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Sample records for adipokinetic hormone akh

  1. Energy Homeostasis Control in Drosophila Adipokinetic Hormone Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Gáliková, Martina; Diesner, Max; Klepsatel, Peter; Hehlert, Philip; Xu, Yanjun; Bickmeyer, Iris; Predel, Reinhard; Kühnlein, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of biological functions under negative energy balance depends on mobilization of storage lipids and carbohydrates in animals. In mammals, glucagon and glucocorticoid signaling mobilizes energy reserves, whereas adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) play a homologous role in insects. Numerous studies based on AKH injections and correlative studies in a broad range of insect species established the view that AKH acts as master regulator of energy mobilization during development, reproduction, and stress. In contrast to AKH, the second peptide, which is processed from the Akh encoded prohormone [termed “adipokinetic hormone precursor-related peptide” (APRP)] is functionally orphan. APRP is discussed as ecdysiotropic hormone or as scaffold peptide during AKH prohormone processing. However, as in the case of AKH, final evidence for APRP functions requires genetic mutant analysis. Here we employed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering to create AKH and AKH plus APRP-specific mutants in the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Lack of APRP did not affect any of the tested steroid-dependent processes. Similarly, Drosophila AKH signaling is dispensable for ontogenesis, locomotion, oogenesis, and homeostasis of lipid or carbohydrate storage until up to the end of metamorphosis. During adulthood, however, AKH regulates body fat content and the hemolymph sugar level as well as nutritional and oxidative stress responses. Finally, we provide evidence for a negative autoregulatory loop in Akh gene regulation. PMID:26275422

  2. The adipokinetic hormone of Mantodea in comparison to other Dictyoptera.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Marco, Heather G

    2017-03-01

    Six species of the order Mantodea (praying mantises) are investigated for the presence and sequence of putative adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). The selected species span a wide evolutionary range of various families and subfamilies of the clade Mantodea. The corpora cardiaca of the different species are dissected, methanolic extracts prepared, peptides separated by liquid chromatography, and AKHs detected and sequenced by ion trap mass spectrometry. All six species investigated contain an octapeptide with the primary structure pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide, which is code-named Emppe-AKH and had been found earlier in three other species of Mantodea. Conspecific bioassays with the species Creoboter sp. (family Hymenopodidae) reveal an adipokinetic but not a hypertrehalosemic function of Emppe-AKH. Comparison with other members of the Dictyoptera (cockroaches, termites) show that Emppe-AKH is only found in certain termites, which have been recently placed into the Blattaria (cockroaches) as sister group to the family Cryptocercidae. Termites and cockroaches both show biodiversity in the sequence of AKHs, and some cockroach species even contain two AKHs. In contrast, all praying mantises-irrespective of their phylogenetic position-synthesize uniformly only one and the same octapeptide Emppe-AKH.

  3. The adipokinetic hormone family in Chrysomeloidea: structural and functional considerations *

    PubMed Central

    Gäde, Gerd; Marco, Heather G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The presented work is a hybrid of an overview and an original research paper on peptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family that are present in the corpora cardiaca of Chrysomeloidea. First, we introduce the AKH/red pigment-concentrating hormone (RPCH) peptide family. Second, we collate the available primary sequence data on AKH peptides in Cerambycidae and Chrysomelidae, and we present new sequencing data (from previously unstudied species) obtained by liquid-chromatography coupled with ion trap electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Our expanded data set encompasses the primary structure of AKHs from seven species of Cerambycidae and three species of Chrysomelidae. All of these species synthesise the octapeptide code-named Peram-CAH-I (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). Whereas this is the sole AKH peptide in Cerambycidae, Chrysomelidae demonstrate a probable event of AKH gene duplication, thereby giving rise to an additional AKH. This second AKH peptide may be either Emppe-AKH (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide) or Peram-CAH-II (pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). The peptide distribution and structural data suggest that both families are closely related and that Peram-CAH-I is the ancestral peptide. We hypothesise on the molecular evolution of Emppe-AKH and Peram-CAH-II from the ancestral peptide due to nonsynonymous missense single nucleotide polymorphism in the nucleotide coding sequence of prepro-AKH. Finally, we review the biological significance of the AKH peptides as hyperprolinaemic hormones in Chrysomeloidea, i.e. they cause an increase in the circulating concentration of proline. The mobilisation of proline has been demonstrated during flight in both cerambycid and chrysomelid beetles. PMID:22303105

  4. Effects of Acute Administration of Adipokinetic Hormone on Depression, Anxiety, Pain, Locomotion and Memory in Mice.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Oguz; Ulak, Guner; Akar, Furuzan; Erden, Faruk; Celikyurt, Ipek Komsuoglu; Bektas, Emine; Tanyeri, Pelin; Kaya, Havva

    2017-04-30

    The neurosecretory cells in the corpus cardiacum of insects synthesize a set of hormones that are called adipokinetic, hypertrehalosemic or hyperprolinemic depending on the insect in question. They are the Adipokinetic Hormone/Red Pigment-Concentrating Hormone (AKH/RPCH) family of peptides. The present study investigated the effects of acute administration of Locusta Migratoria (Locmi-AKHII) and Anax Imperator (Anaim-AKH) on depression, anxiety, pain (analgesy), locomotion and memory in mice in forced swimming (FST), elevated plus maze (EPM), hot plate, locomotor activity and passive avoidance tests. Both Locmi-AKH-II (4 mg/kg) and Anaim-AKH (0.25 and 0.50 mg/kg) decreased immobility time (in sec, s) in the FST test. Anaim-AKH (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) increased the percentage of time spent in open arms/total time spent and the percentage of the number of open arm/total arm entries in the EPM test. Anaim-AKH (1 and 2 mg/kg) significantly increased latency (s) (initial time passed) for mice to lick their hind paws or jumping in the hot plate test. Anaim-AKH (4 mg/kg) significantly decreased the total distance (cm) moved, or the speed (cm/s) of movement of the animals in the locomotor activity test. Neither Locmi-AKH-II nor Anaim-AKH altered the retention latency (s) in the passive avoidance test. Both Locmi-AKH-II and Anaim-AKH exerted antidepressant effects, while only Anaim-AKH had anxiolytic and analgesic effects when administered acutely. Anaim-AKH diminished locomotion at higher doses while Locmi-AKH-II had no such effects. Neither Locmi-AKH-II nor Anaim-AKH disturbed learning and memory when acutely administered. Data of our studies suggest clinical potentials of AKH to be used in depression, anxiety and pain without disturbing memory.

  5. Adipokinetic hormones concentrations in the haemolymph of Schistocerca gregaria, measured by radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Candy, D J

    2002-11-01

    A new procedure for the measurement of adipokinetic hormone (AKH) concentrations in locust (Schistocerca gregaria) haemolymph is described: Haemolymph is extracted with chloroform/methanol/water and the aqueous layer is fractionated with reverse-phase cartridges and HPLC. The fractions corresponding to AKH-I (Lom-AKH-I) and AKH-II (Scg-AKH-II) are then measured in a competitive binding assay using specific antibodies and [3H]AKHs. The procedures could be applied to any peptides containing N-terminal pyroglutamate residues including all members of the adipokinetic/hyperglycaemic/red pigment concentrating hormone family. Results show that the concentrations of both AKH-I and AKH-II increase within 5 min of initiation of flight and are maintained at approx. 15-fold (AKH-I) and 6-fold (AKH-II) the resting levels over flights of at least 60 min. Poisoning of locusts with either the insecticide deltamethrin or with potassium chloride also caused release of hormones. Starvation for 6 h caused elevation of hormone levels in 5th instar nymphs, but starvation for 6 or 20 h had little effect on hormones in adults, despite an increase in haemolymph diacylglycerols at 20 h.

  6. Structure-activity relationship of adipokinetic hormone analogs in the striped hawk moth, Hippotion eson.

    PubMed

    Marco, Heather G; Gäde, Gerd

    2015-06-01

    We showed previously that the sphingid moth Hippotion eson synthesizes the highest number of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) ever recorded, viz. five, in its corpus cardiacum: two octa-, two nona- and one decapeptide. Further, the endogenous decapeptide (Manse-AKH-II) and the other four AKHs are all active in lipid mobilization, whereas a non-lepidopteran decapeptide (Lacsp-AKH, five amino acid substitutions compared with Manse-AKH-II), was inactive in H. eson. We tested the decapeptide, Lacol-AKH, from a noctuid moth for the first time in a bioassay and it shows a maximal AKH effect in H. eson. Lacol-AKH differs from Manse-AKH-II in three places and from Lacsp-AKH in four places. We, thus, used Lacol-AKH as a lead peptide on which a series of AKH analogs are based to represent: (a) single amino acid replacements (according to the substitutions in Lacsp-AKH), (b) shorter chain lengths, (c) modified termini, and (d) a replacement of Trp in position 8. These analogs, as well as a few naturally occurring AKHs from other lepidopterans were tested in in vivo adipokinetic assays to gain insight into the ligand-receptor interaction in H. eson. Our results show that the second and third amino acids are important for biological activity in the sphingid moth. Analogs with an N-[acetylated]Glu(1) (instead of a pyroGlu), or a free C-terminus, or Ala(8) were not active in the bioassays, while shortened Lacol-AKH analogs and the undecapeptide, non-amidated Vanca-AKH showed very reduced activity (below 25%). This information is important for the consideration of peptide mimetics to combat specific lepidopteran pest insects.

  7. The revolution in insect neuropeptides illustrated by the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family of peptides.

    PubMed

    Gäde, G

    1996-01-01

    The last decade has seen a surge in the knowledge on primary structures of insect neuropeptides. Particularly successful were isolations and sequence determinations of more than 30 members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone (AKH/RPCH) family of peptides. This brief overview describes the techniques used to obtain data on purification and structure such as high performance liquid chromatography, Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry. Moreover, a short account on the precursors and on the multiple functions of the peptides of the AKH/RPCH family in various crustacean and insect species is given.

  8. Localization and functional characterization of a novel adipokinetic hormone in the mollusk, Aplysia californica.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joshua I; Kavanaugh, Scott I; Nguyen, Cindy; Tsai, Pei-San

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), corazonin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), and red pigment-concentrating hormone all share common ancestry to form a GnRH superfamily. Despite the wide presence of these peptides in protostomes, their biological effects remain poorly characterized in many taxa. This study had three goals. First, we cloned the full-length sequence of a novel AKH, termed Aplysia-AKH, and examined its distribution in an opisthobranch mollusk, Aplysia californica. Second, we investigated in vivo biological effects of Aplysia-AKH. Lastly, we compared the effects of Aplysia-AKH to a related A. californica peptide, Aplysia-GnRH. Results suggest that Aplysia-AKH mRNA and peptide are localized exclusively in central tissues, with abdominal, cerebral, and pleural ganglia being the primary sites of Aplysia-AKH production. However, Aplysia-AKH-positive fibers were found in all central ganglia, suggesting diverse neuromodulatory roles. Injections of A. californica with Aplysia-AKH significantly inhibited feeding, reduced body mass, increased excretion of feces, and reduced gonadal mass and oocyte diameter. The in vivo effects of Aplysia-AKH differed substantially from Aplysia-GnRH. Overall, the distribution and biological effects of Aplysia-AKH suggest it has diverged functionally from Aplysia-GnRH over the course of evolution. Further, that both Aplysia-AKH and Aplysia-GnRH failed to activate reproduction suggest the critical role of GnRH as a reproductive activator may be a phenomenon unique to vertebrates.

  9. Identification and Functional Characterization of Two Orphan G-protein-coupled Receptors for Adipokinetic Hormones from Silkworm Bombyx mori*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ying; Huang, Haishan; Deng, Xiaoyan; He, Xiaobai; Yang, Jingwen; Yang, Huipeng; Shi, Liangen; Mei, Lijuan; Gao, Jimin; Zhou, Naiming

    2011-01-01

    Adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) are the best studied insect neuropeptides with the function of mobilizing lipids and carbohydrates during energy-expensive activities and modulating fundamental physiological processes, such as sugar homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and reproduction. Three distinct cDNAs encoding the prepro-Bombyx AKH1–3 have been cloned and confirmed by mass spectrometric methods. Our previous research suggested the Bombyx AKH receptor is activated by AKH1 and AKH2 with high affinity but by AKH3 with quite low affinity. In this study, using stable functional expression of the receptors in HEK293 cells, we have now identified AKH3 as a specific ligand for two orphan G-protein-coupled receptors, and we therefore named them AKHR2a and AKHR2b, respectively. We demonstrated that both AKHR2a and AKHR2b were activated by AKH3 at high affinity and by AKH1 and AKH2 at low affinity, leading to an increase of intracellular cAMP levels and activation of ERK1/2 and receptor internalization, but they were not activated by Bombyx corazonin. Conversely, the Bombyx corazonin receptor was activated by corazonin but not by AKH1–3. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that AKHR2a and AKHR2b were both highly expressed in the testis but were also detected at low levels in other tissues. These results will lead to a better understanding of the AKH/AKHR system in the regulation of fundamental physiological processes. PMID:22009754

  10. Novel members of the adipokinetic hormone family in beetles of the superfamily Scarabaeoidea.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Šimek, Petr; Marco, Heather G

    2016-12-01

    Eight beetle species of the superfamily Scarabaeoidea were investigated with respect to peptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family in their neurohemal organs, the corpora cardiaca (CC). The following beetle families are represented: Scarabaeidae, Lucanidae, and Geotrupidae. AKH peptides were identified through a heterospecific trehalose-mobilizing bioassay and by sequence analyses, using liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and analysis of the tandem MS(2) spectra obtained by collision-induced dissociation. All the beetle species have octapeptide AKHs; some have two AKHs, while others have only one. Novel AKH members were found in Euoniticellus intermedius and Circellium bacchus (family Scarabaeidae), as well as in Dorcus parallelipipedus (family Lucanidae). Two species of the family Geotrupidae and two species of the Scarabaeidae subfamily Cetoniinae contain one known AKH peptide, Melme-CC, while E. intermedius produces a novel peptide code named Euoin-AKH: pEINFTTGWamide. Two AKH peptides were each identified in CC of C. bacchus and D. parallelipipedus: the novel Cirba-AKH: pEFNFSAGWamide and the known peptide, Scade-CC-I in the former, and the novel Dorpa-AKH: pEVNYSPVW amide and the known peptide, Melme-CC in the latter. Kheper bonelli (subfamily Scarabaeinae) also has two AKHs, the known Scade-CC-I and Scade-CC-II. All the novel peptides were synthesized and the amino acid sequence assignments were unequivocally confirmed by co-elution of the synthetic peptides with their natural equivalent, and identical MS parameters of the two forms. The novel synthetic peptides are all active in inducing hypertrehalosemia in cockroaches.

  11. Adipokinetic hormones and their G protein-coupled receptors emerged in Lophotrochozoa

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shizhong; Hauser, Frank; Skadborg, Signe K.; Nielsen, Stine V.; Kirketerp-Møller, Nikolaj; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Most multicellular animals belong to two evolutionary lineages, the Proto– and Deuterostomia, which diverged 640–760 million years (MYR) ago. Neuropeptide signaling is abundant in animals belonging to both lineages, but it is often unclear whether there exist evolutionary relationships between the neuropeptide systems used by proto- or deuterostomes. An exception, however, are members of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor superfamily, which occur in both evolutionary lineages, where GnRHs are the ligands in Deuterostomia and GnRH-like peptides, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), corazonin, and AKH/corazonin-related peptide (ACP) are the ligands in Protostomia. AKH is a well-studied insect neuropeptide that mobilizes lipids and carbohydrates from the insect fat body during flight. In our present paper, we show that AKH is not only widespread in insects, but also in other Ecdysozoa and in Lophotrochozoa. Furthermore, we have cloned and deorphanized two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) from the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca) that are activated by low nanomolar concentrations of oyster AKH (pQVSFSTNWGSamide). Our discovery of functional AKH receptors in molluscs is especially significant, because it traces the emergence of AKH signaling back to about 550 MYR ago and brings us closer to a more complete understanding of the evolutionary origins of the GnRH receptor superfamily. PMID:27628442

  12. Adipokinetic hormone induces changes in the fat body lipid composition of the beetle Zophobas atratus.

    PubMed

    Gołębiowski, Marek; Cerkowniak, Magdalena; Urbanek, Aleksandra; Słocińska, Małgorzata; Rosiński, Grzegorz; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2014-08-01

    In insects, neuropeptide adipokinetic hormone (AKH) released from the corpora cardiaca mobilizes lipids and carbohydrates in the fat body. We examined the developmental differences in the action of Tenmo-AKH, a bioanalogue belonging to the adipokinetic/hypertrahelosemic family (AKH/HrTH), on the lipid composition of larval and pupal fat bodies in the beetle Zophobas atratus. Tenmo-AKH was administered to the beetle larvae and pupae either as a single dose or as two doses of 20 pmol during a 24h interval. Extracts of fat bodies were used to analyse the lipid composition by gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Control extracts were analyzed using the same method. Fatty acids (FA) and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were the most abundant compounds in the fat bodies from both developmental stages. We observed significant differences in their concentrations following hormonal treatment. Tenmo-AKH also induced a distinct increase in larval sterols, fatty alcohols and benzoic acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hemolymph sugar homeostasis and starvation-induced hyperactivity affected by genetic manipulations of the adipokinetic hormone-encoding gene in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyunghee; Park, Jae H

    2004-01-01

    Adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) are metabolic neuropeptides, mediating mobilization of energy substrates from the fat body in many insects. In delving into the roles of the Drosophila Akh (dAkh) gene, its developmental expression patterns were examined and the physiological functions of the AKH-producing neurons were investigated using animals devoid of AKH neurons and ones with ectopically expressing dAkh. The dAkh gene is expressed exclusively in the corpora cardiaca from late embryos to adult stages. Projections emanating from the AKH neurons indicated that AKH has multiple target tissues as follows: the prothoracic gland and aorta in the larva and the crop and brain in the adult. Studies using transgenic manipulations of the dAkh gene demonstrated that AKH induced both hypertrehalosemia and hyperlipemia. Starved wild-type flies displayed prolonged hyperactivity prior to death; this novel behavioral pattern could be associated with food-searching activities in response to starvation. In contrast, flies devoid of AKH neurons not only lacked this type of hyperactivity, but also displayed strong resistance to starvation-induced death. From these findings, we propose another role for AKH in the regulation of starvation-induced foraging behavior. PMID:15166157

  14. The adipokinetic hormones of Odonata: a phylogenetic approach.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Marco, Heather G

    2005-03-01

    Adipokinetic neuropeptides from the corpora cardiaca of the major families of all three suborders of the Odonata were identified by one or more of the following methods: (1) Isolation of the peptides from a methanolic extract of the corpora cardiaca by liquid chromatography, peak monitoring by fluorescence of the Trp residue and comparison of the retention time with those of known synthetic peptides of Odonata. (2) Hyperlipaemic bioassays of the HPLC-generated fractions either in Locusta migratoria or, in a few cases, in Anax imperator or Orthetrum julia. (3) Sequencing of the isolated, bioactive HPLAC fraction by Edman degradation. (4) Mass spectrometric measurement of the isolated, bioactive fraction. Sequence assignment revealed that the investigated Odonata species always contain only one adipokinetic peptide. This is always an octapeptide. The suborder Zygoptera contains the peptide code-named Psein-AKH, the Anisozygoptera and the families Aeshnidae, Cordulegastridae and Macromiidae of the Anisoptera contain Anaim-AKH, whereas Gomphidae, Corduliidae (with the exception of Syncordulia gracilis) and Libellulidae contain Libau-AKH; one species of Libellulidae has Erysi-AKH, a very conservative modification of Libau-AKH (one point mutation). When these structural data are interpreted in conjunction with existing phylogenies of Odonata, they support the following: (1) Zygoptera are monophyletic and not paraphyletic. (2) Anisozygoptera and Anisoptera are sister groups and contain the ancestral Anaim-AKH which is independently and convergently mutated to Libau-AKH in Gomphidae and Libellulidae. (3) The Corduliidae are of special interest. Only Corduliidae sensu stricto appear to contain Libau-AKH, other species placed into this family by most authorities contain the ancestral Anaim-AKH. Possibly, assignments of AKHs can untangle the paraphyly of this family.

  15. Discovery of a novel insect neuropeptide signaling system closely related to the insect adipokinetic hormone and corazonin hormonal systems.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Karina K; Stafflinger, Elisabeth; Schneider, Martina; Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael; Kollmann, Martin; Schachtner, Joachim; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2010-04-02

    Neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a central role in the physiology of insects. One large family of insect neuropeptides are the adipokinetic hormones (AKHs), which mobilize lipids and carbohydrates from the insect fat body. Other peptides are the corazonins that are structurally related to the AKHs but represent a different neuropeptide signaling system. We have previously cloned an orphan GPCR from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that was structurally intermediate between the A. gambiae AKH and corazonin GPCRs. Using functional expression of the receptor in cells in cell culture, we have now identified the ligand for this orphan receptor as being pQVTFSRDWNAamide, a neuropeptide that is structurally intermediate between AKH and corazonin and that we therefore named ACP (AKH/corazonin-related peptide). ACP does not activate the A. gambiae AKH and corazonin receptors and, vice versa, AKH and corazonin do not activate the ACP receptor, showing that the ACP/receptor couple is an independent and so far unknown peptidergic signaling system. Because ACP is structurally intermediate between AKH and corazonin and the ACP receptor between the AKH and corazonin receptors, this is a prominent example of receptor/ligand co-evolution, probably originating from receptor and ligand gene duplications followed by mutations and evolutionary selection, thereby yielding three independent hormonal systems. The ACP signaling system occurs in the mosquitoes A. gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens (Diptera), the silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera), and the bug Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera). However, the ACP system is not present in 12 Drosophila species (Diptera), the honeybee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera), the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera), the body louse Pediculus humanus (Phthiraptera), and the crustacean Daphnia pulex

  16. Discovery of a Novel Insect Neuropeptide Signaling System Closely Related to the Insect Adipokinetic Hormone and Corazonin Hormonal Systems*

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Karina K.; Stafflinger, Elisabeth; Schneider, Martina; Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael; Kollmann, Martin; Schachtner, Joachim; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a central role in the physiology of insects. One large family of insect neuropeptides are the adipokinetic hormones (AKHs), which mobilize lipids and carbohydrates from the insect fat body. Other peptides are the corazonins that are structurally related to the AKHs but represent a different neuropeptide signaling system. We have previously cloned an orphan GPCR from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that was structurally intermediate between the A. gambiae AKH and corazonin GPCRs. Using functional expression of the receptor in cells in cell culture, we have now identified the ligand for this orphan receptor as being pQVTFSRDWNAamide, a neuropeptide that is structurally intermediate between AKH and corazonin and that we therefore named ACP (AKH/corazonin-related peptide). ACP does not activate the A. gambiae AKH and corazonin receptors and, vice versa, AKH and corazonin do not activate the ACP receptor, showing that the ACP/receptor couple is an independent and so far unknown peptidergic signaling system. Because ACP is structurally intermediate between AKH and corazonin and the ACP receptor between the AKH and corazonin receptors, this is a prominent example of receptor/ligand co-evolution, probably originating from receptor and ligand gene duplications followed by mutations and evolutionary selection, thereby yielding three independent hormonal systems. The ACP signaling system occurs in the mosquitoes A. gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens (Diptera), the silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera), and the bug Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera). However, the ACP system is not present in 12 Drosophila species (Diptera), the honeybee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera), the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera), the body louse Pediculus humanus (Phthiraptera), and the crustacean Daphnia pulex

  17. Role of adipokinetic hormone and adenosine in the anti-stress response in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Zemanová, Milada; Stašková, Tereza; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2016-01-01

    The role of adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and adenosine in the anti-stress response was studied in Drosophila melanogaster larvae and adults carrying a mutation in the Akh gene (Akh(1)), the adenosine receptor gene (AdoR(1)), or in both of these genes (Akh(1) AdoR(1) double mutant). Stress was induced by starvation or by the addition of an oxidative stressor paraquat (PQ) to food. Mortality tests revealed that the Akh(1) mutant was the most resistant to starvation, while the AdoR(1) mutant was the most sensitive. Conversely, the Akh(1) AdoR(1) double mutant was more sensitive to PQ toxicity than either of the single mutants. Administration of PQ significantly increased the Drome-AKH level in w(1118) and AdoR(1) larvae; however, this was not accompanied by a simultaneous increase in Akh gene expression. In contrast, PQ significantly increased the expression of the glutathione S-transferase D1 (GstD1) gene. The presence of both a functional adenosine receptor and AKH seem to be important for the proper control of GstD1 gene expression under oxidative stress, however, the latter appears to play more dominant role. On the other hand, differences in glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity among the strains, and between untreated and PQ-treated groups were minimal. In addition, the glutathione level was significantly lower in all untreated AKH- or AdoR-deficient mutant flies as compared with the untreated control w(1118) flies and further declined following treatment with PQ. All oxidative stress characteristics modified by mutations in Akh gene were restored or even improved by 'rescue' mutation in flies which ectopically express Akh. Thus, the results of the present study demonstrate the important roles of AKH and adenosine in the anti-stress response elicited by PQ in a D. melanogaster model, and provide the first evidence for the involvement of adenosine in the anti-oxidative stress response in insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adipokinetic hormones provide inference for the phylogeny of odonata.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Simek, Petr; Fescemyer, Howard W

    2011-01-01

    Adipokinetic neuropeptides from the corpora cardiaca of 17 species of Odonata encompassing mainly the families Corduliidae and Libellulidae were isolated and structurally elucidated using liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. It became evident that all species of the family Corduliidae studied express the peptide code-named Libau-AKH (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Ser-Trp amide), which is also present in all but one libellulid species, Erythemis simplicicollis which expresses Erysi-AKH (pGlu-Leu-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Ser-Trp amide). This divergence from all other Libellulids is due to a nonsynonymous missense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the nucleotide coding sequence (CDS) of prepro-AKH CDS and supports the polyphyletic nature of Sympetrinae and other subfamilies of libellulids. Despite this exception, these findings then support the hypothesis that Corduliidae and Libellulidae are closely related as stated in most phylogenies. The presence of Anaim-AKH (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Ser-Trp amide) in Macromiidae likely distinguishes species in this family from Corduliidae. Current molecular genetic phylogenies and our AKH findings suggest that Syncordulia gracilis, which expresses Anaim-AKH, does not belong in Corduliidae. Evolution of AKHs in anisopteran Odonata are likely due to nucleotide substitution involving nonsynonymous missense SNPs in the CDS of prepro-AKH. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adipokinetic hormone signaling through the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor modulates egg-laying in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Lindemans, Marleen; Liu, Feng; Janssen, Tom; Husson, Steven J.; Mertens, Inge; Gäde, Gerd; Schoofs, Liliane

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a neuropeptide that stimulates the release of gonadotropins from the anterior pituitary. The existence of a putative functional equivalent of this reproduction axis in protostomian invertebrates has been a matter of debate. In this study, the ligand for the GnRH receptor in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce-GnRHR) was found using a bioinformatics approach. The peptide and its precursor are reminiscent of both insect adipokinetic hormones and GnRH-preprohormone precursors from tunicates and higher vertebrates. We cloned the AKH-GnRH-like preprohormone and the Ce-GnRHR and expressed the GPCR in HEK293T cells. The GnRHR was activated by the C. elegans AKH-GnRH-like peptide (EC50 = 150 nM) and by Drosophila AKH and other nematode AKH-GnRHs that we found in EST databases. Analogous to both insect AKH receptor and vertebrate GnRH receptor signaling, Ce-AKH-GnRH activated its receptor through a Gαq protein with Ca2+ as a second messenger. Gene silencing of Ce-GnRHR, Ce-AKH-GnRH, or both resulted in a delay in the egg-laying process, comparable to a delay in puberty in mammals lacking a normal dose of GnRH peptide or with a mutated GnRH precursor or receptor gene. The present data support the view that the AKH-GnRH signaling system probably arose very early in metazoan evolution and that its role in reproduction might have been developed before the divergence of protostomians and deuterostomians. PMID:19164555

  20. Adipokinetic hormones of the two extant apterygotan insect orders, Archaeognatha and Zygentoma.

    PubMed

    Marco, Heather G; Šimek, Petr; Gäde, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Two extant apterygotan insect orders, Archaeognatha and Zygentoma, are investigated with respect to the identity of neuropeptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) peptide family; this is the first report on AKH peptide structures in the so-called primitive insects and the first of any peptide in the Archaeognatha. In the lepismatid, Thermobia domestica, and the machilid, Petrobius maritimus, a single AKH peptide is identified and sequenced from each species; neither sequence is novel and has previously been shown in corpora cardiaca (CC) of cockroaches (Peram-CAH-I) and dragonflies (Anaim-AKH), respectively. These octapeptides differ from each other only in one position (Asn(7) in the lepismatid and Ser(7) in the machilid). The biological relevance of these peptides was investigated and we speculate that they are likely involved in the mobilisation of lipids in the apterygotes. Immunocytochemistry with an antibody directed against an AKH revealed a well-developed pair of CC in T. domestica and another lepismatid, the fishmoth Ctenolepisma longicaudata; a cluster of immunopositive cells are located retrocerebrally in tissue sections of P. maritimus which may be the CC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Primary structure of two neuropeptide hormones with adipokinetic and hypotrehalosemic activity isolated from the corpora cardiaca of horse flies (Diptera).

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, H; Raina, A K; Riley, C T; Fraser, B A; Nachman, R J; Vogel, V W; Zhang, Y S; Hayes, D K

    1989-01-01

    The primary structures of two neuropeptides, Tabanus atratus adipokinetic hormone (Taa-AKH) and Tabanus atratus hypotrehalosemic hormone (Taa-HoTH), from the corpora cardiaca of horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) have been determined. Amino acid sequences of Taa-AKH (less than Glu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2) and Taa-HoTH (less than Glu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Gly-Trp-Gly-Tyr-NH2) (where less than Glu = pyroglutamic acid) were determined by automated gas-phase Edman degradation of the peptides deblocked by pyroglutamate aminopeptidase and by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The hormones were synthesized, and the natural and synthetic peptides exhibited identical chromatographic, spectroscopic, and biological properties. When assayed in adult face fly males, Taa-AKH and Taa-HoTH demonstrated hyperlipemic activity, in addition, Taa-HoTH also demonstrated a significant hypotrehalosemic activity. PMID:2813385

  2. UCP4 expression changes in larval and pupal fat bodies of the beetle Zophobas atratus under adipokinetic hormone treatment.

    PubMed

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Golebiowski, Marek; Kuczer, Mariola; Stepnowski, Piotr; Rosinski, Grzegorz; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the influence of adipokinetic hormone (AKH), an insect neurohormone, on uncoupling protein 4 (ZaUCP4) expression and activity in larval and pupal fat body mitochondria of the beetle Zophobas atratus in relation to intermediary metabolism. Homologous Tenmo-AKH was administered to the beetle larvae and pupae as either a single dose or as two doses of 20pmol during a 24h interval. In the larval and pupal fat bodies, downregulation of ZaUCP4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was observed 24h and 48h after AKH treatment, respectively. In both developmental stages, ZaUCP4 activity was lowered in fat body mitochondria 48h after AKH treatment. In the AKH-injected larvae, changes in ZaUCP4 expression were accompanied by the mobilization of carbohydrate reserves, no change in the concentration of total lipids and an increase in the free fatty acid level. In contrast, AKH had no effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the pupal fat body but induced lipid mobilization. It seems that AKH influences ZaUCP4 expression by triggering multiple events and that it has different physiological roles in controlling intermediary metabolism in the fat body of the beetle larvae and pupae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The adipokinetic hormones in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda: cDNA cloning, quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis, and gene specific localization.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Latief, Mohatmed; Hoffmann, Klaus H

    2007-10-01

    Small neuropeptides of the adipokinetic/red pigment-concentrating hormone (AKH/RPCH) family regulate energy metabolism in insects. Within lepidopterans, the nonapeptide Manduca sexta AKH (Manse-AKH) represents a widely occurring AKH, whereas the decapeptide Helze-HrTH (at first isolated from Helicoverpa zea) seems to be restricted to moths. Here we report the identification of the Manse-AKH-like Spofr-AKH 1 and the Helze-HrTH-like Spofr-AKH 2 prohormone precursors from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Moreover, by PCR screening of a random primer cDNA library and by RACE, three 668, 835 and 1008 bp cDNA sequences were obtained, which encode putative translation products of 67-74 amino acids, each containing one copy of a peptide sequence that in its processed form has the sequence of QLTFSSGW-amide (Spofr-AKH 3). Another cDNA sequence of 634 bp encodes a putative translation product of 40 amino acids, potentially leading to one copy of an elongated, non-amidated Helze-HrTH (pQLTFSSGWGNCTS-OH; Spofr-AKH 4). Q-RT-PCR analysis showed that the Spofr-AKH mRNAs are expressed in 2d-old female brain/corpora cardiaca complexes, but also in ovaries, midgut, fat body, accessory glands and muscle tissues. Expression was also found in the ovaries of 4d-old females. Whole-mount in situ RT-PCR analysis with ovaries from 2d-old females showed that the Spofr-AKH 2 and Spofr-AKH 4 were mainly localized in the germarium (phase 3), whereas the Spofr-AKH 1, and the three mRNA isoforms of Spofr-AKH 3 were localized at the end of the vitellarium and in the fully developed oocytes (phase 1 and 2). The results suggest that Spofr-AKH genes play a role in the regulation of oocyte maturation in S. frugiperda.

  4. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Adipokinetic Hormone Signaling Systems Share a Common Evolutionary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Lindemans, Marleen; Janssen, Tom; Beets, Isabel; Temmerman, Liesbet; Meelkop, Ellen; Schoofs, Liliane

    2011-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a critical and central hormone that regulates vertebrate reproduction. The high conservation of GnRH signaling within the chordates (deuterostomians) raises the important question as to whether its appearance might date back prior to the divergence of protostomian and deuterostomian lineages, about 700 million years ago. This leads to several important questions regarding the evolution of the GnRH family. Has GnRH been retained in most protostomian lineages? And was regulation of reproduction already a function of ancestral GnRH? The first question can undoubtedly be answered affirmatively since several GnRH-like sequences have been found in wide variety of protostomian and deuterostomian phyla. However, based on their different primary functions in different phyla – which implies a less unanimous answer on the second question – consistency in the nomenclature of this peptide family has been lost. A comparative and phylogenetic approach shows that the ecdysozoan adipokinetic hormones (AKHs), lophotrochozoan GnRHs and chordate GnRHs are structurally related and suggests that they all originate from a common ancestor. This review supports the view that the AKH–GnRH signaling system probably arose very early in metazoan evolution, prior to the divergence of protostomians and deuterostomians. PMID:22649364

  5. Two novel tyrosine-containing peptides (Tyr(4)) of the adipokinetic hormone family in beetles of the families Coccinellidae and Silphidae.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Šimek, Petr; Marco, Heather G

    2015-11-01

    Novel members of the adipokinetic hormone family of peptides have been identified from the corpora cardiaca (CC) of two species of beetles representing two families, the Silphidae and the Coccinellidae. A crude CC extract (0.3 gland equivalents) of the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, was active in mobilizing trehalose in a heterologous assay using the cockroach Periplaneta americana, whereas the CC extract (0.5 gland equivalents) of the ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis, exhibited no hypertrehalosemic activity. Primary sequences of one adipokinetic hormone from each species were elucidated by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The multiple MS(N) electrospray mass data revealed an octapeptide with an unusual tyrosine residue at position 4 for each species: pGlu-Leu-Thr-Tyr-Ser-Thr-Gly-Trp amide for N. vespilloides (code-named Nicve-AKH) and pGlu-Ile-Asn-Tyr-Ser-Thr-Gly-Trp amide for H. axyridis (code-named Harax-AKH). Assignment of the correct sequences was confirmed by synthesis of the peptides and co-elution in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection or by LC-MS. Moreover, synthetic peptides were shown to be active in the heterologous cockroach assay system, but Harax-AKH only at a dose of 30 pmol, which explains the negative result with the crude CC extract. It appears that the tyrosine residue at position 4 can be used as a diagnostic feature for certain beetle adipokinetic peptides, because this feature has not been found in another order other than Coleoptera.

  6. Is the titer of adipokinetic peptides in Leptinotarsa decemlineata fed on genetically modified potatoes increased by oxidative stress?

    PubMed

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Krishnan, Natraj; Habustová, Oxana

    2007-05-01

    The level of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) (Peram-CAH-I and II) in the corpora cardiaca and the hemolymph of Leptinotarsa decemlineata enormously increases in the adults fed on genetically modified potatoes containing either GNA lectin or Cry 3Aa toxin concomitant with increased oxidative stress in gut tissues. A similar enhancement of the AKH titer is achieved when the adults are injected with paraquat that evokes oxidative stress. On the other hand, an injection of exogenous AKH reduces oxidative stress biomarkers in the hemolymph by reducing protein carbonyls and enhancing reduced glutathione levels. These facts indicate that there is a feedback regulation between an oxidative stressor action and the level of AKH in the insect body, and that AKHs might be involved in the activation of an antioxidant protection mechanism. These results are to our knowledge, the first evidence for the involvement of AKHs in oxidative stress mitigation, in addition to a plethora of other roles.

  7. Unique roles of glucagon and glucagon-like peptides: Parallels in understanding the functions of adipokinetic hormones in stress responses in insects.

    PubMed

    Bednářová, Andrea; Kodrík, Dalibor; Krishnan, Natraj

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon is conventionally regarded as a hormone, counter regulatory in function to insulin and plays a critical anti-hypoglycemic role by maintaining glucose homeostasis in both animals and humans. Glucagon performs this function by increasing hepatic glucose output to the blood by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in response to starvation. Additionally it plays a homeostatic role by decreasing glycogenesis and glycolysis in tandem to try and maintain optimal glucose levels. To perform this action, it also increases energy expenditure which is contrary to what one would expect and has actions which are unique and not entirely in agreement with its role in protection from hypoglycemia. Interestingly, glucagon-like peptides (GLP-1 and GLP-2) from the major fragment of proglucagon (in non-mammalian vertebrates, as well as in mammals) may also modulate response to stress in addition to their other physiological actions. These unique modes of action occur in response to psychological, metabolic and other stress situations and mirror the role of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) in insects which perform a similar function. The findings on the anti-stress roles of glucagon and glucagon-like peptides in mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates may throw light on the multiple stress responsive mechanisms which operate in a concerted manner under regulation by AKH in insects thus functioning as a stress responsive hormone while also maintaining organismal homeostasis.

  8. Evolution of the AKH/corazonin/ACP/GnRH receptor superfamily and their ligands in the Protostomia.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Frank; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2014-12-01

    In this review we trace the evolutionary connections between GnRH receptors from vertebrates and the receptors for adipokinetic hormone (AKH), AKH/corazonin-related peptide (ACP), and corazonin from arthropods. We conclude that these G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are closely related and have a common evolutionary origin, which dates back to the split of Proto- and Deuterostomia, about 700 million years ago. We propose that in the protostomian lineage, the ancestral GnRH-like receptor gene duplicated as did its GnRH-like ligand gene, followed by diversification, leading to (i) a corazonin receptor gene and a corazonin-like ligand gene, and (ii) an AKH receptor gene and an AKH-like ligand gene in the Mollusca and Annelida. Subsequently, the AKH receptor and ligand genes duplicated once more, yielding the situation that we know from arthropods today, where three independent hormonal systems exist, signalling with AKH, ACP, and corazonin. Our model for the evolution of GnRH signaling in the Protostomia is a striking example of receptor-ligand co-evolution. This model has been developed using several bioinformatics tools (TBLASTN searches, phylogenetic tree analyses), which also helped us to annotate six novel AKH preprohormones and their corresponding AKH sequences from the following molluscs: the sea hare Aplysia californica (AKH sequence: pQIHFSPDWGTamide), the sea slug Tritonia diomedea (pQIHFSPGWEPamide), the fresh water snail Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (pQIHFTPGWGSamide), the owl limpet Lottia gigantea (pQIHFSPTWGSamide), the oyster Crassostrea gigas (pQVSFSTNWGSamide), and the freshwater pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii (pQISFSTNWGSamide). We also found AKHs in the tardigrade Hysibius dujardini (pQLSFTGWGHamide), the rotifer Brachionus calycifloros (pQLTFSSDWSGamide), and the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (pQIFFSKGWRGamide). This is the first report, showing that AKH signaling is widespread in molluscs.

  9. Adipokinetic hormone receptor gene identification and its role in triacylglycerol mobilization and sexual behavior in the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis).

    PubMed

    Hou, Qiu-Li; Chen, Er-Hu; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Wei, Dan-Dan; Gui, Shun-Hua; Wang, Jin-Jun; Smagghe, Guy

    2017-09-15

    Energy homeostasis requires continuous compensation for fluctuations in energy expenditure and availability of food resources. In insects, energy mobilization is under control of the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) where it is regulating the nutritional status by supporting the mobilization of lipids. In this study, we characterized the gene coding for the AKH receptor (AKHR) and investigated its function in the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) that is economically one of the most important pest insects of tropical and subtropical fruit. Bacdo-AKHR is a typical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that Bacdo-AKHR is closely related to insect AKHRs from other species. When expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, Bacdo-AKHR exhibited a high sensitivity and selectivity for AKH peptide (EC50 = 19.3 nM). Using qPCR, the developmental stage and tissue-specific expression profiles demonstrated that Bacdo-AKHR was highly expressed in both the larval and adult stages, and also specifically in the fat body and midgut of the adult with no difference in sex. To investigate the role of AKHR in B. dorsalis, RNAi assays were performed with dsRNA against Bacdo-AKHR in adult flies of both sexes and under starvation and feeding condition. As major results, the knockdown of this gene resulted in triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation. With RNAi-males, we observed a severe decrease in their sexual courtship activity when starved, but there was a partial rescue in copulation when refed. Also in RNAi-males, the tethered-flight duration declined compared with the control group when starved, which is confirming the dependency on energy metabolism. In RNAi-females, the sexual behavior was not affected, but their fecundity was decreased. Our findings indicate an interesting role of AKHR in the sexual behavior of males specifically. The effects are associated with TAG accumulation, and we also reported that the conserved role of AKH-mediated system

  10. Conformational study of insect adipokinetic hormones using NMR constrained molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Margie M.; Jackson, Graham E.; Gäde, Gerd

    2001-03-01

    Mem-CC (pGlu-Leu-Asn-Tyr-Ser-Pro-Asp-Trp-NH2), Tem-HrTH (pGlu-Leu-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp-NH2) and Del-CC (pGlu-Leu-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp-Gly-Asn-NH2) are adipokinetic hormones, isolated from the corpora cardiaca of different insect species. These hormones regulate energy metabolism during flight and so are intimately involved in an insect's mobility. Secondary structural elements of these peptides and the N7 analogue, [N7]-Mem-CC (pGlu-Leu-Asn-Tyr-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp-NH2), have been determined in dimethylsulfoxide solution using NMR restrained molecular mechanic simulations. The neuropeptides were all found to have an extended structure for the first 4 residues and a β-turn between residues 4-8. For Tem-HrTH and Del-CC, asparagine (N7) which is postulated to be involved in receptor binding and/or activation, projects outward form the β-turn. Mem-CC does not have an asparagine at position 7 while, for [N7]-Mem-CC, the N7 sidechain folds inside the β-turn preventing its interaction with the receptor.

  11. Hyperprolinaemia caused by novel members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family of peptides isolated from corpora cardiaca of onitine beetles.

    PubMed

    Gäde, G

    1997-01-01

    Two novel members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family of peptides were identified in dung beetles of the genus Onitis using heterologous (measuring lipid and carbohydrate mobilization in locusts and cockroaches) and a homologous (measuring proline increase in the haemolymph) bioassay(s). Isolation of the peptides was achieved by single-step reverse-phase HPLC of corpora cardiaca extracts. The primary structure was elucidated by automated Edman degradation and by electrospray MS. Both peptides are blocked octapeptides containing three aromatic amino acids. Peptide 1, designated Ona-CC-I, is pGlu-Tyr-Asn-Phe-Ser-Thr-Gly-Trp-NH2, and peptide 2, designated Ona-CC-II, is pGlu-Phe-Asn-Tyr-Ser-Pro-Asp-Trp-NH2. The synthetic peptides were chromatographically indistinguishable from the natural compounds. They both had a hyperprolinaemic effect in the dung beetle. Moreover, flight experiments established that proline is an important fuel to power flight metabolism in Onitis species. Therefore, it is concluded that these novel and unique peptides are involved in regulating proline-based flight metabolism.

  12. Water scorpions (Heteroptera, Nepidae) and giant water bugs (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae): sources of new members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Simek, Petr; Marco, Heather G

    2007-07-01

    Two novel octapeptide members of the AKH/RPCH family have been identified from the corpora cardiaca (CC) of two species of water bugs. The giant water bug Lethocerus indicus (family: Belostomatidae) contains a peptide code-named Letin-AKH with the sequence pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Tyr-Trp amide, and the water scorpion Nepa cinerea (family: Nepidae) has the peptide code-named Nepci-AKH with the sequence pGlu-Leu/Ile-Asn-Phe-Ser-Ser-Gly-Trp amide. The sequences were deduced from the multiple MS(N) electrospray mass data from crude CC extracts. Synthetic peptides were made and co-elution on reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with the natural peptide from crude gland extract confirmed the accuracy of the deduced sequence for Letin-AKH and demonstrated that Nepci-AKH contains a Leu residue at position 2 and not an Ile residue. A previously characterized member of the AKH/RPCH family was identified in the stick water scorpion Ranatra linearis by mass spectrometry: Grybi-AKH (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Thr-Gly-Trp amide) has the same mass (919 Da) as Nepci-AKH and differs in two positions from Nepci-AKH (residues 2 and 6). The apparent function of the peptides is to achieve lipid mobilization in the species under investigation; indications for this came from conspecific bioassays using the appropriate synthetic peptides for injecting into the insects. This function is very likely linked to dispersal flight metabolism of water bugs. Swimming activity in N. cinerea also results in an increase in lipid concentration in the hemolymph.

  13. Hormonal enhancement of insecticide efficacy in Tribolium castaneum: oxidative stress and metabolic aspects.

    PubMed

    Plavšin, Ivana; Stašková, Tereza; Šerý, Michal; Smýkal, Vlastimil; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2015-04-01

    Insect anti-stress responses, including those induced by insecticides, are controlled by adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). We examined the physiological consequences of Pyrap-AKH application on Tribolium castaneum adults (AKH-normal and AKH-deficient prepared by the RNAi technique) treated by two insecticides, pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin. Co-application of pirimiphos-methyl and/or deltamethrin with AKH significantly increased beetle mortality compared with application of the insecticides alone. This co-treatment was accompanied by substantial stimulation of general metabolism, as monitored by carbon dioxide production. Further, the insecticide treatment alone affected some basic markers of oxidative stress: it lowered total antioxidative capacity as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase in the beetle body; in addition, it enhanced the activity of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase. However, these discrepancies in oxidative stress markers were eliminated/reduced by co-application with Pyrap-AKH. We suggest that the elevation of metabolism, which is probably accompanied with faster turnover of toxins, might be responsible for the higher mortality that results after AKH and insecticide co-application. Changes in oxidative stress markers are probably not included in the mechanisms responsible for increased mortality.

  14. Primary structure of a novel neuropeptide isolated from the corpora cardiaca of periodical cicadas having adipokinetic and hypertrehalosemic activities.

    PubMed

    Raina, A; Pannell, L; Kochansky, J; Jaffe, H

    1995-09-01

    A new neuropeptide hormone was isolated from the corpora cardiaca of the periodical cicadas, Magicicada species. Primary structure of the peptide as determined by a combination of automated Edman degradation after enzymatic deblocking with pyroglutamate aminopeptidase and mass spectrometry is: pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Ser-Trp-Gly-Asn-NH2. Synthetic peptide assayed in the green stink bug Nezara viridula caused a 112% increase in hemolymph lipids at a dose of 0.625 pmol, and a 67% increase in hemolymph carbohydrates at a dose of 2.5 pmol. Based on these results we designate this peptide, a first from order Homoptera, as Magicicada species-adipokinetic hormone (Mcsp-AKH).

  15. Hormonal Regulation of Response to Oxidative Stress in Insects-An Update.

    PubMed

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Bednářová, Andrea; Zemanová, Milada; Krishnan, Natraj

    2015-10-27

    Insects, like other organisms, must deal with a wide variety of potentially challenging environmental factors during the course of their life. An important example of such a challenge is the phenomenon of oxidative stress. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of adipokinetic hormones (AKH) as principal stress responsive hormones in insects involved in activation of anti-oxidative stress response pathways. Emphasis is placed on an analysis of oxidative stress experimentally induced by various stressors and monitored by suitable biomarkers, and on detailed characterization of AKH's role in the anti-stress reactions. These reactions are characterized by a significant increase of AKH levels in the insect body, and by effective reversal of the markers-disturbed by the stressors-after co-application of the stressor with AKH. A plausible mechanism of AKH action in the anti-oxidative stress response is discussed as well: this probably involves simultaneous employment of both protein kinase C and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate pathways in the presence of extra and intra-cellular Ca(2+) stores, with the possible involvement of the FoxO transcription factors. The role of other insect hormones in the anti-oxidative defense reactions is also discussed.

  16. Hormonal Regulation of Response to Oxidative Stress in Insects—An Update

    PubMed Central

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Bednářová, Andrea; Zemanová, Milada; Krishnan, Natraj

    2015-01-01

    Insects, like other organisms, must deal with a wide variety of potentially challenging environmental factors during the course of their life. An important example of such a challenge is the phenomenon of oxidative stress. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of adipokinetic hormones (AKH) as principal stress responsive hormones in insects involved in activation of anti-oxidative stress response pathways. Emphasis is placed on an analysis of oxidative stress experimentally induced by various stressors and monitored by suitable biomarkers, and on detailed characterization of AKH’s role in the anti-stress reactions. These reactions are characterized by a significant increase of AKH levels in the insect body, and by effective reversal of the markers—disturbed by the stressors—after co-application of the stressor with AKH. A plausible mechanism of AKH action in the anti-oxidative stress response is discussed as well: this probably involves simultaneous employment of both protein kinase C and cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate pathways in the presence of extra and intra-cellular Ca2+ stores, with the possible involvement of the FoxO transcription factors. The role of other insect hormones in the anti-oxidative defense reactions is also discussed. PMID:26516847

  17. Characterisation and pharmacological analysis of a crustacean G protein-coupled receptor: the red pigment-concentrating hormone receptor of Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Marco, Heather G; Verlinden, Heleen; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Gäde, Gerd

    2017-07-31

    This is the first pharmacological characterisation of a neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) in a crustacean. We cloned the ORF of the red pigment-concentrating hormone from a German strain of Daphnia pulex (Dappu-RPCH), as well as that of the cognate receptor (Dappu-RPCHR). Dappu-RPCHR has the hallmarks of the rhodopsin superfamily of GPCRs, and is more similar to insect adipokinetic hormone (AKH) receptor sequences than to receptor sequences for AKH/corazonin-like peptide or corazonin. We provide experimental evidence that Dappu-RPCH specifically activates the receptor (EC50 value of 65 pM) in a mammalian cell-based bioluminescence assay. We further characterised the properties of the ligands for the Dappu-RPCHR by investigating the activities of a variety of naturally-occurring peptides (insect AKH and crustacean RPCH peptides). The insect AKHs had lower EC50 values than the crustacean RPCHs. In addition, we tested a series of Dappu-RPCH analogues, where one residue at a time is systematically replaced by an alanine to learn about the relative importance of the termini and side chains for activation. Mainly amino acids in positions 1 to 4 and 8 of Dappu-RPCH appear responsible for effective activation of Dappu-RPCHR. The substitution of Phe4 in Dappu-RPCH had the most damaging effect on its agonistic activity.

  18. Endocrine archeology: do insects retain ancestrally inherited counterparts of the vertebrate releasing hormones GnRH, GHRH, TRH, and CRF?

