylglycerol in cultured rat hepatocytes. In order to study the effects of tetradecylthioacetic acid in cells with different fatty acid oxidation rates, cells were grown without or with L-carnitine supplement or with addition of the beta-oxidation inhibitor L-aminocarnitine. In cells grown without and with L-carnitine in the medium, the oxidation of [1-14C]oleic acid was stimulated by tetradecylthioacetic acid, whereas it was not significantly changed by palmitic acid. In cells grown with L-aminocarnitine, oxidation of [1-14C]oleic acid was almost abolished both in the absence and in presence of tetradecylthioacetic acid. The effect of tetradecylthioacetic acid and palmitic acid on incorporation of [1-14C]oleic acid into triacylglycerol was similar under all conditions. In the presence of L-carnitine, secretion of oleic acid-labeled triacylglycerol was reduced significantly more by tetradecylthioacetic acid than by palmitic acid. The effects of tetradecylthioacetic acid and palmitic acid on secretion of oleic acid-labeled triacylglycerol were reversed in cells grown with L-aminocarnitine, where palmitic acid was the stronger inhibitor. These results were substantiated by determination of mass of triacylglycerol secreted. It is concluded that tetradecylthioacetic acid reduces secretion of triacylglycerol from rat hepatocytes mainly by acutely stimulating fatty acid oxidation.

  20. Subcutaneous Adipocytes Promote Melanoma Cell Growth by Activating the Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Hiu Yee; Fu, Xiuqiong; Liu, Bin; Chao, Xiaojuan; Chan, Chi Leung; Cao, Huihui; Su, Tao; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Fong, Wang Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Tumorigenesis involves constant communication between tumor cells and neighboring normal cells such as adipocytes. The canonical function of adipocytes is to store triglyceride and release fatty acids for other tissues. This study was aimed to find out if adipocytes promoted melanoma cell growth and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Here we isolated adipocytes from inguinal adipose tissue in mice and co-cultured with melanoma cells. We found that the co-cultured melanoma had higher lipid accumulation compared with mono-cultured melanoma. In addition, fluorescently labeled fatty acid BODIPY® FLC16 signal was detected in melanoma co-cultured with the adipocytes that had been loaded with the fluorescent dye, suggesting that the adipocytes provide fatty acids to melanoma cells. Compared with mono-cultured melanoma, co-cultured melanoma cells had a higher proliferation and phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) expression. Overexpression of Akt mutants in melanoma cells reduced the co-culture-enhanced proliferation. A lipidomic study showed that the co-cultured melanoma had an elevated palmitic acid level. Interestingly, we found that palmitic acid stimulated melanoma cell proliferation, changed the cell cycle distribution, and increased phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) and PI3K but not phospho-PTEN (phosphophosphatase and tensin homolog) expressions. More importantly, the palmitic acid-stimulated proliferation was further enhanced in the Akt-overexpressed melanoma cells and was reduced by LY294002 or knockdown of endogenous Akt or overexpression of Akt mutants. We also found that palmitic acid-pretreated B16F10 cells were grown to a significantly larger tumor in mice compared with control cells. Taken together, we suggest that adipocytes may serve as an exogenous source of palmitic acid that promotes melanoma cell growth by activating Akt. PMID:25228694

  1. Nitro-fatty acid pharmacokinetics in the adipose tissue compartment.

    PubMed

    Fazzari, Marco; Khoo, Nicholas K H; Woodcock, Steven R; Jorkasky, Diane K; Li, Lihua; Schopfer, Francisco J; Freeman, Bruce A

    2017-02-01

    Electrophilic nitro-FAs (NO2-FAs) promote adaptive and anti-inflammatory cell signaling responses as a result of an electrophilic character that supports posttranslational protein modifications. A unique pharmacokinetic profile is expected for NO2-FAs because of an ability to undergo reversible reactions including Michael addition with cysteine-containing proteins and esterification into complex lipids. Herein, we report via quantitative whole-body autoradiography analysis of rats gavaged with radiolabeled 10-nitro-[(14)C]oleic acid, preferential accumulation in adipose tissue over 2 weeks. To better define the metabolism and incorporation of NO2-FAs and their metabolites in adipose tissue lipids, adipocyte cultures were supplemented with 10-nitro-oleic acid (10-NO2-OA), nitro-stearic acid, nitro-conjugated linoleic acid, and nitro-linolenic acid. Then, quantitative HPLC-MS/MS analysis was performed on adipocyte neutral and polar lipid fractions, both before and after acid hydrolysis of esterified FAs. NO2-FAs preferentially incorporated in monoacyl- and diacylglycerides, while reduced metabolites were highly enriched in triacylglycerides. This differential distribution profile was confirmed in vivo in the adipose tissue of NO2-OA-treated mice. This pattern of NO2-FA deposition lends new insight into the unique pharmacokinetics and pharmacologic actions that could be expected for this chemically-reactive class of endogenous signaling mediators and synthetic drug candidates.

  2. Ozone and the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.; O'Rourke, L.; Larkin, E.C.

    1986-06-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine whether ozone causes significant oxidation of pulmonary polyunsaturated fatty acids in vivo. These involved ad libitum and pair-feeding. In the first experiment, rats were fed fat-free diets and exposed to ozone for 0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Lung and liver fatty acids were analyzed to determine if the rats exposed to ozone lost essential fatty acids more rapidly than those exposed to filtered air. In the second experiment, rats were divided into four groups. Two of these groups were fed fat-free diets, and two were fed diets containing essential fatty acids. Rats from the two diet groups (one of each type) were exposed to ozone, while the remaining two groups were exposed to filtered air. In the second experiment, rats were pair-fed. The amounts of lung and liver fatty acids were relatively uninfluenced by breathing ozone. Results from these experiments demonstrate that in the lung, the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic and arachidonic acids, appear to be oxidized by filtered air and ozone at essentially the same rate.

  3. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refsgaard, Hanne H. F.; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(III)/O2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(II) led to a substantial increase in the formation of protein carbonyls. These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (α,β-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues (Michael addition reactions) and also by interactions with alkoxyl radicals obtained by Fe(II) cleavage of lipid hydroperoxides that are formed. In addition, saturated aldehydes derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids likely react with lysine residues to form Schiff base adducts.

  4. [Determination of fatty acids and organic acids in Ranunculus ternatus Thunb using GC-MS].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Yao, Cheng; Xia, Li-Ming; Ouyang, Ping-Kai

    2006-08-01

    The determination of fatty acids and organic acids in Chinese medicinal plant Ranunculus ternatus Thunb using GC-MS was studied. The Ranunculus ternatus Thunb from Henan province was cut into less than 20 mesh pieces, then extracted by petroleum ether or ether in refluxing and esteried, and finally was determined using GC-MS. The results show that there are 23 kinds of organic compounds in the Chinese medicinal plant Ranunculus ternatus Thunb from Henan, among which 15 kinds of fatty acids were identified, including myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, eicosanoic acid, docosanoic acid etc. The unsaturated fatty acids and oleic acid account for 58.19% and 35.68% of the total organic compounds respectively. The kinds of fatty acid in petroleum ether extract and ether extract are the same.

  5. Engineering Escherichia coli to synthesize free fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Lennen, Rebecca M.; Pfleger, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid metabolism has received significant attention as a route for producing high-energy density, liquid transportation fuels and high-value oleochemicals from renewable feedstocks. If microbes can be engineered to produce these compounds at yields that approach the theoretical limits of 0.3–0.4 g/g glucose, then processes can be developed to replace current petrochemical technologies. Here, we review recent metabolic engineering efforts to maximize production of free fatty acids (FFA) in Escherichia coli, the first step towards production of downstream products. To date, metabolic engineers have succeeded in achieving higher yields of FFA than any downstream products. Regulation of fatty acid metabolism and the physiological effects of fatty acid production will also be reviewed from the perspective of identifying future engineering targets. PMID:23102412

  6. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conditions: (a) They are prepared from corn oil, cottonseed oil, lard, palm oil from fruit, peanut oil...) Polyglycerol esters of a mixture of stearic, oleic, and coconut fatty acids are used as a cloud inhibitor...

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Marlene P

    2009-01-01

    Patients with major depressive disorder have high rates of cardiovascular disease and other medical comorbidity. Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly those found in fish and seafood, have cardiovascular health benefits and may play an adjunctive role in the treatment of mood disorders. However, existing studies on omega-3 fatty acids in depression have limitations such as small sample sizes and a wide variance in study design, and results regarding efficacy are mixed. The preponderance of data from placebo-controlled treatment studies suggests that omega-3 fatty acids are a reasonable augmentation strategy for the treatment of major depressive disorder. More research is necessary before omega-3 supplements can be recommended as monotherapy for the treatment of depression. For many individuals with major depressive disorder, augmentation with omega-3 fatty acids should be considered, as general health benefits are well established and adjunctive use is low risk.

  8. Engineering fatty acid biosynthesis in microalgae for sustainable biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Blatti, Jillian L; Michaud, Jennifer; Burkart, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biodiesel and other liquid fuels due to their fast growth rate, high lipid yields, and ability to grow in a broad range of environments. However, many microalgae achieve maximal lipid yields only under stress conditions hindering growth and providing compositions not ideal for biofuel applications. Metabolic engineering of algal fatty acid biosynthesis promises to create strains capable of economically producing fungible and sustainable biofuels. The algal fatty acid biosynthetic pathway has been deduced by homology to bacterial and plant systems, and much of our understanding is gleaned from basic studies in these systems. However, successful engineering of lipid metabolism in algae will necessitate a thorough characterization of the algal fatty acid synthase (FAS) including protein-protein interactions and regulation. This review describes recent efforts to engineer fatty acid biosynthesis toward optimizing microalgae as a biodiesel feedstock.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: fatty acid hydroxylase-associated neurodegeneration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Certain 2-hydroxylated fatty acids are important in forming normal myelin; myelin is the protective covering that ... C, Alshehhi AA, Proukakis C, Sibtain NA, Maier H, Sharifi R, Patton MA, Bashir W, Koul R, ...

  10. MYB76 Inhibits Seed Fatty Acid Accumulation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shaowei; Jin, Changyu; Li, Dong; Gao, Chenhao; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Hai, Jiangbo; Ma, Haoli; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-01-01

    The MYB family of transcription factors is important in regulatory networks controlling development, metabolism and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. However, their role in regulating fatty acid accumulation in seeds is still largely unclear. Here, we found that MYB76, localized in the nucleus, was predominantly expressed in developing seeds during maturation. The myb76 mutation caused a significant increase in the amounts of total fatty acids and several major fatty acid compositions in mature seeds, suggesting that MYB76 functioned as an important repressor during seed oil biosynthesis. RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed remarkable alteration of numerous genes involved in photosynthesis, fatty acid biosynthesis, modification, and degradation, and oil body formation in myb76 seeds at 12 days after pollination. These results help us to understand the novel function of MYB76 and provide new insights into the regulatory network of MYB transcriptional factors controlling seed oil accumulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:28270825

  11. Validation of two methods for fatty acids analysis in eggs.

    PubMed

    Mazalli, Mônica R; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2007-05-01

    A comparative study between two methods (lipid extraction followed by saponification and methylation, and direct methylation) to determine the fatty acids in egg yolk was evaluated. Direct methylation of the samples resulted in lower fatty acid content and greater variation in the results than the lipid extraction followed by saponification and methylation. The low repeatability observed for the direct HCl methylation method was probably due to a less efficient extraction and conversion of the fatty acids into their methyl esters as compared to the same procedure starting with the lipid extract. As the lipid extraction followed by esterification method was shown to be more precise it was validated using powdered egg certified as reference material (RM 8415, NIST) and applied to samples of egg, egg enriched with polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), and commercial spray-dried whole egg powder.

  12. Maternal micronutrients and omega 3 fatty acids affect placental fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Dangat, Kamini D; Joshi, Asmita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2013-03-01

    Adequate supply of LCPUFA from maternal plasma is crucial for fetal normal growth and development. The present study examines the effect of maternal micronutrients (folic acid and vitamin B12) and omega 3 fatty acids on placental mRNA levels of fatty acid desaturases (Δ5 and Δ6) and transport proteins. Pregnant female rats were divided into 6 groups at 2 levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B12. Both the vitamin B12 deficient groups were supplemented with omega 3 fatty acid. Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency reduced placental mRNA and protein levels of Δ5 desaturase, mRNA levels of FATP1 and FATP4 (p<0.05 for all) as compared to control while omega 3 fatty acid supplementation normalized the levels. Our data for the first time indicates that altered maternal micronutrients and omega 3 fatty acids play a key role in regulating fatty acid desaturase and transport protein expression in placenta.

  13. Fatty acid breakdown in developing embryos of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Chia, T; Rawsthorne, S

    2000-12-01

    Developing Brassica napus embryos are primarily concerned with the accumulation of storage products, namely oil, starch and protein. The presence of fatty acid catabolic pathways in the background of this biosynthetic activity was investigated. Enzymes involved in the process of lipid mobilization, such as malate synthase and isocitrate lyase, are detectable towards the late stages of embryo development. [(14)C]Acetate feeding experiments also reveal that fatty acid catabolism becomes increasingly functional as the embryo matures.

  14. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of surfactants from carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bellahouel, S; Rolland, V; Roumestant, M L; Viallefont, P; Martinez, J

    2001-02-01

    The chemoenzymatic synthesis of new surfactants is reported; they were prepared from unprotected carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acids. This study pointed out the factors that govern the possibility to enzymatically bind the carbohydrate to the amino acid.

  15. Fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lippold, Felix; vom Dorp, Katharina; Abraham, Marion; Hölzl, Georg; Wewer, Vera; Yilmaz, Jenny Lindberg; Lager, Ida; Montandon, Cyrille; Besagni, Céline; Kessler, Felix; Stymne, Sten; Dörmann, Peter

    2012-05-01

    During stress or senescence, thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts are disintegrated, and chlorophyll and galactolipid are broken down, resulting in the accumulation of toxic intermediates, i.e., tetrapyrroles, free phytol, and free fatty acids. Chlorophyll degradation has been studied in detail, but the catabolic pathways for phytol and fatty acids remain unclear. A large proportion of phytol and fatty acids is converted into fatty acid phytyl esters and triacylglycerol during stress or senescence in chloroplasts. We isolated two genes (PHYTYL ESTER SYNTHASE1 [PES1] and PES2) of the esterase/lipase/thioesterase family of acyltransferases from Arabidopsis thaliana that are involved in fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts. The two proteins are highly expressed during senescence and nitrogen deprivation. Heterologous expression in yeast revealed that PES1 and PES2 have phytyl ester synthesis and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities. The enzymes show broad substrate specificities and can employ acyl-CoAs, acyl carrier proteins, and galactolipids as acyl donors. Double mutant plants (pes1 pes2) grow normally but show reduced phytyl ester and triacylglycerol accumulation. These results demonstrate that PES1 and PES2 are involved in the deposition of free phytol and free fatty acids in the form of phytyl esters in chloroplasts, a process involved in maintaining the integrity of the photosynthetic membrane during abiotic stress and senescence.

  16. Tailored fatty acid synthesis via dynamic control of fatty acid elongation

    SciTech Connect

    Torella, JP; Ford, TJ; Kim, SN; Chen, AM; Way, JC; Silver, PA

    2013-07-09

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs, 4-12 carbons) are valuable as precursors to industrial chemicals and biofuels, but are not canonical products of microbial fatty acid synthesis. We engineered microbial production of the full range of even-and odd-chain-length MCFAs and found that MCFA production is limited by rapid, irreversible elongation of their acyl-ACP precursors. To address this limitation, we programmed an essential ketoacyl synthase to degrade in response to a chemical inducer, thereby slowing acyl-ACP elongation and redirecting flux from phospholipid synthesis to MCFA production. Our results show that induced protein degradation can be used to dynamically alter metabolic flux, and thereby increase the yield of a desired compound. The strategy reported herein should be widely useful in a range of metabolic engineering applications in which essential enzymes divert flux away from a desired product, as well as in the production of polyketides, bioplastics, and other recursively synthesized hydrocarbons for which chain-length control is desired.