    PubMed

    De Loof, Arnold; Lindemans, Marleen; Liu, Feng; De Groef, Bert; Schoofs, Liliane

    2012-05-15

    Vertebrate releasing hormones include gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), corticotropin releasing hormone (CRF), and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). They are synthesized in the hypothalamus and stimulate the release of pituitary hormones. Here we review the knowledge on hormone releasing systems in the protostomian lineage. We address the question: do insects have peptides that may be phylogenetically related to an ancestral GnRH, GHRH, TRH, and CRF? Such endocrine archeology has become possible thanks to the growing list of fully sequenced genomes as well as to the continuously improving bioinformatic tool set. It has recently been shown that the ecdysozoan (nematodes and arthropods) adipokinetic hormones (AKHs), the lophotrochozoan (annelids and mollusks) GnRHs as well as the protochordate GnRHs are structurally related. The adipokinetic hormone precursor-related peptides (APRPs), in locusts encoded by the same gene that contains the AKH-coding region, have been forwarded as the structural counterpart of GHRH of vertebrates. CRF is relatively well conserved in insects, in which it functions as a diuretic hormone. Members of TRH-receptor family seem to have been conserved in some arthropods, but other elements of the thyroid hormone signaling system are not. A challenging idea is that in insects the functions of the thyroid hormones were taken over by juvenile hormone (JH). Our reconstruction suggests that, perhaps, the ancestral releasing hormone precursors played a role in controlling energy metabolism and water balance, and that releasing hormone functions as present in extant vertebrates were probably secondarily acquired. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Muscle Directs Diurnal Energy Homeostasis through a Myokine-Dependent Hormone Module in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao; Karpac, Jason

    2017-07-10

    Inter-tissue communication is critical to control organismal energy homeostasis in response to temporal changes in feeding and activity or external challenges. Muscle is emerging as a key mediator of this homeostatic control through consumption of lipids, carbohydrates, and amino acids, as well as governing systemic signaling networks. However, it remains less clear how energy substrate usage tissues, such as muscle, communicate with energy substrate storage tissues in order to adapt with diurnal changes in energy supply and demand. Using Drosophila, we show here that muscle plays a crucial physiological role in promoting systemic synthesis and accumulation of lipids in fat storage tissues, which subsequently impacts diurnal changes in circulating lipid levels. Our data reveal that the metabolic transcription factor Foxo governs expression of the cytokine unpaired 2 (Upd2) in skeletal muscle, which acts as a myokine to control glucagon-like adipokinetic hormone (AKH) secretion from specialized neuroendocrine cells. Circulating AKH levels in turn regulate lipid homeostasis in fat body/adipose and the intestine. Our data also reveal that this novel myokine-dependent hormone module is critical to maintain diurnal rhythms in circulating lipids. This tissue crosstalk provides a putative mechanism that allows muscle to integrate autonomous energy demand with systemic energy storage and turnover. Together, these findings reveal a diurnal inter-tissue signaling network between muscle and fat storage tissues that constitutes an ancestral mechanism governing systemic energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nosema ceranae alters a highly conserved hormonal stress pathway in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Mayack, C; Natsopoulou, M E; McMahon, D P

    2015-12-01

    Nosema ceranae, an emerging pathogen of the western honeybee (Apis mellifera), is implicated in recent pollinator losses and causes severe energetic stress. However, whether precocious foraging and accelerated behavioural maturation in infected bees are caused by the infection itself or via indirect energetic stress remains unknown. Using a combination of nutritional and infection treatments, we investigated how starvation and infection alters the regulation of adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and octopamine, two highly conserved physiological pathways that respond to energetic stress by mobilizing fat stores and increasing search activity for food. Although there was no response from AKH when bees were experimentally infected with N. ceranae or starved, supporting the notion that honeybees have lost this pathway, there were significant regulatory changes in the octopamine pathway. Significantly, we found no evidence of acute energetic stress being the only cause of symptoms associated with N. ceranae infection. Therefore, the parasite itself appears to alter regulatory components along a highly conserved physiological pathway in an infection-specific manner. This indicates that pathogen-induced behavioural alteration of chronically infected bees should not just be viewed as a coincidental short-term by-product of pathogenesis (acute energetic stress) and may be a result of a generalist manipulation strategy to obtain energy for reproduction.

  1. Isolation of two neuropeptides in the AKH/RPCH-family from horseflies (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Jaffe, H; Raina, A K; Fraser, B A; Keim, P; Rao, K R; Zhang, Y S; Lancaster, J L; Hayes, D K

    1988-03-15

    Two neuropeptides (DCCI and DCCII) in the adipokinetic/red pigment concentrating hormone-family have been isolated and purified from the corpora cardiaca of horseflies (Diptera : Tabanidae). Both peptides were purified by a sequence of three reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic steps. Amino acid analysis of the purified peptides indicated the following composition for DCCI: Glx(l), Gly(1), Leu(1), Phe(1), Pro(1), Thr(2) and for DCCII: Glx(1), Gly(2), Leu(1), Phe(1), Pro(1), Thr(2), and Tyr(1). Photodiode array ultraviolet spectroscopy indicated the presence of tryptophan in both DCCI and II. Both DCCI and II had red pigment concentrating hormone activity in the crab, Uca pugilator.

  2. Functional Characterization of Hypertrehalosemic Hormone Receptor in Relation to Hemolymph Trehalose and to Oxidative Stress in the Cockroach Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia-Hsin; Bellés, Xavier; Lee, How-Jing

    2011-01-01

    Hypertrehalosemic hormone (HTH) is a peptide hormone that belongs to the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment concentrating hormone (AKH/RPCH) family, which exerts pleiotropic actions related to catabolic reaction and stress response. AKH peptides have been demonstrated to participate in stress response including oxidative stress in several insects. In order to study the signaling pathway of HTH involved in anti-oxidative stress, we have characterized a HIH receptor cDNA in Blattella germanica (Blage-HTHR) in structural and in functional terms using RNA interference (RNAi). Blage-HTHR is expressed in various female adult tissues (brain-CC-CA, ventral nerve cord, midgut, fat body, oviduct), but maximal expression is observed in the fat body. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Blage-HTHR expression results in a significantly lower level of hemolymph trehalose, even though HTH is exogenously administered. Paraquat elicits lethal oxidative stress in B. germanica, and co-injection of paraquat and HTH reduces this detrimental effect and extends the median survival time. Interestingly, the "rescue" effect of HTH on mortality caused by paraquat is diminished in specimens with depleted expression of Blage-HTH and Blage-HTHR. Finally, lipid peroxidation in the hemolymph increases 4 h after paraquat treatment, in comparison with control specimens or with HTH-treated specimens. However, lipid peroxidation induced by paraquat was not "rescued" by HTH in Blage-HTH and Blage-HTHR knockdown specimens. Our results demonstrate that HTH acts as a stress hormone mediating anti-oxidative protection in B. germanica, and that its receptor, Blage-HTHR, is essential for this action.

  3. Mass spectrometric identification, sequence evolution, and intraspecific variability of dimeric peptides encoded by cockroach akh genes.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Sebastian; Predel, Reinhard

    2015-02-01

    Neuropeptides are structurally the most diverse group of messenger molecules of the nervous system. Regarding neuropeptide identification, distribution, function, and evolution, insects are among the best studied invertebrates. Indeed, more than 100 neuropeptides are known from single species. Most of these peptides can easily be identified by direct tissue or cell profiling using MALDI-TOF MS. In these experiments, protein hormones with extensive post-translational modifications such as inter- and intramolecular disulfides are usually missed. It is evident that an exclusion of these bioactive molecules hinders the utilization of direct profiling methods in comprehensive peptidomic analyses. In the current study, we focus on the detection and structural elucidation of homo- and heterodimeric adipokinetic hormone precursor-related peptides (APRPs) of cockroaches. The physiological relevance of these molecules with highly conserved sequences in insects is still uncertain. Sequence similarities with vertebrate growth hormone-releasing factors have been reported, but remarkably, few data regarding APRP processing exist and these data are restricted to locusts. Here, we elucidated sequences of carbamidomethylated APRP monomers of different cockroaches by means of MALDI-TOF MS(2), and we were able to identify a surprisingly large number of APRP sequences, resulting either from intraspecific amino acid substitutions within the APRP sequences or C-terminal truncated APRPs.

  4. Gustatory perception and fat body energy metabolism are jointly affected by vitellogenin and juvenile hormone in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Brent, Colin S; Fennern, Erin; Amdam, Gro V

    2012-06-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses) usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers) forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg) and juvenile hormone (JH). However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to perturb the gene network of Vg and JH to learn more about these connections through effects on gustation, gene transcripts, and physiology. The RNAi perturbation was achieved by single and double knockdown of the genes ultraspiracle (usp) and vg, which encode a putative JH receptor and Vg, respectively. The double knockdown enhanced gustatory perception and elevated hemolymph glucose, trehalose, and JH. We also observed transcriptional responses in insulin like peptide 1 (ilp1), the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR), and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, or "foraging gene" Amfor). Our study demonstrates that the Vg-JH regulatory module controls changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipid metabolism, when worker bees shift from nursing to foraging. The module is also placed upstream of ilp1, AKHR, and PKG for the first time. As insulin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), and PKG pathways influence metabolism and gustation in many animals, we propose that honey bees have conserved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism and conserved connections between energy metabolism and gustatory perception. Thus, perhaps the bee can make general contributions to the understanding of food-related behavior and metabolic disorders.

  5. Gustatory Perception and Fat Body Energy Metabolism Are Jointly Affected by Vitellogenin and Juvenile Hormone in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Brent, Colin S.; Fennern, Erin; Amdam, Gro V.

    2012-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses) usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers) forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg) and juvenile hormone (JH). However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to perturb the gene network of Vg and JH to learn more about these connections through effects on gustation, gene transcripts, and physiology. The RNAi perturbation was achieved by single and double knockdown of the genes ultraspiracle (usp) and vg, which encode a putative JH receptor and Vg, respectively. The double knockdown enhanced gustatory perception and elevated hemolymph glucose, trehalose, and JH. We also observed transcriptional responses in insulin like peptide 1 (ilp1), the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR), and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, or “foraging gene” Amfor). Our study demonstrates that the Vg–JH regulatory module controls changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipid metabolism, when worker bees shift from nursing to foraging. The module is also placed upstream of ilp1, AKHR, and PKG for the first time. As insulin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), and PKG pathways influence metabolism and gustation in many animals, we propose that honey bees have conserved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism and conserved connections between energy metabolism and gustatory perception. Thus, perhaps the bee can make general contributions to the understanding of food-related behavior and metabolic disorders. PMID

  6. Invertebrate Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Related Peptides and Their Receptors: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Tsubasa; Shiraishi, Akira; Kawada, Tsuyoshi; Matsubara, Shin; Aoyama, Masato; Satake, Honoo

    2017-01-01

    biological roles other than the regulation of reproductive functions. Moreover, recent molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that adipokinetic hormone (AKH), corazonin (CRZ), and AKH/CRZ-related peptide (ACP) belong to the GnRH superfamily but has led to the different classifications of these peptides and receptors using different datasets including the number of sequences and structural domains. In this review, we provide current knowledge of, and perspectives in, molecular basis and evolutionary aspects of the GnRH, AKH, CRZ, and ACP. PMID:28932208

  7. Genomics, transcriptomics, and peptidomics of neuropeptides and protein hormones in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Predel, Reinhard; Neupert, Susanne; Hauser, Frank; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Verleyen, Peter; Schoofs, Liliane; Schachtner, Joachim; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J.P.; Park, Yoonseong

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptides and protein hormones are ancient molecules that mediate cell-to-cell communication. The whole genome sequence from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, along with those from other insect species, provides an opportunity to study the evolution of the genes encoding neuropeptide and protein hormones. We identified 41 of these genes in the Tribolium genome by using a combination of bioinformatic and peptidomic approaches. These genes encode >80 mature neuropeptides and protein hormones, 49 peptides of which were experimentally identified by peptidomics of the central nervous system and other neuroendocrine organs. Twenty-three genes have orthologs in Drosophila melanogaster: Sixteen genes in five different groups are likely the result of recent gene expansions during beetle evolution. These five groups contain peptides related to antidiuretic factor-b (ADF-b), CRF-like diuretic hormone (DH37 and DH47 of Tribolium), adipokinetic hormone (AKH), eclosion hormone, and insulin-like peptide. In addition, we found a gene encoding an arginine-vasopressin-like (AVPL) peptide and one for its receptor. Both genes occur only in Tribolium and not in other holometabolous insects with a sequenced genome. The presence of many additional osmoregulatory peptides in Tribolium agrees well with its ability to live in very dry surroundings. In contrast to these extra genes, there are at least nine neuropeptide genes missing in Tribolium, including the genes encoding the prepropeptides for corazonin, kinin, and allatostatin-A. The cognate receptor genes for these three peptides also appear to be absent in the Tribolium genome. Our analysis of Tribolium indicates that, during insect evolution, genes for neuropeptides and protein hormones are often duplicated or lost. PMID:18025266

  8. RNA interference unveils functions of the hypertrehalosemic hormone on cyclic fluctuation of hemolymph trehalose and oviposition in the virgin female Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia-Hsin; Lee, How-Jing

    2011-07-01

    Hypertrehalosemic hormone (HTH) is a neuropeptide within the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family that induces a release of trehalose from fat body into hemolymph in a number of insects. In this study, we first showed that female adult German cockroach, Blattella germanica, displayed a cyclic fluctuation of hemolymph trehalose levels correlated to the maturation of oocytes in the reproductive cycle. After cloning the HTH cDNA from the German cockroach (Blage-HTH), expression studies indicated that Blage-HTH mRNA showed the cyclic changes during the first reproductive cycle, where peak values occurred in 8-day-old virgin female cockroaches, which were going to produce oothecae. The functions of Blage-HTH were studied using RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown its expression. Adult virgin females of B. germanica injected with Blage-HTH dsRNA increased hemolymph trehalose levels in the late period of vitellogenesis more slowly than control. Furthermore, RNAi of Blage-HTH delayed oviposition time and some (10%) individuals did not produce the first ootheca until 15 days after eclosion, whereas the control group produced ootheca before 9 days in all cases.

  9. Intracisternal granules in the adipokinetic cells of locusts are not degraded and apparently function as supplementary stores of secretory material.

    PubMed

    Harthoorn, L F; Diederen, J H; Oudejans, R C; Verstegen, M M; Vullings, H G; Van der Horst, D J

    2000-01-01

    The intracisternal granules in locust adipokinetic cells appear to represent accumulations of secretory material within cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. An important question is whether these granules are destined for degradation or represent stores of (pro)hormones. Two strategies were used to answer this question. First, cytochemistry was applied to elucidate the properties of intracisternal granules. The endocytic tracers horseradish peroxidase and wheat-germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase were used to facilitate the identification of endocytic, autophagic, and lysosomal organelles, which may be involved in the degradation of intracisternal granules. No intracisternal granules could be found within autophagosomes, and granules fused with endocytic and lysosomal organelles were not observed, nor could tracer be found within the granules. The lysosomal enzyme acid phosphatase was absent from the granules. Second, biochemical analysis of the content of intracisternal granules revealed that these granules contain prohormones as well as hormones. Prohormones were present in relatively higher amounts compared with ordinary secretory granules. Since the intracisternal granules in locust adipokinetic cells are not degraded and contain intact (pro)hormones it is concluded that they function as supplementary stores of secretory material.

  10. Opposite effects of 5-HT/AKH and octopamine on the crop contractions in adult Drosophila melanogaster: Evidence of a double brain-gut serotonergic circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Picciau, Lorenzo; Murru, Ludovico; Stoffolano, John G.

    2017-01-01

    This study showed that in adult Drosophila melanogaster, the type of sugar—either present within the crop lumen or in the bathing solution of the crop—had no effect on crop muscle contraction. What is important, however, is the volume within the crop lumen. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that exogenous applications of serotonin on crop muscles increases both the amplitude and the frequency of crop contraction rate, while adipokinetic hormone mainly enhances the crop contraction frequency. Conversely, octopamine virtually silenced the overall crop activity. The present study reports for the first time an analysis of serotonin effects along the gut-brain axis in adult D. melanogaster. Injection of serotonin into the brain between the interocellar area shows that brain applications of serotonin decrease the frequency of crop activity. Based on our results, we propose that there are two different, opposite pathways for crop motility control governed by serotonin: excitatory when added in the abdomen (i.e., directly bathing the crop) and inhibitory when supplied within the brain (i.e., by injection). Finally, our results point to a double brain-gut serotonergic circuitry suggesting that not only the brain can affect gut functions, but the gut can also affect the central nervous system. On the basis of our results, and data in the literature, a possible mechanism for these two discrete serotonergic functions is suggested. PMID:28334024

  11. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  12. Comparative peptidomics of four related hemipteran species: Pyrokinins, myosuppressin, corazonin, adipokinetic hormone, sNPF, and periviscerokinins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We performed the first comprehensive peptidomic analysis of neurohormones from hemipteran insects by analyzing the neuropeptides of two major neurohemal organs, namely the corpora cardiaca and abdominal perisympathetic organs. For the experiments we selected four related species of polyphagous stin...

  13. Secretory granule formation and membrane recycling by the trans-Golgi network in adipokinetic cells of Locusta migratoria in relation to flight and rest.

    PubMed

    Diederen, J H; Vullings, H G

    1995-03-01

    The influence of flight activity on the formation of secretory granules and the concomitant membrane recycling by the trans-Golgi network in the peptidergic neurosecretory adipokinetic cells of Locusta migratoria was investigated by means of ultrastructural morphometric methods. The patterns of labelling of the trans-Golgi network by the exogenous adsorptive endocytotic tracer wheat-germ agglutinin-conjugated horse-radish peroxidase and by the endogenous marker enzyme acid phosphatase were used as parameters and were measured by an automatic image analysis system. The results show that endocytosed fragments of plasma membrane with bound peroxidase label were transported to the trans-Golgi network and used to build new secretory granules. The amounts of peroxidase and especially of acid phosphatase within the trans-Golgi network showed a strong tendency to be smaller in flight-stimulated cells than in non-stimulated cells. The amounts of acid phosphatase in the immature secretory granules originating from the trans-Golgi network were significantly smaller in stimulated cells. The number of immature secretory granules positive for acid phosphatase tended to be higher in stimulated cells. Thus, flight stimulation of adipokinetic cells for 1 h influences the functioning of the trans-Golgi network; this most probably results in a slight enhancement of the production of secretory granules by the trans-Golgi network.

  14. Hormone levels

    MedlinePlus

    Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

  15. Effects of Varroa destructor on temperature and humidity conditions and expression of energy metabolism genes in infested honeybee colonies.

    PubMed

    Hou, C S; Li, B B; Deng, S; Diao, Q Y

    2016-09-23

    Varroa destructor mites pose an increasing global threat to the apicultural industry and agricultural ecology; however, the issue of whether certain environmental factors reflect the level of mite infection is far from resolved. Here, a wireless sensor network (WSN) system was used to examine how V. destructor, which has vital impacts on honeybee (Apis mellifera) health and survival, affects the temperature and humidity of honeybee hives in a field experiment. This approach may facilitate early identification of V. destructor in hives, and thus enable timely remedial action. Using quantitative PCR, we also evaluated the expression of two genes, adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR).The results showed that temperature in highly infested broods was higher than that in broods with low infestation. Moreover, mite infection in honeybee colonies was positively correlated with temperature but negatively correlated with humidity (P < 0.05). Similar to previous observations, quantitative analysis suggested that the expression levels of AKH and AKHR from honeybees with low infection were significantly higher than those from bees with high infection (P < 0.01). These results showed that the expression levels of these genes in colonies with high mite infestation were closely associated with changes in hive temperature and humidity. This study demonstrates that Varroa infection not only causes changes in temperature inside honeybee colonies, but also affects the expression of honeybee energy metabolism genes.

  16. Systemic corazonin signalling modulates stress responses and metabolism in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kubrak, Olga I.; Lushchak, Oleh V.; Zandawala, Meet

    2016-01-01

    Stress triggers cellular and systemic reactions in organisms to restore homeostasis. For instance, metabolic stress, experienced during starvation, elicits a hormonal response that reallocates resources to enable food search and readjustment of physiology. Mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its insect orthologue, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), are known for their roles in modulating stress-related behaviour. Here we show that corazonin (Crz), a peptide homologous to AKH/GnRH, also alters stress physiology in Drosophila. The Crz receptor (CrzR) is expressed in salivary glands and adipocytes of the liver-like fat body, and CrzR knockdown targeted simultaneously to both these tissues increases the fly's resistance to starvation, desiccation and oxidative stress, reduces feeding, alters expression of transcripts of Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs), and affects gene expression in the fat body. Furthermore, in starved flies, CrzR-knockdown increases circulating and stored carbohydrates. Thus, our findings indicate that elevated systemic Crz signalling during stress coordinates increased food intake and diminished energy stores to regain metabolic homeostasis. Our study suggests that an ancient stress-peptide in Urbilateria evolved to give rise to present-day GnRH, AKH and Crz signalling systems. PMID:27810969

  17. A comparison of the neuropeptides from the retrocerebral complex of adult male and female Manduca sexta using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Audsley, Neil; Weaver, Robert J

    2003-11-15

    The occurrence of neuropeptides in the retrocerebral complexes of adult male and females of the tobacco hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, was investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), post source decay (PSD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) MS/MS. From fractions of methanol extracts of corpora cardiaca (CC)/corpora allata (CA), separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), a total of 11 mass ions were assigned to known peptides from M. sexta. These peptides were adipokinetic hormone (AKH), FLRFamides I, II and III, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), cardioactive peptide 2b (CAP(2b)), three myoinhibitory peptides, corazonin, and M. sexta allatostatin (Manse-AS). A further six masses were in agreement with Y/FXFGLamide allatostatins identified from other Lepidoptera. The sequence identities of FLRFamide I and AKH were confirmed using post source decay analysis. Fragmentation by collision-induced dissociation MS/MS identified an extended AKH peptide. The apparent differences in the peptides present in male and female retrocerebral complexes are most likely quantitative rather than sex specific.

  18. Peptidergic counter-regulation of Ca(2+)- and Na(+)-dependent K(+) currents modulates the shape of action potentials in neurosecretory insect neurons.

    PubMed

    Wicher, Dieter; Berlau, Jens; Walther, Christian; Borst, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Influx of Ca(2+) and Na(+) ions during an action potential can strongly affect the repolarization and the fast afterhyperpolarization (fAHP) if a neuron expresses Ca(2+)- and Na(+)-dependent K(+) currents (K(Ca) and K(Na)). This applies to cockroach abdominal dorsal unpaired median neurons (DUMs). Here the rapid activation of K(Ca) depends mainly on the P/Q-type Ca(2+) current. Adipokinetic hormones (AKHs)-insect counterparts to mammalian glucagon-mobilize energy reserves but also modulate neuronal activity and lead to enhanced locomotor activity. Cockroach AKH I accelerates spiking and enhances the fAHP of octopaminergic DUM neurons, and it is generally held that enhanced release of the biogenic amine from these and other neurons may lead to general arousal. AKH I modulates the voltage-gated Na(+) and P/Q-type Ca(2+) current and the background Ca(2+) current. Upregulation of P/Q-type Ca(2+) current increases the K(Ca) current, whereas enhanced inactivation of Na(+) current decreases the K(Na) current. We quantified the hormone-induced changes in ion currents in terms of Hodgkin-Huxley models and simulated the resulting activity of DUM neurons. Upregulation of P/Q-type Ca(2+) and K(Ca) current enhanced the hyperpolarization but had a weak effect on spiking. Downregulation of Na(+) and K(Na) current decreased hyperpolarization and slightly accelerated spiking. Superposition of these modulations produced an increase in fAHP while the spike frequency remained unchanged. Only when the upregulation of the pacemaking Ca(2+) background current was included in the simulated modulation the model reproduced the experimentally observed AKH-I-induced changes. The possible physiological relevance of this dual effect is discussed in respect to transmitter release and synaptic integration.

  19. Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of estrogen , a hormone that helps control the menstrual cycle . Changing estrogen levels can bring on symptoms such ... of two hormones—estrogen and progesterone —control your menstrual cycle. These hormones are made by the ovaries . Estrogen ...

  20. Prediction of Scylla olivacea (Crustacea; Brachyura) peptide hormones using publicly accessible transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequences.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2016-05-01

    The aquaculture of crabs from the genus Scylla is of increasing economic importance for many Southeast Asian countries. Expansion of Scylla farming has led to increased efforts to understand the physiology and behavior of these crabs, and as such, there are growing molecular resources for them. Here, publicly accessible Scylla olivacea transcriptomic data were mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts; the proteins deduced from the identified sequences were then used to predict the structures of mature peptide hormones. Forty-nine pre/preprohormone-encoding transcripts were identified, allowing for the prediction of 187 distinct mature peptides. The identified peptides included isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, bursicon β, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/molt-inhibiting hormone, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, FMRFamide-like peptide, HIGSLYRamide, insulin-like peptide, intocin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone, pyrokinin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide and tachykinin-related peptide, all well-known neuropeptide families. Surprisingly, the tissue used to generate the transcriptome mined here is reported to be testis. Whether or not the testis samples had neural contamination is unknown. However, if the peptides are truly produced by this reproductive organ, it could have far reaching consequences for the study of crustacean endocrinology, particularly in the area of reproductive control. Regardless, this peptidome is the largest thus far predicted for any brachyuran (true crab) species, and will serve as a foundation for future studies of peptidergic control in members of the commercially important genus Scylla.

  1. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Konuma, Takahiro; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR) reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp)-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III) because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids) was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets.

  2. Homologies between the amino acid sequences of some vertebrate peptide hormones and peptides isolated from invertebrate sources.

    PubMed

    De Loof, A; Schoofs, L

    1990-01-01

    1. The 4K-prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) or bombyxin and the melanization-reddish coloration hormone of the silkworm Bombyx mori resemble insulin and insulin-like growth factors. 2. The family of adipokinetic/red pigment concentrating hormones has some similarity with glucagon. 3. Members of the FMRFamide family are found in vertebrates as well as in invertebrates. 4. In Locusta, a molecule immunologically and biologically related to amphibian melanophore stimulating hormone has been partially characterized. 5. Enkephalins and enkephalin-related peptides occur in insects and other invertebrates. 6. Peptides belonging to the tachykinin family have been isolated from molluscan (Octopus) salivary glands and from insect nervous tissue (Locusta migratoria). 7. Invertebrate arginine-vasotocin homologs have been isolated from an insect (Locusta migratoria) and from a mollusc (Conus). 8. In Leucophaea, Locusta and Drosophila, peptides resembling those of the vertebrate gastrin/cholecystokinin family have been identified. 9. As the number of different neuro-/gut peptides with possible function(s) as hormone, neurotransmitter or neuromodulator is now estimated to be of the order of a few hundred, more similarities will probably show up in the near future.

  3. Food odors trigger an endocrine response that affects food ingestion and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lushchak, Oleh V; Carlsson, Mikael A; Nässel, Dick R

    2015-08-01

    Food odors stimulate appetite and innate food-seeking behavior in hungry animals. The smell of food also induces salivation and release of gastric acid and insulin. Conversely, sustained odor exposure may induce satiation. We demonstrate novel effects of food odors on food ingestion, metabolism and endocrine signaling in Drosophila melanogaster. Acute exposure to attractive vinegar odor triggers a rapid and transient increase in circulating glucose, and a rapid upregulation of genes encoding the glucagon-like hormone adipokinetic hormone (AKH), four insulin-like peptides (DILPs) and some target genes in peripheral tissues. Sustained exposure to food odors, however, decreases food intake. Hunger-induced strengthening of synaptic signaling from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) to brain neurons increases food-seeking behavior, and conversely fed flies display reduced food odor sensitivity and feeding. We show that increasing the strength of OSN signaling chronically by genetic manipulation of local peptide neuromodulation reduces feeding, elevates carbohydrates and diminishes lipids. Furthermore, constitutively strengthened odor sensitivity altered gene transcripts for AKH, DILPs and some of their targets. Thus, we show that food odor can induce a transient anticipatory endocrine response, and that boosted sensitivity to this odor affects food intake, as well as metabolism and hormonal signaling.

  4. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... Learn About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ...

  5. Hormones and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Infographics Myth vs ... Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Infographics Myth vs ...

  6. Molluscan GnRH associated with reproduction.

    PubMed

    Osada, Makoto; Treen, Nicholas

    2013-01-15

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a neuropeptide that has an essential role in the neural regulation of vertebrate reproduction. Over the past two decades there has been increasing evidence strongly indicating that members of the GnRH superfamily, which includes GnRH, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), corazonin (Crz) and adipokinetic hormone/corazonin-related peptides (ACP), are almost ubiquitous amongst bilateral animals. Moreover GnRH possibly has origins in even more ancient, non-bilateral ancestors. Current knowledge about molluscan GnRH has been accumulated regarding immunological identification, physiological function and sequence analysis. In the present review we summarized a current status of molluscan GnRH research and focus on its role in the reproduction of the molluscs. In cephalopods and gastropods the presence of a GnRH-like peptide was detected with heterologous antibodies and the identified GnRH was suggested to be involved with behavior and reproduction. Reproductive roles for GnRH have been confirmed in both bivalve and cephalopod molluscs. These findings will provide useful insights into the evolution of reproductive endocrinology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Activation of the lipid droplet controls the rate of lipolysis of triglycerides in the insect fat body.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajesh T; Soulages, Jose L; Hariharasundaram, Balaji; Arrese, Estela L

    2005-06-17

    The hydrolysis of triglyceride (TG) stored in the lipid droplets of the insect fat body is under hormonal regulation by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH), which triggers a rapid activation cAMP-dependent kinase cascade (protein kinase A (PKA)). The role of phosphorylation on two components of the lipolytic process, the TG-lipase and the lipid droplet, was investigated in fat body adipocytes. The activity of purified TG-lipase determined using in vivo TG-radiolabeled lipid droplets was unaffected by the phosphorylation of the lipase. However, the activity of purified lipase was 2.4-fold higher against lipid droplets isolated from hormone-stimulated fat bodies than against lipid droplets isolated from unstimulated tissue. In vivo stimulation of lipolysis promotes a rapid phosphorylation of a lipid droplet protein with an apparent mass of 42-44 kDa. This protein was identified as "Lipid Storage Droplet Protein 1" (Lsdp1). In vivo phosphorylation of this protein reached a peak approximately 10 min after the injection of AKH. Supporting a role of Lsdp1 in lipolysis, maximum TG-lipase activity was also observed with lipid droplets isolated 10 min after hormonal stimulation. The activation of lipolysis was reconstituted in vitro using purified insect PKA and TG-lipase and lipid droplets. In vitro phosphorylation of lipid droplets catalyzed by PKA enhanced the phosphorylation of Lsdp1 and the lipolytic rate of the lipase, demonstrating a prominent role PKA and protein phosphorylation on the activation of the lipid droplets. AKH-induced changes in the properties of the substrate do not promote a tight association of the lipase with the lipid droplets. It is concluded that the lipolysis in fat body adipocytes is controlled by the activation of the lipid droplet. This activation is achieved by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the lipid droplet. Lsdp1 is the main target of PKA, suggesting that this protein is a major player in the activation of lipolysis in insects.

  8. Intra-myocellular fatty acid metabolism plays a critical role in mediating responses to dietary restriction in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Katewa, Subhash D.; Demontis, Fabio; Kolipinski, Marysia; Hubbard, Allan; Gill, Matthew S.; Perrimon, Norbert; Melov, Simon; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    Summary Changes in fat content have been associated with dietary restriction (DR), but whether they play a causal role in mediating various responses to DR remains unknown. We demonstrate that upon DR, Drosophila melanogaster shift their metabolism towards increasing both fatty acid synthesis and breakdown, which is required for various responses to DR. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis or oxidation genes specifically in the muscle tissue inhibited lifespan extension upon DR. Furthermore, DR enhances spontaneous activity of flies which was found to be dependent on the enhanced fatty acid metabolism. This increase in activity was found to be at least partially required for the lifespan extension upon DR. Over-expression of adipokinetic hormone (dAKH), the functional ortholog of glucagon, enhances fat metabolism, spontaneous activity and lifespan. Together, these results suggest that enhanced fat metabolism in the muscle and physical activity play a key role in the protective effects of DR. PMID:22768842

  9. The sensory system: More than just a window to the external world.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Christi M; Chung, Brian Y; Pletcher, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    While the traditional importance of the sensory system lies in its ability to perceive external information about the world, emerging discoveries suggest that sensory perception has a greater impact on health and longevity than was previously appreciated. These effects are conserved across species. In this mini-review, we discuss the specific sensory cues that have been identified to significantly impact organismal physiology and lifespan. Ongoing work in the aging field has begun to identify the downstream molecules that mediate the broad effects of sensory signals. Candidates include FOXO, neuropeptide F (NPF), adipokinetic hormone (AKH), dopamine, serotonin, and octopamine. We then discuss the many implications that arise from our current understanding of the effects of sensory perception on health and longevity.

  10. Urbilaterian origin of paralogous GnRH and corazonin neuropeptide signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shi; Zandawala, Meet; Beets, Isabel; Baytemur, Esra; Slade, Susan E.; Scrivens, James H.; Elphick, Maurice R.

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key regulator of reproductive maturation in humans and other vertebrates. Homologs of GnRH and its cognate receptor have been identified in invertebrates–for example, the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and corazonin (CRZ) neuropeptide pathways in arthropods. However, the precise evolutionary relationships and origins of these signalling systems remain unknown. Here we have addressed this issue with the first identification of both GnRH-type and CRZ-type signalling systems in a deuterostome–the echinoderm (starfish) Asterias rubens. We have identified a GnRH-like neuropeptide (pQIHYKNPGWGPG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens GnRH-type receptor and a novel neuropeptide (HNTFTMGGQNRWKAG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens CRZ-type receptor. With the discovery of these ligand-receptor pairs, we demonstrate that the vertebrate/deuterostomian GnRH-type and the protostomian AKH systems are orthologous and the origin of a paralogous CRZ-type signalling system can be traced to the common ancestor of the Bilateria (Urbilateria). PMID:27350121

  11. The Satiety Signaling Neuropeptide Perisulfakinin Inhibits the Activity of Central Neurons Promoting General Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wicher, Dieter; Derst, Christian; Gautier, Hélène; Lapied, Bruno; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Agricola, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    The metabolic state is one of the determinants of the general activity level. Satiety is related to resting or sleep whereas hunger correlates to wakefulness and activity. The counterpart to the mammalian satiety signal cholecystokinin (CCK) in insects are the sulfakinins. The aim of this study was to resolve the mechanism by which the antifeedant activity of perisulfakinin (PSK) in Periplaneta americana is mediated. We identified the sources of PSK which is used both as hormone and as paracrine messenger. PSK is found in the neurohemal organ of the brain and in nerve endings throughout the central nervous system. To correlate the distributions of PSK and its receptor (PSKR), we cloned the gene coding for PSKR and provide evidence for its expression within the nervous system. It occurs only in a few neurons, among them are the dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons which release octopamine thereby regulating the general level of activity. Application of PSK to DUM neurons attenuated the spiking frequency (EC50=11pM) due to reduction of a pacemaker Ca2+ current through cAMP-inhibited pTRPγ channels. PSK increased the intracellular cAMP level while decreasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in DUM neurons. Thus, the satiety signal conferred by PSK acts antagonistically to the hunger signal, provided by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH): PSK depresses the electrical activity of DUM neurons by inhibiting the pTRPγ channel that is activated by AKH under conditions of food shortage. PMID:18946521

  12. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause Fact Sheet Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause January, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol ... take HT for symptom relief.) What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  13. Growth Hormone

    MedlinePlus

    ... to help diagnose and monitor the treatment of acromegaly and gigantism . Growth hormone is essential for normal ... signs and symptoms of GH excess ( gigantism and acromegaly ). Suppression testing may be done when a pituitary ...

  14. Hormone impostors

    SciTech Connect

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  15. Octopamine partially restores walking in hypokinetic cockroaches stung by the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Lior Ann; Glusman, Jose Gustavo; Libersat, Frederic

    2007-12-01

    When stung by the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa, cockroaches Periplaneta americana enter a hypokinetic state that is characterized by little, if any, spontaneous locomotor activity. In the present study we investigate the effect of an octopamine receptor agonist and an antagonist on the locomotor behavior of stung and control cockroaches. We show that in cockroaches stung by a wasp the octopamine receptor agonist chlordimeform induces a significant increase in spontaneous walking. In good agreement, in control individuals an octopamine receptor antagonist significantly reduces walking activity. Adipokinetic hormone I (AKH-I) promotes spontaneous walking in controls but does not do so in stung individuals, which suggests that the venom effect is most probably not mediated by AKH-I. Dopamine receptor agonists or antagonists had no significant effect on the spontaneous walking of stung or control cockroaches, respectively. The effect of the octopamine receptor agonist was maximal when injected into the brain, suggesting that the wasp venom interferes with octopaminergic modulation of walking initiation in central structures of the cockroach brain.

  16. Types of hormone therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of hormone therapy; Hormone replacement therapy - types; Menopause - types of hormone therapy; HT - types; Menopausal hormone ... Menopause symptoms include: Hot flashes Night sweats Sleep problems Vaginal dryness Anxiety Moodiness Less interest in sex ...

  17. Peptide discovery in the ectoparasitic crustacean Argulus siamensis: identification of the first neuropeptides from a member of the Branchiura.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2014-08-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing have facilitated the generation of large transcriptomic datasets for an ever-growing number of crustaceans, one being the carp louse Argulus siamensis. This and other members of the subclass Branchiura are obligate fish ectoparasites, and as such, are a major concern for commercial aquaculture. Using the extant transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequences for A. siamensis, 27 transcripts encoding putative neuropeptide precursors were identified, and their pre/preprohormones deduced and characterized using a well-established bioinformatics workflow. The structures of 105 distinct peptides were predicted from the deduced proteins, including isoforms of adipokinetic hormone (AKH), allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, allatotropin, bursicon α, bursicon β, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), diuretic hormone 31, diuretic hormone 44, eclosion hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide Y, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide. While several of the predicted peptides are known from other crustacean and/or insect species, e.g. RYLPT, a broadly conserved arthropod proctolin isoform, and PFCNAFTGCamide (disulfide bridging between the two cysteines), the stereotypical crustacean CCAP, the vast majority of them are described here for the first time, e.g. pQVNFSTKWamide, a new AKH/red pigment concentrating hormone superfamily member, pQEGLDHMFMRFamide, a novel myosuppressin, and SYKSKPPFNGSIFamide, a new member of the SIFamide family. As the peptides presented here are the only ones thus far described from A. siamensis, or for that matter, any branchiuran, they represent a new resource to begin investigations of peptidergic control of physiology and behavior in this and other related aquacultural pests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Locusts as model organisms in which to study immunogen-induced anorectic behaviour.

    PubMed

    Goldsworthy, Graham

    2010-08-01

    When injected into adult or nymphal Locusta that have been deprived of food for 2h, immunogens such as laminarin and bacterial LPS can induce an almost immediate dose-dependent state of anorexia for at least 1h. Such anorexia is a component of a medley of physiological and behavioural changes called collectively 'sickness behaviour' that occurs in a wide range of animals in response to infection or immune challenge. Sub-optimal amounts of injected laminarin allow some locusts to feed, but with a longer latency than in controls, although the length of the first meal is unaffected. The feeding behaviour of fifth instar nymphs is more sensitive to laminarin than that of adults, but both stages respond to amounts of immunogen that are lower than those required to activate the phenoloxidase cascade. Injection of adipokinetic hormone (AKH) before the period of food deprivation prevents the anorexigenic action of the laminarin in adults but not in nymphs. It is argued that the effect of the AKH may be indirect, through its lipid-mobilising action. The insecticide pymetrozine increases the latency to feed but also reduces the length of the first meal, and its anorexigenic activity is not affected by injection of AKH. The present data support the concept that laminarin-induced anorexia involves a central lack of motivation to eat, rather than a 'stop eating' signal. Others have shown that the mechanism of action of pymetrozine involves the serotonergic system and can be blocked by mianserin, so it is intriguing that in the present study injection of mianserin prior to that of laminarin modulates the anorexigenic effect of the immunogen. This suggests that biogenic amines are involved in the control of appetitive behaviour in locusts, as they are in vertebrates. The possible usefulness of the locust model in studying sickness-induced anorexia is discussed briefly. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... Learn About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ...

  20. [Incretin hormones].

    PubMed

    Cáp, J

    2011-04-01

    Incretin hormones are peptides that are secreted from endocrine cell of gastrointestinal tract after nutrient ingestion and stimulate insulin secretion. Glucosodependent Insulinotropic Peptide--GIP is released from K-cells of duodenum and proximal jejunum, recently GIP synthesis has been proved in pancreatic alpha cells. Besides the incretin effect causes GIP increased lipogenesis and decreased lipolysis in fat tissue, increased bone formation and decreased resorption and has protective and proliferative effect on CNS neurons. Both GIP agonists (to treat diabetes) and antagonist (to treat obesity) are being studied. Another incretin hormone is derived in intestinal I-cells by posttranslational processing of proglucagon--glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2). GLP-1 stimulates insuline production and inhibits glucagon secretion, exerts proliferative and antiapoptotic effect on beta-cells. Via receptors on vagal nerve and central mechanisms decreases food intake and decreases body weight. By deceleration of gastric emptying it attenuates increases in meal-associated blood glucose levels. It exerts cardioprotective effects. GLP-1 receptors have been proved in liver recently but decreased liver glucose production and increased glucose uptake by liver and muscle are mediated indirectly by altering insulin and glucagons levels. GLP-2 stimulates enterocytes proliferation, up-regulates intestinal nutrient transport, improves intestinal barrier function, and inhibits gastric and intestinal motility. GLP-2 also reduces bone resorption.

  1. Growth hormone deficiency - children

    MedlinePlus

    Growth hormone deficiency means the pituitary gland does not make enough growth hormone. ... The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain. This gland controls the body's balance of hormones. It ...

  2. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  3. Menopause and Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... use hormone therapy to prevent memory loss or Alzheimer’s disease? No, do not use hormone therapy to prevent memory loss or Alzheimer’s disease. Do hormones protect against aging and wrinkles ...

  4. Deciding about hormone therapy

    MedlinePlus

    HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT- deciding; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding; Menopause - deciding; HT - deciding; Menopausal hormone therapy - deciding; MHT - deciding

  5. The activity of the nonsulfated sulfakinin Zopat-SK-1 in the neck-ligated larvae of the beetle Zophobas atratus.

    PubMed

    Slocinska, M; Czubak, T; Marciniak, P; Jarmuszkiewicz, W; Rosinski, G

    2015-07-01

    Insect sulfakinins (SKs) are multifunctional neuropeptides structurally and functionally homologous to the mammalian gastrin/cholecystokinin (CCK). It has been proposed that SKs play a role in modulating energy management in insects by interacting with adipokinetic hormone (AKH), the principle hormone controlling insect intermediary metabolism. To exclude head factors (including AKH) that influence the activity of the nonsulfated sulfakinin Zopat-SK-1 in the larvae of the beetle Zophobas atratus, ligature and in vitro bioassays were used. Our study showed that in the neck-ligated larvae, Zopat-SK-1 evoked a much more pronounced glycogenolytic effect in fat body tissue and a significantly higher hypertrahelosemic effect in hemolymph than in larvae without ligation. We found that the concentration of the sugar trehalose increased under hormonal treatment but no changes in glucose levels were observed. Under in vitro conditions, the maximal glycogenolytic effect of Zopat-SK-1 in fat body was observed at 10 pmol of hormone. Ligature and in vitro bioassays indicated that Zopat-SK-1 activity in the Z. atratus larvae is modulated by head signals and/or factors from the gastrointestinal tract. Our data indicate the existence of a brain-gastrointestinal axis that has a role in controlling of energy (carbohydrate) metabolism in the insect body. Moreover, these results, together with immunological evidence of a cholecystokinin-like (sulfakinin) receptor in the Z. atratus fat body, help us to better understand the SK signaling pathways and its physiological role in insect biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Hormonal dysnatremia].

    PubMed

    Karaca, P; Desailloud, R

    2013-10-01

    Because of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) disorder on production or function we can observe dysnatremia. In the absence of production by posterior pituitary, central diabetes insipidus (DI) occurs with hypernatremia. There are hereditary autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X- linked forms. When ADH is secreted but there is an alteration on his receptor AVPR2, it is a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in acquired or hereditary form. We can make difference on AVP levels and/or on desmopressine response which is negative in nephrogenic forms. Hyponatremia occurs when there is an excess of ADH production: it is a euvolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia. The most frequent etiology is SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH), a diagnostic of exclusion which is made after eliminating corticotropin deficiency and hypothyroidism. In case of brain injury the differential diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome has to be discussed, because its treatment is perfusion of isotonic saline whereas in SIADH, the treatment consists in administration of hypertonic saline if hyponatremia is acute and/or severe. If not, fluid restriction demeclocycline or vaptans (antagonists of V2 receptors) can be used in some European countries. Four types of SIADH exist; 10 % of cases represent not SIADH but SIAD (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis) due to a constitutive activation of vasopressin receptor that produces water excess. c 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Hormone therapy in acne.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2013-01-01

    Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  8. Regulation of intermediary metabolism and water balance of insects by neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    Neuropeptides regulate all important physiological, developmental, and behavioral processes in insects. Here, I review two major physiological events that are hormonally controlled, namely intermediary metabolism and ion and water transport. Peptides belonging to the family of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) increase hemolymph carbohydrates, lipids, and proline by activating the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase or lipase in the fat body. Moreover, these pleiotropic and multifunctional peptides inhibit protein-, lipid-, and RNA synthesis, and stimulate the frequency of contraction of certain muscles. Diuretic hormones that are related to the vertebrate corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF-related DHs) or belong to the family of kinins (which also have a myotropic action) or the cardioacceleratory peptides (CAPs), which increase the frequency of the heartbeat, all stimulate the secretion of fluid in Malpighian tubules (MTs) in vitro. Only a few true antidiuretic hormones are known: those from mealworms that inhibit the fluid transport in MTs in vitro, probably neuroparsins that stimulate water absorption by everted rectal sacs in vitro, and the desert locust's ion-transport peptide (ITP). Biosynthesis, release, receptors, mode of action, inactivation, structure-activity studies, and biological functions are discussed for the various peptides.

  9. LH (Luteinizing Hormone) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... for luteinizing hormone (LH), a hormone associated with reproduction and the stimulation of the release of an ... LH and FSH with the development of secondary sexual characteristics at an unusually young age are an ...

  10. Hormone Health Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3D Patient Education mobile app The Hormone Health Network helps you and your health care provider have ... Copyright Endocrine Society. All rights reserved. Terms & Policies Network Partners The Hormone Health Network partners with other ...

  11. Hormonal effects in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001911.htm Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb, babies ...

  12. [Thyroid hormone resistance syndromes].

    PubMed

    Bernal, Juan

    2011-04-01

    Thyroid hormone resistance syndromes are a group of genetic conditions characterized by decreased tissue sensitivity to thyroid hormones. Three syndromes, in which resistance to hormone action is respectively due to mutations in the gene encoding for thyroid hormone receptor TRβ, impaired T4 and T3 transport, and impaired conversion of T4 to T3 mediated by deiodinases. An updated review of each of these forms of resistance is provided, and their pathogenetic mechanisms and clinical approaches are discussed.

  13. Hormone treatment of depression

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Russell T.

    2011-01-01

    There is a well-established relationship between alterations of various hormonal systems and psychiatric disorders, both in endocrine and psychiatric patients. This has led to clinical and research studies examining the efficacy of the different hormones for treatment of depression. These data will be reviewed with particular regard to the thyroid, gonadal, pineal, and adrenal cortex hormones. The data generally provide limited, but varying evidence for the antidepressant efficacy of these hormones. PMID:21485752

  14. [Growth hormone treatment update].

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Short stature in children is a common cause for referral to pediatric endocrinologists, corresponding most times to normal variants of growth. Initially growth hormone therapy was circumscribed to children presenting growth hormone deficiency. Since the production of recombinant human hormone its use had spread to other pathologies.

  15. Aging changes in hormone production

    MedlinePlus

    The endocrine system is made up of organs and tissues that produce hormones. Hormones are natural chemicals produced in one ... hormones that control the other structures in the endocrine system. The amount of these regulating hormones stays about ...

  16. Interaction of the red pigment-concentrating hormone of the crustacean Daphnia pulex, with its cognate receptor, Dappu-RPCHR: A nuclear magnetic resonance and modeling study.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Graham E; Pavadai, Elumalai; Gäde, Gerd; Timol, Zaheer; Andersen, Niels H

    2017-08-22

    The primary sequence of the red pigment-concentrating hormone (RPCH) receptor of the water flea, Daphnia pulex, was used in homology modeling to construct the first 3D model of a crustacean G-protein coupled receptor, Dappu-RPCHR. This receptor was found to belong to the class A subfamily of GPCRs with a disulfide bridge between Cys(72) and Cys(150) and an ionic lock between Arg(97) and Thr(224) and Thr(220). NMR restrained molecular dynamics was used to determine the structure of an agonist, Dappu-RPCH, in a membrane-mimicking environment. The agonist was found to be flexible but has two main conformations in solution, both having β-turns. Docking of the predominant structure was used to find a binding pocket on the receptor. The pocket's spatial location was similar to that of the AKH receptor of Anopheles gambiae. The binding affinity was -69kcalmol(-1) with the N-terminus of Dappu-RPCH inserted between helices 4 and 6, and the C-terminus interacting with extra-cellular loop, ECL2. Upon binding, H-bonding to the peptide may activate the receptor. This development of the first Dappu-RPCH/Dappu-RPCHR model could be useful for understanding ligand-receptor interactions in crustaceans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The mechanism of regulation of ovarian maturation by red pigment concentrating hormone in the mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hui; Bao, Chenchang; Huang, Huiyang; Ye, Haihui; Li, Shaojing

    2016-01-01

    In this study a full-length cDNA (Sp-RPCH) was cloned from the eyestalk ganglia of the mud crab Scylla paramamosain. Sp-RPCH is 660 base pairs in length and its open reading frame encodes a precursor that is predicted to be processed into a 25-residue signal peptide, a mature red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH, an octapeptide), and a 75-residue precursor-related peptide. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that it clusters with other crustacean RPCHs and belongs to the adipokinetic hormone/RPCH peptide superfamily. Sp-RPCH gene expression was detected, using an end-point polymerase chain reaction (PCR), not only in the eyestalk ganglia but also in the brain and thoracic ganglia. Quantified using a real-time PCR, Sp-RPCH gene expression levels in the three tissues fluctuated along a cycle of ovarian maturation, with the levels progressively increased from stages I to IV, after which the expression levels decreased (although they remained significantly higher than stage I levels) when the ovary reached the mature stage (stage V). It was demonstrated using a patch clamp analysis that synthetic RPCH was able to evoke a Ca(2+) current in dissociated brain neurons and synthetic RPCH significantly increased the mean oocyte diameter of the ovarian tissues co-cultured with the eyestalk ganglia, brain, or thoracic ganglia; the stimulatory effect of RPCH was absent when the nervous tissues were not included in the ovarian incubation. Animals administrated with RPCH had significantly higher levels of gonad-somatic index, hepatopancreas-somatic index, and vitellogenin gene expression, when compared to control animals receiving a saline injection. The combined results clearly show that RPCH is involved in ovarian maturation in the mud crab; the stimulatory effects of RPCH are likely mediated by its actions on the release from the nervous tissues of factor(s) that directly regulate vitellogenesis in the ovary and hepatopancreas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. Standardization of hormone determinations.

    PubMed

    Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2013-12-01

    Standardization of hormone determinations is important because it simplifies interpretation of results and facilitates the use of common reference values for different assays. Progress in standardization has been achieved through the introduction of more homogeneous hormone standards for peptide and protein hormones. However, many automated methods for determinations of steroid hormones do not provide satisfactory result. Isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS) has been used to establish reference methods for steroid hormone determinations and is now increasingly used for routine determinations of steroids and other low molecular weight compounds. Reference methods for protein hormones based on MS are being developed and these promise to improve standardization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hormones and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blackstein, Martin Elliot

    1984-01-01

    Hormonal therapy is the first systemic therapy to have been used successfully in the treatment of cancer. Developments in steroid hormone receptor assays in the last decade have resulted in the first predictable assays for cancer therapy. The role of hormones, in both the development and treatment of breast, prostate and uterine cancer, is reviewed. Because hormonal therapy is generally a less toxic palliative treatment than other treatments (e.g., chemotherapy and radiation), it has been used for malignancies such as malignant melanoma, hypernephroma, and carcinoid. PMID:21278945

  20. Feeding and Fasting Signals Converge on the LKB1-SIK3 Pathway to Regulate Lipid Metabolism in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sekyu; Lim, Dae-Sik; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2015-05-01

    LKB1 plays important roles in governing energy homeostasis by regulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and other AMPK-related kinases, including the salt-inducible kinases (SIKs). However, the roles and regulation of LKB1 in lipid metabolism are poorly understood. Here we show that Drosophila LKB1 mutants display decreased lipid storage and increased gene expression of brummer, the Drosophila homolog of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). These phenotypes are consistent with those of SIK3 mutants and are rescued by expression of constitutively active SIK3 in the fat body, suggesting that SIK3 is a key downstream kinase of LKB1. Using genetic and biochemical analyses, we identify HDAC4, a class IIa histone deacetylase, as a lipolytic target of the LKB1-SIK3 pathway. Interestingly, we found that the LKB1-SIK3-HDAC4 signaling axis is modulated by dietary conditions. In short-term fasting, the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) pathway, related to the mammalian glucagon pathway, inhibits the kinase activity of LKB1 as shown by decreased SIK3 Thr196 phosphorylation, and consequently induces HDAC4 nuclear localization and brummer gene expression. However, under prolonged fasting conditions, AKH-independent signaling decreases the activity of the LKB1-SIK3 pathway to induce lipolytic responses. We also identify that the Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs) pathway, related to mammalian insulin pathway, regulates SIK3 activity in feeding conditions independently of increasing LKB1 kinase activity. Overall, these data suggest that fasting stimuli specifically control the kinase activity of LKB1 and establish the LKB1-SIK3 pathway as a converging point between feeding and fasting signals to control lipid homeostasis in Drosophila.

  1. Feeding and Fasting Signals Converge on the LKB1-SIK3 Pathway to Regulate Lipid Metabolism in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sekyu; Lim, Dae-Sik; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2015-01-01

    LKB1 plays important roles in governing energy homeostasis by regulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and other AMPK-related kinases, including the salt-inducible kinases (SIKs). However, the roles and regulation of LKB1 in lipid metabolism are poorly understood. Here we show that Drosophila LKB1 mutants display decreased lipid storage and increased gene expression of brummer, the Drosophila homolog of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). These phenotypes are consistent with those of SIK3 mutants and are rescued by expression of constitutively active SIK3 in the fat body, suggesting that SIK3 is a key downstream kinase of LKB1. Using genetic and biochemical analyses, we identify HDAC4, a class IIa histone deacetylase, as a lipolytic target of the LKB1-SIK3 pathway. Interestingly, we found that the LKB1-SIK3-HDAC4 signaling axis is modulated by dietary conditions. In short-term fasting, the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) pathway, related to the mammalian glucagon pathway, inhibits the kinase activity of LKB1 as shown by decreased SIK3 Thr196 phosphorylation, and consequently induces HDAC4 nuclear localization and brummer gene expression. However, under prolonged fasting conditions, AKH-independent signaling decreases the activity of the LKB1-SIK3 pathway to induce lipolytic responses. We also identify that the Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs) pathway, related to mammalian insulin pathway, regulates SIK3 activity in feeding conditions independently of increasing LKB1 kinase activity. Overall, these data suggest that fasting stimuli specifically control the kinase activity of LKB1 and establish the LKB1-SIK3 pathway as a converging point between feeding and fasting signals to control lipid homeostasis in Drosophila. PMID:25996931

  2. Parathyroid Hormone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body does not produce enough parathyroid hormone [PTH; a natural substance needed to control the amount ... Parathyroid hormone injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: tingling, tickling, or ...

  3. Is homosexuality hormonally determined?

    PubMed

    Birke, L I

    1981-01-01

    This paper suggest there is insufficient evidence to conclude that homosexuality has endocrine bases. The search for hormonal correlates occurs within a model that views homosexuality as a medical problem requiring biological explanations and a program of treatment or prevention. This search is heavily rooted in popular conceptions of gender-appropriate behavior, as well as in naive concepts of the significance of hormonal changes. Two kinds of hormonal study are considered here. Researchers may either (a) investigate hormone levels in adult populations or (b) investigate hypotheses of behavioral determination by prenatal hormones. Much of the latter information derives from animal studies, commonly on the laboratory rat. This paper questions the validity of assumptions underlying these studies--assumptions about the behavior of the laboratory rat itself and, more importantly, about the legitimacy of this animal as a model for human behavior. It is suggested that, although such hypotheses are naive, their current popularity arises from their potential role in "controlling" homosexuality.

  4. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. Testosterone is one ...

  5. Anti-Müllerian Hormone

    MedlinePlus

    ... and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Anti-Müllerian Hormone Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: AMH; AMH Hormone Test; Müllerian-inhibiting Hormone; MIH; Müllerian Inhibiting Factor; ...

  6. The evolution and nomenclature of GnRH-type and corazonin-type neuropeptide signaling systems.

    PubMed

    Zandawala, Meet; Tian, Shi; Elphick, Maurice R

    2017-06-13

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was first discovered in mammals on account of its effect in triggering pituitary release of gonadotropins and the importance of this discovery was recognized forty years ago in the award of the 1977 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Investigation of the evolution of GnRH revealed that GnRH-type signaling systems occur throughout the chordates, including agnathans (e.g. lampreys) and urochordates (e.g. sea squirts). Furthermore, the discovery that adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is the ligand for a GnRH-type receptor in the arthropod Drosophila melanogaster provided evidence of the antiquity of GnRH-type signaling. However, the occurrence of other AKH-like peptides in arthropods, which include corazonin and AKH/corazonin-related peptide (ACP), has complicated efforts to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this family of related neuropeptides. Genome/transcriptome sequencing has revealed that both GnRH-type receptors and corazonin-type receptors occur in lophotrochozoan protostomes (annelids, mollusks) and in deuterostomian invertebrates (cephalochordates, hemichordates, echinoderms). Furthermore, peptides that act as ligands for GnRH-type and corazonin-type receptors have been identified in mollusks. However, what has been lacking is experimental evidence that distinct GnRH-type and corazonin-type peptide-receptor signaling pathways occur in deuterostomes. Importantly, we recently reported the identification of two neuropeptides that act as ligands for either a GnRH-type receptor or a corazonin-type receptor in an echinoderm species - the common European starfish Asterias rubens. Discovery of distinct GnRH-type and corazonin-type signaling pathways in this deuterostomian invertebrate has demonstrated for the first time that the evolutionarily origin of these paralogous systems can be traced to the common ancestor of protostomes and deuterostomes. Furthermore, lineage-specific losses of corazonin signaling (in vertebrates

  7. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormone for the body’s needs. This is called Hypothyroidism and may be caused by a non-functioning ... or by a non-functioning pituitary gland (see Hypothyroidism Brochure ). Hypothyroidism, is the most common reason for ...

  8. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy (a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a doctor’s instructions). ... that bioidentical hormones, whether prepared by a compounding pharmacy or pharmaceutical company, are safer to use than ...

  9. Growth hormone test

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called acromegaly . In children it is called gigantism . Too little growth hormone can cause a slow ... growth due to excess GH during childhood, called gigantism. (A special test is done to confirm this ...

  10. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fridlyand, Leonid E.; Tamarina, Natalia A.; Schally, Andrew V.; Philipson, Louis H.

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR) has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types, including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment. This review considers the role of GHRHR in the beta-cell and addresses the unique engineered GHRH agonists and antagonists for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We discuss the similarity of signaling pathways activated by GHRHR in pituitary somatotrophs and in pancreatic beta-cells and possible ways as to how the GHRHR pathway can interact with glucose and other secretagogues to stimulate insulin secretion. We also consider the hypothesis that novel GHRHR agonists can improve glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes by preserving the function and survival of pancreatic beta-cells. Wound healing and cardioprotective action with new GHRH agonists suggest that they may prove useful in ameliorating certain diabetic complications. These findings highlight the future potential therapeutic effectiveness of modulators of GHRHR activity for the development of new therapeutic approaches in diabetes and its complications. PMID:27777568

  11. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tuncel, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases. PMID:28117293

  12. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor.

    PubMed

    Tuncel, Murat

    2016-01-05

    Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  13. Protein Hormones and Immunity‡

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Keith W.; Weigent, Douglas A.; Kooijman, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A number of observations and discoveries over the past 20 years support the concept of important physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. The best known pathway for transmission of information from the immune system to the neuroendocrine system is humoral in the form of cytokines, although neural transmission via the afferent vagus is well documented also. In the other direction, efferent signals from the nervous system to the immune system are conveyed by both the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Communication is possible because the nervous and immune systems share a common biochemical language involving shared ligands and receptors, including neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, growth factors, neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. This means that the brain functions as an immune-regulating organ participating in immune responses. A great deal of evidence has accumulated and confirmed that hormones secreted by the neuroendocrine system play an important role in communication and regulation of the cells of the immune system. Among protein hormones, this has been most clearly documented for prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), but significant influences on immunity by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been demonstrated. Here we review evidence obtained during the past 20 years to clearly demonstrate that neuroendocrine protein hormones influence immunity and that immune processes affect the neuroendocrine system. New findings highlight a previously undiscovered route of communication between the immune and endocrine systems that is now known to occur at the cellular level. This communication system is activated when inflammatory processes induced by proinflammatory cytokines antagonize the function of a variety of hormones, which then causes endocrine resistance in both the periphery and brain. Homeostasis during inflammation is achieved by a balance between cytokines and

  14. Identification of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor orthologue in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Vadakkadath Meethal, Sivan; Gallego, Miguel J; Haasl, Ryan J; Petras, Stephen J; Sgro, Jean-Yves; Atwood, Craig S

    2006-01-01

    Background The Caenorhabditis elegans genome is known to code for at least 1149 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), but the GPCR(s) critical to the regulation of reproduction in this nematode are not yet known. This study examined whether GPCRs orthologous to human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) exist in C. elegans. Results Our sequence analyses indicated the presence of two proteins in C. elegans, one of 401 amino acids [GenBank: NP_491453; WormBase: F54D7.3] and another of 379 amino acids [GenBank: NP_506566; WormBase: C15H11.2] with 46.9% and 44.7% nucleotide similarity to human GnRHR1 and GnRHR2, respectively. Like human GnRHR1, structural analysis of the C. elegans GnRHR1 orthologue (Ce-GnRHR) predicted a rhodopsin family member with 7 transmembrane domains, G protein coupling sites and phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C. Of the functionally important amino acids in human GnRHR1, 56% were conserved in the C. elegans orthologue. Ce-GnRHR was actively transcribed in adult worms and immunoanalyses using antibodies generated against both human and C. elegans GnRHR indicated the presence of a 46-kDa protein, the calculated molecular mass of the immature Ce-GnRHR. Ce-GnRHR staining was specifically localized to the germline, intestine and pharynx. In the germline and intestine, Ce-GnRHR was localized specifically to nuclei as revealed by colocalization with a DNA nuclear stain. However in the pharynx, Ce-GnRHR was localized to the myofilament lattice of the pharyngeal musculature, suggesting a functional role for Ce-GnRHR signaling in the coupling of food intake with reproduction. Phylogenetic analyses support an early evolutionary origin of GnRH-like receptors, as evidenced by the hypothesized grouping of Ce-GnRHR, vertebrate GnRHRs, a molluscan GnRHR, and the adipokinetic hormone receptors (AKHRs) and corazonin receptors of arthropods. Conclusion This is the first report of a GnRHR orthologue in C. elegans, which shares significant

  15. Hormonal Responses to Synthetic Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone-Releasing Hormone in Man

    PubMed Central

    Besser, G. M.; McNeilly, A. S.; Anderson, D. C.; Marshall, J. C.; Harsoulis, P.; Hall, R.; Ormston, B. J.; Alexander, L.; Collins, W. P.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, synthetic decapeptide luteinizing hormone/follicle stimulating hormone-releasing hormone (LH/FSH-RH), have been studied in 18 normal men and five women in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Rapid and dose-dependent (25 to 100 μg) increases in serum immunoreactive LH were seen, which reached a peak 20 to 30 minutes after a rapid intravenous injection. Similar but much smaller increases in serum immunoreactive FSH were seen. These conclusions have been validated by using two different immunoassay systems for each hormone. The LH/FSH-RH therefore causes both LH and FSH release in man as in animals but does not affect growth hormone, thyrotrophin, or ACTH. The gonadotrophin responses were the same in the women as in the men but were insufficient in the men to cause statistically significant changes in the serum levels of the gonadal steroid hormones, testosterone or oestradiol, or in their precursors 17 α-hydroxyprogesterone or progesterone. In the women, however, there was a rise in oestradiol after the 100-μg doses. The use of LH/FSH-RH will provide an important test to define the level of the lesion in hypogonadal patients and also should be valuable in the treatment of some types of male and female infertility. A simple and clinically useful LH/FSH-RH test of pituitary function is described (100 μg given intravenously), and the provisional normal responses of LH and FSH at 20 and 60 minutes are given. PMID:4339974

  16. Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably constitutes another point at which intervention may promote efficient digestion and nutrient uptake. In recent decades, gut hormones have come to occupy a central place in the complex neuroendocrine interactions that underlie the regulation of energy balance. Many gut peptides have been shown to influence energy intake. The most well studied in this regard are cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin and ghrelin. With the exception of ghrelin, these hormones act to increase satiety and decrease food intake. The mechanisms by which gut hormones modify feeding are the subject of ongoing investigation. Local effects such as the inhibition of gastric emptying might contribute to the decrease in energy intake. Activation of mechanoreceptors as a result of gastric distension may inhibit further food intake via neural reflex arcs. Circulating gut hormones have also been shown to act directly on neurons in hypothalamic and brainstem centres of appetite control. The median eminence and area postrema are characterized by a deficiency of the blood–brain barrier. Some investigators argue that this renders neighbouring structures, such as the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the brainstem, susceptible to influence by circulating factors. Extensive reciprocal connections exist between these areas and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and other energy-regulating centres of the

  17. Thyroid hormone transporter defects.

    PubMed

    Grüters, Annette

    2007-01-01

    In in vitro experiments, active transport of thyroid hormones had been repeatedly demonstrated. The membrane transporters for thyroid hormones which have been identified include the organic anion transporting polypeptide, heterodimeric amino acid transporters and the monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) which are the focus of this chapter. The gene encoding MCT8 which was identified as a specific thyroid hormone transporter is located on chromosome Xq13.2. The expression pattern of MCT8 indicates that MCT8 plays an important role in the development of the central nervous system by transporting thyroid hormone into neurons as its main target cells. Mutational analysis of the MCT8 gene revealed mutations or deletions in the MCT8 gene in unrelated male patients with severe psychomotor retardation and biochemical findings consistent with thyroid hormone resistance. Indeed, thyroid function tests in patients with MCT8 mutations demonstrated marked elevations of serum T3 (in the thyrotoxic range), a significant decrease in serum T4 or fT4 and normal to elevated TSH levels.

  18. Hormonal control of euryhalinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takei, Yoshio; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  19. Obesity: the hormonal milieu.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Anne; Diamond, Frank B

    2008-02-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions throughout the world and poses significant health and economic burdens to both developed and developing societies. Most recent data from the NHANES study (2003-2004) report that 17.1% of US children are overweight and 32.2% of adults are obese, a significant increase compared with data obtained only 6 years earlier. The neurohormonal control of appetite, body composition, and glucose homeostasis is mediated by hormones secreted from adipose tissue, endocrine glands, and enteroendocrine cells, which converge at the vagus nerve, brainstem and hypothalamus to modulate complex interactions of neurotransmitters and central appetite-regulating peptides. These hormonal signals are tightly regulated to maintain body weight/adiposity within a narrow, individually defined range that may be further impacted by variables such as ingested calories, meal composition, and lifestyle. Clinical manifestations of obesity, the metabolic syndrome and impaired glucose tolerance reflect biochemical alterations in a complex hormonal milieu. Elucidation of these hormonal perturbations in obese patients has already provided novel pharmacologic treatments to improve weight management and address the metabolic sequelae of obesity. The remarkable redundancy of these hormones, however, and their interactions make a monopharmaceutical approach unlikely to be successful.

  20. [Hormones and hair growth].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  1. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions.

  2. Male hormonal contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Amory, J K

    2006-06-01

    Efforts are underway to develop additional forms of contraception for men. The most promising approach to male contraceptive development involves the administration of exogenous testosterone (T). When administered to a man, T functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary, thereby depriving the testes of the signals required for spermatogenesis. After 2-3 months of treatment, low levels of these gonadotropins lead to markedly decreased sperm counts and effective contraception in a majority of men. Hormonal contraception with exogenous T has proven to be free from serious adverse effects and is well tolerated by men. In addition, sperm counts uniformly normalize when the exogenous T is discontinued. Thus, male hormonal is safe, effective and reversible; however, spermatogenesis is not suppressed to zero in all men, meaning that some diminished potential for fertility persists. Because of this recent studies have combined T with progestogens and/or gonadotropin-releasing antagonists to further suppress pituitary gonadotropins and optimize contraceptive efficacy. Current combinations of T and progestogens completely suppress spermatogenesis without severe side effects in 80-90% of men, with significant suppression in the remainder of individuals. Recent trials with newer, long-acting forms of injectable T, which can be administered every 8 weeks, combined with progestogens, administered either orally or by long-acting implant, have yielded promising results and may soon result in the marketing of a safe, reversible and effective hormonal contraceptive for men.

  3. [Growth hormone signaling pathways].

    PubMed

    Zych, Sławomir; Szatkowska, Iwona; Czerniawska-Piatkowska, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    The substantial improvement in the studies on a very complicated mechanism-- growth hormone signaling in a cell, has been noted in last decade. GH-induced signaling is characterized by activation of several pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), the signal transducer and activator of transcription and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3) pathways. This review shows a current model of the growth hormone receptor dimerization, rotation of subunits and JAK2 kinase activation as the initial steps in the cascade of events. In the next stages of the signaling process, the GH-(GHR)2-(JAK2)2 complex may activate signaling molecules such as Stat, IRS-1 and IRS-2, and particularly all cascade proteins that activate MAP kinase. These pathways regulate basal cellular functions including target gene transcription, enzymatic activity and metabolite transport. Therefore growth hormone is considered as a major regulator of postnatal growth and metabolism, probably for mammary gland growth and development too.

  4. [Hormonal perturbations in fibromyalgia].

    PubMed

    Schlienger, J L; Perrin, A E; Grunenberger, F; Goichot, B

    2001-12-01

    Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain and fatigue without biological detectable disturbances. The mechanisms of this disease are unknown. It has been postulated that it can be the consequence of a chronic stress mediated mainly through the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system. These fields have been extensively studied. Results were scattered and non convincing. A reduction of growth hormone and IGF-1 levels described in a third of patients has led to a double blind random clinical trial with biogenetic growth hormone. Results were equivocal . Other hormonal systems are grossly normals and circadian rhythms are unaltered. Despite some arguments in favour of a CRH neurons hyperactivity, these results are not able to consolide a particular physiopathological mechanism and to argument for a new therapeutic approach. Many of the abnormalities may be the consequence of psychological disturbances.

  5. Peptidomics of Neuropeptidergic Tissues of the Tsetse Fly Glossina morsitans morsitans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caers, Jelle; Boonen, Kurt; Van Den Abbeele, Jan; Van Rompay, Liesbeth; Schoofs, Liliane; Van Hiel, Matthias B.

    2015-12-01

    Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are essential signaling molecules that regulate nearly all physiological processes. The recent release of the tsetse fly genome allowed the construction of a detailed in silico neuropeptide database (International Glossina Genome Consortium, Science 344, 380-386 (2014)), as well as an in-depth mass spectrometric analysis of the most important neuropeptidergic tissues of this medically and economically important insect species. Mass spectrometric confirmation of predicted peptides is a vital step in the functional characterization of neuropeptides, as in vivo peptides can be modified, cleaved, or even mispredicted. Using a nanoscale reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to a Q Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer, we detected 51 putative bioactive neuropeptides encoded by 19 precursors: adipokinetic hormone (AKH) I and II, allatostatin A and B, capability/pyrokinin (capa/PK), corazonin, calcitonin-like diuretic hormone (CT/DH), FMRFamide, hugin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, natalisin, neuropeptide-like precursor (NPLP) 1, orcokinin, pigment dispersing factor (PDF), RYamide, SIFamide, short neuropeptide F (sNPF) and tachykinin. In addition, propeptides, truncated and spacer peptides derived from seven additional precursors were found, and include the precursors of allatostatin C, crustacean cardioactive peptide, corticotropin releasing factor-like diuretic hormone (CRF/DH), ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), ion transport peptide (ITP), neuropeptide F, and proctolin, respectively. The majority of the identified neuropeptides are present in the central nervous system, with only a limited number of peptides in the corpora cardiaca-corpora allata and midgut. Owing to the large number of identified peptides, this study can be used as a reference for comparative studies in other insects.

  6. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    PubMed

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  7. Ovarian hormones and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Zachariasen, R D

    1991-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of the ovarian hormones--estrogen and progestins--during pregnancy, puberty, the menstrual cycle, and oral contraceptive (OC) use are associated with an increased incidence of gingival inflammation and exudate. Gingivitis is induced by the micro- organisms that compose subgingival plaque, particularly anaerobic organisms. The ovarian hormones both stimulate bacterial growth and promote the inflammatory process. In the presence of sex hormones, the metabolic breakdown of folate is increased, leading to a folate deficiency that enhances the inflammatory destruction of oral tissue. Gingivitis occurs in an estimated 60-75% of pregnancy women, but the numbers of gingivitis-producing bacteria decrease toward the end of pregnancy and the gingival tissues return to their previous state. In OC users, on the other hand, inflammation of the gingiva is chronic and may increase over time. If gingivitis is already present at the onset of pregnancy or OC use, the inflammation will become progressively more severe. Although these effects cannot be avoided, ovarian hormone- induced gingivitis can be substantially minimized of low plaque levels exist at the beginning of pregnancy or pill initiation.

  8. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    MedlinePlus

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...

  9. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  10. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  11. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  12. Hormone Profiling in Plant Tissues.

    PubMed

    Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2017-01-01

    Plant hormones are for a long time known to act as chemical messengers in the regulation of physiological processes during a plant's life cycle, from germination to senescence. Furthermore, plant hormones simultaneously coordinate physiological responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To study the hormonal regulation of physiological processes, three main approaches have been used (1) exogenous application of hormones, (2) correlative studies through measurements of endogenous hormone levels, and (3) use of transgenic and/or mutant plants altered in hormone metabolism or signaling. A plant hormone profiling method is useful to unravel cross talk between hormones and help unravel the hormonal regulation of physiological processes in studies using any of the aforementioned approaches. However, hormone profiling is still particularly challenging due to their very low abundance in plant tissues. In this chapter, a sensitive, rapid, and accurate method to quantify all the five "classic" classes of plant hormones plus other plant growth regulators, such as jasmonates, salicylic acid, melatonin, and brassinosteroids is described. The method includes a fast and simple extraction procedure without time consuming steps as purification or derivatization, followed by optimized ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. This protocol facilitates the high-throughput analysis of hormone profiling and is applicable to different plant tissues.

  13. Bioidentical Hormones for Menopausal Hormone Therapy: Variation on a Theme

    PubMed Central

    Bythrow, Jenna

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Progesterone creams and natural or bioidentical compounded estrogen preparations are being promoted to consumers as safe alternatives to conventional menopausal hormone therapy and as health-promoting tonics. No reliable data support these claims. SAFETY Natural hormones, including estradiol, estriol, estrone, and progesterone, can be expected to have the same adverse event profile as conventional menopausal hormone regimens. SALIVARY HORMONE TESTS Salivary tests may be used to persuade asymptomatic consumers to use hormones (or symptomatic patients to use higher doses than those needed to mitigate symptoms), a practice that can be expected to result in adverse events. PMID:17549577

  14. Histological organization of the central nervous system and distribution of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide in the blue crab, Portunus pelagicus.

    PubMed

    Saetan, Jirawat; Senarai, Thanyaporn; Tamtin, Montakan; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Chavadej, Jittipan; Hanna, Peter J; Parhar, Ishwar; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prapee

    2013-09-01

    We present a detailed histological description of the central nervous system (CNS: brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia) of the blue crab, Portunus pelagicus. Because the presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in crustaceans has been disputed, we examine the presence and localization of a GnRH-like peptide in the CNS of the blue crab by using antibodies against lamprey GnRH (lGnRH)-III, octopus GnRH (octGnRH) and tunicate GnRH (tGnRH)-I. These antibodies showed no cross-reactivity with red-pigment-concentrating hormone, adipokinetic hormone, or corazonin. In the brain, strong lGnRH-III immunoreactivity (-ir) was detected in small (7-17 μm diameter) neurons of clusters 8, 9 and 10, in medium-sized (21-36 μm diameter) neurons of clusters 6, 7 and 11 and in the anterior and posterior median protocerebral neuropils, olfactory neuropil, median and lateral antenna I neuropils, tegumentary neuropil and antenna II neuropil. In the subesophageal ganglion, lGnRH-III-ir was detected in medium-sized neurons and in the subesophageal neuropil. In the thoracic and abdominal ganglia, lGnRH-III-ir was detected in medium-sized and small neurons and in the neuropils. OctGnRH-ir was observed in neurons of the same clusters with moderate staining, particularly in the deutocerebrum, whereas tGnRH-I-ir was only detected in medium-sized neurons of cluster 11 in the brain. Thus, anti-lGnRH-III shows greater immunoreactivity in the crab CNS than anti-octGnRH and anti-tGnRH-I. Moreover, our functional bioassay demonstrates that only lGnRH-III has significant stimulatory effects on ovarian growth and maturation. We therefore conclude that, although the true identity of the crab GnRH eludes us, crabs possess a putative GnRH hormone similar to lGnRH-III. The identification and characterization of this molecule is part of our ongoing research.

  15. The wound hormone jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Abraham J.K.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant tissues are highly vulnerable to injury by herbivores, pathogens, mechanical stress, and other environmental insults. Optimal plant fitness in the face of these threats relies on complex signal transduction networks that link damage-associated signals to appropriate changes in metabolism, growth, and development. Many of these wound-induced adaptive responses are triggered by de novo synthesis of the plant hormone jasmonate (JA). Recent studies provide evidence that JA mediates systemic wound responses through distinct cell autonomous and nonautonomous pathways. In both pathways, bioactive JAs are recognized by an F-box protein-based receptor system that couples hormone binding to ubiquitin-dependent degradation of transcriptional repressor proteins. These results provide a new framework for understanding how plants recognize and respond to tissue injury. PMID:19695649

  16. Hormones and Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    OHE 1 hypothesis are cancer patients and lacto- vegetarians . The evidence is rather clear that certain sparse. Schneider and co-workers used a Both of... Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Giske Ursin, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Southern California School of Medicine Los Angeles...TYPE AND DATES COVERED I October 1997 Final (30 Sep 94 - 29 Sep 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Hormones and Breast Cancer DAMD17-94-J

  17. [Acne and hormones].

    PubMed

    Faure, Michel

    2002-04-15

    Androgens stimulate sebum production which is necessary for the development of acne. Acne in women may thus be considered as a manifestation of cutaneous androgenization. Most of acnes may be related to an idiopathic skin hyperandrogenism due to in situ enzyme activity and androgen receptor hypersensitivity, as also noted in idiopathic hirsutism. Some acne may correspond to elevated ovarian or adrenal androgen secretion. The presence of acne in women may lead to a diagnosis of functional hyperandrogenism, either polycysticovary syndrome or nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Plasma level assays for testosterone, delta 4 androstenedione and 17-OH progesterone and ovarian echography are necessary to determine the possibility for an ovarian or adrenal hyperandrogenism, but not to better treat acne. The goal of hormonal therapy in acne is to oppose the effects of androgens on the sebaceous gland. Hormones may be used in female acne in the absence of endocrine abnormalities. Antiandrogens (cyproterone acetate or aldactone) may be useful in severe acne, hormonal contraceptives with cyproterone acetate or non androgenic progestins in mild or common acne often in association with other anti-acneic drugs. Glucocorticoids have to be administered in acne fulminans and other forms of acute, severe, inflammatory acne, for their anti-inflammatory properties.

  18. Sex hormones and acne.

    PubMed

    Ju, Qiang; Tao, Tao; Hu, Tingting; Karadağ, Ayşe Serap; Al-Khuzaei, Safaa; Chen, WenChieh

    The skin is an endocrine organ with the expression of metabolizing enzymes and hormone receptors for diverse hormones. The sebaceous gland is the main site of hormone biosynthesis, especially for androgens, and acne is the classical androgen-mediated dermatosis. In sebocytes, conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone directly to dihydrotestosterone bypassing testosterone has been demonstrated, while type II 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase can inactivate the action of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. The androgen receptor-dependent genomic effect of dihydrotestosterone on sebocytes is confirmed. Further evidence supports the PI3 K/Akt/FoxO1/mTOR signaling in the involvement of the interplay between androgens, insulin, insulin-like growth factor, and hyperglycemic diet in acne. Androgens not only regulate embryology and lipogenesis/sebum synthesis in sebocytes but also influence inflammation in acne. Genetic studies indicate that regulation of the androgen receptor is an important factor in severe acne. Further studies are required to understand the effect of estrogen and progesterone on sebaceous gland and comedogenesis, considering the change of acne in pregnancy and postmenopausal acne. Special attention should be paid to nonobese patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome and hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome. In spite of extensive gynecologic experience in the use of combined oral contraceptives for acne, evidence based on dermatologic observation should be intensified.

  19. [Hormones and the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Lacka, Katarzyna; Czyzyk, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Hormones have an influence on many tissues and organs, including the cardio-vascular system (CVS). Depending on their activity on CVS, they can be divided into 4 groups: having hypertensive or hypotensive influence and chronotropic positive or negative action. Endocrine regulation in CVS may occur in many ways. Apart from hormones usually connected with CVS regulation, other more recently, discovered ones can act on it. A few of these act directly through specific receptors in heart or vessel wall cells, whereas some act indirectly - stimulating other neuroendocrine factors. Additionally, novel mechanisms of signal transduction have been discovered for steroid and thyroid hormones, which are independent of gene transcription regulation and are - known as "nongenomic". Hormones which increase blood pressure include: urotensin II, endothelins, angiotensin II, catecholamines, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and leptin. On the other hand, blood pressure can be decreased by: natriuretic peptides, the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family, angiotensin 1-7, substance P, neurokinin A, ghrelin, Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), oxytocin, and, sex hormones. Hormones which when appearing in excess increase the heart rate are: catecholamines, endothelins, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, leptin and PTHrP. Those which decrease the heart rate include: natriuretic peptides, substance P, neurokinin A, oxytocin, angiotensin 1-7. This paper describes the contemporary view of the functions of hormones which act on the vessel tree and heart. The particular effect of mediator depends on many circumstances i.e.: hormone concentration, receptor type. It may also undergo contraregulation. The majority of those hormones play an important role in the pathogenesis of CVS diseases', which can result in the development of new medicines.

  20. A nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue.

    PubMed

    Smith, R G; Cheng, K; Schoen, W R; Pong, S S; Hickey, G; Jacks, T; Butler, B; Chan, W W; Chaung, L Y; Judith, F

    1993-06-11

    A nonpeptidyl secretagogue for growth hormone of the structure 3-amino-3-methyl-N-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5 -yl) (1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl]methyl)-1H-1-benzazepin-3(R)-yl)-butanamid e (L-692,429) has been identified. L-692,429 synergizes with the natural growth hormone secretagogue growth hormone-releasing hormone and acts through an alternative signal transduction pathway. The mechanism of action of L-692,429 and studies with peptidyl and nonpeptidyl antagonists suggest that this molecule is a mimic of the growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 (GHRP-6). L-692,429 is an example of a nonpeptidyl specific secretagogue for growth hormone.

  1. [Hormone replacement therapy].

    PubMed

    Nozue, E

    1994-03-01

    Hormone replacement therapy after menopause has shown so many advantages, such as reduction in risk of coronary artery disease and osteoporotic fracture besides treatment for climacteric symptoms, yet disadvantage such as a probability of an increase in the risk of breast cancer with long-term use still remains. In Japan HRT is now at the starting point. We must try to make more effort to accumulate data on the safety of HRT during-and-after menopause. It is our hope that doctors, not only gynecologists, but also doctors of other specialties will join our program for the health and happiness of women after menopause.

  2. Frailty, sarcopenia, and hormones.

    PubMed

    Morley, John E; Malmstrom, Theodore K

    2013-06-01

    Frailty is now a definable clinical syndrome with a simple screening test. Age-related changes in hormones play a major role in the development of frailty by reducing muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia). Selective Androgen Receptor Molecules and ghrelin agonists are being developed to treat sarcopenia. The role of Activin Type IIB soluble receptors and Follistatin-like 3 mimetics is less certain because of side effects. Exercise (resistance and aerobic), vitamin D and protein supplementation, and reduction of polypharmacy are keys to the treatment of frailty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hormone Abuse Prevention and What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Infographics Myth vs ... Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Infographics Myth vs ...

  4. Hormonal Determinants of Mammographic Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0553 TITLE: Hormonal Determinants of Mammographic Density PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jennifer K. Simpson Francemary Modugno...NUMBER Hormonal Determinants of Mammographic Density 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02-1-0553 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) has

  5. Hormonal Determinants of Mammographic Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0553 TITLE: Hormonal Determinants of Mammographic Density PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jennifer K. Simpson, R.N. Francesmary...August 2004 Annual Summary (I Aug 2003 - 31 Jul 2004) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Hormonal Determinants of Mammographic Density DAMD17-02...proprietary or confidential information) Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) has been shown to increase breast cancer risk as well as to increase breast

  6. Mammalian sex hormones in plants.

    PubMed

    Janeczko, Anna; Skoczowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of mammalian sex hormones and their physiological role in plants is reviewed. These hormones, such as 17beta-estradiol, androsterone, testosterone or progesterone, were present in 60-80% of the plant species investigated. Enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and conversion were also found in plants. Treatment of the plants with sex hormones or their precursors influenced plant development: cell divisions, root and shoot growth, embryo growth, flowering, pollen tube growth and callus proliferation. The regulatory abilities of mammalian sex hormones in plants makes possible their use in practice, especially in plant in vitro culture.

  7. Thyroid Hormones and Methylmercury Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    O’Mara, Daniel M.; Aschner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for cellular metabolism, growth, and development. In particular, an adequate supply of thyroid hormones is critical for fetal neurodevelopment. Thyroid hormone tissue activation and inactivation in brain, liver, and other tissues is controlled by the deiodinases through the removal of iodine atoms. Selenium, an essential element critical for deiodinase activity, is sensitive to mercury and, therefore, when its availability is reduced, brain development might be altered. This review addresses the possibility that high exposures to the organometal, methylmercury (MeHg), may perturb neurodevelopmental processes by selectively affecting thyroid hormone homeostasis and function. PMID:18716716

  8. Hormone therapy in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Maurizio

    2010-05-01

    Steroid hormones are deeply involved in the pathophysiology of immune-mediated rheumatic diseases and used for their treatment. Purpose of the review is to update on recent roles and mechanisms of action of important steroid hormones such as glucocorticoids, estrogens, and D hormone (vitamin D) in order to optimize their therapeutical use. Endogenous glucocorticoids are characterized by a circadian rhythm of production that must be respected in case of exogenous low-dose long-term glucocorticoid replacement therapy of rheumatic diseases. Estrogens are enhancers of the humoral immune response and increase cell proliferation. Therefore, estrogens represent a risk factor for the development of autoimmunity and their therapeutical use must be avoided in patients with active immune-mediated diseases. Vitamin D, as synthesized in the skin from cholesterol, is a real steroid hormone (D hormone). The immunosuppressive activities of D hormone are reduced in chronic rheumatic diseases, as low plasma levels of the hormone are evident and justify its therapeutical use. The optimization of the therapeutical use of steroid hormones such as glucocorticoids, estrogens or D hormone is now possible following recent basic and clinical research achievements.

  9. Hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Scharbo-Dehaan, M

    1996-12-01

    More than 40 million women in the United States are now going through or are past menopause. Another 3.5 million or more will reach midlife in the next decade. As their life expectancy increases (mean life expectancy of women is now approximately 84 years), so does the need for therapeutic regimens related to reproductive function and aging in woman. Few medical treatments available to menopausal and postmenopausal women have as much potential benefit as well as possible health risks as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Despite the increasing amount of scientific data available regarding the benefits of HRT, a degree of uncertainty still remains, both in the minds of some women, and with some health professionals, regarding the risks associated with long-term therapy. Even though the literature is voluminous, contradictory, and unclear, health providers must be able to keep abreast of current knowledge about the benefits, risks, and unknowns of these drugs. The purpose of this article is to provide a review and an update on the types of hormones available for HRT, their pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, and their risks, benefits, and contraindications. Newer products, specially compounded formulas, new regimens, and new modes of delivery that offer women alternatives and allow care to be individualized are described. In addition, some of the ongoing management dilemmas that practitioners face with the woman who chooses HRT are presented with practical solutions and suggestions.

  10. [Hormone replacement therapy--growth hormone, melatonin, DHEA and sex hormones].

    PubMed

    Fukai, Shiho; Akishita, Masahiro

    2009-07-01

    The ability to maintain active and independent living as long as possible is crucial for the healthy longevity. Hormones responsible for some of the manifestations associated with aging are growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), melatonin, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), sex hormones and thyroid hormones. These hormonal changes are associated with changes in body composition, visceral obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, loss of cognitive functioning, reduction in well being, depression, as well as sexual dysfunction. With the prolongation of life expectancy, both men and women today live the latter third life with endocrine deficiencies. Hormone replacement therapy may alleviate the debilitating conditions of secondary partial endocrine deficiencies by preventing or delaying some aspects of aging.

  11. Thyroid hormone and the heart.

    PubMed

    Moolman, J A

    2002-01-01

    Thyroid hormone has important cardiovascular effects, and abnormalities of its production cause cardiovascular morbidity. The role of both excessive and insufficient thyroid hormone production in the pathogenesis of clinical cardiac diseases can be deduced from thyroid hormone-induced molecular changes. Thyroid hormone regulates the expression of myocardial genes regulating the handling of calcium, which affects both systolic and diastolic myocardial function. Thyroid hormone also has indirect and direct effects on peripheral vascular smooth muscle tone, and alters the coupling of the left ventricle and arterial system. Excessive production of thyroid hormone results in an increased cardiac output as well as increased cardiac work efficiency, but reduced cardiac reserve. Amiodarone therapy for cardiac rhythm can cause both hyper- and hypothyroidism. Amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) can be due to either excessive thyroid hormone production (type I AIT) or thyroid hormone release due to an inflammatory condition (type II AIT). Classification of AIT is helpful in guiding therapy. Amiodarone causes changes in the thyroid function tests of euthyroid patients on therapy--it inhibits the conversion of T(4) and T(3), which results in decreased T(3) and slightly increased T(4) serum levels in euthyroid patients. Baseline thyroid functions should therefore be determined before starting amiodarone therapy, and at 6-monthly intervals thereafter.

  12. Hormonal Programming Across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Tobet, Stuart A; Lara, Hernan E; Lucion, Aldo B; Wilson, Melinda E; Recabarren, Sergio E; Paredes, Alfonso H

    2013-01-01

    Hormones influence countless biological processes across the lifespan, and during developmental sensitive periods hormones have the potential to cause permanent tissue-specific alterations in anatomy and physiology. There are numerous critical periods in development wherein different targets are affected. This review outlines the proceedings of the Hormonal Programming in Development session at the US-South American Workshop in Neuroendocrinology in August 2011. Here we discuss how gonadal hormones impact various biological processes within the brain and gonads during early development and describe the changes that take place in the aging female ovary. At the cellular level, hormonal targets in the brain include neurons, glia, or vasculature. On a genomic/epigenomic level, transcription factor signaling and epigenetic changes alter the expression of hormone receptor genes across development and following ischemic brain insult. In addition, organizational hormone exposure alters epigenetic processes in specific brain nuclei and may be a mediator of sexual differentiation of the neonatal brain. During development of the ovary, exposure to excess gonadal hormones leads to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Exposure to excess androgens during fetal development also has a profound effect on the development of the male reproductive system. In addition, increased sympathetic nerve activity and stress during early life have been linked to PCOS symptomology in adulthood. Finally, we describe how age-related decreases in fertility are linked to high levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), which enhances sympathetic nerve activity and alters ovarian function. PMID:22700441

  13. Growth hormone stimulation test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... test is usually performed to identify if hGH (human growth hormone) is deficient. The test is performed by administering the amino acid arginine in a vein to raise hGH levels. The test measures the ability of the pituitary to secrete growth hormone in ...

  14. Effects of hormones on sleep.

    PubMed

    Steiger, A; Antonijevic, I A; Bohlhalter, S; Frieboes, R M; Friess, E; Murck, H

    1998-01-01

    Administration of hormones to humans and animals results in specific effects on the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and nocturnal hormone secretion. Studies with pulsatile administration of various neuropeptides in young and old normal controls and in patients with depression suggest they play a key role in sleep-endocrine regulation. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH) stimulates GH and slow wave sleep (SWS) and inhibits cortisol, whereas corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) exerts opposite effects. Changes in the GHRH:CRH ratio contribute to sleep-endocrine aberrations during normal ageing and acute depression. In addition, galanin and neuropeptide Y promote sleep, whereas, in the elderly, somatostatin impairs sleep. The rapid eye movement (REM)-nonREM cycle is modulated by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Cortisol stimulates SWS and GH, probably by feedback inhibition of CRH. Neuroactive steroids exert specific effects on the sleep EEG, which can be explained by gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor modulation.

  15. Quo vadis plant hormone analysis?

    PubMed

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Floková, Kristýna; Tarkowski, Petr; Turečková, Veronika; Grúz, Jiří; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav

    2014-07-01

    Plant hormones act as chemical messengers in the regulation of myriads of physiological processes that occur in plants. To date, nine groups of plant hormones have been identified and more will probably be discovered. Furthermore, members of each group may participate in the regulation of physiological responses in planta both alone and in concert with members of either the same group or other groups. The ideal way to study biochemical processes involving these signalling molecules is 'hormone profiling', i.e. quantification of not only the hormones themselves, but also their biosynthetic precursors and metabolites in plant tissues. However, this is highly challenging since trace amounts of all of these substances are present in highly complex plant matrices. Here, we review advances, current trends and future perspectives in the analysis of all currently known plant hormones and the associated problems of extracting them from plant tissues and separating them from the numerous potentially interfering compounds.

  16. Hormone therapy for transgender patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many transgender men and women seek hormone therapy as part of the transition process. Exogenous testosterone is used in transgender men to induce virilization and suppress feminizing characteristics. In transgender women, exogenous estrogen is used to help feminize patients, and anti-androgens are used as adjuncts to help suppress masculinizing features. Guidelines exist to help providers choose appropriate candidates for hormone therapy, and act as a framework for choosing treatment regimens and managing surveillance in these patients. Cross-sex hormone therapy has been shown to have positive physical and psychological effects on the transitioning individual and is considered a mainstay treatment for many patients. Bone and cardiovascular health are important considerations in transgender patients on long-term hormones, and care should be taken to monitor certain metabolic indices while patients are on cross-sex hormone therapy. PMID:28078219

  17. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  18. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  19. Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Avais; Pingitore, Alessandro; Pearce, Simon H S; Zaman, Azfar; Iervasi, Giorgio; Razvi, Salman

    2017-01-01

    Myocardial and vascular endothelial tissues have receptors for thyroid hormones and are sensitive to changes in the concentrations of circulating thyroid hormones. The importance of thyroid hormones in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis can be deduced from clinical and experimental data showing that even subtle changes in thyroid hormone concentrations - such as those observed in subclinical hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, and low triiodothyronine syndrome - adversely influence the cardiovascular system. Some potential mechanisms linking the two conditions are dyslipidaemia, endothelial dysfunction, blood pressure changes, and direct effects of thyroid hormones on the myocardium. Several interventional trials showed that treatment of subclinical thyroid diseases improves cardiovascular risk factors, which implies potential benefits for reducing cardiovascular events. Over the past 2 decades, accumulating evidence supports the association between abnormal thyroid function at the time of an acute myocardial infarction (MI) and subsequent adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Furthermore, experimental studies showed that thyroid hormones can have an important therapeutic role in reducing infarct size and improving myocardial function after acute MI. In this Review, we summarize the literature on thyroid function in cardiovascular diseases, both as a risk factor as well as in the setting of cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure or acute MI, and outline the effect of thyroid hormone replacement therapy for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  20. Vitamins as hormones.

    PubMed

    Reichrath, J; Lehmann, B; Carlberg, C; Varani, J; Zouboulis, C C

    2007-02-01

    Vitamins A and D are the first group of substances that have been reported to exhibit properties of skin hormones, such as organized metabolism, activation, inactivation, and elimination in specialized cells of the tissue, exertion of biological activity, and release in the circulation. Vitamin A and its two important metabolites, retinaldehyde and retinoic acids, are fat-soluble unsaturated isoprenoids necessary for growth, differentiation and maintenance of epithelial tissues, and also for reproduction. In a reversible process, vitamin A is oxidized IN VIVO to give retinaldehyde, which is important for vision. The dramatic effects of vitamin A analogues on embryogenesis have been studied by animal experiments; the clinical malformation pattern in humans is known. Retinoic acids are major oxidative metabolites of vitamin A and can substitute for it in vitamin A-deficient animals in growth promotion and epithelial differentiation. Natural vitamin A metabolites are vitamins, because vitamin A is not synthesized in the body and must be derived from carotenoids in the diet. On the other hand, retinoids are also hormones - with intracrine activity - because retinol is transformed in the cells into molecules that bind to and activate specific nuclear receptors, exhibit their function, and are subsequently inactivated. The mechanisms of action of natural vitamin A metabolites on human skin are based on the time- and dose-dependent influence of morphogenesis, epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, epithelial and mesenchymal synthetic performance, immune modulation, stimulation of angiogenesis and inhibition of carcinogenesis. As drugs, vitamin A and its natural metabolites have been approved for the topical and systemic treatment of mild to moderate and severe, recalcitrant acne, photoaging and biologic skin aging, acute promyelocytic leukaemia and Kaposi's sarcoma. On the other hand, the critical importance of the skin for the human body's vitamin D endocrine

  1. Plant hormone signaling lightens up: integrators of light and hormones.

    PubMed

    Lau, On Sun; Deng, Xing Wang

    2010-10-01

    Light is an important environmental signal that regulates diverse growth and developmental processes in plants. In these light-regulated processes, multiple hormonal pathways are often modulated by light to mediate the developmental changes. Conversely, hormone levels in plants also serve as endogenous cues in influencing light responsiveness. Although interactions between light and hormone signaling pathways have long been observed, recent studies have advanced our understanding by identifying signaling integrators that connect the pathways. These integrators, namely PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 3 (PIF3), PIF4, PIF3-LIKE 5 (PIL5)/PIF1 and LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), are key light signaling components and they link light signals to the signaling of phytohormones, such as gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), auxin and cytokinin, in regulating seedling photomorphogenesis and seed germination. This review focuses on these integrators in illustrating how light and hormone interact.

  2. Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Brito, Milena Bastos; Nobre, Fernando; Vieira, Carolina Sales

    2011-04-01

    Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contraceptives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become increasingly prevalent among young females.

  3. Hormone replacement therapy and longevity.

    PubMed

    Comhaire, F

    2016-02-01

    To assess whether hormone replacement therapy influences longevity, an analysis was made of published life tables allowing for the calculation of the relative benefit of hormone replacement therapy on longevity in men with late onset hypogonadism and in post-menopausal women. It was found that testosterone replacement therapy of men suffering from late onset hypogonadism increased survival rate by 9-10% in 5 years, similar to that of eugonadal, non-LOH men with normal endogenous testosterone secretion. Oestrogen replacement therapy resulted in increased survival by 2.6% in 5 years. It is concluded that hormone replacement therapy increases longevity.

  4. Hormonal Signaling in the Gut*

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Clémence D.; Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Melika; Rasmussen, Brittany A.; Duca, Frank A.; Lam, Tony K. T.

    2014-01-01

    The gut is anatomically positioned to play a critical role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, providing negative feedback via nutrient sensing and local hormonal signaling. Gut hormones, such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are released following a meal and act on local receptors to regulate glycemia via a neuronal gut-brain axis. Additionally, jejunal nutrient sensing and leptin action are demonstrated to suppress glucose production, and both are required for the rapid antidiabetic effect of duodenal jejunal bypass surgery. Strategies aimed at targeting local gut hormonal signaling pathways may prove to be efficacious therapeutic options to improve glucose control in diabetes. PMID:24577102

  5. Hormonal signaling in the gut.

    PubMed

    Côté, Clémence D; Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Melika; Rasmussen, Brittany A; Duca, Frank A; Lam, Tony K T

    2014-04-25

    The gut is anatomically positioned to play a critical role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, providing negative feedback via nutrient sensing and local hormonal signaling. Gut hormones, such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are released following a meal and act on local receptors to regulate glycemia via a neuronal gut-brain axis. Additionally, jejunal nutrient sensing and leptin action are demonstrated to suppress glucose production, and both are required for the rapid antidiabetic effect of duodenal jejunal bypass surgery. Strategies aimed at targeting local gut hormonal signaling pathways may prove to be efficacious therapeutic options to improve glucose control in diabetes.

  6. Hormone signaling in plant development.

    PubMed

    Durbak, Amanda; Yao, Hong; McSteen, Paula

    2012-02-01

    Hormone signaling plays diverse and critical roles during plant development. In particular, hormone interactions regulate meristem function and therefore control formation of all organs in the plant. Recent advances have dissected commonalities and differences in the interaction of auxin and cytokinin in the regulation of shoot and root apical meristem function. In addition, brassinosteroid hormones have recently been discovered to regulate root apical meristem size. Further insights have also been made into our understanding of the mechanism of crosstalk among auxin, cytokinin, and strigolactone in axillary meristems.

  7. Calciotropic hormones during reproduction.

    PubMed

    Verhaeghe, J; Bouillon, R

    1992-03-01

    This review summarizes the reported effects of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and lactation on serum concentration of the calciotropic hormones PTH and 1,25(OH)2D. A midcycle rise in PTH and 1,25(OH)2D has been observed, but in the majority of studies there was no change in PTH and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations throughout the menstrual cycle. Both total and free 1,25(OH)2D levels are increased during pregnancy. The renal 1,25(OH)2D production is stimulated, and there is some evidence of 1,25(OH)2D production by decidua/placenta and fetal kidney in vitro; the decidual/placental production should not be overestimated in vivo. The increased renal 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity is possibly mediated by estrogens and PTH, although the effect of pregnancy on PTH remains uncertain. Increased serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations probably result in a rise of intestinal calcium absorption during pregnancy. There is a postdelivery drop in PTH and 1,25(OH)2D levels, but they are increased when lactation is prolonged, or in mothers nursing twins. The l alpha-hydroxylase activity during lactation may be stimulated by PTH, but also by prolactin.

  8. Steroid hormones and BDNF.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, N; Russo, M; Santoro, A N; Litta, P; Cela, V; Genazzani, A R

    2013-06-03

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin abundantly expressed in several areas of the central nervous system (CNS) and is known to induce a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy, to enhance specific learning and memory processes. BDNF is one of the key molecules modulating brain plasticity and it affects cognitive deficit associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease. Several studies have shown an altered BDNF production and secretion in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases but also in mood disorders like depression, eating disorders and schizophrenia. Plasma BDNF is also a biomarker of impaired memory and general cognitive function in aging women. Gonadal steroids are involved in the regulation of several CNS processes, specifically mood, affective and cognitive functions during fertile life and reproductive aging. These observations lead many scientists to investigate a putative co-regulation between BDNF and gonadal and/or adrenal steroids and their relationship with gender difference in the incidence of mental diseases. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge on the correlation between BDNF expression/function and both gonadal (progesterone, estrogens, and testosterone) and adrenal hormones (mainly cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) with relevance in clinical application.

  9. Specific involvement of gonadal hormones in the functional maturation of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons.