  17. The ketogenic diet; fatty acids, fatty acid-activated receptors and neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Cullingford, Tim E

    2004-03-01

    This review outlines the molecular sensors that reprogram cellular metabolism in response to the ketogenic diet (KD). Special emphasis is placed on the fasting-, fatty acid- and drug-activated transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). The KD causes a switch to ketogenesis that is coordinated with an array of changes in cellular lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate and inflammatory pathways. The role of both liver and brain PPARalpha in mediating such changes will be examined, with special reference to the anti-epileptic effects not only of the KD but a range of synthetic anti-epileptic drugs such as valproate. Finally, the implications of the KD and activated brain PPARalpha will be discussed in the context of their potential involvement in a range of disorders of neuro-degeneration and neuro-inflammation.

  18. Fatty acid transport protein expression in human brain and potential role in fatty acid transport across human brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Ryan W; On, Ngoc H; Del Bigio, Marc R; Miller, Donald W; Hatch, Grant M

    2011-05-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), formed by the brain capillary endothelial cells, provides a protective barrier between the systemic blood and the extracellular environment of the CNS. Passage of fatty acids from the blood to the brain may occur either by diffusion or by proteins that facilitate their transport. Currently several protein families have been implicated in fatty acid transport. The focus of the present study was to identify the fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) expressed in the brain microvessel endothelial cells and characterize their involvement in fatty acid transport across an in vitro BBB model. The major fatty acid transport proteins expressed in human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMEC), mouse capillaries and human grey matter were FATP-1, -4 and fatty acid binding protein 5 and fatty acid translocase/CD36. The passage of various radiolabeled fatty acids across confluent HBMEC monolayers was examined over a 30-min period in the presence of fatty acid free albumin in a 1 : 1 molar ratio. The apical to basolateral permeability of radiolabeled fatty acids was dependent upon both saturation and chain length of the fatty acid. Knockdown of various fatty acid transport proteins using siRNA significantly decreased radiolabeled fatty acid transport across the HBMEC monolayer. Our findings indicate that FATP-1 and FATP-4 are the predominant fatty acid transport proteins expressed in the BBB based on human and mouse expression studies. While transport studies in HBMEC monolayers support their involvement in fatty acid permeability, fatty acid translocase/CD36 also appears to play a prominent role in transport of fatty acids across HBMEC.

  19. Saturated fatty acids alter the late secretory pathway by modulating membrane properties.

    PubMed

    Payet, Laurie-Anne; Pineau, Ludovic; Snyder, Ellen C R; Colas, Jenny; Moussa, Ahmed; Vannier, Brigitte; Bigay, Joelle; Clarhaut, Jonathan; Becq, Frédéric; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc; Vandebrouck, Clarisse; Ferreira, Thierry

    2013-12-01

    Saturated fatty acids (SFA) have been reported to alter organelle integrity and function in many cell types, including muscle and pancreatic β-cells, adipocytes, hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes. SFA accumulation results in increased amounts of ceramides/sphingolipids and saturated phospholipids (PL). In this study, using a yeast-based model that recapitulates most of the trademarks of SFA-induced lipotoxicity in mammalian cells, we demonstrate that these lipid species act at different levels of the secretory pathway. Ceramides mostly appear to modulate the induction of the unfolded protein response and the transcription of nutrient transporters destined to the cell surface. On the other hand, saturated PL, by altering membrane properties, directly impact vesicular budding at later steps in the secretory pathway, i.e. at the trans-Golgi Network level. They appear to do so by increasing lipid order within intracellular membranes which, in turn, alters the recruitment of loose lipid packing-sensing proteins, required for optimal budding, to nascent vesicles. We propose that this latter general mechanism could account for the well-documented deleterious impacts of fatty acids on the last steps of the secretory pathway in several cell types.

  20. The fatty acids of calcareous sponges (Calcarea, Porifera).

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Andrea; Wörheide, Gert; Thiel, Volker

    2006-09-01

    Twenty-nine specimens of calcareous sponges (Class Calcarea, Phylum Porifera), covering thirteen representative species of the families Soleneiscidae, Leucaltidae, Levinellidae, Leucettidae, Clathrinidae, Sycettidae, Grantiidae, Jenkinidae, and Heteropiidae were analysed for their fatty acids. The fatty acids of Calcarea generally comprise saturated and monounsaturated linear (n-), and terminally methylated (iso-, anteiso-) C(14)-C(20) homologues. Furthermore, polyunsaturated C(22) fatty acids and the isoprenoic 4,8,12-trimethyltridecanoic acid were found. The most prominent compounds are n-C(16), iso-C(17), iso-C(18), n-C(18), n-C(20). In addition, a high abundance of the exotic 16-methyloctadecanoic acid (anteiso-C(19)) appears to be a characteristic trait of Calcarea. Long-chain 'demospongic acids', typically found in Demospongiae and Hexactinellida, are absent in Calcarea. The completely different strategy of calcarean fatty acid synthesis supports their phylogenetic distinctiveness from a common Demospongiae/Hexactinellida taxon. Both intraspecific and intraclass patterns of Calcarea showed great similarity, suggesting a conserved fatty acid composition that already existed in the last common ancestor of Calcinea and Calcaronea, i.e. before subclasses diverged.

  1. n-3 fatty acids: role in neurogenesis and neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Crupi, R; Marino, A; Cuzzocrea, S

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential unsaturated fatty acids with a double bond (C=C) starting after the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. They are important nutrients but, unfortunately, mammals cannot synthesize them, whereby they must be obtained from food sources or from supplements. Amongst nutritionally important polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are highly concentrated in the brain and have anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. They are involved in many bodily processes and may reportedly lead to neuron protection in neurological diseases. aged or damaged neurons and in Alzheimer's disease. Their effect in cognitive and behavioral functions and in several neurological and psychiatric disorders has been also proven. The dentate gyrus (DG), a sub-region of hippocampus, is implicated in cognition and mood regulation. The hippocampus represents one of the two areas in the mammalian brain in which adult neurogenesis occurs. This process is associated with beneficial effects on cognition, mood and chronic pharmacological treatment. The exposure to n-3 fatty acids enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis associated with cognitive and behavioral processes, promotes synaptic plasticity by increasing long-term potentiation and modulates synaptic protein expression to stimulate the dendritic arborization and new spines formation. On this basis we review the effect of n-3 fatty acids on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Moreover their possible use as a new therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative diseases is pointed out.

  2. Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Vessby, Bengt; Tengblad, Siv; Vaara, Elina M; Hauta-alus, Helena; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-04-14

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18 % of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9):arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated.

  3. Selective heterogeneous acid catalyzed esterification of N-terminal sulfyhdryl fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our interest in thiol fatty acids lies in their antioxidative, free radical scavenging, and metal ion scavenging capabilities as applied to cosmeceutical and skin care formulations. The retail market is filled with products containing the disulfide-containing free fatty acid, lipoic acid. These pr...

  4. Fatty acid synthesis in Escherichia coli and its applications towards the production of fatty acid based biofuels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The idea of renewable and regenerative resources has inspired research for more than a hundred years. Ideally, the only spent energy will replenish itself, like plant material, sunlight, thermal energy or wind. Biodiesel or ethanol are examples, since their production relies mainly on plant material. However, it has become apparent that crop derived biofuels will not be sufficient to satisfy future energy demands. Thus, especially in the last decade a lot of research has focused on the production of next generation biofuels. A major subject of these investigations has been the microbial fatty acid biosynthesis with the aim to produce fatty acids or derivatives for substitution of diesel. As an industrially important organism and with the best studied microbial fatty acid biosynthesis, Escherichia coli has been chosen as producer in many of these studies and several reviews have been published in the fields of E. coli fatty acid biosynthesis or biofuels. However, most reviews discuss only one of these topics in detail, despite the fact, that a profound understanding of the involved enzymes and their regulation is necessary for efficient genetic engineering of the entire pathway. The first part of this review aims at summarizing the knowledge about fatty acid biosynthesis of E. coli and its regulation, and it provides the connection towards the production of fatty acids and related biofuels. The second part gives an overview about the achievements by genetic engineering of the fatty acid biosynthesis towards the production of next generation biofuels. Finally, the actual importance and potential of fatty acid-based biofuels will be discussed. PMID:24405789

  5. [Role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease prevention].

    PubMed

    Piñeiro-Corrales, Guadalupe; Lago Rivero, N; Culebras-Fernández, Jesús M

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids, in addition to its known energy value and its structural function, have other beneficial properties. In particular, the polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 acting on the cardiovascular apparatus through many channels exerting a protective effect against cardiovascular risk. The benefits associated with the reduction in cardiac mortality and sudden death particular, are related to the incorporation of EPA and DHA in phospholipid membrane of cardiomyocytes. An index is established that relates the percentage of EPA + DHA of total fatty acids in erythrocytes and risk of death from cardiovascular disease may layering in different degrees. Therefore, the primary source of fatty fish w-3 PUFA, behaves like a reference food in cardiosaludables diets.

  6. Macrophage-secreted factors induce adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Permana, Paska A. . E-mail: Paska.Permana@med.va.gov; Menge, Christopher; Reaven, Peter D.

    2006-03-10

    Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue increases with obesity, a condition associated with low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. We investigated the direct effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance. 3T3-L1 adipocytes incubated with media conditioned by RAW264.7 macrophages (RAW-CM) showed dramatically increased transcription of several inflammation-related genes, greater nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity, and enhanced binding of U937 monocytes. All of these effects were prevented by co-incubation with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, an NF-{kappa}B inhibitor. Adipocytes incubated with RAW-CM also released more non-esterified fatty acids and this increased lipolysis was not suppressed by insulin. In addition, RAW-CM treatment decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that macrophage-secreted factors induce inflammatory responses and reduce insulin responsiveness in adipocytes. These effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocytes may contribute significantly to the systemic inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity.

  7. Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4 (FABP4): Pathophysiological Insights and Potent Clinical Biomarker of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Furuhashi, Masato; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Miura, Tetsuji

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidences of an integration of metabolic and inflammatory pathways, referred to as metaflammation in several aspects of metabolic syndrome, have been accumulating. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), also known as adipocyte FABP (A-FABP) or aP2, is mainly expressed in adipocytes and macrophages and plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in relation to metaflammation. Despite lack of a typical secretory signal peptide, FABP4 has been shown to be released from adipocytes in a non-classical pathway associated with lipolysis, possibly acting as an adipokine. Elevation of circulating FABP4 levels is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiac dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular events. Furthermore, ectopic expression and function of FABP4 in several types of cells and tissues have been recently demonstrated. Here, we discuss both the significant role of FABP4 in pathophysiological insights and its usefulness as a biomarker of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25674026

  8. Fatty acid metabolism in L1210 murine leukemia cells: differences in modification of fatty acids incorporated into various lipids.

    PubMed

    Burns, C P; Wei, S P; Spector, A A

    1978-10-01

    L1210 leukemia cells can utilize all of the main fatty acids that normally are present in the ascites fluid in which they grow. This finding is consistent with the view that L1210 cells derive most of their fatty acids from the ascites fluid. From 80--90% of each fatty acid was incorporated into cell lipids without structural modification, suggesting that the lipid composition of these cells can be altered by changing the type of fatty acids to which they are exposed. Most importantly, the palmitate that was subsequently incorporated into total cell phospholipids was elongated and desaturated somewhat more than that incorporated into triglycerides. This difference was due primarily to more extensive modification of the palmitate incorporated into the ethanolamine phosphoglycerides fraction. Although there was no difference between total phospholipids and triglycerides with linoleate, more of the linoleate incorporated into ethanolamine phosphoglycerides was elongated and further desaturated than that incorporated into choline phosphoglycerides and triglycerides. These findings indicate fatty acids incorporated into various cell lipid fractions are not structurally modified to the same extent. There appears to be greater modification of fatty acid used for ethanolamine phosphoglyceride synthesis as compared with triglyceride and choline phosphoglyceride synthesis.

  9. Thiamine and fatty acid content of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Peters, A.K.; Jones, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is inadequately documented. An investigation was conducted to determine muscle and liver thiamine content and whole body fatty acid composition in small, medium and large Chinook salmon. Muscle and liver thiamine concentrations were highest in small salmon, and tended to decrease with increasing fish size. Muscle thiamine was higher in fall than spring in large salmon. The high percentage of Chinook salmon (24-32% in fall and 58-71% in spring) with muscle thiamine concentration below 500 pmol/g, which has been associated with loss of equilibrium and death in other Great Lake salmonines, suggest that Chinook appear to rely less on thiamine than other Great Lakes species for which such low concentrations would be associated with thiamine deficiency (Brown et al. 2005b). A positive correlation was observed between liver total thiamine and percent liver lipids (r = 0.53, P < 0.0001, n = 119). In medium and large salmon, liver lipids were observed to be low in fish with less than 4,000 pmol/g liver total thiamine. In individuals with greater than 4,000 pmol/g liver thiamine, liver lipid increased with thiamine concentration. Individual fatty acids declined between fall and spring. Essential omega-3 fatty acids appear to be conserved as lipid content declined. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), an essential omega-6 fatty acid was not different between fall and spring, although the sum of omega-6 (Sw6) fatty acids declined over winter. Elevated concentrations of saturated fatty acids (sum) were observed in whole body tissue lipid. In summary, thiamine, a dietary essential vitamin, and individual fatty acids were found to vary in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon by fish size and season of the year.

  10. Labile aggregation stimulating substance, free fatty acids, and platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, J M; White, J G; Krivit, W

    1976-01-01

    Labile aggregation stimulating substance (LASS), an intermediate produced during platelet biosynthesis of PGE2 and PGF2alpha, acts as a physiologic intercellular messenger to promote platelet aggregation and the release reaction. The activity is formed by intact cells after physiologic stimulation or can be generated from platelet membrane fractions after combination with arachidonate. In the present investigation, small amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids added to an incubation mixture of platelet microsomes and arachidonate were found to significantly inhibit subsequent platelet aggregation. Saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids in the same concentrations were without effect. However, in higher concentrations mono-unsaturated fatty acids were found to be inhibitory and stearic acid was found to enhance subsequent platelet aggregation. The inhibition caused by the polyunsaturated fatty acid, linoleate, was shown to be the result of an effect on the production of LASS through an interaction with the platelet enzyme responsible for conversion of arachidonate to LASS. In contrast, stearic acid was found to enhance platelet aggregation by acting on the platelets and not directly on LASS production. The results suggest that small changes in the fatty acid composition of platelet phospholipids could significantly influence platelet reactivity.

  11. Effect of essential fatty acids on tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, G; Das, U N; Koratkar, R; Padma, M; Sagar, P S

    1992-01-01

    An earlier study showed that essential fatty acids and their metabolites can kill tumor cells in vitro. This tumoricidal action can be correlated to an increase in generation of free radicals in the tumor cells. Evening primrose oil (EPO) is a rich source of linoleic acid and gamma-linolenic acid. We report that EPO can kill tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. This tumoricidal action of EPO was associated with a threefold increase in superoxide generation. One of the factors that is capable of interfering with the cytotoxic action of fatty acids appears to be the protein content of the medium. Fatty acids can bind to protein and thus prevent their cytotoxic action.

  12. Identification of quantitative trait loci(QTL) controlling important fatty acids in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids play important role in controlling oil quality of peanut. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80%, there are several minor fatty acids accounting for about 20% in peanut oil, such as palmitic acid (PA, C16:0), stearic (S...

  13. Improved zeolite regeneration processes for preparing saturated branched-chain fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferrierite zeolite solid is an excellent catalyst for the skeletal isomerization of unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids (i.e., oleic acid) to unsaturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., iso-oleic acid) follow by hydrogenation to give saturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., isostearic acid). ...

  14. Association between very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland and dry eye resulting from n-3 fatty acid deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hideko; Harauma, Akiko; Takimoto, Mao; Moriguchi, Toru

    2015-06-01

    In our previously study, we reported lower tear volume in with an n-3 fatty acid deficient mice and that the docosahexaenoic acid and total n-3 fatty acid levels in these mice are significantly reduced in the meibomian gland, which secretes an oily tear product. Furthermore, we noted very long chain fatty acids (≥25 carbons) in the meibomian gland. To verify the detailed mechanism of the low tear volume in the n-3 fatty acid-deficient mice, we identified the very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland, measured the fatty acid composition in the tear product. Very long chain fatty acids were found to exist as monoesters. In particular, very long chain fatty acids with 25-29 carbons existed for the most part as iso or anteiso branched-chain fatty acids. n-3 fatty acid deficiency was decreased the amount of meibum secretion from meibomian gland without change of fatty acid composition. These results suggest that the n-3 fatty acid deficiency causes the enhancement of evaporation of tear film by reducing oily tear secretion along with the decrease of meibomian gland function.

  15. Efficient production of free fatty acids from soybean meal carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Thakker, Chandresh; Liu, Ping; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-11-01

    Conversion of biomass feedstock to chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention recently. Soybean meal, containing significant quantities of carbohydrates, is an inexpensive renewable feedstock. Glucose, galactose, and fructose can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soluble carbohydrates of soybean meal. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are valuable molecules that can be used as precursors for the production of fuels and other value-added chemicals. In this study, free fatty acids were produced by mutant Escherichia coli strains with plasmid pXZ18Z (carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase) using individual sugars, sugar mixtures, and enzymatic hydrolyzed soybean meal extract. For individual sugar fermentations, strain ML211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) )/pXZ18Z showed the best performance, which produced 4.22, 3.79, 3.49 g/L free fatty acids on glucose, fructose, and galactose, respectively. While the strain ML211/pXZ18Z performed the best with individual sugars, however, for sugar mixture fermentation, the triple mutant strain XZK211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) ptsG(-) )/pXZ18Z with an additional deletion of ptsG encoding the glucose-specific transporter, functioned the best due to relieved catabolite repression. This strain produced approximately 3.18 g/L of fatty acids with a yield of 0.22 g fatty acids/g total sugar. Maximum free fatty acids production of 2.78 g/L with a high yield of 0.21 g/g was achieved using soybean meal extract hydrolysate. The results suggested that soybean meal carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment could serve as an inexpensive feedstock for the efficient production of free fatty acids.

  16. Omega-3 Fatty acids and hippocampal neurogenesis in depression.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jing X; Gleason, Erin D

    2013-06-01

    The mammalian brain and central nervous system are especially dependent on the omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for normative signaling and function, and research suggests that n-3 fatty acid deficiencies are one contributing factor in the increasing prevalence of depressive disorders. However, the reasons for which n-3 fatty acids and mood are connected remain unknown. Atrophy in the hippocampus is one of the most significant neuroanatomical findings in depressed patients, and current therapies for depression tend to increase hippocampal neurogenesis. We recently discovered that the fat-1 transgenic mouse, which has enriched levels of DHA in the brain because it can convert n-6 to n-3 fatty acids, exhibits increased hippocampal neurogenesis. This finding suggests a mechanism by which omega-3 could influence depression and mood; here we expand on the argument that n-3 fatty acids, and DHA in particular, may help prevent and treat depression by virtue of their effects on neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Because DHA can be obtained through the diet, increasing DHA intake in depressed patients or those at risk for depression may be one way of managing the disease and perhaps providing aid to those who have not been able to achieve remission via pharmacological means.

  17. Expression of dehydratase domains from a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase increases the production of fatty acids in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Oyola-Robles, Delise; Rullán-Lind, Carlos; Carballeira, Néstor M.; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the production of fatty acids by microbial fermentation remains an important step towards the generation of biodiesel and other portable liquid fuels. In this work, we report an Escherichia coli strain engineered to overexpress a fragment consisting of four dehydratase domains from the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase enzyme complex from the deep-sea bacterium, Photobacterium profundum. The DH1-DH2-UMA enzyme fragment was excised from its natural context within a multi-enzyme PKS and expressed as a stand-alone protein. Fatty acids were extracted from the cell pellet, esterified with methanol and quantified by GC-MS analysis. Results show that the E. coli strain expressing the DH tetradomain fragment was capable of producing up to a 5-fold increase (80.31 mg total FA/L culture) in total fatty acids over the negative control strain lacking the recombinant enzyme. The enhancement in production was observed across the board for all the fatty acids that are typically made by E. coli. The overexpression of the DH tetradomain did not affect E. coli cell growth, thus showing that the observed enhancement in fatty acid production was not a result of effects associated with cell density. The observed enhancement was more pronounced at lower temperatures (3.8-fold at 16 °C, 3.5-fold at 22 °C and 1.5-fold at 30 °C) and supplementation of the media with 0.4% glycerol did not result in an increase in fatty acid production. All these results taken together suggest that either the dehydration of fatty acid intermediates are a limiting step in the E. coli fatty acid biosynthesis machinery, or that the recombinant dehydratase domains used in this study are also capable of catalyzing thioester hydrolysis of the final products. The enzyme in this report is a new tool which could be incorporated into other existing strategies aimed at improving fatty acid production in bacterial fermentations towards accessible biodiesel precursors. PMID:24411456

  18. Expression of dehydratase domains from a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase increases the production of fatty acids in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Oyola-Robles, Delise; Rullán-Lind, Carlos; Carballeira, Néstor M; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel

    2014-02-05

    Increasing the production of fatty acids by microbial fermentation remains an important step toward the generation of biodiesel and other portable liquid fuels. In this work, we report an Escherichia coli strain engineered to overexpress a fragment consisting of four dehydratase domains from the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase enzyme complex from the deep-sea bacterium, Photobacterium profundum. The DH1-DH2-UMA enzyme fragment was excised from its natural context within a multi-enzyme PKS and expressed as a stand-alone protein. Fatty acids were extracted from the cell pellet, esterified with methanol and quantified by GC-MS analysis. Results show that the E. coli strain expressing the DH tetradomain fragment was capable of producing up to a 5-fold increase (80.31 mg total FA/L culture) in total fatty acids over the negative control strain lacking the recombinant enzyme. The enhancement in production was observed across the board for all the fatty acids that are typically made by E. coli. The overexpression of the DH tetradomain did not affect E. coli cell growth, thus showing that the observed enhancement in fatty acid production was not a result of effects associated with cell density. The observed enhancement was more pronounced at lower temperatures (3.8-fold at 16 °C, 3.5-fold at 22 °C and 1.5-fold at 30 °C) and supplementation of the media with 0.4% glycerol did not result in an increase in fatty acid production. All these results taken together suggest that either the dehydration of fatty acid intermediates are a limiting step in the E. coli fatty acid biosynthesis machinery, or that the recombinant dehydratase domains used in this study are also capable of catalyzing thioester hydrolysis of the final products. The enzyme in this report is a new tool which could be incorporated into other existing strategies aimed at improving fatty acid production in bacterial fermentations toward accessible biodiesel precursors.

  19. Identification of trihydroxy fatty acids and the regiospecific quantification of the triacylglycerols containing trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid in castor oil, has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. We report here the identification of diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols containing trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil. The Ci8 HPLC fractions of casto...

  20. Proteomic identification of fat-browning markers in cultured white adipocytes treated with curcumin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Jae Heon; Mukherjee, Rajib; Hwang, Ki-Chul; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that curcumin induces browning of primary white adipocytes via enhanced expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes. In this study, we attempted to identify target proteins responsible for this fat-browning effect by analyzing proteomic changes in cultured white adipocytes in response to curcumin treatment. To elucidate the role of curcumin in fat-browning, we conducted comparative proteomic analysis of primary adipocytes between control and curcumin-treated cells using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF-MS. We also investigated fatty acid metabolic targets, mitochondrial biogenesis, and fat-browning-associated proteins using combined proteomic and network analyses. Proteomic analysis revealed that 58 protein spots from a total of 325 matched spots showed differential expression between control and curcumin-treated adipocytes. Using network analysis, most of the identified proteins were proven to be involved in various metabolic and cellular processes based on the PANTHER classification system. One of the most striking findings is that hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was highly correlated with main browning markers based on the STRING database. HSL and two browning markers (UCP1, PGC-1α) were co-immunoprecipitated with these markers, suggesting that HSL possibly plays a role in fat-browning of white adipocytes. Our results suggest that curcumin increased HSL levels and other browning-specific markers, suggesting its possible role in augmentation of lipolysis and suppression of lipogenesis by trans-differentiation from white adipocytes into brown adipocytes (beige).

  1. GROWTH OF LEPTOSPIRA CANICOLA IN THE PRESENCE OF FATTY ACIDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the longer fatty acids, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and Tween 80 showed good growth. Growth was so intense in the case of palmitic acid and...longer permitted reproduction. Most favorable were oleic acid in concentrations of .0001 m and . 00001 m, stearic and palmitic acid at .0001. Tween ... 80 gave good growth, but only in the presence of gelatin, in concentrations of 28.2 to 0.00282 mg%. The best results were achieved at higher concentrations of 28.2 and 2.82 mg%. More than 100 organisms were counted in the field.

  2. Fatty and resinic acids extractions from crude tall oil

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-11-01

    The separation of fatty and resinic acidic fractions from crude tall-oil soap solutions with n-heptane by the technique of dissociation extraction is discussed. The theory of the overall process is supported by a systematic study developed to cover the high selectivity demonstrated in the differential solubility and the aptness between fatty and diterpenic acids to both liquids phases. To study the main factors affecting those liquid-liquid extraction systems and the amphiphilic behavior of such molecules involved, sodium salts aqueous solutions of crude tall oil and synthetic mixtures as molecular acidic models were used.

  3. Inactivation of Ascaris suum by short-chain fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascaris suum eggs were inactivated in distilled water and digested sludge by butanoic, pentanoic and hexanoic acids. The fatty acids (FA) were only effective when protonated and at sufficient concentration. The conjugate bases were not effective at the concentrations evaluated. Predictions from an ...

  4. Note on the chromatographic analyses of marine polyunsaturated fatty acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, D.M.; Quinn, J.G.

    1977-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the effects of saponification/methylation and thin-layer chromatographic isolation on the analyses of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Using selected procedures, the qualitative and quantitative distribution of these acids in marine organisms can be determined with a high degree of accuracy. ?? 1977 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Fatty Acid Conjugates of Niacin and Salicylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Vu, Chi B; Bemis, Jean E; Benson, Ericka; Bista, Pradeep; Carney, David; Fahrner, Richard; Lee, Diana; Liu, Feng; Lonkar, Pallavi; Milne, Jill C; Nichols, Andrew J; Picarella, Dominic; Shoelson, Adam; Smith, Jesse; Ting, Amal; Wensley, Allison; Yeager, Maisy; Zimmer, Michael; Jirousek, Michael R

    2016-02-11

    This report describes the synthesis and preliminary biological characterization of novel fatty acid niacin conjugates and fatty acid salicylate conjugates. These molecular entities were created by covalently linking two bioactive molecules, either niacin or salicylic acid, to an omega-3 fatty acid. This methodology allows the simultaneous intracellular delivery of two bioactives in order to elicit a pharmacological response that could not be replicated by administering the bioactives individually or in combination. The fatty acid niacin conjugate 5 has been shown to be an inhibitor of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), a key regulator of cholesterol metabolism proteins such as PCSK9, HMG-CoA reductase, ATP citrate lyase, and NPC1L1. On the other hand, the fatty acid salicylate conjugate 11 has been shown to have a unique anti-inflammatory profile based on its ability to modulate the NF-κB pathway through the intracellular release of the two bioactives.

  6. Essential and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status and fatty acid composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Flávia; Torres, Alexandre G; Trugo, Nádia M F

    2008-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) status in lactating adolescents and its association with breast milk composition. Healthy nursing adolescents from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (n 30; 14-19 years; 30-120 d postpartum), exclusively or predominantly breast-feeding, participated in this study. Breast milk and blood samples were collected after overnight fasting. Fatty acid composition of breast milk, erythrocyte membrane (EM) and plasma NEFA were determined by GC. Indices of fatty acid status (mean melting point (MMP); EFA status index; DHA status indices, 22 : 5n-6:22 : 4n-6 and 22 : 6n-3:22 : 5n-6 ratios) were calculated from EM fatty acid composition. Dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids was low when compared with current recommendations for lactating women. MMP was associated with indices of DHA status, some individual fatty acids in EM and years post-menarche and weeks postpartum, suggesting the use of erythrocyte MMP as a possible comprehensive biochemical marker of LCPUFA status in this physiological condition. The DHA status of lactating adolescents and their milk DHA concentrations were similar to the values of Brazilian lactating adults, but lower compared with the values of lactating adults from other countries. Therefore, these lactating adolescents were apparently not disadvantaged, as compared with the Brazilian adults, when EM and breast milk fatty acid composition were considered. In general, PUFA in milk from adolescents presented few associations with their concentrations in plasma NEFA and with maternal status. However, milk DHA was associated with maternal LCPUFA and DHA states.

  7. Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from different sources affect fat and fatty acid excretions in rats.

    PubMed

    Amate, L; Gil, A; Ramírez, M

    2001-12-01

    Several sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) have been evaluated for infant-formula supplementation. These sources differ in their chemical structure [triglyceride (TG) or phospholipid (PL)], arrangement of fatty acids on the TG or PL backbone, fatty acid composition and presence of other lipid components. All of these characteristics influence fat digestion, may affect fat and fatty acid absorption, and hence, LCP bioavailability and metabolism in infancy. The main objective of this work was to establish the influence of different dietary LCP sources on overall fat and LCP absorption in early life. We compared fat and fatty acid excretions at weaning in rats fed control diets or diets supplemented with LCP as TG or PL. Two separate experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, weanling rats were fed for 3 wk a control diet (C1), a diet with TG from tuna and fungal oils (TF-TG) or a diet with PL from pig brain concentrate (PB-PL). In Experiment 2, weanling rats were fed for 3 wk a control diet (C2), a diet containing egg-TG (EG-TG) or a diet containing egg-PL (EG-PL). Fat, mineral and saturated fatty acid excretions in feces were higher in rats fed PB-PL compared with those fed TF-TG diet. In Experiment 2, groups did not differ in fat and mineral excretions. However, the EG-PL group had lower fecal excretions of saturated fatty acids than the C2 and EG-TG groups. The 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6) and 22:6(n-3) levels in feces were higher in the EG-TG group than in the EG-PL group. In summary, total fat and LCP excretions differed among rats fed diets supplemented with LCP from different sources.

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health.

    PubMed

    Jeromson, Stewart; Gallagher, Iain J; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee

    2015-11-19

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

  9. Dietary Fatty Acids: Is it Time to Change the Recommendations?

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Joyce A; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mensink, Ronald P; Schwab, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Limiting the saturated fatty acid (SAFA) consumption forms the basis of dietary fat recommendations for heart health, despite several meta-analyses demonstrating no link between dietary SAFA and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Three experts on dietary fat and health discussed the evidence of reducing SAFA intake at a symposium of the Federation of European Nutrition Societies in Berlin, Germany, October 23, 2015. Ronald P. Mensink, Maastricht University, the Netherlands, discussed the evidence linking dietary fatty acids and CVD risk. He emphasized the importance of the replacement nutrient(s) when SAFA intake is reduced. Julie Lovegrove, University of Reading, UK, addressed the question of whether higher intakes of unsaturated fatty acids are beneficial. She discussed the replacement of SAFA by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), noting the reduction in CVD risk with PUFA replacement and in CVD risk markers with MUFA replacement of SAFA. Ursula Schwab, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, discussed the importance of dietary patterns in achieving reduced risk of CVD, observing that several dietary patterns following the principles of a health-promoting diet and adapted to local customs, food preferences and seasonality are effective in reducing the risk of CVD, type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases. This paper summarizes the symposium presentations.