    PubMed

    Gouty-Colomer, Laurie-Anne; Méry, Pierre-François; Storme, Emilie; Gavois, Elodie; Robinson, Iain C; Guérineau, Nathalie C; Mollard, Patrice; Desarménien, Michel G

    2010-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the key hormone involved in the regulation of growth and metabolism, two functions that are highly modulated during infancy. GH secretion, controlled mainly by GH releasing hormone (GHRH), has a characteristic pattern during postnatal development that results in peaks of blood concentration at birth and puberty. A detailed knowledge of the electrophysiology of the GHRH neurons is necessary to understand the mechanisms regulating postnatal GH secretion. Here, we describe the unique postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of GHRH neurons and their regulation by gonadal hormones. Using GHRH-eGFP mice, we demonstrate that already at birth, GHRH neurons receive numerous synaptic inputs and fire large and fast action potentials (APs), consistent with effective GH secretion. Concomitant with the GH secretion peak occurring at puberty, these neurons display modifications of synaptic input properties, decrease in AP duration, and increase in a transient voltage-dependant potassium current. Furthermore, the modulation of both the AP duration and voltage-dependent potassium current are specifically controlled by gonadal hormones because gonadectomy prevented the maturation of these active properties and hormonal treatment restored it. Thus, GHRH neurons undergo specific developmental modulations of their electrical properties over the first six postnatal weeks, in accordance with hormonal demand. Our results highlight the importance of the interaction between the somatotrope and gonadotrope axes during the establishment of adapted neuroendocrine functions.

  10. Network Identification of Hormonal Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Vis, Daniel J.; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Hoefsloot, Huub C. J.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Greef, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment. PMID:24852517

  11. Hormonal Regulation of Leaf Abscission

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, William P.

    1968-01-01

    A review is given of the progress made during the last 6 years in elucidating the nature, locus of action, and transport properties of the endogenous hormones that control leaf abscission. PMID:16657014

  12. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3-4):251-258. [PubMed Abstract] Lee RJ, Smith MR. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer. In: Chabner ... 1, 2014. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1405095 Ryan CJ, Smith MR, Fizazi K, et al. Abiraterone acetate plus ...

  13. Adrenal gland hormone secretion (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal gland secretes steroid hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone. It also makes precursors that can be converted to ... steroids (androgen, estrogen). A different part of the adrenal gland makes adrenaline (epinephrine). When the glands produce more ...

  14. Hormone therapy for breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mood swings Depression Loss of interest in sex Drug Side Effects The side effects of hormone therapy depend on the drug. Common side effects include hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness . ...

  15. Simple hormones but complex signalling.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Hannes; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2003-02-01

    It has not been easy to make sense of the pleiotropic effects of plant hormones, especially of auxins; but now, it has become possible to study these effects within the framework of what we know about signal transduction in general. Changes in local auxin concentrations, perhaps even actively maintained auxin gradients, signal to networks of transcription factors, which in turn signal to downstream effectors. Transcription factors can also signal back to hormone biosynthetic pathways.

  16. Hypermetabolic Conversion of Plant Oil into Water: Endothermic Biochemical Process Stimulated by Juvenile Hormone in the European Firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus L.

    PubMed

    Sláma, Karel; Lukáš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    cold larvae of P. apterus was only some 30% (not a reported 10-fold difference), which was presumably due to their ability to drink. We conclude that a very important, though still largely neglected, epigenetic biochemical role of insect JH depends on switchover between the utilization of dietary lipid (+JH; production of metabolic water) and carbohydrate (-JH; lipid storage in the fat body). The hypermetabolic water supply in insects fed on dry food, which is associated with enormous rates of O2 consumption, liberates endothermic energy that heats the body and potentially influences the insect thermoregulation. A possibility that the JH-dependent lipolytic hormone stimulates the total metabolic breakdown of nutritional lipids may be absolutely different from the currently known adipokinetic peptides that have been emphasized.

  17. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  18. Hormones and Borderline Personality Features

    PubMed Central

    Evardone, Milagros; Alexander, Gerianne M.; Morey, Leslie C.

    2009-01-01

    Borderline personality is diagnosed in clinical settings three times more often in women than in men, and symptom severity in women appears sensitive to circulating sex steroid levels. In non-human mammals, prenatal hormones contribute to the development of sex-linked behavior and their responsiveness to postnatal hormones. Therefore, this study examined the hypothesis that prenatal hormones may influence the development of borderline personality traits by measuring a marker of perinatal androgen action, the 2D:4D ratio, and salivary hormone levels in 58 men and 52 women. Participants completed the Borderline Features Subscales (BOR) of the Personality Assessment Inventory, gender role questionnaires, and four sex-linked cognitive tasks. Digit ratios were a significant predictor of the affective component of borderline personality, such that in both sexes 2D:4D ratios suggestive of weaker perinatal androgen action contributed to greater borderline personality features overall and greater affective instability. In addition, women reporting greater affective instability showed larger changes in estradiol across the session, consistent with the influence of stress and emotional reactivity on hormonal function. These findings are consistent with an increasing body of research suggesting that hormonal factors associated with the expression of typical gender-linked behavior may also contribute to the expression of gender-linked maladaptive behavior. PMID:19554197

  19. Hormones and Borderline Personality Features.

    PubMed

    Evardone, Milagros; Alexander, Gerianne M; Morey, Leslie C

    2008-01-01

    Borderline personality is diagnosed in clinical settings three times more often in women than in men, and symptom severity in women appears sensitive to circulating sex steroid levels. In non-human mammals, prenatal hormones contribute to the development of sex-linked behavior and their responsiveness to postnatal hormones. Therefore, this study examined the hypothesis that prenatal hormones may influence the development of borderline personality traits by measuring a marker of perinatal androgen action, the 2D:4D ratio, and salivary hormone levels in 58 men and 52 women. Participants completed the Borderline Features Subscales (BOR) of the Personality Assessment Inventory, gender role questionnaires, and four sex-linked cognitive tasks. Digit ratios were a significant predictor of the affective component of borderline personality, such that in both sexes 2D:4D ratios suggestive of weaker perinatal androgen action contributed to greater borderline personality features overall and greater affective instability. In addition, women reporting greater affective instability showed larger changes in estradiol across the session, consistent with the influence of stress and emotional reactivity on hormonal function. These findings are consistent with an increasing body of research suggesting that hormonal factors associated with the expression of typical gender-linked behavior may also contribute to the expression of gender-linked maladaptive behavior.

  20. The evolution of peptide hormones.

    PubMed

    Niall, H D

    1982-01-01

    Despite limitations in our present knowledge it is already possible to discern the main features of peptide hormone evolution, since the same mechanisms (and indeed the same hormone molecules) function in many different ways. This underlying unity of organization has its basis in the tendency of biochemical networks, once established, to survive and diversify. The most surprising recent findings in endocrinology have been the discovery of vertebrate peptide hormones in multiple sites within the same organism, and the reports, persuasive but requiring confirmation, of vertebrate hormones in primitive unicellular organisms (20, 20a). Perhaps the major challenge for the future is to define the roles and interactions of the many peptide hormones identified in brain (18). The most primitive bacteria and the human brain, though an enormous evolutionary distance apart, may have more in common than we have recognized until now. As Axelrod & Hamilton have pointed out in a recent provocative article, "The Evolution of Cooperation" (1), bacteria, though lacking a brain, are capable of adaptive behavior that can be analysed in terms of game theory. It is clear that we can learn a great deal about the whole evolutionary process from a study of the versatile and durable peptide hormones molecules.

  1. Growth hormone signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Carter-Su, Christin; Schwartz, Jessica; Argetsinger, Lawrence S

    2016-06-01

    Over 20years ago, our laboratory showed that growth hormone (GH) signals through the GH receptor-associated tyrosine kinase JAK2. We showed that GH binding to its membrane-bound receptor enhances binding of JAK2 to the GHR, activates JAK2, and stimulates tyrosyl phosphorylation of both JAK2 and GHR. The activated JAK2/GHR complex recruits a variety of signaling proteins, thereby initiating multiple signaling pathways and cellular responses. These proteins and pathways include: 1) Stat transcription factors implicated in the expression of multiple genes, including the gene encoding insulin-like growth factor 1; 2) Shc adapter proteins that lead to activation of the grb2-SOS-Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1,2 pathway; 3) insulin receptor substrate proteins implicated in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Akt pathway; 4) signal regulatory protein α, a transmembrane scaffold protein that recruits proteins including the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2; and 5) SH2B1, a scaffold protein that can activate JAK2 and enhance GH regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Our recent work has focused on the function of SH2B1. We have shown that SH2B1β is recruited to and phosphorylated by JAK2 in response to GH. SH2B1 localizes to the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and focal adhesions; it also cycles through the nucleus. SH2B1 regulates the actin cytoskeleton and promotes GH-dependent motility of RAW264.7 macrophages. Mutations in SH2B1 have been found in humans exhibiting severe early-onset childhood obesity and insulin resistance. These mutations impair SH2B1 enhancement of GH-induced macrophage motility. As SH2B1 is expressed ubiquitously and is also recruited to a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases, our results raise the possibility that effects of SH2B1 on the actin cytoskeleton in various cell types, including neurons, may play a role in regulating body weight.

  2. Physical and hormonal evaluation of transsexual patients during hormonal therapy.

    PubMed

    Meyer, W J; Finkelstein, J W; Stuart, C A; Webb, A; Smith, E R; Payer, A F; Walker, P A

    1981-08-01

    The optimal hormonal therapy for transsexual patients is not known. The physical and hormonal characteristics of 38 noncastrate male-to-female transsexuals and 14 noncastrate female-to-male transsexuals have been measured before and/or during therapy with various forms and dosages of hormonal therapy. All patients were hormonally and physically normal prior to therapy. Ethinyl estradiol was superior to conjugated estrogen in suppression of testosterone and gonadotropins but equal in effecting breast growth. The changes in physical and hormonal characteristics were the same for 0.1 mg/d and 0.5 mg/d of ethinyl estradiol. The female-to-male transsexuals were well managed with a dose of intramuscular testosterone cypionate of 400 mg/month, usually given 200 mg every two weeks. The maximal clitoral length reached was usually 4 cm. Higher doses of testosterone did not further increase clitoral length or suppression of gonadotropins; lower doses did not suppress the gonadotropins. Based on the information found in this study, we recommend 0.1 mg/d of ethinyl estradiol for the noncastrate male-to-female transsexual and 200 mg of intramuscular testosterone cypionate every two weeks for the noncastrate female-to-male transsexual.

  3. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Casula, Sabina; Bianco, Antonio C.

    2012-01-01

    Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin fold-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4) to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i) they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii) could play a role in modulating cell proliferation – in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)-13 cells is threefold to fourfold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh)-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a fivefold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma, and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches. PMID:22675319

  4. Disorders of antidiuretic hormone.

    PubMed

    Vokes, T J; Robertson, G L

    1988-06-01

    Disorders of thirst and vasopressin secretion present clinically in one of three ways: as hypotonic polyuria (DI), as hypodipsic hyponatremia, and as hyponatremia. In evaluating a patient with DI, the major challenge is to differentiate between primary polydipsia and neurogenic and nephrogenic DI. This is best accomplished through a series of steps that start with simple clinical observation, and progress, as necessary, to more complicated diagnostic procedures (Fig. 1). If the diagnosis is not clear from the clinical setting and the patient's history, the first step is to measure plasma osmolality and sodium under conditions of ad libitum fluid intake. If the results are clearly above the upper limit of normal range, primary polydipsia is excluded and the work-up can proceed directly to administration of vasopressin or DDAVP and/or a measurement of plasma vasopressin levels to differentiate between neurogenic and nephrogenic DI. If basal plasma osmolality and sodium fall within normal range, the standard dehydration test should be performed. If urine osmolality does not increase above that of plasma despite evident dehydration, primary polydipsia is excluded and the effect of vasopressin or DDAVP on urine osmolality should be examined to differentiate between neurogenic and nephrogenic DI. If administration of antidiuretic hormone increases urine osmolality by more than 50 per cent, the patient has severe neurogenic DI. If the increase in urine osmolality is less than 50 per cent, the patient has nephrogenic DI. In patients who do not concentrate urine above that of plasma in response to dehydration, the best approach is to measure plasma vasopressin, osmolality, and sodium after the latter have been increased above normal range by dehydration and/or infusion of hypertonic saline. When these results are plotted on a suitable nomogram (Fig. 2), neurogenic DI can be clearly diagnosed from the relative deficiency of vasopressin. In patients with normal vasopressin

  5. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists in premenopausal hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sing-Huang; Wolff, Antonio C

    2007-02-01

    Ovarian function suppression for the treatment of premenopausal breast cancer was first used in the late 19th century. Traditionally, ovarian function suppression had been accomplished irreversibly via irradiation or surgery, but analogues of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) have emerged as reliable and reversible agents for this purpose, especially the LH-RH agonists. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists are in earlier stages of development in breast cancer and are not currently in clinical use. Luteinizing hormonereleasing hormone agonists act by pituitary desensitization and receptor downregulation, thereby suppressing gonadotrophin release. Limited information is available comparing the efficacies of the depot preparations of various agonists, but pharmacodynamic studies have shown comparable suppressive capabilities on estradiol and luteinizing hormone. At present, only monthly goserelin is Food and Drug Administration-approved for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive, premenopausal metastatic breast cancer in the United States. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists have proven to be as effective as surgical oophorectomy in premenopausal advanced breast cancer. They offer similar outcomes compared with tamoxifen, but the endocrine combination appears to be more effective than LH-RH agonists alone. In the adjuvant setting, LH-RH agonists versus no therapy reduce the annual odds of recurrence and death in women aged>50 years with estrogen receptor-positive tumors. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists alone or in combination with tamoxifen have shown disease-free survival rates similar to chemotherapy with CMF (cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/5-fluorouracil). Outcomes of chemotherapy with or without LH-RH agonists are comparable, though a few trials favor the combination in young premenopausal women (aged<40 years). Adjuvant LH-RH agonists with or without tamoxifen might be as efficacious as tamoxifen alone

  6. Action of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: involvement of novel arachidonic acid metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, G D; Capdevila, J; Chacos, N; Manna, S; Falck, J R

    1983-01-01

    Anterior pituitary cells were incubated in the presence of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and one of three inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism:indomethacin, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase system; nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an antioxidant that inhibits lipoxygenase; and icosatetraynoic acid, an acetylenic analogue of arachidonic acid that blocks all known pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. Indomethacin was ineffective in blocking luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid was only marginally capable of inhibiting luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion. Icosatetraynoic acid at 10 microM completely inhibited stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion. Addition of several epoxygenated arachidonic acid metabolites to cells in vitro resulted in secretion of luteinizing hormone equal to or greater than that induced by 10 nM luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. The half-maximal effective dose for these compounds was approximately 50 nM. The 5,6-epoxyicosatrienoic acid was the most potent of the compounds tested. These studies suggest that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone release is closely coupled with the production of oxidized arachidonic acid metabolites. Moreover, one or more of the epoxygenated arachidonic acid metabolites might be a component of the cascade of reactions initiated by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone that ultimately results in secretion of luteinizing hormone. PMID:6344087

  7. [Women, immunity and sexual hormones].

    PubMed

    Denenberg, R

    1995-01-01

    How a weakened immune system affects the female's reproductive system is explained. The female's endocrine system controls the menstrual and reproductive systems, and the immune system attacks harmful substances and organisms. The hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland to produce the hormones FSH and LH, which in turn signal the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone. These hormones cause a mature egg to be released. If fertilized, the egg remains within the uterus; if not, menstruation occurs. HIV-positive females often complain of menstrual cycle changes, such as irregular periods, depression, or pain. The virus, other complications, or medications, such as AZT, may cause these symptoms. Estrogen therapy may help those with suppressed immune systems who have premature menopause. Oral contraceptives offer protection against pregnancy, but not HIV. It is not known if the pill reacts adversely with AIDS treatment drugs. Lists are provided showing the pros and cons of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy.

  8. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses.

    PubMed

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hormones and prostate cancer: what's next?

    PubMed

    Hsing, A W

    2001-01-01

    In summary, the hormonal hypothesis remains one of the most important hypotheses in prostate cancer etiology. Although epidemiologic data regarding the role of hormones are still inconclusive, there are many intriguing leads. Armed with more complete methodological data, state-of-the-art hormone assays, sound epidemiologic design, and a more thorough analytical approach, a new generation of studies should yield critical data and insights to help clarify further the role of hormones in prostate cancer. These new studies may determine ultimately whether racial/ethnic differences in hormonal levels and in genetic susceptibility to hormone-metabolizing genes can help explain the very large racial/ethnic differences in prostate cancer risk.

  10. [Premenstrual asthma: relation to hormones].

    PubMed

    Hernández Colin, D; Zárate Treviño, A; Martínez Cairo Cueto, S

    1997-01-01

    Exacerbation of asthmatic symptoms just before or at the time of menstruation documented in some women with asthma has been called "premenstrual asthma" (PMA). The effect of sex hormones on airway function has not been well studied in spite of much evidence to suggest, therefore about relationships between the sex hormones and airway. The investigations of (PMA) have been based on studies of asthmatics already aware of a deterioration of asthma premenstrually. Little is known, therefore, about relationships between the menstrual cycle with asthma and (PMA) subjects. Although the mechanism of PMA remains unclear.

  11. Principles and pitfalls of free hormone measurements.

    PubMed

    Faix, James D

    2013-10-01

    The free hormone hypothesis states that a hormone's physiological effects depend on the free hormone concentration, not the total hormone concentration. Although the in vivo relationship between free hormone and protein-bound hormone is complex, most experts have applied this view to the design of assays used to assess the free hormone concentration in the blood sampled for testing in vitro. The history of the measurement of free thyroxine, probably the most frequently requested free hormone determination, offers a good example of the approaches that have been taken. Methods that require physical separation of the free hormone from the protein-bound hormone must address both the potential disturbance in the equilibrium between the two, as well as the challenge of quantifying small levels of hormone accurately and precisely. The implementation of mass spectrometry in the clinical laboratory has helped to develop proposed reference measurement procedures. These must be utilized to standardize the variety of immunoassay approaches that currently represent options commercially available to the routine clinical laboratory. Practicing endocrinologists should discuss the details of the free hormone assays offered by the clinical laboratory they utilize for patient result reporting, and clinical laboratories should implement the recommendations of published guidelines to ensure that free hormone results using commercially available immunoassays are as accurate and precise as possible.

  12. Drosophila TRPA1 isoforms detect UV light via photochemical production of H2O2.

    PubMed

    Guntur, Ananya R; Gu, Pengyu; Takle, Kendra; Chen, Jingyi; Xiang, Yang; Yang, Chung-Hui

    2015-10-20

    The transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channel is an evolutionarily conserved detector of temperature and irritant chemicals. Here, we show that two specific isoforms of TRPA1 in Drosophila are H2O2 sensitive and that they can detect strong UV light via sensing light-induced production of H2O2. We found that ectopic expression of these H2O2-sensitive Drosophila TRPA1 (dTRPA1) isoforms conferred UV sensitivity to light-insensitive HEK293 cells and Drosophila neurons, whereas expressing the H2O2-insensitive isoform did not. Curiously, when expressed in one specific group of motor neurons in adult flies, the H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms were as competent as the blue light-gated channelrhodopsin-2 in triggering motor output in response to light. We found that the corpus cardiacum (CC) cells, a group of neuroendocrine cells that produce the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) in the larval ring gland endogenously express these H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms and that they are UV sensitive. Sensitivity of CC cells required dTRPA1 and H2O2 production but not conventional phototransduction molecules. Our results suggest that specific isoforms of dTRPA1 can sense UV light via photochemical production of H2O2. We speculate that UV sensitivity conferred by these isoforms in CC cells may allow young larvae to activate stress response--a function of CC cells--when they encounter strong UV, an aversive stimulus for young larvae.

  13. Drosophila TRPA1 isoforms detect UV light via photochemical production of H2O2

    PubMed Central

    Guntur, Ananya R.; Gu, Pengyu; Takle, Kendra; Chen, Jingyi; Xiang, Yang; Yang, Chung-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channel is an evolutionarily conserved detector of temperature and irritant chemicals. Here, we show that two specific isoforms of TRPA1 in Drosophila are H2O2 sensitive and that they can detect strong UV light via sensing light-induced production of H2O2. We found that ectopic expression of these H2O2-sensitive Drosophila TRPA1 (dTRPA1) isoforms conferred UV sensitivity to light-insensitive HEK293 cells and Drosophila neurons, whereas expressing the H2O2-insensitive isoform did not. Curiously, when expressed in one specific group of motor neurons in adult flies, the H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms were as competent as the blue light-gated channelrhodopsin-2 in triggering motor output in response to light. We found that the corpus cardiacum (CC) cells, a group of neuroendocrine cells that produce the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) in the larval ring gland endogenously express these H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms and that they are UV sensitive. Sensitivity of CC cells required dTRPA1 and H2O2 production but not conventional phototransduction molecules. Our results suggest that specific isoforms of dTRPA1 can sense UV light via photochemical production of H2O2. We speculate that UV sensitivity conferred by these isoforms in CC cells may allow young larvae to activate stress response—a function of CC cells—when they encounter strong UV, an aversive stimulus for young larvae. PMID:26443856

  14. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain. In children, GH is essential for normal growth, muscle and bone strength, and distribution of body fat. ... Delayed puberty What are the side effects of growth hormone therapy? Mild to moderate side ... Muscle or joint pain • Mildly underactive thyroid gland • Swelling ...

  15. Growth Hormone: Use and Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... GH helps children grow taller (also called linear growth), increases muscle mass, and decreases body fat. In both children ... syndrome In adults, GH is used to treat • Growth hormone deficiency • Muscle wasting (loss of muscle tissue) from HIV • Short ...

  16. Anabolic steroids and growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Haupt, H A

    1993-01-01

    Athletes are generally well educated regarding substances that they may use as ergogenic aids. This includes anabolic steroids and growth hormone. Fortunately, the abuse of growth hormone is limited by its cost and the fact that anabolic steroids are simply more enticing to the athlete. There are, however, significant potential adverse effects regarding its use that can be best understood by studying known growth hormone excess, as demonstrated in the acromegalic syndrome. Many athletes are unfamiliar with this syndrome and education of the potential consequences of growth hormone excess is important in counseling athletes considering its use. While athletes contemplating the use of anabolic steroids may correctly perceive their risks for significant physiologic effects to be small if they use the steroids for brief periods of time, many of these same athletes are unaware of the potential for habituation to the use of anabolic steroids. The result may be incessant use of steroids by an athlete who previously considered only short-term use. As we see athletes taking anabolic steroids for more prolonged periods, we are likely to see more severe medical consequences. Those who eventually do discontinue the steroids are dismayed to find that the improvements made with the steroids generally disappear and they have little to show for hours or even years of intense training beyond the psychological scars inherent with steroid use. Counseling of these athletes should focus on the potential adverse psychological consequences of anabolic steroid use and the significant risk for habituation.

  17. FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a hormone associated with reproduction and the development of eggs in women and ... FSH and LH with the development of secondary sexual characteristics at an unusually young age are an ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetic Testing (4 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Ateleiotic dwarfism Genetic Testing Registry: Autosomal dominant isolated somatotropin deficiency ... in my area? Other Names for This Condition dwarfism, growth hormone deficiency dwarfism, pituitary growth hormone deficiency ...

  19. The concept of multiple hormonal dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Marcello; Cattabiani, Chiara; Lauretani, Fulvio; Ferrucci, Luigi; Luci, Michele; Valenti, Giorgio; Ceda, Gianpaolo

    2010-01-01

    Aging process is accompanied by hormonal changes characterized by an imbalance between catabolic hormones that remain stable and anabolic hormones (testosterone, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), that decrease with age. Despite the multiple hormonal dysregulation occurring with age, the prevalent line of research in the last decades has tried to explain many age-related phenomena as consequence of one single hormonal derangement with disappointing results. In this review we will list the relationship between hormonal anabolic deficiency and frailty and mortality in older population, providing evidence to the notion that multiple hormonal dysregulation rather than change in single anabolic hormone is a powerful marker of poor health status and mortality.

  20. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. The parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-RP) test measures the level of a ...

  1. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand potential risks to your heart and whether hormone therapy is right for you. By Mayo Clinic Staff ...

  2. 'Love Hormone' Helps Dads and Babies Bond

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163657.html 'Love Hormone' Helps Dads and Babies Bond Brain scans show ... FRIDAY, Feb. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The "love hormone" oxytocin may program fathers to bond with their ...

  3. Thyroid Hormones as Renal Cell Cancer Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Matak, Damian; Bartnik, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary; Czarnecka, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that thyroid hormone is an important regulator of cancer development and metastasis. What is more, changes across the genome, as well as alternative splicing, may affect the activity of the thyroid hormone receptors. Mechanism of action of the thyroid hormone is different in every cancer; therefore in this review thyroid hormone and its receptor are presented as a regulator of renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27034829

  4. "Sex Hormones" in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term "sex hormone" is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term "sex hormone" is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called "sex hormones" are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found…

  5. "Sex Hormones" in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term "sex hormone" is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term "sex hormone" is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called "sex hormones" are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found…

  6. Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor that Progressed to Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Syndrome with Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone (GHRH) Production

    PubMed Central

    Tadokoro, Rie; Sato, Shotaro; Otsuka, Fumiko; Ueno, Makoto; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Katakami, Hideki; Taniyama, Matsuo; Nagasaka, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    The patient was a 61-year-old woman who had a well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) with lymph node metastasis. After 15 months of octreotide treatment, glucose control deteriorated and pigmentation of the tongue and moon face developed, leading to the diagnosis of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome. An abnormal secretion of growth hormone (GH) was identified, and the plasma growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) level was elevated. A tumor biopsy specimen positively immunostained for ACTH and GHRH. Ectopic hormone secretion seems to have evolved along with the progression of the PNET. PMID:27746436

  7. Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor that Progressed to Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Syndrome with Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone (GHRH) Production.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Rie; Sato, Shotaro; Otsuka, Fumiko; Ueno, Makoto; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Katakami, Hideki; Taniyama, Matsuo; Nagasaka, Shoichiro

    The patient was a 61-year-old woman who had a well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) with lymph node metastasis. After 15 months of octreotide treatment, glucose control deteriorated and pigmentation of the tongue and moon face developed, leading to the diagnosis of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome. An abnormal secretion of growth hormone (GH) was identified, and the plasma growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) level was elevated. A tumor biopsy specimen positively immunostained for ACTH and GHRH. Ectopic hormone secretion seems to have evolved along with the progression of the PNET.

  8. Peripheral activities of growth hormone-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Granata, R

    2016-07-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH) is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates GH synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition to its endocrine role, GHRH exerts a wide range of extrapituitary effects which include stimulation of cell proliferation, survival and differentiation, and inhibition of apoptosis. Accordingly, expression of GHRH, as well as the receptor GHRH-R and its splice variants, has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types. Among the direct peripheral activities, GHRH regulates pancreatic islet and β-cell survival and function and endometrial cell proliferation, promotes cardioprotection and wound healing, influences the immune and reproductive systems, reduces inflammation, indirectly increases lifespan and adiposity and acts on skeletal muscle cells to inhibit cell death and atrophy. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly clear that GHRH exerts important extrapituitary functions, suggesting potential therapeutic use of the peptide and its analogs in a wide range of medical settings.

  9. Parathyroid hormone - Secretion and metabolism in vivo.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habener, J. F.; Powell, D.; Murray, T. M.; Mayer, G. P.; Potts, J. T., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Gel filtration and radioimmunoassay were used to determine the molecular size and immunochemical reactivity of parathyroid hormone present in gland extracts, in the general peripheral circulation, and in parathyroid effluent blood from patients with hyperparathyroidism, as well as from calves and from cattle. It was found that parathyroid hormone secreted from the parathyroids in man and cattle is at least as large as the molecule extracted from normal bovine glands. However, once secreted into the circulation the hormone is cleaved, and one or more fragments, immunologically, dissimilar to the originally secreted hormone, constitute the dominant form of circulating immunoreactive hormone.

  10. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    PubMed Central

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  11. Parathyroid hormone - Secretion and metabolism in vivo.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habener, J. F.; Powell, D.; Murray, T. M.; Mayer, G. P.; Potts, J. T., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Gel filtration and radioimmunoassay were used to determine the molecular size and immunochemical reactivity of parathyroid hormone present in gland extracts, in the general peripheral circulation, and in parathyroid effluent blood from patients with hyperparathyroidism, as well as from calves and from cattle. It was found that parathyroid hormone secreted from the parathyroids in man and cattle is at least as large as the molecule extracted from normal bovine glands. However, once secreted into the circulation the hormone is cleaved, and one or more fragments, immunologically, dissimilar to the originally secreted hormone, constitute the dominant form of circulating immunoreactive hormone.

  12. Thyroid hormone and dehydroepiandrosterone permit gluconeogenic hormone responses in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kneer, N; Lardy, H

    2000-03-01

    The importance of the sn-glycerol- 3-phosphate (G-3-P) electron transfer shuttle in hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis was examined in hepatocytes from rats with decreased mitochondrial G-3-P dehydrogenase activity (thyroidectomized) or increased G-3-P dehydrogenase activity [triiodothyronine (T(3)) or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treated]. Rates of glucose formation from 10 mM lactate, 10 mM pyruvate, or 2.5 mM dihydroxyacetone were somewhat less in hypothyroid cells than in cells from normal rats but gluconeogenic responses to calcium addition and to norepinephrine (NE), glucagon (G), or vasopressin (VP) were similar to the responses observed in cells from normal rats. However, with 2. 5 mM glycerol or 2.5 mM sorbitol, substrates that must be oxidized in the cytosol before conversion to glucose, basal gluconeogenesis was not appreciably altered by hypothyroidism but responses to calcium and to the calcium-mobilizing hormones were abolished. Injecting thyroidectomized rats with T(3) 2 days before preparing the hepatocytes greatly enhanced gluconeogenesis from glyc erol and restored the response to Ca(2+) and gluconeogenic hormones. Feeding dehydroepiandrosterone for 6 days depressed gluconeogenesis from lactate or pyruvate but substantially increased glucose production from glycerol in euthyroid cells and restored responses to Ca(2+) in hypothyroid cells metabolizing glycerol. Euthyroid cells metabolizing glycerol or sorbitol use the G-3-P and malate/aspartate shuttles to oxidize excess NADH generated in the cytosol. The transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetate (AOA) decreased gluconeogenesis from glycerol 40%, but had little effect on responses to Ca(2+) and NE. However, in hypothyroid cells, with minimal G-3-P dehydrogenase, AOA decreased gluconeogenesis from glycerol more than 90%. Thus, the basal rate of gluconeogenesis from glycerol in the euthyroid cells is only partly dependent on electron transport from cytosol to mitochondria via the malate

  13. Parathyroid hormone therapy for hypoparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Cusano, Natalie E.; Rubin, Mishaela R.; Bilezikian, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a disease characterized by hypocalcemia and insufficient parathyroid hormone (PTH). It is a rare disorder that has been given an orphan disease designation in the United States and European Union. Hypoparathyroidism is the only endocrine deficiency disease for which the missing hormone, PTH, is not yet an approved therapy. Conventional therapy includes calcium and active vitamin D supplementation, often in large doses. Although serum calcium can be controlled with conventional therapy, it can be a challenge and, moreover, does not address other aspects of the disease, such as abnormal skeletal features and reduced quality of life. This review focuses on PTH replacement therapy in hypoparathyroidism, utilizing the full-length molecule PTH(1–84) as well as the fully active but truncated form PTH(1–34). PTH therapy addresses some aspects of the disease not ameliorated with conventional therapy. PMID:25617172

  14. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  15. Thyroid hormone disorders and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Yu, Zhui; Li, Yinping

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with high mortality, which results from severe infection and can lead to secondary organ dysfunction. It is one of the most common cause of death in intensive care unit. Clinical reports have shown that sepsis was often accompanied by thyroid dysfunction, which is called "low triiodothyronine (T3)" syndrome and characterized by decreased blood total T3 and free T3, and by normal or decreased thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). This syndrome may greatly affect the prognosis of patients with sepsis. The main purpose of this review is to illustrate the role of thyroid hormone disorder in the development and prognosis of sepsis.

  16. Ovarian hormones and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M; Flanagan, Julianne; Brady, Kathleen

    2014-11-01

    There are significant gender differences in course, symptomology, and treatment of substance use disorders. In general data from clinical and preclinical studies of substance use disorders suggest that women are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious consequences of drug use at every phase of the addiction process. In addition data from epidemiologic studies suggest that the gender gap in the prevalence of substance use is narrowing particularly among adolescence. Therefore, understanding the role of estrogen and progesterone in mediating responses to drugs of abuse is of critical importance to women's health. In this review we will discuss findings from clinical and preclinical studies of (1) reproductive cycle phase; (2) endogenous ovarian hormones; and (3) hormone replacement on responses to stimulants, nicotine, alcohol, opioids, and marijuana. In addition, we discuss data from recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the neurobiologic mechanisms that interact with estrogen and progesterone to mediate drug-seeking behavior.

  17. Modelling hormonal response and development.

    PubMed

    Voß, Ute; Bishopp, Anthony; Farcot, Etienne; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2014-05-01

    As our knowledge of the complexity of hormone homeostasis, transport, perception, and response increases, and their outputs become less intuitive, modelling is set to become more important. Initial modelling efforts have focused on hormone transport and response pathways. However, we now need to move beyond the network scales and use multicellular and multiscale modelling approaches to predict emergent properties at different scales. Here we review some examples where such approaches have been successful, for example, auxin-cytokinin crosstalk regulating root vascular development or a study of lateral root emergence where an iterative cycle of modelling and experiments lead to the identification of an overlooked role for PIN3. Finally, we discuss some of the remaining biological and technical challenges. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

  19. A Simulated Growth Hormone Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Mary

    1996-08-01

    Growth hormone is a drug that is sometimes abused by amateur or professional athletes for performance-enhancement. This laboratory is a semimicroscale simulation analysis of a sample of "urine" to detect proteins of two very different molecular weights. Gel filtration uses a 10 mL disposable pipette packed with Sephadex. Students analyze the fractions from the filtration by comparing colors of the Brilliant Blue Coomassie Dye as it interacts with the proteins in the sample to a standard set of known concentration of protein with the dye. The simulated analysis of growth hormone is intended to be included in a unit on organic chemistry or in the second year of high school chemistry.

  20. Progestogens in menopausal hormone therapy

    PubMed Central

    Woroń, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Progestogens share one common effect: the ability to convert proliferative endometrium to its secretory form. In contrast, their biological activity is varied, depending on the chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, receptor affinity and different potency of action. Progestogens are widely used in the treatment of menstrual cycle disturbances, various gynaecological conditions, contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. The administration of progestogen in menopausal hormone therapy is essential in women with an intact uterus to protect against endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. Progestogen selection should be based on the characteristics available for each progestogen type, relying on the assessment of relative potency of action in experimental models and animal models, and on the indirect knowledge brought by studies of the clinical use of different progestogen formulations. The choice of progestogen should involve the conscious use of knowledge of its benefits, with a focus on minimizing potential side effects. Unfortunately, there are no direct clinical studies comparing the metabolic effects of different progestogens. PMID:26327902

  1. [Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)--youth hormone?].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Z; Kesik, S

    2001-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated metabolite (DHEA-S) are endogenous steroid hormones, synthesized by the adrenal cortex, gonads and CNS. The secretion profile changes with age and depends on the sex. Human DHEA and DHEA-S levels decline linearly and systematically with age and suggest the potential importance of that parameter as a biomarker of ageing. The counteraction of DHEA against atherosclerotic disease, cancer growth, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, obesity and the influence on immunological functions are observed in researches. DHEA influences the condition of mind, cognition functions, memory and well-being. DHEA hormonal replacement therapy is expected to lengthen human life by the stoppage of physiological degeneration changes and prevention of age-related clinical disorders.

  2. Hormone interactions during lateral root formation.

    PubMed

    Fukaki, Hidehiro; Tasaka, Masao

    2009-03-01

    Lateral root (LR) formation, the production of new roots from parent roots, is a hormone- and environmentally-regulated developmental process in higher plants. Physiological and genetic studies using Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species have revealed the roles of several plant hormones in LR formation, particularly the role of auxin in LR initiation and primordium development, resulting in much progress toward understanding the mechanisms of auxin-mediated LR formation. However, hormone interactions during LR formation have been relatively underexamined. Recent studies have shown that the plant hormones, cytokinin and abscisic acid negatively regulate LR formation whereas brassinosteroids positively regulate LR formation. On the other hand, ethylene has positive and negative roles during LR formation. This review summarizes recent findings on hormone-regulated LR formation in higher plants, focusing on auxin as a trigger and on the other hormones in LR formation, and discusses the possible interactions among plant hormones in this developmental process.

  3. [Hormones and hair growth in man].

    PubMed

    Moretti, G; Rampini, E; Rebora, A

    1977-12-01

    A literature review tries to diminish the ambiguity between hormones and hairs. Therefore the hormonal action in general (regulation of the protein synthesis indirectly by enzymatical regulation of the AMP-system or directly by hormones as active metabolites) and the methods to explore hormones-hair-interaction are discussed. Hormones pertaining to the pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axis are regarded as the paramount hormones; therefore the results of research in testosterone, 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, estrogens, progesterone, glucocorticoids, the hypophysis and its tropins are recapitulated. The main disorders of hair-growth, pattern baldness and "idiopathic" hirsutism, which would be dependent on a similar disturbance of androgen metabolism, are discussed. Pathology in hair-growth may arise in any point of the cascade of hormone action.

  4. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mullur, Rashmi; Liu, Yan-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for normal development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues and have distinct roles in TH signaling. Local activation of thyroxine (T4), to the active form, triiodothyronine (T3), by 5′-deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a key mechanism of TH regulation of metabolism. D2 is expressed in the hypothalamus, white fat, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle and is required for adaptive thermogenesis. The thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition to TRH/TSH regulation by TH feedback, there is central modulation by nutritional signals, such as leptin, as well as peptides regulating appetite. The nutrient status of the cell provides feedback on TH signaling pathways through epigentic modification of histones. Integration of TH signaling with the adrenergic nervous system occurs peripherally, in liver, white fat, and BAT, but also centrally, in the hypothalamus. TR regulates cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism through direct actions on gene expression as well as cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and bile acid signaling pathways. TH modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, especially important for the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The role of TH in regulating metabolic pathways has led to several new therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and interactions of the various TH signaling pathways in metabolism will improve our likelihood of identifying effective and selective targets. PMID:24692351

  5. Ghrelin and obestatin modulate growth hormone-releasing hormone release and synaptic inputs onto growth hormone-releasing hormone neurons.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dan D; Yang, Seung-Kwon; Loudes, Catherine; Simon, Axelle; Al-Sarraf, Tamara; Culler, Michael; Alvear-Perez, Rodrigo; Llorens-Cortes, Catherine; Chen, Chen; Epelbaum, Jacques; Gardette, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Ghrelin, a natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is synthesized in the stomach but may also be expressed in lesser quantity in the hypothalamus where the GHS-R is located on growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons. Obestatin, a peptide derived from the same precursor as ghrelin, is able to antagonize the ghrelin-induced increase of growth hormone (GH) secretion in vivo but not from pituitary explants in vitro. Thus, the blockade of ghrelin-induced GH release by obestatin could be mediated at the hypothalamic level by the neuronal network that controls pituitary GH secretion. Ghrelin increased GHRH and decreased somatostatin (somatotropin-releasing inhibitory factor) release from hypothalamic explants, whereas obestatin only reduced the ghrelin-induced increase of GHRH release, thus indicating that the effect of ghrelin and obestatin is targeted to GHRH neurons. Patch-clamp recordings on mouse GHRH-enhanced green fluorescent protein neurons indicated that ghrelin and obestatin had no significant effects on glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Ghrelin decreased GABAergic synaptic transmission in 44% of the recorded neurons, an effect blocked in the presence of the GHS-R antagonist BIM28163, and stimulated the firing rate of 78% of GHRH neurons. Obestatin blocked the effects of ghrelin by acting on a receptor different from the GHS-R. These data suggest that: (i) ghrelin increases GHRH neuron excitability by increasing their action potential firing rate and decreasing the strength of GABA inhibitory inputs, thereby leading to an enhanced GHRH release; and (ii) obestatin counteracts ghrelin actions. Such interactions on GHRH neurons probably participate in the control of GH secretion.

  6. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  7. Growth hormone therapy in progeria.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Nejad, Ab; Demmer, Laurie

    2007-05-01

    Catabolic processes seen in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria resemble those of normal aging and, in the affected children, usually result in death at an early age. In addition to its growth promoting effects, growth hormone (GH) has potent anabolic properties. Administration of GH ameliorates some of the catabolic effects of normal aging. We report the results of GH treatment in a young child with progeria.

  8. Hormone therapy and cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Pauline M.; Sundermann, Erin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Clinical trials yield discrepant information about the impact of hormone therapy on verbal memory and executive function. This issue is clinically relevant because declines in verbal memory are the earliest predictor of Alzheimer's disease and declines in executive function are central to some theories of normal, age-related changes in cognition. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials of hormone therapy (i.e. oral, transdermal, i.m.) and verbal memory, distinguishing studies in younger (i.e. ≤65 years of age; n = 9) versus older (i.e. >65 years; n = 7) women and studies involving estrogen alone versus estrogen plus progestogen. Out of 32 placebo-controlled trials, 17 were included (13 had no verbal memory measures and 2 involved cholinergic manipulations). We also provide a narrative review of 25 studies of executive function (two trials), since there are insufficient clinical trial data for systematic review. RESULTS There is some evidence for a beneficial effect of estrogen alone on verbal memory in younger naturally post-menopausal women and more consistent evidence from small-n studies of surgically post-menopausal women. There is stronger evidence of a detrimental effect of conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate on verbal memory in younger and older post-menopausal women. Observational studies and pharmacological models of menopause provide initial evidence of improvements in executive function with hormone therapy. CONCLUSIONS Future studies should include measures of executive function and should address pressing clinical questions; including what formulation of combination hormone therapy is cognitively neutral/beneficial, yet effective in treating hot flashes in the early post-menopause. PMID:19468050

  9. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  10. Thyroid hormone deiodination in birds.

    PubMed

    Darras, Veerle M; Verhoelst, Carla H J; Reyns, Geert E; Kühn, Eduard R; Van der Geyten, Serge

    2006-01-01

    Because the avian thyroid gland secretes almost exclusively thyroxine (T4), the availability of receptor-active 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) has to be regulated in the extrathyroidal tissues, essentially by deiodination. Like mammals and most other vertebrates, birds possess three types of iodothyronine deiodinases (D1, D2, and D3) that closely resemble their mammalian counterparts, as shown by biochemical characterization studies in several avian species and by cDNA cloning of the three enzymes in chicken. The tissue distribution of these deiodinases has been studied in detail in chicken at the level of activity and mRNA expression. More recently specific antibodies were used to study cellular localization at the protein level. The abundance and distribution of the different deiodinases shows substantial variation during embryonic development and postnatal life. Deiodination in birds is subject to regulation by hormones from several endocrine axes, including thyroid hormones, growth hormone and glucocorticoids. In addition, deiodination is also influenced by external parameters, such as nutrition, temperature, light and also a number of environmental pollutants. The balance between the outer and inner ring deiodination resulting from the impact of all these factors ultimately controls T3 availability.

  11. Growth hormone deficiency: an update.

    PubMed

    Audí, L; Fernández-Cancio, M; Camats, N; Carrascosa, A

    2013-03-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in humans manifests differently according to the individual developmental stage (early after birth, during childhood, at puberty or in adulthood), the cause or mechanism (genetic, acquired or idiopathic), deficiency intensity and whether it is the only pituitary-affected hormone or is combined with that of other pituitary hormones or forms part of a complex syndrome. Growing knowledge of the genetic basis of GH deficiency continues to provide us with useful information to further characterise mutation types and mechanisms for previously described and new candidate genes. Despite these advances, a high proportion of GH deficiencies with no recognisable acquired basis continue to be labelled as idiopathic, although less frequently when they are congenital and/or familial. The clinical and biochemical diagnoses continue to be a conundrum despite efforts to harmonise biochemical assays for GH and IGF-1 analysis, probably because the diagnosis based on the so-called GH secretion stimulation tests will prove to be of limited usefulness for predicting therapy indications.

  12. Are female sex hormones teratogenic?

    PubMed

    Wilson, J G; Brent, R L

    1981-11-01

    An analysis of available epidemiologic data leads the present reviewers to conclude that the use of exogenous hormones during human pregnancy has not been proved to cause developmental abnormality in nongenital organs and tissues. This conclusion is further supported by the animal laboratory data. The preponderance of evidence at this writing indicates a lack of causal association between hormonal use during pregnancy and nongenital malformation of the offspring. The quality of the epidemiologic data does not, at this time, permit a definitive conclusion that sex hormones during pregnancy may not, under as yet to be defined conditions, have some adverse effect on human prenatal development. If there are increased risks of nongenital malformations associated with the administration of certain sex steroids, the risks are very small, may not be causal, and are substantially below the spontaneous risk of malformations. In spite of the present degree of uncertainty, the clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory data do permit the formulation of a rational approach to handling problems related to sex steroid usage and exposure in pregnant women.

  13. Sex Hormones and Macronutrient Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Comitato, Raffaella; Saba, Anna; Turrini, Aida; Arganini, Claudia; Virgili, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The biological differences between males and females are determined by a different set of genes and by a different reactivity to environmental stimuli, including the diet, in general. These differences are further emphasized and driven by the exposure to a different hormone flux throughout the life. These differences have not been taken into appropriate consideration by the scientific community. Nutritional sciences are not immune from this “bias” and when nutritional needs are concerned, females are considered only when pregnant, lactating or when their hormonal profile is returning back to “normal,” i.e., to the male-like profile. The authors highlight some of the most evident differences in aspects of biology that are associated with nutrition. This review presents and describes available data addressing differences and similarities of the “reference man” vs. the “reference woman” in term of metabolic activity and nutritional needs. According to this assumption, available evidences of sex-associated differences of specific biochemical pathways involved in substrate metabolism are reported and discussed. The modulation by sexual hormones affecting glucose, amino acid and protein metabolism and the metabolization of nutritional fats and the distribution of fat depots, is considered targeting a tentative starting up background for a gender concerned nutritional science. PMID:24915409

  14. Thyroid hormone receptors bind to defined regions of the growth hormone and placental lactogen genes.

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, J W; Voz, M L; Eliard, P H; Mathy-Harter, M; De Nayer, P; Economidis, I V; Belayew, A; Martial, J A; Rousseau, G G

    1986-01-01

    The intracellular receptor for thyroid hormone is a protein found in chromatin. Since thyroid hormone stimulates transcription of the growth hormone gene through an unknown mechanism, the hypothesis that the thyroid hormone-receptor complex interacts with defined regions of this gene has been investigated in a cell-free system. Nuclear extracts from human lymphoblastoid IM-9 cells containing thyroid hormone receptors were incubated with L-3,5,3'-tri[125I]iodothyronine and calf thymus DNA-cellulose. Restriction fragments of the human growth hormone gene were added to determine their ability to inhibit labeled receptor binding to DNA-cellulose. These fragments encompassed nucleotide sequences from about three kilobase pairs upstream to about four kilobase pairs downstream from the transcription initiation site. The thyroid hormone-receptor complex bound preferentially to the 5'-flanking sequences of the growth hormone gene in a region between nucleotide coordinates -290 and -129. The receptor also bound to an analogous promoter region in the human placental lactogen gene, which has 92% nucleotide sequence homology with the growth hormone gene. These binding regions appear to be distinct from those that are recognized by the receptor for glucocorticoids, which stimulate growth hormone gene expression synergistically with thyroid hormone. The presence of thyroid hormone was required for binding of its receptor to the growth hormone gene promoter, suggesting that thyroid hormone renders the receptor capable of recognizing specific gene regions. PMID:3466175

  15. Thyroid hormone receptors bind to defined regions of the growth hormone and placental lactogen genes.

    PubMed

    Barlow, J W; Voz, M L; Eliard, P H; Mathy-Harter, M; De Nayer, P; Economidis, I V; Belayew, A; Martial, J A; Rousseau, G G

    1986-12-01

    The intracellular receptor for thyroid hormone is a protein found in chromatin. Since thyroid hormone stimulates transcription of the growth hormone gene through an unknown mechanism, the hypothesis that the thyroid hormone-receptor complex interacts with defined regions of this gene has been investigated in a cell-free system. Nuclear extracts from human lymphoblastoid IM-9 cells containing thyroid hormone receptors were incubated with L-3,5,3'-tri[125I]iodothyronine and calf thymus DNA-cellulose. Restriction fragments of the human growth hormone gene were added to determine their ability to inhibit labeled receptor binding to DNA-cellulose. These fragments encompassed nucleotide sequences from about three kilobase pairs upstream to about four kilobase pairs downstream from the transcription initiation site. The thyroid hormone-receptor complex bound preferentially to the 5'-flanking sequences of the growth hormone gene in a region between nucleotide coordinates -290 and -129. The receptor also bound to an analogous promoter region in the human placental lactogen gene, which has 92% nucleotide sequence homology with the growth hormone gene. These binding regions appear to be distinct from those that are recognized by the receptor for glucocorticoids, which stimulate growth hormone gene expression synergistically with thyroid hormone. The presence of thyroid hormone was required for binding of its receptor to the growth hormone gene promoter, suggesting that thyroid hormone renders the receptor capable of recognizing specific gene regions.

  16. Hormonal and lactational responses to growth hormone-releasing hormone treatment in lactating Japanese Black cows.

    PubMed

    Shingu, H; Hodate, K; Kushibiki, S; Ueda, Y; Touno, E; Shinoda, M; Ohashi, S

    2004-06-01

    Ten multiparous lactating Japanese Black cows (beef breed) were used to evaluate the effects of bovine growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) analog on milk yield and profiles of plasma hormones and metabolites. The cows received 2 consecutive 21-d treatments (a daily s.c. injection of 3-mg GHRH analog or saline) in a 2 (group) x 2 (period) Latin square crossover design. The 5 cows in group A received GHRH analog during period 1 (from d 22 to 42 postpartum) and saline during period 2 (from d 57 to 77 postpartum), and those in group B received saline and GHRH analog during periods 1 and 2, respectively. Mean milk yield decreased in saline treated compared with that during the 1-wk period before treatment 7.4 and 19.1% during periods 1 (group B) and 2 (group A), respectively. Treatment with GHRH analog increased milk yield 17.4% (period 1, group A) and 6.3% (period 2, group B). Treatment with GHRH analog induced higher basal plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin, and glucose compared with saline-treated cows. In glucose challenge, the GHRH analog-treated beef cows had greater insulin secretion than the saline-treated beef cows. In insulin challenge, however, there were no significant differences in the areas surrounded by hypothetical lines of basal glucose concentrations and glucose response curves between GHRH analog- and saline-treated cows. These results demonstrate that GHRH analog treatment facilitates endogenous GH secretion in lactating Japanese Black cows, leading to increases in milk yield and plasma concentrations of IGF-1, insulin, and glucose.

  17. Hormone symphony during root growth and development.

    PubMed

    Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; De La Paz Sánchez, María; García-Ponce, Berenice; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2012-12-01

    Hormones regulate plant growth and development in response to external environmental stimuli via complex signal transduction pathways, which in turn form complex networks of interaction. Several classes of hormones have been reported, and their activity depends on their biosynthesis, transport, conjugation, accumulation in the vacuole, and degradation. However, the activity of a given hormone is also dependent on its interaction with other hormones. Indeed, there is a complex crosstalk between hormones that regulates their biosynthesis, transport, and/or signaling functionality, although some hormones have overlapping or opposite functions. The plant root is a particularly useful system in which to study the complex role of plant hormones in the plastic control of plant development. Physiological, cellular, and molecular genetic approaches have been used to study the role of plant hormones in root meristem homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings on the synthesis, signaling, transport of hormones and role during root development and examine the role of hormone crosstalk in maintaining homeostasis in the apical root meristem. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Sex hormones and the genesis of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Lindsay S

    2006-03-01

    The sexually dimorphic prevalence of autoimmune disease remains one of the most intriguing clinical observations among this group of disorders. While sex hormones have long been recognized for their roles in reproductive functions, within the past 2 decades scientists have found that sex hormones are integral signaling modulators of the mammalian immune system. Sex hormones have definitive roles in lymphocyte maturation, activation, and synthesis of antibodies and cytokines. Sex hormone expression is altered among patients with autoimmune disease, and this variation of expression contributes to immune dysregulation. English-language literature from the last 10 years was reviewed to examine the relationship between sex hormones and the function of the mammalian immune system. Approximately 50 publications were included in this review, and the majority were controlled trials with investigator blinding that compared both male and female diseased and normal subjects. The review provided basic knowledge regarding the broad impact of sex hormones on the immune system and how abnormal sex hormone expression contributes to the development and maintenance of autoimmune phenomena, with a focus on systemic lupus erythematosus, as models of "lupus-prone" mice are readily available. Sex hormones affect the function of the mammalian immune system, and sex hormone expression is different in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus than in healthy subjects. Sex hormones play a role in the genesis of autoimmunity. Future research may provide a therapeutic approach that is capable of altering disease pathogenesis, rather than targeting disease sequelae.