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids: cardiovascular benefits, sources and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lee, John H; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J; Harris, William S

    2009-12-01

    The evidence for the cardioprotective nature of omega-3 fatty acids is abundant, and currently available data indicate that patients with known coronary heart disease should consume at least 1 g daily of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from either oily fish or fish-oil supplements, and that individuals without disease should consume at least 250-500 mg daily. However, this area of research poses two questions. Firstly, which is the best source of omega-3 fatty acids-fish or fish-oil supplements? Secondly, are recommendations for omega-3 supplementation warranted in view of the rapid depletion of world fish stocks? The argument that eating fish is better than taking fish-oil supplements stems from the fact that several important nutrients, such as vitamin D, selenium, and antioxidants, are missing from the supplements. However, three major prevention trials have clearly indicated that omega-3 fatty acid capsules confer cardiovascular benefits and, therefore, that both are cardioprotective. Sustainable sources of omega-3 fatty acids will need to be identified if long-term cardiovascular risk reduction is to be achieved at the population level.

  11. Essential fatty acid requirement of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Lochmann, R T; Gatlin, D M

    1993-10-01

    Feeding experiments and laboratory analyses were conducted to establish the essential fatty acid (EFA) requirement of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Juvenile red drum were maintained in aquaria containing brackish water (5 ± 2‰ total dissolved solids) for two 6-week experiments. Semipurified diets contained a total of 70% lipid consisting of different combinations of tristearin [predominantly 18:0] and the following fatty acid ethyl esters: oleate, linoleate, linolenate, and a mixture of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) containing approximately 60% eicosapentaenoate plus docosahexaenoate. EFA-deficient diets (containing only tristearin or oleate) rapidly reduced fish growth and feed efficiency, and increased mortality. Fin erosion and a "shock syndrome" also occurred in association with EFA deficiency. Of the diets containing fatty acid ethyl esters, those with 0.5-1% (n-3) HUFA (0.3-0.6% eicosapentaenoate plus docosahexaenoate) promoted the best growth, survival, and feed efficiency; however, the control diet containing 7% menhaden fish oil provided the best performance. Excess (n-3) HUFA suppressed fish weight gain; suppression became evident at 1.5% (n-3) HUFA, and was pronounced at 2.5%. Fatty acid compositions of whole-body, muscle and liver tissues from red drum fed the various diets generally reflected dietary fatty acids, but modifications of these patterns also were evident. Levels of saturated fatty acids appeared to be regulated independent of diet. In fish fed EFA-deficient diets (containing only tristearin or oleate), monoenes increased and (n-3) HUFA were preferentially conserved in polar lipid fractions. Eicosatrienoic acid [20:3(n-9)] was not elevated in EFA-deficient red drum, apparently due to their limited ability to transform fatty acids. Red drum exhibited some limited ability to elongate and desaturate linoleic acid [18:2(n-6)] and linolenic acid [18:3(n-3)]; however, metabolism of 18:3(n-3) did not generally result in increased

  12. Potential Approach of Microbial Conversion to Develop New Antifungal Products of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Omega-3/('-3) or n-3 fatty acids are a family of unsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the n-3 position. n-3 Fatty acids which are important in human nutrition are: a-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3; ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n-3; EPA), and docosahexaen...

  13. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.; Depner, Christopher M.; Tripathy, Sasmita

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on Greenland Inuits in the 1970s and subsequent human studies have established an inverse relationship between the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids [C20–22 ω 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)], blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA, and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). C20–22 ω 3 PUFA have pleiotropic effects on cell function and regulate multiple pathways controlling blood lipids, inflammatory factors, and cellular events in cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. The hypolipemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic properties of these fatty acids confer cardioprotection. Accordingly, national heart associations and government agencies have recommended increased consumption of fatty fish or ω 3 PUFA supplements to prevent CVD. In addition to fatty fish, sources of ω 3 PUFA are available from plants, algae, and yeast. A key question examined in this review is whether nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA are as effective as fatty fish-derived C20–22 ω 3 PUFA at managing risk factors linked to CVD. We focused on ω 3 PUFA metabolism and the capacity of ω 3 PUFA supplements to regulate key cellular events linked to CVD. The outcome of our analysis reveals that nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA vary in their capacity to regulate blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA and CVD risk factors. PMID:22904344

  14. Fluoxetine potentiation of omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect: evaluating pharmacokinetic and brain fatty acid-related aspects in rodents.

    PubMed

    Laino, Carlos Horacio; Garcia, Pilar; Podestá, María Fernanda; Höcht, Christian; Slobodianik, Nora; Reinés, Analía

    2014-10-01

    We previously reported that combined fluoxetine administration at antidepressant doses renders additive antidepressant effects, whereas non-antidepressant doses potentiate the omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate putative pharmacokinetic and brain omega-3 fatty acid-related aspects for fluoxetine potentiation of omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect in rats. Coadministration of omega-3 fatty acids with a non-antidepressant dose of fluoxetine (1 mg/kg day) failed to affect both brain fluoxetine concentration and norfluoxetine plasma concentration profile. Fluoxetine plasma concentrations remained below the sensitivity limit of the detection method. Either antidepressant (10 mg/kg day) or non-antidepressant (1 mg/kg day) doses of fluoxetine in combination with omega-3 fatty acids increased hippocampal docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 omega-3) levels. Although individual treatments had no effects on DPA concentration, DPA increase was higher when omega-3 were combined with the non-antidepressant dose of fluoxetine. Chronic DPA administration exerted antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test while increasing hippocampal docosahexaenoic (22:6 omega-3) and DPA levels. Our results suggest no pharmacokinetic interaction and reveal specific hippocampal DPA changes after fluoxetine and omega-3 combined treatments in our experimental conditions. The DPA role in the synergistic effect of fluoxetine and omega-3 combined treatments will be for sure the focus of future studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:3316-3325, 2014.

  15. Delta 5 fatty acid desaturase upregulates the synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kun-Tao; Zheng, Cun-Ni; Xue, Jiao; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Bai, Weibin; Li, Hong-Ye

    2014-09-03

    Microalgae are important primary producers in the marine ecosystem and excellent sources of lipids and other bioactive compounds. The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum accumulates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) as its major component of fatty acids. To improve the EPA production, delta 5 desaturase, which plays a role in EPA biosynthetic pathway, was characterized in P. tricornutum. An annotated delta 5 desaturase PtD5b gene was cloned and overexpressed in P. tricornutum. The transgene was integrated into the genome demonstrated by Southern blot, and the overexpression of PtD5b was verified by qPCR and Western blot analysis. Fatty acid composition exhibited a significant increase in the unsaturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) showed an increase of 75% and 64%, respectively. In particular, EPA showed an increase of 58% in engineered microalgae. Meanwhile, neutral lipid content showed an increase up to 65% in engineered microalgae. More importantly, engineered cells showed a similar growth rate with the wild type, thus keeping high biomass productivity. This work provides an effective way to improve the production of microalgal value-added bioproducts by metabolic engineering.

  16. Fatty acid binding protein expression in different human adipose tissue depots in relation to rates of lipolysis and insulin concentration in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R M; Thörne, A; Hamsten, A; Arner, P

    2002-10-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are expressed in adipose tissue, adipocyte lipid binding protein (ALBP) and keratinocyte lipid binding protein (KLBP). This study investigated FABP expression in visceral and subcutaneous human adipose tissue depots and associations with lipolytic differences between the depots and circulating insulin concentrations. ALBP and KLBP (protein and RNA) were quantified in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue from obese individuals and expressed relative to actin. ALBP RNA and protein expression was significantly higher in subcutaneous compared to omental adipose tissue (both p < 0.05), whereas KLBP RNA and protein expression was no different between the two sites. There were significant inverse correlations between serum insulin concentrations and the ALBP/KLBP RNA ratio in both subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue (both p < 0.02). Basal rates of glycerol and fatty acid release measured in adipocytes isolated from subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue were significantly higher in the former (p < or = 0.02). Therefore the relative ALBP/KLBP content of human adipose tissue is different in different adipose tissue depots and at the RNA level is related to the circulating insulin concentration, at least in obese subjects. The higher rates of basal lipolysis in adipocytes isolated from subcutaneous compared to omental adipose tissue might be related to the increased ALBP content of the former. Therefore adipose tissue FABPs are interesting candidates for investigation to further our understanding of the insulin resistance syndrome and regulation of lipolysis.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rosiglitazone in Obesity-Impaired Wound Healing Depend on Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Pfeilschifter, Josef; Frank, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Combined diabetes-obesity syndromes severely impair regeneration of acute skin wounds in mouse models. This study assessed the contribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue to exacerbated wound inflammatory conditions. Genetically obese (ob/ob) mice showed an increased expression of positive transcriptional effectors of adipocyte differentiation such as Krüppel-like factor (KLF)-5 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ and an associated expression of leptin and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP)-4, but also CXCL2 in isolated subcutaneous fat. This observation in obese mice is in keeping with differentially elevated levels of KLF-5, PPAR-γ, leptin, FABP-4 and CXCL2 in in vitro-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Notably, CXCL2 expression restrictively appeared upon cytokine (IL-1β/TNF-α) stimulation only in mature, but not immature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Of importance, the critical regulator of adipocyte maturation, PPAR-γ, was merely expressed in the final phase of in-vitro induced adipocyte differentiation from 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. Consistently, the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone suppressed cytokine-induced CXCL2 release from mature adipocytes, but not from early 3T3-L1 adipocyte stages. The inhibitory effect of PPAR-γ activation on CXCL2 release appeared to be a general anti-inflammatory effect in mature adipocytes, as cytokine-induced cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2 was simultaneously repressed by rosiglitazone. In accordance with these findings, oral administration of rosiglitazone to wounded obese mice significantly changed subcutaneous adipocyte morphology, reduced wound CXCL2 and Cox-2 expression and improved tissue regeneration. Thus, our data suggest that PPAR-γ might provide a target to suppress inflammatory signals from mature adipocytes, which add to the prolonged wound inflammation observed in diabetes-obesity conditions. PMID:27992530

  18. Liver PPARα is crucial for whole-body fatty acid homeostasis and is protective against NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Montagner, Alexandra; Polizzi, Arnaud; Fouché, Edwin; Ducheix, Simon; Lippi, Yannick; Lasserre, Frédéric; Barquissau, Valentin; Régnier, Marion; Lukowicz, Céline; Benhamed, Fadila; Iroz, Alison; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Al Saati, Talal; Cano, Patricia; Mselli-Lakhal, Laila; Mithieux, Gilles; Rajas, Fabienne; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Pineau, Thierry; Loiseau, Nicolas; Postic, Catherine; Langin, Dominique; Wahli, Walter; Guillou, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Objective Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a nuclear receptor expressed in tissues with high oxidative activity that plays a central role in metabolism. In this work, we investigated the effect of hepatocyte PPARα on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Design We constructed a novel hepatocyte-specific PPARα knockout (Pparαhep−/−) mouse model. Using this novel model, we performed transcriptomic analysis following fenofibrate treatment. Next, we investigated which physiological challenges impact on PPARα. Moreover, we measured the contribution of hepatocytic PPARα activity to whole-body metabolism and fibroblast growth factor 21 production during fasting. Finally, we determined the influence of hepatocyte-specific PPARα deficiency in different models of steatosis and during ageing. Results Hepatocyte PPARα deletion impaired fatty acid catabolism, resulting in hepatic lipid accumulation during fasting and in two preclinical models of steatosis. Fasting mice showed acute PPARα-dependent hepatocyte activity during early night, with correspondingly increased circulating free fatty acids, which could be further stimulated by adipocyte lipolysis. Fasting led to mild hypoglycaemia and hypothermia in Pparαhep−/− mice when compared with Pparα−/− mice implying a role of PPARα activity in non-hepatic tissues. In agreement with this observation, Pparα−/− mice became overweight during ageing while Pparαhep−/− remained lean. However, like Pparα−/− mice, Pparαhep−/− fed a standard diet developed hepatic steatosis in ageing. Conclusions Altogether, these findings underscore the potential of hepatocyte PPARα as a drug target for NAFLD. PMID:26838599

  19. Subgrouping of Pseudomonas cepacia by cellular fatty acid composition.

    PubMed Central

    Mukwaya, G M; Welch, D F

    1989-01-01

    The cellular fatty acid compositions were determined for 42 strains of Pseudomonas cepacia from five cystic fibrosis centers in North America. All isolates contained significant (20%) amounts of hexadecanoic (C16:0), and cis-9 hexadecenoic (C16:1 cis9) acids and an isomer of octadecenoic acid (C18:1). None had hydroxy acids containing fewer than 14 carbon atoms. The quantitative data from the fatty acid analysis were highly reproducible and provided a basis for numerical analysis. Five subgroups comprising all the strains were obtained by cluster analysis and further characterized by principal-component analysis. With minor exceptions, the predominant subgroup identified in each center was different from that identified in other centers and accounted for one-half of the isolates within each center. Cellular fatty acid composition is a useful adjunct to biochemical characterization for the identification of P. cepacia isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. Numerical analysis of the fatty acid data can separate P. cepacia into subgroups, which may provide useful epidemiologic information or a basis for further analysis by more complex techniques such as DNA probe analysis. PMID:2687315

  20. 2-Alkynoic fatty acids inhibit topoisomerase IB from Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Carballeira, Néstor M; Cartagena, Michelle; Sanabria, David; Tasdemir, Deniz; Prada, Christopher F; Reguera, Rosa M; Balaña-Fouce, Rafael

    2012-10-01

    2-Alkynoic fatty acids display antimycobacterial, antifungal, and pesticidal activities but their antiprotozoal activity has received little attention. In this work we synthesized the 2-octadecynoic acid (2-ODA), 2-hexadecynoic acid (2-HDA), and 2-tetradecynoic acid (2-TDA) and show that 2-ODA is the best inhibitor of the Leishmania donovani DNA topoisomerase IB enzyme (LdTopIB) with an EC(50)=5.3±0.7μM. The potency of LdTopIB inhibition follows the trend 2-ODA>2-HDA>2-TDA, indicating that the effectiveness of inhibition depends on the fatty acid carbon chain length. All of the studied 2-alkynoic fatty acids were less potent inhibitors of the human topoisomerase IB enzyme (hTopIB) as compared to LdTopIB. 2-ODA also displayed in vitro activity against Leishmania donovani (IC(50)=11.0μM), but it was less effective against other protozoa, Trypanosoma cruzi (IC(50)=48.1μM) and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC(50)=64.5μM). The antiprotozoal activity of the 2-alkynoic fatty acids, in general, followed the trend 2-ODA>2-HDA>2-TDA. The experimental information gathered so far indicates that 2-ODA is a promising antileishmanial compound.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids: a novel resort against gastrointestinal injury.

    PubMed

    Ianiro, G; Franceschi, F; Bibbò, S; Gasbarrini, A

    2014-10-01

    The integrity of gastric barrier derives from the balance between defending and damaging factors. In particular, prostaglandins play a relevant role in the maintenance of gastric homeostasis and prevention of peptic disease, at different levels. Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentanoic acid, are the precursors of the third series of prostaglandins (with anti-inflammatory properties), also reducing the formation of the second series of prostaglandins (pro-inflammatory ones). Such a pathophysiological rationale brought to the experimental application, both in animal models and, more recently, in humans, of omega-3 fatty acids against gastrointestinal damage. Omega-3 fatty acids have shown interesting results in preventing different types of gastric damage in mouse models. A large retrospective case-control study on patients taking both anti-thrombotic therapy and eicosapentanoic acid showed (although only at unadjusted analysis) an inverse correlation between consumption of eicosapentanoic acid and gastrointestinal injury. Prospective, well-designed, comparative studies are warranted to clarify if omega-3 fatty acids may represent, or not, a novel resort against gastrointestinal injury.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2002-12-01

    Among the fatty acids, it is the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which possess the most potent immunomodulatory activities, and among the omega-3 PUFA, those from fish oil-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)--are more biologically potent than alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Some of the effects of omega-3 PUFA are brought about by modulation of the amount and types of eicosanoids made, and other effects are elicited by eicosanoid-independent mechanisms, including actions upon intracellular signaling pathways, transcription factor activity and gene expression. Animal experiments and clinical intervention studies indicate that omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and, therefore, might be useful in the management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Coronary heart disease, major depression, aging and cancer are characterized by an increased level of interleukin 1 (IL-1), a proinflammatory cytokine. Similarly, arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and lupus erythematosis are autoimmune diseases characterized by a high level of IL-1 and the proinflammatory leukotriene LTB(4) produced by omega-6 fatty acids. There have been a number of clinical trials assessing the benefits of dietary supplementation with fish oils in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in humans, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and migraine headaches. Many of the placebo-controlled trials of fish oil in chronic inflammatory diseases reveal significant benefit, including decreased disease activity and a lowered use of anti-inflammatory drugs.

  3. Unusual fatty acid compositions of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus and the bacterium Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed Central

    Carballeira, N M; Reyes, M; Sostre, A; Huang, H; Verhagen, M F; Adams, M W

    1997-01-01

    The fatty acid compositions of the hyperthermophilic microorganisms Thermotoga maritima and Pyrococcus furiosus were studied and compared. A total of 37 different fatty acids were identified in T. maritima, including the novel 13,14-dimethyloctacosanedioic acid. In contrast, a total of 18 different fatty acids were characterized, as minor components, in P. furiosus, and these included saturated, monounsaturated, and dicarboxylic acids. This is the first report of fatty acids from an archaeon. PMID:9098079

  4. Oligopeptide complex for targeted non-viral gene delivery to adipocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Young-Wook; Adhikary, Partho Protim; Lim, Kwang Suk; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jang Kyoung; Kim, Yong-Hee

    2014-12-01

    Commercial anti-obesity drugs acting in the gastrointestinal tract or the central nervous system have been shown to have limited efficacy and severe side effects. Anti-obesity drug development is thus focusing on targeting adipocytes that store excess fat. Here, we show that an adipocyte-targeting fusion-oligopeptide gene carrier consisting of an adipocyte-targeting sequence and 9-arginine (ATS-9R) selectively transfects mature adipocytes by binding to prohibitin. Injection of ATS-9R into obese mice confirmed specific binding of ATS-9R to fat vasculature, internalization and gene expression in adipocytes. We also constructed a short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) for silencing fatty-acid-binding protein 4 (shFABP4), a key lipid chaperone in fatty-acid uptake and lipid storage in adipocytes. Treatment of obese mice with ATS-9R/shFABP4 led to metabolic recovery and body-weight reduction (>20%). The ATS-9R/shFABP4 oligopeptide complex could prove to be a safe therapeutic approach to regress and treat obesity as well as obesity-induced metabolic syndromes.

  5. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

    PubMed

    Ranjan Moharana, Tushar; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  6. Variability in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm and hybrids for fatty acid profile of oil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Naresh

    2011-12-28

    Coconut oil, the main product of coconut fruit, is the richest source of glycerol and lauric acid and hence is called lauric oil. This paper reports the fatty acid profile of oil from 60 Talls, 14 Dwarfs, and 34 hybrids. These include collections from 13 countries covering a large coconut-growing area of the world, apart from the indigenous ones. Capillary gas chromatography analysis of oil indicated a wider variation for the fatty acid profile than earlier reported. Apart from this, for the first time other fatty acids such as behenic and lignoceric acids were detected. Oil from cultivars and hybrids of coconut has significantly differed, particularly for commercially important fatty acids such as lauric acid and unsaturated fatty acids. However, coconut oil seems to have a conserved fatty acid profile, mainly because of low unsaturated fatty acids, indicating the possibility of grouping cultivars on the basis of their fatty acid profiles. The cluster analysis based on fatty acid profile indicated grouping together of geographically and typically closely related cultivars. Cultivars with high concentrations of specific fatty acids can be of potential use for industrial exploitation, whereas those with high concentrations of short- and medium-chain fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids are more suitable for human consumption. Cultivars and hybrids with high and low values for each of the fatty acids are also identified.

  7. Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu X. H.; Shanklin J.; Rawat, R.

    2011-05-01

    Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants from herbivory. Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA) distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model plant systems, it represents a strong candidate gene for

  8. [Acute fatty liver in pregnancy: revealing fetal fatty acid oxidation disorders].

    PubMed

    Lamireau, D; Feghali, H; Redonnet-Vernhet, I; Mesli, S; Carles, D; Brissaud, O

    2012-03-01

    Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome are serious maternal illnesses occurring in the third trimester of pregnancy with significant perinatal and maternal mortality. AFLP may result from mitochondrial defects in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids, in particular a deficiency of the long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) in the fetus. Clinical findings in AFLP vary and its diagnosis is complicated by a significant overlap in clinical and biochemical features with HELLP syndrome. We report the case of 2 siblings who died, the first one in the neonatal period of asphyxia with multivisceral presentation and the second one from sudden death at 7 months. Autopsy of the latter infant revealed hepatic steatosis associated with cardiomyopathy, which led to suspicion of a fatty acid oxidation deficiency. Mutation analysis demonstrated that both children were homozygous for the common mutation c.1528G>C and the parents were heterozygous for this same mutation. This case demonstrates the importance of screening mothers with acute fatty liver disease of pregnancy and their children at birth for a metabolic disease. This article proposes several metabolic tests for mother and child suspected of having beta-oxidation of a fatty acid disorder.

  9. Rapid lipid enrichment in omega3 fatty acids: liver data.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Yvon A; Peltier, Sebastien; Portois, Laurence; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J

    2008-03-01

    The bolus intravenous injection of a novel medium-chain triglyceride:fish oil emulsion to normal subjects was recently reported to enrich within 60 min the phospholipid content of leucocytes and platelets in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids. The present study, conducted in second generation omega3-depleted rats, aims at investigating whether such a procedure may also increase within 60 min the phospholipid content of omega3 fatty acids in cells located outwards of the bloodstream, in this case liver cells, and whether this coincides with correction of the perturbation in the liver triglyceride fatty acid content and profile otherwise prevailing in these rats. The results indicate that such is indeed the case and further suggest a cause-to-effect relationship between the two events.

  10. Detection and quantification of protein adduction by electrophilic fatty acids: mitochondrial generation of fatty acid nitroalkene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, F J; Batthyany, C; Baker, P R S; Bonacci, G; Cole, M P; Rudolph, V; Groeger, A L; Rudolph, T K; Nadtochiy, S; Brookes, P S; Freeman, B A

    2009-05-01

    Nitroalkene fatty acid derivatives manifest a strong electrophilic nature, are clinically detectable, and induce multiple transcriptionally regulated anti-inflammatory responses. At present, the characterization and quantification of endogenous electrophilic lipids are compromised by their Michael addition with protein and small-molecule nucleophilic targets. Herein, we report a trans-nitroalkylation reaction of nitro-fatty acids with beta-mercaptoethanol (BME) and apply this reaction to the unbiased identification and quantification of reaction with nucleophilic targets. Trans-nitroalkylation yields are maximal at pH 7 to 8 and occur with physiological concentrations of target nucleophiles. This reaction is also amenable to sensitive mass spectrometry-based quantification of electrophilic fatty acid-protein adducts upon electrophoretic resolution of proteins. In-gel trans-nitroalkylation reactions also permit the identification of protein targets without the bias and lack of sensitivity of current proteomic approaches. Using this approach, it was observed that fatty acid nitroalkenes are rapidly metabolized in vivo by a nitroalkene reductase activity and mitochondrial beta-oxidation, yielding a variety of electrophilic and nonelectrophilic products that could be structurally characterized upon BME-based trans-nitroalkylation reaction. This strategy was applied to the detection and quantification of fatty acid nitration in mitochondria in response to oxidative inflammatory conditions induced by myocardial ischemia-reoxygenation.

  11. Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Are Less Toxic Than Their Parent Fatty Acids Generated during Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krutika; Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Trivedi, Ram N.; de Oliveira, Cristiane; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-01-01

    Although ethanol causes acute pancreatitis (AP) and lipolytic fatty acid (FA) generation worsens AP, the contribution of ethanol metabolites of FAs, ie, FA ethyl esters (FAEEs), to AP outcomes is unclear. Previously, pancreata of dying alcoholics and pancreatic necrosis in severe AP, respectively, showed high FAEEs and FAs, with oleic acid (OA) and its ethyl esters being the most abundant. We thus compared the toxicities of FAEEs and their parent FAs in severe AP. Pancreatic acini and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were exposed to FAs or FAEEs in vitro. The triglyceride of OA (i.e., glyceryl tri-oleate) or OAEE was injected into the pancreatic ducts of rats, and local and systemic severities were studied. Unsaturated FAs at equimolar concentrations to FAEEs induced a larger increase in cytosolic calcium, mitochondrial depolarization, and necro-apoptotic cell death. Glyceryl tri-oleate but not OAEE resulted in 70% mortality with increased serum OA, a severe inflammatory response, worse pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure. Our data show that FAs are more likely to worsen AP than FAEEs. Our observations correlate well with the high pancreatic FAEE concentrations in alcoholics without pancreatitis and high FA concentrations in pancreatic necrosis. Thus, conversion of FAs to FAEE may ameliorate AP in alcoholics. PMID:26878214

  12. Negative Confounding by Essential Fatty Acids in Methylmercury Neurotoxicity Associations

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Anna L; Mogensen, Ulla B.; Bjerve, Kristian S.; Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal; Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2014-01-01

    Background Methylmercury, a worldwide contaminant of fish and seafood, can cause adverse effects on the developing nervous system. However, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in seafood provide beneficial effects on brain development. Negative confounding will likely result in underestimation of both mercury toxicity and nutrient benefits unless mutual adjustment is included in the analysis. Methods We examined these associations in 176 Faroese children, in whom prenatal methylmercury exposure was assessed from mercury concentrations in cord blood and maternal hair. The relative concentrations of fatty acids were determined in cord serum phospholipids. Neuropsychological performance in verbal, motor, attention, spatial, and memory functions was assessed at 7 years of age. Multiple regression and structural equation models (SEMs) were carried out to determine the confounder-adjusted associations with methylmercury exposure. Results A short delay recall (in percent change) in the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) was associated with a doubling of cord blood methylmercury (−18.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −36.3, −1.51). The association became stronger after the inclusion of fatty acid concentrations in the analysis (−22.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −39.4, −4.62). In structural equation models, poorer memory function (corresponding to a lower score in the learning trials and short delay recall in CVLT) was associated with a doubling of prenatal exposure to methylmercury after the inclusion of fatty acid concentrations in the analysis (−1.94, 95% CI = −3.39, −0.49). Conclusions Associations between prenatal exposure to methylmercury and neurobehavioral deficits in memory function at school age were strengthened after fatty acid adjustment, thus suggesting that n-3 fatty acids need to be included in analysis of similar studies to avoid underestimation of the associations with methylmercury exposure. PMID:24561639

  13. Plasma fatty acid profiles of Canadian Inuit and Siberian Ganasan.

    PubMed

    Rode, A; Shephard, R J; Vloshinsky, P E; Kuksis, A

    1995-01-01

    Cross-sectional data from 86 male and 59 female coastal Inuit of Igloolik (69 degrees 40'N, 81 degrees W) showed a steep age-related increase in the percentage of plasma n-3 fatty acids, with parallel trends in 20:5 and 22:6 but not 18:3 n-3 fatty acid concentrations. Omega-7 + 9 (p < .001) and omega-9 fatty acid concentrations (P < .001 in M, .008 in F) also decreased with age. A tundra-based Siberian indigenous population (30 male and 11 female nGanasan) had similar percentages of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids to the young Inuit, with little age-related change in either measure. Correlation matrices for the Inuit men showed quite strong negative associations of n-3 fatty acid percentages with total triglycerides (r = .34, p < .001) and phosphatidylcholine/free cholesterol ratio (r = -.36, p < .001). In the Inuit women, n-3 percentages were strongly related to phosphatidylcholine/free cholesterol ratio (r = -.60, p < .001), but not to triglyceride readings. The phosphatidylcholine/free cholesterol ratio was also correlated with n-6 percentages (r = -.55, p < .001). In the nGanasan men, triglyceride levels were correlated with n-6 (r = -.35, p < .050), but the size of the female sample was insufficient to establish useful correlations. The present data suggest that as the younger coastal Inuit are abandoning their traditional country foods, plasma levels of n-3 fall. Reasons why n-3 fatty acid levels are negatively related to the plasma phosphatidyl choline/free cholesterol ratio merit further investigation.

  14. Functional Analysis of Leishmania Cyclopropane Fatty Acid Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Oyola, Samuel O.; Evans, Krystal J.; Smith, Terry K.; Smith, Barbara A.; Hilley, James D.; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Kaye, Paul M.; Smith, Deborah F.

    2012-01-01

    The single gene encoding cyclopropane fatty acid synthetase (CFAS) is present in Leishmania infantum, L. mexicana and L. braziliensis but absent from L. major, a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In L. infantum, usually causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, the CFAS gene is transcribed in both insect (extracellular) and host (intracellular) stages of the parasite life cycle. Tagged CFAS protein is stably detected in intracellular L. infantum but only during the early log phase of extracellular growth, when it shows partial localisation to the endoplasmic reticulum. Lipid analyses of L. infantum wild type, CFAS null and complemented parasites detect a low abundance CFAS-dependent C19Δ fatty acid, characteristic of a cyclopropanated species, in wild type and add-back cells. Sub-cellular fractionation studies locate the C19Δ fatty acid to both ER and plasma membrane-enriched fractions. This fatty acid is not detectable in wild type L. major, although expression of the L. infantum CFAS gene in L. major generates cyclopropanated fatty acids, indicating that the substrate for this modification is present in L. major, despite the absence of the modifying enzyme. Loss of the L. infantum CFAS gene does not affect extracellular parasite growth, phagocytosis or early survival in macrophages. However, while endocytosis is also unaffected in the extracellular CFAS nulls, membrane transporter activity is defective and the null parasites are more resistant to oxidative stress. Following infection in vivo, L. infantum CFAS nulls exhibit lower parasite burdens in both the liver and spleen of susceptible hosts but it has not been possible to complement this phenotype, suggesting that loss of C19Δ fatty acid may lead to irreversible changes in cell physiology that cannot be rescued by re-expression. Aberrant cyclopropanation in L. major decreases parasite virulence but does not influence parasite tissue tropism. PMID:23251490

  15. The Effect of Marine Derived n-3 Fatty Acids on Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Function

    PubMed Central

    Todorčević, Marijana; Hodson, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue function is key determinant of metabolic health, with specific nutrients being suggested to play a role in tissue metabolism. One such group of nutrients are the n-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). Results from studies where human, animal and cellular models have been utilised to investigate the effects of EPA and/or DHA on white adipose tissue/adipocytes suggest anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects. We review here evidence for these effects, specifically focusing on studies that provide some insight into metabolic pathways or processes. Of note, limited work has been undertaken investigating the effects of EPA and DHA on white adipose tissue in humans whilst more work has been undertaken using animal and cellular models. Taken together it would appear that EPA and DHA have a positive effect on lowering lipogenesis, increasing lipolysis and decreasing inflammation, all of which would be beneficial for adipose tissue biology. What remains to be elucidated is the duration and dose required to see a favourable effect of EPA and DHA in vivo in humans, across a range of adiposity. PMID:26729182

  16. Fatty Acids and Circadian Rhythms in Phaseolus coccineus

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, George F.; Stowe, Bruce B.