  19. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation.

    PubMed

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-06-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization or differentiated posttranslational maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and cerebral or peripheral neurons but others also in other cell types. The extraintestinal cells may release different bioactive fragments of the same prohormone due to cell-specific processing pathways. Moreover, endocrine cells, neurons, cancer cells and, for instance, spermatozoa secrete gut peptides in different ways, so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions, but also constitute regulatory systems operating in the whole organism. This overview of gut hormone biology is supplemented with an annotation on some Scandinavian contributions to gastrointestinal hormone research.

  20. Expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in fibroadenomas of the breast.

    PubMed

    Lenicek, Tanja; Kasumović, Dino; Stajduhar, Emil; Dzombeta, Tihana; Jukić, Zoran; Kruslin, Bozo

    2013-06-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most prevalent benign breast tumor. It consists of epithelial and stromal components. In general, breast tumors are highly hormonally dependent and growth hormone by its physiology may have a possible oncogenic potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in epithelial and stromal components of fibroadenomas. Study group included 30 randomly chosen fibroadenomas from female patients aged between 18 and 69 years. The expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor was defined in both histologic components of fibroadenomas. Growth hormone was expressed in 96.7% of both epithelial and stromal components of fibroadenomas, with stronger expression in the stromal component. The same percentage of positive reaction (96.7%) was obtained in the epithelial component of fibroadenomas for growth hormone receptor expression. Only 6.7% of stromal components tested for growth hormone receptor were positive. The high expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in fibroadenoma tissue indicates their possible role in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Follow up of patients with high expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor may be suggested.

  1. Evaluating the function of putative hormone transporters

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Burkhard; Murphy, Angus S

    2009-01-01

    Hormones typically serve as long distance signaling molecules. To reach their site of action, hormones need to be transported from the sites of synthesis. Many plant hormones are mobile, thus requiring specific transport systems for the export from their source cells as well as subsequent import into target cells. Hormone transport in general is still poorly understood. Auxin is probably the most intensively studied plant hormone concerning transport in the moment. To advance our understanding of hormone transport we need two principal data sets: information on the properties of the transport systems including substrate specificity and kinetics, and we need to identify candidate genes for the respective transporters. Physiological transport data can provide an important basis for identifying and characterizing candidate transporters and to define their in vivo role. A recent publication in Plant Physiology highlights how kinetic and specificity studies may help to identify cytokinin transporters.1 PMID:19649195

  2. Evaluating the function of putative hormone transporters.

    PubMed

    Frommer, Wolf B; Schulz, Burkhard; Murphy, Angus S

    2009-02-01

    Hormones typically serve as long distance signaling molecules. To reach their site of action, hormones need to be transported from the sites of synthesis. Many plant hormones are mobile, thus requiring specific transport systems for the export from their source cells as well as subsequent import into target cells. Hormone transport in general is still poorly understood. Auxin is probably the most intensively studied plant hormone concerning transport in the moment. To advance our understanding of hormone transport we need two principal data sets: information on the properties of the transport systems including substrate specificity and kinetics, and we need to identify candidate genes for the respective transporters. Physiological transport data can provide an important basis for identifying and characterizing candidate transporters and to define their in vivo role. A recent publication in Plant Physiology highlights how kinetic and specificity studies may help to identify cytokinin transporters.

  3. Thyroid hormone resistance and its management

    PubMed Central

    Lado-Abeal, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    The syndrome of impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone, also known as syndrome of thyroid hormone resistance, is an inherited condition that occurs in 1 of 40,000 live births characterized by a reduced responsiveness of target tissues to thyroid hormone due to mutations on the thyroid hormone receptor. Patients can present with symptoms of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. They usually have elevated thyroid hormones and a normal or elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level. Due to their nonspecific symptomatic presentation, these patients can be misdiagnosed if the primary care physician is not familiar with the condition. This can result in frustration for the patient and sometimes unnecessary invasive treatment such as radioactive iodine ablation, as in the case presented herein. PMID:27034574

  4. Do hormones influence melanoma? Facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amie; Driscoll, Marcia S

    2010-01-01

    The issue of whether hormones influence malignant melanoma (MM) has been controversial for many years. Although early case reports demonstrated a negative effect of hormones, recent evidence has not supported a potential role for hormones in MM. We address whether exogenous and endogenous hormones influence a woman's risk for MM or affect her prognosis if diagnosed with MM. Multiple epidemiologic studies show the use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy does not appear to increase a woman's risk for MM. Pregnancy does not appear to influence a woman's risk of MM, nor does pregnancy appear to affect prognosis in the woman diagnosed with MM. When counseling the woman who is diagnosed with MM during pregnancy or during the childbearing years, future use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy is not contraindicated; counseling concerning future pregnancies should be done on a case-by-case basis, with emphasis placed on established prognostic factors for MM.

  5. Hormones and sexual orientation: a questionable link.

    PubMed

    Banks, A; Gartrell, N K

    1995-01-01

    This paper critically reviews the studies which explore a possible causal relationship between sex hormones and the development of sexual orientation. Early studies focused on hormone measurements in adult men and women. While definitive interpretations are hindered by methodological problems, the studies as a whole do not support a causal relationship between postnatal hormone levels and sexual orientation. More recently, a theory that prenatal hormone levels produce varying degrees of brain androgenization and subsequent dimorphic sex role behavior has consistently been supported by studies in lower mammals. Attempts to generalize the causes of sexual orientation from animals to humans have been controversial. Efforts to measure the estrogen feedback as an indication of brain androgenization have produced inconsistent results. Studies of men and women who experienced defect in hormone metabolism (i.e., CAH and testicular feminization) have not found a concurrent increase in homosexual behavior. Overall, the data do not support a causal connection between hormones and human sexual orientation.

  6. Endocrine disruptors and thyroid hormone physiology.

    PubMed

    Jugan, Mary-Line; Levi, Yves; Blondeau, Jean-Paul

    2010-04-01

    Endocrine disruptors are man-made chemicals that can disrupt the synthesis, circulating levels, and peripheral action of hormones. The disruption of sex hormones was subject of intensive research, but thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling are now also recognized as important targets of endocrine disruptors. The neurological development of mammals is largely dependent on normal thyroid hormone homeostasis, and it is likely to be particularly sensitive to disruption of the thyroid axis. Here, we survey the main thyroid-disrupting chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, perchlorates, and brominated flame-retardants, that are characteristic disruptors of thyroid hormone homeostasis, and look at their suspected relationships to impaired development of the human central nervous system. The review then focuses on disrupting mechanisms known to be directly or indirectly related to the transcriptional activity of the thyroid hormone receptors.

  7. Gut hormones and obesity: physiology and therapies.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rebecca; Tan, Tricia; Bloom, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, it has been established that hormones produced by the gut, pancreas, and adipose tissue are key players in the control of body weight. These hormones act through a complex neuroendocrine system, including the hypothalamus, to regulate metabolism and energy homeostasis. In obesity, this homeostatic balance is disrupted, either through alterations in the levels of these hormones or through resistance to their actions. Alterations in gut hormone secretion following gastric bypass surgery are likely to underlie the dramatic and persistent loss of weight following this procedure, as well as the observed amelioration in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Medications based on the gut hormone GLP-1 are currently in clinical use to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus and have been shown to produce weight loss. Further therapies for obesity based on other gut hormones are currently in development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Aluminum, parathyroid hormone, and osteomalacia

    SciTech Connect

    Burnatowska-Hledin, M.A.; Kaiser, L.; Mayor, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    Aluminum exposure in man is unavoidable. The occurrence of dialysis dementia, vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, and hypochromic microcytic anemia in dialysis patients underscores the potential for aluminum toxicity. Although exposure via dialysate and hyperalimentation leads to significant tissue aluminum accumulation, the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum and the severe pathology associated with large aluminum burdens suggest that smaller exposures via the gastrointestinal tract and lungs could represent an important, though largely unrecognized, public health problem. It is clear that some aluminum absorption occurs with the ingestion of small amounts of aluminum in the diet and medicines, and even greater aluminum absorption is seen in individuals consuming large amounts of aluminum present in antacids. Aluminum absorption is enhanced in the presence of elevated circulating parathyroid hormone. In addition, elevated PTH leads to the preferential deposition of aluminum in brain and bone. Consequently, PTH is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of toxicities in those organs. PTH excess also seems to lead to the deposition of aluminum in the parathyroid gland. The in vitro demonstration that aluminum inhibits parathyroid hormone release is consistent with the findings of a euparathyroid state in dialysis patients with aluminum related vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia. Nevertheless, it seems likely that hyperparathyroidism is at least initially involved in the pathogenesis of aluminum neurotoxicity and osteomalacia; the increases in tissue aluminum stores are followed by suppression of parathyroid hormone release, which is required for the evolution of osteomalacia. Impaired renal function is not a prerequisite for increased tissue aluminum burdens, nor for aluminum-related organ toxicity. Consequently, it is likely that these diseases will be observed in populations other than those with chronic renal disease.

  9. Hormonal regulation of fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Gicquel, C; Le Bouc, Y

    2006-01-01

    Fetal growth is a complex process depending on the genetics of the fetus, the availability of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus, maternal nutrition and various growth factors and hormones of maternal, fetal and placental origin. Hormones play a central role in regulating fetal growth and development. They act as maturational and nutritional signals in utero and control tissue development and differentiation according to the prevailing environmental conditions in the fetus. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, and IGF-I and IGF-II in particular, plays a critical role in fetal and placental growth throughout gestation. Disruption of the IGF1, IGF2 or IGF1R gene retards fetal growth, whereas disruption of IGF2R or overexpression of IGF2 enhances fetal growth. IGF-I stimulates fetal growth when nutrients are available, thereby ensuring that fetal growth is appropriate for the nutrient supply. The production of IGF-I is particularly sensitive to undernutrition. IGF-II plays a key role in placental growth and nutrient transfer. Several key hormone genes involved in embryonic and fetal growth are imprinted. Disruption of this imprinting causes disorders involving growth defects, such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, which is associated with fetal overgrowth, or Silver-Russell syndrome, which is associated with intrauterine growth retardation. Optimal fetal growth is essential for perinatal survival and has long-term consequences extending into adulthood. Given the high incidence of intrauterine growth retardation and the high risk of metabolic and cardiovascular complications in later life, further clinical and basic research is needed to develop accurate early diagnosis of aberrant fetal growth and novel therapeutic strategies.

  10. Hormonal therapy of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Labrie, Fernand

    2010-01-01

    Of all cancers, prostate cancer is the most sensitive to hormones: it is thus very important to take advantage of this unique property and to always use optimal androgen blockade when hormone therapy is the appropriate treatment. A fundamental observation is that the serum testosterone concentration only reflects the amount of testosterone of testicular origin which is released in the blood from which it reaches all tissues. Recent data show, however, that an approximately equal amount of testosterone is made from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) directly in the peripheral tissues, including the prostate, and does not appear in the blood. Consequently, after castration, the 95-97% fall in serum testosterone does not reflect the 40-50% testosterone (testo) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) made locally in the prostate from DHEA of adrenal origin. In fact, while elimination of testicular androgens by castration alone has never been shown to prolong life in metastatic prostate cancer, combination of castration (surgical or medical with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist) with a pure anti-androgen has been the first treatment shown to prolong life. Most importantly, when applied at the localized stage, the same combined androgen blockade (CAB) can provide long-term control or cure of the disease in more than 90% of cases. Obviously, since prostate cancer usually grows and metastasizes without signs or symptoms, screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is absolutely needed to diagnose prostate cancer at an 'early' stage before metastasis occurs and the cancer becomes non-curable. While the role of androgens was believed to have become non-significant in cancer progressing under any form of androgen blockade, recent data have shown increased expression of the androgen receptor (AR) in treatment-resistant disease with a benefit of further androgen blockade. Since the available anti-androgens have low affinity for AR and cannot block androgen action completely

  11. Inhibitors of plant hormone transport.

    PubMed

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Zažímalová, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Here we present an overview of what is known about endogenous plant compounds that act as inhibitors of hormonal transport processes in plants, about their identity and mechanism of action. We have also summarized commonly and less commonly used compounds of non-plant origin and synthetic drugs that show at least partial 'specificity' to transport or transporters of particular phytohormones. Our main attention is focused on the inhibitors of auxin transport. The urgent need to understand precisely the molecular mechanism of action of these inhibitors is highlighted.

  12. [Hormonal therapy in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Espinós, J; Reyna, C; de la Cruz, S; Oiler, C; Hernández, A; Fernández Hidalgo, O; Santisteban, M; García Foncillas, J

    2008-01-01

    Hormonal therapy has been the first systemic treatment against breast cancer. Up to now Tamoxifen and ovarian supression/ablation were the best optionts we had to treat early breast cancer as advancer disease. The advent of aromatase inhibitors, new SERMS and antistrogen Fulvestrant have supoused a great advance in the treatment of this disease and at the same time have complicated the election of the optimal drug for each patient. This article tries to review the aviable treatment options insiting on its indications.

  13. Sexual hormone fluctuation in chinchillas.

    PubMed

    Celiberti, Simone; Gloria, Alessia; Contri, Alberto; Carluccio, Augusto; Peric, Tanja; Melillo, Alessandro; Robbe, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    The data about chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger) reproduction are limited and in some cases discordant. The aim of this study was to monitor the sexual hormone fluctuation by fecal progesterone level and colpocytology analysis by vaginal smears in order to evaluate the different phases of the oestrus cycle. Twenty-four non pregnant chinchillas aged from 1 to 4 years old and subdivided in three groups were monitored. In contrast with findings reported in other study, the high values of progesterone recorded in autumn suggested the presence of a ciclicity also in this period. The data indicate that chinchilla presents a continuous cycle.

  14. Review of hormonal treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Abdulkareem, I H; Zurmi, I B

    2012-01-01

    This critical review focuses on the role of steroid hormones and their receptors in the development and treatment of breast cancer, with special reference to estrogen receptors, as well as mechanisms of receptor-ligand interactions, response or resistance to hormonal therapy against breast cancer, in conjunction with other modalities like surgery and chemotherapy. Tamoxifen is used in hormonal treatment of breast cancer for up to five years, depending on the presentation. However, there have been recent developments in hormonal therapy of breast cancer in the last ten years, with the introduction of many different alternative therapies for this condition. A critical review of published articles in Pubmed/Medline, Athens, AJOL, NHS Evidence, Science Direct and Google, relating to hormonal treatment of breast cancer, was undertaken, in order to evaluate the mechanisms of estrogen receptor-ligand interactions, their involvement in the etio-pathogenesis of breast cancer, resistance of breast cancer cells to anti-hormonal agents, as well as ways of treating breast cancer using anti-hormone drugs like tamoxifen. Although tamoxifen is the established drug for hormonal treatment of breast cancer, cases of hormone resistance breast cancer have been described recently in the literature. This can happen from the beginning, or during treatment. Therefore, we aim to examine the causes of resistance to hormonal treatment with a view to understand the options of tackling this problem, and suggest other novel alternative hormonal therapies that can be tried, which may overtake tamoxifen in the future. We also seek to emphasize that hormonal therapy has a definite place in the treatment of breast cancer along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as the disease is often considered to be multi-systemic even from the beginning.

  15. Steroid Hormones in NF1 Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    hypothesis is that human neurofibroma (and/or MPNST ) Schwann cells have increased hormone response compared to normal Schwann cells, leading to tumor...growth. Specific Aim 1 will determine steroid hormone receptor expression in human normal, NFl neurofibroma and MPNST Schwann cells. Real-time PCR has...and rat Schwann cells, as well as an MPNST line so far (which showed no proliferative response) Specific Aim 3 involves in vivo hormone response of

  16. Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Tissues. An update

    PubMed Central

    Litsas, George

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. In childhood, it determines the longitudinal bone growth, skeletal maturation, and acquisition of bone mass. In adulthood, it is necessary to maintain bone mass throughout life. Although an association between craniofacial and somatic development has been clearly established, craniofacial growth involves complex interactions of genes, hormones and environment. Moreover, as an anabolic hormone seems to have an important role in the regulation of bone remodeling, muscle enhancement and tooth development. In this paper the influence of growth hormone on oral tissues is reviewed. PMID:25674165

  17. Thyroid hormone transporters in the brain.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takehiro; Abe, Takaaki

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid hormone plays an essential role in proper mammalian development of the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Lack of sufficient thyroid hormone results in abnormal development of virtually all organ systems, a syndrome termed cretinism. In particular, hypothyroidism in the neonatal period causes serious damage to neural cells and leads to mental retardation. Although thyroxine is the major product secreted by the thyroid follicular cells, the action of thyroid hormone is mediated mainly through the deiodination of T(4) to the biologically active form 3,3', 5-triiodo-L-thyronine, followed by the binding of T(3) to a specific nuclear receptor. Before reaching the intracellular targets, thyroid hormone must cross the plasma membrane. Because of the lipophilic nature of thyroid hormone, it was thought that they traversed the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. However, in the past decade, a membrane transport system for thyroid hormone has been postulated to exist in various tissues. Several classes of transporters, organic anion transporter polypeptide (oatp) family, Na(+)/Taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (ntcp) and amino acid transporters have been reported to transport thyroid hormones. Monocarboxylate transporter8 (MCT8) has recently been identified as an active and specific thyroid hormone transporter. Mutations in MCT8 are associated with severe X-linked psycomotor retardation and strongly elevated serum T3 levels in young male patients. Several other molecules should be contributed to exert the role of thyroid hormone in the central nervous system.

  18. Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2012-03-01

    Thyroid hormone has profound effects on the heart and cardiovascular system. This article describes the cellular mechanisms by which thyroid hormone acts at the level of the cardiac myocyte and the vascular smooth muscle cell to alter phenotype and physiology. Because it is well established that thyroid hormone, specifically T(3), acts on almost every cell and organ in the body, studies on the regulation of thyroid hormone transport into cardiac and vascular tissue have added clinical significance. The characteristic changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics and metabolism that accompany thyroid disease states can then be best understood at the cellular level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hormone cross-talk during seed germination.

    PubMed

    Gazzarrini, Sonia; Tsai, Allen Yi-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Hormones are chemical substances that can affect many cellular and developmental processes at low concentrations. Plant hormones co-ordinate growth and development at almost all stages of the plant's life cycle by integrating endogenous signals and environmental cues. Much debate in hormone biology revolves around specificity and redundancy of hormone signalling. Genetic and molecular studies have shown that these small molecules can affect a given process through a signalling pathway that is specific for each hormone. However, classical physiological and genetic studies have also demonstrated that the same biological process can be regulated by many hormones through independent pathways (co-regulation) or shared pathways (cross-talk or cross-regulation). Interactions between hormone pathways are spatiotemporally controlled and thus can vary depending on the stage of development or the organ being considered. In this chapter we discuss interactions between abscisic acid, gibberellic acid and ethylene in the regulation of seed germination as an example of hormone cross-talk. We also consider hormone interactions in response to environmental signals, in particular light and temperature. We focus our discussion on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

  20. Hormones and the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Hampl, Richard; Bičíková, Marie; Sosvorová, Lucie

    2015-03-01

    Hormones exert many actions in the brain, and brain cells are also hormonally active. To reach their targets in brain structures, hormones must overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a unique device selecting desired/undesired molecules to reach or leave the brain, and it is composed of endothelial cells forming the brain vasculature. These cells differ from other endothelial cells in their almost impermeable tight junctions and in possessing several membrane structures such as receptors, transporters, and metabolically active molecules, ensuring their selection function. The main ways how compounds pass through the BBB are briefly outlined in this review. The main part concerns the transport of major classes of hormones: steroids, including neurosteroids, thyroid hormones, insulin, and other peptide hormones regulating energy homeostasis, growth hormone, and also various cytokines. Peptide transporters mediating the saturable transport of individual classes of hormones are reviewed. The last paragraph provides examples of how hormones affect the permeability and function of the BBB either at the level of tight junctions or by various transporters.

  1. Effects of hormones on platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J

    2014-04-01

    Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.

  2. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  3. Thyroid hormone deiodination in fish.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Aurea; Valverde-R, Carlos

    2005-08-01

    We review the experimental evidence accumulated within the past decade regarding the physiologic, biochemical, and molecular characterization of iodothyronine deiodinases (IDs) in piscine species. Agnathans, chondrichthyes, and teleosts express the three isotypes of IDs: ID1, ID2, and ID3, which are responsible for the peripheral fine-tuning of thyroid hormone (TH) bioactivity. At the molecular and operational level, fish IDs share properties with their corresponding vertebrate counterparts. However, fish IDs also exhibit discrete features that seem to be distinctive for piscine species. Indeed, teleostean ID1 is conspicuously resistant to propylthiouracil (PTU) inhibition, and its response to thyroidal status differs from that exhibited by other ID1s. Moreover, both the high level of ID2 activity and its expression in the liver of teleosts are unique among vertebrates. The physiologic role of iodothyronine deiodination in functions regulated by TH in fish is not entirely clear. Nevertheless, current experimental evidence suggests that IDs may coordinate and facilitate, in a tissue-specific fashion, the action of iodothyronines and other hormones involved in such processes.

  4. Natriuretic Hormones in Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Hodes, Anastasia; Lichtstein, David

    2014-01-01

    Natriuretic hormones (NH) include three groups of compounds: the natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP and CNP), the gastrointestinal peptides (guanylin and uroguanylin), and endogenous cardiac steroids. These substances induce the kidney to excrete sodium and therefore participate in the regulation of sodium and water homeostasis, blood volume, and blood pressure (BP). In addition to their peripheral functions, these hormones act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the brain. In this review, the established information on the biosynthesis, release and function of NH is discussed, with particular focus on their role in brain function. The available literature on the expression patterns of each of the NH and their receptors in the brain is summarized, followed by the evidence for their roles in modulating brain function. Although numerous open questions exist regarding this issue, the available data support the notion that NH participate in the central regulation of BP, neuroprotection, satiety, and various psychiatric conditions, including anxiety, addiction, and depressive disorders. In addition, the interactions between the different NH in the periphery and the brain are discussed. PMID:25506340

  5. Thyroid hormone biosynthesis and release.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Denise P; Dupuy, Corinne

    2017-01-31

    Thyroid hormones (TH) 3,5,3',5'- tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'- triiodothyronine (T3) contain iodine atoms as part of their structure, and their synthesis occur in the unique structures called thyroid follicles. Iodide reaches thyroid cells through the bloodstream that supplies the basolateral plasma membrane of thyrocytes, where it is avidly taken up through the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS). Thyrocytes are also specialized in the secretion of the high molecular weight protein thyroglobulin (TG) in the follicular lumen. The iodination of the tyrosyl residues of TG preceeds TH biosynthesis, which depends on the interaction of iodide, TG, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) at the apical plasma membrane of thyrocytes. Thyroid hormone biosynthesis is under the tonic control of thyrotropin (TSH), while the iodide recycling ability is very important for normal thyroid function. We discuss herein the biochemical aspects of TH biosynthesis and release, highlighting the novel molecules involved in the process.

  6. [Hormones and parturition in primates].

    PubMed

    Germain, G; Ferre, F

    1987-01-01

    In primates, the endocrine signals which correlate with the end of gestation, i.e. account for fetal maturity, and initiate the parturition, i.e. trigger the myometrium contractility, remain unknown. Direct and indirect evidence supports the view that, as with domestic mammals, progesterone (or the estrogen/-progesterone ratio) plays a prominent role in inhibiting the contractility of the pregnant uterus. In the past few years an increasing number of endocrine factors have been identified in the placenta. They may contribute to the control of local or systemic steroid production but their effects are extraordinarily intermingled and it is impossible today to state whether any of them are relevant to the mechanism of parturition. The trophoblast and the myometrium establish close contact in the primate pregnancy. This is evidenced by histological studies and also by the influence of the proximity of the placenta on tissue steroid concentrations and the mechanisms of hormone coupling in the myometrium. Specific types or subtypes of myometrium hormone receptors are now well identified (e.g. to oxytocin, to catecholamines) and this now permits a better understanding of the role of their endogenous agonists in the course of parturition. However, such data are still lacking for other factors (e.g. prostanoids, VIP, relaxin...) involved to varying degrees in this process.

  7. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marta C; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F

    2010-09-12

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation.

  8. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and cognition.

    PubMed

    McCarrey, Anna C; Resnick, Susan M

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Prior to the publication of findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002, estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT) was used to prevent age-related disease, especially cardiovascular disease, and to treat menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes and sleep disruptions. Some observational studies of HT in midlife and aging women suggested that HT might also benefit cognitive function, but randomized clinical trials have produced mixed findings in terms of health and cognitive outcomes. This review focuses on hormone effects on cognition and risk for dementia in naturally menopausal women as well as surgically induced menopause, and highlights findings from the large-scale WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) which, contrary to expectation, showed increased dementia risk and poorer cognitive outcomes in older postmenopausal women randomized to HT versus placebo. We consider the 'critical window hypothesis', which suggests that a window of opportunity may exist shortly after menopause during which estrogen treatments are most effective. In addition, we highlight emerging evidence that potential adverse effects of HT on cognition are most pronounced in women who have other health risks, such as lower global cognition or diabetes. Lastly, we point towards implications for future research and clinical treatments.

  9. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and cognition

    PubMed Central

    McCarrey, Anna C.; Resnick, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the publication of findings from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002, estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT) was used to prevent age-related disease, especially cardiovascular disease, and to treat menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes and sleep disruptions. Some observational studies of HT in midlife and aging women suggested that HT might also benefit cognitive function, but randomized clinical trials have produced mixed findings in terms of health and cognitive outcomes. This review focuses on hormone effects on cognition and risk for dementia in naturally menopausal women as well as surgically induced menopause, and highlights findings from the large-scale WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) which, contrary to expectation, showed increased dementia risk and poorer cognitive outcomes in older postmenopausal women randomized to HT versus placebo. We consider the ‘critical window hypothesis’, which suggests that a window of opportunity may exist shortly after menopause during which estrogen treatments are most effective. In addition, we highlight emerging evidence that potential adverse effects of HT on cognition are most pronounced in women who have other health risks, such as cerebrovascular disease or diabetes. Lastly, we point towards implications for future research and clinical treatments. PMID:25935728

  10. Bromine and thyroid hormone activity.

    PubMed Central

    Allain, P; Berre, S; Krari, N; Laine, P; Barbot, N; Rohmer, V; Bigorgne, J C

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To examine the possible consequences of high plasma concentrations of bromine on thyroid hormone. METHODS--Bromine was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the plasma of 799 patients consulting for thyroid disorders. Because the mean (SD) bromine concentration in the plasma of healthy subjects is 4 (1) mg/l, concentrations above 6 mg/l were regarded as outside the normal range. Bromine, free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) values were compared. RESULTS--The percentage of patients with normal, low, and high FT4 and TSH plasma activities, measured separately, did not differ between patients with low and high bromine concentrations. The percentage of patients with high TSH but normal FT4 values was significantly higher in the group with bromine values of more than 6 mg/l than in the group with bromine concentrations below this (p < 0.02). CONCLUSION--An increase in plasma bromine could potentiate an increase in plasma TSH concentration, probably as a consequence of a minor inhibitory effect on thyroid activity. PMID:8320326

  11. Alligators, contaminants and steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Guillette, Louis J; Edwards, Thea M; Moore, Brandon C

    2007-01-01

    Steroids are essential for successful reproduction in all vertebrate species. Over the last several decades, extensive research has indicated that exposure to various environmental pollutants can disrupt steroidogenesis and steroid signaling. Although steroidogenesis is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, it is also modified by various paracrine and autocrine factors. Furthermore, the classical two-cell model of steroidogenesis in the developing ovarian follicle, involving the granulosa and theca cells in mammals, may not be universal. Instead, birds and probably reptiles use the two thecal compartments (theca interna and theca externa) as sites of steroid production. We have documented that embryonic or juvenile exposure to a complex mixture of contaminants from agricultural and storm water runoff leads to altered steroid hormone profiles in American alligators. Our observations suggest that alterations in plasma steroid hormone concentrations are due in part to altered gene expression, modified hepatic biotransformation and altered gonadal steroidogenesis. Future studies must examine the interplay between endocrine and paracrine regulation in the development and expression of gonadal steroidogenesis in individuals exposed to endocrine disrupting contaminants at various life stages if we are to fully understand potential detrimental outcomes.

  12. Hormones as doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Duntas, Leonidas H; Popovic, Vera

    2013-04-01

    Though we may still sing today, as did Pindar in his eighth Olympian Victory Ode, "… of no contest greater than Olympia, Mother of Games, gold-wreathed Olympia…", we must sadly admit that today, besides blatant over-commercialization, there is no more ominous threat to the Olympic games than doping. Drug-use methods are steadily becoming more sophisticated and ever harder to detect, increasingly demanding the use of complex analytical procedures of biotechnology and molecular medicine. Special emphasis is thus given to anabolic androgenic steroids, recombinant growth hormone and erythropoietin as well as to gene doping, the newly developed mode of hormones abuse which, for its detection, necessitates high-tech methodology but also multidisciplinary individual measures incorporating educational and psychological methods. In this Olympic year, the present review offers an update on the current technologically advanced endocrine methods of doping while outlining the latest procedures applied-including both the successes and pitfalls of proteomics and metabolomics-to detect doping while contributing to combating this scourge.

  13. Growth Hormone Response after Administration of L-dopa, Clonidine, and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone in Children with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Seigfried M.

    1993-01-01

    This study of eight growth-retarded children with Down's syndrome (aged 1 to 6.5 years) found that administration of growth hormone was more effective than either L-dopa or clonidine. Results suggest that children with Down's syndrome have both anatomical and biochemical hypothalamic derangements resulting in decreased growth hormone secretion and…

  14. Growth Hormone Response after Administration of L-dopa, Clonidine, and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone in Children with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Seigfried M.

    1993-01-01

    This study of eight growth-retarded children with Down's syndrome (aged 1 to 6.5 years) found that administration of growth hormone was more effective than either L-dopa or clonidine. Results suggest that children with Down's syndrome have both anatomical and biochemical hypothalamic derangements resulting in decreased growth hormone secretion and…

  15. Nutrient Sensing Overrides Somatostatin and Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone to Control Pulsatile Growth Hormone Release.

    PubMed

    Steyn, F J

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacological studies reveal that interactions between hypothalamic inhibitory somatostatin and stimulatory growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) govern pulsatile GH release. However, in vivo analysis of somatostatin and GHRH release into the pituitary portal vasculature and peripheral GH output demonstrates that the withdrawal of somatostatin or the appearance of GHRH into pituitary portal blood does not reliably dictate GH release. Consequently, additional intermediates acting at the level of the hypothalamus and within the anterior pituitary gland are likely to contribute to the release of GH, entraining GH secretory patterns to meet physiological demand. The identification and validation of the actions of such intermediates is particularly important, given that the pattern of GH release defines several of the physiological actions of GH. This review highlights the actions of neuropeptide Y in regulating GH release. It is acknowledged that pulsatile GH release may not occur selectively in response to hypothalamic control of pituitary function. As such, interactions between somatotroph networks, the median eminence and pituitary microvasculature and blood flow, and the emerging role of tanycytes and pericytes as critical regulators of pulsatility are considered. It is argued that collective interactions between the hypothalamus, the median eminence and pituitary vasculature, and structural components within the pituitary gland dictate somatotroph function and thereby pulsatile GH release. These interactions may override hypothalamic somatostatin and GHRH-mediated GH release, and modify pulsatile GH release relative to the peripheral glucose supply, and thereby physiological demand.

  16. Minireview: Pathophysiological importance of thyroid hormone transporters.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Heike; Visser, Theo J

    2009-03-01

    Thyroid hormone metabolism and action are largely intracellular events that require transport of iodothyronines across the plasma membrane. It has been assumed for a long time that this occurs by passive diffusion, but it has become increasingly clear that cellular uptake and efflux of thyroid hormone is mediated by transporter proteins. Recently, several active and specific thyroid hormone transporters have been identified, including monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), MCT10, and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1C1 (OATP1C1). The latter is expressed predominantly in brain capillaries and transports preferentially T(4), whereas MCT8 and MCT10 are expressed in multiple tissues and are capable of transporting different iodothyronines. The pathophysiological importance of thyroid hormone transporters has been established by the demonstration of MCT8 mutations in patients with severe psychomotor retardation and elevated serum T(3) levels. MCT8 appears to play an important role in the transport of thyroid hormone in the brain, which is essential for the crucial action of the hormone during brain development. It is expected that more specific thyroid hormone transporters will be discovered in the near future, which will lead to a better understanding of the tissue-specific regulation of thyroid hormone bioavailability.

  17. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  18. Thyroid Hormone Function in the Rat Testis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are emerging regulators of testicular function since Sertoli, germ, and Leydig cells are found to express thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). These testicular cells also express deiodinases, which are capable of converting the pro-hormone T4 to the active thyroid hormone T3, or inactivating T3 or T4 to a non-biologically active form. Furthermore, thyroid hormone transporters are also found in the testis. Thus, the testis is equipped with the transporters and the enzymes necessary to maintain the optimal level of thyroid hormone in the seminiferous epithelium, as well as the specific TRs to execute thyroid hormone action in response to different stages of the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Studies using genetic models and/or goitrogens (e.g., propylthiouracil) have illustrated a tight physiological relationship between thyroid hormone and testicular function, in particular, Sertoli cell differentiation status, mitotic activity, gap junction function, and blood–testis barrier assembly. These findings are briefly summarized and discussed herein. PMID:25414694

  19. Insect Control (II): Hormones and Viruses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Jean L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research in the use of hormones and viruses to control insect populations. Although entomologists do not think that pheromones, hormones, and viruses will completely replace more conventional chemical insecticides, they will become increasingly important and will reduce our dependence on traditional insecticides. (JR)

  20. The Hormonal Control of Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Coll, Anthony P.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; O'Rahilly, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Numerous circulating peptides and steroids produced in the body influence appetite through their actions on the hypothalamus, the brain stem, and the autonomic nervous system. These hormones come from three major sites—fat cells, the gastrointestinal tract, and the pancreas. In this Review we provide a synthesis of recent evidence concerning the actions of these hormones on food intake. PMID:17448988

  1. Collective hormonal profiles predict group performance

    PubMed Central

    Akinola, Modupe; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Mehta, Pranjal H.; Lu, Jackson G.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has shown that an individual’s hormonal profile can influence the individual’s social standing within a group. We introduce a different construct—a collective hormonal profile—which describes a group’s hormonal make-up. We test whether a group’s collective hormonal profile is related to its performance. Analysis of 370 individuals randomly assigned to work in 74 groups of three to six individuals revealed that group-level concentrations of testosterone and cortisol interact to predict a group’s standing across groups. Groups with a collective hormonal profile characterized by high testosterone and low cortisol exhibited the highest performance. These collective hormonal level results remained reliable when controlling for personality traits and group-level variability in hormones. These findings support the hypothesis that groups with a biological propensity toward status pursuit (high testosterone) coupled with reduced stress-axis activity (low cortisol) engage in profit-maximizing decision-making. The current work extends the dual-hormone hypothesis to the collective level and provides a neurobiological perspective on the factors that determine who rises to the top across, not just within, social hierarchies. PMID:27528679

  2. The barrier within: endothelial transport of hormones.

    PubMed

    Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N

    2012-08-01

    Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease.

  3. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  4. Insect Control (II): Hormones and Viruses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Jean L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research in the use of hormones and viruses to control insect populations. Although entomologists do not think that pheromones, hormones, and viruses will completely replace more conventional chemical insecticides, they will become increasingly important and will reduce our dependence on traditional insecticides. (JR)

  5. Ubiquitin, hormones and biotic stress in plants.

    PubMed

    Dreher, Kate; Callis, Judy

    2007-05-01

    The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a substrate protein changes its fate. Notably, proteins typically tagged with a lysine48-linked polyubiquitin chain become substrates for degradation by the 26S proteasome. In recent years many experiments have been performed to characterize the proteins involved in the ubiquitylation process and to identify their substrates, in order to understand better the mechanisms that link specific protein degradation events to regulation of plant growth and development. This review focuses on the role that ubiquitin plays in hormone synthesis, hormonal signalling cascades and plant defence mechanisms. Several examples are given of how targeted degradation of proteins affects downstream transcriptional regulation of hormone-responsive genes in the auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid, ethylene and jasmonate signalling pathways. Additional experiments suggest that ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis may also act upstream of the hormonal signalling cascades by regulating hormone biosynthesis, transport and perception. Moreover, several experiments demonstrate that hormonal cross-talk can occur at the level of proteolysis. The more recently established role of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in defence against biotic threats is also reviewed. The UPS has been implicated in the regulation of almost every developmental process in plants, from embryogenesis to floral organ production probably through its central role in many hormone pathways. More recent evidence provides molecular mechanisms for hormonal cross-talk and links the UPS system to biotic defence responses.

  6. Hormonal and nutritional drivers of intrauterine growth.

    PubMed

    Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N; Vaughan, Owen R; Forhead, Alison J; Fowden, Abigail L

    2013-05-01

    Size at birth is critical in determining life expectancy with both small and large neonates at risk of shortened life spans. This review examines the hormonal and nutritional drivers of intrauterine growth with emphasis on the role of foetal hormones as nutritional signals in utero. Nutrients drive intrauterine growth by providing substrate for tissue accretion, whereas hormones regulate nutrient distribution between foetal oxidative metabolism and mass accumulation. The main hormonal drivers of intrauterine growth are insulin, insulin-like growth factors and thyroid hormones. Together with leptin and cortisol, these hormones control cellular nutrient uptake and the balance between accretion and differentiation in regulating tissue growth. They also act indirectly via the placenta to alter the materno-foetal supply of nutrients and oxygen. By responding to nutrient and oxygen availability, foetal hormones optimize the survival and growth of the foetus with respect to its genetic potential, particularly during adverse conditions. However, changes in the intrauterine growth of individual tissues may alter their function permanently. In both normal and compromised pregnancies, intrauterine growth is determined by multiple hormonal and nutritional drivers which interact to produce a specific pattern of intrauterine development with potential lifelong consequences for health.

  7. Multiple hormonal resistances: Diagnosis, evaluation and therapy.

    PubMed

    Linglart, Agnès; Silve, Caroline; Rothenbuhler, Anya

    2015-05-01

    Molecular alterations of cAMP-mediated signaling affect primarily the signaling of the PTH/PTHrp receptor, and, with different severities the signaling of other hormones, including TSH. The identification of PTH and other hormonal resistances implies to look for the genetic disorder supporting the metabolic disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Development: Pubertal Hormones Meet the Adolescent Brain.

    PubMed

    Sisk, Cheryl L

    2017-07-24

    At the onset of puberty, ovarian hormones increase inhibitory tone in the prefrontal cortex. Inhibitory maturation is a hallmark of the initiation of developmental windows of neural plasticity; pubertal hormones may trigger the opening of an adolescent critical period for experience-dependent rewiring of circuits underlying executive function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hormonal and Local Regulation of Bone Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canalis, Ernesto

    1985-01-01

    Reviews effects of hormones, systemic factors, and local regulators on bone formation. Identifies and explains the impact on bone growth of several hormones as well as the components of systemic and local systems. Concentrates on bone collagen and DNA synthesis. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  10. The Barrier Within: Endothelial Transport of Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Kolka, Cathryn M.; Bergman, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease. PMID:22875454

  11. Hormonal and Local Regulation of Bone Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canalis, Ernesto

    1985-01-01

    Reviews effects of hormones, systemic factors, and local regulators on bone formation. Identifies and explains the impact on bone growth of several hormones as well as the components of systemic and local systems. Concentrates on bone collagen and DNA synthesis. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  12. Ubiquitin, Hormones and Biotic Stress in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Dreher, Kate; Callis, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a substrate protein changes its fate. Notably, proteins typically tagged with a lysine48-linked polyubiquitin chain become substrates for degradation by the 26S proteasome. In recent years many experiments have been performed to characterize the proteins involved in the ubiquitylation process and to identify their substrates, in order to understand better the mechanisms that link specific protein degradation events to regulation of plant growth and development. Scope This review focuses on the role that ubiquitin plays in hormone synthesis, hormonal signalling cascades and plant defence mechanisms. Several examples are given of how targeted degradation of proteins affects downstream transcriptional regulation of hormone-responsive genes in the auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid, ethylene and jasmonate signalling pathways. Additional experiments suggest that ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis may also act upstream of the hormonal signalling cascades by regulating hormone biosynthesis, transport and perception. Moreover, several experiments demonstrate that hormonal cross-talk can occur at the level of proteolysis. The more recently established role of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in defence against biotic threats is also reviewed. Conclusions The UPS has been implicated in the regulation of almost every developmental process in plants, from embryogenesis to floral organ production probably through its central role in many hormone pathways. More recent evidence provides molecular mechanisms for hormonal cross-talk and links the UPS system to biotic defence responses. PMID:17220175

  13. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  14. Future possibilities in the prevention of breast cancer: Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, Darcy V; Pike, Malcolm C

    2000-01-01

    The cyclic production of estrogen and progesterone by the premenopausal ovary accounts for the steep rise in breast cancer risk in premenopausal women. These hormones are breast cell mitogens. By reducing exposure to these ovarian hormones, agonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) given to suppress ovarian function may prove useful in cancer prevention. To prevent deleterious effects of hypoestrogenemia, the addition of low-dose hormone replacement to the LHRH agonist appears necessary. Pilot data with such an approach indicates it is feasible and reduces mammographic densities. PMID:11250719

  15. Juvenile hormone regulation of Drosophila aging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Juvenile hormone (JH) has been demonstrated to control adult lifespan in a number of non-model insects where surgical removal of the corpora allata eliminates the hormone’s source. In contrast, little is known about how juvenile hormone affects adult Drosophila melanogaster. Previous work suggests that insulin signaling may modulate Drosophila aging in part through its impact on juvenile hormone titer, but no data yet address whether reduction of juvenile hormone is sufficient to control Drosophila life span. Here we adapt a genetic approach to knock out the corpora allata in adult Drosophila melanogaster and characterize adult life history phenotypes produced by reduction of juvenile hormone. With this system we test potential explanations for how juvenile hormone modulates aging. Results A tissue specific driver inducing an inhibitor of a protein phosphatase was used to ablate the corpora allata while permitting normal development of adult flies. Corpora allata knockout adults had greatly reduced fecundity, inhibited oogenesis, impaired adult fat body development and extended lifespan. Treating these adults with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene restored all traits toward wildtype. Knockout females remained relatively long-lived even when crossed into a genotype that blocked all egg production. Dietary restriction further extended the lifespan of knockout females. In an analysis of expression profiles of knockout females in fertile and sterile backgrounds, about 100 genes changed in response to loss of juvenile hormone independent of reproductive state. Conclusions Reduced juvenile hormone alone is sufficient to extend the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster. Reduced juvenile hormone limits reproduction by inhibiting the production of yolked eggs, and this may arise because juvenile hormone is required for the post-eclosion development of the vitellogenin-producing adult fat body. Our data do not support a mechanism for juvenile hormone control

  16. Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin, and Vitamin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Analyses of secretion of parathyroid hormone during tests of stimulation and suppression of hormone-secretory activity using infusions of EDTA and calcium, respectively, have established that, in contrast to previous views, secretion of the hormone is not autonomous in many patients that have adenomatous hyperparathyroidism, but is responsive to changes in blood-calcium concentration. These findings have led to a new understanding of the pathophysiology of hormone production in hyperparathy-roidism. A related application of the diagnostic use of the radioimmunoassay is the preoperative localization of parathyroid tumors and the distinction between adenomas and chief-cell hyperplasia. Work involving catheterization and radioimmunoassay of blood samples obtained from the subclavin and innominate veins and the venae cavae, led to localization in a high percentage of patients. However, this procedure has been adopted recently to detect hormone concentration in the small veins directly draining the parathyroid glands.

  17. Thyroid hormone and the growth plate.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yvonne Y; Wang, Lai; Ballock, R Tracy

    2006-12-01

    Thyroid hormone was first identified as a potent regulator of skeletal maturation at the growth plate more than forty years ago. Since that time, many in vitro and in vivo studies have confirmed that thyroid hormone regulates the critical transition between cell proliferation and terminal differentiation in the growth plate, specifically the maturation of growth plate chondrocytes into hypertrophic cells. However these studies have neither identified the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of skeletal maturation by thyroid hormone, nor demonstrated how the systemic actions of thyroid hormone interface with the local regulatory milieu of the growth plate. This article will review our current understanding of the role of thyroid hormone in regulating the process of endochondral ossification at the growth plate, as well as what is currently known about the molecular mechanisms involved in this regulation.

  18. Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin, and Vitamin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Analyses of secretion of parathyroid hormone during tests of stimulation and suppression of hormone-secretory activity using infusions of EDTA and calcium, respectively, have established that, in contrast to previous views, secretion of the hormone is not autonomous in many patients that have adenomatous hyperparathyroidism, but is responsive to changes in blood-calcium concentration. These findings have led to a new understanding of the pathophysiology of hormone production in hyperparathy-roidism. A related application of the diagnostic use of the radioimmunoassay is the preoperative localization of parathyroid tumors and the distinction between adenomas and chief-cell hyperplasia. Work involving catheterization and radioimmunoassay of blood samples obtained from the subclavin and innominate veins and the venae cavae, led to localization in a high percentage of patients. However, this procedure has been adopted recently to detect hormone concentration in the small veins directly draining the parathyroid glands.

  19. Growth hormone doping: a review

    PubMed Central

    Erotokritou-Mulligan, Ioulietta; Holt, Richard IG; Sönksen, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    The use of growth hormone (GH) as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic performance and to accelerate the healing of sporting injuries. Over recent years, a number of high profile athletes have admitted to using GH. To date, there is only limited and weak evidence for its beneficial effects on performance. Nevertheless the “hype” around its effectiveness and the lack of a foolproof detection methodology that will detect its abuse longer than 24 hours after the last injection has encouraged its widespread use. This article reviews the current evidence of the ergogenic effects of GH along with the risks associated with its use. The review also examines methodologies, both currently available and in development for detecting its abuse. PMID:24198576

  20. Thyroid hormones and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Felipe

    2016-07-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem and its relationship to thyroid dysfunction has been increasingly investigated in recent years. Since it has been demonstrated that thyroid hormones (TH) and mainly T3 have cardioprotective effects, it is easy to understand that in the scenario of thyroid disorder, cardiac function may be damaged, and inversely in cardiac dysfunction thyroid dysregulation may be seen. The increase in plasma TH produces a clear neurohormonal activation which impacts negatively on cardiac function. In hypothyroidism, and in addition to extracardiac dysfunction, myocardial and vascular remodelling is altered and they contribute to cardiac failure. Abnormal low plasma TSH has also been shown to be a risk factor for developing HF in several recent studies, and they suggest that TSH is an independent predictor of clinical outcome including death and cardiac hospitalizations. Therefore, physicians should consider all these concepts when managing a patient with heart failure, not only for a clear diagnosis, but also for better and accurate treatment.

  1. Hormonal changes in antiorthostatic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, V.; Popovic, P.; Honeycutt, C.

    1982-01-01

    Hypokinesia, especially hypokinesia with negative tilt ('antiorthostatic hypokinesia'), mimics some of the effects of weightlessness. It is shown that cardiac output is increased during early exposure of rats to antiorthostatic hypokinesia. The increase of the stroke volume and of the cardiac output observed in the antiorthostatic hypokinetic rats is probably the consequence of a blood volume shift toward the chest brought forth by head-down positioning of the animals. It is also possible that struggling of the animals to escape from the harness and an increased metabolism contribute to the elevation of cardiac output. In order to study this hypothesis 'stress hormones' were measured in the antiorthostatic rats. Plasma levels of ACTH, corticosterone and prolactin were measured in the arterial blood (0.3 ml) sampled before, during and after hypokinesia from chronic aortic cannulas of the rats.

  2. Hormonal contraception in the male.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R A

    2000-01-01

    The hormonal approach to male contraception is based on the suppression of gonadotrophin secretion with secondary suppression of spermatogenesis. This can be achieved by administration of testosterone or other androgen alone, but combined administration with a progestogen or GnRH analogue allows the dose of testosterone to be reduced to physiological replacement doses. This approach has been investigated for many years but without identification of a regimen which results in sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis to provide ensured contraception in all men, safely and conveniently. The reasons for this are discussed, and recent developments towards a regimen that fulfills all these criteria are described. Crucial to development of any new product is that it will be used: surveys of both men and women indicate firmly positive attitudes towards a 'male pill'. There are, therefore, grounds for cautious optimism that the next decade may see the introduction of the first novel male contraceptive for several hundred years.

  3. Growth hormone and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Birzniece, Vita; Nelson, Anne E; Ho, Ken K Y

    2011-05-01

    There has been limited research and evidence that GH enhances physical performance in healthy adults or in trained athletes. Even so, human growth hormone (GH) is widely abused by athletes. In healthy adults, GH increases lean body mass, although it is possible that fluid retention contributes to this effect. The most recent data indicate that GH does not enhance muscle strength, power, or aerobic exercise capacity, but improves anaerobic exercise capacity. In fact, there are adverse effects of long-term GH excess such that sustained abuse of GH can lead to a state mimicking acromegaly, a condition with increased morbidity and mortality. This review will examine GH effects on body composition and physical performance in health and disease.

  4. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  5. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ185 CONTRACEPTION Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring • What are combined hormonal birth control methods? • How do combined hormonal methods prevent ...

  6. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ185 CONTRACEPTION Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring • What are combined hormonal birth control methods? • How do combined hormonal methods prevent pregnancy? • ...

  7. Hormone Replacement Therapy: Can It Cause Vaginal Bleeding?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can it cause vaginal bleeding? I'm taking hormone therapy for menopause symptoms, and my monthly menstrual periods ... Laughlin-Tommaso, M.D. Some forms of menopause hormone therapy may cause monthly bleeding. This includes cyclic hormone ...

  8. Hormones and pheromones in regulation of insect behavior

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Both pheromones and hormones are well recognized regulators of insect biology. However, the interactions between hormones and pheromones in coordinating insect biology are less well understood. We have studied the interactions between juvenile hormone, its precursor methyl farnesoate, and pheromon...

  9. [Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Límanová, Zdeňka; Jiskra, Jan

    Cardiovascular system is essentially affected by thyroid hormones by way of their genomic and non-genomic effects. Untreated overt thyroid dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Although it has been studied more than 3 decades, in subclinical thyroid dysfunction the negative effect on cardiovascular system is much more controversial. Large meta-analyses within last 10 years have shown that subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with higher cardiovascular risk than subclinical hypothyroidism. Conversely, in patients of age > 85 years subclinical hypothyroidism was linked with lower mortality. Therefore, subclinical hyperthyroidism should be rather treated in the elderly while subclinical hypothyroidism in the younger patients and the older may be just followed. An important problem on the border of endocrinology and cardiology is amiodarone thyroid dysfunction. Effective and safe treatment is preconditioned by distinguishing of type 1 and type 2 amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism. The type 1 should be treated with methimazol, therapeutic response is prolonged, according to recent knowledge immediate discontinuation of amiodarone is not routinely recommended and patient should be usually prepared to total thyroidectomy, or rather rarely 131I radioiodine ablation may be used if there is appropriate accumulation. In the type 2 there is a promt therapeutic response on glucocorticoids (within 1-2 weeks) with permanent remission or development of hypothyroidism. If it is not used for life-threatening arrhytmias, amiodarone may be discontinuated earlier (after several weeks). Amiodarone induced hypothyroidism is treated with levothyroxine without amiodarone interruption.Key words: amiodarone induced thyroid dysfunction - atrial fibrillation - cardiovascular risk - heart failure - hyperthyroidism - hypothyroidism - thyroid stimulating hormone.

  10. [Rational hormonal diagnosis of oligomenorrhea].

    PubMed

    Weise, H C; Moltz, L; Bispink, G; Leidenberger, F

    1989-08-01

    In a study, conducted by two clinics in Berlin and Hamburg, specializing in reproductive endocrinology, the anamnestic, clinical, and laboratory data of 170 oligomenorrheic patients (menstrual intervals between 35 and 90 days) were evaluated in order to determine the frequency of possible causes of oligomenorrhea. Pathological hormone levels were found in two thirds of all patients. The order of frequency of abnormal hormone levels was as follows: hyperandrogenemia (testosterone and/or DHEA-sulfate) in 41.8%, hyperprolactinemia in 25.9%, abnormal thyroid function (TSH and/or TRH-induced TSH) in 21.7%, and hypergonadotropic FSH levels in 3.5% of all patients. There was an overlap of between two or more pathological conditions in one third of all patients. This study confirms results of a previous study in amenorrheic patients (Moltz et al., 1987 - see reference list), documenting hyperandrogenemia as the most frequent abnormality found in this group, followed by hyperprolactinemia. As can be expected, the percentage of women with no discernible abnormality was higher in oligomenorrheic patients when compared with the amenorrheic group (32.3% vs 7.7%). Furthermore, overweight patients were overrepresented in the oligomenorrheic group, while underweight patients were seen more frequently in the amenorrheic group. In view of these results of our study we recommend a detailed diagnostic follow-up in all younger patients with ovarian disorders who need to preserve their reproductive potential. This follow-up should include hyperprolactinemia, hypo-/hyperthyroidism, hyperandrogenemic and hypoestrogenemic states and exclusion of primary ovarian failure. In contrast to recommendations of WHO, issued in 1976, such diagnostic work allows an etiology oriented therapy decision and a therapy risk assessment in subgroups of patients, such as hyperandrogenemic patients, who receive clomiphene or gonadotropin treatment. Furthermore, it permits prophylactic considerations, for

  11. Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Obregon, Maria-Jesus

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases). The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. “Brite” or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs) that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2, and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that lead to activation of UCP1 in WAT

  12. Sexual Desire and Hormonal Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Boozalis, Amanda; Tutlam, Nhial T.; Robbins, Camaryn Chrisman; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of hormonal contraception on sexual desire. Materials and Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1,938 of the 9,256 participants enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. This subset included participants enrolled between April and September 2011 who completed a baseline and six-month telephone survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between contraceptive method and report of lacking interest in sex, controlling for potential confounding variables. Results More than one in five participants (23.9%) reported lacking interest in sex at 6 months after initiating a new contraceptive method. Of 262 copper IUD users (referent group), 18.3% reported lacking interest in sex. Our primary outcome was more prevalent in women who are young (<18 years: adjusted odds ratio (ORadj)=2.04), black (ORadj=1.78), and married or living with a partner (ORadj=1.82). Compared to copper IUD users, participants using depot medroxyprogesterone (ORadj=2.61, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.47-4.61), the vaginal ring (ORadj=2.53, 95% CI=1.37-4.69), and the implant (ORadj=1.60, 95% CI=1.03-2.49) more commonly reported lack of interest in sex. We found no association between use of the hormonal IUD, oral contraceptive pill, and patch and lack of interest in sex. Conclusion CHOICE participants using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, the contraceptive ring, and implant were more likely to report a lack of interest in sex compared to copper IUD users. Future research should confirm these findings and their possible physiological basis. Clinicians should be reassured that most women do not experience reduced sex drive with the use of most contraceptive methods. PMID:26855094

  13. Thyroid hormone resistance: a novel mutation in thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene - case report.

    PubMed

    Işık, Emregül; Beck Peccoz, Paolo; Campi, Irene; Özön, Alev; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer; Gönç, Nazlı; Kandemir, Nurgün

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone resistance (THR) is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormones. It is usually caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene. In the present report, we describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics and genetic analysis of patients with a novel THRB gene mutation. The index patient had been misdiagnosed as hyperthyroidism and treated with antithyroid drugs since eight days of age. Thyroid hormone results showed that thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) was never suppressed despite elevated thyroid hormone levels, and there was no symptom suggesting hyperthyroidism. A heterozygous mutation at codon 350 located in exon 9 of the THRB gene was detected in all the affected members of the family. It is important to consider thyroid hormone levels in association with TSH levels to prevent inappropriate treatment and the potential complications, such as clinical hypothyroidism or an increase in goiter size.

  14. Hormone abuse in sports: the antidoping perspective.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Osquel; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2008-05-01

    Since ancient times, unethical athletes have attempted to gain an unfair competitive advantage through the use of doping substances. A list of doping substances and methods banned in sports is published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). A substance or method might be included in the List if it fulfills at least two of the following criteria: enhances sports performance; represents a risk to the athlete's health; or violates the spirit of sports. This list, constantly updated to reflect new developments in the pharmaceutical industry as well as doping trends, enumerates the drug types and methods prohibited in and out of competition. Among the substances included are steroidal and peptide hormones and their modulators, stimulants, glucocorticosteroids, beta2-agonists, diuretics and masking agents, narcotics, and cannabinoids. Blood doping, tampering, infusions, and gene doping are examples of prohibited methods indicated on the List. From all these, hormones constitute by far the highest number of adverse analytical findings reported by antidoping laboratories. Although to date most are due to anabolic steroids, the advent of molecular biology techniques has made recombinant peptide hormones readily available. These substances are gradually changing the landscape of doping trends. Peptide hormones like erythropoietin (EPO), human growth hormone (hGH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are presumed to be widely abused for performance enhancement. Furthermore, as there is a paucity of techniques suitable for their detection, peptide hormones are all the more attractive to dishonest athletes. This article will overview the use of hormones as doping substances in sports, focusing mainly on peptide hormones as they represent a pressing challenge to the current fight against doping. Hormones and hormones modulators being developed by the pharmaceutical industry, which could emerge as new doping substances, are also discussed. 2008, Asian

  15. Receptors for thyrotropin-releasing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and thyroid hormones in the macaque uterus: effects of long-term sex hormone treatment.

    PubMed

    Hulchiy, Mariana; Zhang, Hua; Cline, J Mark; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Sahlin, Lena

    2012-11-01

    Thyroid gland dysfunction is associated with menstrual cycle disturbances, infertility, and increased risk of miscarriage, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. However, little is known about the regulation of these receptors in the uterus. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of long-term treatment with steroid hormones on the expression, distribution, and regulation of the receptors for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRHR) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHR), thyroid hormone receptor α1/α2 (THRα1/α2), and THRβ1 in the uterus of surgically menopausal monkeys. Eighty-eight cynomolgus macaques were ovariectomized and treated orally with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; n = 20), a combination of CEE and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; n = 20), or tibolone (n = 28) for 2 years. The control group (OvxC; n = 20) received no treatment. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the protein expression and distribution of the receptors in luminal epithelium, glands, stroma, and myometrium of the uterus. Immunostaining of TRHR, TSHR, and THRs was detected in all uterine compartments. Epithelial immunostaining of TRHR was down-regulated in the CEE + MPA group, whereas in stroma, both TRHR and TSHR were increased by CEE + MPA treatment as compared with OvxC. TRHR immunoreactivity was up-regulated, but THRα and THRβ were down-regulated, in the myometrium of the CEE and CEE + MPA groups. The thyroid-stimulating hormone level was higher in the CEE and tibolone groups as compared with OvxC, but the level of free thyroxin did not differ between groups. All receptors involved in thyroid hormone function are expressed in monkey uterus, and they are all regulated by long-term steroid hormone treatment. These findings suggest that there is a possibility of direct actions of thyroid hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone on uterine function.

  16. Growth hormone-releasing hormone is produced by adipocytes and regulates lipolysis through growth hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pacheco, F; Gutierrez-Repiso, C; García-Serrano, S; Ho-Plagaro, A; Gómez-Zumaquero, J M; Valdes, S; Gonzalo, M; Rivas-Becerra, J; Montiel-Casado, C; Rojo-Martínez, G; García-Escobar, E; García-Fuentes, E

    2017-10-01

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) has a crucial role in growth hormone (GH) secretion, but little is known about its production by adipocytes and its involvement in adipocyte metabolism. To determine whether GHRH and its receptor (GHRH-R) are present in human adipocytes and to study their levels in obesity. Also, to analyze the effects of GHRH on human adipocyte differentiation and lipolysis. GHRH/GHRH-R and GH/GH-R mRNA expression levels were analyzed in human mature adipocytes from non-obese and morbidly obese subjects. Human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSC) were differentiated to adipocytes with GHRH (10(-14)-10(-8) M). Adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and gene expression were measured and the effect of GH-R silencing was determined. Mature adipocytes from morbidly obese subjects showed a higher expression of GHRH and GH-R, and a lower expression of GHRH-R and GH than non-obese subjects (P<0.05). A total of 10(-14)-10(-10) M GHRH induced an inhibition of lipid accumulation and PPAR-γ expression (P<0.05), and an increase in glycerol release and HSL expression (P<0.05) in human differentiated adipocytes. A total of 10(-12)-10(-8) M GHRH decreased GHRH-R expression in human differentiated adipocytes (P<0.05). A total of 10(-10)-10(-8) M GHRH increased GH and GH-R expression in human differentiated adipocytes (P<0.05). The effects of GHRH at 10(-10) M on adipocyte differentiation and lipolysis were blocked when GH-R expression was silenced. GHRH and GHRH-R are expressed in human adipocytes and are negatively associated. GHRH at low doses may exert an anti-obesity effect by inhibiting HMSC differentiation in adipocytes and by increasing adipocyte lipolysis in an autocrine or paracrine pathway. These effects are mediated by GH and GH-R.

  17. Anabolic hormone profiles in elite military men.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus K; Kviatkovsky, Shiloah A; Hernández, Lisa M; Sargent, Paul; Segal, Sabrina; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-06-01

    We recently characterized the awakening responses and daily profiles of the catabolic stress hormone cortisol in elite military men. Anabolic hormones follow a similar daily pattern and may counteract the catabolic effects of cortisol. This companion report is the first to characterize daily profiles of anabolic hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone in this population. Overall, the men in this study displayed anabolic hormone profiles comparable to that of healthy, athletic populations. Consistent with the cortisol findings in our prior report, summary parameters of magnitude (hormone output) within the first hour after awakening displayed superior stability versus summary parameters of pattern for both DHEA (r range: 0.77-0.82) and testosterone (r range: 0.62-0.69). Summary parameters of evening function were stable for the two hormones (both p<0.001), while the absolute decrease in testosterone across the day was a stable proxy of diurnal function (p<0.001). Removal of noncompliant subjects did not appreciably affect concentration estimates for either hormone at any time point, nor did it alter the repeatability of any summary parameter. The first of its kind, this report enables accurate estimations of anabolic balance and resultant effects upon health and human performance in this highly resilient yet chronically stressed population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Hormonal modulation of endothelial NO production.

    PubMed

    Duckles, Sue P; Miller, Virginia M

    2010-05-01

    Since the discovery of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and the subsequent identification of nitric oxide (NO) as the primary mediator of endothelium-dependent relaxations, research has focused on chemical and physical stimuli that modulate NO levels. Hormones represent a class of soluble, widely circulating chemical factors that impact production of NO both by rapid effects on the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through phosphorylation of the enzyme and longer term modulation through changes in amount of eNOS protein. Hormones that increase NO production including estrogen, progesterone, insulin, and growth hormone do so through both of these common mechanisms. In contrast, some hormones, including glucocorticoids, progesterone, and prolactin, decrease NO bioavailability. Mechanisms involved include binding to repressor response elements on the eNOS gene, competing for co-regulators common to hormones with positive genomic actions, regulating eNOS co-factors, decreasing substrate for eNOS, and increasing production of oxygen-derived free radicals. Feedback regulation by the hormones themselves as well as the ability of NO to regulate hormonal release provides a second level of complexity that can also contribute to changes in NO levels. These effects on eNOS and changes in NO production may contribute to variability in risk factors, presentation of and treatment for cardiovascular disease associated with aging, pregnancy, stress, and metabolic disorders in men and women.

  19. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.

    1991-12-01

    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  20. Hormonal Factors and Disturbances in Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Culbert, Kristen M; Racine, Sarah E; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-07-01

    This review summarizes the current state of the literature regarding hormonal correlates of, and etiologic influences on, eating pathology. Several hormones (e.g., ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, PYY, leptin, oxytocin, cortisol) are disrupted during the ill state of eating disorders and likely contribute to the maintenance of core symptoms (e.g., dietary restriction, binge eating) and/or co-occurring features (e.g., mood symptoms, attentional biases). Some of these hormones (e.g., ghrelin, cortisol) may also be related to eating pathology via links with psychological stress. Despite these effects, the role of hormonal factors in the etiology of eating disorders remains unknown. The strongest evidence for etiologic effects has emerged for ovarian hormones, as changes in ovarian hormones predict changes in phenotypic and genetic influences on disordered eating. Future studies would benefit from utilizing etiologically informative designs (e.g., high risk, behavioral genetic) and continuing to explore factors (e.g., psychological, neural responsivity) that may impact hormonal influences on eating pathology.

  1. Hormonal modulation of endothelial NO production

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Virginia M.

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and the subsequent identification of nitric oxide (NO) as the primary mediator of endothelium-dependent relaxations, research has focused on chemical and physical stimuli that modulate NO levels. Hormones represent a class of soluble, widely circulating chemical factors that impact production of NO both by rapid effects on the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through phosphorylation of the enzyme and longer term modulation through changes in amount of eNOS protein. Hormones that increase NO production including estrogen, progesterone, insulin, and growth hormone do so through both of these common mechanisms. In contrast, some hormones, including glucocorticoids, progesterone, and prolactin, decrease NO bioavailability. Mechanisms involved include binding to repressor response elements on the eNOS gene, competing for co-regulators common to hormones with positive genomic actions, regulating eNOS co-factors, decreasing substrate for eNOS, and increasing production of oxygen-derived free radicals. Feedback regulation by the hormones themselves as well as the ability of NO to regulate hormonal release provides a second level of complexity that can also contribute to changes in NO levels. These effects on eNOS and changes in NO production may contribute to variability in risk factors, presentation of and treatment for cardiovascular disease associated with aging, pregnancy, stress, and metabolic disorders in men and women. PMID:20213497

  2. [Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Fraczek, Magdalena Maria; Łacka, Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that thyroid hormones affect the cardiovascular system through genomic and nongenomic actions. TRalpha1 is the major thyroid hormone receptor in the heart. T3 suppresses increased mitotic activity of stimulated cardiomyocytes. Hyperthyroidism induces a hyperdynamic cardiovascular state, which is associated with enhanced left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and the chronotropic and inotropic properties of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism, however, is characterized by opposite changes. In addition, thyroid hormones decrease peripheral vascular resistance, influence the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS), and increase blood volume and erythropoetin secretion with subsequent increased preload and cardiac output. Thyroid hormones play an important role in cardiac electrophysiology and have both pro- and anti-arrhytmic potential. Thyroid hormone deficiency is associated with a less favorable lipid profile. Selective modulation of the TRbeta1 receptor is considered as a potential therapeutic target to treat dyslipidemia without cardiac side effects. Thyroid hormones have a beneficial effect on limiting myocardial ischemic injury, preventing and reversing cardiac remodeling and improving cardiac hemodynamics in endstage heart failure. This is crucial because a low T3 syndrome accompanies both acute and chronic cardiac diseases.

  3. Arabidopsis Hormone Database: a comprehensive genetic and phenotypic information database for plant hormone research in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhi-yu; Zhou, Xin; Li, Linchuan; Yu, Xiangchun; Li, Hongjiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Guangyu; Bai, Mingyi; Wang, Xingchun; Jiang, Caifu; Lu, Haibin; Hou, Xianhui; Qu, Lijia; Wang, Zhiyong; Zuo, Jianru; Fu, Xiangdong; Su, Zhen; Li, Songgang; Guo, Hongwei

    2009-01-01

    Plant hormones are small organic molecules that influence almost every aspect of plant growth and development. Genetic and molecular studies have revealed a large number of genes that are involved in responses to numerous plant hormones, including auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and brassinosteroid. Here, we develop an Arabidopsis hormone database, which aims to provide a systematic and comprehensive view of genes participating in plant hormonal regulation, as well as morphological phenotypes controlled by plant hormones. Based on data from mutant studies, transgenic analysis and gene ontology (GO) annotation, we have identified a total of 1026 genes in the Arabidopsis genome that participate in plant hormone functions. Meanwhile, a phenotype ontology is developed to precisely describe myriad hormone-regulated morphological processes with standardized vocabularies. A web interface (http://ahd.cbi.pku.edu.cn) would allow users to quickly get access to information about these hormone-related genes, including sequences, functional category, mutant information, phenotypic description, microarray data and linked publications. Several applications of this database in studying plant hormonal regulation and hormone cross-talk will be presented and discussed. PMID:19015126

  4. Arabidopsis Hormone Database: a comprehensive genetic and phenotypic information database for plant hormone research in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhi-yu; Zhou, Xin; Li, Linchuan; Yu, Xiangchun; Li, Hongjiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Guangyu; Bai, Mingyi; Wang, Xingchun; Jiang, Caifu; Lu, Haibin; Hou, Xianhui; Qu, Lijia; Wang, Zhiyong; Zuo, Jianru; Fu, Xiangdong; Su, Zhen; Li, Songgang; Guo, Hongwei

    2009-01-01

    Plant hormones are small organic molecules that influence almost every aspect of plant growth and development. Genetic and molecular studies have revealed a large number of genes that are involved in responses to numerous plant hormones, including auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and brassinosteroid. Here, we develop an Arabidopsis hormone database, which aims to provide a systematic and comprehensive view of genes participating in plant hormonal regulation, as well as morphological phenotypes controlled by plant hormones. Based on data from mutant studies, transgenic analysis and gene ontology (GO) annotation, we have identified a total of 1026 genes in the Arabidopsis genome that participate in plant hormone functions. Meanwhile, a phenotype ontology is developed to precisely describe myriad hormone-regulated morphological processes with standardized vocabularies. A web interface (http://ahd.cbi.pku.edu.cn) would allow users to quickly get access to information about these hormone-related genes, including sequences, functional category, mutant information, phenotypic description, microarray data and linked publications. Several applications of this database in studying plant hormonal regulation and hormone cross-talk will be presented and discussed.

  5. Effects of ghrelin, growth hormone-releasing peptide-6, and growth hormone-releasing hormone on growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol release in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Larissa Bianca Paiva Cunha; Nascif, Sergio Oliva; Correa-Silva, Silvia Regina; Molica, Patricia; Vieira, José Gilberto Henriques; Dib, Sergio Atala; Lengyel, Ana-Maria Judith

    2010-10-01

    In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), growth hormone (GH) responses to provocative stimuli are normal or exaggerated, whereas the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has been less studied. Ghrelin is a GH secretagogue that also increases adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels, similarly to GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6). Ghrelin's effects in patients with T1DM have not been evaluated. We therefore studied GH, ACTH, and cortisol responses to ghrelin and GHRP-6 in 9 patients with T1DM and 9 control subjects. The GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-induced GH release was also evaluated. Mean fasting GH levels (micrograms per liter) were higher in T1DM (3.5 ± 1.2) than in controls (0.6 ± 0.3). In both groups, ghrelin-induced GH release was higher than that after GHRP-6 and GHRH. When analyzing Δ area under the curve (ΔAUC) GH values after ghrelin, GHRP-6, and GHRH, no significant differences were observed in T1DM compared with controls. There was a trend (P = .055) to higher mean basal cortisol values (micrograms per deciliter) in T1DM (11.7 ± 1.5) compared with controls (8.2 ± 0.8). No significant differences were seen in ΔAUC cortisol values in both groups after ghrelin and GHRP-6. Mean fasting ACTH values were similar in T1DM and controls. No differences were seen in ΔAUC ACTH levels in both groups after ghrelin and GHRP-6. In summary, patients with T1DM have normal GH responsiveness to ghrelin, GHRP-6, and GHRH. The ACTH and cortisol release after ghrelin and GHRP-6 is also similar to controls. Our results suggest that chronic hyperglycemia of T1DM does not interfere with GH-, ACTH-, and cortisol-releasing mechanisms stimulated by these peptides.

  6. Hormonal contraception and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Saleh, A A; Ginsburg, K A; Duchon, T A; Dorey, L G; Hirata, J; Alshameeri, R S; Dombrowski, M P; Mammen, E F

    1995-05-15

    73 healthy women (29 controls, 25 using OCs, and 19 using Norplant) were selected from the clinic population at North Oakland Medical Center for inclusion in this study after obtaining informed consent. Age, race, height, weight, blood pressure, and cigarette smoking were recorded for each subject. 12 patients were on monophasic OCs while 13 were on triphasic preparations. Both hormonal contraceptive groups had used their particular contraceptive for at least 3 months prior to blood drawing. Platelet tests were performed within 2 hours of sample collection: platelet counts (PLC) and mean platelet volume (MPV) were determined on an Automated Platelet Counter (Baker 810 Platelet Analyzer). Whole blood aggregation was performed on a platelet aggregometer (Chrono-Log, Model 550) using both ADP (ADP, 5 mM) and collagen (COLL, 2 mcg/ml) as inducing agents. Demographic differences were not significant (p 0.05) among the 3 treatment groups, whose average age was 25.3-25.8 years old. Furthermore, no significant differences (p 0.05) in platelet function were detected among controls or subjects receiving either oral contraceptives or Norplant, compared to control patients. The mean platelet counts (X 10/9/L) were 223 for OC users, 231 for Norplant users, and 232 for controls. The respective platelet aggregation (ADP, ohms) values were 12.5, 18.0, and 19.2 as well as (COLL, ohms) 35.6, 40.7, and 39.0. These results demonstrated that there is no evidence for altered platelet function, with the testing methods employed, in women using either Norplant or combination low dose oral contraceptives. To date, several studies have examined this issue, with contradictory reports about the effects of hormonal contraceptives in platelet function. After controlling for differences between various steroid preparations and other such confounding variables, some of these conflicting conclusions could be the result of a lack of uniformity among the methods used to evaluate platelet aggregation

  7. History of growth hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Blizzard, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    The first human to receive GH therapy was in 1956; it was of bovine origin and was given for 3 wk for metabolic balance studies revealing no effects. By 1958, three separate laboratories utilizing different extraction methods retrieved hGH from human pituitaries, purified it and used for clinical investigation. By 1959 presumed GHD patients were being given native hGH collected and extracted by various methods. Since 1 mg of hGH was needed to treat one patient per day, >360 human pituitaries were needed per patient per year. Thus, the availability of hGH was limited and was awarded on the basis of clinical research protocols approved by the National Pituitary Agency (NPA) established in 1961. hGH was dispensed and injected on a milligram weight basis with varied concentrations between batches from 0.5 units/mg to 2.0 units/mg of hGH. By 1977 a centralized laboratory was established to extract all human pituitaries in the US, this markedly improved the yield of hGH obtained and most remarkably, hGH of this laboratory was never associated with Creutzfeld-Jacob disease (CJD) resulting from the injection of apparently prior- contaminated hGH produced years earlier. However, widespread rhGH use was not possible even if a pituitary from each autopsy performed in the US was collected, this would only permit therapy for about 4,000 patients. Thus, the mass production of rhGH required the identification of the gene structure of the hormone, methodology that began in 1976 to make insulin by recombinant technology. Serendipity was manifest in 1985 when patients who had received hGH years previously were reported to have died of CJD. This led to the discontinuation of the distribution and use of hGH, at a time when a synthetic rhGH became available for clinical use. The creation of a synthetic rhGH was accompanied by unlimited supplies of hGH for investigation and therapy. However, the appropriate use and the potential abuse of this hormone are to be dealt with. The

  8. Positioning the nodule, the hormone dictum

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yiliang

    2009-01-01

    The formation of a nitrogen-fixing nodule involves two diverse developmental processes in the legume root: infection thread initiation in epidermal cells and nodule primordia formation in the cortex. Several plant hormones have been reported to positively or negatively regulate nodulation. These hormones function at different stages in the nodulation process and may facilitate the coordinated development of the epidermal and cortical developmental programs that are necessary to allow bacterial infection into the developing nodule. In this paper, we review and discuss how the tissue specific nature of hormonal action dictates where, when and how a nodule is formed. PMID:19649179

  9. Sleep and hormonal changes in aging.

    PubMed

    Copinschi, Georges; Caufriez, Anne

    2013-06-01

    Age-related sleep and endocrinometabolic alterations frequently interact with each other. For many hormones, sleep curtailment in young healthy subjects results in alterations strikingly similar to those observed in healthy old subjects not submitted to sleep restriction. Thus, recurrent sleep restriction, which is currently experienced by a substantial and rapidly growing proportion of children and young adults, might contribute to accelerate the senescence of endocrine and metabolic function. The mechanisms of sleep-hormonal interactions, and therefore the endocrinometabolic consequences of age-related sleep alterations, which markedly differ from one hormone to another, are reviewed in this article.

  10. Obtaining growth hormone from calf blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalchev, L. A.; Ralchev, K. K.; Nikolov, I. T.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of a growth hormone from human serum was used for the isolation of the hormone from calf serum. The preparation was biologically active - it increased the quantity of the free fatty acids released in rat plasma by 36.4 percent. Electrophoresis in Veronal buffer, ph 8.6, showed the presence of a single fraction having mobility intermediate between that of alpha and beta globulins. Gel filtration through Sephadex G 100 showed an elutriation curve identical to that obtained by the growth hormone prepared from pituitary glands.

  11. The Radioimmunoassay of Fluid and Electrolyte Hormones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Lanny C.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of the paper will be the assay of fluid/electrolyte hormones. ADH (antidiuretic hormone also referred to as vasopressin) reduces fluid loss by increasing water reabsorption by the kidney. The stimuli for its release from the pituitary are loss of blood, dehydration, or increased salt intake. Angiotensin II is the next hormone of interest. It is "generated" from a blood protein by the release of renin from the kidney. One of its functions is to stimulate the secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal gland. Release of renin is also stimulated by volume and sodium loss.

  12. Hormonal component of tumor photodynamic therapy response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Merchant, Soroush

    2008-02-01

    The involvement of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones in the response of the treatment of solid tumors by photodynamic therapy (PDT) comes from the induction of acute phase response by this modality. This adrenal gland activity is orchestrated through the engagement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal axis incited by stress signals emanating from the PDT-treated tumor. Glucocorticoid hormone activity engendered within the context of PDT-induced acute phase response performs multiple important functions; among other involvements they beget acute phase reactant production, systemic neutrophil mobilization, and control the production of inflammation-modulating and immunoregulatory proteins.

  13. The Radioimmunoassay of Fluid and Electrolyte Hormones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Lanny C.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of the paper will be the assay of fluid/electrolyte hormones. ADH (antidiuretic hormone also referred to as vasopressin) reduces fluid loss by increasing water reabsorption by the kidney. The stimuli for its release from the pituitary are loss of blood, dehydration, or increased salt intake. Angiotensin II is the next hormone of interest. It is "generated" from a blood protein by the release of renin from the kidney. One of its functions is to stimulate the secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal gland. Release of renin is also stimulated by volume and sodium loss.

  14. Bowels control brain: gut hormones and obesity.

    PubMed

    Bewick, Gavin A

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones are released from the gastrointestinal tract in response to nutrients and communicate information regarding the current state of energy balance to the brain. These hormones regulate appetite, energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. They can act either via the circulation at target peripheral tissues, by activation of the vagus nerve or by acting on key brain regions implicated in energy homeostasis such as the hypothalamus and brainstem. This review gives an overview of the main gut hormones implicated in the regulation of food intake and how some of these are being targeted to develop anti obesity treatments.

  15. Bowels control brain: gut hormones and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Bewick, Gavin A.

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones are released from the gastrointestinal tract in response to nutrients and communicate information regarding the current state of energy balance to the brain. These hormones regulate appetite, energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. They can act either via the circulation at target peripheral tissues, by activation of the vagus nerve or by acting on key brain regions implicated in energy homeostasis such as the hypothalamus and brainstem. This review gives an overview of the main gut hormones implicated in the regulation of food intake and how some of these are being targeted to develop anti obesity treatments. PMID:23092061

  16. A Hormonally Active Malignant Struma Ovarii

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Carolina; Salame, Latife; Padilla-Longoria, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Struma ovarii is a rare monodermal variant of ovarian teratoma that contains at least 50% thyroid tissue. Less than 8% of struma ovarii cases present with clinical and biochemical evidence of thyrotoxicosis due to ectopic production of thyroid hormone and only 5% undergo malignant transformation into a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Only isolated cases of hormonally active papillary thyroid carcinoma developing within a struma ovarii have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism as well as a left adnexal mass, which proved to be a thyroid hormone-producing, malignant struma ovarii. PMID:27882257

  17. A Hormonally Active Malignant Struma Ovarii.

    PubMed

    Lara, Carolina; Cuenca, Dalia; Salame, Latife; Padilla-Longoria, Rafael; Mercado, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    Struma ovarii is a rare monodermal variant of ovarian teratoma that contains at least 50% thyroid tissue. Less than 8% of struma ovarii cases present with clinical and biochemical evidence of thyrotoxicosis due to ectopic production of thyroid hormone and only 5% undergo malignant transformation into a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Only isolated cases of hormonally active papillary thyroid carcinoma developing within a struma ovarii have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism as well as a left adnexal mass, which proved to be a thyroid hormone-producing, malignant struma ovarii.

  18. Hypermetabolic Conversion of Plant Oil into Water: Endothermic Biochemical Process Stimulated by Juvenile Hormone in the European Firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus L.

    PubMed Central

    Sláma, Karel; Lukáš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    the warm and cold larvae of P. apterus was only some 30% (not a reported 10-fold difference), which was presumably due to their ability to drink. We conclude that a very important, though still largely neglected, epigenetic biochemical role of insect JH depends on switchover between the utilization of dietary lipid (+JH; production of metabolic water) and carbohydrate (−JH; lipid storage in the fat body). The hypermetabolic water supply in insects fed on dry food, which is associated with enormous rates of O2 consumption, liberates endothermic energy that heats the body and potentially influences the insect thermoregulation. A possibility that the JH-dependent lipolytic hormone stimulates the total metabolic breakdown of nutritional lipids may be absolutely different from the currently known adipokinetic peptides that have been emphasized. PMID:27790049

  19. Chemosignals, hormones, and amphibian reproduction.

    PubMed

    Woodley, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Amphibians are often thought of as relatively simple animals especially when compared to mammals. Yet the chemosignaling systems used by amphibians are varied and complex. Amphibian chemosignals are particularly important in reproduction, in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Chemosignaling is most evident in salamanders and newts, but increasing evidence indicates that chemical communication facilitates reproduction in frogs and toads as well. Reproductive hormones shape the production, dissemination, detection, and responsiveness to chemosignals. A large variety of chemosignals have been identified, ranging from simple, invariant chemosignals to complex, variable blends of chemosignals. Although some chemosignals elicit straightforward responses, others have relatively subtle effects. Review of amphibian chemosignaling reveals a number of issues to be resolved, including: 1) the significance of the complex, individually variable blends of courtship chemosignals found in some salamanders, 2) the behavioral and/or physiological functions of chemosignals found in anuran "breeding glands", 3) the ligands for amphibian V2Rs, especially V2Rs expressed in the main olfactory epithelium, and 4) the mechanism whereby transdermal delivery of chemosignals influences behavior. To date, only a handful of the more than 7000 species of amphibians has been examined. Further study of amphibians should provide additional insight to the role of chemosignals in reproduction.

  20. Menopause, hormone therapy and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Stuenkel, C A

    2017-02-01

    Over the past three decades, the prevalence of diabetes has increased four-fold. Coupled with the global obesity epidemic and aging of the world's population, a perfect metabolic storm is brewing. The influence of menopause and exogenous estrogen and progestogens must be included in this equation. In this review, criteria for diagnosing diabetes and recommendations for screening are described. The reported effects of menopause on diabetes risk in healthy women are reviewed as well as the relationship between established diabetes and the timing of menopause. The effects of menopausal hormone therapies (MHT) on glucose control in women with diabetes and the effect of MHT on diabetes risk in menopausal women without diabetes are described. Evidence-based strategies to prevent diabetes in midlife women are highlighted. The augmenting effect of diabetes on chronic health concerns of aging women, such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and cancer, along with current recommendations for screening and prevention are presented. Given the current demographics of today's world, the content of this review may apply to as many as one-third of the average practitioner's postmenopausal patient population.

  1. Thyroid Hormone and Seasonal Rhythmicity

    PubMed Central

    Dardente, Hugues; Hazlerigg, David G.; Ebling, Francis J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Living organisms show seasonality in a wide array of functions such as reproduction, fattening, hibernation, and migration. At temperate latitudes, changes in photoperiod maintain the alignment of annual rhythms with predictable changes in the environment. The appropriate physiological response to changing photoperiod in mammals requires retinal detection of light and pineal secretion of melatonin, but extraretinal detection of light occurs in birds. A common mechanism across all vertebrates is that these photoperiod-regulated systems alter hypothalamic thyroid hormone (TH) conversion. Here, we review the evidence that a circadian clock within the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis links photoperiod decoding to local changes of TH signaling within the medio-basal hypothalamus (MBH) through a conserved thyrotropin/deiodinase axis. We also focus on recent findings which indicate that, beyond the photoperiodic control of its conversion, TH might also be involved in longer-term timing processes of seasonal programs. Finally, we examine the potential implication of kisspeptin and RFRP3, two RF-amide peptides expressed within the MBH, in seasonal rhythmicity. PMID:24616714

  2. Hormonal regulation of energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F

    2000-06-01

    A loop system exists between hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peripheral adipose tissue leptin to maintain normal body homeostasis. When hypothalamic NPY levels are increased by fasting or by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion, food intake and body weight increase. NPY has genuine hormono-metabolic effects. It increases insulin and corticosterone secretion relative to controls. These hormonal changes, acting singly or combined, favor adipose tissue lipogenic activity, while producing muscle insulin resistance. They also promote leptin release from adipose tissue. When infused i.c.v. to normal rats to mimic its central effects, leptin decreases NPY levels, thus food intake and body weight. Leptin i.c.v. has also genuine hormono-metabolic effects. It decreases insulinemia and adipose tissue storage ability, enhancing glucose disposal. Leptin increases the expression of uncoupling proteins (UCP-1, -2, -3) and thus energy dissipation. Leptin-induced changes favor oxidation at the expense of storage. Circadian fluctuations of NPY and leptin levels maintain normal body homeostasis. In animal obesity, defective hypothalamic leptin receptor activation prevent leptin from acting, with resulting obesity, insulin and leptin resistance.

  3. Nuclear hormone receptors in chordates.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Stéphanie; Belgacem, Mohamed R; Escriva, Hector

    2011-03-01

    In order to understand evolution of the endocrine systems in chordates, study of the evolution of the nuclear receptors (NRs), which mediate the cellular responses to several key hormones, is of major interest. Thanks to the sequencing of several complete genomes of different species in the three chordate phyla, we now have a global view of the evolution of the nuclear receptors gene content in this lineage. The challenge is now to understand how the function of the different receptors evolved during the invertebrate-chordate to vertebrate transition by studying the functional properties of the NRs using comparative approaches in different species. The best available model system to answer this question is the cephalochordate amphioxus which has a NR gene complement close to that of the chordate ancestor. Here we review the available data concerning the function of the amphioxus NRs, and we discuss some evolutionary scenarios that can be drawn from these results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extrapituitary growth hormone and growth?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Steve; Baudet, Marie-Laure

    2014-09-01

    While growth hormone (GH) is obligatory for postnatal growth, it is not required for a number of growth-without-GH syndromes, such as early embryonic or fetal growth. Instead, these syndromes are thought to be dependent upon local growth factors, rather than pituitary GH. The GH gene is, however, also expressed in many extrapituitary tissues, particularly during early development and extrapituitary GH may be one of the local growth factors responsible for embryonic or fetal growth. Moreover, as the expression of the GH receptor (GHR) gene mirrors that of GH in extrapituitary tissues the actions of GH in early development are likely to be mediated by local autocrine or paracrine mechanisms, especially as extrapituitary GH expression occurs prior to the ontogeny of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of GH in embryos has also been shown to be of functional relevance in a number of species, since the immunoneutralization of endogenous GH or the blockade of GH production is accompanied by growth impairment or cellular apoptosis. The extrapituitary expression of the GH gene also persists in some central and peripheral tissues postnatally, which may reflect its continued functional importance and physiological or pathophysiological significance. The expression and functional relevance of extrapituitary GH, particularly during embryonic growth, is the focus of this brief review.

  5. Neuroendocrine hormone amylin in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Pan, Yan-Hong; Huang, Yan-Mei; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-01-01

    The neuroendocrine hormone amylin, also known as islet amyloid polypeptide, is co-localized, co-packaged and co-secreted with insulin from adult pancreatic islet β cells to maintain glucose homeostasis. Specifically, amylin reduces secretion of nutrient-stimulated glucagon, regulates blood pressure with an effect on renin-angiotensin system, and delays gastric emptying. The physiological actions of human amylin attribute to the conformational α-helix monomers whereas the misfolding instable oligomers may be detrimental to the islet β cells and further transform to β-sheet fibrils as amyloid deposits. No direct evidence proves that the amylin fibrils in amyloid deposits cause diabetes. Here we also have performed a systematic review of human amylin gene changes and reported the S20G mutation is minor in the development of diabetes. In addition to the metabolic effects, human amylin may modulate autoimmunity and innate inflammation through regulatory T cells to impact on both human type 1 and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27162583

  6. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing.

    PubMed

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-07-01

    Fracture healing is a complex process, and a significant number of fractures are complicated by impaired healing and non-union. Impaired healing is prevalent in certain risk groups, such as the elderly, osteoporotics, people with malnutrition, and women after menopause. Currently, no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial in the treatment of fractures and could thus be a potentially new treatment option for induction of fracture healing in humans. Furthermore, fractures in animals with experimental conditions of impaired healing such as aging, estrogen withdrawal, and malnutrition can heal in an expedited manner after PTH treatment. Interestingly, fractures occurring at both cancellous and cortical sites can be treated successfully, indicating that both osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic fractures can be the target of PTH-induced healing. Finally, the data suggest that PTH partly prevents the delay in fracture healing caused by aging. Recently, the first randomized, controlled clinical trial investigating the effect of PTH on fracture healing was published, indicating a possible clinical benefit of PTH treatment in inducing fracture healing. The aim of this article is therefore to review the evidence for the potential of PTH in bone healing, including the underlying mechanisms for this, and to provide recommendations for the clinical testing and use of PTH in the treatment of impaired fracture healing in humans.

  7. Quo vadis neurohypophysial hormone research?

    PubMed

    Douglas, A J; Ludwig, M

    2000-03-01

    Here we highlight just a few of the outstanding questions in the field of neurohypophysial hormones that we envisage will be addressed successfully in the new millennium. To begin, we focus on the regulation of receptors. Despite intensive investigation with new drugs, molecular modelling and transgenic models, the determinants of receptor selectivity remain elusive; there may even be more vasopressin or oxytocin receptor subtypes to be discovered. We discuss the controversy over the interesting studies that indicate modulation of oxytocin receptor-binding by steroids. Oxytocin and vasopressin release and action in the brain are discussed from several aspects. Dendritically released oxytocin acting locally is important for the milk ejection reflex, and similarly released vasopressin is important in regulating patterning of vasopressin neurone activity. Such dendritically released oxytocin and vasopressin is likely to be important in paracrine modulation of neural circuitry involved in neuroendocrine control, and for a range of behaviours. Is it possible that the whole range of behaviours that comprise 'social' (or 'anti-social') or 'maternal' behaviour can be engineered by modifying the expression of just these one or two peptides and their receptors? However, whether gene expression and knockout approaches will answer all the open questions about the real functions of oxytocin and vasopressin remains to be shown.

  8. Osteoporotic fracture and parathyroid hormone

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Nabanita S

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis and age-related bone loss is associated with changes in bone remodeling characterized by decreased bone formation relative to bone resorption, resulting in bone fragility and increased risk of fractures. Stimulating the function of bone-forming osteoblasts, is the preferred pharmacological intervention for osteoporosis. Recombinant parathyroid hormone (PTH), PTH(1-34), is an anabolic agent with proven benefits to bone strength and has been characterized as a potential therapy for skeletal repair. In spite of PTH’s clinical use, safety is a major consideration for long-term treatment. Studies have demonstrated that intermittent PTH treatment enhances and accelerates the skeletal repair process via a number of mechanisms. Recent research into the molecular mechanism of PTH action on bone tissue has led to the development of PTH analogs to control osteoporotic fractures. This review summarizes a number of advances made in the field of PTH and bone fracture to combat these injuries in humans and in animal models. The ultimate goal of providing an alternative to PTH, currently the sole anabolic therapy in clinical use, to promote bone formation and improve bone strength in the aging population is yet to be achieved. PMID:22474638

  9. Unsulfated cholecystokinin: An overlooked hormone?

    PubMed

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Agersnap, Mikkel

    2012-01-10

    Tyrosyl O-sulfation is a common posttranslational derivatization of proteins that may also modify regulatory peptides. Among these are members of the cholecystokinin (CCK)/gastrin family. While sulfation of gastrin peptides is without effect on the bioactivity, O-sulfation is crucial for the cholecystokinetic activity (i.e. gallbladder emptying) of CCK peptides. Accordingly, the purification of CCK as a sulfated peptide was originally monitored by its gallbladder emptying effect. Since then, the dogma has prevailed that CCK peptides are always sulfated. The dogma is correct in a semantic context since the gallbladder expresses only the CCK-A receptor that requires sulfation of the ligand. CCK peptides, however, are also ligands for the CCK-B receptors that do not require ligand sulfation. Consequently, unsulfated CCK peptides may act via CCK-B receptors. Since in vivo occurrence of unsulfated products of proCCK with an intact α-amidated C-terminal tetrapeptide sequence (-Trp-Met-Asp-PheNH(2)) has been reported, it is likely that unsulfated CCK peptides constitute a separate hormone system that acts via CCK-B receptors. This review discusses the occurrence, molecular forms, and possible physiological as well as pathophysiological significance of unsulfated CCK peptides.

  10. Thyroid hormones and renin secretion.

    PubMed

    Ganong, W F

    Circulating angiotensin is produced by the action of renin from the kidneys on circulating angiotensinogen. There are other renin-angiotensin systems in various organs in the body, and recent observations raise the intriguing possibility that angiotensin II is produced by a totally intracellular pathway in the juxtaglomerular cells, the gonadotrops of the anterior pituitary, neurons, in the brain, salivary duct cells, and neuroblastoma cells. Circulating angiotensin II levels depend in large part on the plasma concentration of angiotensinogen, which is hormonally regulated, and on the rate of renin secretion. Renin secretion is regulated by an intrarenal baroreceptor mechanism, a macula densa mechanism, angiotensin II, vasopressin, and the sympathetic nervous system. The increase in renin secretion produced by sympathetic discharge is mediated for the most part by beta-adrenergic receptors, which are probably located on the juxtaglomerular cells. Hyperthyroidism would be expected to be associated with increased renin secretion in view of the increased beta-adrenergic activity in this condition, and hypothyroidism would be associated with decreased plasma renin activity due to decreased beta-adrenergic activity. Our recent research on serotonin-mediated increases in renin secretion that depend on the integrity of the dorsal raphe nucleus and the mediobasal hypothalamus has led us to investigate the effect of the pituitary on the renin response to p-chloroamphetamine. The response is potentiated immediately after hypophysectomy, but 22 days after the operation, it is abolished. This slowly developing decrease in responsiveness may be due to decreased thyroid function.

  11. Hormones in Infection. Chapter 8. Alterations in Hormone Production and Utilization during Infection,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-28

    Pituitary Hormones ILASTRACT (Continue an revre side it rneceary and identify by block nimbwt) This chapter reviews the nature of hormonal responses...in the absence of shock, the combined insulin-glucagon response and the variable responses by individual pituitary hormones. Concepts discussed include... pituitary glands, the adrenal cortex, the thyroid, the endocrine pancreas, and sometimes the adrenal medulla. In contrast, neither parathyroid glands nor

  12. Headaches and Hormones: What's the Connection?

    MedlinePlus

    ... severity of migraines. Hormonal contraception methods, such as birth control pills, patches or vaginal rings, may change existing ... doctor. It may help to: Use a monthly birth control pill pack with fewer inactive (placebo) days. Eliminate ...

  13. Amative orientation: the hormonal hypothesis examined.

    PubMed

    Money, John

    2002-01-01

    The hypothesis that human male and female amative orientation, arousal and courtship are sex-hormone dependent had as its precursor John Hunter's recorded but unpublished 18th century experiments of cross-sexed gonadal transplants in chicks. The hypothesis gained momentum in the 20th century after the discovery and eventual marketing of the sex hormones, and after the experimental demonstration by William C. Young that, in guinea-pigs, cross-sexed hormone administered prenatally influenced their subsequent male/female courtship and mating behavior. Comparatively and in review, human clinical syndromes of hypermasculinization and hypomasculinization do not disconfirm the hormonal hypothesis, but they do not adequately confirm it, either. They are compatible with the idea of a cofactor that governs whether amative orientation in practice, ideation and imagery is homosexual, heterosexual or bisexual.

  14. Abiraterone for Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancers

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog post on results from two clinical trials that showed adding abiraterone to androgen-deprivation therapy improved survival for men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.

  15. [Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Takasu, Nobuyuki

    2006-12-01

    Thyroid hormone has many effects on the heart and vascular system. Many of the clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism are due to the ability of thyroid hormone to alter cardiovascular hemodynamics. The hemodynamic effects of hypothyroidism are opposite to those of hyperthyroidism, although the clinical manifestations are less obvious. This review will integrate what is known about the mechanisms of thyroid hormone action on the heart with recent observations from both experimental and clinical studies of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone has both direct and indirect actions on the cardiovascular system. Patients with thyroid disease, especially those with hyperthyroidism, often have symptoms and signs indicating changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics. Indeed, symptoms and signs referable to the cardiovascular system may be the only manifestations of thyroid dysfunction, and thyroid function should therefore be assessed by the measurement of serum thyrotropin concentrations in all patients with cardiovascular disease. Some suggest that the administration of triiodothyronine may benefit some patients with cardiovascular disease.

  16. [Lysosomal system in hormonal mechanisms. Review].

    PubMed

    Duran Reyes, G; González Macías, G; Hicks, J J

    1995-02-01

    The role of lysosomes in the intracellular mechanism of action of several steroid an proteic hormones has been demonstrated. In presence of the specific hormone the target cell induce membranal changes and the lysosomes are moved toward the nucleus; after this the lysosomal enzymes are released in the perinuclear space. For the moment it is not possible to know the biochemical role of this enzymatic activities upon the nucleic acids function and des-repretion process of specific genes, but the inhibition of lysosomes movement utilizing hormone antagonist or dexamethasone inhibits some reproductive process like the implantation of the mammalian egg. We present herein a review related with the mode action of some hormones through the lysosomes in reproductive processes.

  17. Growth hormone replacement therapy in Costello syndrome.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, Panagiota; Christoforidis, Athanasios; Vargiami, Euthymia; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I

    2014-12-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is considered an overgrowth disorder given the macrosomia that is present at birth .However, shortly after birth the weight drops dramatically and the patients are usually referred for failure to thrive. Subsequently, affected patients develop the distinctive coarse facial appearance and are at risk for cardiac anomalies and solid tumor malignancies. Various endocrine disorders, although not very often, have been reported in patients with CS, including growth hormone deficiency, hypoglycemia, ACTH deficiency, cryptorchidism and hypothyroidism. We report a case of Costello syndrome with hypothyroidism, cryptorchidism and growth hormone deficiency and we evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of growth hormone replacement therapy. The index patient is a paradigm of successful and safe treatment with growth hormone for almost 7 years. Since patients with CS are at increased risk for cardiac myopathy and tumor development they deserve close monitoring during treatment.

  18. IODIDE DEFICIENCY, THYROID HORMONES, AND NEURODEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY: Iodide is an essential nutrient for thyroid hormone synthesis. Severe iodide insufficiency during early development is associated with cognitive deficits. Environmental contaminants can perturb the thyroid axis and this perturbation may be more acute under conditio...

  19. Thyroid hormone, brain development, and the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Zoeller, Thomas R; Dowling, Amy L S; Herzig, Carolyn T A; Iannacone, Eric A; Gauger, Kelly J; Bansal, Ruby

    2002-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for normal brain development. Therefore, it is a genuine concern that thyroid function can be altered by a very large number of chemicals routinely found in the environment and in samples of human and wildlife tissues. These chemicals range from natural to manufactured compounds. They can produce thyroid dysfunction when they are absent from the diet, as in the case of iodine, or when they are present in the diet, as in the case of thionamides. Recent clinical evidence strongly suggests that brain development is much more sensitive to thyroid hormone excess or deficit than previously believed. In addition, recent experimental research provides new insight into the developmental processes affected by thyroid hormone. Based on the authors' research focusing on the ability of polychlorinated biphenyls to alter the expression of thyroid hormone-responsive genes in the developing brain, this review provides background information supporting a new way of approaching risk analysis of thyroid disruptors. PMID:12060829

  20. IODIDE DEFICIENCY, THYROID HORMONES, AND NEURODEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY: Iodide is an essential nutrient for thyroid hormone synthesis. Severe iodide insufficiency during early development is associated with cognitive deficits. Environmental contaminants can perturb the thyroid axis and this perturbation may be more acute under conditio...

  1. Strategies for the Determination of Plant Hormones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gregory C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes methods for isolating, purifying, and analyzing plant hormones (molecules involved in plant growth regulation and development). The presentation reflects the historical development of analyses, beginning with bioassays and ending with novel immunochemical assays. (JN)

  2. Genetics Home Reference: combined pituitary hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with combined pituitary hormone deficiency may have hypothyroidism, which is underactivity of the butterfly-shaped thyroid gland in the lower neck. Hypothyroidism can cause many symptoms, including weight gain and ...

  3. Hormone signaling pathways under stress combinations.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2016-11-01

    As sessile organisms, plants are continuously exposed to various environmental stresses. In contrast to the controlled conditions employed in many researches, more than one or more abiotic and/or biotic stresses simultaneously occur and highly impact growth of plants and crops in the field environments. Therefore, an urgent need to generate crops with enhanced tolerance to stress combinations exists. Researchers, however, focused on the mechanisms underlying acclimation of plants to combined stresses only in recent studies. Plant hormones might be a key regulator of the tailored responses of plants to different stress combinations. Co-ordination between different hormone signaling, or hormone signaling and other pathways such as ROS regulatory mechanisms could be flexible, being altered by timing and types of stresses, and could be different depending on plant species under the stress combinations. In this review, update on recent studies focusing on complex-mode of hormone signaling under stress combinations will be provided.

  4. Aging-Related Hormone Changes in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... male menopause" is sometimes used to describe decreasing testosterone levels related to aging. Female menopause and so- ... short period of time. In men, production of testosterone and other hormones declines over a period of ...

  5. Management of Hormone Deprivation Symptoms After Cancer.

    PubMed

    Faubion, Stephanie S; Loprinzi, Charles L; Ruddy, Kathryn J

    2016-08-01

    Cancer survivors often experience symptoms related to hormone deprivation, including vasomotor symptoms, genitourinary symptoms, and sexual health concerns. These symptoms can occur due to natural menopause in midlife women, or they can be brought on by oncologic therapies in younger women or men. We searched PubMed for English-language studies from January 1990 through January 2016 to identify relevant articles on the management of hormone deprivation symptoms, including vasomotor, genitourinary, and sexual symptoms in patients with cancer. The search terms used included hormone deprivation, vasomotor symptoms, hot flash, vaginal dryness, sexual dysfunction, and breast cancer. This manuscript provides a comprehensive description of data supporting the treatment of symptoms associated with hormone deprivation.

  6. Hormonal and biochemical responses to transcendental meditation.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, R.; Joffe, B. I.; Lamprey, J. M.; Botha, A.; Shires, R.; Baker, S. G.; Seftel, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to assess whether transcendental meditation (TM) could influence various endocrine responses in 10 experienced male meditators. Nine matched subjects, uninformed of the TM procedure, acted as controls. Meditators successfully practised their technique for 40 min in the morning while controls relaxed for this period. No significant differences emerged between these 2 groups with respect to carbohydrate metabolism (plasma glucose, insulin and pancreatic glucagon concentrations), pituitary hormones (growth hormone and prolactin) or the 'stress' hormones, cortisol and total catecholamines-although meditators tended to have higher mean catecholamine levels. Plasma free fatty acids were significantly elevated in meditators 40 min after completing the period of TM. No clear evidence was thus obtained that any of the stress, or stress-related, hormones were suppressed during or after meditation in the particular setting examined. PMID:3895206

  7. Hormonal regulation of longevity in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Borg, Holly M.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple biological and environmental factors impact the life span of an organism. The endocrine system is a highly integrated physiological system in mammals that regulates metabolism, growth, reproduction, and response to stress, among other functions. As such, this pervasive entity has a major influence on aging and longevity. The growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin pathways have been at the forefront of hormonal control of aging research in the last few years. Other hormones, including those from the thyroid and reproductive system have also been studied in terms of life span regulation. The relevance of these hormones to human longevity remains to be established, however the evidence from other species including yeast, nematodes, and flies suggest that evolutionarily well-conserved mechanisms are at play and the endocrine system is a key determinant. PMID:17360245

  8. [Hormonal stimulation of reproductive function in swine].

    PubMed

    Hladkova, A I

    1993-01-01

    Industrial conditions, gynaecological disorders, ovarian deficiency being unfavourable factors for pigs reproduction, as well as the necessity in rapid sex maturation require thorough knowledge on physiology of reproduction processes. The importance belongs to the hormonal treatment in development of special biotechnological methods. Efficiency of the latter is determined by the kind of hormone used, its dose, injection time in sex cycle and the knowledge of species specificity of physiological regulation of reproductive processes in pigs of great value. The achievements in this country and abroad, devoted to the technology of oestrogens, gestagens, androgens and their combinations as well as gonadotropins (PMS, CG), gonadotropin-releasing hormone applications have been reviewed. The most often used schemes of hormonal treatment and drugs, as well as the results obtained have been described. The data presented can be used for needs of practical cattle-breeding.

  9. Gut hormones: the future of obesity treatment?

    PubMed Central

    McGavigan, Anne K; Murphy, Kevin G

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major worldwide health problem. The treatment options are severely limited. The development of novel anti-obesity drugs is fraught with efficacy and safety issues. Consequently, several investigational anti-obesity drugs have failed to gain marketing approval in recent years. Anorectic gut hormones offer a potentially safe and viable option for the treatment of obesity. The prospective utility of gut hormones has improved drastically in recent years with the development of longer acting analogues. Additionally, specific combinations of gut hormones have been demonstrated to have additive anorectic effects. This article reviews the current stage of anti-obesity drugs in development, focusing on gut hormone-based therapies. PMID:22452339

  10. Treatment of endometriosis: a hormonal approach.

    PubMed

    Budinetz, T; Sanfilippo, J S

    2010-08-01

    Endometriosis continues to plague women of reproductive age. It is a chronic disease leading to a decreased quality of life, infertility, and increased societal costs. The gold standard for diagnosis remains visualization and or biopsy of lesions at the time of intraoperative diagnosis, i.e. laparoscopy or laparotomy. The severity of pain does not correlate with the stage of endometriosis, which complicates the treatment process. Hormonal therapies have long been used as a treatment for endometriosis. Therapy is targeted at symptom relief as a cure is lacking. While some regimes use hormonal therapy exclusively, others combine such with surgical excision of lesions. Although hormonal modalities are successful in alleviating or suppressing symptoms, they fail to treat the infertility associated with endometriosis. Therefore, those, desiring to achieve pregnancy should be excluded from hormonal treatment in the short term. Future studies are needed to understand the pathophysiology and allow design of specific, targeted treatment.

  11. Innovations in classical hormonal targets for endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, Nicola; Freschi, Letizia; Wenger, Jean-Marie; Streuli, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic disease of unknown etiology that affects approximately 10% of women in reproductive age. Several evidences show that endometriosis lesions are associated to hormonal imbalance, including estrogen synthesis, metabolism and responsiveness and progesterone resistance. These hormonal alterations influence the ability of endometrial cells to proliferate, migrate and to infiltrate the mesothelium, causing inflammation, pain and infertility. Hormonal imbalance in endometriosis represents also a target for treatment. We provide an overview on therapeutic strategies based on innovations of classical hormonal mechanisms involved in the development of endometriosis lesions. The development phase of new molecules targeting these pathways is also discussed. Endometriosis is a chronic disease involving young women and additional biological targets of estrogen and progesterone pharmacological manipulation (brain, bone and cardiovascular tissue) need to be carefully considered in order to improve and overcome current limits of long-term medical management of endometriosis.

  12. Strategies for the Determination of Plant Hormones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gregory C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes methods for isolating, purifying, and analyzing plant hormones (molecules involved in plant growth regulation and development). The presentation reflects the historical development of analyses, beginning with bioassays and ending with novel immunochemical assays. (JN)

  13. Gut hormones: the future of obesity treatment?

    PubMed

    McGavigan, Anne K; Murphy, Kevin G

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a major worldwide health problem. The treatment options are severely limited. The development of novel anti-obesity drugs is fraught with efficacy and safety issues. Consequently, several investigational anti-obesity drugs have failed to gain marketing approval in recent years. Anorectic gut hormones offer a potentially safe and viable option for the treatment of obesity. The prospective utility of gut hormones has improved drastically in recent years with the development of longer acting analogues. Additionally, specific combinations of gut hormones have been demonstrated to have additive anorectic effects. This article reviews the current stage of anti-obesity drugs in development, focusing on gut hormone-based therapies. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Postmenopausal hormone therapy in clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Hodis, Howard N; Mack, Wendy J

    2007-01-01

    Although many of the risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy are known, only recently has the magnitude of these effects and their perspective to other therapies become more fully understood. Careful review of randomized controlled trials indicates that the risks of postmenopausal hormone therapy including breast cancer, stroke and venous thromboembolism are similar to other commonly used agents. Overall, these risks are rare (less than 1 event per 1,000 women) and even rarer when initiated in women less than 60 years of age or within 10 years of menopause. In addition, the literature indicates similar benefit of postmenopausal hormone therapy, in women who initiate hormone therapy in close proximity to menopause, to other medications used for the primary prevention of coronory heart disease in women.

  15. [Dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA(S)]: anabolic hormone?].

    PubMed

    Luci, Michele; Valenti, Giorgio; Maggio, Marcello

    2010-09-01

    The role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated form (DHEAS) as anabolic hormones is still debated in the literature. In this review we describe the fundamental steps of DHEA physiological secretion and its peripheral metabolism. Moreover we will list all the observational and intervention studies conducted in humans. Many observational studies have tested the relationship between low DHEA levels and age-related changes in skeletal muscle and bone, while intervention studies underline the positive and significant effects of DHEA treatment on several parameters of body composition. Surprisingly, observational studies are not consistent with different effects in men and women. There is recent evidence of a significant role of DHEA in frailty syndrome and as predictor of mortality. However a more complete approach of the problem suggests the opportunity to not focus only on one single hormonal derangement but to analyze the parallel dysregulation of anabolic hormones including sex steroids, GH-IGF-1 system and other catabolic hormones.

  16. Young addicted men hormone profile detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieliński, Paweł; Wasiewicz, Piotr; Leszczyńska, Bożena; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna

    2010-09-01

    Hormone parameters were determined in the serum of young addicted men in order to compare them with those obtained from the group of healthy subjects. Three groups were investigated which were named opiates, mixed and control group. Statistical and data mining methods were applied to obtain significant differences. R package was used for all computation. The determination of hormones parameters provide important information relative to impact of addiction.

  17. Steroid Hormones in NF1 Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    NFl is characterized by benign Schwann cell tumors called neurofibromas; complex forms can become malignant ( MPNST ). Little is known about...neurofibroma (and/or MPNST ) Schwann cells have increased growth or decreased apoptosis related to steroid hormones. Specific Aim 1 is examining steroid...hormone receptor expression in human normal, NFl neurofibroma and MPNST Schwann cells. Real-time PCR shows very low levels of these receptor

  18. Steroid Hormones in NF1 Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    This work is testing the hypothesis that human NF1 neurofibroma (and/or MPNST ) Schwann cells have increased growth or decreased apoptosis in response...to estrogen and progesterone. Specific Aim 1 measured steroid hormone receptor expression in human normal, NF1 neurofibroma and MPNST Schwann cells...responses of the neurofibroma/ MPNST Schwann cell cultures to hormones or antagonists, but no global patterns, indicating tumors behave individually as

  19. Climacteric in untreated isolated growth hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Menilson; Salvatori, Roberto; Oliveira, Carla R.P.; Pereira, Rossana M.C.; Souza, Anita H.O.; Nobrega, Luciana M.A.; Cruz, Edla do A.C.; Menezes, Marcos; Alves, Érica O.; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the time, intensity of symptoms, hormonal profile, and related morbidity of climacteric in women with untreated isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency (IGHD). Design Women belonging to a large Brazilian kindred with IGHD due to a homozygous mutation in the GH-releasing hormone receptor gene were studied. None of them had ever received GH replacement therapy. A two-step protocol was performed. In the first case-control experiment, aimed to determine the age at climacteric, we compared eight women with IGHD and 32 normal women between 37 and 55 years of age. In the second cross-sectional experiment, aimed to determine the severity of climacteric symptoms, seven women with IGHD (aged 47-65 y) were compared with 13 controls (aged 44-65 y). The Kupperman Index scores, serum follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and estradiol levels were determined, and pelvic and mammary ultrasonography, mammography, and colpocytology were performed. Results The number of women with follicle-stimulating hormone above 20 mIU/mL was higher in women with IGHD than controls. Kupperman’s Index was not different between the two groups. Menarche had been delayed and parity was lower in women with IGHD. Hormonal profile was similar, but prolactin was lower in women with IGHD. Uterine volume was smaller in women with IGHD, and endometrial thickness and ovarian volume were similar in the two groups. No difference in breast images or in colpocytology was observed between the two groups. Conclusions Menarche was delayed and the beginning of climacteric is anticipated in untreated lifetime IGHD, but menopausal symptoms and hormonal profile resemble the normal climacteric. PMID:18223507

  20. Marihuana smoking suppresses luteinizing hormone in women.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, J H; Mello, N K; Ellingboe, J; Skupny, A S; Lex, B W; Griffin, M

    1986-06-01

    Smoking a single 1-g marihuana cigarette containing 1.8% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol induced a 30% suppression of plasma luteinizing hormone levels (P less than .02) in women during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. After marihuana placebo cigarette smoking, no luteinizing hormone suppression was observed in the same women under double-blind conditions. Marihuana may have adverse effects upon reproductive function during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle as a consequence of gonadotropin inhibition.

  1. 21 CFR 862.1690 - Thyroid stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. 862.1690... Systems § 862.1690 Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. (a) Identification. A thyroid stimulating hormone test system is a device intended to measure thyroid stimulating hormone, also known...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1690 - Thyroid stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. 862.1690... Systems § 862.1690 Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. (a) Identification. A thyroid stimulating hormone test system is a device intended to measure thyroid stimulating hormone, also known...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section... Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma....

  4. 21 CFR 862.1485 - Luteinizing hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Luteinizing hormone test system. 862.1485 Section... Systems § 862.1485 Luteinizing hormone test system. (a) Identification. A luteinizing hormone test system is a device intended to measure luteinizing hormone in serum and urine. Luteinizing...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section... Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma....

  6. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section... Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma....

  7. 21 CFR 862.1485 - Luteinizing hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Luteinizing hormone test system. 862.1485 Section... Systems § 862.1485 Luteinizing hormone test system. (a) Identification. A luteinizing hormone test system is a device intended to measure luteinizing hormone in serum and urine. Luteinizing...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section... Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma....

  9. 21 CFR 862.1690 - Thyroid stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. 862.1690... Systems § 862.1690 Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. (a) Identification. A thyroid stimulating hormone test system is a device intended to measure thyroid stimulating hormone, also known...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section... Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma....

  11. 21 CFR 862.1690 - Thyroid stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. 862.1690... Systems § 862.1690 Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. (a) Identification. A thyroid stimulating hormone test system is a device intended to measure thyroid stimulating hormone, also known...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1690 - Thyroid stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. 862.1690... Systems § 862.1690 Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. (a) Identification. A thyroid stimulating hormone test system is a device intended to measure thyroid stimulating hormone, also known...

  13. Stress Hormones and their Regulation in a Captive Dolphin Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    stimulation experiments, an animal’s hormonal and physiological response to a simulated stressor can be evaluated. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Stress Hormones and Their Regulation in a Captive...will determine baseline levels of putative stress hormones and evaluate the functional consequences of increased stress in the bottlenose dolphin

  14. Sex steroids and growth hormone interactions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Guerra, Borja; Díaz, Mario; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    GH and sex hormones are critical regulators of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism, and sexual dimorphism. Deficiencies in GH- or sex hormone-dependent signaling and the influence of sex hormones on GH biology may have a dramatic impact on liver physiology during somatic development and in adulthood. Effects of sex hormones on the liver may be direct, through hepatic receptors, or indirect by modulating endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions of GH. Sex hormones can modulate GH actions by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and peripherally, by modulating GH signaling pathways. The endocrine and/or metabolic consequences of long-term exposure to sex hormone-related compounds and their influence on the GH-liver axis are largely unknown. A better understanding of these interactions in physiological and pathological states will contribute to preserve health and to improve clinical management of patients with growth, developmental, and metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Hormone-independent pathways of sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Marilyn B; Chew, Keng Yih; Shaw, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    New observations over the last 25 years of hormone-independent sexual dimorphisms have gradually and unequivocally overturned the dogma, arising from Jost's elegant experiments in the mid-1900s, that all somatic sex dimorphisms in vertebrates arise from the action of gonadal hormones. Although we know that Sry, a Y-linked gene, is the primary gonadal sex determinant in mammals, more recent analysis in marsupials, mice, and finches has highlighted numerous sexual dimorphisms that are evident well before the differentiation of the testis and which cannot be explained by a sexually dimorphic hormonal environment. In marsupials, scrotal bulges and mammary primordia are visible before the testis has differentiated due to the expression of a gene(s) on the X chromosome. ZZ and ZW gynandromorph finches have brains that develop in a sexually dimorphic way dependent on their sex chromosome content. In genetically manipulated mice, it is the X chromosomes, not the gonads, that determine many characters including rate of early development, adiposity, and neural circuits. Even spotted hyenas have sexual dimorphisms that cannot be simply explained by hormonal exposure. This review discusses the recent findings that confirm that there are hormone-independent sexual dimorphisms well before the gonads begin to produce their hormones.

  16. Weight control, endocrine hormones and cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    King, Brenee; Jiang, Yu; Su, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jianteng; Xie, Linglin; Standard, Joseph; Wang, Weiqun

    2013-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing which becomes worrisome due to its association with several diseases and certain types of cancers. While weight control through dietary caloric restriction and/or physical activity protects against cancer in animal models, the underlying mechanisms are not fully defined. Weight loss due to negative energy balance is associated with alterations of multiple growth factors and endocrine hormones. The altered hormones and hormone-related functions appear to be responsible for anti-cancer mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the recent studies related to weight loss and the altered endocrine hormones, focusing on the reduced levels of the mitogenic insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and adipokine leptin as well as the raised levels of adiponectin and glucocorticoids. The potential molecular targets of these hormone-dependent signalling pathways are also discussed. Considering the increasing trends of obesity throughout the world, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms between body weight, endocrine hormones and cancer risk may lead to novel approaches to cancer prevention and treatment.

  17. Thyroid hormone, neural tissue and mood modulation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, M; Whybrow, P C

    2001-04-01

    The successful treatment of affective disorders with thyroid hormone exemplifies the suggested inter-relationship between endocrine and neuronal systems in these disorders. Thyroid hormones have a profound influence on behaviour and appear to be capable of modulating the phenotypic expression of major affective illness. Specifically, there is good evidence that triiodothyronine (T3) may accelerate the antidepressant response to tricylic antidepressants, and some studies suggest that T3 may augment the therapeutic response to antidepressants in refractory depressed patients. Open studies have also indicated that adjunctive supraphysiological doses of thyroxine (T4) can ameliorate depressive symptomatology and help stabilize the long-term course of illness in bipolar and unipolar patients, especially women refractory to standard medications. Despite acceptance of the essential role of thyroid hormone on brain maturation and differentiation, and the clinical and therapeutic observations in association with mood disorders, the molecular action that may underlie the mood-modulating properties of thyroid hormone in the adult brain has only recently become the focus of research. The identification of nuclear T3 receptors, the region-specific expression of deiodinase isoenzymes and the molecular analyses of thyroid-responsive genes in the adult brain have provided the biological bases for a better understanding of thyroid hormone action in mature neurons. Also the influence of thyroid hormones on the putative neurotransmitter systems that regulate mood and behaviour, serotonin and norepinephrine, may be helpful in explaining their mood-modulating effects.

  18. Relation between sex hormones and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    El Mahdy Korah, T; Abd Elfatah Badr, E; Mohamed Emara, M; Ahmed Samy Kohla, M; Gamal Saad Michael, G

    2016-11-01

    Males have higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than females. Sex hormones may be a risk factor. The aim was to determine the levels of sex hormones in male and female patients with HCC and cirrhosis versus controls and its possible relationship with HCC. This study was conducted on 90 subjects divided into 40 patients with HCC, 30 patients with liver cirrhosis and 20 apparently healthy subjects complete blood picture, liver function tests. Determination of AFP levels and hormonal assay of oestrogen, progesterone, total testosterone, prolactin, FSH and LH were performed on all subjects. Total testosterone levels were significantly decreased in the two patients groups compared with controls. While oestrogen levels were significantly decreased in the HCC group in comparison with other two groups, prolactin levels were significantly decreased in the HCC group compared with the liver cirrhosis group and increased in the liver cirrhosis group when compared to controls. FSH and LH levels were significantly increased in the HCC group when compared to controls. There is no significant correlation between sex hormones assay and both the size of HCC and degree of cirrhosis in both patient groups. It is concluded that there is no strong relation between sex hormones and HCC when the study was carried out on the levels of sex hormones in patients with HCC.

  19. [Human growth hormone and Turner syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Marco, Silvia Beatriz; de Arriba Muñoz, Antonio; Ferrer Lozano, Marta; Labarta Aizpún, José Ignacio; Garagorri Otero, Jesús María

    2017-02-01

    The evaluation of clinical and analytical parameters as predictors of the final growth response in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone. A retrospective study was performed on 25 girls with Turner syndrome (17 treated with growth hormone), followed-up until adult height. Auxological, analytical, genetic and pharmacological parameters were collected. A descriptive and analytical study was conducted to evaluate short (12 months) and long term response to treatment with growth hormone. A favourable treatment response was shown during the first year of treatment in terms of height velocity gain in 66.6% of cases (height-gain velocity >3cm/year). A favourable long-term treatment response was also observed in terms of adult height, which increased by 42.82±21.23cm (1.25±0.76 SDS), with an adult height gain of 9.59±5.39cm (1.68±1.51 SDS). Predictors of good response to growth hormone treatment are: A) initial growth hormone dose, B) time on growth hormone treatment until starting oestrogen therapy, C) increased IGF1 and IGFBP-3 levels in the first year of treatment, and D) height gain velocity in the first year of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Hormonal Perturbations in Occupationally Exposed Nickel Workers

    PubMed Central

    Beshir, Safia; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah; Shaheen, Weam; Shahy, Eman M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel exposure is recognized as an endocrine disruptor because of its adverse effects on reproduction. AIM: This study was designed to investigate the possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations on workers occupationally exposed to nickel and to assess its effects on human male sexual function. METHODS: Cross-sectional comparative study, comprising 105 electroplating male non-smoker, non-alcoholic workers exposed to soluble nickel and 60 controls was done. Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone levels and urinary nickel concentrations were determined for the studied groups. RESULTS: Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, urinary nickel and the simultaneous incidence of more than one sexual disorder were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to controls. The occurrence of various types of sexual disorders (decreased libido, impotence and premature ejaculation) in the exposed workers was 9.5, 5.1 and 4.4 folds respectively than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to nickel produces possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations in those exposed workers. PMID:27335607

  1. Managing adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Grossman Barr, Nancy

    2010-12-15

    Adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives usually diminish with continued use of the same method. Often, physi- cians only need to reassure patients that these symptoms will likely resolve within three to five months. Long-acting injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is the only hormonal contraceptive that is consistently associated with weight gain; other hormonal methods are unlikely to increase weight independent of lifestyle choices. Switching com- bined oral contraceptives is not effective in treating headaches, nor is the use of multivitamins or diuretics. There are no significant differences among various combined oral contraceptives in terms of breast tenderness, mood changes, and nausea. Breakthrough bleeding is common in the first months of combined oral contraceptive use. If significant abnormal bleeding persists beyond three months, other methods can be considered, and the patient may need to be evaluated for other causes. Studies of adverse sexual effects in women using hormonal contraceptives are inconsistent, and the pharmacologic basis for these symptoms is unclear. If acne develops or worsens with progestin-only contra- ceptives, the patient should be switched to a combination method if she is medically eligible. There is insufficient evidence of any effect of hormonal contraceptives on breast milk quantity and quality. Patient education should be encouraged to decrease the chance of unanticipated adverse effects. Women can also be assessed for medical eligibility before and during the use of hormonal contraceptives.

  2. Hormonal and systemic regulation of sclerostin.

    PubMed

    Drake, Matthew T; Khosla, Sundeep

    2017-03-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an essential role in osteoblast biology. Sclerostin is a soluble antagonist of Wnt/β-catenin signaling secreted primarily by osteocytes. Current evidence indicates that sclerostin likely functions as a local/paracrine regulator of bone metabolism rather than as an endocrine hormone. Nonetheless, circulating sclerostin levels in humans often reflect changes in the bone microenvironment, although there may be exceptions to this observation. Using existing assays, circulating sclerostin levels have been shown to be altered in response to both hormonal stimuli and across a variety of normal physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In both rodents and humans, parathyroid hormone provided either intermittently or continuously suppresses sclerostin levels. Likewise, most evidence from both human and animal studies supports a suppressive effect of estrogen on sclerostin levels. Efforts to examine non-hormonal/systemic regulation of sclerostin have in general shown less consistent findings or have provided associations rather than direct interventional information, with the exception of mechanosensory studies which have consistently demonstrated increased sclerostin levels with skeletal unloading, and conversely decreases in sclerostin with enhanced skeletal loading. Herein, we will review the existent literature on both hormonal and non-hormonal/systemic factors which have been studied for their impact on sclerostin regulation.

  3. [Sex hormones and cognitive functioning of women].

    PubMed

    Simić, Natasa; Gregov, Ljiljana

    2009-09-01

    This paper discusses the organisational and activational effects of sex hormones, and their influence on cognitive functioning. Previous studies have shown gender differences in specific cognitive abilities. Women generally show an advantage in verbal fluency, perceptual speed and accuracy, as well as in fine motor skills, while men generally show an advantage in spatial and mathematical abilities. These differences in cognitive functioning are thought to occur as a result of foetal brain exposure to different levels of sex hormones during prenatal life. Additional evidence of organisational effects of sex hormones on cognitive functioning also comes from studies of subjects with genetic disorders, such as androgen insensitivity syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and Tyrner syndrome.Furthermore, former investigations have shown that increase in female sex hormone in the late follicular and/or luteal phase of the menstrual cycle intensifies the typical female cognitive pattern of functioning with improved efficiency in tasks which are usually better performed by women. At the same time, low levels of such hormones that characterise the menstrual phase of the cycle intensify the typical male cognitive pattern of functioning with better efficiency in tasks which usually better performed by men.This paper also points to methodological differences between investigations of organizational and activational effects of sex hormones on cognitive functioning, as well a to the direction of future investigations.

  4. Improved response of growth hormone to growth hormone-releasing hormone and reversible chronic thyroiditis after hydrocortisone replacement in isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Miho; Sato, Haruhiro; Miyamoto, Yoshiyasu; Hirukawa, Takashi; Sawaya, Asako; Miyakogawa, Takayo; Tatsumi, Ryoko; Kakuta, Takatoshi

    2009-07-20

    We report a 44-year-old Japanese man who showed a reversible blunted response of growth hormone (GH) to GH-releasing hormone (GRH) stimulation test and reversible chronic thyroiditis accompanied by isolated ACTH deficiency. He was admitted to our hospital because of severe general malaise, hypotension, and hypoglycemia. He showed repeated attacks of hypoglycemia, and his serum sodium level gradually decreased. Finally, he was referred to the endocrinology division, where his adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol values were found to be low, and his GH level was slightly elevated. An increased value of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and decreased values of free triidothyronine and free thyroxine were observed along with anti-thyroglobulin antibody, suggesting chronic thyroiditis. Pituitary stimulation tests revealed a blunted response of ACTH and cortisol to corticotropin-releasing hormone, and a blunted response of GH to GRH. Hydrocortisone replacement was then started, and this improved the patient's general condition. His hypothyroid state gradually ameliorated and his titer of anti-thyroglobulin antibody decreased to the normal range. Pituitary function was re-evaluated with GRH stimulation test under a maintenance dose of 20 mg/day hydrocortisone and showed a normal response of GH to GRH. It is suggested that re-evaluation of pituitary and thyroid function is useful for diagnosing isolated ACTH deficiency after starting a maintenance dose of hydrocortisone in order to avoid unnecessary replacement of thyroid hormone.

  5. Hormones and cytokines in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Nur; Erdur, Baris; Aydin, Adem

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is a growing worldwide health problem affecting both adults and children. Effective prevention and treatment modalities can be achieved by understanding the pathogenesis of obesity better. This review addresses some of the issues related to the hormones and cytokines taking part in the pathogenesis of obesity, energy balance and inflammation. We reviewed current literature on this broad subject especially concentrating on the functions of the hormones and cytokines taking part in the pathogenesis of the childhood obesity. Using the key words obesity, children, hormones, cytokines publications and cross references were evaluated from PubMed database between 1957 and 2009. In children, leptin and ghrelin are two hormones which have major influence on energy balance. Leptin is responsible from long term regulation of energy balance and ghrelin functions as an appetite stimulatory signal. In contrast to ghrelin, obestatin acts as an anorexigenic hormone by suppressing food intake. Adipokines secreted from adipose tissue are the key regulators of inflammation in obesity. Increased TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels but decreased levels of adiponectin and IL-10 are associated with increased inflammation, tissue injury and complications of obesity. Development, pathogenesis and complications of childhood obesity consist of complex mechanisms including numerous cytokines and hormones. New treatment modalities depend on understanding these complex mechanisms.

  6. Perspectives in hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Kenemans, P; van Unnik, G A; Mijatovic, V; van der Mooren, M J

    2001-06-15

    Estrogens have been convincingly shown to be highly effective in preventing and reversing menopause-related conditions, such as hot flushes, urogenital complaints, and postmenopausal bone loss. Observational studies report that long-term, estrogen-containing, postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) leads to a substantial reduction in hip fractures, myocardial infarction, and possibly colonic cancer, with important consequences for health and quality of life. Estrogen replacement may postpone the onset of Alzheimer's disease and extend life. While many of these effects are biologically plausible, with a variety of cellular mechanisms being involved, only ongoing and future large-scale randomized clinical trials can and should define the effects of HRT more precisely. Long-term compliance is a key issue for long-term benefits, and offering women a choice of administration routes and regimens can only be beneficial in this respect. Pills, patches, gels, and implants are all widely prescribed. Intravaginal or intranasal forms of administration, which are very easy to use and adaptable on an individual level, are among the new options which could improve long-term continuation of HRT use. Fear of breast cancer and recurrence of vaginal bleeding are real concerns for many women considering HRT. This has led to research into lower-dose, estrogen-containing regimens, into continuous combined regimens, and into the potential of estrogen receptor alpha or beta binding molecules that may help to prevent such problems from arising. The prospects for safe and effective postmenopausal HRT with either estrogens or estrogen-like drugs are very promising when these drugs are used in a patient-tailored, risk profile-based manner.

  7. Obesity, growth hormone and exercise.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Kraemer, William J; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Maresh, Carl M; Volek, Jeff S

    2013-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is regulated, suppressed and stimulated by numerous physiological stimuli. However, it is believed that obesity disrupts the physiological and pathological factors that regulate, suppress or stimulate GH release. Pulsatile GH has been potently stimulated in healthy subjects by both aerobic and resistance exercise of the right intensity and duration. GH modulates fuel metabolism, reduces total fat mass and abdominal fat mass, and could be a potent stimulus of lipolysis when administered to obese individuals exogenously. Only pulsatile GH has been shown to augment adipose tissue lipolysis and, therefore, increasing pulsatile GH response may be a therapeutic target. This review discusses the factors that cause secretion of GH, how obesity may alter GH secretion and how both aerobic and resistance exercise stimulates GH, as well as how exercise of a specific intensity may be used as a stimulus for GH release in individuals who are obese. Only five prior studies have investigated exercise as a stimulus of endogenous GH in individuals who are obese. Based on prior literature, resistance exercise may provide a therapeutic target for releasing endogenous GH in individuals who are obese if specific exercise programme variables are utilized. Biological activity of GH indicates that this may be an important precursor to beneficial changes in body fat and lean tissue mass in obese individuals. However, additional research is needed including what molecular GH variants are acutely released and involved at target tissues as a result of different exercise stimuli and what specific exercise programme variables may serve to stimulate GH in individuals who are obese.

  8. Sexual hormones in human skin.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, C C; Chen, W-C; Thornton, M J; Qin, K; Rosenfield, R

    2007-02-01

    The skin locally synthesizes significant amounts of sexual hormones with intracrine or paracrine actions. The local level of each sexual steroid depends upon the expression of each of the androgen- and estrogen-synthesizing enzymes in each cell type, with sebaceous glands and sweat glands being the major contributors. Sebocytes express very little of the key enzyme, cytochrome P450c17, necessary for synthesis of the androgenic prohormones dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione, however, these prohormones can be converted by sebocytes and sweat glands, and probably also by dermal papilla cells, into more potent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Five major enzymes are involved in the activation and deactivation of androgens in skin. Androgens affect several functions of human skin, such as sebaceous gland growth and differentiation, hair growth, epidermal barrier homeostasis and wound healing. Their effects are mediated by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor. Changes of isoenzyme and/or androgen receptor levels may have important implications in the development of hyperandrogenism and the associated skin diseases such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism and androgenetic alopecia. On the other hand, estrogens have been implicated in skin aging, pigmentation, hair growth, sebum production and skin cancer. Estrogens exert their actions through intracellular receptors or via cell surface receptors, which activate specific second messenger signaling pathways. Recent studies suggest specific site-related distribution of ERalpha and ERbeta in human skin. In contrast, progestins play no role in the pathogenesis of skin disorders. However, they play a major role in the treatment of hirsutism and acne vulgaris, where they are prescribed as components of estrogen-progestin combination pills and as anti-androgens. These combinations enhance gonadotropin suppression of ovarian androgen production. Estrogen-progestin treatment can reduce the need for shaving

  9. Hormones in Synergy: Regulation of the Pituitary Gonadotropin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Thackray, Varykina G.; Mellon, Pamela L.; Coss, Djurdjica

    2009-01-01

    The precise interplay of hormonal influences that governs gonadotropin hormone production by the pituitary includes endocrine, paracrine and autocrine actions of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), activin and steroids. However, most studies of hormonal regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary gonadotrope have been limited to analyses of the isolated actions of individual hormones. LHβ and FSHβ subunits have distinct patterns of expression during the menstrual/estrous cycle as a result of the integration of activin, GnRH, and steroid hormone action. In this review, we focus on studies that delineate the interplay among these hormones in the regulation of LHβ and FSHβ gene expression in gonadotrope cells and discuss how signaling cross-talk contributes to differential expression. We also discuss how recent technological advances will help identify additional factors involved in the differential hormonal regulation of LH and FSH. PMID:19747958

  10. Immediate start of hormonal contraceptives for contraception.

    PubMed

    Lopez, L M; Newmann, S J; Grimes, D A; Nanda, K; Schulz, K F

    2008-04-16

    Health care providers often tell women to wait until the next menses to begin hormonal contraception. The main intent is to avoid contraceptive use during an undetected pregnancy. An alternative is to start hormonal contraception immediately with back-up birth control for the first seven days. Immediate initiation was first introduced with combined oral contraceptives (COCs), and has expanded to other hormonal contraceptives. How immediate start compares to conventional menses-dependent start is unclear regarding effectiveness, continuation, and acceptability. The immediate-start approach may improve women's access to, and continuation of, hormonal contraception. This review examined randomized controlled trials of immediate-start hormonal contraception for differences in effectiveness, continuation, and acceptability. We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS for trials of immediate-start hormonal contraceptives. We contacted researchers to find other studies. We included randomized controlled trials that compared immediate start to conventional start of hormonal contraception. Also included were trials that compared immediate start of different hormonal contraceptive methods with each other. Data were abstracted by two authors and entered into RevMan. The Peto odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Five studies were included. Method discontinuation was similar between groups in all trials. Bleeding patterns and side effects were similar in trials that compared immediate with conventional start. In a study of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), immediate start of DMPA showed fewer pregnancies than a 'bridge' method before DMPA (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.84). Further, more women in the immediate-DMPA group were very satisfied versus those with a 'bridge' method (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.05 to 3.77).A trial of two immediate-start methods showed the vaginal ring group had less prolonged bleeding (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.20 to 0

  11. Growth Hormone Research Society perspective on the development of long-acting growth hormone preparations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH). A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrino...

  12. Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Xenopus Metamorphosis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Serum thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in anuran larvae rise rapidly during metamorphosis. Such a rise in an adult anuran would inevitably trigger a negative feedback response resulting in decreased synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by the pituitary....

  13. Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Xenopus Metamorphosis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Serum thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in anuran larvae rise rapidly during metamorphosis. Such a rise in an adult anuran would inevitably trigger a negative feedback response resulting in decreased synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by the pituitary....

  14. Vitamin D: a pleiotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Verstuyf, Annemieke; Carmeliet, Geert; Bouillon, Roger; Mathieu, Chantal

    2010-07-01

    The secosteroid hormone 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) is the natural ligand for the vitamin D receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Upon binding of the ligand, the vitamin D receptor heterodimerizes with the retinoid X receptor and binds to vitamin D response elements in the promoter region of target genes to induce/repress their expression. The target genes that have been identified so far are heterogeneous in nature and reflect the great spectrum of biological activities of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Within the last two decades, the receptor has been shown to be present not only in classical target tissues such as bone, kidney, and intestine, but also in many other nonclassical tissues, for example, in the immune system (T and B cells, macrophages, and monocytes), in the reproductive system (uterus, testis, ovary, prostate, placenta, and mammary glands), in the endocrine system (pancreas, pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal cortex), in muscles (skeletal, smooth, and heart muscles), and in brain, skin, and liver. Besides the almost universal presence of vitamin D receptors, different cell types (for example, keratinocytes, monocytes, bone, placenta) are capable of metabolizing 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) by the enzyme 25(OH)D(3)-1alpha-hydroxylase, encoded by CYP27B1. The combined presence of CYP27B1 and the specific receptor in several tissues introduced the idea of a paracrine/autocrine role for 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Moreover, it has been demonstrated that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can induce differentiation and inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk for nearly all major human diseases such as cancer, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. In addition to the treatment of bone disorders with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), these newly discovered functions open perspectives for the use of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) as an immune modulator (for example, for the

  15. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Okinaga, Hiroko; Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Tomoki

    2011-04-15

    Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor α, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  16. Resistance to growth hormone releasing hormone and gonadotropins in Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Giovanna; Spada, Anna

    2006-05-01

    Heterozygous inactivating mutations in the Gs alpha gene cause Albright's hereditary osteo-dystrophy (AHO). Consistent with the observation that only maternally inherited mutations lead to resistance to hormone action (pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia [PHP-Ia), recent studies have provided evidence for a predominant maternal origin of Gs alpha transcripts in endocrine organs, such as thyroid, gonad and pituitary. Accordingly, patients with PHP-Ia display variable degrees of resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins and growth hormone (GH) releasing hormone (GHRH). Although the incidence and the clinical and biochemical characteristics of PTH and TSH resistance have been widely investigated and described, the cause and significance of the reproductive dysfunction in AHO is still poorly understood. The clinical finding of alterations of GH secretion in these patients was described for the first time only 2 years ago. The present report briefly reviews the literature focusing on the actual knowledge about these last two subjects.

  17. How to use and interpret hormone ratios.

    PubMed

    Sollberger, Silja; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Hormone ratios have become increasingly popular throughout the neuroendocrine literature since they offer a straightforward way to simultaneously analyze the effects of two interdependent hormones. However, the analysis of ratios is associated with statistical and interpretational concerns which have not been sufficiently considered in the context of endocrine research. The aim of this article, therefore, is to demonstrate and discuss these issues, and to suggest suitable ways to address them. In a first step, we use exemplary testosterone and cortisol data to illustrate that one major concern of ratios lies in their distribution and inherent asymmetry. As a consequence, results of parametric statistical analyses are affected by the ultimately arbitrary decision of which way around the ratio is computed (i.e., A/B or B/A). We suggest the use of non-parametric methods as well as the log-transformation of hormone ratios as appropriate methods to deal with these statistical problems. However, in a second step, we also discuss the complicated interpretation of ratios, and propose moderation analysis as an alternative and oftentimes more insightful approach to ratio analysis. In conclusion, we suggest that researchers carefully consider which statistical approach is best suited to investigate reciprocal hormone effects. With regard to the hormone ratio method, further research is needed to specify what exactly this index reflects on the biological level and in which cases it is a meaningful variable to analyze.

  18. Hormonal Treatment of Metastases of Renal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    van der Werf-Messing, B.; van Gilse, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    A series of 33 patients with metastatic renal cancer and evidence of progression of the disease—apart from pulmonary metastases—was treated with hormones (progestogens in 31 cases, androgens in 2 cases) at the Rotterdamsch Radio-Therapeutisch Instituut. Complete or partial spontaneous regression (or non-progression of pulmonary metastases) before hormone treatment was observed in 8 patients (24%). A favourable subjective response to hormone treatment was obtained in 12 patients (36%), while a positive objective response was obtained in 2 (or 3) cases (6-9%). A favourable response was obtained slightly more frequently in men than in women. The hormonal effect was not demonstrably related to any of the following factors: age of the patient, type of progestogen used, the behaviour of concomitant pulmonary metastases, or the presence or absence of the primary growth. The prognosis was unaffected by hormone therapy, but the 2 year survival rate was significantly higher in patients that showed signs of spontaneous regression of pulmonary metastases, as compared with those without these signs. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5144516

  19. Hormonal treatment of metastases of renal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    van der Werf-Messing, B; van Gilse, H A

    1971-09-01

    A series of 33 patients with metastatic renal cancer and evidence of progression of the disease-apart from pulmonary metastases-was treated with hormones (progestogens in 31 cases, androgens in 2 cases) at the Rotterdamsch Radio-Therapeutisch Instituut. Complete or partial spontaneous regression (or non-progression of pulmonary metastases) before hormone treatment was observed in 8 patients (24%). A favourable subjective response to hormone treatment was obtained in 12 patients (36%), while a positive objective response was obtained in 2 (or 3) cases (6-9%).A favourable response was obtained slightly more frequently in men than in women. The hormonal effect was not demonstrably related to any of the following factors: age of the patient, type of progestogen used, the behaviour of concomitant pulmonary metastases, or the presence or absence of the primary growth.The prognosis was unaffected by hormone therapy, but the 2 year survival rate was significantly higher in patients that showed signs of spontaneous regression of pulmonary metastases, as compared with those without these signs.

  20. Safety of hormonal contraception for obese women.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ana Luiza L; Campos, Rayana R; Miranda, Marina M S; Raspante, Laio B P; Carneiro, Márcia M; Vieira, Carolina S; Reis, Fernando M

    2017-10-11

    Obese women have special safety requirements for contraceptive choice, but the evidence supporting such decision is dispersed and sometimes conflicting. Despite being effective, well tolerated and safe for most women, hormonal contraceptives are underused by obese women due to fear of contraceptive failure, weight gain and venous thrombosis. Areas covered: We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify studies about hormonal contraception in overweight and obese women, including safety concerns. We considered the safety of hormonal contraceptives for otherwise healthy obese women and for those with comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, vascular disease, or a history of deep venous thrombosis. Expert opinion: Over time there is no convincing evidence that obesity increases the risk of contraceptive failure. Hormonal contraceptive users may have a modest weight gain that is comparable to that of non-users. Current evidence supports the safe use of combined hormonal contraceptives by obese women after detailed clinical screening to exclude comorbidities that may contraindicate the use of estrogens. Progestin-only methods are generally safe, and long-acting reversible contraceptives hold the best combination of efficacy, safety and convenience for this group, although individualization is advisable.

  1. Hormones and Human and Nonhuman Primate Growth.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Robin Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review information pertaining to the hormonal regulation of nonhuman primate growth, with specific focus on the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis and adrenal androgens. Hormones of the GH-IGF axis are consistently associated with measures of growth - linear, weight, or both - during the growth period; in adulthood, concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3, and GH-binding protein are not associated with any measures of size. Comparing patterns of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) may be especially relevant for understanding whether the childhood stage of growth and development is unique to humans and perhaps other apes. Genetic, hormonal, and morphological data on adrenarche in other nonhuman primate species suggest that this endocrine transition is delayed in humans, chimpanzees, and possibly gorillas, while present very early in postnatal life in macaques. This suggests that although perhaps permitted by an extension of the pre-adolescent growth period, childhood builds upon existing developmental substrates rather than having been inserted de novo into an ancestral growth trajectory. Hormones can provide insight regarding the evolution of the human growth trajectory. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Actions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Glinsky, Gennadi V.

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3); this receptor also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of T4. Tetrac inhibits the binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. Expression of the CX3CL1 gene is downregulated by tetrac, suggesting that T4 and T3 may stimulate fractalkine expression. Independently of its specific receptor (CX3CR1), fractalkine binds to αvβ3 at a site proximal to the thyroid hormone-tetrac receptor and changes the physical state of the integrin. Tetrac also affects expression of the genes for other CNS-relevant chemokines, including CCL20, CCL26, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL10. The chemokine products of these genes are important to vascularity of the brain, particularly of the choroid plexus, to inflammatory processes in the CNS and, in certain cases, to neuroprotection. Thyroid hormones are known to contribute to regulation of each of these CNS functions. We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. PMID:27493972

  3. Effect of rejuvenation hormones on spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jared L; Crosnoe, Lindsey E; Kim, Edward D

    2013-06-01

    To review the current literature for the effect of hormones used in rejuvenation clinics on the maintenance of spermatogenesis. Review of published literature. Not applicable. Men who have undergone exogenous testosterone (T) and/or anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) therapies. None. Semen analysis, pregnancy outcomes, and time to recovery of spermatogenesis. Exogenous testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroids suppress intratesticular testosterone production, which may lead to azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. Therapies that protect spermatogenesis involve human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) therapy and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). The studies examining the effect of human growth hormone (HGH) on infertile men are uncontrolled and unconvincing, but they do not appear to negatively impact spermatogenesis. At present, routine use of aromatase inhibitors is not recommended based on a lack of long-term data. The use of hormones for rejuvenation is increasing with the aging of the Baby Boomer population. Men desiring children at a later age may be unaware of the side-effect profile of hormones used at rejuvenation centers. Testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroids have well-established detrimental effects on spermatogenesis, but recovery may be possible with cessation. Clomiphene citrate, human growth hormone (HGH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and aromatase inhibitors do not appear to have significant negative effects on sperm production, but quality data are lacking. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex hormones in women with kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sofia B; Ramesh, Sharanya

    2016-11-01

    Menstrual disorders, infertility and premature menopause are common but often underrecognized phenomena among women with chronic kidney disease. Hypothalamic, rather than ovarian dysfunction, may be the cause of the abnormal reproductive milieu, which can be at least partially reversed by kidney transplantation and increased intensity of hemodialysis. Endogenous sex hormones, and specifically estradiol, appear to be renoprotective in women, although the effects of exogenous estradiol (as an oral contraceptive and postmenopausal hormone therapy) on kidney function are more controversial. Treatment with postmenopausal hormone therapy in women with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) has been associated with improved quality of life, bone health and markers of cardiovascular risk, as well as an increased risk of arteriovenous access thrombosis. The selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene has been associated with both a decreased fracture risk as well as renoprotection in women with kidney disease. Young women with ESKD are more likely to die from infection or develop malignancy, suggesting an immunomodulatory role of estrogen. Whether the premature menopause commonly observed in female patients with kidney disease results in increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is unknown, although preliminary studies have suggested a possible therapeutic role for manipulation of the sex hormone milieu to mitigate risk in this population. Large, prospective, randomized studies examining the role of sex hormones in women with kidney disease are required to address the question.

  5. Progress and prospects in male hormonal contraception

    PubMed Central

    Amory, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Testosterone functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary. Low concentrations of these hormones deprive the testes of the signals required for spermatogenesis and results in markedly decreased sperm concentrations and effective contraception in a majority of men. Male hormonal contraception is well tolerated and acceptable to most men. Unfortunately, testosterone-alone regimens fail to completely suppress spermatogenesis in all men, meaning that in some the potential for fertility remains. Recent findings Because of this, novel combinations of testosterone and progestins, which synergistically suppress gonadotropins, have been studied. Two recently published testosterone/progestin trials are particularly noteworthy. In the first, a long-acting injectable testosterone ester, testosterone decanoate, was combined with etonogestrel implants and resulted in 80–90% of subjects achieving a fewer than 1 million sperm per milliliter. In the second, a daily testosterone gel was combined with 3-monthly injections of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate producing similar results. Summary Testosterone-based hormone combinations are able to reversibly suppress human spermatogenesis; however, a uniformly effective regimen has remained elusive. Nevertheless, improvements, such as the use of injectable testosterone undecanoate, may lead to a safe, reversible and effective male contraceptive. PMID:18438174

  6. Sex hormones and brain dopamine functions.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor-Zarate, Ramon; Cruz, Gonzalo; Renard, Georgina M; Espinosa, Pedro; Ramirez, Victor D

    2014-01-01

    Sex hormones exert differential effects on a variety of sensitive tissues like the reproductive tract, gonads, liver, bone and adipose tissue, among others. In the brain, sex hormones act as neuroactive steroids regulating the function of neuroendocrine diencephalic structures like the hypothalamus. In addition, steroids can exert physiological effects upon cortical, limbic and midbrain structures, influencing different behaviors such as memory, learning, mood and reward. In the last three decades, the role of sex hormones on monoamine neurotransmitters in extra-hypothalamic areas related to motivated behaviors, learning and locomotion has been the focus of much research. The purpose of this thematic issue is to present the state of art concerning the effects of sex hormones on the neurochemical regulation of dopaminergic midbrain areas involved in neurobiological and pathological processes, such as addiction to drugs of abuse. We also discuss evidence of how neonatal exposure to sex hormones or endocrine disrupting chemicals can produce long-term changes on the neurochemical regulation of dopaminergic neurons in the limbic and midbrain areas.

  7. Hypothalamic effects of thyroid hormones on metabolism.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Alvarez, Clara V; Fernø, Johan; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos; López, Miguel

    2014-10-01

    Over the past few decades, obesity and its related metabolic disorders have increased at an epidemic rate in the developed and developing world. New signals and factors involved in the modulation of energy balance and metabolism are continuously being discovered, providing potential novel drug targets for the treatment of metabolic disease. A parallel strategy is to better understand how hormonal signals, with an already established role in energy metabolism, work, and how manipulation of the pathways involved may lead to amelioration of metabolic dysfunction. The thyroid hormones belong to the latter category, with dysregulation of the thyroid axis leading to marked alterations in energy balance. The potential of thyroid hormones in the treatment of obesity has been known for decades, but their therapeutic use has been hampered because of side-effects. Data gleaned over the past few years, however, have uncovered new features at the mechanisms of action involved in thyroid hormones. Sophisticated neurobiological approaches have allowed the identification of specific energy sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase and mechanistic target of rapamycin, acting in specific groups of hypothalamic neurons, mediating many of the effects of thyroid hormones on food intake, energy expenditure, glucose, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular function. More extensive knowledge about these molecular mechanisms will be of great relevance for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  8. Hormonal control of sulfate uptake and assimilation.

    PubMed

    Koprivova, Anna; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2016-08-01

    Plant hormones have a plethora of functions in control of plant development, stress response, and primary metabolism, including nutrient homeostasis. In the plant nutrition, the interplay of hormones with responses to nitrate and phosphate deficiency is well described, but relatively little is known about the interaction between phytohormones and regulation of sulfur metabolism. As for other nutrients, sulfate deficiency results in modulation of root architecture, where hormones are expected to play an important role. Accordingly, sulfate deficiency induces genes involved in metabolism of tryptophane and auxin. Also jasmonate biosynthesis is induced, pointing to the need of increase the defense capabilities of the plants when sulfur is limiting. However, hormones affect also sulfate uptake and assimilation. The pathway is coordinately induced by jasmonate and the key enzyme, adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase, is additionally regulated by ethylene, abscisic acid, nitric oxid, and other phytohormones. Perhaps the most intriguing link between hormones and sulfate assimilation is the fact that the main regulator of the response to sulfate starvation, SULFATE LIMITATION1 (SLIM1) belongs to the family of ethylene related transcription factors. We will review the current knowledge of interplay between phytohormones and control of sulfur metabolism and discuss the main open questions.

  9. [Hormonal treatments for fertility disorders in cattle].

    PubMed

    Gundling, N; Feldmann, M; Hoedemaker, M

    2012-01-01

    In dairy cows, hormonal treatments are commonly implemented for acyclicity, silent heat and endometritis. Before treatment, causes of infertility need to be detected and severe failures in housing, feeding or other diseases must be eliminated. Without sustainable improvement of herd management, the use of intensive hormonal treatments will not improve reproductive performance. The most common cause of anoestrous is silent heat. In cows with a palpable corpus luteum, injection of prostaglandin F2α (PGF) reliably induces oestrous. A satisfactory treatment for acyclicity (ovarian dystrophy, ovarian cysts) does not exist. Combinations of different hormones have greater treatment success than a single use of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) or human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Strategic use of PGF during the early postpartum period cannot be recommended because positive effects on uterus involution and resumption of the oestrous cycle after calving have not been verified. In contrast, application of GnRH combined with PGF in the puerperal phase appeared to have positive effects on fertility of cows with endometritis. The same applies to PGF for cows with chronic endometritis. Cases of endometritis with fetid odour of vaginal mucus or isolation of Trueperella pyogenes should be treated with antibiotics. Treatment before the 27th day post partum is not advisable. In conclusion, hormonal treatments can be used to treat fertility disorders. Nevertheless, in order to enhance the reproductive performance at the herd level, a sustainable improvement of the general conditions (housing, feeding, animal health, management) is a prerequisite.

  10. Role of hormones and neurosteroids in epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the emerging evidence of hormonal influence on epileptogenesis, which is a process whereby a brain becomes progressively epileptic due to an initial precipitating event of diverse origin such as brain injury, stroke, infection, or prolonged seizures. The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of epilepsy are poorly understood. Neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration appear to trigger epileptogenesis. There is an intense search for drugs that truly prevent the development of epilepsy in people at risk. Hormones play an important role in children and adults with epilepsy. Corticosteroids, progesterone, estrogens, and neurosteroids have been shown to affect seizure activity in animal models and in clinical studies. However, the impact of hormones on epileptogenesis has not been investigated widely. There is emerging new evidence that progesterone, neurosteroids, and endogenous hormones may play a role in regulating the epileptogenesis. Corticosterone has excitatory effects and triggers epileptogenesis in animal models. Progesterone has disease-modifying activity in epileptogenic models. The antiepileptogenic effect of progesterone has been attributed to its conversion to neurosteroids, which binds to GABA-A receptors and enhances phasic and tonic inhibition in the brain. Neurosteroids are robust anticonvulsants. There is pilot evidence that neurosteroids may have antiepileptogenic properties. Future studies may generate new insight on the disease-modifying potential of hormonal agents and neurosteroids in epileptogenesis. PMID:23914154

  11. Gastrointestinal hormones and their role in obesity.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Sirazum M; Tan, Tricia M; Bloom, Stephen R

    2016-02-01

    Pandemic obesity is the most pressing health issue of this century. The most successful treatment so far is bariatric surgery, but for various reasons, surgery cannot be applied to all patients who require treatment. Gastrointestinal hormones are likely to play a key role in the success of bariatric surgery. This article examines in detail three of these gut hormones: peptide YY, oxyntomodulin and pancreatic polypeptide, and reviews how recent developments may offer new targets for therapy. Both the free fatty acid 2 and the melanocortin 4 receptors have been discovered to regulate peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion, and drugs targeting these may represent new antiobesity therapies. Dual agonism of glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon receptors, for example with oxyntomodulin, has synergistic effects in reducing appetite and increasing energy expenditure. Plasma pancreatic polypeptide concentration correlates with visceral adiposity, and may serve as a biomarker for metabolic syndrome. Gut hormones continue to show promise on an individual basis as anti-obesity treatments, but combination therapies are needed to achieve beneficial effects comparable to bariatric surgery. Innovative pathways for stimulating native gut hormone secretion may well provide an alternative method for weight loss without necessitating the administration of gut hormone analogues via injection.

  12. Drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kavita; Stuart, Gretchen S; Robinson, Jennifer; Gray, Andrew L; Tepper, Naomi K; Gaffield, Mary E

    2017-04-24

    To summarize published evidence on drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals. Systematic review of the published literature. We searched PubMed, POPLINE, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed publications of studies (in any language) from inception to 21 September 2015. We included studies of women using hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals concurrently. Outcomes of interest were effectiveness of either therapy, toxicity, or pharmacokinetics. We used standard abstraction forms to summarize and assess strengths and weaknesses. Fifty reports from 46 studies were included. Most antiretrovirals whether used for therapy or prevention, have limited interactions with hormonal contraceptive methods, with the exception of efavirenz. Although depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is not affected, limited data on implants and combined oral contraceptive pills suggest that efavirenz-containing combination antiretroviral therapy may compromise contraceptive effectiveness of these methods. However, implants remain very effective despite such drug interactions. Antiretroviral plasma concentrations and effectiveness are generally not affected by hormonal contraceptives. Women taking antiretrovirals, for treatment or prevention, should not be denied access to the full range of hormonal contraceptive options, but should be counseled on the expected rates of unplanned pregnancy associated with all contraceptive methods, in order to make their own informed choices.

  13. Drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Kavita; Stuart, Gretchen S.; Robinson, Jennifer; Gray, Andrew L.; Tepper, Naomi K.; Gaffield, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To summarize published evidence on drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals. Design: Systematic review of the published literature. Methods: We searched PubMed, POPLINE, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed publications of studies (in any language) from inception to 21 September 2015. We included studies of women using hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals concurrently. Outcomes of interest were effectiveness of either therapy, toxicity, or pharmacokinetics. We used standard abstraction forms to summarize and assess strengths and weaknesses. Results: Fifty reports from 46 studies were included. Most antiretrovirals whether used for therapy or prevention, have limited interactions with hormonal contraceptive methods, with the exception of efavirenz. Although depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is not affected, limited data on implants and combined oral contraceptive pills suggest that efavirenz-containing combination antiretroviral therapy may compromise contraceptive effectiveness of these methods. However, implants remain very effective despite such drug interactions. Antiretroviral plasma concentrations and effectiveness are generally not affected by hormonal contraceptives. Conclusion: Women taking antiretrovirals, for treatment or prevention, should not be denied access to the full range of hormonal contraceptive options, but should be counseled on the expected rates of unplanned pregnancy associated with all contraceptive methods, in order to make their own informed choices. PMID:28060009

  14. Thyroid hormone signaling in energy homeostasis and energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    McAninch, Elizabeth A.; Bianco, Antonio C.

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid hormone plays a significant role in diverse processes related to growth, development, differentiation, and metabolism. Thyroid hormone signaling modulates energy expenditure through both central and peripheral pathways. At the cellular level, the thyroid hormone exerts its effects after concerted mechanisms facilitate binding to the thyroid hormone receptor. In the hypothalamus, signals from a range of metabolic pathways, including appetite, temperature, afferent stimuli via the autonomic nervous system, availability of energy substrates, hormones, and other biologically active molecules, converge to maintain plasma thyroid hormone at the appropriate level to preserve energy homeostasis. At the tissue level, thyroid hormone actions on metabolism are controlled by transmembrane transporters, deiodinases, and thyroid hormone receptors. In the modern environment, humans are susceptible to an energy surplus, which has resulted in an obesity epidemic and thus understanding the contribution of the thyroid hormone to cellular and organism metabolism is increasingly relevant. PMID:24697152

  15. The common molecular players in plant hormone crosstalk and signaling.

    PubMed

    Ohri, Puja; Bhardwaj, Renu; Bali, Shagun; Kaur, Ravinderjit; Jasrotia, Shivam; Khajuria, Anjali; Parihar, Ripu D

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth and development is under the control of mutual interactions among plant hormones. The five classical categories of plant hormones include auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid and ethylene. Additionally, newer classes of plant hormones have been recognized like brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and polyamines. These hormones play significant roles in regulating the plant growth and development. Various receptors and key signaling components of these hormones have been studied and identified. At genetic level, crosstalk among the various plant hormones is found to be antagonistic or synergistic. In addition, components of signaling pathway of one plant hormone interact with the signaling components of other hormone. Thus, an attempt has been made to review the literature regarding the role of plant hormones in plant physiology and the common molecular players in their signaling and crosstalk.

  16. The Gut Hormones in Appetite Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Jayasena, Channa N.; Bloom, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has received much attention worldwide in association with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. At present, bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for obesity in which long-term weight loss is achieved in patients. By contrast, pharmacological interventions for obesity are usually followed by weight regain. Although the exact mechanisms of long-term weight loss following bariatric surgery are yet to be fully elucidated, several gut hormones have been implicated. Gut hormones play a critical role in relaying signals of nutritional and energy status from the gut to the central nervous system, in order to regulate food intake. Cholecystokinin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin act through distinct yet synergistic mechanisms to suppress appetite, whereas ghrelin stimulates food intake. Here, we discuss the role of gut hormones in the regulation of food intake and body weight. PMID:21949903

  17. Preventing leaf identity theft with hormones.

    PubMed

    Lumba, Shelley; McCourt, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Genetic analysis of plant development has begun to demonstrate the importance of hormone synthesis and transport in regulating morphogenesis. In the case of leaf development, for example, auxin pooling determines where a primordium will emerge and leads to the activation of transcription factors, which determine leaf identities by modulating abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) concentrations. Signal transduction studies suggest that negative regulation of transcription factors through protein turnover is commonly used as a mechanism of hormone action. Together, these findings suggest that auxin might degrade a repressor that allows the activation of genes that modulate ABA/GA ratios in emerging leaves. With our increased understanding of the molecular basis of hormone signaling, it is becoming possible to overlay important regulators onto signaling modules that determine morphological outputs.

  18. Thyroid Hormones, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Antonio; Di Segni, Chantal; Raimondo, Sebastiano; Olivieri, Giulio; Silvestrini, Andrea; Meucci, Elisabetta; Currò, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are closely related processes, as well exemplified in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. OS is also related to hormonal derangement in a reciprocal way. Among the various hormonal influences that operate on the antioxidant balance, thyroid hormones play particularly important roles, since both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been shown to be associated with OS in animals and humans. In this context, the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) that typically manifests as reduced conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in different acute and chronic systemic conditions is still a debated topic. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome are reviewed, together with the roles of deiodinases, the enzymes responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3, in both physiological and pathological situations. The presence of OS indexes in NTIS supports the hypothesis that it represents a condition of hypothyroidism at the tissue level and not only an adaptive mechanism to diseases.

  19. Strigolactones: a new hormone with a past.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yuichiro; McCourt, Peter

    2009-10-01

    The recent discovery of an endogenous hormonal activity for strigolactones in shoot branching was surprising since these molecules were thought to mostly play roles as signaling molecules between organisms. Even in the context of plant hormones, strigolactones appear to be different in that their role in plant development is quite restricted. This most probably reflects early days and new hormonal functions will most probably be found for these compounds in the future. In this respect, the exogenous role of strigolactones in parasitic plant seed germination may hint to functions of this compound in seed development. However, showing new roles for strigolactones in the seed or any other aspect of plant development for that matter will require developing assays in model genetic systems such as Arabidopsis and rice where we can take full advantage of the experimental tools that are available.

  20. Thyroid Hormones, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Raimondo, Sebastiano; Olivieri, Giulio; Meucci, Elisabetta; Currò, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are closely related processes, as well exemplified in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. OS is also related to hormonal derangement in a reciprocal way. Among the various hormonal influences that operate on the antioxidant balance, thyroid hormones play particularly important roles, since both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been shown to be associated with OS in animals and humans. In this context, the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) that typically manifests as reduced conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in different acute and chronic systemic conditions is still a debated topic. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome are reviewed, together with the roles of deiodinases, the enzymes responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3, in both physiological and pathological situations. The presence of OS indexes in NTIS supports the hypothesis that it represents a condition of hypothyroidism at the tissue level and not only an adaptive mechanism to diseases. PMID:27051079

  1. New insights into thyroid hormone action.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Arturo; Hollenberg, Anthony N

    2017-05-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are endocrine messengers essential for normal development and function of virtually every vertebrate. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is exquisitely modulated to maintain nearly constant TH (T4 and T3) levels in circulation. However peripheral tissues and the CNS control the intracellular availability of TH, suggesting that circulating concentrations of TH are not fully representative of what each cell type sees. Indeed, recent work in the field has identified that TH transporters, deiodinases and thyroid hormone receptor coregulators can strongly control tissue-specific sensitivity to a set amount of TH. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the thyroid hormone receptors regulate target gene expression can vary by gene, tissue and cellular context. This review will highlight novel insights into the machinery that controls the cellular response to TH, which include unique signaling cascades. These findings shed new light into the pathophysiology of human diseases caused by abnormal TH signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Instructive roles for hormones in plant development.

    PubMed

    Alabadí, David; Blázquez, Miguel A; Carbonell, Juan; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    Plants, like animals, construct their body following modular sets of instructions that determine cell fate, morphogenesis and patterning, among other building requirements. Hormones regulate plant growth in different ways, and there is increasing evidence for a decisive function of certain hormones in the establishment of developmental programs, equivalent to the role of peptidic molecules and signals of another nature in animal embryo development. Here, we review this role of hormones as instructive agents, and illustrate it with examples such as the generation of morphogenetic gradients by auxin (which determine organ patterning and phyllotaxis), the specification of cell fate at the shoot meristem by gibberellins and cytokinins, the switch between alternative developmental programs (photo- and skotomorphogenesis) by gibberellins and brassinosteroids, and the decision between pistil senescence or fruit growth after anthesis.

  3. Mechanisms and Strategies Shaping Plant Peptide Hormones.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Yuki; Torii, Keiko U; Uchida, Naoyuki

    2017-08-01

    Plant genomes encode a variety of short peptides acting as signaling molecules. Since the discovery of tomato systemin, a myriad of peptide signals, ranging in size, structure and modifications, have been found in plants. Moreover, new peptides are still being identified. Surprisingly, non-plant organisms, especially pathogens, also produce peptides which exert hormonal activities against host plants by hijacking their endogenous reception systems. In this review, we focus on short secretory peptides ranging from five to 20 amino acids. We first summarize recent advances in understanding relationships between the bioactivities and structures of plant peptide hormones. Subsequently, we introduce the topic of peptides produced by non-plant organisms. Lastly, we describe artificial peptides synthesized in laboratories, which possess intriguing bioactive properties beyond those of natural peptide hormones. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Steroid hormone sulphation in lead workers.

    PubMed Central

    Apostoli, P; Romeo, L; Peroni, E; Ferioli, A; Ferrari, S; Pasini, F; Aprili, F

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism of steroid hormones has been investigated in 10 workers exposed to lead and in 10 non-exposed subjects to determine whether lead interferes with the first or second phase reactions of steroid hormone biotransformation, or both. In the exposed workers blood lead concentrations (PbB) ranged from 45 to 69 micrograms/100 ml; in the controls PbB was less than 25 micrograms/100 ml. No statistical differences were found for the total amount of the urinary hormone metabolites, but a drop of about 50% was observed for the sulphated portion. It is suggested that lead interferes with the mechanisms of sulphoconjugation through an effect on the cytosol enzymes sulphotransferase and sulphokinase. PMID:2930732

  5. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.

    1983-01-01

    Dolk's (1936) finding that more growth hormone diffuses from the lower side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot than from the upper side is presently confirmed by means of both an isotope dilution assay and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and it is established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physicochemical demonstration that there is more IAA on the lower sides of a geostimulated plant shoot. It is also found that free IAA primarily occurs in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, while IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. A highly sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay shows that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the nonvascular tissue.

  6. [Acne vulgaris. The role of hormones].

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, C C

    2010-02-01

    Peripherally active androgens control cellular functions by binding to androgen receptors. Follicular keratinocytes and sebocytes are target cells for androgens, which, directly or indirectly, stimulate keratinocyte proliferation and the volume of sebaceous glands as well as the sebum secretion rate. Acne often begins with the adrenarche, namely with the up- regulation of adrenal synthesis of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, a hormone that is upstream to testosterone. The majority of acne patients exhibit normal levels of circulating androgens, while sebaceous glands from acne regions exhibit a stronger sensitivity to androgens than the sebaceous glands from other parts of the body. Hormone-like active lipids, hormones in diet and neuropeptides may also play a role in the development of acne lesions. The target of antiandrogen treatment of the skin is mainly the sebaceous gland and the primary effect is sebostasis.

  7. [Hormonal treatment for menopause and arterial risk].

    PubMed

    Gueyffier, François; Cornu, Catherine

    2005-02-28

    Is hormonal atmosphere before menopause the cause of the lower risk of coronary heart disease in women? Big clinical trials do not validate this hypothesis, however simple and attractive: in 5 primary or secondary prevention trials, estrogens alone or in association with progestatives to near 32000 women after menopause, do not leave hope for a significant reduction of coronary risk, and show in contrast an 30% increase of stroke risk. These results highlight the crucial importance of clinical trials to validate therapeutic models. The remaining hypotheses on the nature of hormonal treatments and the administration route must follow the same validation process. The prescription of hormonal treatment for menopause illustrates the importance of informed decision including individualised estimate of the risk to benefit ratio.

  8. [Synthesis and regulation of growth hormone secretion].

    PubMed

    Miyachi, Y; Yakushiji, F; Terazono, T

    1993-10-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) is a single chain, 22 kd-protein with two intramolecular disulfide bonds. The hGH gene is located on chromosome 17 at band q22-q24 and has four introns separating five coding exons. The expression of hGH is restricted to the pituitary and regulated by GHF-1 which binds to the hGH promoter acting in concert with several other more ubiquitous DNA binding proteins. The secretion of hGH is regulated by GH releasing hormone (GRH) and somatostatin. GRH controls GH synthesis by stimulating transcription of GH mRNA while somatostatin determines the timing and amplitude of GH pulses. Pulsatile GH secretion is influenced by a number of neurogenic, metabolic and hormonal factors.

  9. Thyroid hormone and seasonal regulation of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Takashi

    2013-08-01

    Organisms living outside the tropics use changes in photoperiod to adapt to seasonal changes in the environment. Several models have contributed to an understanding of this mechanism at the molecular and endocrine levels. Subtropical birds are excellent models for the study of these mechanisms because of their rapid and dramatic response to changes in photoperiod. Studies of birds have demonstrated that light is perceived by a deep brain photoreceptor and long day-induced thyrotropin (TSH) from the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland causes local thyroid hormone activation within the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). The locally generated bioactive thyroid hormone, T₃, regulates seasonal gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, and hence gonadotropin secretion. In mammals, the eyes are the only photoreceptor involved in photoperiodic time perception and nocturnal melatonin secretion provides an endocrine signal of photoperiod to the PT to regulate TSH. Here, I review the current understanding of the hypothalamic mechanisms controlling seasonal reproduction in mammals and birds.

  10. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.

    1983-01-01

    Dolk's (1936) finding that more growth hormone diffuses from the lower side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot than from the upper side is presently confirmed by means of both an isotope dilution assay and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and it is established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physicochemical demonstration that there is more IAA on the lower sides of a geostimulated plant shoot. It is also found that free IAA primarily occurs in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, while IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. A highly sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay shows that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the nonvascular tissue.

  11. Effects of retinoic acid on growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene expression and growth hormone secretion in rat anterior pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Maliza, Rita; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Azuma, Morio; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2016-06-30

    Retinoic acid (RA) is an important signaling molecule in embryonic development and adult tissue. The actions of RA are mediated by the nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), which regulate gene expression. RAR and RXR are widely expressed in the anterior pituitary gland. RA was reported to stimulate growth hormone (GH) gene expression in the anterior pituitary cells. However, current evidence is unclear on the role of RA in gene expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (Ghrh-r), growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghs-r) and somatostatin receptors (Sst-rs). Using isolated anterior pituitary cells of rats, we examined the effects of RA on gene expression of these receptors and GH release. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA; 10(-6) M) for 24 h increased gene expression levels of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r; however, expressions of Sst-r2 and Sst-r5 were unchanged. Combination treatment with the RAR-agonist Am80 and RXR-agonist PA024 mimicked the effects of ATRA on Ghrh-r and Ghs-r gene expressions. Exposure of isolated pituitary cells to ATRA had no effect on basal GH release. In contrast, ATRA increased growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)- and ghrelin-stimulated GH release from cultured anterior pituitary cells. Our results suggest that expressions of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r are regulated by RA through the RAR-RXR receptor complex and that RA enhances the effects of GHRH and ghrelin on GH release from the anterior pituitary gland.

  12. Rapid steroid hormone actions via membrane receptors.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Nofrat; Verma, Anjali; Bivens, Caroline B; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

    2016-09-01

    Steroid hormones regulate a wide variety of physiological and developmental functions. Traditional steroid hormone signaling acts through nuclear and cytosolic receptors, altering gene transcription and subsequently regulating cellular activity. This is particularly important in hormonally-responsive cancers, where therapies that target classical steroid hormone receptors have become clinical staples in the treatment and management of disease. Much progress has been made in the last decade in detecting novel receptors and elucidating their mechanisms, particularly their rapid signaling effects and subsequent impact on tumorigenesis. Many of these receptors are membrane-bound and lack DNA-binding sites, functionally separating them from their classical cytosolic receptor counterparts. Membrane-bound receptors have been implicated in a number of pathways that disrupt the cell cycle and impact tumorigenesis. Among these are pathways that involve phospholipase D, phospholipase C, and phosphoinositide-3 kinase. The crosstalk between these pathways has been shown to affect apoptosis and proliferation in cardiac cells, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes as well as cancer cells. This review focuses on rapid signaling by 17β-estradiol and 1α,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 to examine the integrated actions of classical and rapid steroid signaling pathways both in contrast to each other and in concert with other rapid signaling pathways. This new approach lends insight into rapid signaling by steroid hormones and its potential for use in targeted drug therapies that maximize the benefits of traditional steroid hormone-directed therapies while mitigating their less desirable effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of sex hormones on fibromyalgia pain mediators.

    PubMed

    Bramwell, Bethany L

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the role of the sex hormones in the pain mechanisms and various effects on nociceptors is imperative to managing potential underlying hormone disruptions in chronic pain syndromes. The myriad of overlapping symptoms between mid-life hormone imbalances and mid-life onset of fibromyalgia syndrome in women indicates a role for sex hormones in the etiology of fibromyalgia syndrome, which is, as of yet, unsupported by the literature. However, fibromyalgia treatment should be tailored to the individual needs of the patient, and adrenal, thyroid, and ovarian hormone support can lessen the painful burden of fibromyalgia through the modulation of various hormone-regulated pain-production pathways.

  14. Modification of Chromatin Structure by the Thyroid Hormone Receptor.

    PubMed

    Li; Sachs; Shi; Wolffe

    1999-05-01

    Pioneering experiments and recent observations have established the thyroid hormone receptor as a master manipulator of the chromosomal environment in targeting the activation and repression of transcription. Here we review how the thyroid hormone receptor is assembled into chromatin, where in the absence of thyroid hormone the receptor recruits histone deacetylase to silence transcription. On addition of hormone, the receptor undergoes a conformational change that leads to the release of deacetylase, while facilitating the recruitment of transcriptional coactivators that act as histone acetyltransferases. We discuss the biological importance of these observations for gene control by the thyroid hormone receptor and for oncogenic transformation by the mutated thyroid hormone receptor, v-ErbA.

  15. Minireview: Nuclear Receptor-Controlled Steroid Hormone Synthesis and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinhan; Cheng, Qiuqiong; Xie, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Steroid hormones are essential in normal physiology whereas disruptions in hormonal homeostasis represent an important etiological factor for many human diseases. Steroid hormones exert most of their functions through the binding and activation of nuclear hormone receptors (NRs or NHRs), a superfamily of DNA-binding and often ligand-dependent transcription factors. In recent years, accumulating evidence has suggested that NRs can also regulate the biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones. This review will focus on the recent progress in our understanding of the regulatory role of NRs in hormonal homeostasis and the implications of this regulation in physiology and diseases. PMID:19762543

  16. New active series of growth hormone secretagogues.

    PubMed

    Guerlavais, Vincent; Boeglin, Damien; Mousseaux, Delphine; Oiry, Catherine; Heitz, Annie; Deghenghi, Romano; Locatelli, Vittorio; Torsello, Antonio; Ghé, Corrado; Catapano, Filomena; Muccioli, Giampiero; Galleyrand, Jean-Claude; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean

    2003-03-27

    New growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) analogues were synthesized and evaluated for growth hormone releasing activity. This series derived from EP-51389 is based on a gem-diamino structure. Compounds that exhibited higher in vivo GH-releasing potency than hexarelin in rat (subcutaneous administration) were then tested per os in beagle dogs and for their binding affinity to human pituitary GHS receptors and to hGHS-R 1a. Compound 7 (JMV 1843, H-Aib-(d)-Trp-(d)-gTrp-formyl) showed high potency in these tests and was selected for clinical studies.(1)

  17. Hormonal contraception and migraine: clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Faubion, Stephanie S; Casey, Petra M; Shuster, Lynne T

    2012-10-01

    Migraine is highly prevalent in women, particularly in the reproductive years when contraception may be needed. Preventive strategies are known to be underutilized for migraine. Women of reproductive age may not only benefit from the use of hormonal contraceptives for contraception, but also for the purpose of reducing the burden of menstrual-related migraine. Although migraine is associated with an increased risk of stroke, the use of low-dose hormonal contraceptives in otherwise healthy women does not appear to confer additional risk.

  18. Developmental programming: the role of growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Oberbauer, Anita M

    2015-01-01

    Developmental programming of the fetus has consequences for physiologic responses in the offspring as an adult and, more recently, is implicated in the expression of altered phenotypes of future generations. Some phenotypes, such as fertility, bone strength, and adiposity are highly relevant to food animal production and in utero factors that impinge on those traits are vital to understand. A key systemic regulatory hormone is growth hormone (GH), which has a developmental role in virtually all tissues and organs. This review catalogs the impact of GH on tissue programming and how perturbations early in development influence GH function.

  19. Gut hormone GPCRs: structure, function, drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Cordomí, Arnau; Fourmy, Daniel; Tikhonova, Irina G

    2016-12-01

    Crystallization and determination of the high resolution three-dimensional structure of the β2-adrenergic receptor in 2007 was followed by structure elucidation of a number of other receptors, including those for neurotensin and glucagon. These major advances foster the understanding of structure-activity relationship of these receptors and structure-based rational design of new ligands having more predictable activity. At present, structure determination of gut hormone receptors in complex with their ligands (natural, synthetic) and interacting signalling proteins, for example, G-proteins, arrestins, represents a challenge which promises to revolutionize gut hormone endocrinonology.

  20. Plant Biology. Hormones and the green revolution.

    PubMed

    Salamini, Francesco

    2003-10-03

    The success of the green revolution largely resulted from the creation of dwarf cultivars of wheat and rice, which had much higher yields than conventional crops. Characterization of these dwarf cultivars showed that the mutant genes were involved in either the synthesis or signaling of gibberellin, a plant growth hormone. In his Perspective, Salamini highlights new work (Multani et al.) that identifies the cause of dwarfism in agronomically important varieties of maize and sorghum. In these cases, dwarfism is caused by defective transport of another growth hormone called auxin.

  1. Oral manifestations in growth hormone disorders

    PubMed Central

    Atreja, Gaurav; Atreja, Shikha Handa; Jain, Nitul; Sukhija, Urvashi

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone is of vital importance for normal growth and development. Individuals with growth hormone deficiency develop pituitary dwarfism with disproportionate delayed growth of skull and facial skeleton giving them a small facial appearance for their age. Both hyper and hypopituitarism have a marked effect on development of oro-facial structures including eruption and shedding patterns of teeth, thus giving an opportunity to treating dental professionals to first see the signs and symptoms of these growth disorders and correctly diagnose the serious underlying disease. PMID:22629503

  2. Hypopituitarism: growth hormone and corticotropin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Capatina, Cristina; Wass, John A H

    2015-03-01

    This article presents an overview of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) and corticotropin deficiency (central adrenal failure, CAI). Both conditions can result from various ailments affecting the hypothalamus or pituitary gland (most frequently a tumor in the area or its treatment). Clinical manifestations are subtle in AGHD but potentially life-threatening in CAI. The diagnosis needs dynamic testing in most cases. Treatment of AGHD is recommended in patients with documented severe deficiency, and treatment of CAI is mandatory in all cases. Despite significant progress in replacement hormonal therapy, more physiologic treatments and more reliable indicators of treatment adequacy are still needed.

  3. Receptors for parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide: from molecular cloning to definition of diseases.

    PubMed

    Jüppner, H; Schipani, E

    1996-07-01

    The parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor belongs to a distinct family of G protein-coupled receptors, the members of which usually signal through at least two second messenger systems, adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C. The parathyroid hormone/ parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor is most abundantly expressed in bone, kidney and growth-plate chondrocytes, and, at lower levels, in a variety of fetal and adult tissues. To search for human diseases that are caused by parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor defects, genomic DNA of patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib and of patients with Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia was screened for mutations in all coding exons of the receptor gene. Inactivating parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor mutations were excluded in patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib. However, a receptor mutation that causes agonist-independent, constitutive cAMP accumulation was identified in a patient with Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, a rare form of short-limbed dwarfism associated with hypercalcemia despite normal or low concentrations of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide. These findings allow the conclusion to be drawn that parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptors mediate the endocrine actions of parathyroid hormone, which are required for the control of calcium homeostasis and the autocrine-paracrine actions of parathyroid hormone-related peptide, which are required for normal growth-plate development.

  4. Insulin sensitivity and counter-regulatory hormones in hypothyroidism and during thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Stanická, Sona; Vondra, Karel; Pelikánová, Terezie; Vlcek, Petr; Hill, Martin; Zamrazil, Václav

    2005-01-01

    We examined insulin sensitivity and secretion, together with the levels of selected glucoregulatory hormones, in 15 female patients with severe hypothyroidism (H) and during subsequent thyroid hormone replacement therapy (HRT) using the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique. Insulin action, as evaluated by glucose disposal, the insulin sensitivity index, and fasting post-hepatic insulin delivery rate were established. The basal levels of insulin, C-peptide and counter-regulatory hormones were measured in basal condition. In H, glucose disposal (p<0.01), the insulin sensitivity index (p<0.01) and post-hepatic insulin delivery rate (p<0.05) were significantly lower than during HRT. No significant changes in the levels of fasting insulin and C-peptide were observed. The levels of counter-regulatory hormones in patients with H were significantly higher than during HRT (glucagon, p<0.05; epinephrine, p<0.01; cortisol, p<0.05; growth hormone, p<0.05). In H, an inverse correlation between insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion was observed (p<0.05). Cortisol was the most important factor affecting the variability of insulin sensitivity values, regardless of thyroid function (p=0.0012). In conclusion, H altered both insulin sensitivity and the levels of selected counter-regulatory hormones. The situation was restored by HRT, as manifested not only by normalisation of insulin sensitivity, secretion and levels of glucoregulatory hormones, but also by improvement of their relationships.

  5. Sex, hormones and neurogenesis in the hippocampus: hormonal modulation of neurogenesis and potential functional implications.

    PubMed

    Galea, L A M; Wainwright, S R; Roes, M M; Duarte-Guterman, P; Chow, C; Hamson, D K

    2013-11-01

    The hippocampus is an area of the brain that undergoes dramatic plasticity in response to experience and hormone exposure. The hippocampus retains the ability to produce new neurones in most mammalian species and is a structure that is targeted in a number of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, many of which are influenced by both sex and sex hormone exposure. Intriguingly, gonadal and adrenal hormones affect the structure and function of the hippocampus differently in males and females. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is regulated by both gonadal and adrenal hormones in a sex- and experience-dependent way. Sex differences in the effects of steroid hormones to modulate hippocampal plasticity should not be completely unexpected because the physiology of males and females is different, with the most notable difference being that females gestate and nurse the offspring. Furthermore, reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy and mothering) results in permanent changes to the maternal brain, including the hippocampus. This review outlines the ability of gonadal and stress hormones to modulate multiple aspects of neurogenesis (cell proliferation and cell survival) in both male and female rodents. The function of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is linked to spatial memory and depression, and the present review provides early evidence of the functional links between the hormonal modulation of neurogenesis that may contribute to the regulation of cognition and stress. © 2013 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  6. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Okinaga, Hiroko; Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Tomoki

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. {yields} Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. {yields} Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor {alpha}, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  7. Steroid Sex Hormones, Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin, and Diabetes Incidence in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Mather, K J; Kim, C; Christophi, C A; Aroda, V R; Knowler, W C; Edelstein, S E; Florez, J C; Labrie, F; Kahn, S E; Goldberg, R B; Barrett-Connor, E

    2015-10-01

    Steroid sex hormones and SHBG may modify metabolism and diabetes risk, with implications for sex-specific diabetes risk and effects of prevention interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships of steroid sex hormones, SHBG and SHBG single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with diabetes risk factors and with progression to diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized clinical trial involving 27 U.S. academic institutions. The study included 2898 DPP participants: 969 men, 948 premenopausal women not taking exogenous sex hormones, 550 postmenopausal women not taking exogenous sex hormones, and 431 postmenopausal women taking exogenous sex hormones. Participants were randomized to receive intensive lifestyle intervention, metformin, or placebo. Associations of steroid sex hormones, SHBG, and SHBG SNPs with glycemia and diabetes risk factors, and with incident diabetes over median 3.0 years (maximum, 5.0 y). T and DHT were inversely associated with fasting glucose in men, and estrone sulfate was directly associated with 2-hour post-challenge glucose in men and premenopausal women. SHBG was associated with fasting glucose in premenopausal women not taking exogenous sex hormones, and in postmenopausal women taking exogenous sex hormones, but not in the other groups. Diabetes incidence was directly associated with estrone and estradiol and inversely with T in men; the association with T was lost after adjustment for waist circumference. Sex steroids were not associated with diabetes outcomes in women. SHBG and SHBG SNPs did not predict incident diabetes in the DPP population. Estrogens and T predicted diabetes risk in men but not in women. SHBG and its polymorphisms did not predict risk in men or women. Diabetes risk is more potently determined by obesity and glycemia than by sex hormones.

  8. Female sexual dysfunction and hormonal status in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Giuseppe; Celso, Maria; Bartelli, Mario; Cilotti, Antonio; Del Popolo, Giulio

    2011-04-01

    Literature holds no information on a correlation between blood hormonal levels, in particular sex hormones and the sexual response of women with multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate a possible correlation between hormonal status and the sexual response of females with MS. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was used to determine sexual dysfunctions (SDs). Methods for measuring blood hormones were chemiluminescence immunoassay, electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, enzyme immunoassay, and radioimmunoassay. During the screening phase, 55 women of reproductive age were recruited and completed the FSFI. In the first phase of the study females underwent a hematic hormonal evaluation on the third day of their menstrual cycle. Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), androstenedione, 17[alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone, total and free testosterone, 17 beta estradiol, inhibin and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and thyroid hormones (fT3 and fT4) were checked. On the day 20-21 into their menstrual cycle the progesterone hematic value was noted. Patients with amenorrhea had all hormones tested once with a random blood drawing. After a 3-month period patients began phase 2, completing the FSFI again. The same blood hormones were investigated. Fifty-four females completed the study. Thirty-one continued to manifest at least one SD: desire (57.4%) was the most common. Overall, 36.4% showed abnormal hormonal alterations. The most frequent was 40% for 17 beta-estradiol. None of the FSFI domains, including the total score, revealed any statistically significant correlation to the hormones investigated. No statistically significant clinical predictive factors for blood hormone abnormalities were detected; comparing females with and without SD, P = 0.250 using chi-squared test was reached. Notable percentages of blood hormonal

  9. Thyroid hormone transporters in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jurgen; Friesema, Edith C H; Milici, Carmelina; Visser, Theo J

    2005-08-01

    Cellular entry is required for conversion of thyroid hormone by the intracellular deiodinases and for binding of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T(3)) to its nuclear receptors. Recently, several transporters capable of thyroid hormone transport have been identified. Functional expression studies using Xenopus laevis oocytes have demonstrated that organic anion transporters (e.g., OATPs), and L-type amino acid transporters (LATs) facilitate thyroid hormone uptake. Among these, OATP1C1 has a high affinity and specificity for thyroxine (T(4)). OATP1C1 is expressed in capillaries throughout the brain, suggesting it is critical for transport of T(4) over the blood-brain barrier. We have also characterized a member of the monocarboxylate transporter family, MCT8, as a very active and specific thyroid hormone transporter. Human MCT8 shows preference for T(3) as the ligand. MCT8 is highly expressed in liver and brain but is also widely distributed in other tissues. The MCT8 gene is located on the X chromosome. Recently, mutations in MCT8 have been found to be associated with severe X-linked psychomotor retardation and strongly elevated serum T(3) levels.

  10. A short history of hormone measurement.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Huge changes have occurred in the measurement of hormones over the last 50 years or so. Methods have become simplified, sensitivity has increased manyfold, and automation has allowed the analysis of large number of specimens in a single day. The most significant steps in the history of hormone measurement were the development of radioimmunoassay and later the production of monoclonal antibodies. There has also been increased commercialization, the technique has been applied to an ever-increasing range of substances, and radioactive measurement has been replaced with colorimetric, fluorescent, and chemiluminescent end-points. However, all these changes have not been without their problems. Collaboration between laboratories has seen standardization of reagents and methods, the development of reference methods, and the setting up of external quality assurance schemes. All these have led to improved sensitivity, precision, and reliability. More recently tandem mass spectrometry has brought further improvements in the measurement of certain hormones. Although many hormones are now measured by automated systems there is still a place for manual assays whether developed in-house or by using a commercial kit.

  11. Prolactin and growth hormone in fish osmoregulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sakamoto, T.; McCormick, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    Prolactin is an important regulator of multiple biological functions in vertebrates, and has been viewed as essential to ion uptake as well as reduction in ion and water permeability of osmoregulatory surfaces in freshwater and euryhaline fish. Prolactin-releasing peptide seems to stimulate prolactin expression in the pituitary and peripheral organs during freshwater adaptation. Growth hormone, a member of the same family of hormones as prolactin, promotes acclimation to seawater in several teleost fish, at least in part through the action of insulin-like growth factor I. In branchial epithelia, development and differentiation of the seawater-type chloride cell (and their underlying biochemistry) is regulated by GH, IGF-I, and cortisol, whereas the freshwater-type chloride cell is regulated by prolactin and cortisol. In the epithelia of gastrointestinal tract, prolactin induces cell proliferation during freshwater adaptation, whereas cortisol stimulates both cell proliferation and apoptosis. We propose that control of salinity acclimation in teleosts by prolactin and growth hormone primarily involves regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation (the latter including upregulation of specific ion transporters), and that there is an important interaction of these hormones with corticosteroids. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmaceuticals and Hormones in the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some of the earliest initial reports from Europe and the United States demonstrated that a variety of pharmaceuticals and hormones could be found in surface waters, source waters, drinking water, and influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It is unknown...

  13. Hormones, Nicotine and Cocaine: Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Nancy K.

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine and cocaine each stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axis hormones, and there is increasing evidence that the hormonal milieu may modulate the abuse-related effects of these drugs. This review summarizes some clinical studies of the acute effects of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine on plasma drug and hormone levels, and subjective effects ratings. The temporal covariance between these dependent measures was assessed with a rapid (two min) sampling procedure in nicotine-dependent volunteers or current cocaine users. Cigarette smoking and IV cocaine each stimulated a rapid increase in LH and ACTH, followed by gradual increases in cortisol and DHEA. Positive subjective effects ratings increased immediately after initiation of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine administration. However, in contrast to cocaine’s sustained positive effects (< 20 min), ratings of “High” and “Rush” began to decrease within one or two puffs of a high nicotine cigarette while nicotine levels were increasing. Peak nicotine levels increased progressively after each of three successive cigarettes smoked at 60 min intervals, but the magnitude of the subjective effects ratings and peak ACTH and cortisol levels diminished. Only DHEA increased consistently after successive cigarettes. The possible influence of neuroactive hormones on nicotine dependence and cocaine abuse, and implications for treatment of these addictive disorders is discussed. PMID:19835877

  14. Melatonin hormone profile in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Awad, Hosni; Halawa, Fawzy; Mostafa, Taymour; Atta, Hazem

    2006-06-01

    Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland. There is much controversy about its relationship to the male reproductive process. In this study, seminal plasma as well as the serum melatonin levels were studied in different infertile male groups and were correlated with their semen parameters and hormonal levels. One hundred twenty male cases subdivided into six equal groups were consecutively included; fertile normozoospermic men, oligoasthenozoospermia (OA), OA with leucocytospermia, OA with varicocele, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) with high serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and NOA with normal FSH. Semen analysis, estimation of melatonin, FSH, testosterone (T) and prolactin (PRL) hormone was carried out. Mean level of serum melatonin was higher than its corresponding seminal concentrations in all investigated groups with a positive correlation between their levels (r = 0.532, p = 0.01). Serum and seminal plasma melatonin levels in all infertile groups were reduced significantly compared with their levels in the fertile group. The lowest concentrations were in OA with leucocytospermia group. Melatonin in both serum and semen demonstrated significant correlation with sperm motility (r = 607, 0.623 respectively, p = 0.01). Serum melatonin correlated positively with serum PRL (r = 0.611, p = 0.01). It may be concluded that melatonin may be involved in the modulation of reproductive neuroendocrine axis in male infertility. Also, low levels of melatonin in semen were observed in infertile groups having reduced sperm motility, leucocytospermia, varicocele and NOA.

  15. Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Danzi, S; Klein, I

    2004-09-01

    Thyroid hormone is an important regulator of cardiac function and cardiovascular hemodynamics. Triiodothyronine, (T(3)), the physiologically active form of thyroid hormone, binds to nuclear receptor proteins and mediates the expression of several important cardiac genes, inducing transcription of the positively regulated genes including alpha-myosin heavy chain (MHC) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase. Negatively regulated genes include beta-MHC and phospholamban, which are down regulated in the presence of normal serum levels of thyroid hormone. T(3) mediated effects on the systemic vasculature include relaxation of vascular smooth muscle resulting in decreased arterial resistance and diastolic blood pressure. In hyperthyroidism, cardiac contractility and cardiac output are enhanced and systemic vascular resistance is decreased, while in hypothyroidism, the opposite is true. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism manifest many of the same cardiovascular changes, but to a lesser degree than that which occurs in overt hypothyroidism. Cardiac disease states are sometimes associated with the low T(3) syndrome. The phenotype of the failing heart resembles that of the hypothyroid heart, both in cardiac physiology and in gene expression. Changes in serum T(3) levels in patients with chronic congestive heart failure are caused by alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism suggesting that patients may benefit from T(3) replacement in this setting.

  16. Growth Hormone Deficiency, Brain Development, and Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Available from: American Medical Association, 535 N. Dearborn Street, Chicago, Illinois 60610. In order to determine what effect, if any, growth hormone (GH) has on human brain development, 29 patients (mean age 11.7 years) with GH deficiency were selected according to the following criteria: no evidence of reversible GH deficiency, onset of…

  17. Lymphocyte GH-axis hormones in immunity.

    PubMed

    Weigent, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    The production and utilization of common ligands and their receptors by cells of the immune and neuroendocrine systems constitutes a biochemical information circuit between and within the immune and neuroendocrine systems. The sharing of ligands and receptors allows the immune system to serve as the sixth sense notifying the nervous system of the presence of foreign entities. Within this framework, it is also clear that immune cell functions can be altered by neuroendocrine hormones and that cells of the immune system have the ability to produce neuroendocrine hormones. This review summarizes a part of this knowledge with particular emphasis on growth hormone (GH). The past two decades have uncovered a lot of detail about the actions of GH, acting through its receptor, at the molecular and cellular level and its influence on the immune system. The production and action of immune cell-derived GH is less well developed although its important role in immunity is also slowly emerging. Here we discuss the production of GH, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and their cognate receptors on cells of the immune system and their influence via endocrine/autocrine/paracrine and intracrine pathways on immune function. The intracellular mechanisms of action of immune cell-derived GH are still largely unexplored, and it is anticipated that further work in this particular area will establish an important role for this source of GH in normal physiology and in pathologic situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Growth Hormone: The Latest Ergogenic Aid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Virginia S.

    1988-01-01

    Believing that synthetic human growth hormone (hGH) will lead to athletic prowess and fortune, some parents and young athletes wish to use the drug to enhance sports performance. Should hGH become widely available, its abuse could present many problems, from potential health risks to the ethics of drug-enhanced athletic performance. (JL)

  19. Hormonal changes around the parturition in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Suzuki, H; Hattori, Y; Noda, K

    1981-09-01

    Concentrations of serum oxytocin, cortisol, progesterone and estradiol in pregnant rats were assayed by radioimmunoassay methods. The levels of these hormones increased in pregnancy. Around the parturition, oxytocin or estradiol did not show any change, cortisol increased, and progesterone decreased prominently. The trigger of initiation of labor was discussed.

  20. THYROID HORMONE DISRUPTION: FROM KINETICS TO DYNAMICS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are chemicals that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormones (THs), or change circulating or t...

  1. Hormones, nicotine, and cocaine: clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Mello, Nancy K

    2010-06-01

    Nicotine and cocaine each stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axis hormones, and there is increasing evidence that the hormonal milieu may modulate the abuse-related effects of these drugs. This review summarizes some clinical studies of the acute effects of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine on plasma drug and hormone levels and subjective effects ratings. The temporal covariance between these dependent measures was assessed with a rapid (2 min) sampling procedure in nicotine-dependent volunteers or current cocaine users. Cigarette smoking and IV cocaine each stimulated a rapid increase in LH and ACTH, followed by gradual increases in cortisol and DHEA. Positive subjective effects ratings increased immediately after initiation of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine administration. However, in contrast to cocaine's sustained positive effects (<20 min), ratings of "high" and "rush" began to decrease within one or two puffs of a high-nicotine cigarette while nicotine levels were increasing. Peak nicotine levels increased progressively after each of three successive cigarettes smoked at 60 min intervals, but the magnitude of the subjective effects ratings and peak ACTH and cortisol levels diminished. Only DHEA increased consistently after successive cigarettes. The possible influence of neuroactive hormones on nicotine dependence and cocaine abuse and the implications for treatment of these addictive disorders are discussed.

  2. Growth hormone: health considerations beyond height gain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The therapeutic benefit of growth hormone (GH) therapy in improving height in short children is widely recognized; however, GH therapy is associated with other metabolic actions that may be of benefit in these children. Beneficial effects of GH on body composition have been documented in several dif...

  3. Hormones and tendinopathies: the current evidence.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Francesco; Piccirilli, Eleonora; Berardi, Anna C; Frizziero, Antonio; Tarantino, Umberto; Maffulli, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Tendinopathies negatively affect the quality of life of millions of people, but we still do not know the factors involved in the development of tendon conditions. Published articles in English in PubMed and Google Scholar up to June 2015 about hormonal influence on tendinopathies onset. One hundred and two papers were included following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. In vitro and in vivo, tenocytes showed changes in their morphology and in their functional properties according to hormonal imbalances. Genetic pattern, sex, age and comorbidities can influence the hormonal effect on tendons. The increasing prevalence of metabolic disorders prompts to investigate the possible connection between metabolic problems and musculoskeletal diseases. The influence of hormones on tendon structure and metabolism needs to be further investigated. If found to be significant, multidisciplinary preventive and therapeutic strategies should then be developed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Sex hormones and the elderly male voice.

    PubMed

    Gugatschka, Markus; Kiesler, Karl; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Schoekler, Bernadette; Schmid, Christoph; Groselj-Strele, Andrea; Friedrich, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    The objective was to describe influences of sex hormones on the male voice in an elderly cohort. Sixty-three elderly males were recruited to undergo assessment of voice parameters, stroboscopy, voice-related questionnaires, a blood draw, and an ultrasound examination of the laryngeal skeleton. The group was divided into men with normal hormonal status and men with lowered levels of sex hormones, called hypogonades. Depending on the level of androgens, voice parameters did not differ. In subjects with decreased levels of estrogens, a significant increase in mean fundamental frequency, as well as changes of highest and lowest frequency plus a shift of the frequency range could be detected. We could detect significant changes of voice parameters depending on status of estrogens in elderly males. Androgens appear to have no impact on the elderly male voice. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study that correlates sex hormones with voice parameters in elderly men. (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. THYROID HORMONE DISRUPTION: FROM KINETICS TO DYNAMICS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are chemicals that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormones (THs), or change circulating or t...

  6. How Early Hormones Shape Gender Development

    PubMed Central

    Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Beltz, Adriene M.

    2015-01-01

    Many important psychological characteristics show sex differences, and are influenced by sex hormones at different developmental periods. We focus on the role of sex hormones in early development, particularly the differential effects of prenatal androgens on aspects of gender development. Increasing evidence confirms that prenatal androgens have facilitative effects on male-typed activity interests and engagement (including child toy preferences and adult careers), and spatial abilities, but relatively minimal effects on gender identity. Recent emphasis has been directed to the psychological mechanisms underlying these effects (including sex differences in propulsive movement, and androgen effects on interest in people versus things), and neural substrates of androgen effects (including regional brain volumes, and neural responses to mental rotation, sexually arousing stimuli, emotion, and reward). Ongoing and planned work is focused on understanding the ways in which hormones act jointly with the social environment across time to produce varying trajectories of gender development, and clarifying mechanisms by which androgens affect behaviors. Such work will be facilitated by applying lessons from other species, and by expanding methodology. Understanding hormonal influences on gender development enhances knowledge of psychological development generally, and has important implications for basic and applied questions, including sex differences in psychopathology, women’s underrepresentation in science and math, and clinical care of individuals with variations in gender expression. PMID:26688827

  7. Growth Hormone Deficiency, Brain Development, and Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Available from: American Medical Association, 535 N. Dearborn Street, Chicago, Illinois 60610. In order to determine what effect, if any, growth hormone (GH) has on human brain development, 29 patients (mean age 11.7 years) with GH deficiency were selected according to the following criteria: no evidence of reversible GH deficiency, onset of…

  8. [Hormone replacement therapy: curse or blessing?].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Fink, D; Lang, U; Kimmig, R

    2006-01-01

    There is a controversial discussion on the risks and benefits of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), and many women and doctors have revised their opinions of HRT over the last few years. Complementary and alternative therapies can be considered an option to treat menopausal symptoms. The following issue summarizes the actual knowledge of treatment options of menopausal symptoms.

  9. Hormone Metabolism During Potato Tuber Dormancy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    At harvest and for an indeterminate period thereafter potato tubers will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. The length of tuber dormancy is dependent on cultivar and pre- and postharvest environmental conditions. Plant hormones have been shown to be involved in all phases of dormancy prog...

  10. Plant Hormones: How They Affect Root Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhard, Diana Hereda

    This science study aid, produced by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, includes a series of plant rooting activities for secondary science classes. The material in the pamphlet is written for students and includes background information on plant hormones, a vocabulary list, and five learning activities. Objectives, needed materials, and…

  11. Fate and transport of reproductive hormone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An invited overview of the NSF funded projects 0730492 "Effects of Animal Manure Storage and Disposal on the Fate and Transport of Manure-Borne Hormones," and 0244169 "Fate and Transport of an Endocrine Disruptor in Soil-Water Systems." We will highlight the Research and Educational contributions by...

  12. Pharmaceuticals and Hormones in the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some of the earliest initial reports from Europe and the United States demonstrated that a variety of pharmaceuticals and hormones could be found in surface waters, source waters, drinking water, and influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It is unknown...

  13. Search for novel therapies for triple negative breast cancers (TNBC): analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH).

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Stefan; Seitz, Stephan; Engel, Jörg B; Montero, Alberto; Ortmann, Olaf; Perez, Roberto; Block, Norman L; Schally, Andrew V

    2012-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype that is clinically negative for the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Patients with TNBC have a worse clinical outcome, as measured by time to metastasis and median overall survival. Chemotherapy has been the mainstay of treatment of TNBC but responses are disappointing. A substantial proportion of TNBC expresses luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), receptors for LHRH, in addition to receptors for growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). These receptors represent potential therapeutic targets. Potent antagonists of GHRH and LHRH receptors have been developed in recent years and these antagonists inhibit the growth, tumorigenicity and metastatic potential of various human experimental malignancies. These antagonists could be utilized for the treatment of TNBC. The targeted cytotoxic analog of LHRH, AN-152 (AEZS-108) containing doxorubicin, must also be strongly considered for therapy of TNBC. Experimental studies suggest the merit of clinical trials with LHRH antagonists and AEZS-108 in TNBC patients.

  14. Plant hormones and ecophysiology of conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, W.J.

    1995-07-01

    Over the past 30 years, there have been very substantial fluctuations in the interests of plant scientists in the involvement of plant growth regulators in the control of physiology, growth, and development of plants. In the years following the identification of the five major classes of growth regulators and identification of other groups of compounds of somewhat more restricted interest, an enormous number of papers reported the effects of hormones applied externally to a very wide range of plants. During this period, it became very fashionable to compare effects of hormones with the effects of the environment on developmental and physiological phenomena and to suggest a regulatory role for the hormone(s) in the processes under consideration. Ross et al. (1983) have published a very comprehensive survey of the effects of growth regulators applied externally to conifers, and even 10 years later, it is difficult to improve on what they have done. Nevertheless, in the light of recent changes in our understanding of how growth regulators may work, it is necessary to reexamine this field and ask what we really know about the involvement of growth regulators in the ecophysiology of conifers.

  15. Human Growth Hormone: The Latest Ergogenic Aid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Virginia S.

    1988-01-01

    Believing that synthetic human growth hormone (hGH) will lead to athletic prowess and fortune, some parents and young athletes wish to use the drug to enhance sports performance. Should hGH become widely available, its abuse could present many problems, from potential health risks to the ethics of drug-enhanced athletic performance. (JL)

  16. Preventing Growth Hormone Abuse: An Emerging Health Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, George L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Facts about growth hormone abuse should be incorporated into substance abuse components of health education curriculums. Sources, uses, and dangers associated with human growth hormones are discussed. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  17. Information for People Treated with Human Growth Hormone (Summary)

    MedlinePlus

    ... hGH in other countries also got CJD: In France, 120 people got CJD out of 1,700 ... not identical to hormone distributed by the NHPP. France, Britain, and Holland produced their own hormone. The ...

  18. Effects of phenobarbital on thyroid hormone contabolism in rat hepatocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hepatic enzyme inducers such as phenobarbital (PB) decrease circulating thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in rodents. PB induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes increases thyroid hormones catabolism and biliary elimination. This study examines the catabolism and cl...

  19. Hormonal and histologic findings in human cryopreserved ovarian autografts.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Ralf; Mueller, Andreas; Maltaris, Theodoros; Hoffmann, Inge; Magener, Achim; Oppelt, Patricia G; Beckmann, Matthias W

    2009-04-01

    This is the first report showing a hormonal and histologic discrepancy in cryopreserved human ovarian tissue 11 months after orthotopic autotransplantation. The presence of antral follicles was observed although the hormonal values had returned to castrated levels.

  20. Hormone Therapy Not Advised for Preventing Disease After Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165628.html Hormone Therapy Not Advised for Preventing Disease After Menopause Benefits ... 2017 TUESDAY, May 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Using hormone therapy to prevent chronic health issues, such as heart ...