    1979-01-01

    Five major fatty acids, palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1), linoleic (18:2), and linolenic (18:3), were identified in polar lipid extracts from pulvini of Samanea saman and Phaseolus coccineus. In P. coccineus their distribution varied quantitatively in the laminar pulvinus, petiolar pulvinus, petiole, stem, leaf and root. Short pulses of red light did not greatly affect the relative quantities of fatty acids in dark grown P. coccineus, but a 30-minute exposure of red light generally increased the degree of unsaturation by increasing linolenic acid and decreasing linoleic and palmitic acids. P. coccineus seeds were exposed to several substituted pyridazinones as well as cerulenin and dimethylethanolamine. The pyridazinones San 6706 and norflurazon altered fatty acid composition but also altered morphology and inhibited chlorophyll synthesis. Exposure to 10 C for 72 hours caused a small but significant increase in the degree of unsaturation of P. coccineus fatty acids but results were equivocal with S. saman. PMID:16660990

  17. A fully validated GC-TOF-MS method for the quantification of fatty acids revealed alterations in the metabolic profile of fatty acids after smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Goettel, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard; Pluym, Nikola; Scherer, Gerhard; Scherer, Max

    2017-01-15

    We developed and validated an efficient and robust method for the simultaneous quantification of 44 fatty acid species in human plasma via GC-TOF-MS. The method is characterized by its robustness, accuracy and precision covering a wide range of fatty acid species with various saturation degrees including short chain fatty acids (beginning with FA 4:0) and long chain fatty acids (up to FA 32:0). The fatty acids were methylated prior to analyses and subsequently detected as fatty acid methyl esters by means of GC-TOF-MS. A highly substituted polar column allowed the separation of geometrical and positional isomers of fatty acid species. The method was applied to plasma samples of a strictly diet controlled clinical smoking cessation study including 39 smokers followed over the course of three months after having quit. Statistical significant alterations within the fatty acid profile were observed when comparing the baseline (subjects still smoking) with one week, one month and three months of smoking cessation. After 3 months of smoking cessation, a partial recovery of alterations in the fatty acid profile evoked by smoking was observed. In conclusion, the developed fatty acid profiling method using GC-TOF-MS has proven as a reliable tool for the quantitative determination of 44 individual fatty acid species within clinical studies.

  18. Exogenous Isoleucine and Fatty Acid Shortening Ensure the High Content of Anteiso-C15:0 Fatty Acid Required for Low-Temperature Growth of Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kun; Ding, Xiang; Julotok, Mudcharee; Wilkinson, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the branched-chain fatty acid anteiso-C15:0 plays a critical role in the growth of Listeria monocytogenes at low temperatures by ensuring sufficient membrane fluidity. Studies utilizing a chemically defined minimal medium revealed that the anteiso fatty acid precursor isoleucine largely determined the fatty acid profile and fatty acid response of the organism to lowered growth temperature. When isoleucine was sufficient, the fatty acid profile was very uniform, with anteiso fatty acids comprising up to 95% of total fatty acid, and the major fatty acid adjustment to low temperature was fatty acid chain shortening, which resulted in an increase of anteiso-C15:0 solely at the expense of anteiso-C17:0. When isoleucine was not supplied, the fatty acid profile became more complex and was readily modified by leucine, which resulted in a significant increase of corresponding iso fatty acids and an inability to grow at 10°C. Under this condition, the increase of anteiso-C15:0 at low temperature resulted from the combined effect of increasing the anteiso:iso ratio and chain shortening. A branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase-defective strain largely lost the ability to increase the anteiso:iso ratio. Cerulenin, an inhibitor of β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase (FabF), induced a similar fatty acid chain shortening as low temperature did. We propose that the anteiso precursor preferences of enzymes in the branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis pathway ensure a high production of anteiso fatty acids, and cold-regulated chain shortening results in a further increase of anteiso-C15:0 at the expense of anteiso-C17:0. PMID:16332779

  19. Fatty acid compositions of triglycerides and free fatty acids in sebum depend on amount of triglycerides, and do not differ in presence or absence of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Matsusue, Miyuki; Mashima, Yasuo; Miyawaki, Masaaki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2014-12-01

    To clarify the influence of the fatty acid composition of sebum in acne vulgaris, we investigated the amounts and fatty acid compositions of triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA), and the amounts of cutaneous superficial Propionibacterium acnes in acne patients and healthy subjects. The foreheads of 18 female patients, 10 male patients, 10 healthy females and 10 healthy males were studied in a Japanese population. There were significant differences in the amounts of sebum, TG and cutaneous superficial P. acnes, as well as the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA between acne patients and healthy subjects in females. Their fatty acid compositions were correlated with the amount of TG with or without acne. It was clarified that the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA depended on the amount of TG, and there were no differences in the fatty acid composition in the presence and absence of acne.

  20. A Possible Inflammatory Role of Twist1 in Human White Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Amanda T.; Laurencikiene, Jurga; Mejhert, Niklas; Näslund, Erik; Bouloumié, Anne; Dahlman, Ingrid; Arner, Peter; Rydén, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Twist1 is a transcription factor that is highly expressed in murine brown and white adipose tissue (WAT) and negatively regulates fatty acid oxidation in mice. The role of twist1 in WAT is not known and was therefore examined. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The expression of twist1 was determined by quantitative real-time PCR in different tissues and in different cell types within adipose tissue. The effect of twist1 small interfering RNA on fatty acid oxidation, lipolysis, adipokine secretion, and mRNA expression was determined in human adipocytes. The interaction between twist1 and specific promoters in human adipocytes was investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and reporter assays. RESULTS Twist1 was highly expressed in human WAT compared with a set of other tissues and found predominantly in adipocytes. Twist1 levels increased during in vitro differentiation of human preadipocytes. Gene silencing of twist1 in human white adipocytes had no effect on lipolysis or glucose transport. Unexpectedly, and in contrast with results in mice, twist1 RNA interference reduced fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, the expression and secretion of the inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were downregulated by twist1 silencing. ChIP and reporter assays confirmed twist1 interaction with the promoters of these genes. CONCLUSIONS Twist1 may play a role in inflammation of human WAT because it can regulate the expression and secretion of inflammatory adipokines via direct transcriptional effects in white adipocytes. Furthermore, twist1 may, in contrast to findings in mice, be a positive regulator of fatty acid oxidation in human white adipocytes. PMID:20007935

  1. Oxidized fatty acids as inter-kingdom signaling molecules.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Carolina H; Kock, Johan L F

    2014-01-20

    Oxylipins or oxidized fatty acids are a group of molecules found to play a role in signaling in many different cell types. These fatty acid derivatives have ancient evolutionary origins as signaling molecules and are ideal candidates for inter-kingdom communication. This review discusses examples of the ability of organisms from different kingdoms to "listen" and respond to oxylipin signals during interactions. The interactions that will be looked at are signaling between animals and plants; between animals and fungi; between animals and bacteria and between plants and fungi. This will aid in understanding these interactions, which often have implications in ecology, agriculture as well as human and animal health.

  2. Fatty Acid Beta-Oxidation Disorders: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Vishwanath, Vijay A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation disorders (FAODs) are a heterogeneous group of defects in fatty acid transport and mitochondrial β-oxidation. They are inherited as autosomal recessive disorders and have a wide range of clinical presentations. Summary The background information and case report provide important insight into mitochondrial FAODs. The article provides a wealth of information describing the scope of these disorders. Key Messages This article presents a typical case of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency and summarizes the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of mitochondrial FAODs. PMID:27536022

  3. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in multiple myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Czepiel, Jacek; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Czapkiewicz, Anna; Biesiada, Grażyna; Dróżdż, Mirosław; Perucki, William; Castillo, Jorge J

    2014-10-01

    Mounting data show that fatty acids (FA) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) function could be potential targets for multiple myeloma (MM) therapy. Our study aimed at comparing the FA composition of erythrocyte membranes of MM patients and healthy controls. MM patients had higher saturated FA and n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) and lower monounsaturated, n-3 PUFA and trans-FA indices than controls. The n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio was lower in MM patients and there was distinct clustering of variants of individual FA in MM patients. The FA content of erythrocyte membrane could serve as a diagnostic and/or predictive biomarker in MM.

  4. Improving the tolerance of Escherichia coli to medium-chain fatty acid production.

    PubMed

    Sherkhanov, Saken; Korman, Tyler P; Bowie, James U

    2014-09-01

    Microbial fatty acids are an attractive source of precursors for a variety of renewable commodity chemicals such as alkanes, alcohols, and biofuels. Rerouting lipid biosynthesis into free fatty acid production can be toxic, however, due to alterations of membrane lipid composition. Here we find that membrane lipid composition can be altered by the direct incorporation of medium-chain fatty acids into lipids via the Aas pathway in cells expressing the medium-chain thioesterase from Umbellularia californica (BTE). We find that deletion of the aas gene and sequestering exported fatty acids reduces medium-chain fatty acid toxicity, partially restores normal lipid composition, and improves medium-chain fatty acid yields.

  5. Development of gas chromatography analysis of fatty acids in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Tang, Baokun; Row, Kyung Ho

    2013-08-01

    The gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acids has attracted considerable interest. In this analysis, the common derivatives of fatty acids, such as fatty acid methyl esters, can be detected using a flame ionization detector and the mass spectra can indicate the true structure of fatty acids. This paper reviews gas chromatographic methods for obtaining fatty acids from marine organisms. The stationary phase and detector for applications in gas chromatography are discussed. This article also reviews the components of fatty acids in marine animals, marine plants and marine microorganisms.

  6. Amino acid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate content of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit).

    PubMed

    Golden, K D; Williams, O J

    2001-06-01

    A study is conducted to determine the amino acid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate content of breadfruit using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). An HPLC method is used for the determination of amino acids and fatty acids in breadfruit. Representative amino acid samples are derivatized with phenylisothiocianate and the resulting phenylthiocarbamyl derivatives are separated on a reversed-phase column by gradient elution with a 0.05M ammonium acetate buffer and 0.01M ammonium acetate in acetonitrile-methanol-water (44:10:46, v/v). Representative fatty acid samples are derivatized with phenacyl bromide and the resulting fatty acid phenacyl esters are separated on a reversed-phase column by gradient elution with acetonitrile and water. Amino acid and fatty acid derivatives are detected by ultraviolet detection at 254 nm. The analysis of the carbohydrates in breadfruit employs a GC method. Carbohydrates are derivatized using trimethylchlorosilane and hexamethyldisilazane to form trimethylsilyl ethers. Compounds in the samples are separated by the temperature programming of a GC using nitrogen as the carrier gas. Percent recoveries of amino acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates are 72.5%, 68.2%, and 81.4%, respectively. The starch content of the breadfruit is 15.52 g/100 g fresh weight.

  7. ReishiMax, mushroom based dietary supplement, inhibits adipocyte differentiation, stimulates glucose uptake and activates AMPK

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is a health hazard which is closely associated with various complications including insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and cancer. In spite of numerous preclinical and clinical interventions, the prevalence of obesity and its related disorders are on the rise demanding an urgent need for exploring novel therapeutic agents that can regulate adipogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated whether a dietary supplement ReishiMax (RM), containing triterpenes and polysaccharides extracted from medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum, affects adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. Methods 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes and treated with RM (0-300 μg/ml). Adipocyte differentiation/lipid uptake was evaluated by oil red O staining and triglyceride and glycerol concentrations were determined. Gene expression was evaluated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Glucose uptake was determined with [3H]-glucose. Results RM inhibited adipocyte differentiation through the suppresion of expression of adipogenic transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), sterol regulatory element binding element protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBP-α). RM also suppressed expression of enzymes and proteins responsible for lipid synthesis, transport and storage: fatty acid synthase (FAS), acyl-CoA synthetase-1 (ACS1), fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4), fatty acid transport protein-1 (FATP1) and perilipin. RM induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased glucose uptake by adipocytes. Conclusion Our study suggests that RM can control adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake. The health benefits of ReishiMax warrant further clinical studies. PMID:21929808

  8. Effects of high pressure on unsaturated fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povedano, Isabel; Guignon, Bérengère; Montoro, Óscar R.; Sanz, Pedro D.; Taravillo, Mercedes; Baonza, Valentín G.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of high pressure processing on the molecular structure of some unsaturated fatty acids. Samples of elaidic acid, linoleic acid, ZE and EE conjugated linoleic acid are treated at 293 or 333 K at pressures up to 700 MPa. It is observed that the adiabatic heat generated from compression is able to bring the sample temperature above 373 K after 700 MPa. These relatively extreme conditions are of great interest for food sterilization, but they may induce undesirable change in fatty acid quality characteristics. To check for structural changes, Raman spectra of the samples are analysed after treatments. The comparison with Raman spectra of samples kept at atmospheric pressure shows that pressure induces some conformational changes at the hydrocarbon skeleton in solid samples, while the liquid ones remain unchanged. No cis/trans isomerization occurs, but gauche conformers are likely to be present.

  9. Mutant fatty acid desaturase and methods for directed mutagenesis

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Whittle, Edward J.

    2008-01-29

    The present invention relates to methods for producing fatty acid desaturase mutants having a substantially increased activity towards substrates with fewer than 18 carbon atom chains relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon chain length specificity, the sequences encoding the desaturases and to the desaturases that are produced by the methods. The present invention further relates to a method for altering a function of a protein, including a fatty acid desaturase, through directed mutagenesis involving identifying candidate amino acid residues, producing a library of mutants of the protein by simultaneously randomizing all amino acid candidates, and selecting for mutants which exhibit the desired alteration of function. Candidate amino acids are identified by a combination of methods. Enzymatic, binding, structural and other functions of proteins can be altered by the method.

  10. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85 ± 0.48a, 8.8 ± 0.24b and 7.1 ± 0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P < 0.05) from 27.6 ± 1.32b % to 31.7 ± 1.68a % and 2.15 ± 0.09b % to 2.79 ± 0.05a %, respectively, at T2 level. Incorporation of milk fat of T1 and T2 (modified fatty acids profile) in ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94 ± 3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75 ± 2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P > 0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1 ± 0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78 ± 2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits.

  11. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food...

  12. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food...

  13. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food...

  14. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food...

  15. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...

  16. Reducing isozyme competition increases target fatty acid accumulation in seed triacylglycerols of transgenic Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One goal of green chemistry is the production of industrially useful fatty acids (FAs) in crop plants. We focus on the engineering of industrial FAs, specifically hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) and conjugated polyenoic fatty acids (a-eleostearic acid, ESA), using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as a m...

  17. Biosynthesis of cyclopropyl long-chain fatty acids from cyclopropanecarboxylic acid by mammalian tissues in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Duncombe, W. G.; Rising, T. J.

    1968-01-01

    1. Radioactivity from cyclopropane[14C]carboxylic acid is incorporated into fatty acids in vitro by rat and guinea-pig adipose tissue, by rat liver slices and by the supernatant fraction of rat liver homogenate. 2. The labelled acids are different from endogenous straight-chain fatty acids, and evidence is produced that they consist of a cyclopropyl ring in the ω-position, the remainder of the chain being built up from C2 units (not derived from cyclopropanecarboxylic acid) in the normal way via the malonate pathway. 3. It is suggested that these unnatural acids have some metabolic effect related to the hypoglycaemic action of cyclopropanecarboxylic acid. PMID:5685874

  18. Episodic hypoglycemia with psi-hydroxy fatty acid excretion.

    PubMed

    Colle, E; Mamer, O A; Montgomery, J A; Miller, J D

    1983-02-01

    We present case histories of two young children with episodes of hypoglycemia, elevation of SGOT, low insulin levels, increased urinary excretion of psi-hydroxy fatty acids (5-hydroxyhexanoic, 7-hydroxyoctanoic and 9-hydroxydecanoic), traces of the corresponding psi-ketoacids and elevations of urinary adipic, suberic, and sebacic acids. The ratio of psi-hydroxy fatty acids to 3-hydroxybutyric in the urine of these patients is higher than in patients of similar ages with similar illnesses. These acids persisted while the patients were well. Increased urinary psi-hydroxy fatty acids could be reproduced by a load of medium chain triglycerides without precipitating other clinical symptoms. Three children with hypoglycemia were found not to excrete measurable amounts of these unusual acids while ill. A medium chain triglyceride load in one of these children after recovery failed to elicit psi-hydroxy acid excretion. Small amounts of urinary 5-hydroxyhexanoic acid only were found in two patients with acute Reye's syndrome and in three of five severely ill children with starvation ketonuria. In this last group, no urinary psi-hydroxyacids could be detected after recovery. Normal children do not excrete measurable amounts (less than 1 mg/g creatinine) of these psi-hydroxyacids.

  19. Cultural characteristics and fatty acid composition of Corynebacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Moss, C W; Dowell, V R; Lewis, V J; Schekter, M A

    1967-11-01

    A detailed study of the cultural characteristics and cellular fatty acid composition of 27 isolates of Corynebacterium acnes was performed to establish the properties by which this organism may be identified and characterized. The fatty acids were extracted directly from whole cells and examined as methyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography. Each strain possessed a similar fatty acid profile which was characterized by a large percentage of C15 branched-chain acid. Uniformity in certain biochemical reactions and cultural characteristics was also observed. All strains were catalase-positive, nonmotile, and urease-negative, reduced nitrate, liquefied gelatin, failed to hydrolyze esculin and starch, and gave a positive methyl red test. Glucose, fructose, and glycerol were fermented, but not lactose, salicin, sucrose, maltose, xylose, or arabinose. Production of hydrogen sulfide and indole, fermentation of mannitol, and hemolytic activity were variable characteristics. Two species of the genus Propionibacterium were also tested and found to be similar to C. acnes both in cultural characteristics and fatty acid composition. The results strengthen previous suggestions that C. acnes should be classified in the genus Propionibacterium.

  20. Prevention of Sports Injuries by Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Bryhn, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Sport injuries are common and costly for the professional athlete, the "weekend warrior," and the community. Acute injuries are treated according to current guidelines with the aim of bringing the athlete back into the arena. These guidelines have not taken into account new scientific results of the inflammatory process following a trauma. The 4 hallmarks of inflammation, namely, pain, swelling, redness, and heat, are results of an adequate inflammatory response with the aim of bringing the affected tissue back to restitution (Latin: restitutio ad integrum). Cooling of the affected limb and anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used but may deter healing. The healing process is governed by fatty acids of the omega-3 and omega-6 series. In order to facilitate healing, these fatty acids have to be present in significant amounts in the affected tissues before the trauma occurs. This is particularly relevant for marine omega-3 fatty acids, which are often running low due to insignificant intake of seafood, common in individuals practicing sports. High-energy sports often lead to head and brain trauma. Continuous head traumata may even result in later mental defects. Saturation of brain cells with omega-3 fatty acids, in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may facilitate healing after brain trauma, thereby counteracting negative long-term results. The present understanding of a normal inflammatory process leading to restitution will be discussed along with data from recent scientific trials.

  1. Soyasaponins Aa and Ab exert an anti-obesity effect in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through downregulation of PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung Hwan; Ahn, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Jung A; Shin, Tai-Sun; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Suh, Joo-won; Mei, Itabashi; Chung, Gyuhwa

    2015-02-01

    Saponins are a diverse group of biologically functional products in plants. Soyasaponins are usually glycosylated, which give rise to a wide diversity of structures and functions. In this study, we investigated the effects and molecular mechanism of soyasaponins Aa and Ab in regulating adipocyte differentiation and expression of adipogenic marker genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Soyasaponins Aa and Ab dose-dependently inhibited the accumulation of lipids and the expression of adiponectin, adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1/sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2, fatty acid synthase, and resistin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, soyasaponins Aa and Ab suppressed the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in HEK 293T cells. Furthermore, we confirmed that the expression of PPARγ and of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) was suppressed at both the mRNA and protein levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by treatment with soyasaponins Aa and Ab. Taken together, these findings indicate that soyasaponin Aa and Ab markedly inhibit adipocyte differentiation and expression of various adipogenic marker genes through the downregulation of the adipogenesis-related transcription factors PPARγ and C/EBPα in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  2. Evaluation of cooling strategies for pumping of milk - impact of fatty acid composition on free fatty acid levels.

    PubMed

    Wiking, Lars; Bertram, Hanne C; Björck, Lennart; Nielsen, Jacob H

    2005-11-01

    Cooling strategies for pumping of raw milk were evaluated. Milk was pumped for 450 s at 31 degrees C, or pumped after cooling to 4 degrees C and subsequently subjected to various incubation times. Two types of milk were used; i.e. milk from cows fed a diet high in saturated fat supplements resulting in significantly larger milk fat globules than the other type of milk which comes from cows fed a low-fat diet that stimulates high de novo fat synthesis. The content of liquid fat was determined by low-field 1H NMR, which showed that milk from cows given the saturated fat diet also contained less liquid fat at both 4 degrees and 31 degrees C than the other type of milk. This can be ascribed to the differences in the fatty acid composition of the milk as a result of the fatty acid composition of the diets. After pumping of the milk at 31 degrees C, measurement of fat globule size distribution revealed a significant coalescence of milk fat globules in the milk obtained from the saturated fat diet due to pumping. Pumping at 4 degrees C or pumping the other type of milk did not result in coalescence of milk fat globules. Formation of free fatty acids increased significantly in both types of milk by pumping at 31 degrees C. Cooling the milk to 4 degrees C immediately before pumping inhibited an increased content of free fatty acids. However, when the milk was incubated at 4 degrees C for 60 min after cooling and then subjected to pumping, a significant increase in the formation of free fatty acids was observed in both types of milk. It is suggested that this increase in free fatty acids is caused by transition of polymorphic crystal forms or higher level of attached lipoprotein lipases to the milk fat globule before pumping.

  3. Fatty Acid-Binding Protein in Small Intestine IDENTIFICATION, ISOLATION, AND EVIDENCE FOR ITS ROLE IN CELLULAR FATTY ACID TRANSPORT

    PubMed Central

    Ockner, Robert K.; Manning, Joan A.

    1974-01-01

    A soluble fatty acid-binding protein (FABP), mol wt ∼ 12,000 is present in intestinal mucosa and other tissues that utilize fatty acids, including liver, myocardium, adipose, and kidney. This protein binds long chain fatty acids both in vivo and in vitro. FABP was isolated from rat intestine by gel filtration and isoelectric focusing. It showed a reaction of complete immunochemical identity with proteins in the 12,000 mol wt fatty acid-binding fractions of liver, myocardium, and adipose tissue supernates. (The presence of immunochemically nonidentical 12,000 mol wt FABP in these tissues is not excluded.) By quantitative radial immunodiffusion, supernatant FABP concentration in mucosa from proximal and middle thirds of jejuno-ileum significantly exceeded that in distal third, duodenum, and liver, expressed as micrograms per milligram soluble protein, micrograms per gram DNA, and micrograms per gram tissue. FABP concentration in villi was approximately three times greater than in crypts. Small quantities of FABP were present in washed nuclei-cell membrane, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions. However, the amount of FABP solubilized per milligram membrane protein was similar for all particulate fractions, and total membrane-associated FABP was only about 16% of supernatant FABP. Intestinal FABP concentration was significantly greater in animals maintained on high fat diets than on low fat; saturated and unsaturated fat diets did not differ greatly in this regard. The preponderance of FABP in villi from proximal and middle intestine, its ability to bind fatty acids in vivo as well as in vitro, and its response to changes in dietary fat intake support the concept that this protein participates in cellular fatty acid transport during fat absorption. Identical or closely related 12,000 mol wt proteins may serve similar functions in other tissues. Images PMID:4211161

  4. Separation of free fatty acids from high free fatty acid crude palm oil using short-path distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Japir, Abd Al-Wali; Salimon, Jumat; Derawi, Darfizzi; Bahadi, Murad; Yusop, Muhammad Rahimi

    2016-11-01

    The separation of free fatty acids (FFAs) was done by using short-path distillation (SPD). The separation parameters was at their boiling points, a feed amount of 2.3 mL/min, an operating pressure of 10 Torr, a condenser temperature of 60°C, and a rotor speed of 300 rpm. The physicochemical characteristics of oil before and after SPD were determined. The results showed that FFA % of 8.7 ± 0.3 and 0.9 ± 0.1 %, iodine value of 53.1 ± 0.4 and 52.7 ± 0.5 g I2/100 g, hydroxyl value of 32.5 ± 0.6 and 13.9 ± 1.1 mg KOH/g, unsaponifiable value of 0.31 ± 0.01 and 0.20 ± 0.15%, moisture content of 0.31 ± 0.01 and 0.24 ± 0.01 % for high free fatty acid crude palm oil before and after distillation, respectively. Gas chromatography (GC) results showed that the major fatty acids in crude palm oil (CPO) were palmitic acid (44.4% - 45%) followed by oleic acid (39.6% - 39.8%). In general, high free fatty acid crude palm oil after molecular distillation (HFFA-CPOAM) showed admirably physicochemical properties.

  5. Metabolic engineering of yeast to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels: bottlenecks and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Feng, Xueyang

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid-derived biofuels can be a better solution than bioethanol to replace petroleum fuel, since they have similar energy content and combustion properties as current transportation fuels. The environmentally friendly microbial fermentation process has been used to synthesize advanced biofuels from renewable feedstock. Due to their robustness as well as the high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors and phage contamination, yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica have attracted tremendous attention in recent studies regarding the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, including fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty alkanes. However, the native yeast strains cannot produce fatty acids and fatty acid-derived biofuels in large quantities. To this end, we have summarized recent publications in this review on metabolic engineering of yeast strains to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, identified the bottlenecks that limit the productivity of biofuels, and categorized the appropriate approaches to overcome these obstacles. PMID:26106371

  6. Influence of Fatty Acid Precursors, Including Food Preservatives, on the Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of Listeria monocytogenes at 37 and 10°C ▿

    PubMed Central

    Julotok, Mudcharee; Singh, Atul K.; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that grows at refrigeration temperatures and increases its content of anteiso-C15:0 fatty acid, which is believed to be a homeoviscous adaptation to ensure membrane fluidity, at these temperatures. As a possible novel approach for control of the growth of the organism, the influences of various fatty acid precursors, including branched-chain amino acids and branched- and straight-chain carboxylic acids, some of which are also well-established food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of the organism at 37°C and 10°C were studied in order to investigate whether the organism could be made to synthesize fatty acids that would result in impaired growth at low temperatures. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of L. monocytogenes could be modulated by the feeding of branched-chain amino acid, C4, C5, and C6 branched-chain carboxylic acid, and C3 and C4 straight-chain carboxylic acid fatty acid precursors, but the growth-inhibitory effects of several preservatives were independent of effects on fatty acid composition, which were minor in the case of preservatives metabolized via acetyl coenzyme A. The ability of a precursor to modify fatty acid composition was probably a reflection of the substrate specificities of the first enzyme, FabH, in the condensation of primers of fatty acid biosynthesis with malonyl acyl carrier protein. PMID:20048057

  7. PGC-1β suppresses saturated fatty acid-induced macrophage inflammation by inhibiting TAK1 activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongen; Liu, Yan; Li, Di; Song, Jiayi; Xia, Min

    2016-02-01

    Inflammation of infiltrated macrophages in adipose tissue is a key contributor to the initiation of adipose insulin resistance. These macrophages are exposed to high local concentrations of free fatty acids (FFAs) and can be proinflammatory activated by saturated fatty acids (SFAs). However, the regulatory mechanisms on SFA-induced macrophage inflammation are still elusive. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1β (PGC-1β) is a member of the PGC-1 family of transcriptional coactivators and has been reported to play a key role in SFAs metabolism and in the regulation of inflammatory signaling. However, it remains unclear whether PGC-1β is involved in SFA-induced macrophage inflammation. In this study, we found that PGC-1β expression was significantly decreased in response to palmitic acid (PA) in macrophages in a dose dependent manner. PGC-1β inhibited PA induced TNFα, MCP-1, and IL-1β mRNA and protein expressions. Furthermore, PGC-1β significantly antagonized PA induced macrophage nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and JUN N-terminal kinase activation. Mechanistically, we revealed that TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and its adaptor protein TAK1 binding protein 1 (TAB1) played a dominant role in the regulatory effects of PGC-1β. We confirmed that PGC-1β inhibited downstream inflammatory signals via binding with TAB1 and thus preventing TAB1/TAK1 binding and TAK1 activation. Finally, we showed that PGC-1β overexpression in PA treated macrophages improved adipocytes PI3K-Akt insulin signaling in a paracrine fashion. Collectively, our results uncovered a novel mechanism on how macrophage inflammation induced by SFAs was regulated and suggest a potential target in the treatment of obesity induced insulin resistance.

  8. Storage of Circulating Free Fatty Acid in Adipose Tissue of Postabsorptive Humans

    PubMed Central

    Koutsari, Christina; Ali, Asem H.; Mundi, Manpreet S.; Jensen, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Preferential upper-body fat gain, a typical male pattern, is associated with a greater cardiometabolic risk. Regional differences in lipolysis and meal fat storage cannot explain sex differences in body fat distribution. We examined the potential role of the novel free fatty acid (FFA) storage pathway in determining body fat distribution in postabsorptive humans and whether adipocyte lipogenic proteins (CD36, acyl-CoA synthetases, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase) predict differences in FFA storage. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Rates of postabsorptive FFA (palmitate) storage into upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) and lower-body subcutaneous (LBSQ) fat were measured in 28 men and 53 premenopausal women. Stable and radiolabeled palmitate tracers were intravenously infused followed by subcutaneous fat biopsies. Body composition was assessed with a combination of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. RESULTS Women had greater FFA (palmitate) storage than men in both UBSQ (0.37 ± 0.15 vs. 0.27 ± 0.18 μmol · kg−1 · min−1, P = 0.0001) and LBSQ (0.42 ± 0.19 vs. 0.22 ± 0.11 μmol · kg−1 · min−1, P < 0.0001) fat. Palmitate storage rates were significantly greater in LBSQ than UBSQ fat in women, whereas the opposite was true in men. Plasma palmitate concentration positively predicted palmitate storage in both depots and sexes. Adipocyte CD36 content predicted UBSQ palmitate storage and sex-predicted storage in LBSQ fat. Palmitate storage rates per kilogram fat did not decrease as a function of fat mass, whereas lipolysis did. CONCLUSIONS The FFA storage pathway, which had remained undetected in postabsorptive humans until recently, can have considerable, long-term, and sex-specific effects on body fat distribution. It can also offer a way of protecting the body from excessive circulating FFA in obesity. PMID:21659500

  9. Do long-chain omega-3 fatty acids protect from atopic dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Reese, Imke; Werfel, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential for human nutrition. The number of double bonds determines whether a given fatty acid is termed two, three, or x times unsaturated. Depending on the distance of the first double bond from the fatty acid's methyl group, one distinguishes omega-3 fatty acids from omega-6 fatty acids. While the use of gamma linolenic acid, a long-chain fatty acid of the omega-6 family, has proven unsuccessful in the prevention or treatment of atopic dermatitis, supplementation of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may represent a promising approach in the prevention of allergic disorders, especially atopic dermatitis. Whether the concept of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid administration will also become established in a therapeutic setting, depends on whether the beneficial effects observed so far can be substantiated in randomized controlled intervention studies.

  10. Low-Dose Bisphenol-A Impairs Adipogenesis and Generates Dysfunctional 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ariemma, Fabiana; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Liguoro, Domenico; Oriente, Francesco; Cabaro, Serena; Liotti, Antonietta; Cimmino, Ilaria; Longo, Michele; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro; Valentino, Rossella

    2016-01-01

    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EDCs), including bisphenol-A (BPA), have been recently involved in obesity and diabetes by dysregulating adipose tissue function. Our aim was to examine whether prolonged exposure to low doses of BPA could affect adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolic functions. Therefore, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were cultured for three weeks with BPA 1 nM to mimic human environmental exposure. We evaluated BPA effect on cell proliferation, differentiation, gene expression and adipocyte metabolic function. BPA significantly increased pre-adipocyte proliferation (p<0.01). In 3T3-L1 adipocytes differentiated in the presence of BPA, the expression of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4/Adipocyte Protein 2 (FABP4/AP2) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα) was increased by 3.5, 1.5 and 3 folds, respectively. Mature adipocytes also showed a significant increase in lipid accumulation (p<0.05) and alterations of insulin action, with significant reduction in insulin-stimulated glucose utilization (p<0.001). Moreover, in mature adipocytes, mRNA levels of Leptin, interleukin-6 (IL6) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) were significantly increased (p<0.05). In conclusion, BPA prolonged exposure at low doses, consistent with those found in the environment, may affect adipocyte differentiation program, enhancing pre-adipocyte proliferation and anticipating the expression of the master genes involved in lipid/glucose metabolism. The resulting adipocytes are hypertrophic, with impaired insulin signaling, reduced glucose utilization and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Thus, these data supported the hypothesis that BPA exposure, during critical stages of adipose tissue development, may cause adipocyte metabolic dysfunction and inflammation, thereby increasing the risk of developing obesity-related diseases.

  11. Low-Dose Bisphenol-A Impairs Adipogenesis and Generates Dysfunctional 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ariemma, Fabiana; D’Esposito, Vittoria; Liguoro, Domenico; Oriente, Francesco; Cabaro, Serena; Liotti, Antonietta; Cimmino, Ilaria; Longo, Michele; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro; Valentino, Rossella

    2016-01-01

    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EDCs), including bisphenol-A (BPA), have been recently involved in obesity and diabetes by dysregulating adipose tissue function. Our aim was to examine whether prolonged exposure to low doses of BPA could affect adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolic functions. Therefore, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were cultured for three weeks with BPA 1nM to mimic human environmental exposure. We evaluated BPA effect on cell proliferation, differentiation, gene expression and adipocyte metabolic function. BPA significantly increased pre-adipocyte proliferation (p<0.01). In 3T3-L1 adipocytes differentiated in the presence of BPA, the expression of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4/Adipocyte Protein 2 (FABP4/AP2) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα) was increased by 3.5, 1.5 and 3 folds, respectively. Mature adipocytes also showed a significant increase in lipid accumulation (p<0.05) and alterations of insulin action, with significant reduction in insulin-stimulated glucose utilization (p<0.001). Moreover, in mature adipocytes, mRNA levels of Leptin, interleukin-6 (IL6) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) were significantly increased (p<0.05). In conclusion, BPA prolonged exposure at low doses, consistent with those found in the environment, may affect adipocyte differentiation program, enhancing pre-adipocyte proliferation and anticipating the expression of the master genes involved in lipid/glucose metabolism. The resulting adipocytes are hypertrophic, with impaired insulin signaling, reduced glucose utilization and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Thus, these data supported the hypothesis that BPA exposure, during critical stages of adipose tissue development, may cause adipocyte metabolic dysfunction and inflammation, thereby increasing the risk of developing obesity-related diseases. PMID:26942597

  12. Fat deposition, fatty acid composition and meat quality: A review.

    PubMed

    Wood, J D; Enser, M; Fisher, A V; Nute, G R; Sheard, P R; Richardson, R I; Hughes, S I; Whittington, F M

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews the factors affecting the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and muscle in pigs, sheep and cattle and shows that a major factor is the total amount of fat. The effects of fatty acid composition on meat quality are also reviewed. Pigs have high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including the long chain (C20-22) PUFA in adipose tissue and muscle. The full range of PUFA are also found in sheep adipose tissue and muscle whereas cattle 'conserve' long chain PUFA in muscle phospholipid. Linoleic acid (18:2n-6) is a major ingredient of feeds for all species. Its incorporation into adipose tissue and muscle in relation to the amount in the diet is greater than for other fatty acids. It is deposited in muscle phospholipid at a high level where it and its long chain products eg aracidonic acid (20:4n-6) compete well for insertion into phospholipid molecules. Its proportion in pig adipose tissue declines as fat deposition proceeds and is an index of fatness. The same inverse relationships are not seen in ruminant adipose tissue but in all species the proportion of 18:2n-6 declines in muscle as fat deposition increases. The main reason is that phospholipid, where 18:2n-6 is located, declines as a proportion of muscle lipid and the proportion of neutral lipid, with its higher content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, increases. Oleic acid (18:1cis-9), formed from stearic acid (18:0) by the enzyme stearoyl Co-A desaturase, is a major component of neutral lipid and in ruminants the same enzyme forms conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), an important nutrient in human nutrition. Like 18:2n-6, α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) is an essential fatty acid and is important to ruminants since it is the major fatty acid in grass. However it does not compete well for insertion into phospholipid compared with 18:2n-6 and its incorporation into adipose tissue and muscle is less efficient. Greater biohydrogenation of 18:3n-3 and a long rumen transit time

  13. Production of dicarboxylic acids from novel unsaturated fatty acids by laccase-catalyzed oxidative cleavage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Michiki; Kishino, Shigenobu; Park, Si-Bum; Kitamura, Nahoko; Watanabe, Hiroko; Saika, Azusa; Hibi, Makoto; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Ogawa, Jun

    2016-06-27

    The establishment of renewable biofuel and chemical production is desirable because of global warming and the exhaustion of petroleum reserves. Sebacic acid (decanedioic acid), the material of 6,10-nylon, is produced from ricinoleic acid, a carbon-neutral material, but the process is not eco-friendly because of its energy requirements. Laccase-catalyzing oxidative cleavage of fatty acid was applied to the production of dicarboxylic acids using hydroxy and oxo fatty acids involved in the saturation metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids in Lactobacillus plantarum as substrates. Hydroxy or oxo fatty acids with a functional group near the carbon-carbon double bond were cleaved at the carbon-carbon double bond, hydroxy group, or carbonyl group by laccase and transformed into dicarboxylic acids. After 8 h, 0.58 mM of sebacic acid was produced from 1.6 mM of 10-oxo-cis-12,cis-15-octadecadienoic acid (αKetoA) with a conversion rate of 35% (mol/mol). This laccase-catalyzed enzymatic process is a promising method to produce dicarboxylic acids from biomass-derived fatty acids.

  14. The brown adipocyte protein CIDEA promotes lipid droplet fusion via a phosphatidic acid-binding amphipathic helix

    PubMed Central

    Barneda, David; Planas-Iglesias, Joan; Gaspar, Maria L; Mohammadyani, Dariush; Prasannan, Sunil; Dormann, Dirk; Han, Gil-Soo; Jesch, Stephen A; Carman, George M; Kagan, Valerian; Parker, Malcolm G; Ktistakis, Nicholas T; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Dixon, Ann M; Henry, Susan A; Christian, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of energy homeostasis depends on the highly regulated storage and release of triacylglycerol primarily in adipose tissue, and excessive storage is a feature of common metabolic disorders. CIDEA is a lipid droplet (LD)-protein enriched in brown adipocytes promoting the enlargement of LDs, which are dynamic, ubiquitous organelles specialized for storing neutral lipids. We demonstrate an essential role in this process for an amphipathic helix in CIDEA, which facilitates embedding in the LD phospholipid monolayer and binds phosphatidic acid (PA). LD pairs are docked by CIDEA trans-complexes through contributions of the N-terminal domain and a C-terminal dimerization region. These complexes, enriched at the LD–LD contact site, interact with the cone-shaped phospholipid PA and likely increase phospholipid barrier permeability, promoting LD fusion by transference of lipids. This physiological process is essential in adipocyte differentiation as well as serving to facilitate the tight coupling of lipolysis and lipogenesis in activated brown fat. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07485.001 PMID:26609809

  15. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Howard-Williams, J; Patel, P; Jelfs, R; Carter, R D; Awdry, P; Bron, A; Mann, J I; Hockaday, T D

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and forty nine diabetic patients were ophthalmologically assessed seven years after randomisation to a low carbohydrate or modified fat diet (rich in linoleic acid). Glycaemic control, regardless of the type of diet, was a major determinant of the development of retinopathy. Poorly controlled patients (haemoglobin A1c greater than 8%) with low levels of linoleic acid in cholesterol ester had a significantly greater frequency of retinopathy than well controlled patients or patients with similarly unsatisfactory control but higher levels of linoleic acid. The findings support an earlier suggestion that linoleic acid might protect against diabetic retinopathy. PMID:3965024

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids: proven benefit or just a "fish story"?

    PubMed

    Martin, Caren McHenry

    2008-03-01

    The potential health benefit of omega-3 fatty acids has been the focus of much research in the past decade. While the typical diet in the United States has a much greater ratio of omega-6 fatty acids compared with omega-3 fatty acids, research is showing that shifting this ratio-by increased consumption of fatty fish or fish oil supplements-may provide significant health benefits. Reductions in cardiovascular risk, depression, and rheumatoid arthritis symptoms have been correlated with omega-3 fatty acid intake, and there is increased interest in the use of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for other psychiatric illnesses and prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids for breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-05-04

    Women with evidence of high intake ratios of the marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those with low ratios in some but not all case-control and cohort studies. If increasing EPA and DHA relative to arachidonic acid is effective in reducing breast cancer risk, likely mechanisms include reduction in proinflammatory lipid derivatives, inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-induced cytokine production, and decreased growth factor receptor signaling as a result of alteration in membrane lipid rafts. Primary prevention trials with either risk biomarkers or cancer incidence as endpoints are underway but final results of these trials are currently unavailable. EPA and DHA supplementation is also being explored in an effort to help prevent or alleviate common problems after a breast cancer diagnosis, including cardiac and cognitive dysfunction and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The insulin-sensitizing and anabolic properties of EPA and DHA also suggest supplementation studies to determine whether these omega-3 fatty acids might reduce chemotherapy-associated loss of muscle mass and weight gain. We will briefly review relevant omega-3 fatty acid metabolism, and early investigations in breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

  18. Differential regulation of placental amino acid transport by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lager, Susanne; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2014-10-15

    Fatty acids are critical for normal fetal development but may also influence placental function. We have previously reported that oleic acid (OA) stimulates amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts (PHTs). In other tissues, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids have distinct effects on cellular signaling, for instance, palmitic acid (PA) but not OA reduces IκBα expression. We hypothesized that saturated and unsaturated fatty acids differentially affect trophoblast amino acid transport and cellular signaling. To test this hypothesis, PHTs were cultured in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 50 μM), OA (100 μM), or PA (100 μM). DHA and OA were also combined to test whether DHA could counteract the OA stimulatory effect on amino acid transport. The effects of fatty acids were compared against a vehicle control. Amino acid transport was measured by isotope-labeled tracers. Activation of inflammatory-related signaling pathways and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway were determined by Western blot analysis. Exposure of PHTs to DHA for 24 h reduced amino acid transport and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, STAT3, mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and ribosomal protein (rp)S6. In contrast, OA increased amino acid transport and phosphorylation of ERK, mTOR, S6 kinase 1, and rpS6. The combination of DHA with OA increased amino acid transport and rpS6 phosphorylation. PA did not affect amino acid transport but reduced IκBα expression. In conclusion, these fatty acids differentially regulated placental amino acid transport and cellular signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that dietary fatty acids could alter the intrauterine environment by modifying placental function, thereby having long-lasting effects on the developing fetus.

  19. Unveiling of novel regio-selective fatty acid double bond hydratases from Lactobacillus acidophilus involved in the selective oxyfunctionalization of mono- and di-hydroxy fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Oh, Hye-Jin; Park, Chul-Soon; Hong, Seung-Hye; Park, Ji-Young; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is the first time demonstration of cis-12 regio-selective linoleate double-bond hydratase. Hydroxylation of fatty acids, abundant feedstock in nature, is an emerging alternative route for many petroleum replaceable products thorough hydroxy fatty acids, carboxylic acids, and lactones. However, chemical route for selective hydroxylation is still quite challenging owing to low selectivity and many environmental concerns. Hydroxylation of fatty acids by hydroxy fatty acid forming enzymes is an important route for selective biocatalytic oxyfunctionalization of fatty acids. Therefore, novel fatty acid hydroxylation enzymes should be discovered. The two hydratase genes of Lactobacillus acidophilus were identified by genomic analysis, and the expressed two recombinant hydratases were identified as cis-9 and cis-12 double-bond selective linoleate hydratases by in vitro functional validation, including the identification of products and the determination of regio-selectivity, substrate specificity, and kinetic parameters. The two different linoleate hydratases were the involved enzymes in the 10,13-dihydroxyoctadecanoic acid biosynthesis. Linoleate 13-hydratase (LHT-13) selectively converted 10 mM linoleic acid to 13S-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid with high titer (8.1 mM) and yield (81%). Our study will expand knowledge for microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes and facilitate the designed production of the regio-selective hydroxy fatty acids for useful chemicals from polyunsaturated fatty acid feedstocks.

  20. Fenretinide mediated retinoic acid receptor signalling and inhibition of ceramide biosynthesis regulates adipogenesis, lipid accumulation, mitochondrial function and nutrient stress signalling in adipocytes and adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mcilroy, George D.; Tammireddy, Seshu R.; Maskrey, Benjamin H.; Grant, Louise; Doherty, Mary K.; Watson, David G.; Delibegović, Mirela; Whitfield, Phillip D.; Mody, Nimesh

    2016-01-01

    Fenretinide (FEN) is a synthetic retinoid that inhibits obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and completely prevents 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) of FEN action in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in mice. We used the 3T3-L1 model of adipogenesis, fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and adipose tissue from HFD-induced obese mice to investigate the mechanisms of FEN action. We measured expression of adipogenic and retinoid genes by qPCR and activation of nutrient-signalling pathways by western blotting. Global lipid and metabolite analysis was performed and specific ceramide lipid species measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We provide direct evidence that FEN inhibits 3T3-L1 adipogenesis via RA-receptor (RAR)-dependent signaling. However, RARα antagonism did not prevent FEN-induced decreases in lipid levels in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting an RAR-independent mechanism. Lipidomics analysis revealed that FEN increased dihydroceramide lipid species 5- to 16-fold in adipocytes, indicating an inhibition of the final step of ceramide biosynthesis. A similar blockade in adipose tissue from FEN-treated obese mice was associated with a complete normalisation of impaired mitochondrial β-oxidation and tricarboxylic acid cycle flux. The FEN catabolite, 4-oxo-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-OXO), also decreased lipid accumulation without affecting adipogenesis. FEN and 4-OXO (but not RA) treatment additionally led to the activation of p38-MAPK, peIF2α and autophagy markers in adipocytes. Overall our data reveals FEN utilises both RAR-dependent and -independent pathways to regulate adipocyte biology, both of which may be required for FEN to prevent obesity and insulin resistance in vivo. PMID:26592777

  1. Modulation of atherosclerosis by N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reviewed literature regarding the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on risk factors for atherosclerosis in human subjects. Dietary intervention with long chain n-3 PUFA decreased some risk factor (s) for atherosclerosis in most human studies reviewed. These benefits resulted ...

  2. Radiolabeled dimethyl branched long chain fatty acid for heart imaging

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Goodman, Mark M.; Kirsch, Gilbert

    1988-08-16

    A radiolabeled long chain fatty acid for heart imaging that has dimethyl branching at one of the carbons of the chain which inhibits the extent to which oxidation can occur. The closer to the carboxyl the branching is positioned, the more limited the oxidation, thereby resulting in prolonged retention of the radiolabeled compound in the heart.

  3. Technetium radiodiagnostic fatty acids derived from bisamide bisthiol ligands

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Alun G.; Lister-James, John; Davison, Alan

    1988-05-24

    A bisamide-bisthiol ligand containing fatty acid substituted thiol useful for producing Tc-labelled radiodiagnostic imaging agents is described. The ligand forms a complex with the radionuclide .sup.99m Tc suitable for administration as a radiopharmaceutical to obtain images of the heart for diagnosis of myocardial disfunction.

  4. Biotechnology for improving hydroxy fatty acid production in lesquerella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    P Lesquerella [Physaria fendleri (A. Gray)], formerly Lesquerella fendleri, (Brassicaceae), being developed as a new industrial oilseed crop in the southwestern region of the United States, is valued for its unusual hydroxy fatty acid (HFA) in seed. The majority of HFA in lesquerella is lesquerolic...

  5. Trans fatty acids: has all the evidence been considered?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High intakes of industrially-produced trans fatty acids (iTFA) have been shown to increase circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, which has implicated iTFA in coronary heart disease risk (CHD). Partially hydrogenated oils (PHO) became a predominant source of iTFA when marga...

  6. Urinary intestinal fatty acid binding protein predicts necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Katherine E; Winston, Abigail B; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Dawood, Hassan Y; Fashemi, Titilayo; Fichorova, Raina N; Van Marter, Linda J

    2014-06-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis, characterized by sudden onset and rapid progression, remains the most significant gastrointestinal disorder among premature infants. In seeking a predictive biomarker, we found intestinal fatty acid binding protein, an indicator of enterocyte damage, was substantially increased within three and seven days before the diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis.