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Sample records for adipokinetic hormones akhs

  1. Energy Homeostasis Control in Drosophila Adipokinetic Hormone Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Gáliková, Martina; Diesner, Max; Klepsatel, Peter; Hehlert, Philip; Xu, Yanjun; Bickmeyer, Iris; Predel, Reinhard; Kühnlein, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of biological functions under negative energy balance depends on mobilization of storage lipids and carbohydrates in animals. In mammals, glucagon and glucocorticoid signaling mobilizes energy reserves, whereas adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) play a homologous role in insects. Numerous studies based on AKH injections and correlative studies in a broad range of insect species established the view that AKH acts as master regulator of energy mobilization during development, reproduction, and stress. In contrast to AKH, the second peptide, which is processed from the Akh encoded prohormone [termed “adipokinetic hormone precursor-related peptide” (APRP)] is functionally orphan. APRP is discussed as ecdysiotropic hormone or as scaffold peptide during AKH prohormone processing. However, as in the case of AKH, final evidence for APRP functions requires genetic mutant analysis. Here we employed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering to create AKH and AKH plus APRP-specific mutants in the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Lack of APRP did not affect any of the tested steroid-dependent processes. Similarly, Drosophila AKH signaling is dispensable for ontogenesis, locomotion, oogenesis, and homeostasis of lipid or carbohydrate storage until up to the end of metamorphosis. During adulthood, however, AKH regulates body fat content and the hemolymph sugar level as well as nutritional and oxidative stress responses. Finally, we provide evidence for a negative autoregulatory loop in Akh gene regulation. PMID:26275422

  2. The adipokinetic hormone of Mantodea in comparison to other Dictyoptera.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Marco, Heather G

    2017-03-01

    Six species of the order Mantodea (praying mantises) are investigated for the presence and sequence of putative adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). The selected species span a wide evolutionary range of various families and subfamilies of the clade Mantodea. The corpora cardiaca of the different species are dissected, methanolic extracts prepared, peptides separated by liquid chromatography, and AKHs detected and sequenced by ion trap mass spectrometry. All six species investigated contain an octapeptide with the primary structure pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide, which is code-named Emppe-AKH and had been found earlier in three other species of Mantodea. Conspecific bioassays with the species Creoboter sp. (family Hymenopodidae) reveal an adipokinetic but not a hypertrehalosemic function of Emppe-AKH. Comparison with other members of the Dictyoptera (cockroaches, termites) show that Emppe-AKH is only found in certain termites, which have been recently placed into the Blattaria (cockroaches) as sister group to the family Cryptocercidae. Termites and cockroaches both show biodiversity in the sequence of AKHs, and some cockroach species even contain two AKHs. In contrast, all praying mantises-irrespective of their phylogenetic position-synthesize uniformly only one and the same octapeptide Emppe-AKH.

  3. The adipokinetic hormone family in Chrysomeloidea: structural and functional considerations *

    PubMed Central

    Gäde, Gerd; Marco, Heather G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The presented work is a hybrid of an overview and an original research paper on peptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family that are present in the corpora cardiaca of Chrysomeloidea. First, we introduce the AKH/red pigment-concentrating hormone (RPCH) peptide family. Second, we collate the available primary sequence data on AKH peptides in Cerambycidae and Chrysomelidae, and we present new sequencing data (from previously unstudied species) obtained by liquid-chromatography coupled with ion trap electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Our expanded data set encompasses the primary structure of AKHs from seven species of Cerambycidae and three species of Chrysomelidae. All of these species synthesise the octapeptide code-named Peram-CAH-I (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). Whereas this is the sole AKH peptide in Cerambycidae, Chrysomelidae demonstrate a probable event of AKH gene duplication, thereby giving rise to an additional AKH. This second AKH peptide may be either Emppe-AKH (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide) or Peram-CAH-II (pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). The peptide distribution and structural data suggest that both families are closely related and that Peram-CAH-I is the ancestral peptide. We hypothesise on the molecular evolution of Emppe-AKH and Peram-CAH-II from the ancestral peptide due to nonsynonymous missense single nucleotide polymorphism in the nucleotide coding sequence of prepro-AKH. Finally, we review the biological significance of the AKH peptides as hyperprolinaemic hormones in Chrysomeloidea, i.e. they cause an increase in the circulating concentration of proline. The mobilisation of proline has been demonstrated during flight in both cerambycid and chrysomelid beetles. PMID:22303105

  4. Structure-activity relationship of adipokinetic hormone analogs in the striped hawk moth, Hippotion eson.

    PubMed

    Marco, Heather G; Gäde, Gerd

    2015-06-01

    We showed previously that the sphingid moth Hippotion eson synthesizes the highest number of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) ever recorded, viz. five, in its corpus cardiacum: two octa-, two nona- and one decapeptide. Further, the endogenous decapeptide (Manse-AKH-II) and the other four AKHs are all active in lipid mobilization, whereas a non-lepidopteran decapeptide (Lacsp-AKH, five amino acid substitutions compared with Manse-AKH-II), was inactive in H. eson. We tested the decapeptide, Lacol-AKH, from a noctuid moth for the first time in a bioassay and it shows a maximal AKH effect in H. eson. Lacol-AKH differs from Manse-AKH-II in three places and from Lacsp-AKH in four places. We, thus, used Lacol-AKH as a lead peptide on which a series of AKH analogs are based to represent: (a) single amino acid replacements (according to the substitutions in Lacsp-AKH), (b) shorter chain lengths, (c) modified termini, and (d) a replacement of Trp in position 8. These analogs, as well as a few naturally occurring AKHs from other lepidopterans were tested in in vivo adipokinetic assays to gain insight into the ligand-receptor interaction in H. eson. Our results show that the second and third amino acids are important for biological activity in the sphingid moth. Analogs with an N-[acetylated]Glu(1) (instead of a pyroGlu), or a free C-terminus, or Ala(8) were not active in the bioassays, while shortened Lacol-AKH analogs and the undecapeptide, non-amidated Vanca-AKH showed very reduced activity (below 25%). This information is important for the consideration of peptide mimetics to combat specific lepidopteran pest insects.

  5. The revolution in insect neuropeptides illustrated by the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family of peptides.

    PubMed

    Gäde, G

    1996-01-01

    The last decade has seen a surge in the knowledge on primary structures of insect neuropeptides. Particularly successful were isolations and sequence determinations of more than 30 members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone (AKH/RPCH) family of peptides. This brief overview describes the techniques used to obtain data on purification and structure such as high performance liquid chromatography, Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry. Moreover, a short account on the precursors and on the multiple functions of the peptides of the AKH/RPCH family in various crustacean and insect species is given.

  6. Localization and functional characterization of a novel adipokinetic hormone in the mollusk, Aplysia californica.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joshua I; Kavanaugh, Scott I; Nguyen, Cindy; Tsai, Pei-San

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), corazonin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), and red pigment-concentrating hormone all share common ancestry to form a GnRH superfamily. Despite the wide presence of these peptides in protostomes, their biological effects remain poorly characterized in many taxa. This study had three goals. First, we cloned the full-length sequence of a novel AKH, termed Aplysia-AKH, and examined its distribution in an opisthobranch mollusk, Aplysia californica. Second, we investigated in vivo biological effects of Aplysia-AKH. Lastly, we compared the effects of Aplysia-AKH to a related A. californica peptide, Aplysia-GnRH. Results suggest that Aplysia-AKH mRNA and peptide are localized exclusively in central tissues, with abdominal, cerebral, and pleural ganglia being the primary sites of Aplysia-AKH production. However, Aplysia-AKH-positive fibers were found in all central ganglia, suggesting diverse neuromodulatory roles. Injections of A. californica with Aplysia-AKH significantly inhibited feeding, reduced body mass, increased excretion of feces, and reduced gonadal mass and oocyte diameter. The in vivo effects of Aplysia-AKH differed substantially from Aplysia-GnRH. Overall, the distribution and biological effects of Aplysia-AKH suggest it has diverged functionally from Aplysia-GnRH over the course of evolution. Further, that both Aplysia-AKH and Aplysia-GnRH failed to activate reproduction suggest the critical role of GnRH as a reproductive activator may be a phenomenon unique to vertebrates.

  7. Novel members of the adipokinetic hormone family in beetles of the superfamily Scarabaeoidea.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Šimek, Petr; Marco, Heather G

    2016-12-01

    Eight beetle species of the superfamily Scarabaeoidea were investigated with respect to peptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family in their neurohemal organs, the corpora cardiaca (CC). The following beetle families are represented: Scarabaeidae, Lucanidae, and Geotrupidae. AKH peptides were identified through a heterospecific trehalose-mobilizing bioassay and by sequence analyses, using liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and analysis of the tandem MS(2) spectra obtained by collision-induced dissociation. All the beetle species have octapeptide AKHs; some have two AKHs, while others have only one. Novel AKH members were found in Euoniticellus intermedius and Circellium bacchus (family Scarabaeidae), as well as in Dorcus parallelipipedus (family Lucanidae). Two species of the family Geotrupidae and two species of the Scarabaeidae subfamily Cetoniinae contain one known AKH peptide, Melme-CC, while E. intermedius produces a novel peptide code named Euoin-AKH: pEINFTTGWamide. Two AKH peptides were each identified in CC of C. bacchus and D. parallelipipedus: the novel Cirba-AKH: pEFNFSAGWamide and the known peptide, Scade-CC-I in the former, and the novel Dorpa-AKH: pEVNYSPVW amide and the known peptide, Melme-CC in the latter. Kheper bonelli (subfamily Scarabaeinae) also has two AKHs, the known Scade-CC-I and Scade-CC-II. All the novel peptides were synthesized and the amino acid sequence assignments were unequivocally confirmed by co-elution of the synthetic peptides with their natural equivalent, and identical MS parameters of the two forms. The novel synthetic peptides are all active in inducing hypertrehalosemia in cockroaches.

  8. Adipokinetic hormones and their G protein-coupled receptors emerged in Lophotrochozoa

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shizhong; Hauser, Frank; Skadborg, Signe K.; Nielsen, Stine V.; Kirketerp-Møller, Nikolaj; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Most multicellular animals belong to two evolutionary lineages, the Proto– and Deuterostomia, which diverged 640–760 million years (MYR) ago. Neuropeptide signaling is abundant in animals belonging to both lineages, but it is often unclear whether there exist evolutionary relationships between the neuropeptide systems used by proto- or deuterostomes. An exception, however, are members of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor superfamily, which occur in both evolutionary lineages, where GnRHs are the ligands in Deuterostomia and GnRH-like peptides, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), corazonin, and AKH/corazonin-related peptide (ACP) are the ligands in Protostomia. AKH is a well-studied insect neuropeptide that mobilizes lipids and carbohydrates from the insect fat body during flight. In our present paper, we show that AKH is not only widespread in insects, but also in other Ecdysozoa and in Lophotrochozoa. Furthermore, we have cloned and deorphanized two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) from the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca) that are activated by low nanomolar concentrations of oyster AKH (pQVSFSTNWGSamide). Our discovery of functional AKH receptors in molluscs is especially significant, because it traces the emergence of AKH signaling back to about 550 MYR ago and brings us closer to a more complete understanding of the evolutionary origins of the GnRH receptor superfamily. PMID:27628442

  9. Hemolymph sugar homeostasis and starvation-induced hyperactivity affected by genetic manipulations of the adipokinetic hormone-encoding gene in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyunghee; Park, Jae H

    2004-01-01

    Adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) are metabolic neuropeptides, mediating mobilization of energy substrates from the fat body in many insects. In delving into the roles of the Drosophila Akh (dAkh) gene, its developmental expression patterns were examined and the physiological functions of the AKH-producing neurons were investigated using animals devoid of AKH neurons and ones with ectopically expressing dAkh. The dAkh gene is expressed exclusively in the corpora cardiaca from late embryos to adult stages. Projections emanating from the AKH neurons indicated that AKH has multiple target tissues as follows: the prothoracic gland and aorta in the larva and the crop and brain in the adult. Studies using transgenic manipulations of the dAkh gene demonstrated that AKH induced both hypertrehalosemia and hyperlipemia. Starved wild-type flies displayed prolonged hyperactivity prior to death; this novel behavioral pattern could be associated with food-searching activities in response to starvation. In contrast, flies devoid of AKH neurons not only lacked this type of hyperactivity, but also displayed strong resistance to starvation-induced death. From these findings, we propose another role for AKH in the regulation of starvation-induced foraging behavior. PMID:15166157

  10. The adipokinetic hormones of Odonata: a phylogenetic approach.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Marco, Heather G

    2005-03-01

    Adipokinetic neuropeptides from the corpora cardiaca of the major families of all three suborders of the Odonata were identified by one or more of the following methods: (1) Isolation of the peptides from a methanolic extract of the corpora cardiaca by liquid chromatography, peak monitoring by fluorescence of the Trp residue and comparison of the retention time with those of known synthetic peptides of Odonata. (2) Hyperlipaemic bioassays of the HPLC-generated fractions either in Locusta migratoria or, in a few cases, in Anax imperator or Orthetrum julia. (3) Sequencing of the isolated, bioactive HPLAC fraction by Edman degradation. (4) Mass spectrometric measurement of the isolated, bioactive fraction. Sequence assignment revealed that the investigated Odonata species always contain only one adipokinetic peptide. This is always an octapeptide. The suborder Zygoptera contains the peptide code-named Psein-AKH, the Anisozygoptera and the families Aeshnidae, Cordulegastridae and Macromiidae of the Anisoptera contain Anaim-AKH, whereas Gomphidae, Corduliidae (with the exception of Syncordulia gracilis) and Libellulidae contain Libau-AKH; one species of Libellulidae has Erysi-AKH, a very conservative modification of Libau-AKH (one point mutation). When these structural data are interpreted in conjunction with existing phylogenies of Odonata, they support the following: (1) Zygoptera are monophyletic and not paraphyletic. (2) Anisozygoptera and Anisoptera are sister groups and contain the ancestral Anaim-AKH which is independently and convergently mutated to Libau-AKH in Gomphidae and Libellulidae. (3) The Corduliidae are of special interest. Only Corduliidae sensu stricto appear to contain Libau-AKH, other species placed into this family by most authorities contain the ancestral Anaim-AKH. Possibly, assignments of AKHs can untangle the paraphyly of this family.

  11. Discovery of a novel insect neuropeptide signaling system closely related to the insect adipokinetic hormone and corazonin hormonal systems.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Karina K; Stafflinger, Elisabeth; Schneider, Martina; Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael; Kollmann, Martin; Schachtner, Joachim; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2010-04-02

    Neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a central role in the physiology of insects. One large family of insect neuropeptides are the adipokinetic hormones (AKHs), which mobilize lipids and carbohydrates from the insect fat body. Other peptides are the corazonins that are structurally related to the AKHs but represent a different neuropeptide signaling system. We have previously cloned an orphan GPCR from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that was structurally intermediate between the A. gambiae AKH and corazonin GPCRs. Using functional expression of the receptor in cells in cell culture, we have now identified the ligand for this orphan receptor as being pQVTFSRDWNAamide, a neuropeptide that is structurally intermediate between AKH and corazonin and that we therefore named ACP (AKH/corazonin-related peptide). ACP does not activate the A. gambiae AKH and corazonin receptors and, vice versa, AKH and corazonin do not activate the ACP receptor, showing that the ACP/receptor couple is an independent and so far unknown peptidergic signaling system. Because ACP is structurally intermediate between AKH and corazonin and the ACP receptor between the AKH and corazonin receptors, this is a prominent example of receptor/ligand co-evolution, probably originating from receptor and ligand gene duplications followed by mutations and evolutionary selection, thereby yielding three independent hormonal systems. The ACP signaling system occurs in the mosquitoes A. gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens (Diptera), the silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera), and the bug Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera). However, the ACP system is not present in 12 Drosophila species (Diptera), the honeybee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera), the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera), the body louse Pediculus humanus (Phthiraptera), and the crustacean Daphnia pulex

  12. Adipokinetic hormones provide inference for the phylogeny of odonata.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Simek, Petr; Fescemyer, Howard W

    2011-01-01

    Adipokinetic neuropeptides from the corpora cardiaca of 17 species of Odonata encompassing mainly the families Corduliidae and Libellulidae were isolated and structurally elucidated using liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. It became evident that all species of the family Corduliidae studied express the peptide code-named Libau-AKH (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Ser-Trp amide), which is also present in all but one libellulid species, Erythemis simplicicollis which expresses Erysi-AKH (pGlu-Leu-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Ser-Trp amide). This divergence from all other Libellulids is due to a nonsynonymous missense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the nucleotide coding sequence (CDS) of prepro-AKH CDS and supports the polyphyletic nature of Sympetrinae and other subfamilies of libellulids. Despite this exception, these findings then support the hypothesis that Corduliidae and Libellulidae are closely related as stated in most phylogenies. The presence of Anaim-AKH (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Ser-Trp amide) in Macromiidae likely distinguishes species in this family from Corduliidae. Current molecular genetic phylogenies and our AKH findings suggest that Syncordulia gracilis, which expresses Anaim-AKH, does not belong in Corduliidae. Evolution of AKHs in anisopteran Odonata are likely due to nucleotide substitution involving nonsynonymous missense SNPs in the CDS of prepro-AKH.

  13. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Adipokinetic Hormone Signaling Systems Share a Common Evolutionary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Lindemans, Marleen; Janssen, Tom; Beets, Isabel; Temmerman, Liesbet; Meelkop, Ellen; Schoofs, Liliane

    2011-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a critical and central hormone that regulates vertebrate reproduction. The high conservation of GnRH signaling within the chordates (deuterostomians) raises the important question as to whether its appearance might date back prior to the divergence of protostomian and deuterostomian lineages, about 700 million years ago. This leads to several important questions regarding the evolution of the GnRH family. Has GnRH been retained in most protostomian lineages? And was regulation of reproduction already a function of ancestral GnRH? The first question can undoubtedly be answered affirmatively since several GnRH-like sequences have been found in wide variety of protostomian and deuterostomian phyla. However, based on their different primary functions in different phyla – which implies a less unanimous answer on the second question – consistency in the nomenclature of this peptide family has been lost. A comparative and phylogenetic approach shows that the ecdysozoan adipokinetic hormones (AKHs), lophotrochozoan GnRHs and chordate GnRHs are structurally related and suggests that they all originate from a common ancestor. This review supports the view that the AKH–GnRH signaling system probably arose very early in metazoan evolution, prior to the divergence of protostomians and deuterostomians. PMID:22649364

  14. Age-dependent cyclic locomotor activity in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, and the effect of adipokinetic hormone on locomotion and excitability.

    PubMed

    Fassold, Katharina; El-Damanhouri, Hassan I H; Lorenz, Matthias W

    2010-04-01

    Excitability and locomotor activity of male and female last instar larvae and adults of the two-spotted cricket are measured under crowded conditions, allowing the animals to interact with conspecifics during observations. Male and female last instar larvae display age-dependent cyclic patterns of activity with maxima during early to mid scotophase and minima during early photophase. A period of low locomotor activity without time of day-dependent cyclic changes starts 1 day before the final moult and lasts until 1 day after the moult. Then, both excitability and locomotor activity increase and become cyclic again within 2 or 3 days. The cyclic changes gradually dampen in adult females older than 6 days and finally cease. When injected into photophase larvae and adults, adipokinetic hormone (AKH) increases excitability and locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it has no such effect when injected into scotophase animals. Other behaviours (jumping, hind wing trembling) that mostly occur in scotophase crickets are also increased by injecting AKH into photophase crickets. We argue that AKH could be responsible for linking the endogenous clock output with the cyclic changes in locomotor activity. Furthermore, AKH may serve to synchronise metabolism and behaviour to optimise larval development and reproduction.

  15. Is the titer of adipokinetic peptides in Leptinotarsa decemlineata fed on genetically modified potatoes increased by oxidative stress?

    PubMed

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Krishnan, Natraj; Habustová, Oxana

    2007-05-01

    The level of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) (Peram-CAH-I and II) in the corpora cardiaca and the hemolymph of Leptinotarsa decemlineata enormously increases in the adults fed on genetically modified potatoes containing either GNA lectin or Cry 3Aa toxin concomitant with increased oxidative stress in gut tissues. A similar enhancement of the AKH titer is achieved when the adults are injected with paraquat that evokes oxidative stress. On the other hand, an injection of exogenous AKH reduces oxidative stress biomarkers in the hemolymph by reducing protein carbonyls and enhancing reduced glutathione levels. These facts indicate that there is a feedback regulation between an oxidative stressor action and the level of AKH in the insect body, and that AKHs might be involved in the activation of an antioxidant protection mechanism. These results are to our knowledge, the first evidence for the involvement of AKHs in oxidative stress mitigation, in addition to a plethora of other roles.

  16. Unique roles of glucagon and glucagon-like peptides: Parallels in understanding the functions of adipokinetic hormones in stress responses in insects.

    PubMed

    Bednářová, Andrea; Kodrík, Dalibor; Krishnan, Natraj

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon is conventionally regarded as a hormone, counter regulatory in function to insulin and plays a critical anti-hypoglycemic role by maintaining glucose homeostasis in both animals and humans. Glucagon performs this function by increasing hepatic glucose output to the blood by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in response to starvation. Additionally it plays a homeostatic role by decreasing glycogenesis and glycolysis in tandem to try and maintain optimal glucose levels. To perform this action, it also increases energy expenditure which is contrary to what one would expect and has actions which are unique and not entirely in agreement with its role in protection from hypoglycemia. Interestingly, glucagon-like peptides (GLP-1 and GLP-2) from the major fragment of proglucagon (in non-mammalian vertebrates, as well as in mammals) may also modulate response to stress in addition to their other physiological actions. These unique modes of action occur in response to psychological, metabolic and other stress situations and mirror the role of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) in insects which perform a similar function. The findings on the anti-stress roles of glucagon and glucagon-like peptides in mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates may throw light on the multiple stress responsive mechanisms which operate in a concerted manner under regulation by AKH in insects thus functioning as a stress responsive hormone while also maintaining organismal homeostasis.

  17. Evolution of the AKH/corazonin/ACP/GnRH receptor superfamily and their ligands in the Protostomia.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Frank; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2014-12-01

    In this review we trace the evolutionary connections between GnRH receptors from vertebrates and the receptors for adipokinetic hormone (AKH), AKH/corazonin-related peptide (ACP), and corazonin from arthropods. We conclude that these G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are closely related and have a common evolutionary origin, which dates back to the split of Proto- and Deuterostomia, about 700 million years ago. We propose that in the protostomian lineage, the ancestral GnRH-like receptor gene duplicated as did its GnRH-like ligand gene, followed by diversification, leading to (i) a corazonin receptor gene and a corazonin-like ligand gene, and (ii) an AKH receptor gene and an AKH-like ligand gene in the Mollusca and Annelida. Subsequently, the AKH receptor and ligand genes duplicated once more, yielding the situation that we know from arthropods today, where three independent hormonal systems exist, signalling with AKH, ACP, and corazonin. Our model for the evolution of GnRH signaling in the Protostomia is a striking example of receptor-ligand co-evolution. This model has been developed using several bioinformatics tools (TBLASTN searches, phylogenetic tree analyses), which also helped us to annotate six novel AKH preprohormones and their corresponding AKH sequences from the following molluscs: the sea hare Aplysia californica (AKH sequence: pQIHFSPDWGTamide), the sea slug Tritonia diomedea (pQIHFSPGWEPamide), the fresh water snail Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (pQIHFTPGWGSamide), the owl limpet Lottia gigantea (pQIHFSPTWGSamide), the oyster Crassostrea gigas (pQVSFSTNWGSamide), and the freshwater pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii (pQISFSTNWGSamide). We also found AKHs in the tardigrade Hysibius dujardini (pQLSFTGWGHamide), the rotifer Brachionus calycifloros (pQLTFSSDWSGamide), and the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (pQIFFSKGWRGamide). This is the first report, showing that AKH signaling is widespread in molluscs.

  18. Water scorpions (Heteroptera, Nepidae) and giant water bugs (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae): sources of new members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Simek, Petr; Marco, Heather G

    2007-07-01

    Two novel octapeptide members of the AKH/RPCH family have been identified from the corpora cardiaca (CC) of two species of water bugs. The giant water bug Lethocerus indicus (family: Belostomatidae) contains a peptide code-named Letin-AKH with the sequence pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Tyr-Trp amide, and the water scorpion Nepa cinerea (family: Nepidae) has the peptide code-named Nepci-AKH with the sequence pGlu-Leu/Ile-Asn-Phe-Ser-Ser-Gly-Trp amide. The sequences were deduced from the multiple MS(N) electrospray mass data from crude CC extracts. Synthetic peptides were made and co-elution on reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with the natural peptide from crude gland extract confirmed the accuracy of the deduced sequence for Letin-AKH and demonstrated that Nepci-AKH contains a Leu residue at position 2 and not an Ile residue. A previously characterized member of the AKH/RPCH family was identified in the stick water scorpion Ranatra linearis by mass spectrometry: Grybi-AKH (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Thr-Gly-Trp amide) has the same mass (919 Da) as Nepci-AKH and differs in two positions from Nepci-AKH (residues 2 and 6). The apparent function of the peptides is to achieve lipid mobilization in the species under investigation; indications for this came from conspecific bioassays using the appropriate synthetic peptides for injecting into the insects. This function is very likely linked to dispersal flight metabolism of water bugs. Swimming activity in N. cinerea also results in an increase in lipid concentration in the hemolymph.

  19. Hormonal enhancement of insecticide efficacy in Tribolium castaneum: oxidative stress and metabolic aspects.

    PubMed

    Plavšin, Ivana; Stašková, Tereza; Šerý, Michal; Smýkal, Vlastimil; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2015-04-01

    Insect anti-stress responses, including those induced by insecticides, are controlled by adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). We examined the physiological consequences of Pyrap-AKH application on Tribolium castaneum adults (AKH-normal and AKH-deficient prepared by the RNAi technique) treated by two insecticides, pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin. Co-application of pirimiphos-methyl and/or deltamethrin with AKH significantly increased beetle mortality compared with application of the insecticides alone. This co-treatment was accompanied by substantial stimulation of general metabolism, as monitored by carbon dioxide production. Further, the insecticide treatment alone affected some basic markers of oxidative stress: it lowered total antioxidative capacity as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase in the beetle body; in addition, it enhanced the activity of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase. However, these discrepancies in oxidative stress markers were eliminated/reduced by co-application with Pyrap-AKH. We suggest that the elevation of metabolism, which is probably accompanied with faster turnover of toxins, might be responsible for the higher mortality that results after AKH and insecticide co-application. Changes in oxidative stress markers are probably not included in the mechanisms responsible for increased mortality.

  20. Primary structure of a novel neuropeptide isolated from the corpora cardiaca of periodical cicadas having adipokinetic and hypertrehalosemic activities.

    PubMed

    Raina, A; Pannell, L; Kochansky, J; Jaffe, H

    1995-09-01

    A new neuropeptide hormone was isolated from the corpora cardiaca of the periodical cicadas, Magicicada species. Primary structure of the peptide as determined by a combination of automated Edman degradation after enzymatic deblocking with pyroglutamate aminopeptidase and mass spectrometry is: pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Ser-Trp-Gly-Asn-NH2. Synthetic peptide assayed in the green stink bug Nezara viridula caused a 112% increase in hemolymph lipids at a dose of 0.625 pmol, and a 67% increase in hemolymph carbohydrates at a dose of 2.5 pmol. Based on these results we designate this peptide, a first from order Homoptera, as Magicicada species-adipokinetic hormone (Mcsp-AKH).

  1. Hormonal Regulation of Response to Oxidative Stress in Insects—An Update

    PubMed Central

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Bednářová, Andrea; Zemanová, Milada; Krishnan, Natraj

    2015-01-01

    Insects, like other organisms, must deal with a wide variety of potentially challenging environmental factors during the course of their life. An important example of such a challenge is the phenomenon of oxidative stress. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of adipokinetic hormones (AKH) as principal stress responsive hormones in insects involved in activation of anti-oxidative stress response pathways. Emphasis is placed on an analysis of oxidative stress experimentally induced by various stressors and monitored by suitable biomarkers, and on detailed characterization of AKH’s role in the anti-stress reactions. These reactions are characterized by a significant increase of AKH levels in the insect body, and by effective reversal of the markers—disturbed by the stressors—after co-application of the stressor with AKH. A plausible mechanism of AKH action in the anti-oxidative stress response is discussed as well: this probably involves simultaneous employment of both protein kinase C and cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate pathways in the presence of extra and intra-cellular Ca2+ stores, with the possible involvement of the FoxO transcription factors. The role of other insect hormones in the anti-oxidative defense reactions is also discussed. PMID:26516847

  2. Nosema ceranae alters a highly conserved hormonal stress pathway in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Mayack, C; Natsopoulou, M E; McMahon, D P

    2015-12-01

    Nosema ceranae, an emerging pathogen of the western honeybee (Apis mellifera), is implicated in recent pollinator losses and causes severe energetic stress. However, whether precocious foraging and accelerated behavioural maturation in infected bees are caused by the infection itself or via indirect energetic stress remains unknown. Using a combination of nutritional and infection treatments, we investigated how starvation and infection alters the regulation of adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and octopamine, two highly conserved physiological pathways that respond to energetic stress by mobilizing fat stores and increasing search activity for food. Although there was no response from AKH when bees were experimentally infected with N. ceranae or starved, supporting the notion that honeybees have lost this pathway, there were significant regulatory changes in the octopamine pathway. Significantly, we found no evidence of acute energetic stress being the only cause of symptoms associated with N. ceranae infection. Therefore, the parasite itself appears to alter regulatory components along a highly conserved physiological pathway in an infection-specific manner. This indicates that pathogen-induced behavioural alteration of chronically infected bees should not just be viewed as a coincidental short-term by-product of pathogenesis (acute energetic stress) and may be a result of a generalist manipulation strategy to obtain energy for reproduction.

  3. Functional Characterization of Hypertrehalosemic Hormone Receptor in Relation to Hemolymph Trehalose and to Oxidative Stress in the Cockroach Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia-Hsin; Bellés, Xavier; Lee, How-Jing

    2011-01-01

    Hypertrehalosemic hormone (HTH) is a peptide hormone that belongs to the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment concentrating hormone (AKH/RPCH) family, which exerts pleiotropic actions related to catabolic reaction and stress response. AKH peptides have been demonstrated to participate in stress response including oxidative stress in several insects. In order to study the signaling pathway of HTH involved in anti-oxidative stress, we have characterized a HIH receptor cDNA in Blattella germanica (Blage-HTHR) in structural and in functional terms using RNA interference (RNAi). Blage-HTHR is expressed in various female adult tissues (brain-CC-CA, ventral nerve cord, midgut, fat body, oviduct), but maximal expression is observed in the fat body. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Blage-HTHR expression results in a significantly lower level of hemolymph trehalose, even though HTH is exogenously administered. Paraquat elicits lethal oxidative stress in B. germanica, and co-injection of paraquat and HTH reduces this detrimental effect and extends the median survival time. Interestingly, the "rescue" effect of HTH on mortality caused by paraquat is diminished in specimens with depleted expression of Blage-HTH and Blage-HTHR. Finally, lipid peroxidation in the hemolymph increases 4 h after paraquat treatment, in comparison with control specimens or with HTH-treated specimens. However, lipid peroxidation induced by paraquat was not "rescued" by HTH in Blage-HTH and Blage-HTHR knockdown specimens. Our results demonstrate that HTH acts as a stress hormone mediating anti-oxidative protection in B. germanica, and that its receptor, Blage-HTHR, is essential for this action.

  4. Gustatory perception and fat body energy metabolism are jointly affected by vitellogenin and juvenile hormone in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Brent, Colin S; Fennern, Erin; Amdam, Gro V

    2012-06-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses) usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers) forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg) and juvenile hormone (JH). However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to perturb the gene network of Vg and JH to learn more about these connections through effects on gustation, gene transcripts, and physiology. The RNAi perturbation was achieved by single and double knockdown of the genes ultraspiracle (usp) and vg, which encode a putative JH receptor and Vg, respectively. The double knockdown enhanced gustatory perception and elevated hemolymph glucose, trehalose, and JH. We also observed transcriptional responses in insulin like peptide 1 (ilp1), the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR), and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, or "foraging gene" Amfor). Our study demonstrates that the Vg-JH regulatory module controls changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipid metabolism, when worker bees shift from nursing to foraging. The module is also placed upstream of ilp1, AKHR, and PKG for the first time. As insulin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), and PKG pathways influence metabolism and gustation in many animals, we propose that honey bees have conserved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism and conserved connections between energy metabolism and gustatory perception. Thus, perhaps the bee can make general contributions to the understanding of food-related behavior and metabolic disorders.

  5. Mass spectrometric identification, sequence evolution, and intraspecific variability of dimeric peptides encoded by cockroach akh genes.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Sebastian; Predel, Reinhard

    2015-02-01

    Neuropeptides are structurally the most diverse group of messenger molecules of the nervous system. Regarding neuropeptide identification, distribution, function, and evolution, insects are among the best studied invertebrates. Indeed, more than 100 neuropeptides are known from single species. Most of these peptides can easily be identified by direct tissue or cell profiling using MALDI-TOF MS. In these experiments, protein hormones with extensive post-translational modifications such as inter- and intramolecular disulfides are usually missed. It is evident that an exclusion of these bioactive molecules hinders the utilization of direct profiling methods in comprehensive peptidomic analyses. In the current study, we focus on the detection and structural elucidation of homo- and heterodimeric adipokinetic hormone precursor-related peptides (APRPs) of cockroaches. The physiological relevance of these molecules with highly conserved sequences in insects is still uncertain. Sequence similarities with vertebrate growth hormone-releasing factors have been reported, but remarkably, few data regarding APRP processing exist and these data are restricted to locusts. Here, we elucidated sequences of carbamidomethylated APRP monomers of different cockroaches by means of MALDI-TOF MS(2), and we were able to identify a surprisingly large number of APRP sequences, resulting either from intraspecific amino acid substitutions within the APRP sequences or C-terminal truncated APRPs.

  6. RNA interference unveils functions of the hypertrehalosemic hormone on cyclic fluctuation of hemolymph trehalose and oviposition in the virgin female Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia-Hsin; Lee, How-Jing

    2011-07-01

    Hypertrehalosemic hormone (HTH) is a neuropeptide within the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family that induces a release of trehalose from fat body into hemolymph in a number of insects. In this study, we first showed that female adult German cockroach, Blattella germanica, displayed a cyclic fluctuation of hemolymph trehalose levels correlated to the maturation of oocytes in the reproductive cycle. After cloning the HTH cDNA from the German cockroach (Blage-HTH), expression studies indicated that Blage-HTH mRNA showed the cyclic changes during the first reproductive cycle, where peak values occurred in 8-day-old virgin female cockroaches, which were going to produce oothecae. The functions of Blage-HTH were studied using RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown its expression. Adult virgin females of B. germanica injected with Blage-HTH dsRNA increased hemolymph trehalose levels in the late period of vitellogenesis more slowly than control. Furthermore, RNAi of Blage-HTH delayed oviposition time and some (10%) individuals did not produce the first ootheca until 15 days after eclosion, whereas the control group produced ootheca before 9 days in all cases.

  7. Intracisternal granules in the adipokinetic cells of locusts are not degraded and apparently function as supplementary stores of secretory material.

    PubMed

    Harthoorn, L F; Diederen, J H; Oudejans, R C; Verstegen, M M; Vullings, H G; Van der Horst, D J

    2000-01-01

    The intracisternal granules in locust adipokinetic cells appear to represent accumulations of secretory material within cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. An important question is whether these granules are destined for degradation or represent stores of (pro)hormones. Two strategies were used to answer this question. First, cytochemistry was applied to elucidate the properties of intracisternal granules. The endocytic tracers horseradish peroxidase and wheat-germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase were used to facilitate the identification of endocytic, autophagic, and lysosomal organelles, which may be involved in the degradation of intracisternal granules. No intracisternal granules could be found within autophagosomes, and granules fused with endocytic and lysosomal organelles were not observed, nor could tracer be found within the granules. The lysosomal enzyme acid phosphatase was absent from the granules. Second, biochemical analysis of the content of intracisternal granules revealed that these granules contain prohormones as well as hormones. Prohormones were present in relatively higher amounts compared with ordinary secretory granules. Since the intracisternal granules in locust adipokinetic cells are not degraded and contain intact (pro)hormones it is concluded that they function as supplementary stores of secretory material.

  8. Opposite effects of 5-HT/AKH and octopamine on the crop contractions in adult Drosophila melanogaster: Evidence of a double brain-gut serotonergic circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Picciau, Lorenzo; Murru, Ludovico; Stoffolano, John G.

    2017-01-01

    This study showed that in adult Drosophila melanogaster, the type of sugar—either present within the crop lumen or in the bathing solution of the crop—had no effect on crop muscle contraction. What is important, however, is the volume within the crop lumen. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that exogenous applications of serotonin on crop muscles increases both the amplitude and the frequency of crop contraction rate, while adipokinetic hormone mainly enhances the crop contraction frequency. Conversely, octopamine virtually silenced the overall crop activity. The present study reports for the first time an analysis of serotonin effects along the gut-brain axis in adult D. melanogaster. Injection of serotonin into the brain between the interocellar area shows that brain applications of serotonin decrease the frequency of crop activity. Based on our results, we propose that there are two different, opposite pathways for crop motility control governed by serotonin: excitatory when added in the abdomen (i.e., directly bathing the crop) and inhibitory when supplied within the brain (i.e., by injection). Finally, our results point to a double brain-gut serotonergic circuitry suggesting that not only the brain can affect gut functions, but the gut can also affect the central nervous system. On the basis of our results, and data in the literature, a possible mechanism for these two discrete serotonergic functions is suggested. PMID:28334024

  9. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... affect many different processes, including Growth and development Metabolism - how your body gets energy from the foods you eat Sexual function Reproduction Mood Endocrine glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the ...

  10. Comparative peptidomics of four related hemipteran species: Pyrokinins, myosuppressin, corazonin, adipokinetic hormone, sNPF, and periviscerokinins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We performed the first comprehensive peptidomic analysis of neurohormones from hemipteran insects by analyzing the neuropeptides of two major neurohemal organs, namely the corpora cardiaca and abdominal perisympathetic organs. For the experiments we selected four related species of polyphagous stin...

  11. Secretory granule formation and membrane recycling by the trans-Golgi network in adipokinetic cells of Locusta migratoria in relation to flight and rest.

    PubMed

    Diederen, J H; Vullings, H G

    1995-03-01

    The influence of flight activity on the formation of secretory granules and the concomitant membrane recycling by the trans-Golgi network in the peptidergic neurosecretory adipokinetic cells of Locusta migratoria was investigated by means of ultrastructural morphometric methods. The patterns of labelling of the trans-Golgi network by the exogenous adsorptive endocytotic tracer wheat-germ agglutinin-conjugated horse-radish peroxidase and by the endogenous marker enzyme acid phosphatase were used as parameters and were measured by an automatic image analysis system. The results show that endocytosed fragments of plasma membrane with bound peroxidase label were transported to the trans-Golgi network and used to build new secretory granules. The amounts of peroxidase and especially of acid phosphatase within the trans-Golgi network showed a strong tendency to be smaller in flight-stimulated cells than in non-stimulated cells. The amounts of acid phosphatase in the immature secretory granules originating from the trans-Golgi network were significantly smaller in stimulated cells. The number of immature secretory granules positive for acid phosphatase tended to be higher in stimulated cells. Thus, flight stimulation of adipokinetic cells for 1 h influences the functioning of the trans-Golgi network; this most probably results in a slight enhancement of the production of secretory granules by the trans-Golgi network.

  12. Effects of Varroa destructor on temperature and humidity conditions and expression of energy metabolism genes in infested honeybee colonies.

    PubMed

    Hou, C S; Li, B B; Deng, S; Diao, Q Y

    2016-09-23

    Varroa destructor mites pose an increasing global threat to the apicultural industry and agricultural ecology; however, the issue of whether certain environmental factors reflect the level of mite infection is far from resolved. Here, a wireless sensor network (WSN) system was used to examine how V. destructor, which has vital impacts on honeybee (Apis mellifera) health and survival, affects the temperature and humidity of honeybee hives in a field experiment. This approach may facilitate early identification of V. destructor in hives, and thus enable timely remedial action. Using quantitative PCR, we also evaluated the expression of two genes, adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR).The results showed that temperature in highly infested broods was higher than that in broods with low infestation. Moreover, mite infection in honeybee colonies was positively correlated with temperature but negatively correlated with humidity (P < 0.05). Similar to previous observations, quantitative analysis suggested that the expression levels of AKH and AKHR from honeybees with low infection were significantly higher than those from bees with high infection (P < 0.01). These results showed that the expression levels of these genes in colonies with high mite infestation were closely associated with changes in hive temperature and humidity. This study demonstrates that Varroa infection not only causes changes in temperature inside honeybee colonies, but also affects the expression of honeybee energy metabolism genes.

  13. Systemic corazonin signalling modulates stress responses and metabolism in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kubrak, Olga I.; Lushchak, Oleh V.; Zandawala, Meet

    2016-01-01

    Stress triggers cellular and systemic reactions in organisms to restore homeostasis. For instance, metabolic stress, experienced during starvation, elicits a hormonal response that reallocates resources to enable food search and readjustment of physiology. Mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its insect orthologue, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), are known for their roles in modulating stress-related behaviour. Here we show that corazonin (Crz), a peptide homologous to AKH/GnRH, also alters stress physiology in Drosophila. The Crz receptor (CrzR) is expressed in salivary glands and adipocytes of the liver-like fat body, and CrzR knockdown targeted simultaneously to both these tissues increases the fly's resistance to starvation, desiccation and oxidative stress, reduces feeding, alters expression of transcripts of Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs), and affects gene expression in the fat body. Furthermore, in starved flies, CrzR-knockdown increases circulating and stored carbohydrates. Thus, our findings indicate that elevated systemic Crz signalling during stress coordinates increased food intake and diminished energy stores to regain metabolic homeostasis. Our study suggests that an ancient stress-peptide in Urbilateria evolved to give rise to present-day GnRH, AKH and Crz signalling systems. PMID:27810969

  14. Hormone levels

    MedlinePlus

    Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

  15. A comparison of the neuropeptides from the retrocerebral complex of adult male and female Manduca sexta using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Audsley, Neil; Weaver, Robert J

    2003-11-15

    The occurrence of neuropeptides in the retrocerebral complexes of adult male and females of the tobacco hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, was investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), post source decay (PSD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) MS/MS. From fractions of methanol extracts of corpora cardiaca (CC)/corpora allata (CA), separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), a total of 11 mass ions were assigned to known peptides from M. sexta. These peptides were adipokinetic hormone (AKH), FLRFamides I, II and III, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), cardioactive peptide 2b (CAP(2b)), three myoinhibitory peptides, corazonin, and M. sexta allatostatin (Manse-AS). A further six masses were in agreement with Y/FXFGLamide allatostatins identified from other Lepidoptera. The sequence identities of FLRFamide I and AKH were confirmed using post source decay analysis. Fragmentation by collision-induced dissociation MS/MS identified an extended AKH peptide. The apparent differences in the peptides present in male and female retrocerebral complexes are most likely quantitative rather than sex specific.

  16. Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... estrogen , a hormone that helps control the menstrual cycle . Changing estrogen levels can bring on symptoms such ... two hormones—estrogen and progesterone —control your menstrual cycle. These hormones are made by the ovaries . Estrogen ...

  17. Food odors trigger an endocrine response that affects food ingestion and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lushchak, Oleh V; Carlsson, Mikael A; Nässel, Dick R

    2015-08-01

    Food odors stimulate appetite and innate food-seeking behavior in hungry animals. The smell of food also induces salivation and release of gastric acid and insulin. Conversely, sustained odor exposure may induce satiation. We demonstrate novel effects of food odors on food ingestion, metabolism and endocrine signaling in Drosophila melanogaster. Acute exposure to attractive vinegar odor triggers a rapid and transient increase in circulating glucose, and a rapid upregulation of genes encoding the glucagon-like hormone adipokinetic hormone (AKH), four insulin-like peptides (DILPs) and some target genes in peripheral tissues. Sustained exposure to food odors, however, decreases food intake. Hunger-induced strengthening of synaptic signaling from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) to brain neurons increases food-seeking behavior, and conversely fed flies display reduced food odor sensitivity and feeding. We show that increasing the strength of OSN signaling chronically by genetic manipulation of local peptide neuromodulation reduces feeding, elevates carbohydrates and diminishes lipids. Furthermore, constitutively strengthened odor sensitivity altered gene transcripts for AKH, DILPs and some of their targets. Thus, we show that food odor can induce a transient anticipatory endocrine response, and that boosted sensitivity to this odor affects food intake, as well as metabolism and hormonal signaling.

  18. Prediction of Scylla olivacea (Crustacea; Brachyura) peptide hormones using publicly accessible transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequences.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2016-05-01

    The aquaculture of crabs from the genus Scylla is of increasing economic importance for many Southeast Asian countries. Expansion of Scylla farming has led to increased efforts to understand the physiology and behavior of these crabs, and as such, there are growing molecular resources for them. Here, publicly accessible Scylla olivacea transcriptomic data were mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts; the proteins deduced from the identified sequences were then used to predict the structures of mature peptide hormones. Forty-nine pre/preprohormone-encoding transcripts were identified, allowing for the prediction of 187 distinct mature peptides. The identified peptides included isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, bursicon β, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/molt-inhibiting hormone, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, FMRFamide-like peptide, HIGSLYRamide, insulin-like peptide, intocin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone, pyrokinin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide and tachykinin-related peptide, all well-known neuropeptide families. Surprisingly, the tissue used to generate the transcriptome mined here is reported to be testis. Whether or not the testis samples had neural contamination is unknown. However, if the peptides are truly produced by this reproductive organ, it could have far reaching consequences for the study of crustacean endocrinology, particularly in the area of reproductive control. Regardless, this peptidome is the largest thus far predicted for any brachyuran (true crab) species, and will serve as a foundation for future studies of peptidergic control in members of the commercially important genus Scylla.

  19. Activation of the lipid droplet controls the rate of lipolysis of triglycerides in the insect fat body.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajesh T; Soulages, Jose L; Hariharasundaram, Balaji; Arrese, Estela L

    2005-06-17

    The hydrolysis of triglyceride (TG) stored in the lipid droplets of the insect fat body is under hormonal regulation by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH), which triggers a rapid activation cAMP-dependent kinase cascade (protein kinase A (PKA)). The role of phosphorylation on two components of the lipolytic process, the TG-lipase and the lipid droplet, was investigated in fat body adipocytes. The activity of purified TG-lipase determined using in vivo TG-radiolabeled lipid droplets was unaffected by the phosphorylation of the lipase. However, the activity of purified lipase was 2.4-fold higher against lipid droplets isolated from hormone-stimulated fat bodies than against lipid droplets isolated from unstimulated tissue. In vivo stimulation of lipolysis promotes a rapid phosphorylation of a lipid droplet protein with an apparent mass of 42-44 kDa. This protein was identified as "Lipid Storage Droplet Protein 1" (Lsdp1). In vivo phosphorylation of this protein reached a peak approximately 10 min after the injection of AKH. Supporting a role of Lsdp1 in lipolysis, maximum TG-lipase activity was also observed with lipid droplets isolated 10 min after hormonal stimulation. The activation of lipolysis was reconstituted in vitro using purified insect PKA and TG-lipase and lipid droplets. In vitro phosphorylation of lipid droplets catalyzed by PKA enhanced the phosphorylation of Lsdp1 and the lipolytic rate of the lipase, demonstrating a prominent role PKA and protein phosphorylation on the activation of the lipid droplets. AKH-induced changes in the properties of the substrate do not promote a tight association of the lipase with the lipid droplets. It is concluded that the lipolysis in fat body adipocytes is controlled by the activation of the lipid droplet. This activation is achieved by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the lipid droplet. Lsdp1 is the main target of PKA, suggesting that this protein is a major player in the activation of lipolysis in insects.

  20. Intra-myocellular fatty acid metabolism plays a critical role in mediating responses to dietary restriction in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Katewa, Subhash D.; Demontis, Fabio; Kolipinski, Marysia; Hubbard, Allan; Gill, Matthew S.; Perrimon, Norbert; Melov, Simon; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    Summary Changes in fat content have been associated with dietary restriction (DR), but whether they play a causal role in mediating various responses to DR remains unknown. We demonstrate that upon DR, Drosophila melanogaster shift their metabolism towards increasing both fatty acid synthesis and breakdown, which is required for various responses to DR. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis or oxidation genes specifically in the muscle tissue inhibited lifespan extension upon DR. Furthermore, DR enhances spontaneous activity of flies which was found to be dependent on the enhanced fatty acid metabolism. This increase in activity was found to be at least partially required for the lifespan extension upon DR. Over-expression of adipokinetic hormone (dAKH), the functional ortholog of glucagon, enhances fat metabolism, spontaneous activity and lifespan. Together, these results suggest that enhanced fat metabolism in the muscle and physical activity play a key role in the protective effects of DR. PMID:22768842

  1. The sensory system: More than just a window to the external world.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Christi M; Chung, Brian Y; Pletcher, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    While the traditional importance of the sensory system lies in its ability to perceive external information about the world, emerging discoveries suggest that sensory perception has a greater impact on health and longevity than was previously appreciated. These effects are conserved across species. In this mini-review, we discuss the specific sensory cues that have been identified to significantly impact organismal physiology and lifespan. Ongoing work in the aging field has begun to identify the downstream molecules that mediate the broad effects of sensory signals. Candidates include FOXO, neuropeptide F (NPF), adipokinetic hormone (AKH), dopamine, serotonin, and octopamine. We then discuss the many implications that arise from our current understanding of the effects of sensory perception on health and longevity.

  2. The Satiety Signaling Neuropeptide Perisulfakinin Inhibits the Activity of Central Neurons Promoting General Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wicher, Dieter; Derst, Christian; Gautier, Hélène; Lapied, Bruno; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Agricola, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    The metabolic state is one of the determinants of the general activity level. Satiety is related to resting or sleep whereas hunger correlates to wakefulness and activity. The counterpart to the mammalian satiety signal cholecystokinin (CCK) in insects are the sulfakinins. The aim of this study was to resolve the mechanism by which the antifeedant activity of perisulfakinin (PSK) in Periplaneta americana is mediated. We identified the sources of PSK which is used both as hormone and as paracrine messenger. PSK is found in the neurohemal organ of the brain and in nerve endings throughout the central nervous system. To correlate the distributions of PSK and its receptor (PSKR), we cloned the gene coding for PSKR and provide evidence for its expression within the nervous system. It occurs only in a few neurons, among them are the dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons which release octopamine thereby regulating the general level of activity. Application of PSK to DUM neurons attenuated the spiking frequency (EC50=11pM) due to reduction of a pacemaker Ca2+ current through cAMP-inhibited pTRPγ channels. PSK increased the intracellular cAMP level while decreasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in DUM neurons. Thus, the satiety signal conferred by PSK acts antagonistically to the hunger signal, provided by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH): PSK depresses the electrical activity of DUM neurons by inhibiting the pTRPγ channel that is activated by AKH under conditions of food shortage. PMID:18946521

  3. Urbilaterian origin of paralogous GnRH and corazonin neuropeptide signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shi; Zandawala, Meet; Beets, Isabel; Baytemur, Esra; Slade, Susan E.; Scrivens, James H.; Elphick, Maurice R.

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key regulator of reproductive maturation in humans and other vertebrates. Homologs of GnRH and its cognate receptor have been identified in invertebrates–for example, the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and corazonin (CRZ) neuropeptide pathways in arthropods. However, the precise evolutionary relationships and origins of these signalling systems remain unknown. Here we have addressed this issue with the first identification of both GnRH-type and CRZ-type signalling systems in a deuterostome–the echinoderm (starfish) Asterias rubens. We have identified a GnRH-like neuropeptide (pQIHYKNPGWGPG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens GnRH-type receptor and a novel neuropeptide (HNTFTMGGQNRWKAG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens CRZ-type receptor. With the discovery of these ligand-receptor pairs, we demonstrate that the vertebrate/deuterostomian GnRH-type and the protostomian AKH systems are orthologous and the origin of a paralogous CRZ-type signalling system can be traced to the common ancestor of the Bilateria (Urbilateria). PMID:27350121

  4. Octopamine partially restores walking in hypokinetic cockroaches stung by the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Lior Ann; Glusman, Jose Gustavo; Libersat, Frederic

    2007-12-01

    When stung by the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa, cockroaches Periplaneta americana enter a hypokinetic state that is characterized by little, if any, spontaneous locomotor activity. In the present study we investigate the effect of an octopamine receptor agonist and an antagonist on the locomotor behavior of stung and control cockroaches. We show that in cockroaches stung by a wasp the octopamine receptor agonist chlordimeform induces a significant increase in spontaneous walking. In good agreement, in control individuals an octopamine receptor antagonist significantly reduces walking activity. Adipokinetic hormone I (AKH-I) promotes spontaneous walking in controls but does not do so in stung individuals, which suggests that the venom effect is most probably not mediated by AKH-I. Dopamine receptor agonists or antagonists had no significant effect on the spontaneous walking of stung or control cockroaches, respectively. The effect of the octopamine receptor agonist was maximal when injected into the brain, suggesting that the wasp venom interferes with octopaminergic modulation of walking initiation in central structures of the cockroach brain.

  5. Hormone impostors

    SciTech Connect

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  6. Deciding about hormone therapy

    MedlinePlus

    HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT- deciding; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding; Menopause - deciding; HT - deciding; Menopausal hormone therapy - deciding; MHT - deciding

  7. [Hormonal dysnatremia].

    PubMed

    Karaca, P; Desailloud, R

    2013-10-01

    Because of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) disorder on production or function we can observe dysnatremia. In the absence of production by posterior pituitary, central diabetes insipidus (DI) occurs with hypernatremia. There are hereditary autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X- linked forms. When ADH is secreted but there is an alteration on his receptor AVPR2, it is a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in acquired or hereditary form. We can make difference on AVP levels and/or on desmopressine response which is negative in nephrogenic forms. Hyponatremia occurs when there is an excess of ADH production: it is a euvolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia. The most frequent etiology is SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH), a diagnostic of exclusion which is made after eliminating corticotropin deficiency and hypothyroidism. In case of brain injury the differential diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome has to be discussed, because its treatment is perfusion of isotonic saline whereas in SIADH, the treatment consists in administration of hypertonic saline if hyponatremia is acute and/or severe. If not, fluid restriction demeclocycline or vaptans (antagonists of V2 receptors) can be used in some European countries. Four types of SIADH exist; 10 % of cases represent not SIADH but SIAD (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis) due to a constitutive activation of vasopressin receptor that produces water excess. c 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Hormone therapy in acne.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2013-01-01

    Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  9. Standardization of hormone determinations.

    PubMed

    Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2013-12-01

    Standardization of hormone determinations is important because it simplifies interpretation of results and facilitates the use of common reference values for different assays. Progress in standardization has been achieved through the introduction of more homogeneous hormone standards for peptide and protein hormones. However, many automated methods for determinations of steroid hormones do not provide satisfactory result. Isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS) has been used to establish reference methods for steroid hormone determinations and is now increasingly used for routine determinations of steroids and other low molecular weight compounds. Reference methods for protein hormones based on MS are being developed and these promise to improve standardization.

  10. Hormonal effects in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001911.htm Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb babies ...

  11. Hormone Health Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... to hormones! Download our Free App! Understand the endocrine system and its related conditions with our 3D Patient ...

  12. Growth hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... dosage of the medicine. Serious side effects of growth hormone treatment are rare. Common side effects include: Headache Fluid ... years. The rate of growth then slowly decreases. Growth hormone therapy does not work for all children. Left untreated, ...

  13. Hormones and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Hormones and Obesity Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

  14. [Thyroid hormone resistance syndromes].

    PubMed

    Bernal, Juan

    2011-04-01

    Thyroid hormone resistance syndromes are a group of genetic conditions characterized by decreased tissue sensitivity to thyroid hormones. Three syndromes, in which resistance to hormone action is respectively due to mutations in the gene encoding for thyroid hormone receptor TRβ, impaired T4 and T3 transport, and impaired conversion of T4 to T3 mediated by deiodinases. An updated review of each of these forms of resistance is provided, and their pathogenetic mechanisms and clinical approaches are discussed.

  15. [Growth hormone treatment update].

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Short stature in children is a common cause for referral to pediatric endocrinologists, corresponding most times to normal variants of growth. Initially growth hormone therapy was circumscribed to children presenting growth hormone deficiency. Since the production of recombinant human hormone its use had spread to other pathologies.

  16. Feeding and Fasting Signals Converge on the LKB1-SIK3 Pathway to Regulate Lipid Metabolism in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sekyu; Lim, Dae-Sik; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2015-05-01

    LKB1 plays important roles in governing energy homeostasis by regulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and other AMPK-related kinases, including the salt-inducible kinases (SIKs). However, the roles and regulation of LKB1 in lipid metabolism are poorly understood. Here we show that Drosophila LKB1 mutants display decreased lipid storage and increased gene expression of brummer, the Drosophila homolog of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). These phenotypes are consistent with those of SIK3 mutants and are rescued by expression of constitutively active SIK3 in the fat body, suggesting that SIK3 is a key downstream kinase of LKB1. Using genetic and biochemical analyses, we identify HDAC4, a class IIa histone deacetylase, as a lipolytic target of the LKB1-SIK3 pathway. Interestingly, we found that the LKB1-SIK3-HDAC4 signaling axis is modulated by dietary conditions. In short-term fasting, the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) pathway, related to the mammalian glucagon pathway, inhibits the kinase activity of LKB1 as shown by decreased SIK3 Thr196 phosphorylation, and consequently induces HDAC4 nuclear localization and brummer gene expression. However, under prolonged fasting conditions, AKH-independent signaling decreases the activity of the LKB1-SIK3 pathway to induce lipolytic responses. We also identify that the Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs) pathway, related to mammalian insulin pathway, regulates SIK3 activity in feeding conditions independently of increasing LKB1 kinase activity. Overall, these data suggest that fasting stimuli specifically control the kinase activity of LKB1 and establish the LKB1-SIK3 pathway as a converging point between feeding and fasting signals to control lipid homeostasis in Drosophila.

  17. Hormones and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blackstein, Martin Elliot

    1984-01-01

    Hormonal therapy is the first systemic therapy to have been used successfully in the treatment of cancer. Developments in steroid hormone receptor assays in the last decade have resulted in the first predictable assays for cancer therapy. The role of hormones, in both the development and treatment of breast, prostate and uterine cancer, is reviewed. Because hormonal therapy is generally a less toxic palliative treatment than other treatments (e.g., chemotherapy and radiation), it has been used for malignancies such as malignant melanoma, hypernephroma, and carcinoid. PMID:21278945

  18. Aging changes in hormone production

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004000.htm Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  19. Identification of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor orthologue in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Vadakkadath Meethal, Sivan; Gallego, Miguel J; Haasl, Ryan J; Petras, Stephen J; Sgro, Jean-Yves; Atwood, Craig S

    2006-01-01

    Background The Caenorhabditis elegans genome is known to code for at least 1149 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), but the GPCR(s) critical to the regulation of reproduction in this nematode are not yet known. This study examined whether GPCRs orthologous to human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) exist in C. elegans. Results Our sequence analyses indicated the presence of two proteins in C. elegans, one of 401 amino acids [GenBank: NP_491453; WormBase: F54D7.3] and another of 379 amino acids [GenBank: NP_506566; WormBase: C15H11.2] with 46.9% and 44.7% nucleotide similarity to human GnRHR1 and GnRHR2, respectively. Like human GnRHR1, structural analysis of the C. elegans GnRHR1 orthologue (Ce-GnRHR) predicted a rhodopsin family member with 7 transmembrane domains, G protein coupling sites and phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C. Of the functionally important amino acids in human GnRHR1, 56% were conserved in the C. elegans orthologue. Ce-GnRHR was actively transcribed in adult worms and immunoanalyses using antibodies generated against both human and C. elegans GnRHR indicated the presence of a 46-kDa protein, the calculated molecular mass of the immature Ce-GnRHR. Ce-GnRHR staining was specifically localized to the germline, intestine and pharynx. In the germline and intestine, Ce-GnRHR was localized specifically to nuclei as revealed by colocalization with a DNA nuclear stain. However in the pharynx, Ce-GnRHR was localized to the myofilament lattice of the pharyngeal musculature, suggesting a functional role for Ce-GnRHR signaling in the coupling of food intake with reproduction. Phylogenetic analyses support an early evolutionary origin of GnRH-like receptors, as evidenced by the hypothesized grouping of Ce-GnRHR, vertebrate GnRHRs, a molluscan GnRHR, and the adipokinetic hormone receptors (AKHRs) and corazonin receptors of arthropods. Conclusion This is the first report of a GnRHR orthologue in C. elegans, which shares significant

  20. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy(a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a doctor’s instructions). ... that bioidentical hormones, whether prepared by a compounding pharmacy or pharmaceutical company, are safer to use than ...

  1. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy (a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a doctor’s instructions). ... that bioidentical hormones, whether prepared by a compounding pharmacy or pharmaceutical company, are safer to use than ...

  2. Menopause and Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... the participating organizations that have assisted in its reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  3. Vaginal bleeding - hormonal

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding is caused by a hormone imbalance. DUB is more common in teenagers or in women who are approaching menopause. DUB is unpredictable. The bleeding may be very heavy or light and can occur often or randomly.

  4. Growth hormone test

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the skin) Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names GH test Images Growth hormone stimulation test - series References Ali O. Hyperpituitarism, tall stature, and overgrowth ...

  5. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor.

    PubMed

    Tuncel, Murat

    2016-01-05

    Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  6. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tuncel, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases. PMID:28117293

  7. Protein Hormones and Immunity‡

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Keith W.; Weigent, Douglas A.; Kooijman, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A number of observations and discoveries over the past 20 years support the concept of important physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. The best known pathway for transmission of information from the immune system to the neuroendocrine system is humoral in the form of cytokines, although neural transmission via the afferent vagus is well documented also. In the other direction, efferent signals from the nervous system to the immune system are conveyed by both the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Communication is possible because the nervous and immune systems share a common biochemical language involving shared ligands and receptors, including neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, growth factors, neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. This means that the brain functions as an immune-regulating organ participating in immune responses. A great deal of evidence has accumulated and confirmed that hormones secreted by the neuroendocrine system play an important role in communication and regulation of the cells of the immune system. Among protein hormones, this has been most clearly documented for prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), but significant influences on immunity by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been demonstrated. Here we review evidence obtained during the past 20 years to clearly demonstrate that neuroendocrine protein hormones influence immunity and that immune processes affect the neuroendocrine system. New findings highlight a previously undiscovered route of communication between the immune and endocrine systems that is now known to occur at the cellular level. This communication system is activated when inflammatory processes induced by proinflammatory cytokines antagonize the function of a variety of hormones, which then causes endocrine resistance in both the periphery and brain. Homeostasis during inflammation is achieved by a balance between cytokines and

  8. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fridlyand, Leonid E.; Tamarina, Natalia A.; Schally, Andrew V.; Philipson, Louis H.

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR) has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types, including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment. This review considers the role of GHRHR in the beta-cell and addresses the unique engineered GHRH agonists and antagonists for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We discuss the similarity of signaling pathways activated by GHRHR in pituitary somatotrophs and in pancreatic beta-cells and possible ways as to how the GHRHR pathway can interact with glucose and other secretagogues to stimulate insulin secretion. We also consider the hypothesis that novel GHRHR agonists can improve glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes by preserving the function and survival of pancreatic beta-cells. Wound healing and cardioprotective action with new GHRH agonists suggest that they may prove useful in ameliorating certain diabetic complications. These findings highlight the future potential therapeutic effectiveness of modulators of GHRHR activity for the development of new therapeutic approaches in diabetes and its complications. PMID:27777568

  9. Peptidomics of Neuropeptidergic Tissues of the Tsetse Fly Glossina morsitans morsitans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caers, Jelle; Boonen, Kurt; Van Den Abbeele, Jan; Van Rompay, Liesbeth; Schoofs, Liliane; Van Hiel, Matthias B.

    2015-12-01

    Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are essential signaling molecules that regulate nearly all physiological processes. The recent release of the tsetse fly genome allowed the construction of a detailed in silico neuropeptide database (International Glossina Genome Consortium, Science 344, 380-386 (2014)), as well as an in-depth mass spectrometric analysis of the most important neuropeptidergic tissues of this medically and economically important insect species. Mass spectrometric confirmation of predicted peptides is a vital step in the functional characterization of neuropeptides, as in vivo peptides can be modified, cleaved, or even mispredicted. Using a nanoscale reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to a Q Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer, we detected 51 putative bioactive neuropeptides encoded by 19 precursors: adipokinetic hormone (AKH) I and II, allatostatin A and B, capability/pyrokinin (capa/PK), corazonin, calcitonin-like diuretic hormone (CT/DH), FMRFamide, hugin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, natalisin, neuropeptide-like precursor (NPLP) 1, orcokinin, pigment dispersing factor (PDF), RYamide, SIFamide, short neuropeptide F (sNPF) and tachykinin. In addition, propeptides, truncated and spacer peptides derived from seven additional precursors were found, and include the precursors of allatostatin C, crustacean cardioactive peptide, corticotropin releasing factor-like diuretic hormone (CRF/DH), ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), ion transport peptide (ITP), neuropeptide F, and proctolin, respectively. The majority of the identified neuropeptides are present in the central nervous system, with only a limited number of peptides in the corpora cardiaca-corpora allata and midgut. Owing to the large number of identified peptides, this study can be used as a reference for comparative studies in other insects.

  10. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions.

  11. Hormonal control of euryhalinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takei, Yoshio; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  12. Thyroid hormone transporter defects.

    PubMed

    Grüters, Annette

    2007-01-01

    In in vitro experiments, active transport of thyroid hormones had been repeatedly demonstrated. The membrane transporters for thyroid hormones which have been identified include the organic anion transporting polypeptide, heterodimeric amino acid transporters and the monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) which are the focus of this chapter. The gene encoding MCT8 which was identified as a specific thyroid hormone transporter is located on chromosome Xq13.2. The expression pattern of MCT8 indicates that MCT8 plays an important role in the development of the central nervous system by transporting thyroid hormone into neurons as its main target cells. Mutational analysis of the MCT8 gene revealed mutations or deletions in the MCT8 gene in unrelated male patients with severe psychomotor retardation and biochemical findings consistent with thyroid hormone resistance. Indeed, thyroid function tests in patients with MCT8 mutations demonstrated marked elevations of serum T3 (in the thyrotoxic range), a significant decrease in serum T4 or fT4 and normal to elevated TSH levels.

  13. Male hormonal contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Amory, J K

    2006-06-01

    Efforts are underway to develop additional forms of contraception for men. The most promising approach to male contraceptive development involves the administration of exogenous testosterone (T). When administered to a man, T functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary, thereby depriving the testes of the signals required for spermatogenesis. After 2-3 months of treatment, low levels of these gonadotropins lead to markedly decreased sperm counts and effective contraception in a majority of men. Hormonal contraception with exogenous T has proven to be free from serious adverse effects and is well tolerated by men. In addition, sperm counts uniformly normalize when the exogenous T is discontinued. Thus, male hormonal is safe, effective and reversible; however, spermatogenesis is not suppressed to zero in all men, meaning that some diminished potential for fertility persists. Because of this recent studies have combined T with progestogens and/or gonadotropin-releasing antagonists to further suppress pituitary gonadotropins and optimize contraceptive efficacy. Current combinations of T and progestogens completely suppress spermatogenesis without severe side effects in 80-90% of men, with significant suppression in the remainder of individuals. Recent trials with newer, long-acting forms of injectable T, which can be administered every 8 weeks, combined with progestogens, administered either orally or by long-acting implant, have yielded promising results and may soon result in the marketing of a safe, reversible and effective hormonal contraceptive for men.

  14. [Growth hormone signaling pathways].

    PubMed

    Zych, Sławomir; Szatkowska, Iwona; Czerniawska-Piatkowska, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    The substantial improvement in the studies on a very complicated mechanism-- growth hormone signaling in a cell, has been noted in last decade. GH-induced signaling is characterized by activation of several pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), the signal transducer and activator of transcription and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3) pathways. This review shows a current model of the growth hormone receptor dimerization, rotation of subunits and JAK2 kinase activation as the initial steps in the cascade of events. In the next stages of the signaling process, the GH-(GHR)2-(JAK2)2 complex may activate signaling molecules such as Stat, IRS-1 and IRS-2, and particularly all cascade proteins that activate MAP kinase. These pathways regulate basal cellular functions including target gene transcription, enzymatic activity and metabolite transport. Therefore growth hormone is considered as a major regulator of postnatal growth and metabolism, probably for mammary gland growth and development too.

  15. [Hormonal perturbations in fibromyalgia].

    PubMed

    Schlienger, J L; Perrin, A E; Grunenberger, F; Goichot, B

    2001-12-01

    Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain and fatigue without biological detectable disturbances. The mechanisms of this disease are unknown. It has been postulated that it can be the consequence of a chronic stress mediated mainly through the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system. These fields have been extensively studied. Results were scattered and non convincing. A reduction of growth hormone and IGF-1 levels described in a third of patients has led to a double blind random clinical trial with biogenetic growth hormone. Results were equivocal . Other hormonal systems are grossly normals and circadian rhythms are unaltered. Despite some arguments in favour of a CRH neurons hyperactivity, these results are not able to consolide a particular physiopathological mechanism and to argument for a new therapeutic approach. Many of the abnormalities may be the consequence of psychological disturbances.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Isolated growth hormone deficiency Educational Resources (10 links) Boston Children's Hospital CLIMB: Growth Hormone Deficiency Information Sheet (PDF) Disease InfoSearch: Isolated growth hormone deficiency ...

  17. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Clinical Trials Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  18. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  19. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    MedlinePlus

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...

  20. Hormone Profiling in Plant Tissues.

    PubMed

    Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2017-01-01

    Plant hormones are for a long time known to act as chemical messengers in the regulation of physiological processes during a plant's life cycle, from germination to senescence. Furthermore, plant hormones simultaneously coordinate physiological responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To study the hormonal regulation of physiological processes, three main approaches have been used (1) exogenous application of hormones, (2) correlative studies through measurements of endogenous hormone levels, and (3) use of transgenic and/or mutant plants altered in hormone metabolism or signaling. A plant hormone profiling method is useful to unravel cross talk between hormones and help unravel the hormonal regulation of physiological processes in studies using any of the aforementioned approaches. However, hormone profiling is still particularly challenging due to their very low abundance in plant tissues. In this chapter, a sensitive, rapid, and accurate method to quantify all the five "classic" classes of plant hormones plus other plant growth regulators, such as jasmonates, salicylic acid, melatonin, and brassinosteroids is described. The method includes a fast and simple extraction procedure without time consuming steps as purification or derivatization, followed by optimized ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. This protocol facilitates the high-throughput analysis of hormone profiling and is applicable to different plant tissues.

  1. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  2. Histological organization of the central nervous system and distribution of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide in the blue crab, Portunus pelagicus.

    PubMed

    Saetan, Jirawat; Senarai, Thanyaporn; Tamtin, Montakan; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Chavadej, Jittipan; Hanna, Peter J; Parhar, Ishwar; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prapee

    2013-09-01

    We present a detailed histological description of the central nervous system (CNS: brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia) of the blue crab, Portunus pelagicus. Because the presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in crustaceans has been disputed, we examine the presence and localization of a GnRH-like peptide in the CNS of the blue crab by using antibodies against lamprey GnRH (lGnRH)-III, octopus GnRH (octGnRH) and tunicate GnRH (tGnRH)-I. These antibodies showed no cross-reactivity with red-pigment-concentrating hormone, adipokinetic hormone, or corazonin. In the brain, strong lGnRH-III immunoreactivity (-ir) was detected in small (7-17 μm diameter) neurons of clusters 8, 9 and 10, in medium-sized (21-36 μm diameter) neurons of clusters 6, 7 and 11 and in the anterior and posterior median protocerebral neuropils, olfactory neuropil, median and lateral antenna I neuropils, tegumentary neuropil and antenna II neuropil. In the subesophageal ganglion, lGnRH-III-ir was detected in medium-sized neurons and in the subesophageal neuropil. In the thoracic and abdominal ganglia, lGnRH-III-ir was detected in medium-sized and small neurons and in the neuropils. OctGnRH-ir was observed in neurons of the same clusters with moderate staining, particularly in the deutocerebrum, whereas tGnRH-I-ir was only detected in medium-sized neurons of cluster 11 in the brain. Thus, anti-lGnRH-III shows greater immunoreactivity in the crab CNS than anti-octGnRH and anti-tGnRH-I. Moreover, our functional bioassay demonstrates that only lGnRH-III has significant stimulatory effects on ovarian growth and maturation. We therefore conclude that, although the true identity of the crab GnRH eludes us, crabs possess a putative GnRH hormone similar to lGnRH-III. The identification and characterization of this molecule is part of our ongoing research.

  3. The wound hormone jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Abraham J.K.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant tissues are highly vulnerable to injury by herbivores, pathogens, mechanical stress, and other environmental insults. Optimal plant fitness in the face of these threats relies on complex signal transduction networks that link damage-associated signals to appropriate changes in metabolism, growth, and development. Many of these wound-induced adaptive responses are triggered by de novo synthesis of the plant hormone jasmonate (JA). Recent studies provide evidence that JA mediates systemic wound responses through distinct cell autonomous and nonautonomous pathways. In both pathways, bioactive JAs are recognized by an F-box protein-based receptor system that couples hormone binding to ubiquitin-dependent degradation of transcriptional repressor proteins. These results provide a new framework for understanding how plants recognize and respond to tissue injury. PMID:19695649

  4. Sex hormones and acne.

    PubMed

    Ju, Qiang; Tao, Tao; Hu, Tingting; Karadağ, Ayşe Serap; Al-Khuzaei, Safaa; Chen, WenChieh

    The skin is an endocrine organ with the expression of metabolizing enzymes and hormone receptors for diverse hormones. The sebaceous gland is the main site of hormone biosynthesis, especially for androgens, and acne is the classical androgen-mediated dermatosis. In sebocytes, conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone directly to dihydrotestosterone bypassing testosterone has been demonstrated, while type II 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase can inactivate the action of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. The androgen receptor-dependent genomic effect of dihydrotestosterone on sebocytes is confirmed. Further evidence supports the PI3 K/Akt/FoxO1/mTOR signaling in the involvement of the interplay between androgens, insulin, insulin-like growth factor, and hyperglycemic diet in acne. Androgens not only regulate embryology and lipogenesis/sebum synthesis in sebocytes but also influence inflammation in acne. Genetic studies indicate that regulation of the androgen receptor is an important factor in severe acne. Further studies are required to understand the effect of estrogen and progesterone on sebaceous gland and comedogenesis, considering the change of acne in pregnancy and postmenopausal acne. Special attention should be paid to nonobese patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome and hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome. In spite of extensive gynecologic experience in the use of combined oral contraceptives for acne, evidence based on dermatologic observation should be intensified.

  5. [Acne and hormones].

    PubMed

    Faure, Michel

    2002-04-15

    Androgens stimulate sebum production which is necessary for the development of acne. Acne in women may thus be considered as a manifestation of cutaneous androgenization. Most of acnes may be related to an idiopathic skin hyperandrogenism due to in situ enzyme activity and androgen receptor hypersensitivity, as also noted in idiopathic hirsutism. Some acne may correspond to elevated ovarian or adrenal androgen secretion. The presence of acne in women may lead to a diagnosis of functional hyperandrogenism, either polycysticovary syndrome or nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Plasma level assays for testosterone, delta 4 androstenedione and 17-OH progesterone and ovarian echography are necessary to determine the possibility for an ovarian or adrenal hyperandrogenism, but not to better treat acne. The goal of hormonal therapy in acne is to oppose the effects of androgens on the sebaceous gland. Hormones may be used in female acne in the absence of endocrine abnormalities. Antiandrogens (cyproterone acetate or aldactone) may be useful in severe acne, hormonal contraceptives with cyproterone acetate or non androgenic progestins in mild or common acne often in association with other anti-acneic drugs. Glucocorticoids have to be administered in acne fulminans and other forms of acute, severe, inflammatory acne, for their anti-inflammatory properties.

  6. Thyroid Hormones and Methylmercury Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    O’Mara, Daniel M.; Aschner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for cellular metabolism, growth, and development. In particular, an adequate supply of thyroid hormones is critical for fetal neurodevelopment. Thyroid hormone tissue activation and inactivation in brain, liver, and other tissues is controlled by the deiodinases through the removal of iodine atoms. Selenium, an essential element critical for deiodinase activity, is sensitive to mercury and, therefore, when its availability is reduced, brain development might be altered. This review addresses the possibility that high exposures to the organometal, methylmercury (MeHg), may perturb neurodevelopmental processes by selectively affecting thyroid hormone homeostasis and function. PMID:18716716

  7. [Hormone replacement therapy--growth hormone, melatonin, DHEA and sex hormones].

    PubMed

    Fukai, Shiho; Akishita, Masahiro

    2009-07-01

    The ability to maintain active and independent living as long as possible is crucial for the healthy longevity. Hormones responsible for some of the manifestations associated with aging are growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), melatonin, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), sex hormones and thyroid hormones. These hormonal changes are associated with changes in body composition, visceral obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, loss of cognitive functioning, reduction in well being, depression, as well as sexual dysfunction. With the prolongation of life expectancy, both men and women today live the latter third life with endocrine deficiencies. Hormone replacement therapy may alleviate the debilitating conditions of secondary partial endocrine deficiencies by preventing or delaying some aspects of aging.

  8. Hormonal Programming Across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Tobet, Stuart A; Lara, Hernan E; Lucion, Aldo B; Wilson, Melinda E; Recabarren, Sergio E; Paredes, Alfonso H

    2013-01-01

    Hormones influence countless biological processes across the lifespan, and during developmental sensitive periods hormones have the potential to cause permanent tissue-specific alterations in anatomy and physiology. There are numerous critical periods in development wherein different targets are affected. This review outlines the proceedings of the Hormonal Programming in Development session at the US-South American Workshop in Neuroendocrinology in August 2011. Here we discuss how gonadal hormones impact various biological processes within the brain and gonads during early development and describe the changes that take place in the aging female ovary. At the cellular level, hormonal targets in the brain include neurons, glia, or vasculature. On a genomic/epigenomic level, transcription factor signaling and epigenetic changes alter the expression of hormone receptor genes across development and following ischemic brain insult. In addition, organizational hormone exposure alters epigenetic processes in specific brain nuclei and may be a mediator of sexual differentiation of the neonatal brain. During development of the ovary, exposure to excess gonadal hormones leads to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Exposure to excess androgens during fetal development also has a profound effect on the development of the male reproductive system. In addition, increased sympathetic nerve activity and stress during early life have been linked to PCOS symptomology in adulthood. Finally, we describe how age-related decreases in fertility are linked to high levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), which enhances sympathetic nerve activity and alters ovarian function. PMID:22700441

  9. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  10. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. ... performed on infants and children to identify human growth hormone (hGH) deficiency as a cause of growth retardation. ...

  11. Quo vadis plant hormone analysis?

    PubMed

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Floková, Kristýna; Tarkowski, Petr; Turečková, Veronika; Grúz, Jiří; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav

    2014-07-01

    Plant hormones act as chemical messengers in the regulation of myriads of physiological processes that occur in plants. To date, nine groups of plant hormones have been identified and more will probably be discovered. Furthermore, members of each group may participate in the regulation of physiological responses in planta both alone and in concert with members of either the same group or other groups. The ideal way to study biochemical processes involving these signalling molecules is 'hormone profiling', i.e. quantification of not only the hormones themselves, but also their biosynthetic precursors and metabolites in plant tissues. However, this is highly challenging since trace amounts of all of these substances are present in highly complex plant matrices. Here, we review advances, current trends and future perspectives in the analysis of all currently known plant hormones and the associated problems of extracting them from plant tissues and separating them from the numerous potentially interfering compounds.

  12. Hormone therapy for transgender patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many transgender men and women seek hormone therapy as part of the transition process. Exogenous testosterone is used in transgender men to induce virilization and suppress feminizing characteristics. In transgender women, exogenous estrogen is used to help feminize patients, and anti-androgens are used as adjuncts to help suppress masculinizing features. Guidelines exist to help providers choose appropriate candidates for hormone therapy, and act as a framework for choosing treatment regimens and managing surveillance in these patients. Cross-sex hormone therapy has been shown to have positive physical and psychological effects on the transitioning individual and is considered a mainstay treatment for many patients. Bone and cardiovascular health are important considerations in transgender patients on long-term hormones, and care should be taken to monitor certain metabolic indices while patients are on cross-sex hormone therapy. PMID:28078219

  13. Plant hormone signaling lightens up: integrators of light and hormones.

    PubMed

    Lau, On Sun; Deng, Xing Wang

    2010-10-01

    Light is an important environmental signal that regulates diverse growth and developmental processes in plants. In these light-regulated processes, multiple hormonal pathways are often modulated by light to mediate the developmental changes. Conversely, hormone levels in plants also serve as endogenous cues in influencing light responsiveness. Although interactions between light and hormone signaling pathways have long been observed, recent studies have advanced our understanding by identifying signaling integrators that connect the pathways. These integrators, namely PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 3 (PIF3), PIF4, PIF3-LIKE 5 (PIL5)/PIF1 and LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), are key light signaling components and they link light signals to the signaling of phytohormones, such as gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), auxin and cytokinin, in regulating seedling photomorphogenesis and seed germination. This review focuses on these integrators in illustrating how light and hormone interact.

  14. Hormone signaling in plant development.

    PubMed

    Durbak, Amanda; Yao, Hong; McSteen, Paula

    2012-02-01

    Hormone signaling plays diverse and critical roles during plant development. In particular, hormone interactions regulate meristem function and therefore control formation of all organs in the plant. Recent advances have dissected commonalities and differences in the interaction of auxin and cytokinin in the regulation of shoot and root apical meristem function. In addition, brassinosteroid hormones have recently been discovered to regulate root apical meristem size. Further insights have also been made into our understanding of the mechanism of crosstalk among auxin, cytokinin, and strigolactone in axillary meristems.

  15. Hormone replacement therapy and longevity.

    PubMed

    Comhaire, F

    2016-02-01

    To assess whether hormone replacement therapy influences longevity, an analysis was made of published life tables allowing for the calculation of the relative benefit of hormone replacement therapy on longevity in men with late onset hypogonadism and in post-menopausal women. It was found that testosterone replacement therapy of men suffering from late onset hypogonadism increased survival rate by 9-10% in 5 years, similar to that of eugonadal, non-LOH men with normal endogenous testosterone secretion. Oestrogen replacement therapy resulted in increased survival by 2.6% in 5 years. It is concluded that hormone replacement therapy increases longevity.

  16. Hypermetabolic Conversion of Plant Oil into Water: Endothermic Biochemical Process Stimulated by Juvenile Hormone in the European Firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus L.

    PubMed

    Sláma, Karel; Lukáš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    cold larvae of P. apterus was only some 30% (not a reported 10-fold difference), which was presumably due to their ability to drink. We conclude that a very important, though still largely neglected, epigenetic biochemical role of insect JH depends on switchover between the utilization of dietary lipid (+JH; production of metabolic water) and carbohydrate (-JH; lipid storage in the fat body). The hypermetabolic water supply in insects fed on dry food, which is associated with enormous rates of O2 consumption, liberates endothermic energy that heats the body and potentially influences the insect thermoregulation. A possibility that the JH-dependent lipolytic hormone stimulates the total metabolic breakdown of nutritional lipids may be absolutely different from the currently known adipokinetic peptides that have been emphasized.

  17. Specific involvement of gonadal hormones in the functional maturation of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons.

    PubMed

    Gouty-Colomer, Laurie-Anne; Méry, Pierre-François; Storme, Emilie; Gavois, Elodie; Robinson, Iain C; Guérineau, Nathalie C; Mollard, Patrice; Desarménien, Michel G

    2010-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the key hormone involved in the regulation of growth and metabolism, two functions that are highly modulated during infancy. GH secretion, controlled mainly by GH releasing hormone (GHRH), has a characteristic pattern during postnatal development that results in peaks of blood concentration at birth and puberty. A detailed knowledge of the electrophysiology of the GHRH neurons is necessary to understand the mechanisms regulating postnatal GH secretion. Here, we describe the unique postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of GHRH neurons and their regulation by gonadal hormones. Using GHRH-eGFP mice, we demonstrate that already at birth, GHRH neurons receive numerous synaptic inputs and fire large and fast action potentials (APs), consistent with effective GH secretion. Concomitant with the GH secretion peak occurring at puberty, these neurons display modifications of synaptic input properties, decrease in AP duration, and increase in a transient voltage-dependant potassium current. Furthermore, the modulation of both the AP duration and voltage-dependent potassium current are specifically controlled by gonadal hormones because gonadectomy prevented the maturation of these active properties and hormonal treatment restored it. Thus, GHRH neurons undergo specific developmental modulations of their electrical properties over the first six postnatal weeks, in accordance with hormonal demand. Our results highlight the importance of the interaction between the somatotrope and gonadotrope axes during the establishment of adapted neuroendocrine functions.

  18. Steroid hormones and BDNF.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, N; Russo, M; Santoro, A N; Litta, P; Cela, V; Genazzani, A R

    2013-06-03

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin abundantly expressed in several areas of the central nervous system (CNS) and is known to induce a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy, to enhance specific learning and memory processes. BDNF is one of the key molecules modulating brain plasticity and it affects cognitive deficit associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease. Several studies have shown an altered BDNF production and secretion in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases but also in mood disorders like depression, eating disorders and schizophrenia. Plasma BDNF is also a biomarker of impaired memory and general cognitive function in aging women. Gonadal steroids are involved in the regulation of several CNS processes, specifically mood, affective and cognitive functions during fertile life and reproductive aging. These observations lead many scientists to investigate a putative co-regulation between BDNF and gonadal and/or adrenal steroids and their relationship with gender difference in the incidence of mental diseases. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge on the correlation between BDNF expression/function and both gonadal (progesterone, estrogens, and testosterone) and adrenal hormones (mainly cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) with relevance in clinical application.

  19. Calciotropic hormones during reproduction.

    PubMed

    Verhaeghe, J; Bouillon, R

    1992-03-01

    This review summarizes the reported effects of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and lactation on serum concentration of the calciotropic hormones PTH and 1,25(OH)2D. A midcycle rise in PTH and 1,25(OH)2D has been observed, but in the majority of studies there was no change in PTH and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations throughout the menstrual cycle. Both total and free 1,25(OH)2D levels are increased during pregnancy. The renal 1,25(OH)2D production is stimulated, and there is some evidence of 1,25(OH)2D production by decidua/placenta and fetal kidney in vitro; the decidual/placental production should not be overestimated in vivo. The increased renal 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity is possibly mediated by estrogens and PTH, although the effect of pregnancy on PTH remains uncertain. Increased serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations probably result in a rise of intestinal calcium absorption during pregnancy. There is a postdelivery drop in PTH and 1,25(OH)2D levels, but they are increased when lactation is prolonged, or in mothers nursing twins. The l alpha-hydroxylase activity during lactation may be stimulated by PTH, but also by prolactin.

  20. Network Identification of Hormonal Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Vis, Daniel J.; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Hoefsloot, Huub C. J.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Greef, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment. PMID:24852517

  1. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... used therapy is a female hormone blocker called tamoxifen. A newer therapy uses a pill (anastrozole, letrozole, ... are at high risk for developing breast cancer, tamoxifen or raloxifene can also be taken to prevent ...

  2. Hormone therapy for breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mood swings Depression Loss of interest in sex Drug Side Effects The side effects of hormone therapy depend on the drug. Common side effects include hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness . ...

  3. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs Why Give to PCF? Featured Blue Jacket Fashion Show Featured Donate Contact Us Menu Close Donate ... Featured Why Give to PCF? Featured Blue Jacket Fashion Show Contact Us Side Effects of Hormone Therapy ...

  4. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  5. The evolution of peptide hormones.

    PubMed

    Niall, H D

    1982-01-01

    Despite limitations in our present knowledge it is already possible to discern the main features of peptide hormone evolution, since the same mechanisms (and indeed the same hormone molecules) function in many different ways. This underlying unity of organization has its basis in the tendency of biochemical networks, once established, to survive and diversify. The most surprising recent findings in endocrinology have been the discovery of vertebrate peptide hormones in multiple sites within the same organism, and the reports, persuasive but requiring confirmation, of vertebrate hormones in primitive unicellular organisms (20, 20a). Perhaps the major challenge for the future is to define the roles and interactions of the many peptide hormones identified in brain (18). The most primitive bacteria and the human brain, though an enormous evolutionary distance apart, may have more in common than we have recognized until now. As Axelrod & Hamilton have pointed out in a recent provocative article, "The Evolution of Cooperation" (1), bacteria, though lacking a brain, are capable of adaptive behavior that can be analysed in terms of game theory. It is clear that we can learn a great deal about the whole evolutionary process from a study of the versatile and durable peptide hormones molecules.

  6. Growth hormone signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Carter-Su, Christin; Schwartz, Jessica; Argetsinger, Lawrence S

    2016-06-01

    Over 20years ago, our laboratory showed that growth hormone (GH) signals through the GH receptor-associated tyrosine kinase JAK2. We showed that GH binding to its membrane-bound receptor enhances binding of JAK2 to the GHR, activates JAK2, and stimulates tyrosyl phosphorylation of both JAK2 and GHR. The activated JAK2/GHR complex recruits a variety of signaling proteins, thereby initiating multiple signaling pathways and cellular responses. These proteins and pathways include: 1) Stat transcription factors implicated in the expression of multiple genes, including the gene encoding insulin-like growth factor 1; 2) Shc adapter proteins that lead to activation of the grb2-SOS-Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1,2 pathway; 3) insulin receptor substrate proteins implicated in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Akt pathway; 4) signal regulatory protein α, a transmembrane scaffold protein that recruits proteins including the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2; and 5) SH2B1, a scaffold protein that can activate JAK2 and enhance GH regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Our recent work has focused on the function of SH2B1. We have shown that SH2B1β is recruited to and phosphorylated by JAK2 in response to GH. SH2B1 localizes to the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and focal adhesions; it also cycles through the nucleus. SH2B1 regulates the actin cytoskeleton and promotes GH-dependent motility of RAW264.7 macrophages. Mutations in SH2B1 have been found in humans exhibiting severe early-onset childhood obesity and insulin resistance. These mutations impair SH2B1 enhancement of GH-induced macrophage motility. As SH2B1 is expressed ubiquitously and is also recruited to a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases, our results raise the possibility that effects of SH2B1 on the actin cytoskeleton in various cell types, including neurons, may play a role in regulating body weight.

  7. Physical and hormonal evaluation of transsexual patients during hormonal therapy.

    PubMed

    Meyer, W J; Finkelstein, J W; Stuart, C A; Webb, A; Smith, E R; Payer, A F; Walker, P A

    1981-08-01

    The optimal hormonal therapy for transsexual patients is not known. The physical and hormonal characteristics of 38 noncastrate male-to-female transsexuals and 14 noncastrate female-to-male transsexuals have been measured before and/or during therapy with various forms and dosages of hormonal therapy. All patients were hormonally and physically normal prior to therapy. Ethinyl estradiol was superior to conjugated estrogen in suppression of testosterone and gonadotropins but equal in effecting breast growth. The changes in physical and hormonal characteristics were the same for 0.1 mg/d and 0.5 mg/d of ethinyl estradiol. The female-to-male transsexuals were well managed with a dose of intramuscular testosterone cypionate of 400 mg/month, usually given 200 mg every two weeks. The maximal clitoral length reached was usually 4 cm. Higher doses of testosterone did not further increase clitoral length or suppression of gonadotropins; lower doses did not suppress the gonadotropins. Based on the information found in this study, we recommend 0.1 mg/d of ethinyl estradiol for the noncastrate male-to-female transsexual and 200 mg of intramuscular testosterone cypionate every two weeks for the noncastrate female-to-male transsexual.

  8. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Casula, Sabina; Bianco, Antonio C.

    2012-01-01

    Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin fold-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4) to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i) they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii) could play a role in modulating cell proliferation – in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)-13 cells is threefold to fourfold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh)-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a fivefold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma, and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches. PMID:22675319

  9. Drosophila TRPA1 isoforms detect UV light via photochemical production of H2O2

    PubMed Central

    Guntur, Ananya R.; Gu, Pengyu; Takle, Kendra; Chen, Jingyi; Xiang, Yang; Yang, Chung-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channel is an evolutionarily conserved detector of temperature and irritant chemicals. Here, we show that two specific isoforms of TRPA1 in Drosophila are H2O2 sensitive and that they can detect strong UV light via sensing light-induced production of H2O2. We found that ectopic expression of these H2O2-sensitive Drosophila TRPA1 (dTRPA1) isoforms conferred UV sensitivity to light-insensitive HEK293 cells and Drosophila neurons, whereas expressing the H2O2-insensitive isoform did not. Curiously, when expressed in one specific group of motor neurons in adult flies, the H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms were as competent as the blue light-gated channelrhodopsin-2 in triggering motor output in response to light. We found that the corpus cardiacum (CC) cells, a group of neuroendocrine cells that produce the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) in the larval ring gland endogenously express these H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms and that they are UV sensitive. Sensitivity of CC cells required dTRPA1 and H2O2 production but not conventional phototransduction molecules. Our results suggest that specific isoforms of dTRPA1 can sense UV light via photochemical production of H2O2. We speculate that UV sensitivity conferred by these isoforms in CC cells may allow young larvae to activate stress response—a function of CC cells—when they encounter strong UV, an aversive stimulus for young larvae. PMID:26443856

  10. Drosophila TRPA1 isoforms detect UV light via photochemical production of H2O2.

    PubMed

    Guntur, Ananya R; Gu, Pengyu; Takle, Kendra; Chen, Jingyi; Xiang, Yang; Yang, Chung-Hui

    2015-10-20

    The transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channel is an evolutionarily conserved detector of temperature and irritant chemicals. Here, we show that two specific isoforms of TRPA1 in Drosophila are H2O2 sensitive and that they can detect strong UV light via sensing light-induced production of H2O2. We found that ectopic expression of these H2O2-sensitive Drosophila TRPA1 (dTRPA1) isoforms conferred UV sensitivity to light-insensitive HEK293 cells and Drosophila neurons, whereas expressing the H2O2-insensitive isoform did not. Curiously, when expressed in one specific group of motor neurons in adult flies, the H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms were as competent as the blue light-gated channelrhodopsin-2 in triggering motor output in response to light. We found that the corpus cardiacum (CC) cells, a group of neuroendocrine cells that produce the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) in the larval ring gland endogenously express these H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms and that they are UV sensitive. Sensitivity of CC cells required dTRPA1 and H2O2 production but not conventional phototransduction molecules. Our results suggest that specific isoforms of dTRPA1 can sense UV light via photochemical production of H2O2. We speculate that UV sensitivity conferred by these isoforms in CC cells may allow young larvae to activate stress response--a function of CC cells--when they encounter strong UV, an aversive stimulus for young larvae.

  11. Disorders of antidiuretic hormone.

    PubMed

    Vokes, T J; Robertson, G L

    1988-06-01

    Disorders of thirst and vasopressin secretion present clinically in one of three ways: as hypotonic polyuria (DI), as hypodipsic hyponatremia, and as hyponatremia. In evaluating a patient with DI, the major challenge is to differentiate between primary polydipsia and neurogenic and nephrogenic DI. This is best accomplished through a series of steps that start with simple clinical observation, and progress, as necessary, to more complicated diagnostic procedures (Fig. 1). If the diagnosis is not clear from the clinical setting and the patient's history, the first step is to measure plasma osmolality and sodium under conditions of ad libitum fluid intake. If the results are clearly above the upper limit of normal range, primary polydipsia is excluded and the work-up can proceed directly to administration of vasopressin or DDAVP and/or a measurement of plasma vasopressin levels to differentiate between neurogenic and nephrogenic DI. If basal plasma osmolality and sodium fall within normal range, the standard dehydration test should be performed. If urine osmolality does not increase above that of plasma despite evident dehydration, primary polydipsia is excluded and the effect of vasopressin or DDAVP on urine osmolality should be examined to differentiate between neurogenic and nephrogenic DI. If administration of antidiuretic hormone increases urine osmolality by more than 50 per cent, the patient has severe neurogenic DI. If the increase in urine osmolality is less than 50 per cent, the patient has nephrogenic DI. In patients who do not concentrate urine above that of plasma in response to dehydration, the best approach is to measure plasma vasopressin, osmolality, and sodium after the latter have been increased above normal range by dehydration and/or infusion of hypertonic saline. When these results are plotted on a suitable nomogram (Fig. 2), neurogenic DI can be clearly diagnosed from the relative deficiency of vasopressin. In patients with normal vasopressin

  12. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists in premenopausal hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sing-Huang; Wolff, Antonio C

    2007-02-01

    Ovarian function suppression for the treatment of premenopausal breast cancer was first used in the late 19th century. Traditionally, ovarian function suppression had been accomplished irreversibly via irradiation or surgery, but analogues of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) have emerged as reliable and reversible agents for this purpose, especially the LH-RH agonists. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists are in earlier stages of development in breast cancer and are not currently in clinical use. Luteinizing hormonereleasing hormone agonists act by pituitary desensitization and receptor downregulation, thereby suppressing gonadotrophin release. Limited information is available comparing the efficacies of the depot preparations of various agonists, but pharmacodynamic studies have shown comparable suppressive capabilities on estradiol and luteinizing hormone. At present, only monthly goserelin is Food and Drug Administration-approved for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive, premenopausal metastatic breast cancer in the United States. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists have proven to be as effective as surgical oophorectomy in premenopausal advanced breast cancer. They offer similar outcomes compared with tamoxifen, but the endocrine combination appears to be more effective than LH-RH agonists alone. In the adjuvant setting, LH-RH agonists versus no therapy reduce the annual odds of recurrence and death in women aged>50 years with estrogen receptor-positive tumors. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists alone or in combination with tamoxifen have shown disease-free survival rates similar to chemotherapy with CMF (cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/5-fluorouracil). Outcomes of chemotherapy with or without LH-RH agonists are comparable, though a few trials favor the combination in young premenopausal women (aged<40 years). Adjuvant LH-RH agonists with or without tamoxifen might be as efficacious as tamoxifen alone

  13. Action of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: involvement of novel arachidonic acid metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, G D; Capdevila, J; Chacos, N; Manna, S; Falck, J R

    1983-01-01

    Anterior pituitary cells were incubated in the presence of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and one of three inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism:indomethacin, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase system; nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an antioxidant that inhibits lipoxygenase; and icosatetraynoic acid, an acetylenic analogue of arachidonic acid that blocks all known pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. Indomethacin was ineffective in blocking luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid was only marginally capable of inhibiting luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion. Icosatetraynoic acid at 10 microM completely inhibited stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion. Addition of several epoxygenated arachidonic acid metabolites to cells in vitro resulted in secretion of luteinizing hormone equal to or greater than that induced by 10 nM luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. The half-maximal effective dose for these compounds was approximately 50 nM. The 5,6-epoxyicosatrienoic acid was the most potent of the compounds tested. These studies suggest that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone release is closely coupled with the production of oxidized arachidonic acid metabolites. Moreover, one or more of the epoxygenated arachidonic acid metabolites might be a component of the cascade of reactions initiated by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone that ultimately results in secretion of luteinizing hormone. PMID:6344087

  14. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses.

    PubMed

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed.

  15. Hormones and prostate cancer: what's next?

    PubMed

    Hsing, A W

    2001-01-01

    In summary, the hormonal hypothesis remains one of the most important hypotheses in prostate cancer etiology. Although epidemiologic data regarding the role of hormones are still inconclusive, there are many intriguing leads. Armed with more complete methodological data, state-of-the-art hormone assays, sound epidemiologic design, and a more thorough analytical approach, a new generation of studies should yield critical data and insights to help clarify further the role of hormones in prostate cancer. These new studies may determine ultimately whether racial/ethnic differences in hormonal levels and in genetic susceptibility to hormone-metabolizing genes can help explain the very large racial/ethnic differences in prostate cancer risk.

  16. [Premenstrual asthma: relation to hormones].

    PubMed

    Hernández Colin, D; Zárate Treviño, A; Martínez Cairo Cueto, S

    1997-01-01

    Exacerbation of asthmatic symptoms just before or at the time of menstruation documented in some women with asthma has been called "premenstrual asthma" (PMA). The effect of sex hormones on airway function has not been well studied in spite of much evidence to suggest, therefore about relationships between the sex hormones and airway. The investigations of (PMA) have been based on studies of asthmatics already aware of a deterioration of asthma premenstrually. Little is known, therefore, about relationships between the menstrual cycle with asthma and (PMA) subjects. Although the mechanism of PMA remains unclear.

  17. Principles and pitfalls of free hormone measurements.

    PubMed

    Faix, James D

    2013-10-01

    The free hormone hypothesis states that a hormone's physiological effects depend on the free hormone concentration, not the total hormone concentration. Although the in vivo relationship between free hormone and protein-bound hormone is complex, most experts have applied this view to the design of assays used to assess the free hormone concentration in the blood sampled for testing in vitro. The history of the measurement of free thyroxine, probably the most frequently requested free hormone determination, offers a good example of the approaches that have been taken. Methods that require physical separation of the free hormone from the protein-bound hormone must address both the potential disturbance in the equilibrium between the two, as well as the challenge of quantifying small levels of hormone accurately and precisely. The implementation of mass spectrometry in the clinical laboratory has helped to develop proposed reference measurement procedures. These must be utilized to standardize the variety of immunoassay approaches that currently represent options commercially available to the routine clinical laboratory. Practicing endocrinologists should discuss the details of the free hormone assays offered by the clinical laboratory they utilize for patient result reporting, and clinical laboratories should implement the recommendations of published guidelines to ensure that free hormone results using commercially available immunoassays are as accurate and precise as possible.

  18. 'Love Hormone' Helps Dads and Babies Bond

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163657.html 'Love Hormone' Helps Dads and Babies Bond Brain scans ... 2017 FRIDAY, Feb. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The "love hormone" oxytocin may program fathers to bond with ...

  19. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. The parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-RP) test measures the level of a ...

  20. The concept of multiple hormonal dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Marcello; Cattabiani, Chiara; Lauretani, Fulvio; Ferrucci, Luigi; Luci, Michele; Valenti, Giorgio; Ceda, Gianpaolo

    2010-01-01

    Aging process is accompanied by hormonal changes characterized by an imbalance between catabolic hormones that remain stable and anabolic hormones (testosterone, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), that decrease with age. Despite the multiple hormonal dysregulation occurring with age, the prevalent line of research in the last decades has tried to explain many age-related phenomena as consequence of one single hormonal derangement with disappointing results. In this review we will list the relationship between hormonal anabolic deficiency and frailty and mortality in older population, providing evidence to the notion that multiple hormonal dysregulation rather than change in single anabolic hormone is a powerful marker of poor health status and mortality.

  1. Anabolic steroids and growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Haupt, H A

    1993-01-01

    Athletes are generally well educated regarding substances that they may use as ergogenic aids. This includes anabolic steroids and growth hormone. Fortunately, the abuse of growth hormone is limited by its cost and the fact that anabolic steroids are simply more enticing to the athlete. There are, however, significant potential adverse effects regarding its use that can be best understood by studying known growth hormone excess, as demonstrated in the acromegalic syndrome. Many athletes are unfamiliar with this syndrome and education of the potential consequences of growth hormone excess is important in counseling athletes considering its use. While athletes contemplating the use of anabolic steroids may correctly perceive their risks for significant physiologic effects to be small if they use the steroids for brief periods of time, many of these same athletes are unaware of the potential for habituation to the use of anabolic steroids. The result may be incessant use of steroids by an athlete who previously considered only short-term use. As we see athletes taking anabolic steroids for more prolonged periods, we are likely to see more severe medical consequences. Those who eventually do discontinue the steroids are dismayed to find that the improvements made with the steroids generally disappear and they have little to show for hours or even years of intense training beyond the psychological scars inherent with steroid use. Counseling of these athletes should focus on the potential adverse psychological consequences of anabolic steroid use and the significant risk for habituation.

  2. Thyroid Hormones as Renal Cell Cancer Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Matak, Damian; Bartnik, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary; Czarnecka, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that thyroid hormone is an important regulator of cancer development and metastasis. What is more, changes across the genome, as well as alternative splicing, may affect the activity of the thyroid hormone receptors. Mechanism of action of the thyroid hormone is different in every cancer; therefore in this review thyroid hormone and its receptor are presented as a regulator of renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27034829

  3. "Sex Hormones" in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term "sex hormone" is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term "sex hormone" is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called "sex hormones" are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found…

  4. Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor that Progressed to Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Syndrome with Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone (GHRH) Production

    PubMed Central

    Tadokoro, Rie; Sato, Shotaro; Otsuka, Fumiko; Ueno, Makoto; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Katakami, Hideki; Taniyama, Matsuo; Nagasaka, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    The patient was a 61-year-old woman who had a well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) with lymph node metastasis. After 15 months of octreotide treatment, glucose control deteriorated and pigmentation of the tongue and moon face developed, leading to the diagnosis of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome. An abnormal secretion of growth hormone (GH) was identified, and the plasma growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) level was elevated. A tumor biopsy specimen positively immunostained for ACTH and GHRH. Ectopic hormone secretion seems to have evolved along with the progression of the PNET. PMID:27746436

  5. Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor that Progressed to Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Syndrome with Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone (GHRH) Production.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Rie; Sato, Shotaro; Otsuka, Fumiko; Ueno, Makoto; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Katakami, Hideki; Taniyama, Matsuo; Nagasaka, Shoichiro

    The patient was a 61-year-old woman who had a well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) with lymph node metastasis. After 15 months of octreotide treatment, glucose control deteriorated and pigmentation of the tongue and moon face developed, leading to the diagnosis of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome. An abnormal secretion of growth hormone (GH) was identified, and the plasma growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) level was elevated. A tumor biopsy specimen positively immunostained for ACTH and GHRH. Ectopic hormone secretion seems to have evolved along with the progression of the PNET.

  6. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V. )

    1989-08-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)) and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides.

  7. Parathyroid hormone - Secretion and metabolism in vivo.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habener, J. F.; Powell, D.; Murray, T. M.; Mayer, G. P.; Potts, J. T., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Gel filtration and radioimmunoassay were used to determine the molecular size and immunochemical reactivity of parathyroid hormone present in gland extracts, in the general peripheral circulation, and in parathyroid effluent blood from patients with hyperparathyroidism, as well as from calves and from cattle. It was found that parathyroid hormone secreted from the parathyroids in man and cattle is at least as large as the molecule extracted from normal bovine glands. However, once secreted into the circulation the hormone is cleaved, and one or more fragments, immunologically, dissimilar to the originally secreted hormone, constitute the dominant form of circulating immunoreactive hormone.

  8. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    PubMed Central

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  9. Thyroid hormone and dehydroepiandrosterone permit gluconeogenic hormone responses in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kneer, N; Lardy, H

    2000-03-01

    The importance of the sn-glycerol- 3-phosphate (G-3-P) electron transfer shuttle in hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis was examined in hepatocytes from rats with decreased mitochondrial G-3-P dehydrogenase activity (thyroidectomized) or increased G-3-P dehydrogenase activity [triiodothyronine (T(3)) or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treated]. Rates of glucose formation from 10 mM lactate, 10 mM pyruvate, or 2.5 mM dihydroxyacetone were somewhat less in hypothyroid cells than in cells from normal rats but gluconeogenic responses to calcium addition and to norepinephrine (NE), glucagon (G), or vasopressin (VP) were similar to the responses observed in cells from normal rats. However, with 2. 5 mM glycerol or 2.5 mM sorbitol, substrates that must be oxidized in the cytosol before conversion to glucose, basal gluconeogenesis was not appreciably altered by hypothyroidism but responses to calcium and to the calcium-mobilizing hormones were abolished. Injecting thyroidectomized rats with T(3) 2 days before preparing the hepatocytes greatly enhanced gluconeogenesis from glyc erol and restored the response to Ca(2+) and gluconeogenic hormones. Feeding dehydroepiandrosterone for 6 days depressed gluconeogenesis from lactate or pyruvate but substantially increased glucose production from glycerol in euthyroid cells and restored responses to Ca(2+) in hypothyroid cells metabolizing glycerol. Euthyroid cells metabolizing glycerol or sorbitol use the G-3-P and malate/aspartate shuttles to oxidize excess NADH generated in the cytosol. The transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetate (AOA) decreased gluconeogenesis from glycerol 40%, but had little effect on responses to Ca(2+) and NE. However, in hypothyroid cells, with minimal G-3-P dehydrogenase, AOA decreased gluconeogenesis from glycerol more than 90%. Thus, the basal rate of gluconeogenesis from glycerol in the euthyroid cells is only partly dependent on electron transport from cytosol to mitochondria via the malate

  10. [Hormones and hair growth in man].

    PubMed

    Moretti, G; Rampini, E; Rebora, A

    1977-12-01

    A literature review tries to diminish the ambiguity between hormones and hairs. Therefore the hormonal action in general (regulation of the protein synthesis indirectly by enzymatical regulation of the AMP-system or directly by hormones as active metabolites) and the methods to explore hormones-hair-interaction are discussed. Hormones pertaining to the pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axis are regarded as the paramount hormones; therefore the results of research in testosterone, 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, estrogens, progesterone, glucocorticoids, the hypophysis and its tropins are recapitulated. The main disorders of hair-growth, pattern baldness and "idiopathic" hirsutism, which would be dependent on a similar disturbance of androgen metabolism, are discussed. Pathology in hair-growth may arise in any point of the cascade of hormone action.

  11. Hormone interactions during lateral root formation.

    PubMed

    Fukaki, Hidehiro; Tasaka, Masao

    2009-03-01

    Lateral root (LR) formation, the production of new roots from parent roots, is a hormone- and environmentally-regulated developmental process in higher plants. Physiological and genetic studies using Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species have revealed the roles of several plant hormones in LR formation, particularly the role of auxin in LR initiation and primordium development, resulting in much progress toward understanding the mechanisms of auxin-mediated LR formation. However, hormone interactions during LR formation have been relatively underexamined. Recent studies have shown that the plant hormones, cytokinin and abscisic acid negatively regulate LR formation whereas brassinosteroids positively regulate LR formation. On the other hand, ethylene has positive and negative roles during LR formation. This review summarizes recent findings on hormone-regulated LR formation in higher plants, focusing on auxin as a trigger and on the other hormones in LR formation, and discusses the possible interactions among plant hormones in this developmental process.

  12. Progestogens in menopausal hormone therapy

    PubMed Central

    Woroń, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Progestogens share one common effect: the ability to convert proliferative endometrium to its secretory form. In contrast, their biological activity is varied, depending on the chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, receptor affinity and different potency of action. Progestogens are widely used in the treatment of menstrual cycle disturbances, various gynaecological conditions, contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. The administration of progestogen in menopausal hormone therapy is essential in women with an intact uterus to protect against endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. Progestogen selection should be based on the characteristics available for each progestogen type, relying on the assessment of relative potency of action in experimental models and animal models, and on the indirect knowledge brought by studies of the clinical use of different progestogen formulations. The choice of progestogen should involve the conscious use of knowledge of its benefits, with a focus on minimizing potential side effects. Unfortunately, there are no direct clinical studies comparing the metabolic effects of different progestogens. PMID:26327902

  13. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  14. Modelling hormonal response and development.

    PubMed

    Voß, Ute; Bishopp, Anthony; Farcot, Etienne; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2014-05-01

    As our knowledge of the complexity of hormone homeostasis, transport, perception, and response increases, and their outputs become less intuitive, modelling is set to become more important. Initial modelling efforts have focused on hormone transport and response pathways. However, we now need to move beyond the network scales and use multicellular and multiscale modelling approaches to predict emergent properties at different scales. Here we review some examples where such approaches have been successful, for example, auxin-cytokinin crosstalk regulating root vascular development or a study of lateral root emergence where an iterative cycle of modelling and experiments lead to the identification of an overlooked role for PIN3. Finally, we discuss some of the remaining biological and technical challenges.

  15. Ovarian hormones and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M; Flanagan, Julianne; Brady, Kathleen

    2014-11-01

    There are significant gender differences in course, symptomology, and treatment of substance use disorders. In general data from clinical and preclinical studies of substance use disorders suggest that women are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious consequences of drug use at every phase of the addiction process. In addition data from epidemiologic studies suggest that the gender gap in the prevalence of substance use is narrowing particularly among adolescence. Therefore, understanding the role of estrogen and progesterone in mediating responses to drugs of abuse is of critical importance to women's health. In this review we will discuss findings from clinical and preclinical studies of (1) reproductive cycle phase; (2) endogenous ovarian hormones; and (3) hormone replacement on responses to stimulants, nicotine, alcohol, opioids, and marijuana. In addition, we discuss data from recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the neurobiologic mechanisms that interact with estrogen and progesterone to mediate drug-seeking behavior.

  16. A Simulated Growth Hormone Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Mary

    1996-08-01

    Growth hormone is a drug that is sometimes abused by amateur or professional athletes for performance-enhancement. This laboratory is a semimicroscale simulation analysis of a sample of "urine" to detect proteins of two very different molecular weights. Gel filtration uses a 10 mL disposable pipette packed with Sephadex. Students analyze the fractions from the filtration by comparing colors of the Brilliant Blue Coomassie Dye as it interacts with the proteins in the sample to a standard set of known concentration of protein with the dye. The simulated analysis of growth hormone is intended to be included in a unit on organic chemistry or in the second year of high school chemistry.

  17. Hormone therapy and cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Pauline M.; Sundermann, Erin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Clinical trials yield discrepant information about the impact of hormone therapy on verbal memory and executive function. This issue is clinically relevant because declines in verbal memory are the earliest predictor of Alzheimer's disease and declines in executive function are central to some theories of normal, age-related changes in cognition. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials of hormone therapy (i.e. oral, transdermal, i.m.) and verbal memory, distinguishing studies in younger (i.e. ≤65 years of age; n = 9) versus older (i.e. >65 years; n = 7) women and studies involving estrogen alone versus estrogen plus progestogen. Out of 32 placebo-controlled trials, 17 were included (13 had no verbal memory measures and 2 involved cholinergic manipulations). We also provide a narrative review of 25 studies of executive function (two trials), since there are insufficient clinical trial data for systematic review. RESULTS There is some evidence for a beneficial effect of estrogen alone on verbal memory in younger naturally post-menopausal women and more consistent evidence from small-n studies of surgically post-menopausal women. There is stronger evidence of a detrimental effect of conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate on verbal memory in younger and older post-menopausal women. Observational studies and pharmacological models of menopause provide initial evidence of improvements in executive function with hormone therapy. CONCLUSIONS Future studies should include measures of executive function and should address pressing clinical questions; including what formulation of combination hormone therapy is cognitively neutral/beneficial, yet effective in treating hot flashes in the early post-menopause. PMID:19468050

  18. Ghrelin and obestatin modulate growth hormone-releasing hormone release and synaptic inputs onto growth hormone-releasing hormone neurons.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dan D; Yang, Seung-Kwon; Loudes, Catherine; Simon, Axelle; Al-Sarraf, Tamara; Culler, Michael; Alvear-Perez, Rodrigo; Llorens-Cortes, Catherine; Chen, Chen; Epelbaum, Jacques; Gardette, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Ghrelin, a natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is synthesized in the stomach but may also be expressed in lesser quantity in the hypothalamus where the GHS-R is located on growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons. Obestatin, a peptide derived from the same precursor as ghrelin, is able to antagonize the ghrelin-induced increase of growth hormone (GH) secretion in vivo but not from pituitary explants in vitro. Thus, the blockade of ghrelin-induced GH release by obestatin could be mediated at the hypothalamic level by the neuronal network that controls pituitary GH secretion. Ghrelin increased GHRH and decreased somatostatin (somatotropin-releasing inhibitory factor) release from hypothalamic explants, whereas obestatin only reduced the ghrelin-induced increase of GHRH release, thus indicating that the effect of ghrelin and obestatin is targeted to GHRH neurons. Patch-clamp recordings on mouse GHRH-enhanced green fluorescent protein neurons indicated that ghrelin and obestatin had no significant effects on glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Ghrelin decreased GABAergic synaptic transmission in 44% of the recorded neurons, an effect blocked in the presence of the GHS-R antagonist BIM28163, and stimulated the firing rate of 78% of GHRH neurons. Obestatin blocked the effects of ghrelin by acting on a receptor different from the GHS-R. These data suggest that: (i) ghrelin increases GHRH neuron excitability by increasing their action potential firing rate and decreasing the strength of GABA inhibitory inputs, thereby leading to an enhanced GHRH release; and (ii) obestatin counteracts ghrelin actions. Such interactions on GHRH neurons probably participate in the control of GH secretion.

  19. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mullur, Rashmi; Liu, Yan-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for normal development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues and have distinct roles in TH signaling. Local activation of thyroxine (T4), to the active form, triiodothyronine (T3), by 5′-deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a key mechanism of TH regulation of metabolism. D2 is expressed in the hypothalamus, white fat, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle and is required for adaptive thermogenesis. The thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition to TRH/TSH regulation by TH feedback, there is central modulation by nutritional signals, such as leptin, as well as peptides regulating appetite. The nutrient status of the cell provides feedback on TH signaling pathways through epigentic modification of histones. Integration of TH signaling with the adrenergic nervous system occurs peripherally, in liver, white fat, and BAT, but also centrally, in the hypothalamus. TR regulates cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism through direct actions on gene expression as well as cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and bile acid signaling pathways. TH modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, especially important for the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The role of TH in regulating metabolic pathways has led to several new therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and interactions of the various TH signaling pathways in metabolism will improve our likelihood of identifying effective and selective targets. PMID:24692351

  20. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  1. Are female sex hormones teratogenic?

    PubMed

    Wilson, J G; Brent, R L

    1981-11-01

    An analysis of available epidemiologic data leads the present reviewers to conclude that the use of exogenous hormones during human pregnancy has not been proved to cause developmental abnormality in nongenital organs and tissues. This conclusion is further supported by the animal laboratory data. The preponderance of evidence at this writing indicates a lack of causal association between hormonal use during pregnancy and nongenital malformation of the offspring. The quality of the epidemiologic data does not, at this time, permit a definitive conclusion that sex hormones during pregnancy may not, under as yet to be defined conditions, have some adverse effect on human prenatal development. If there are increased risks of nongenital malformations associated with the administration of certain sex steroids, the risks are very small, may not be causal, and are substantially below the spontaneous risk of malformations. In spite of the present degree of uncertainty, the clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory data do permit the formulation of a rational approach to handling problems related to sex steroid usage and exposure in pregnant women.

  2. Sex Hormones and Macronutrient Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Comitato, Raffaella; Saba, Anna; Turrini, Aida; Arganini, Claudia; Virgili, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The biological differences between males and females are determined by a different set of genes and by a different reactivity to environmental stimuli, including the diet, in general. These differences are further emphasized and driven by the exposure to a different hormone flux throughout the life. These differences have not been taken into appropriate consideration by the scientific community. Nutritional sciences are not immune from this “bias” and when nutritional needs are concerned, females are considered only when pregnant, lactating or when their hormonal profile is returning back to “normal,” i.e., to the male-like profile. The authors highlight some of the most evident differences in aspects of biology that are associated with nutrition. This review presents and describes available data addressing differences and similarities of the “reference man” vs. the “reference woman” in term of metabolic activity and nutritional needs. According to this assumption, available evidences of sex-associated differences of specific biochemical pathways involved in substrate metabolism are reported and discussed. The modulation by sexual hormones affecting glucose, amino acid and protein metabolism and the metabolization of nutritional fats and the distribution of fat depots, is considered targeting a tentative starting up background for a gender concerned nutritional science. PMID:24915409

  3. Hormonal and lactational responses to growth hormone-releasing hormone treatment in lactating Japanese Black cows.

    PubMed

    Shingu, H; Hodate, K; Kushibiki, S; Ueda, Y; Touno, E; Shinoda, M; Ohashi, S

    2004-06-01

    Ten multiparous lactating Japanese Black cows (beef breed) were used to evaluate the effects of bovine growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) analog on milk yield and profiles of plasma hormones and metabolites. The cows received 2 consecutive 21-d treatments (a daily s.c. injection of 3-mg GHRH analog or saline) in a 2 (group) x 2 (period) Latin square crossover design. The 5 cows in group A received GHRH analog during period 1 (from d 22 to 42 postpartum) and saline during period 2 (from d 57 to 77 postpartum), and those in group B received saline and GHRH analog during periods 1 and 2, respectively. Mean milk yield decreased in saline treated compared with that during the 1-wk period before treatment 7.4 and 19.1% during periods 1 (group B) and 2 (group A), respectively. Treatment with GHRH analog increased milk yield 17.4% (period 1, group A) and 6.3% (period 2, group B). Treatment with GHRH analog induced higher basal plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin, and glucose compared with saline-treated cows. In glucose challenge, the GHRH analog-treated beef cows had greater insulin secretion than the saline-treated beef cows. In insulin challenge, however, there were no significant differences in the areas surrounded by hypothetical lines of basal glucose concentrations and glucose response curves between GHRH analog- and saline-treated cows. These results demonstrate that GHRH analog treatment facilitates endogenous GH secretion in lactating Japanese Black cows, leading to increases in milk yield and plasma concentrations of IGF-1, insulin, and glucose.

  4. Hormone symphony during root growth and development.

    PubMed

    Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; De La Paz Sánchez, María; García-Ponce, Berenice; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2012-12-01

    Hormones regulate plant growth and development in response to external environmental stimuli via complex signal transduction pathways, which in turn form complex networks of interaction. Several classes of hormones have been reported, and their activity depends on their biosynthesis, transport, conjugation, accumulation in the vacuole, and degradation. However, the activity of a given hormone is also dependent on its interaction with other hormones. Indeed, there is a complex crosstalk between hormones that regulates their biosynthesis, transport, and/or signaling functionality, although some hormones have overlapping or opposite functions. The plant root is a particularly useful system in which to study the complex role of plant hormones in the plastic control of plant development. Physiological, cellular, and molecular genetic approaches have been used to study the role of plant hormones in root meristem homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings on the synthesis, signaling, transport of hormones and role during root development and examine the role of hormone crosstalk in maintaining homeostasis in the apical root meristem.

  5. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation.

    PubMed

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-06-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization or differentiated posttranslational maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and cerebral or peripheral neurons but others also in other cell types. The extraintestinal cells may release different bioactive fragments of the same prohormone due to cell-specific processing pathways. Moreover, endocrine cells, neurons, cancer cells and, for instance, spermatozoa secrete gut peptides in different ways, so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions, but also constitute regulatory systems operating in the whole organism. This overview of gut hormone biology is supplemented with an annotation on some Scandinavian contributions to gastrointestinal hormone research.

  6. Expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in fibroadenomas of the breast.

    PubMed

    Lenicek, Tanja; Kasumović, Dino; Stajduhar, Emil; Dzombeta, Tihana; Jukić, Zoran; Kruslin, Bozo

    2013-06-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most prevalent benign breast tumor. It consists of epithelial and stromal components. In general, breast tumors are highly hormonally dependent and growth hormone by its physiology may have a possible oncogenic potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in epithelial and stromal components of fibroadenomas. Study group included 30 randomly chosen fibroadenomas from female patients aged between 18 and 69 years. The expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor was defined in both histologic components of fibroadenomas. Growth hormone was expressed in 96.7% of both epithelial and stromal components of fibroadenomas, with stronger expression in the stromal component. The same percentage of positive reaction (96.7%) was obtained in the epithelial component of fibroadenomas for growth hormone receptor expression. Only 6.7% of stromal components tested for growth hormone receptor were positive. The high expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in fibroadenoma tissue indicates their possible role in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Follow up of patients with high expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor may be suggested.

  7. Do hormones influence melanoma? Facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amie; Driscoll, Marcia S

    2010-01-01

    The issue of whether hormones influence malignant melanoma (MM) has been controversial for many years. Although early case reports demonstrated a negative effect of hormones, recent evidence has not supported a potential role for hormones in MM. We address whether exogenous and endogenous hormones influence a woman's risk for MM or affect her prognosis if diagnosed with MM. Multiple epidemiologic studies show the use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy does not appear to increase a woman's risk for MM. Pregnancy does not appear to influence a woman's risk of MM, nor does pregnancy appear to affect prognosis in the woman diagnosed with MM. When counseling the woman who is diagnosed with MM during pregnancy or during the childbearing years, future use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy is not contraindicated; counseling concerning future pregnancies should be done on a case-by-case basis, with emphasis placed on established prognostic factors for MM.

  8. Hormones and sexual orientation: a questionable link.

    PubMed

    Banks, A; Gartrell, N K

    1995-01-01

    This paper critically reviews the studies which explore a possible causal relationship between sex hormones and the development of sexual orientation. Early studies focused on hormone measurements in adult men and women. While definitive interpretations are hindered by methodological problems, the studies as a whole do not support a causal relationship between postnatal hormone levels and sexual orientation. More recently, a theory that prenatal hormone levels produce varying degrees of brain androgenization and subsequent dimorphic sex role behavior has consistently been supported by studies in lower mammals. Attempts to generalize the causes of sexual orientation from animals to humans have been controversial. Efforts to measure the estrogen feedback as an indication of brain androgenization have produced inconsistent results. Studies of men and women who experienced defect in hormone metabolism (i.e., CAH and testicular feminization) have not found a concurrent increase in homosexual behavior. Overall, the data do not support a causal connection between hormones and human sexual orientation.

  9. Thyroid hormone resistance and its management

    PubMed Central

    Lado-Abeal, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    The syndrome of impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone, also known as syndrome of thyroid hormone resistance, is an inherited condition that occurs in 1 of 40,000 live births characterized by a reduced responsiveness of target tissues to thyroid hormone due to mutations on the thyroid hormone receptor. Patients can present with symptoms of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. They usually have elevated thyroid hormones and a normal or elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level. Due to their nonspecific symptomatic presentation, these patients can be misdiagnosed if the primary care physician is not familiar with the condition. This can result in frustration for the patient and sometimes unnecessary invasive treatment such as radioactive iodine ablation, as in the case presented herein. PMID:27034574

  10. Sex steroids and growth hormone interactions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Guerra, Borja; Díaz, Mario; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    GH and sex hormones are critical regulators of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism, and sexual dimorphism. Deficiencies in GH- or sex hormone-dependent signaling and the influence of sex hormones on GH biology may have a dramatic impact on liver physiology during somatic development and in adulthood. Effects of sex hormones on the liver may be direct, through hepatic receptors, or indirect by modulating endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions of GH. Sex hormones can modulate GH actions by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and peripherally, by modulating GH signaling pathways. The endocrine and/or metabolic consequences of long-term exposure to sex hormone-related compounds and their influence on the GH-liver axis are largely unknown. A better understanding of these interactions in physiological and pathological states will contribute to preserve health and to improve clinical management of patients with growth, developmental, and metabolic disorders.

  11. Endocrine disruptors and thyroid hormone physiology.

    PubMed

    Jugan, Mary-Line; Levi, Yves; Blondeau, Jean-Paul

    2010-04-01

    Endocrine disruptors are man-made chemicals that can disrupt the synthesis, circulating levels, and peripheral action of hormones. The disruption of sex hormones was subject of intensive research, but thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling are now also recognized as important targets of endocrine disruptors. The neurological development of mammals is largely dependent on normal thyroid hormone homeostasis, and it is likely to be particularly sensitive to disruption of the thyroid axis. Here, we survey the main thyroid-disrupting chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, perchlorates, and brominated flame-retardants, that are characteristic disruptors of thyroid hormone homeostasis, and look at their suspected relationships to impaired development of the human central nervous system. The review then focuses on disrupting mechanisms known to be directly or indirectly related to the transcriptional activity of the thyroid hormone receptors.

  12. Hormonal regulation of fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Gicquel, C; Le Bouc, Y

    2006-01-01

    Fetal growth is a complex process depending on the genetics of the fetus, the availability of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus, maternal nutrition and various growth factors and hormones of maternal, fetal and placental origin. Hormones play a central role in regulating fetal growth and development. They act as maturational and nutritional signals in utero and control tissue development and differentiation according to the prevailing environmental conditions in the fetus. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, and IGF-I and IGF-II in particular, plays a critical role in fetal and placental growth throughout gestation. Disruption of the IGF1, IGF2 or IGF1R gene retards fetal growth, whereas disruption of IGF2R or overexpression of IGF2 enhances fetal growth. IGF-I stimulates fetal growth when nutrients are available, thereby ensuring that fetal growth is appropriate for the nutrient supply. The production of IGF-I is particularly sensitive to undernutrition. IGF-II plays a key role in placental growth and nutrient transfer. Several key hormone genes involved in embryonic and fetal growth are imprinted. Disruption of this imprinting causes disorders involving growth defects, such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, which is associated with fetal overgrowth, or Silver-Russell syndrome, which is associated with intrauterine growth retardation. Optimal fetal growth is essential for perinatal survival and has long-term consequences extending into adulthood. Given the high incidence of intrauterine growth retardation and the high risk of metabolic and cardiovascular complications in later life, further clinical and basic research is needed to develop accurate early diagnosis of aberrant fetal growth and novel therapeutic strategies.

  13. Aluminum, parathyroid hormone, and osteomalacia

    SciTech Connect

    Burnatowska-Hledin, M.A.; Kaiser, L.; Mayor, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    Aluminum exposure in man is unavoidable. The occurrence of dialysis dementia, vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, and hypochromic microcytic anemia in dialysis patients underscores the potential for aluminum toxicity. Although exposure via dialysate and hyperalimentation leads to significant tissue aluminum accumulation, the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum and the severe pathology associated with large aluminum burdens suggest that smaller exposures via the gastrointestinal tract and lungs could represent an important, though largely unrecognized, public health problem. It is clear that some aluminum absorption occurs with the ingestion of small amounts of aluminum in the diet and medicines, and even greater aluminum absorption is seen in individuals consuming large amounts of aluminum present in antacids. Aluminum absorption is enhanced in the presence of elevated circulating parathyroid hormone. In addition, elevated PTH leads to the preferential deposition of aluminum in brain and bone. Consequently, PTH is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of toxicities in those organs. PTH excess also seems to lead to the deposition of aluminum in the parathyroid gland. The in vitro demonstration that aluminum inhibits parathyroid hormone release is consistent with the findings of a euparathyroid state in dialysis patients with aluminum related vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia. Nevertheless, it seems likely that hyperparathyroidism is at least initially involved in the pathogenesis of aluminum neurotoxicity and osteomalacia; the increases in tissue aluminum stores are followed by suppression of parathyroid hormone release, which is required for the evolution of osteomalacia. Impaired renal function is not a prerequisite for increased tissue aluminum burdens, nor for aluminum-related organ toxicity. Consequently, it is likely that these diseases will be observed in populations other than those with chronic renal disease.

  14. Review of hormonal treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Abdulkareem, I H; Zurmi, I B

    2012-01-01

    This critical review focuses on the role of steroid hormones and their receptors in the development and treatment of breast cancer, with special reference to estrogen receptors, as well as mechanisms of receptor-ligand interactions, response or resistance to hormonal therapy against breast cancer, in conjunction with other modalities like surgery and chemotherapy. Tamoxifen is used in hormonal treatment of breast cancer for up to five years, depending on the presentation. However, there have been recent developments in hormonal therapy of breast cancer in the last ten years, with the introduction of many different alternative therapies for this condition. A critical review of published articles in Pubmed/Medline, Athens, AJOL, NHS Evidence, Science Direct and Google, relating to hormonal treatment of breast cancer, was undertaken, in order to evaluate the mechanisms of estrogen receptor-ligand interactions, their involvement in the etio-pathogenesis of breast cancer, resistance of breast cancer cells to anti-hormonal agents, as well as ways of treating breast cancer using anti-hormone drugs like tamoxifen. Although tamoxifen is the established drug for hormonal treatment of breast cancer, cases of hormone resistance breast cancer have been described recently in the literature. This can happen from the beginning, or during treatment. Therefore, we aim to examine the causes of resistance to hormonal treatment with a view to understand the options of tackling this problem, and suggest other novel alternative hormonal therapies that can be tried, which may overtake tamoxifen in the future. We also seek to emphasize that hormonal therapy has a definite place in the treatment of breast cancer along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as the disease is often considered to be multi-systemic even from the beginning.

  15. Steroid Hormones in NF1 Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    neurofibroma and MPNST Schwann cells. We found less than 2-fold difference in these transcripts in tumor versus normal Schwann cells (in those that changed...neurofibromin-negative) to steroid hormones, focusing on estrogen and progesterone. The hypothesis is that human neurofibroma (and MPNST , malignant...to determine steroid hormone receptor expression in human normal, NF1 neurofibroma, and NF1 MPNST Schwann cells, pre- and post-hormone treatment by

  16. Steroid Hormones in NF1 Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    hypothesis is that human neurofibroma (and/or MPNST ) Schwann cells have increased hormone response compared to normal Schwann cells, leading to tumor...growth. Specific Aim 1 will determine steroid hormone receptor expression in human normal, NFl neurofibroma and MPNST Schwann cells. Real-time PCR has...and rat Schwann cells, as well as an MPNST line so far (which showed no proliferative response) Specific Aim 3 involves in vivo hormone response of

  17. Hormonal therapy of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Labrie, Fernand

    2010-01-01

    Of all cancers, prostate cancer is the most sensitive to hormones: it is thus very important to take advantage of this unique property and to always use optimal androgen blockade when hormone therapy is the appropriate treatment. A fundamental observation is that the serum testosterone concentration only reflects the amount of testosterone of testicular origin which is released in the blood from which it reaches all tissues. Recent data show, however, that an approximately equal amount of testosterone is made from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) directly in the peripheral tissues, including the prostate, and does not appear in the blood. Consequently, after castration, the 95-97% fall in serum testosterone does not reflect the 40-50% testosterone (testo) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) made locally in the prostate from DHEA of adrenal origin. In fact, while elimination of testicular androgens by castration alone has never been shown to prolong life in metastatic prostate cancer, combination of castration (surgical or medical with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist) with a pure anti-androgen has been the first treatment shown to prolong life. Most importantly, when applied at the localized stage, the same combined androgen blockade (CAB) can provide long-term control or cure of the disease in more than 90% of cases. Obviously, since prostate cancer usually grows and metastasizes without signs or symptoms, screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is absolutely needed to diagnose prostate cancer at an 'early' stage before metastasis occurs and the cancer becomes non-curable. While the role of androgens was believed to have become non-significant in cancer progressing under any form of androgen blockade, recent data have shown increased expression of the androgen receptor (AR) in treatment-resistant disease with a benefit of further androgen blockade. Since the available anti-androgens have low affinity for AR and cannot block androgen action completely

  18. [Hormonal therapy in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Espinós, J; Reyna, C; de la Cruz, S; Oiler, C; Hernández, A; Fernández Hidalgo, O; Santisteban, M; García Foncillas, J

    2008-01-01

    Hormonal therapy has been the first systemic treatment against breast cancer. Up to now Tamoxifen and ovarian supression/ablation were the best optionts we had to treat early breast cancer as advancer disease. The advent of aromatase inhibitors, new SERMS and antistrogen Fulvestrant have supoused a great advance in the treatment of this disease and at the same time have complicated the election of the optimal drug for each patient. This article tries to review the aviable treatment options insiting on its indications.

  19. Sexual hormone fluctuation in chinchillas.

    PubMed

    Celiberti, Simone; Gloria, Alessia; Contri, Alberto; Carluccio, Augusto; Peric, Tanja; Melillo, Alessandro; Robbe, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    The data about chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger) reproduction are limited and in some cases discordant. The aim of this study was to monitor the sexual hormone fluctuation by fecal progesterone level and colpocytology analysis by vaginal smears in order to evaluate the different phases of the oestrus cycle. Twenty-four non pregnant chinchillas aged from 1 to 4 years old and subdivided in three groups were monitored. In contrast with findings reported in other study, the high values of progesterone recorded in autumn suggested the presence of a ciclicity also in this period. The data indicate that chinchilla presents a continuous cycle.

  20. Hormone cross-talk during seed germination.

    PubMed

    Gazzarrini, Sonia; Tsai, Allen Yi-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Hormones are chemical substances that can affect many cellular and developmental processes at low concentrations. Plant hormones co-ordinate growth and development at almost all stages of the plant's life cycle by integrating endogenous signals and environmental cues. Much debate in hormone biology revolves around specificity and redundancy of hormone signalling. Genetic and molecular studies have shown that these small molecules can affect a given process through a signalling pathway that is specific for each hormone. However, classical physiological and genetic studies have also demonstrated that the same biological process can be regulated by many hormones through independent pathways (co-regulation) or shared pathways (cross-talk or cross-regulation). Interactions between hormone pathways are spatiotemporally controlled and thus can vary depending on the stage of development or the organ being considered. In this chapter we discuss interactions between abscisic acid, gibberellic acid and ethylene in the regulation of seed germination as an example of hormone cross-talk. We also consider hormone interactions in response to environmental signals, in particular light and temperature. We focus our discussion on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

  1. Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Tissues. An update

    PubMed Central

    Litsas, George

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. In childhood, it determines the longitudinal bone growth, skeletal maturation, and acquisition of bone mass. In adulthood, it is necessary to maintain bone mass throughout life. Although an association between craniofacial and somatic development has been clearly established, craniofacial growth involves complex interactions of genes, hormones and environment. Moreover, as an anabolic hormone seems to have an important role in the regulation of bone remodeling, muscle enhancement and tooth development. In this paper the influence of growth hormone on oral tissues is reviewed. PMID:25674165

  2. Hormones and the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Hampl, Richard; Bičíková, Marie; Sosvorová, Lucie

    2015-03-01

    Hormones exert many actions in the brain, and brain cells are also hormonally active. To reach their targets in brain structures, hormones must overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a unique device selecting desired/undesired molecules to reach or leave the brain, and it is composed of endothelial cells forming the brain vasculature. These cells differ from other endothelial cells in their almost impermeable tight junctions and in possessing several membrane structures such as receptors, transporters, and metabolically active molecules, ensuring their selection function. The main ways how compounds pass through the BBB are briefly outlined in this review. The main part concerns the transport of major classes of hormones: steroids, including neurosteroids, thyroid hormones, insulin, and other peptide hormones regulating energy homeostasis, growth hormone, and also various cytokines. Peptide transporters mediating the saturable transport of individual classes of hormones are reviewed. The last paragraph provides examples of how hormones affect the permeability and function of the BBB either at the level of tight junctions or by various transporters.

  3. Effects of hormones on platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J

    2014-04-01

    Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.

  4. Thyroid hormone transporters in the brain.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takehiro; Abe, Takaaki

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid hormone plays an essential role in proper mammalian development of the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Lack of sufficient thyroid hormone results in abnormal development of virtually all organ systems, a syndrome termed cretinism. In particular, hypothyroidism in the neonatal period causes serious damage to neural cells and leads to mental retardation. Although thyroxine is the major product secreted by the thyroid follicular cells, the action of thyroid hormone is mediated mainly through the deiodination of T(4) to the biologically active form 3,3', 5-triiodo-L-thyronine, followed by the binding of T(3) to a specific nuclear receptor. Before reaching the intracellular targets, thyroid hormone must cross the plasma membrane. Because of the lipophilic nature of thyroid hormone, it was thought that they traversed the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. However, in the past decade, a membrane transport system for thyroid hormone has been postulated to exist in various tissues. Several classes of transporters, organic anion transporter polypeptide (oatp) family, Na(+)/Taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (ntcp) and amino acid transporters have been reported to transport thyroid hormones. Monocarboxylate transporter8 (MCT8) has recently been identified as an active and specific thyroid hormone transporter. Mutations in MCT8 are associated with severe X-linked psycomotor retardation and strongly elevated serum T3 levels in young male patients. Several other molecules should be contributed to exert the role of thyroid hormone in the central nervous system.

  5. Alligators, contaminants and steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Guillette, Louis J; Edwards, Thea M; Moore, Brandon C

    2007-01-01

    Steroids are essential for successful reproduction in all vertebrate species. Over the last several decades, extensive research has indicated that exposure to various environmental pollutants can disrupt steroidogenesis and steroid signaling. Although steroidogenesis is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, it is also modified by various paracrine and autocrine factors. Furthermore, the classical two-cell model of steroidogenesis in the developing ovarian follicle, involving the granulosa and theca cells in mammals, may not be universal. Instead, birds and probably reptiles use the two thecal compartments (theca interna and theca externa) as sites of steroid production. We have documented that embryonic or juvenile exposure to a complex mixture of contaminants from agricultural and storm water runoff leads to altered steroid hormone profiles in American alligators. Our observations suggest that alterations in plasma steroid hormone concentrations are due in part to altered gene expression, modified hepatic biotransformation and altered gonadal steroidogenesis. Future studies must examine the interplay between endocrine and paracrine regulation in the development and expression of gonadal steroidogenesis in individuals exposed to endocrine disrupting contaminants at various life stages if we are to fully understand potential detrimental outcomes.

  6. Thyroid hormone biosynthesis and release.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Denise P; Dupuy, Corinne

    2017-01-31

    Thyroid hormones (TH) 3,5,3',5'- tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'- triiodothyronine (T3) contain iodine atoms as part of their structure, and their synthesis occur in the unique structures called thyroid follicles. Iodide reaches thyroid cells through the bloodstream that supplies the basolateral plasma membrane of thyrocytes, where it is avidly taken up through the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS). Thyrocytes are also specialized in the secretion of the high molecular weight protein thyroglobulin (TG) in the follicular lumen. The iodination of the tyrosyl residues of TG preceeds TH biosynthesis, which depends on the interaction of iodide, TG, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) at the apical plasma membrane of thyrocytes. Thyroid hormone biosynthesis is under the tonic control of thyrotropin (TSH), while the iodide recycling ability is very important for normal thyroid function. We discuss herein the biochemical aspects of TH biosynthesis and release, highlighting the novel molecules involved in the process.

  7. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  8. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and cognition.

    PubMed

    McCarrey, Anna C; Resnick, Susan M

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Prior to the publication of findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002, estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT) was used to prevent age-related disease, especially cardiovascular disease, and to treat menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes and sleep disruptions. Some observational studies of HT in midlife and aging women suggested that HT might also benefit cognitive function, but randomized clinical trials have produced mixed findings in terms of health and cognitive outcomes. This review focuses on hormone effects on cognition and risk for dementia in naturally menopausal women as well as surgically induced menopause, and highlights findings from the large-scale WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) which, contrary to expectation, showed increased dementia risk and poorer cognitive outcomes in older postmenopausal women randomized to HT versus placebo. We consider the 'critical window hypothesis', which suggests that a window of opportunity may exist shortly after menopause during which estrogen treatments are most effective. In addition, we highlight emerging evidence that potential adverse effects of HT on cognition are most pronounced in women who have other health risks, such as lower global cognition or diabetes. Lastly, we point towards implications for future research and clinical treatments.

  9. Hormones as doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Duntas, Leonidas H; Popovic, Vera

    2013-04-01

    Though we may still sing today, as did Pindar in his eighth Olympian Victory Ode, "… of no contest greater than Olympia, Mother of Games, gold-wreathed Olympia…", we must sadly admit that today, besides blatant over-commercialization, there is no more ominous threat to the Olympic games than doping. Drug-use methods are steadily becoming more sophisticated and ever harder to detect, increasingly demanding the use of complex analytical procedures of biotechnology and molecular medicine. Special emphasis is thus given to anabolic androgenic steroids, recombinant growth hormone and erythropoietin as well as to gene doping, the newly developed mode of hormones abuse which, for its detection, necessitates high-tech methodology but also multidisciplinary individual measures incorporating educational and psychological methods. In this Olympic year, the present review offers an update on the current technologically advanced endocrine methods of doping while outlining the latest procedures applied-including both the successes and pitfalls of proteomics and metabolomics-to detect doping while contributing to combating this scourge.

  10. Growth Hormone Response after Administration of L-dopa, Clonidine, and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone in Children with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Seigfried M.

    1993-01-01

    This study of eight growth-retarded children with Down's syndrome (aged 1 to 6.5 years) found that administration of growth hormone was more effective than either L-dopa or clonidine. Results suggest that children with Down's syndrome have both anatomical and biochemical hypothalamic derangements resulting in decreased growth hormone secretion and…

  11. Nutrient Sensing Overrides Somatostatin and Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone to Control Pulsatile Growth Hormone Release.

    PubMed

    Steyn, F J

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacological studies reveal that interactions between hypothalamic inhibitory somatostatin and stimulatory growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) govern pulsatile GH release. However, in vivo analysis of somatostatin and GHRH release into the pituitary portal vasculature and peripheral GH output demonstrates that the withdrawal of somatostatin or the appearance of GHRH into pituitary portal blood does not reliably dictate GH release. Consequently, additional intermediates acting at the level of the hypothalamus and within the anterior pituitary gland are likely to contribute to the release of GH, entraining GH secretory patterns to meet physiological demand. The identification and validation of the actions of such intermediates is particularly important, given that the pattern of GH release defines several of the physiological actions of GH. This review highlights the actions of neuropeptide Y in regulating GH release. It is acknowledged that pulsatile GH release may not occur selectively in response to hypothalamic control of pituitary function. As such, interactions between somatotroph networks, the median eminence and pituitary microvasculature and blood flow, and the emerging role of tanycytes and pericytes as critical regulators of pulsatility are considered. It is argued that collective interactions between the hypothalamus, the median eminence and pituitary vasculature, and structural components within the pituitary gland dictate somatotroph function and thereby pulsatile GH release. These interactions may override hypothalamic somatostatin and GHRH-mediated GH release, and modify pulsatile GH release relative to the peripheral glucose supply, and thereby physiological demand.

  12. Collective hormonal profiles predict group performance

    PubMed Central

    Akinola, Modupe; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Mehta, Pranjal H.; Lu, Jackson G.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has shown that an individual’s hormonal profile can influence the individual’s social standing within a group. We introduce a different construct—a collective hormonal profile—which describes a group’s hormonal make-up. We test whether a group’s collective hormonal profile is related to its performance. Analysis of 370 individuals randomly assigned to work in 74 groups of three to six individuals revealed that group-level concentrations of testosterone and cortisol interact to predict a group’s standing across groups. Groups with a collective hormonal profile characterized by high testosterone and low cortisol exhibited the highest performance. These collective hormonal level results remained reliable when controlling for personality traits and group-level variability in hormones. These findings support the hypothesis that groups with a biological propensity toward status pursuit (high testosterone) coupled with reduced stress-axis activity (low cortisol) engage in profit-maximizing decision-making. The current work extends the dual-hormone hypothesis to the collective level and provides a neurobiological perspective on the factors that determine who rises to the top across, not just within, social hierarchies. PMID:27528679

  13. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  14. Insect Control (II): Hormones and Viruses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Jean L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research in the use of hormones and viruses to control insect populations. Although entomologists do not think that pheromones, hormones, and viruses will completely replace more conventional chemical insecticides, they will become increasingly important and will reduce our dependence on traditional insecticides. (JR)

  15. Hormonal and Local Regulation of Bone Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canalis, Ernesto

    1985-01-01

    Reviews effects of hormones, systemic factors, and local regulators on bone formation. Identifies and explains the impact on bone growth of several hormones as well as the components of systemic and local systems. Concentrates on bone collagen and DNA synthesis. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  16. The barrier within: endothelial transport of hormones.

    PubMed

    Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N

    2012-08-01

    Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease.

  17. Thyroid Hormone Function in the Rat Testis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are emerging regulators of testicular function since Sertoli, germ, and Leydig cells are found to express thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). These testicular cells also express deiodinases, which are capable of converting the pro-hormone T4 to the active thyroid hormone T3, or inactivating T3 or T4 to a non-biologically active form. Furthermore, thyroid hormone transporters are also found in the testis. Thus, the testis is equipped with the transporters and the enzymes necessary to maintain the optimal level of thyroid hormone in the seminiferous epithelium, as well as the specific TRs to execute thyroid hormone action in response to different stages of the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Studies using genetic models and/or goitrogens (e.g., propylthiouracil) have illustrated a tight physiological relationship between thyroid hormone and testicular function, in particular, Sertoli cell differentiation status, mitotic activity, gap junction function, and blood–testis barrier assembly. These findings are briefly summarized and discussed herein. PMID:25414694

  18. Minireview: Pathophysiological importance of thyroid hormone transporters.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Heike; Visser, Theo J

    2009-03-01

    Thyroid hormone metabolism and action are largely intracellular events that require transport of iodothyronines across the plasma membrane. It has been assumed for a long time that this occurs by passive diffusion, but it has become increasingly clear that cellular uptake and efflux of thyroid hormone is mediated by transporter proteins. Recently, several active and specific thyroid hormone transporters have been identified, including monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), MCT10, and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1C1 (OATP1C1). The latter is expressed predominantly in brain capillaries and transports preferentially T(4), whereas MCT8 and MCT10 are expressed in multiple tissues and are capable of transporting different iodothyronines. The pathophysiological importance of thyroid hormone transporters has been established by the demonstration of MCT8 mutations in patients with severe psychomotor retardation and elevated serum T(3) levels. MCT8 appears to play an important role in the transport of thyroid hormone in the brain, which is essential for the crucial action of the hormone during brain development. It is expected that more specific thyroid hormone transporters will be discovered in the near future, which will lead to a better understanding of the tissue-specific regulation of thyroid hormone bioavailability.

  19. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  20. Ubiquitin, Hormones and Biotic Stress in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Dreher, Kate; Callis, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a substrate protein changes its fate. Notably, proteins typically tagged with a lysine48-linked polyubiquitin chain become substrates for degradation by the 26S proteasome. In recent years many experiments have been performed to characterize the proteins involved in the ubiquitylation process and to identify their substrates, in order to understand better the mechanisms that link specific protein degradation events to regulation of plant growth and development. Scope This review focuses on the role that ubiquitin plays in hormone synthesis, hormonal signalling cascades and plant defence mechanisms. Several examples are given of how targeted degradation of proteins affects downstream transcriptional regulation of hormone-responsive genes in the auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid, ethylene and jasmonate signalling pathways. Additional experiments suggest that ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis may also act upstream of the hormonal signalling cascades by regulating hormone biosynthesis, transport and perception. Moreover, several experiments demonstrate that hormonal cross-talk can occur at the level of proteolysis. The more recently established role of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in defence against biotic threats is also reviewed. Conclusions The UPS has been implicated in the regulation of almost every developmental process in plants, from embryogenesis to floral organ production probably through its central role in many hormone pathways. More recent evidence provides molecular mechanisms for hormonal cross-talk and links the UPS system to biotic defence responses. PMID:17220175

  1. Juvenile hormone regulation of Drosophila aging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Juvenile hormone (JH) has been demonstrated to control adult lifespan in a number of non-model insects where surgical removal of the corpora allata eliminates the hormone’s source. In contrast, little is known about how juvenile hormone affects adult Drosophila melanogaster. Previous work suggests that insulin signaling may modulate Drosophila aging in part through its impact on juvenile hormone titer, but no data yet address whether reduction of juvenile hormone is sufficient to control Drosophila life span. Here we adapt a genetic approach to knock out the corpora allata in adult Drosophila melanogaster and characterize adult life history phenotypes produced by reduction of juvenile hormone. With this system we test potential explanations for how juvenile hormone modulates aging. Results A tissue specific driver inducing an inhibitor of a protein phosphatase was used to ablate the corpora allata while permitting normal development of adult flies. Corpora allata knockout adults had greatly reduced fecundity, inhibited oogenesis, impaired adult fat body development and extended lifespan. Treating these adults with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene restored all traits toward wildtype. Knockout females remained relatively long-lived even when crossed into a genotype that blocked all egg production. Dietary restriction further extended the lifespan of knockout females. In an analysis of expression profiles of knockout females in fertile and sterile backgrounds, about 100 genes changed in response to loss of juvenile hormone independent of reproductive state. Conclusions Reduced juvenile hormone alone is sufficient to extend the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster. Reduced juvenile hormone limits reproduction by inhibiting the production of yolked eggs, and this may arise because juvenile hormone is required for the post-eclosion development of the vitellogenin-producing adult fat body. Our data do not support a mechanism for juvenile hormone control

  2. Hormones and pheromones in regulation of insect behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both pheromones and hormones are well recognized regulators of insect biology. However, the interactions between hormones and pheromones in coordinating insect biology are less well understood. We have studied the interactions between juvenile hormone, its precursor methyl farnesoate, and pheromon...

  3. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ185 CONTRACEPTION Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring • What are combined hormonal birth control methods? • How do combined hormonal methods prevent pregnancy? • ...

  4. Thyroid hormone and the growth plate.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yvonne Y; Wang, Lai; Ballock, R Tracy

    2006-12-01

    Thyroid hormone was first identified as a potent regulator of skeletal maturation at the growth plate more than forty years ago. Since that time, many in vitro and in vivo studies have confirmed that thyroid hormone regulates the critical transition between cell proliferation and terminal differentiation in the growth plate, specifically the maturation of growth plate chondrocytes into hypertrophic cells. However these studies have neither identified the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of skeletal maturation by thyroid hormone, nor demonstrated how the systemic actions of thyroid hormone interface with the local regulatory milieu of the growth plate. This article will review our current understanding of the role of thyroid hormone in regulating the process of endochondral ossification at the growth plate, as well as what is currently known about the molecular mechanisms involved in this regulation.

  5. Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin, and Vitamin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Analyses of secretion of parathyroid hormone during tests of stimulation and suppression of hormone-secretory activity using infusions of EDTA and calcium, respectively, have established that, in contrast to previous views, secretion of the hormone is not autonomous in many patients that have adenomatous hyperparathyroidism, but is responsive to changes in blood-calcium concentration. These findings have led to a new understanding of the pathophysiology of hormone production in hyperparathy-roidism. A related application of the diagnostic use of the radioimmunoassay is the preoperative localization of parathyroid tumors and the distinction between adenomas and chief-cell hyperplasia. Work involving catheterization and radioimmunoassay of blood samples obtained from the subclavin and innominate veins and the venae cavae, led to localization in a high percentage of patients. However, this procedure has been adopted recently to detect hormone concentration in the small veins directly draining the parathyroid glands.

  6. Hormone activation induces nucleosome positioning in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Belikov, Sergey; Gelius, Birgitta; Almouzni, Geneviève; Wrange, Örjan

    2000-01-01

    The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter is induced by glucocorticoid hormone. A robust hormone- and receptor-dependent activation could be reproduced in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The homogeneous response in this system allowed a detailed analysis of the transition in chromatin structure following hormone activation. This revealed two novel findings: hormone activation led to the establishment of specific translational positioning of nucleosomes despite the lack of significant positioning in the inactive state; and, in the active promoter, a subnucleosomal particle encompassing the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-binding region was detected. The presence of only a single GR-binding site was sufficient for the structural transition to occur. Both basal promoter elements and ongoing transcription were dispensable. These data reveal a stepwise process in the transcriptional activation by glucocorticoid hormone. PMID:10698943

  7. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  8. Hormonal changes in antiorthostatic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, V.; Popovic, P.; Honeycutt, C.

    1982-01-01

    Hypokinesia, especially hypokinesia with negative tilt ('antiorthostatic hypokinesia'), mimics some of the effects of weightlessness. It is shown that cardiac output is increased during early exposure of rats to antiorthostatic hypokinesia. The increase of the stroke volume and of the cardiac output observed in the antiorthostatic hypokinetic rats is probably the consequence of a blood volume shift toward the chest brought forth by head-down positioning of the animals. It is also possible that struggling of the animals to escape from the harness and an increased metabolism contribute to the elevation of cardiac output. In order to study this hypothesis 'stress hormones' were measured in the antiorthostatic rats. Plasma levels of ACTH, corticosterone and prolactin were measured in the arterial blood (0.3 ml) sampled before, during and after hypokinesia from chronic aortic cannulas of the rats.

  9. Growth hormone and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Birzniece, Vita; Nelson, Anne E; Ho, Ken K Y

    2011-05-01

    There has been limited research and evidence that GH enhances physical performance in healthy adults or in trained athletes. Even so, human growth hormone (GH) is widely abused by athletes. In healthy adults, GH increases lean body mass, although it is possible that fluid retention contributes to this effect. The most recent data indicate that GH does not enhance muscle strength, power, or aerobic exercise capacity, but improves anaerobic exercise capacity. In fact, there are adverse effects of long-term GH excess such that sustained abuse of GH can lead to a state mimicking acromegaly, a condition with increased morbidity and mortality. This review will examine GH effects on body composition and physical performance in health and disease.

  10. Nuclear hormone receptors in chordates.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Stéphanie; Belgacem, Mohamed R; Escriva, Hector

    2011-03-01

    In order to understand evolution of the endocrine systems in chordates, study of the evolution of the nuclear receptors (NRs), which mediate the cellular responses to several key hormones, is of major interest. Thanks to the sequencing of several complete genomes of different species in the three chordate phyla, we now have a global view of the evolution of the nuclear receptors gene content in this lineage. The challenge is now to understand how the function of the different receptors evolved during the invertebrate-chordate to vertebrate transition by studying the functional properties of the NRs using comparative approaches in different species. The best available model system to answer this question is the cephalochordate amphioxus which has a NR gene complement close to that of the chordate ancestor. Here we review the available data concerning the function of the amphioxus NRs, and we discuss some evolutionary scenarios that can be drawn from these results.

  11. Hormonal contraception in the male.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R A

    2000-01-01

    The hormonal approach to male contraception is based on the suppression of gonadotrophin secretion with secondary suppression of spermatogenesis. This can be achieved by administration of testosterone or other androgen alone, but combined administration with a progestogen or GnRH analogue allows the dose of testosterone to be reduced to physiological replacement doses. This approach has been investigated for many years but without identification of a regimen which results in sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis to provide ensured contraception in all men, safely and conveniently. The reasons for this are discussed, and recent developments towards a regimen that fulfills all these criteria are described. Crucial to development of any new product is that it will be used: surveys of both men and women indicate firmly positive attitudes towards a 'male pill'. There are, therefore, grounds for cautious optimism that the next decade may see the introduction of the first novel male contraceptive for several hundred years.

  12. Thyroid hormones and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Felipe

    2016-07-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem and its relationship to thyroid dysfunction has been increasingly investigated in recent years. Since it has been demonstrated that thyroid hormones (TH) and mainly T3 have cardioprotective effects, it is easy to understand that in the scenario of thyroid disorder, cardiac function may be damaged, and inversely in cardiac dysfunction thyroid dysregulation may be seen. The increase in plasma TH produces a clear neurohormonal activation which impacts negatively on cardiac function. In hypothyroidism, and in addition to extracardiac dysfunction, myocardial and vascular remodelling is altered and they contribute to cardiac failure. Abnormal low plasma TSH has also been shown to be a risk factor for developing HF in several recent studies, and they suggest that TSH is an independent predictor of clinical outcome including death and cardiac hospitalizations. Therefore, physicians should consider all these concepts when managing a patient with heart failure, not only for a clear diagnosis, but also for better and accurate treatment.

  13. [Rational hormonal diagnosis of oligomenorrhea].

    PubMed

    Weise, H C; Moltz, L; Bispink, G; Leidenberger, F

    1989-08-01

    In a study, conducted by two clinics in Berlin and Hamburg, specializing in reproductive endocrinology, the anamnestic, clinical, and laboratory data of 170 oligomenorrheic patients (menstrual intervals between 35 and 90 days) were evaluated in order to determine the frequency of possible causes of oligomenorrhea. Pathological hormone levels were found in two thirds of all patients. The order of frequency of abnormal hormone levels was as follows: hyperandrogenemia (testosterone and/or DHEA-sulfate) in 41.8%, hyperprolactinemia in 25.9%, abnormal thyroid function (TSH and/or TRH-induced TSH) in 21.7%, and hypergonadotropic FSH levels in 3.5% of all patients. There was an overlap of between two or more pathological conditions in one third of all patients. This study confirms results of a previous study in amenorrheic patients (Moltz et al., 1987 - see reference list), documenting hyperandrogenemia as the most frequent abnormality found in this group, followed by hyperprolactinemia. As can be expected, the percentage of women with no discernible abnormality was higher in oligomenorrheic patients when compared with the amenorrheic group (32.3% vs 7.7%). Furthermore, overweight patients were overrepresented in the oligomenorrheic group, while underweight patients were seen more frequently in the amenorrheic group. In view of these results of our study we recommend a detailed diagnostic follow-up in all younger patients with ovarian disorders who need to preserve their reproductive potential. This follow-up should include hyperprolactinemia, hypo-/hyperthyroidism, hyperandrogenemic and hypoestrogenemic states and exclusion of primary ovarian failure. In contrast to recommendations of WHO, issued in 1976, such diagnostic work allows an etiology oriented therapy decision and a therapy risk assessment in subgroups of patients, such as hyperandrogenemic patients, who receive clomiphene or gonadotropin treatment. Furthermore, it permits prophylactic considerations, for

  14. Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Obregon, Maria-Jesus

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases). The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. “Brite” or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs) that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2, and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that lead to activation of UCP1 in WAT

  15. Sexual Desire and Hormonal Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Boozalis, Amanda; Tutlam, Nhial T.; Robbins, Camaryn Chrisman; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of hormonal contraception on sexual desire. Materials and Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1,938 of the 9,256 participants enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. This subset included participants enrolled between April and September 2011 who completed a baseline and six-month telephone survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between contraceptive method and report of lacking interest in sex, controlling for potential confounding variables. Results More than one in five participants (23.9%) reported lacking interest in sex at 6 months after initiating a new contraceptive method. Of 262 copper IUD users (referent group), 18.3% reported lacking interest in sex. Our primary outcome was more prevalent in women who are young (<18 years: adjusted odds ratio (ORadj)=2.04), black (ORadj=1.78), and married or living with a partner (ORadj=1.82). Compared to copper IUD users, participants using depot medroxyprogesterone (ORadj=2.61, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.47-4.61), the vaginal ring (ORadj=2.53, 95% CI=1.37-4.69), and the implant (ORadj=1.60, 95% CI=1.03-2.49) more commonly reported lack of interest in sex. We found no association between use of the hormonal IUD, oral contraceptive pill, and patch and lack of interest in sex. Conclusion CHOICE participants using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, the contraceptive ring, and implant were more likely to report a lack of interest in sex compared to copper IUD users. Future research should confirm these findings and their possible physiological basis. Clinicians should be reassured that most women do not experience reduced sex drive with the use of most contraceptive methods. PMID:26855094

  16. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.

    1991-12-01

    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  17. Hormonal modulation of endothelial NO production.

    PubMed

    Duckles, Sue P; Miller, Virginia M

    2010-05-01

    Since the discovery of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and the subsequent identification of nitric oxide (NO) as the primary mediator of endothelium-dependent relaxations, research has focused on chemical and physical stimuli that modulate NO levels. Hormones represent a class of soluble, widely circulating chemical factors that impact production of NO both by rapid effects on the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through phosphorylation of the enzyme and longer term modulation through changes in amount of eNOS protein. Hormones that increase NO production including estrogen, progesterone, insulin, and growth hormone do so through both of these common mechanisms. In contrast, some hormones, including glucocorticoids, progesterone, and prolactin, decrease NO bioavailability. Mechanisms involved include binding to repressor response elements on the eNOS gene, competing for co-regulators common to hormones with positive genomic actions, regulating eNOS co-factors, decreasing substrate for eNOS, and increasing production of oxygen-derived free radicals. Feedback regulation by the hormones themselves as well as the ability of NO to regulate hormonal release provides a second level of complexity that can also contribute to changes in NO levels. These effects on eNOS and changes in NO production may contribute to variability in risk factors, presentation of and treatment for cardiovascular disease associated with aging, pregnancy, stress, and metabolic disorders in men and women.

  18. Hormonal Factors and Disturbances in Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Culbert, Kristen M; Racine, Sarah E; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-07-01

    This review summarizes the current state of the literature regarding hormonal correlates of, and etiologic influences on, eating pathology. Several hormones (e.g., ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, PYY, leptin, oxytocin, cortisol) are disrupted during the ill state of eating disorders and likely contribute to the maintenance of core symptoms (e.g., dietary restriction, binge eating) and/or co-occurring features (e.g., mood symptoms, attentional biases). Some of these hormones (e.g., ghrelin, cortisol) may also be related to eating pathology via links with psychological stress. Despite these effects, the role of hormonal factors in the etiology of eating disorders remains unknown. The strongest evidence for etiologic effects has emerged for ovarian hormones, as changes in ovarian hormones predict changes in phenotypic and genetic influences on disordered eating. Future studies would benefit from utilizing etiologically informative designs (e.g., high risk, behavioral genetic) and continuing to explore factors (e.g., psychological, neural responsivity) that may impact hormonal influences on eating pathology.

  19. Hypermetabolic Conversion of Plant Oil into Water: Endothermic Biochemical Process Stimulated by Juvenile Hormone in the European Firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus L.

    PubMed Central

    Sláma, Karel; Lukáš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    the warm and cold larvae of P. apterus was only some 30% (not a reported 10-fold difference), which was presumably due to their ability to drink. We conclude that a very important, though still largely neglected, epigenetic biochemical role of insect JH depends on switchover between the utilization of dietary lipid (+JH; production of metabolic water) and carbohydrate (−JH; lipid storage in the fat body). The hypermetabolic water supply in insects fed on dry food, which is associated with enormous rates of O2 consumption, liberates endothermic energy that heats the body and potentially influences the insect thermoregulation. A possibility that the JH-dependent lipolytic hormone stimulates the total metabolic breakdown of nutritional lipids may be absolutely different from the currently known adipokinetic peptides that have been emphasized. PMID:27790049

  20. Arabidopsis Hormone Database: a comprehensive genetic and phenotypic information database for plant hormone research in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhi-yu; Zhou, Xin; Li, Linchuan; Yu, Xiangchun; Li, Hongjiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Guangyu; Bai, Mingyi; Wang, Xingchun; Jiang, Caifu; Lu, Haibin; Hou, Xianhui; Qu, Lijia; Wang, Zhiyong; Zuo, Jianru; Fu, Xiangdong; Su, Zhen; Li, Songgang; Guo, Hongwei

    2009-01-01

    Plant hormones are small organic molecules that influence almost every aspect of plant growth and development. Genetic and molecular studies have revealed a large number of genes that are involved in responses to numerous plant hormones, including auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and brassinosteroid. Here, we develop an Arabidopsis hormone database, which aims to provide a systematic and comprehensive view of genes participating in plant hormonal regulation, as well as morphological phenotypes controlled by plant hormones. Based on data from mutant studies, transgenic analysis and gene ontology (GO) annotation, we have identified a total of 1026 genes in the Arabidopsis genome that participate in plant hormone functions. Meanwhile, a phenotype ontology is developed to precisely describe myriad hormone-regulated morphological processes with standardized vocabularies. A web interface (http://ahd.cbi.pku.edu.cn) would allow users to quickly get access to information about these hormone-related genes, including sequences, functional category, mutant information, phenotypic description, microarray data and linked publications. Several applications of this database in studying plant hormonal regulation and hormone cross-talk will be presented and discussed.

  1. Obtaining growth hormone from calf blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalchev, L. A.; Ralchev, K. K.; Nikolov, I. T.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of a growth hormone from human serum was used for the isolation of the hormone from calf serum. The preparation was biologically active - it increased the quantity of the free fatty acids released in rat plasma by 36.4 percent. Electrophoresis in Veronal buffer, ph 8.6, showed the presence of a single fraction having mobility intermediate between that of alpha and beta globulins. Gel filtration through Sephadex G 100 showed an elutriation curve identical to that obtained by the growth hormone prepared from pituitary glands.

  2. Hormonal component of tumor photodynamic therapy response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Merchant, Soroush

    2008-02-01

    The involvement of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones in the response of the treatment of solid tumors by photodynamic therapy (PDT) comes from the induction of acute phase response by this modality. This adrenal gland activity is orchestrated through the engagement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal axis incited by stress signals emanating from the PDT-treated tumor. Glucocorticoid hormone activity engendered within the context of PDT-induced acute phase response performs multiple important functions; among other involvements they beget acute phase reactant production, systemic neutrophil mobilization, and control the production of inflammation-modulating and immunoregulatory proteins.

  3. A Hormonally Active Malignant Struma Ovarii

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Carolina; Salame, Latife; Padilla-Longoria, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Struma ovarii is a rare monodermal variant of ovarian teratoma that contains at least 50% thyroid tissue. Less than 8% of struma ovarii cases present with clinical and biochemical evidence of thyrotoxicosis due to ectopic production of thyroid hormone and only 5% undergo malignant transformation into a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Only isolated cases of hormonally active papillary thyroid carcinoma developing within a struma ovarii have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism as well as a left adnexal mass, which proved to be a thyroid hormone-producing, malignant struma ovarii. PMID:27882257

  4. The Radioimmunoassay of Fluid and Electrolyte Hormones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Lanny C.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of the paper will be the assay of fluid/electrolyte hormones. ADH (antidiuretic hormone also referred to as vasopressin) reduces fluid loss by increasing water reabsorption by the kidney. The stimuli for its release from the pituitary are loss of blood, dehydration, or increased salt intake. Angiotensin II is the next hormone of interest. It is "generated" from a blood protein by the release of renin from the kidney. One of its functions is to stimulate the secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal gland. Release of renin is also stimulated by volume and sodium loss.

  5. Sleep and hormonal changes in aging.

    PubMed

    Copinschi, Georges; Caufriez, Anne

    2013-06-01

    Age-related sleep and endocrinometabolic alterations frequently interact with each other. For many hormones, sleep curtailment in young healthy subjects results in alterations strikingly similar to those observed in healthy old subjects not submitted to sleep restriction. Thus, recurrent sleep restriction, which is currently experienced by a substantial and rapidly growing proportion of children and young adults, might contribute to accelerate the senescence of endocrine and metabolic function. The mechanisms of sleep-hormonal interactions, and therefore the endocrinometabolic consequences of age-related sleep alterations, which markedly differ from one hormone to another, are reviewed in this article.

  6. Effects of ghrelin, growth hormone-releasing peptide-6, and growth hormone-releasing hormone on growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol release in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Larissa Bianca Paiva Cunha; Nascif, Sergio Oliva; Correa-Silva, Silvia Regina; Molica, Patricia; Vieira, José Gilberto Henriques; Dib, Sergio Atala; Lengyel, Ana-Maria Judith

    2010-10-01

    In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), growth hormone (GH) responses to provocative stimuli are normal or exaggerated, whereas the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has been less studied. Ghrelin is a GH secretagogue that also increases adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels, similarly to GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6). Ghrelin's effects in patients with T1DM have not been evaluated. We therefore studied GH, ACTH, and cortisol responses to ghrelin and GHRP-6 in 9 patients with T1DM and 9 control subjects. The GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-induced GH release was also evaluated. Mean fasting GH levels (micrograms per liter) were higher in T1DM (3.5 ± 1.2) than in controls (0.6 ± 0.3). In both groups, ghrelin-induced GH release was higher than that after GHRP-6 and GHRH. When analyzing Δ area under the curve (ΔAUC) GH values after ghrelin, GHRP-6, and GHRH, no significant differences were observed in T1DM compared with controls. There was a trend (P = .055) to higher mean basal cortisol values (micrograms per deciliter) in T1DM (11.7 ± 1.5) compared with controls (8.2 ± 0.8). No significant differences were seen in ΔAUC cortisol values in both groups after ghrelin and GHRP-6. Mean fasting ACTH values were similar in T1DM and controls. No differences were seen in ΔAUC ACTH levels in both groups after ghrelin and GHRP-6. In summary, patients with T1DM have normal GH responsiveness to ghrelin, GHRP-6, and GHRH. The ACTH and cortisol release after ghrelin and GHRP-6 is also similar to controls. Our results suggest that chronic hyperglycemia of T1DM does not interfere with GH-, ACTH-, and cortisol-releasing mechanisms stimulated by these peptides.

  7. History of growth hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Blizzard, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    The first human to receive GH therapy was in 1956; it was of bovine origin and was given for 3 wk for metabolic balance studies revealing no effects. By 1958, three separate laboratories utilizing different extraction methods retrieved hGH from human pituitaries, purified it and used for clinical investigation. By 1959 presumed GHD patients were being given native hGH collected and extracted by various methods. Since 1 mg of hGH was needed to treat one patient per day, >360 human pituitaries were needed per patient per year. Thus, the availability of hGH was limited and was awarded on the basis of clinical research protocols approved by the National Pituitary Agency (NPA) established in 1961. hGH was dispensed and injected on a milligram weight basis with varied concentrations between batches from 0.5 units/mg to 2.0 units/mg of hGH. By 1977 a centralized laboratory was established to extract all human pituitaries in the US, this markedly improved the yield of hGH obtained and most remarkably, hGH of this laboratory was never associated with Creutzfeld-Jacob disease (CJD) resulting from the injection of apparently prior- contaminated hGH produced years earlier. However, widespread rhGH use was not possible even if a pituitary from each autopsy performed in the US was collected, this would only permit therapy for about 4,000 patients. Thus, the mass production of rhGH required the identification of the gene structure of the hormone, methodology that began in 1976 to make insulin by recombinant technology. Serendipity was manifest in 1985 when patients who had received hGH years previously were reported to have died of CJD. This led to the discontinuation of the distribution and use of hGH, at a time when a synthetic rhGH became available for clinical use. The creation of a synthetic rhGH was accompanied by unlimited supplies of hGH for investigation and therapy. However, the appropriate use and the potential abuse of this hormone are to be dealt with. The

  8. Quo vadis neurohypophysial hormone research?

    PubMed

    Douglas, A J; Ludwig, M

    2000-03-01

    Here we highlight just a few of the outstanding questions in the field of neurohypophysial hormones that we envisage will be addressed successfully in the new millennium. To begin, we focus on the regulation of receptors. Despite intensive investigation with new drugs, molecular modelling and transgenic models, the determinants of receptor selectivity remain elusive; there may even be more vasopressin or oxytocin receptor subtypes to be discovered. We discuss the controversy over the interesting studies that indicate modulation of oxytocin receptor-binding by steroids. Oxytocin and vasopressin release and action in the brain are discussed from several aspects. Dendritically released oxytocin acting locally is important for the milk ejection reflex, and similarly released vasopressin is important in regulating patterning of vasopressin neurone activity. Such dendritically released oxytocin and vasopressin is likely to be important in paracrine modulation of neural circuitry involved in neuroendocrine control, and for a range of behaviours. Is it possible that the whole range of behaviours that comprise 'social' (or 'anti-social') or 'maternal' behaviour can be engineered by modifying the expression of just these one or two peptides and their receptors? However, whether gene expression and knockout approaches will answer all the open questions about the real functions of oxytocin and vasopressin remains to be shown.

  9. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing.

    PubMed

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-07-01

    Fracture healing is a complex process, and a significant number of fractures are complicated by impaired healing and non-union. Impaired healing is prevalent in certain risk groups, such as the elderly, osteoporotics, people with malnutrition, and women after menopause. Currently, no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial in the treatment of fractures and could thus be a potentially new treatment option for induction of fracture healing in humans. Furthermore, fractures in animals with experimental conditions of impaired healing such as aging, estrogen withdrawal, and malnutrition can heal in an expedited manner after PTH treatment. Interestingly, fractures occurring at both cancellous and cortical sites can be treated successfully, indicating that both osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic fractures can be the target of PTH-induced healing. Finally, the data suggest that PTH partly prevents the delay in fracture healing caused by aging. Recently, the first randomized, controlled clinical trial investigating the effect of PTH on fracture healing was published, indicating a possible clinical benefit of PTH treatment in inducing fracture healing. The aim of this article is therefore to review the evidence for the potential of PTH in bone healing, including the underlying mechanisms for this, and to provide recommendations for the clinical testing and use of PTH in the treatment of impaired fracture healing in humans.

  10. Neuroendocrine hormone amylin in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Pan, Yan-Hong; Huang, Yan-Mei; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-01-01

    The neuroendocrine hormone amylin, also known as islet amyloid polypeptide, is co-localized, co-packaged and co-secreted with insulin from adult pancreatic islet β cells to maintain glucose homeostasis. Specifically, amylin reduces secretion of nutrient-stimulated glucagon, regulates blood pressure with an effect on renin-angiotensin system, and delays gastric emptying. The physiological actions of human amylin attribute to the conformational α-helix monomers whereas the misfolding instable oligomers may be detrimental to the islet β cells and further transform to β-sheet fibrils as amyloid deposits. No direct evidence proves that the amylin fibrils in amyloid deposits cause diabetes. Here we also have performed a systematic review of human amylin gene changes and reported the S20G mutation is minor in the development of diabetes. In addition to the metabolic effects, human amylin may modulate autoimmunity and innate inflammation through regulatory T cells to impact on both human type 1 and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27162583

  11. Thyroid Hormone and Seasonal Rhythmicity

    PubMed Central

    Dardente, Hugues; Hazlerigg, David G.; Ebling, Francis J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Living organisms show seasonality in a wide array of functions such as reproduction, fattening, hibernation, and migration. At temperate latitudes, changes in photoperiod maintain the alignment of annual rhythms with predictable changes in the environment. The appropriate physiological response to changing photoperiod in mammals requires retinal detection of light and pineal secretion of melatonin, but extraretinal detection of light occurs in birds. A common mechanism across all vertebrates is that these photoperiod-regulated systems alter hypothalamic thyroid hormone (TH) conversion. Here, we review the evidence that a circadian clock within the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis links photoperiod decoding to local changes of TH signaling within the medio-basal hypothalamus (MBH) through a conserved thyrotropin/deiodinase axis. We also focus on recent findings which indicate that, beyond the photoperiodic control of its conversion, TH might also be involved in longer-term timing processes of seasonal programs. Finally, we examine the potential implication of kisspeptin and RFRP3, two RF-amide peptides expressed within the MBH, in seasonal rhythmicity. PMID:24616714

  12. Hormonal regulation of energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F

    2000-06-01

    A loop system exists between hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peripheral adipose tissue leptin to maintain normal body homeostasis. When hypothalamic NPY levels are increased by fasting or by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion, food intake and body weight increase. NPY has genuine hormono-metabolic effects. It increases insulin and corticosterone secretion relative to controls. These hormonal changes, acting singly or combined, favor adipose tissue lipogenic activity, while producing muscle insulin resistance. They also promote leptin release from adipose tissue. When infused i.c.v. to normal rats to mimic its central effects, leptin decreases NPY levels, thus food intake and body weight. Leptin i.c.v. has also genuine hormono-metabolic effects. It decreases insulinemia and adipose tissue storage ability, enhancing glucose disposal. Leptin increases the expression of uncoupling proteins (UCP-1, -2, -3) and thus energy dissipation. Leptin-induced changes favor oxidation at the expense of storage. Circadian fluctuations of NPY and leptin levels maintain normal body homeostasis. In animal obesity, defective hypothalamic leptin receptor activation prevent leptin from acting, with resulting obesity, insulin and leptin resistance.

  13. Extrapituitary growth hormone and growth?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Steve; Baudet, Marie-Laure

    2014-09-01

    While growth hormone (GH) is obligatory for postnatal growth, it is not required for a number of growth-without-GH syndromes, such as early embryonic or fetal growth. Instead, these syndromes are thought to be dependent upon local growth factors, rather than pituitary GH. The GH gene is, however, also expressed in many extrapituitary tissues, particularly during early development and extrapituitary GH may be one of the local growth factors responsible for embryonic or fetal growth. Moreover, as the expression of the GH receptor (GHR) gene mirrors that of GH in extrapituitary tissues the actions of GH in early development are likely to be mediated by local autocrine or paracrine mechanisms, especially as extrapituitary GH expression occurs prior to the ontogeny of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of GH in embryos has also been shown to be of functional relevance in a number of species, since the immunoneutralization of endogenous GH or the blockade of GH production is accompanied by growth impairment or cellular apoptosis. The extrapituitary expression of the GH gene also persists in some central and peripheral tissues postnatally, which may reflect its continued functional importance and physiological or pathophysiological significance. The expression and functional relevance of extrapituitary GH, particularly during embryonic growth, is the focus of this brief review.

  14. Chemosignals, hormones, and amphibian reproduction.

    PubMed

    Woodley, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Amphibians are often thought of as relatively simple animals especially when compared to mammals. Yet the chemosignaling systems used by amphibians are varied and complex. Amphibian chemosignals are particularly important in reproduction, in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Chemosignaling is most evident in salamanders and newts, but increasing evidence indicates that chemical communication facilitates reproduction in frogs and toads as well. Reproductive hormones shape the production, dissemination, detection, and responsiveness to chemosignals. A large variety of chemosignals have been identified, ranging from simple, invariant chemosignals to complex, variable blends of chemosignals. Although some chemosignals elicit straightforward responses, others have relatively subtle effects. Review of amphibian chemosignaling reveals a number of issues to be resolved, including: 1) the significance of the complex, individually variable blends of courtship chemosignals found in some salamanders, 2) the behavioral and/or physiological functions of chemosignals found in anuran "breeding glands", 3) the ligands for amphibian V2Rs, especially V2Rs expressed in the main olfactory epithelium, and 4) the mechanism whereby transdermal delivery of chemosignals influences behavior. To date, only a handful of the more than 7000 species of amphibians has been examined. Further study of amphibians should provide additional insight to the role of chemosignals in reproduction.

  15. Thyroid hormones and renin secretion.

    PubMed

    Ganong, W F

    Circulating angiotensin is produced by the action of renin from the kidneys on circulating angiotensinogen. There are other renin-angiotensin systems in various organs in the body, and recent observations raise the intriguing possibility that angiotensin II is produced by a totally intracellular pathway in the juxtaglomerular cells, the gonadotrops of the anterior pituitary, neurons, in the brain, salivary duct cells, and neuroblastoma cells. Circulating angiotensin II levels depend in large part on the plasma concentration of angiotensinogen, which is hormonally regulated, and on the rate of renin secretion. Renin secretion is regulated by an intrarenal baroreceptor mechanism, a macula densa mechanism, angiotensin II, vasopressin, and the sympathetic nervous system. The increase in renin secretion produced by sympathetic discharge is mediated for the most part by beta-adrenergic receptors, which are probably located on the juxtaglomerular cells. Hyperthyroidism would be expected to be associated with increased renin secretion in view of the increased beta-adrenergic activity in this condition, and hypothyroidism would be associated with decreased plasma renin activity due to decreased beta-adrenergic activity. Our recent research on serotonin-mediated increases in renin secretion that depend on the integrity of the dorsal raphe nucleus and the mediobasal hypothalamus has led us to investigate the effect of the pituitary on the renin response to p-chloroamphetamine. The response is potentiated immediately after hypophysectomy, but 22 days after the operation, it is abolished. This slowly developing decrease in responsiveness may be due to decreased thyroid function.

  16. Unsulfated cholecystokinin: An overlooked hormone?

    PubMed

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Agersnap, Mikkel

    2012-01-10

    Tyrosyl O-sulfation is a common posttranslational derivatization of proteins that may also modify regulatory peptides. Among these are members of the cholecystokinin (CCK)/gastrin family. While sulfation of gastrin peptides is without effect on the bioactivity, O-sulfation is crucial for the cholecystokinetic activity (i.e. gallbladder emptying) of CCK peptides. Accordingly, the purification of CCK as a sulfated peptide was originally monitored by its gallbladder emptying effect. Since then, the dogma has prevailed that CCK peptides are always sulfated. The dogma is correct in a semantic context since the gallbladder expresses only the CCK-A receptor that requires sulfation of the ligand. CCK peptides, however, are also ligands for the CCK-B receptors that do not require ligand sulfation. Consequently, unsulfated CCK peptides may act via CCK-B receptors. Since in vivo occurrence of unsulfated products of proCCK with an intact α-amidated C-terminal tetrapeptide sequence (-Trp-Met-Asp-PheNH(2)) has been reported, it is likely that unsulfated CCK peptides constitute a separate hormone system that acts via CCK-B receptors. This review discusses the occurrence, molecular forms, and possible physiological as well as pathophysiological significance of unsulfated CCK peptides.

  17. Management of Hormone Deprivation Symptoms After Cancer.

    PubMed

    Faubion, Stephanie S; Loprinzi, Charles L; Ruddy, Kathryn J

    2016-08-01

    Cancer survivors often experience symptoms related to hormone deprivation, including vasomotor symptoms, genitourinary symptoms, and sexual health concerns. These symptoms can occur due to natural menopause in midlife women, or they can be brought on by oncologic therapies in younger women or men. We searched PubMed for English-language studies from January 1990 through January 2016 to identify relevant articles on the management of hormone deprivation symptoms, including vasomotor, genitourinary, and sexual symptoms in patients with cancer. The search terms used included hormone deprivation, vasomotor symptoms, hot flash, vaginal dryness, sexual dysfunction, and breast cancer. This manuscript provides a comprehensive description of data supporting the treatment of symptoms associated with hormone deprivation.

  18. Strategies for the Determination of Plant Hormones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gregory C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes methods for isolating, purifying, and analyzing plant hormones (molecules involved in plant growth regulation and development). The presentation reflects the historical development of analyses, beginning with bioassays and ending with novel immunochemical assays. (JN)

  19. [Hormonal stimulation of reproductive function in swine].

    PubMed

    Hladkova, A I

    1993-01-01

    Industrial conditions, gynaecological disorders, ovarian deficiency being unfavourable factors for pigs reproduction, as well as the necessity in rapid sex maturation require thorough knowledge on physiology of reproduction processes. The importance belongs to the hormonal treatment in development of special biotechnological methods. Efficiency of the latter is determined by the kind of hormone used, its dose, injection time in sex cycle and the knowledge of species specificity of physiological regulation of reproductive processes in pigs of great value. The achievements in this country and abroad, devoted to the technology of oestrogens, gestagens, androgens and their combinations as well as gonadotropins (PMS, CG), gonadotropin-releasing hormone applications have been reviewed. The most often used schemes of hormonal treatment and drugs, as well as the results obtained have been described. The data presented can be used for needs of practical cattle-breeding.

  20. Gut hormones: the future of obesity treatment?

    PubMed Central

    McGavigan, Anne K; Murphy, Kevin G

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major worldwide health problem. The treatment options are severely limited. The development of novel anti-obesity drugs is fraught with efficacy and safety issues. Consequently, several investigational anti-obesity drugs have failed to gain marketing approval in recent years. Anorectic gut hormones offer a potentially safe and viable option for the treatment of obesity. The prospective utility of gut hormones has improved drastically in recent years with the development of longer acting analogues. Additionally, specific combinations of gut hormones have been demonstrated to have additive anorectic effects. This article reviews the current stage of anti-obesity drugs in development, focusing on gut hormone-based therapies. PMID:22452339

  1. [Lysosomal system in hormonal mechanisms. Review].

    PubMed

    Duran Reyes, G; González Macías, G; Hicks, J J

    1995-02-01

    The role of lysosomes in the intracellular mechanism of action of several steroid an proteic hormones has been demonstrated. In presence of the specific hormone the target cell induce membranal changes and the lysosomes are moved toward the nucleus; after this the lysosomal enzymes are released in the perinuclear space. For the moment it is not possible to know the biochemical role of this enzymatic activities upon the nucleic acids function and des-repretion process of specific genes, but the inhibition of lysosomes movement utilizing hormone antagonist or dexamethasone inhibits some reproductive process like the implantation of the mammalian egg. We present herein a review related with the mode action of some hormones through the lysosomes in reproductive processes.

  2. IODIDE DEFICIENCY, THYROID HORMONES, AND NEURODEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY: Iodide is an essential nutrient for thyroid hormone synthesis. Severe iodide insufficiency during early development is associated with cognitive deficits. Environmental contaminants can perturb the thyroid axis and this perturbation may be more acute under conditio...

  3. Growth hormone replacement therapy in Costello syndrome.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, Panagiota; Christoforidis, Athanasios; Vargiami, Euthymia; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I

    2014-12-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is considered an overgrowth disorder given the macrosomia that is present at birth .However, shortly after birth the weight drops dramatically and the patients are usually referred for failure to thrive. Subsequently, affected patients develop the distinctive coarse facial appearance and are at risk for cardiac anomalies and solid tumor malignancies. Various endocrine disorders, although not very often, have been reported in patients with CS, including growth hormone deficiency, hypoglycemia, ACTH deficiency, cryptorchidism and hypothyroidism. We report a case of Costello syndrome with hypothyroidism, cryptorchidism and growth hormone deficiency and we evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of growth hormone replacement therapy. The index patient is a paradigm of successful and safe treatment with growth hormone for almost 7 years. Since patients with CS are at increased risk for cardiac myopathy and tumor development they deserve close monitoring during treatment.

  4. Hormonal and biochemical responses to transcendental meditation.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, R.; Joffe, B. I.; Lamprey, J. M.; Botha, A.; Shires, R.; Baker, S. G.; Seftel, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to assess whether transcendental meditation (TM) could influence various endocrine responses in 10 experienced male meditators. Nine matched subjects, uninformed of the TM procedure, acted as controls. Meditators successfully practised their technique for 40 min in the morning while controls relaxed for this period. No significant differences emerged between these 2 groups with respect to carbohydrate metabolism (plasma glucose, insulin and pancreatic glucagon concentrations), pituitary hormones (growth hormone and prolactin) or the 'stress' hormones, cortisol and total catecholamines-although meditators tended to have higher mean catecholamine levels. Plasma free fatty acids were significantly elevated in meditators 40 min after completing the period of TM. No clear evidence was thus obtained that any of the stress, or stress-related, hormones were suppressed during or after meditation in the particular setting examined. PMID:3895206

  5. Innovations in classical hormonal targets for endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, Nicola; Freschi, Letizia; Wenger, Jean-Marie; Streuli, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic disease of unknown etiology that affects approximately 10% of women in reproductive age. Several evidences show that endometriosis lesions are associated to hormonal imbalance, including estrogen synthesis, metabolism and responsiveness and progesterone resistance. These hormonal alterations influence the ability of endometrial cells to proliferate, migrate and to infiltrate the mesothelium, causing inflammation, pain and infertility. Hormonal imbalance in endometriosis represents also a target for treatment. We provide an overview on therapeutic strategies based on innovations of classical hormonal mechanisms involved in the development of endometriosis lesions. The development phase of new molecules targeting these pathways is also discussed. Endometriosis is a chronic disease involving young women and additional biological targets of estrogen and progesterone pharmacological manipulation (brain, bone and cardiovascular tissue) need to be carefully considered in order to improve and overcome current limits of long-term medical management of endometriosis.

  6. Sex hormones and the elderly male voice.

    PubMed

    Gugatschka, Markus; Kiesler, Karl; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Schoekler, Bernadette; Schmid, Christoph; Groselj-Strele, Andrea; Friedrich, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    The objective was to describe influences of sex hormones on the male voice in an elderly cohort. Sixty-three elderly males were recruited to undergo assessment of voice parameters, stroboscopy, voice-related questionnaires, a blood draw, and an ultrasound examination of the laryngeal skeleton. The group was divided into men with normal hormonal status and men with lowered levels of sex hormones, called hypogonades. Depending on the level of androgens, voice parameters did not differ. In subjects with decreased levels of estrogens, a significant increase in mean fundamental frequency, as well as changes of highest and lowest frequency plus a shift of the frequency range could be detected. We could detect significant changes of voice parameters depending on status of estrogens in elderly males. Androgens appear to have no impact on the elderly male voice. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study that correlates sex hormones with voice parameters in elderly men.

  7. Hormone signaling pathways under stress combinations.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2016-11-01

    As sessile organisms, plants are continuously exposed to various environmental stresses. In contrast to the controlled conditions employed in many researches, more than one or more abiotic and/or biotic stresses simultaneously occur and highly impact growth of plants and crops in the field environments. Therefore, an urgent need to generate crops with enhanced tolerance to stress combinations exists. Researchers, however, focused on the mechanisms underlying acclimation of plants to combined stresses only in recent studies. Plant hormones might be a key regulator of the tailored responses of plants to different stress combinations. Co-ordination between different hormone signaling, or hormone signaling and other pathways such as ROS regulatory mechanisms could be flexible, being altered by timing and types of stresses, and could be different depending on plant species under the stress combinations. In this review, update on recent studies focusing on complex-mode of hormone signaling under stress combinations will be provided.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: combined pituitary hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with combined pituitary hormone deficiency may have hypothyroidism, which is underactivity of the butterfly-shaped thyroid gland in the lower neck. Hypothyroidism can cause many symptoms, including weight gain and ...

  9. Aging-Related Hormone Changes in Men

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Men's health Aging-related hormone changes in men — sometimes called male menopause — are different from those ... to erectile dysfunction and other sexual issues. Make healthy lifestyle choices. Eat a healthy diet and include physical ...

  10. [Dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA(S)]: anabolic hormone?].

    PubMed

    Luci, Michele; Valenti, Giorgio; Maggio, Marcello

    2010-09-01

    The role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated form (DHEAS) as anabolic hormones is still debated in the literature. In this review we describe the fundamental steps of DHEA physiological secretion and its peripheral metabolism. Moreover we will list all the observational and intervention studies conducted in humans. Many observational studies have tested the relationship between low DHEA levels and age-related changes in skeletal muscle and bone, while intervention studies underline the positive and significant effects of DHEA treatment on several parameters of body composition. Surprisingly, observational studies are not consistent with different effects in men and women. There is recent evidence of a significant role of DHEA in frailty syndrome and as predictor of mortality. However a more complete approach of the problem suggests the opportunity to not focus only on one single hormonal derangement but to analyze the parallel dysregulation of anabolic hormones including sex steroids, GH-IGF-1 system and other catabolic hormones.

  11. Thyroid hormone, brain development, and the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Zoeller, Thomas R; Dowling, Amy L S; Herzig, Carolyn T A; Iannacone, Eric A; Gauger, Kelly J; Bansal, Ruby

    2002-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for normal brain development. Therefore, it is a genuine concern that thyroid function can be altered by a very large number of chemicals routinely found in the environment and in samples of human and wildlife tissues. These chemicals range from natural to manufactured compounds. They can produce thyroid dysfunction when they are absent from the diet, as in the case of iodine, or when they are present in the diet, as in the case of thionamides. Recent clinical evidence strongly suggests that brain development is much more sensitive to thyroid hormone excess or deficit than previously believed. In addition, recent experimental research provides new insight into the developmental processes affected by thyroid hormone. Based on the authors' research focusing on the ability of polychlorinated biphenyls to alter the expression of thyroid hormone-responsive genes in the developing brain, this review provides background information supporting a new way of approaching risk analysis of thyroid disruptors. PMID:12060829

  12. Amative orientation: the hormonal hypothesis examined.

    PubMed

    Money, John

    2002-01-01

    The hypothesis that human male and female amative orientation, arousal and courtship are sex-hormone dependent had as its precursor John Hunter's recorded but unpublished 18th century experiments of cross-sexed gonadal transplants in chicks. The hypothesis gained momentum in the 20th century after the discovery and eventual marketing of the sex hormones, and after the experimental demonstration by William C. Young that, in guinea-pigs, cross-sexed hormone administered prenatally influenced their subsequent male/female courtship and mating behavior. Comparatively and in review, human clinical syndromes of hypermasculinization and hypomasculinization do not disconfirm the hormonal hypothesis, but they do not adequately confirm it, either. They are compatible with the idea of a cofactor that governs whether amative orientation in practice, ideation and imagery is homosexual, heterosexual or bisexual.

  13. Marihuana smoking suppresses luteinizing hormone in women.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, J H; Mello, N K; Ellingboe, J; Skupny, A S; Lex, B W; Griffin, M

    1986-06-01

    Smoking a single 1-g marihuana cigarette containing 1.8% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol induced a 30% suppression of plasma luteinizing hormone levels (P less than .02) in women during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. After marihuana placebo cigarette smoking, no luteinizing hormone suppression was observed in the same women under double-blind conditions. Marihuana may have adverse effects upon reproductive function during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle as a consequence of gonadotropin inhibition.

  14. Climacteric in untreated isolated growth hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Menilson; Salvatori, Roberto; Oliveira, Carla R.P.; Pereira, Rossana M.C.; Souza, Anita H.O.; Nobrega, Luciana M.A.; Cruz, Edla do A.C.; Menezes, Marcos; Alves, Érica O.; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the time, intensity of symptoms, hormonal profile, and related morbidity of climacteric in women with untreated isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency (IGHD). Design Women belonging to a large Brazilian kindred with IGHD due to a homozygous mutation in the GH-releasing hormone receptor gene were studied. None of them had ever received GH replacement therapy. A two-step protocol was performed. In the first case-control experiment, aimed to determine the age at climacteric, we compared eight women with IGHD and 32 normal women between 37 and 55 years of age. In the second cross-sectional experiment, aimed to determine the severity of climacteric symptoms, seven women with IGHD (aged 47-65 y) were compared with 13 controls (aged 44-65 y). The Kupperman Index scores, serum follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and estradiol levels were determined, and pelvic and mammary ultrasonography, mammography, and colpocytology were performed. Results The number of women with follicle-stimulating hormone above 20 mIU/mL was higher in women with IGHD than controls. Kupperman’s Index was not different between the two groups. Menarche had been delayed and parity was lower in women with IGHD. Hormonal profile was similar, but prolactin was lower in women with IGHD. Uterine volume was smaller in women with IGHD, and endometrial thickness and ovarian volume were similar in the two groups. No difference in breast images or in colpocytology was observed between the two groups. Conclusions Menarche was delayed and the beginning of climacteric is anticipated in untreated lifetime IGHD, but menopausal symptoms and hormonal profile resemble the normal climacteric. PMID:18223507

  15. Young addicted men hormone profile detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieliński, Paweł; Wasiewicz, Piotr; Leszczyńska, Bożena; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna

    2010-09-01

    Hormone parameters were determined in the serum of young addicted men in order to compare them with those obtained from the group of healthy subjects. Three groups were investigated which were named opiates, mixed and control group. Statistical and data mining methods were applied to obtain significant differences. R package was used for all computation. The determination of hormones parameters provide important information relative to impact of addiction.

  16. Steroid Hormones in NF1 Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    NFl is characterized by benign Schwann cell tumors called neurofibromas; complex forms can become malignant ( MPNST ). Little is known about...neurofibroma (and/or MPNST ) Schwann cells have increased growth or decreased apoptosis related to steroid hormones. Specific Aim 1 is examining steroid...hormone receptor expression in human normal, NFl neurofibroma and MPNST Schwann cells. Real-time PCR shows very low levels of these receptor

  17. Steroid Hormones in NF1 Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    This work is testing the hypothesis that human NF1 neurofibroma (and/or MPNST ) Schwann cells have increased growth or decreased apoptosis in response...to estrogen and progesterone. Specific Aim 1 measured steroid hormone receptor expression in human normal, NF1 neurofibroma and MPNST Schwann cells...responses of the neurofibroma/ MPNST Schwann cell cultures to hormones or antagonists, but no global patterns, indicating tumors behave individually as

  18. Sexual Functioning During Menopause: Schemas, Hormones, and Race

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-08

    Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH Hormone Replacement Therapies HRT Human Performance Laboratory HPL Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder HSDD...in reproductive status based on changes in reproductive hormones including estradiol (i.e., estrogen), progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone...Self-Schemas & Menopause 79 (i.e., complications). Blood samples of 20mL from each participant were collected in two test tubes containing a

  19. 21 CFR 862.1485 - Luteinizing hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Luteinizing hormone test system. 862.1485 Section... Systems § 862.1485 Luteinizing hormone test system. (a) Identification. A luteinizing hormone test system is a device intended to measure luteinizing hormone in serum and urine. Luteinizing...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1690 - Thyroid stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. 862.1690... Systems § 862.1690 Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. (a) Identification. A thyroid stimulating hormone test system is a device intended to measure thyroid stimulating hormone, also known...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section... Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma....

  2. 21 CFR 862.1690 - Thyroid stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. 862.1690... Systems § 862.1690 Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. (a) Identification. A thyroid stimulating hormone test system is a device intended to measure thyroid stimulating hormone, also known...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1370 - Human growth hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Human growth hormone test system. 862.1370 Section... Systems § 862.1370 Human growth hormone test system. (a) Identification. A human growth hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of human growth hormone in plasma. Human growth...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section... Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma....

  5. 21 CFR 862.1485 - Luteinizing hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Luteinizing hormone test system. 862.1485 Section... Systems § 862.1485 Luteinizing hormone test system. (a) Identification. A luteinizing hormone test system is a device intended to measure luteinizing hormone in serum and urine. Luteinizing...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1485 - Luteinizing hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Luteinizing hormone test system. 862.1485 Section... Systems § 862.1485 Luteinizing hormone test system. (a) Identification. A luteinizing hormone test system is a device intended to measure luteinizing hormone in serum and urine. Luteinizing...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section... Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma....

  8. 21 CFR 862.1370 - Human growth hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Human growth hormone test system. 862.1370 Section... Systems § 862.1370 Human growth hormone test system. (a) Identification. A human growth hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of human growth hormone in plasma. Human growth...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1690 - Thyroid stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. 862.1690... Systems § 862.1690 Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. (a) Identification. A thyroid stimulating hormone test system is a device intended to measure thyroid stimulating hormone, also known...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1690 - Thyroid stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. 862.1690... Systems § 862.1690 Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. (a) Identification. A thyroid stimulating hormone test system is a device intended to measure thyroid stimulating hormone, also known...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1690 - Thyroid stimulating hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. 862.1690... Systems § 862.1690 Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. (a) Identification. A thyroid stimulating hormone test system is a device intended to measure thyroid stimulating hormone, also known...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1485 - Luteinizing hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Luteinizing hormone test system. 862.1485 Section... Systems § 862.1485 Luteinizing hormone test system. (a) Identification. A luteinizing hormone test system is a device intended to measure luteinizing hormone in serum and urine. Luteinizing...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section... Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma....

  14. 21 CFR 862.1485 - Luteinizing hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Luteinizing hormone test system. 862.1485 Section... Systems § 862.1485 Luteinizing hormone test system. (a) Identification. A luteinizing hormone test system is a device intended to measure luteinizing hormone in serum and urine. Luteinizing...

  15. Stress Hormones and their Regulation in a Captive Dolphin Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    stimulation experiments, an animal’s hormonal and physiological response to a simulated stressor can be evaluated. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Stress Hormones and Their Regulation in a Captive...will determine baseline levels of putative stress hormones and evaluate the functional consequences of increased stress in the bottlenose dolphin

  16. Hormonal Perturbations in Occupationally Exposed Nickel Workers

    PubMed Central

    Beshir, Safia; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah; Shaheen, Weam; Shahy, Eman M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel exposure is recognized as an endocrine disruptor because of its adverse effects on reproduction. AIM: This study was designed to investigate the possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations on workers occupationally exposed to nickel and to assess its effects on human male sexual function. METHODS: Cross-sectional comparative study, comprising 105 electroplating male non-smoker, non-alcoholic workers exposed to soluble nickel and 60 controls was done. Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone levels and urinary nickel concentrations were determined for the studied groups. RESULTS: Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, urinary nickel and the simultaneous incidence of more than one sexual disorder were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to controls. The occurrence of various types of sexual disorders (decreased libido, impotence and premature ejaculation) in the exposed workers was 9.5, 5.1 and 4.4 folds respectively than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to nickel produces possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations in those exposed workers. PMID:27335607

  17. Relation between sex hormones and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    El Mahdy Korah, T; Abd Elfatah Badr, E; Mohamed Emara, M; Ahmed Samy Kohla, M; Gamal Saad Michael, G

    2016-11-01

    Males have higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than females. Sex hormones may be a risk factor. The aim was to determine the levels of sex hormones in male and female patients with HCC and cirrhosis versus controls and its possible relationship with HCC. This study was conducted on 90 subjects divided into 40 patients with HCC, 30 patients with liver cirrhosis and 20 apparently healthy subjects complete blood picture, liver function tests. Determination of AFP levels and hormonal assay of oestrogen, progesterone, total testosterone, prolactin, FSH and LH were performed on all subjects. Total testosterone levels were significantly decreased in the two patients groups compared with controls. While oestrogen levels were significantly decreased in the HCC group in comparison with other two groups, prolactin levels were significantly decreased in the HCC group compared with the liver cirrhosis group and increased in the liver cirrhosis group when compared to controls. FSH and LH levels were significantly increased in the HCC group when compared to controls. There is no significant correlation between sex hormones assay and both the size of HCC and degree of cirrhosis in both patient groups. It is concluded that there is no strong relation between sex hormones and HCC when the study was carried out on the levels of sex hormones in patients with HCC.

  18. Weight control, endocrine hormones and cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    King, Brenee; Jiang, Yu; Su, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jianteng; Xie, Linglin; Standard, Joseph; Wang, Weiqun

    2013-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing which becomes worrisome due to its association with several diseases and certain types of cancers. While weight control through dietary caloric restriction and/or physical activity protects against cancer in animal models, the underlying mechanisms are not fully defined. Weight loss due to negative energy balance is associated with alterations of multiple growth factors and endocrine hormones. The altered hormones and hormone-related functions appear to be responsible for anti-cancer mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the recent studies related to weight loss and the altered endocrine hormones, focusing on the reduced levels of the mitogenic insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and adipokine leptin as well as the raised levels of adiponectin and glucocorticoids. The potential molecular targets of these hormone-dependent signalling pathways are also discussed. Considering the increasing trends of obesity throughout the world, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms between body weight, endocrine hormones and cancer risk may lead to novel approaches to cancer prevention and treatment.

  19. Hormone-independent pathways of sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Marilyn B; Chew, Keng Yih; Shaw, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    New observations over the last 25 years of hormone-independent sexual dimorphisms have gradually and unequivocally overturned the dogma, arising from Jost's elegant experiments in the mid-1900s, that all somatic sex dimorphisms in vertebrates arise from the action of gonadal hormones. Although we know that Sry, a Y-linked gene, is the primary gonadal sex determinant in mammals, more recent analysis in marsupials, mice, and finches has highlighted numerous sexual dimorphisms that are evident well before the differentiation of the testis and which cannot be explained by a sexually dimorphic hormonal environment. In marsupials, scrotal bulges and mammary primordia are visible before the testis has differentiated due to the expression of a gene(s) on the X chromosome. ZZ and ZW gynandromorph finches have brains that develop in a sexually dimorphic way dependent on their sex chromosome content. In genetically manipulated mice, it is the X chromosomes, not the gonads, that determine many characters including rate of early development, adiposity, and neural circuits. Even spotted hyenas have sexual dimorphisms that cannot be simply explained by hormonal exposure. This review discusses the recent findings that confirm that there are hormone-independent sexual dimorphisms well before the gonads begin to produce their hormones.

  20. Thyroid hormone, neural tissue and mood modulation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, M; Whybrow, P C

    2001-04-01

    The successful treatment of affective disorders with thyroid hormone exemplifies the suggested inter-relationship between endocrine and neuronal systems in these disorders. Thyroid hormones have a profound influence on behaviour and appear to be capable of modulating the phenotypic expression of major affective illness. Specifically, there is good evidence that triiodothyronine (T3) may accelerate the antidepressant response to tricylic antidepressants, and some studies suggest that T3 may augment the therapeutic response to antidepressants in refractory depressed patients. Open studies have also indicated that adjunctive supraphysiological doses of thyroxine (T4) can ameliorate depressive symptomatology and help stabilize the long-term course of illness in bipolar and unipolar patients, especially women refractory to standard medications. Despite acceptance of the essential role of thyroid hormone on brain maturation and differentiation, and the clinical and therapeutic observations in association with mood disorders, the molecular action that may underlie the mood-modulating properties of thyroid hormone in the adult brain has only recently become the focus of research. The identification of nuclear T3 receptors, the region-specific expression of deiodinase isoenzymes and the molecular analyses of thyroid-responsive genes in the adult brain have provided the biological bases for a better understanding of thyroid hormone action in mature neurons. Also the influence of thyroid hormones on the putative neurotransmitter systems that regulate mood and behaviour, serotonin and norepinephrine, may be helpful in explaining their mood-modulating effects.

  1. Improved response of growth hormone to growth hormone-releasing hormone and reversible chronic thyroiditis after hydrocortisone replacement in isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Miho; Sato, Haruhiro; Miyamoto, Yoshiyasu; Hirukawa, Takashi; Sawaya, Asako; Miyakogawa, Takayo; Tatsumi, Ryoko; Kakuta, Takatoshi

    2009-07-20

    We report a 44-year-old Japanese man who showed a reversible blunted response of growth hormone (GH) to GH-releasing hormone (GRH) stimulation test and reversible chronic thyroiditis accompanied by isolated ACTH deficiency. He was admitted to our hospital because of severe general malaise, hypotension, and hypoglycemia. He showed repeated attacks of hypoglycemia, and his serum sodium level gradually decreased. Finally, he was referred to the endocrinology division, where his adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol values were found to be low, and his GH level was slightly elevated. An increased value of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and decreased values of free triidothyronine and free thyroxine were observed along with anti-thyroglobulin antibody, suggesting chronic thyroiditis. Pituitary stimulation tests revealed a blunted response of ACTH and cortisol to corticotropin-releasing hormone, and a blunted response of GH to GRH. Hydrocortisone replacement was then started, and this improved the patient's general condition. His hypothyroid state gradually ameliorated and his titer of anti-thyroglobulin antibody decreased to the normal range. Pituitary function was re-evaluated with GRH stimulation test under a maintenance dose of 20 mg/day hydrocortisone and showed a normal response of GH to GRH. It is suggested that re-evaluation of pituitary and thyroid function is useful for diagnosing isolated ACTH deficiency after starting a maintenance dose of hydrocortisone in order to avoid unnecessary replacement of thyroid hormone.

  2. Hormonal and systemic regulation of sclerostin.

    PubMed

    Drake, Matthew T; Khosla, Sundeep

    2017-03-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an essential role in osteoblast biology. Sclerostin is a soluble antagonist of Wnt/β-catenin signaling secreted primarily by osteocytes. Current evidence indicates that sclerostin likely functions as a local/paracrine regulator of bone metabolism rather than as an endocrine hormone. Nonetheless, circulating sclerostin levels in humans often reflect changes in the bone microenvironment, although there may be exceptions to this observation. Using existing assays, circulating sclerostin levels have been shown to be altered in response to both hormonal stimuli and across a variety of normal physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In both rodents and humans, parathyroid hormone provided either intermittently or continuously suppresses sclerostin levels. Likewise, most evidence from both human and animal studies supports a suppressive effect of estrogen on sclerostin levels. Efforts to examine non-hormonal/systemic regulation of sclerostin have in general shown less consistent findings or have provided associations rather than direct interventional information, with the exception of mechanosensory studies which have consistently demonstrated increased sclerostin levels with skeletal unloading, and conversely decreases in sclerostin with enhanced skeletal loading. Herein, we will review the existent literature on both hormonal and non-hormonal/systemic factors which have been studied for their impact on sclerostin regulation.

  3. Perspectives in hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Kenemans, P; van Unnik, G A; Mijatovic, V; van der Mooren, M J

    2001-06-15

    Estrogens have been convincingly shown to be highly effective in preventing and reversing menopause-related conditions, such as hot flushes, urogenital complaints, and postmenopausal bone loss. Observational studies report that long-term, estrogen-containing, postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) leads to a substantial reduction in hip fractures, myocardial infarction, and possibly colonic cancer, with important consequences for health and quality of life. Estrogen replacement may postpone the onset of Alzheimer's disease and extend life. While many of these effects are biologically plausible, with a variety of cellular mechanisms being involved, only ongoing and future large-scale randomized clinical trials can and should define the effects of HRT more precisely. Long-term compliance is a key issue for long-term benefits, and offering women a choice of administration routes and regimens can only be beneficial in this respect. Pills, patches, gels, and implants are all widely prescribed. Intravaginal or intranasal forms of administration, which are very easy to use and adaptable on an individual level, are among the new options which could improve long-term continuation of HRT use. Fear of breast cancer and recurrence of vaginal bleeding are real concerns for many women considering HRT. This has led to research into lower-dose, estrogen-containing regimens, into continuous combined regimens, and into the potential of estrogen receptor alpha or beta binding molecules that may help to prevent such problems from arising. The prospects for safe and effective postmenopausal HRT with either estrogens or estrogen-like drugs are very promising when these drugs are used in a patient-tailored, risk profile-based manner.

  4. Sexual hormones in human skin.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, C C; Chen, W-C; Thornton, M J; Qin, K; Rosenfield, R

    2007-02-01

    The skin locally synthesizes significant amounts of sexual hormones with intracrine or paracrine actions. The local level of each sexual steroid depends upon the expression of each of the androgen- and estrogen-synthesizing enzymes in each cell type, with sebaceous glands and sweat glands being the major contributors. Sebocytes express very little of the key enzyme, cytochrome P450c17, necessary for synthesis of the androgenic prohormones dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione, however, these prohormones can be converted by sebocytes and sweat glands, and probably also by dermal papilla cells, into more potent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Five major enzymes are involved in the activation and deactivation of androgens in skin. Androgens affect several functions of human skin, such as sebaceous gland growth and differentiation, hair growth, epidermal barrier homeostasis and wound healing. Their effects are mediated by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor. Changes of isoenzyme and/or androgen receptor levels may have important implications in the development of hyperandrogenism and the associated skin diseases such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism and androgenetic alopecia. On the other hand, estrogens have been implicated in skin aging, pigmentation, hair growth, sebum production and skin cancer. Estrogens exert their actions through intracellular receptors or via cell surface receptors, which activate specific second messenger signaling pathways. Recent studies suggest specific site-related distribution of ERalpha and ERbeta in human skin. In contrast, progestins play no role in the pathogenesis of skin disorders. However, they play a major role in the treatment of hirsutism and acne vulgaris, where they are prescribed as components of estrogen-progestin combination pills and as anti-androgens. These combinations enhance gonadotropin suppression of ovarian androgen production. Estrogen-progestin treatment can reduce the need for shaving

  5. Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Xenopus Metamorphosis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Serum thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in anuran larvae rise rapidly during metamorphosis. Such a rise in an adult anuran would inevitably trigger a negative feedback response resulting in decreased synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by the pituitary....

  6. Growth Hormone Research Society perspective on the development of long-acting growth hormone preparations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH). A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrino...

  7. Resistance to growth hormone releasing hormone and gonadotropins in Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Giovanna; Spada, Anna

    2006-05-01

    Heterozygous inactivating mutations in the Gs alpha gene cause Albright's hereditary osteo-dystrophy (AHO). Consistent with the observation that only maternally inherited mutations lead to resistance to hormone action (pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia [PHP-Ia), recent studies have provided evidence for a predominant maternal origin of Gs alpha transcripts in endocrine organs, such as thyroid, gonad and pituitary. Accordingly, patients with PHP-Ia display variable degrees of resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins and growth hormone (GH) releasing hormone (GHRH). Although the incidence and the clinical and biochemical characteristics of PTH and TSH resistance have been widely investigated and described, the cause and significance of the reproductive dysfunction in AHO is still poorly understood. The clinical finding of alterations of GH secretion in these patients was described for the first time only 2 years ago. The present report briefly reviews the literature focusing on the actual knowledge about these last two subjects.

  8. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Okinaga, Hiroko; Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Tomoki

    2011-04-15

    Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor α, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  9. Hormonal Treatment of Metastases of Renal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    van der Werf-Messing, B.; van Gilse, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    A series of 33 patients with metastatic renal cancer and evidence of progression of the disease—apart from pulmonary metastases—was treated with hormones (progestogens in 31 cases, androgens in 2 cases) at the Rotterdamsch Radio-Therapeutisch Instituut. Complete or partial spontaneous regression (or non-progression of pulmonary metastases) before hormone treatment was observed in 8 patients (24%). A favourable subjective response to hormone treatment was obtained in 12 patients (36%), while a positive objective response was obtained in 2 (or 3) cases (6-9%). A favourable response was obtained slightly more frequently in men than in women. The hormonal effect was not demonstrably related to any of the following factors: age of the patient, type of progestogen used, the behaviour of concomitant pulmonary metastases, or the presence or absence of the primary growth. The prognosis was unaffected by hormone therapy, but the 2 year survival rate was significantly higher in patients that showed signs of spontaneous regression of pulmonary metastases, as compared with those without these signs. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5144516

  10. Hormonal treatment of metastases of renal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    van der Werf-Messing, B; van Gilse, H A

    1971-09-01

    A series of 33 patients with metastatic renal cancer and evidence of progression of the disease-apart from pulmonary metastases-was treated with hormones (progestogens in 31 cases, androgens in 2 cases) at the Rotterdamsch Radio-Therapeutisch Instituut. Complete or partial spontaneous regression (or non-progression of pulmonary metastases) before hormone treatment was observed in 8 patients (24%). A favourable subjective response to hormone treatment was obtained in 12 patients (36%), while a positive objective response was obtained in 2 (or 3) cases (6-9%).A favourable response was obtained slightly more frequently in men than in women. The hormonal effect was not demonstrably related to any of the following factors: age of the patient, type of progestogen used, the behaviour of concomitant pulmonary metastases, or the presence or absence of the primary growth.The prognosis was unaffected by hormone therapy, but the 2 year survival rate was significantly higher in patients that showed signs of spontaneous regression of pulmonary metastases, as compared with those without these signs.

  11. Hypothalamic effects of thyroid hormones on metabolism.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Alvarez, Clara V; Fernø, Johan; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos; López, Miguel

    2014-10-01

    Over the past few decades, obesity and its related metabolic disorders have increased at an epidemic rate in the developed and developing world. New signals and factors involved in the modulation of energy balance and metabolism are continuously being discovered, providing potential novel drug targets for the treatment of metabolic disease. A parallel strategy is to better understand how hormonal signals, with an already established role in energy metabolism, work, and how manipulation of the pathways involved may lead to amelioration of metabolic dysfunction. The thyroid hormones belong to the latter category, with dysregulation of the thyroid axis leading to marked alterations in energy balance. The potential of thyroid hormones in the treatment of obesity has been known for decades, but their therapeutic use has been hampered because of side-effects. Data gleaned over the past few years, however, have uncovered new features at the mechanisms of action involved in thyroid hormones. Sophisticated neurobiological approaches have allowed the identification of specific energy sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase and mechanistic target of rapamycin, acting in specific groups of hypothalamic neurons, mediating many of the effects of thyroid hormones on food intake, energy expenditure, glucose, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular function. More extensive knowledge about these molecular mechanisms will be of great relevance for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  12. Hormonal control of sulfate uptake and assimilation.

    PubMed

    Koprivova, Anna; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2016-08-01

    Plant hormones have a plethora of functions in control of plant development, stress response, and primary metabolism, including nutrient homeostasis. In the plant nutrition, the interplay of hormones with responses to nitrate and phosphate deficiency is well described, but relatively little is known about the interaction between phytohormones and regulation of sulfur metabolism. As for other nutrients, sulfate deficiency results in modulation of root architecture, where hormones are expected to play an important role. Accordingly, sulfate deficiency induces genes involved in metabolism of tryptophane and auxin. Also jasmonate biosynthesis is induced, pointing to the need of increase the defense capabilities of the plants when sulfur is limiting. However, hormones affect also sulfate uptake and assimilation. The pathway is coordinately induced by jasmonate and the key enzyme, adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase, is additionally regulated by ethylene, abscisic acid, nitric oxid, and other phytohormones. Perhaps the most intriguing link between hormones and sulfate assimilation is the fact that the main regulator of the response to sulfate starvation, SULFATE LIMITATION1 (SLIM1) belongs to the family of ethylene related transcription factors. We will review the current knowledge of interplay between phytohormones and control of sulfur metabolism and discuss the main open questions.

  13. Metabolic hormones in saliva: origins and functions

    PubMed Central

    Zolotukhin, S.

    2012-01-01

    The salivary proteome consists of thousands of proteins, which include, among others, hormonal modulators of energy intake and output. Although the functions of this prominent category of hormones in whole body energy metabolism are well characterized, their functions in the oral cavity, whether as a salivary component, or when expressed in taste cells, are less studied and poorly understood. The respective receptors for the majority of salivary metabolic hormones have been also shown to be expressed in salivary glands, taste cells, or other cells in the oral mucosa. This review provides a comprehensive account of the gastrointestinal hormones, adipokines, and neuropeptides identified in saliva, salivary glands, or lingual epithelium, as well as their respective cognate receptors expressed in the oral cavity. Surprisingly, few functions are assigned to salivary metabolic hormones, and these functions are mostly associated with the modulation of taste perception. Because of the well-characterized correlation between impaired oral nutrient sensing and increased energy intake and body mass index, a conceptually provocative point of view is introduced, whereupon it is argued that targeted changes in the composition of saliva could affect whole body metabolism in response to the activation of cognate receptors expressed locally in the oral mucosa. PMID:22994880

  14. How to use and interpret hormone ratios.

    PubMed

    Sollberger, Silja; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Hormone ratios have become increasingly popular throughout the neuroendocrine literature since they offer a straightforward way to simultaneously analyze the effects of two interdependent hormones. However, the analysis of ratios is associated with statistical and interpretational concerns which have not been sufficiently considered in the context of endocrine research. The aim of this article, therefore, is to demonstrate and discuss these issues, and to suggest suitable ways to address them. In a first step, we use exemplary testosterone and cortisol data to illustrate that one major concern of ratios lies in their distribution and inherent asymmetry. As a consequence, results of parametric statistical analyses are affected by the ultimately arbitrary decision of which way around the ratio is computed (i.e., A/B or B/A). We suggest the use of non-parametric methods as well as the log-transformation of hormone ratios as appropriate methods to deal with these statistical problems. However, in a second step, we also discuss the complicated interpretation of ratios, and propose moderation analysis as an alternative and oftentimes more insightful approach to ratio analysis. In conclusion, we suggest that researchers carefully consider which statistical approach is best suited to investigate reciprocal hormone effects. With regard to the hormone ratio method, further research is needed to specify what exactly this index reflects on the biological level and in which cases it is a meaningful variable to analyze.

  15. Role of hormones and neurosteroids in epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the emerging evidence of hormonal influence on epileptogenesis, which is a process whereby a brain becomes progressively epileptic due to an initial precipitating event of diverse origin such as brain injury, stroke, infection, or prolonged seizures. The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of epilepsy are poorly understood. Neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration appear to trigger epileptogenesis. There is an intense search for drugs that truly prevent the development of epilepsy in people at risk. Hormones play an important role in children and adults with epilepsy. Corticosteroids, progesterone, estrogens, and neurosteroids have been shown to affect seizure activity in animal models and in clinical studies. However, the impact of hormones on epileptogenesis has not been investigated widely. There is emerging new evidence that progesterone, neurosteroids, and endogenous hormones may play a role in regulating the epileptogenesis. Corticosterone has excitatory effects and triggers epileptogenesis in animal models. Progesterone has disease-modifying activity in epileptogenic models. The antiepileptogenic effect of progesterone has been attributed to its conversion to neurosteroids, which binds to GABA-A receptors and enhances phasic and tonic inhibition in the brain. Neurosteroids are robust anticonvulsants. There is pilot evidence that neurosteroids may have antiepileptogenic properties. Future studies may generate new insight on the disease-modifying potential of hormonal agents and neurosteroids in epileptogenesis. PMID:23914154

  16. [Hormonal treatments for fertility disorders in cattle].

    PubMed

    Gundling, N; Feldmann, M; Hoedemaker, M

    2012-01-01

    In dairy cows, hormonal treatments are commonly implemented for acyclicity, silent heat and endometritis. Before treatment, causes of infertility need to be detected and severe failures in housing, feeding or other diseases must be eliminated. Without sustainable improvement of herd management, the use of intensive hormonal treatments will not improve reproductive performance. The most common cause of anoestrous is silent heat. In cows with a palpable corpus luteum, injection of prostaglandin F2α (PGF) reliably induces oestrous. A satisfactory treatment for acyclicity (ovarian dystrophy, ovarian cysts) does not exist. Combinations of different hormones have greater treatment success than a single use of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) or human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Strategic use of PGF during the early postpartum period cannot be recommended because positive effects on uterus involution and resumption of the oestrous cycle after calving have not been verified. In contrast, application of GnRH combined with PGF in the puerperal phase appeared to have positive effects on fertility of cows with endometritis. The same applies to PGF for cows with chronic endometritis. Cases of endometritis with fetid odour of vaginal mucus or isolation of Trueperella pyogenes should be treated with antibiotics. Treatment before the 27th day post partum is not advisable. In conclusion, hormonal treatments can be used to treat fertility disorders. Nevertheless, in order to enhance the reproductive performance at the herd level, a sustainable improvement of the general conditions (housing, feeding, animal health, management) is a prerequisite.

  17. Sex hormones in women with kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sofia B; Ramesh, Sharanya

    2016-11-01

    Menstrual disorders, infertility and premature menopause are common but often underrecognized phenomena among women with chronic kidney disease. Hypothalamic, rather than ovarian dysfunction, may be the cause of the abnormal reproductive milieu, which can be at least partially reversed by kidney transplantation and increased intensity of hemodialysis. Endogenous sex hormones, and specifically estradiol, appear to be renoprotective in women, although the effects of exogenous estradiol (as an oral contraceptive and postmenopausal hormone therapy) on kidney function are more controversial. Treatment with postmenopausal hormone therapy in women with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) has been associated with improved quality of life, bone health and markers of cardiovascular risk, as well as an increased risk of arteriovenous access thrombosis. The selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene has been associated with both a decreased fracture risk as well as renoprotection in women with kidney disease. Young women with ESKD are more likely to die from infection or develop malignancy, suggesting an immunomodulatory role of estrogen. Whether the premature menopause commonly observed in female patients with kidney disease results in increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is unknown, although preliminary studies have suggested a possible therapeutic role for manipulation of the sex hormone milieu to mitigate risk in this population. Large, prospective, randomized studies examining the role of sex hormones in women with kidney disease are required to address the question.

  18. Drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Kavita; Stuart, Gretchen S.; Robinson, Jennifer; Gray, Andrew L.; Tepper, Naomi K.; Gaffield, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To summarize published evidence on drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals. Design: Systematic review of the published literature. Methods: We searched PubMed, POPLINE, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed publications of studies (in any language) from inception to 21 September 2015. We included studies of women using hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals concurrently. Outcomes of interest were effectiveness of either therapy, toxicity, or pharmacokinetics. We used standard abstraction forms to summarize and assess strengths and weaknesses. Results: Fifty reports from 46 studies were included. Most antiretrovirals whether used for therapy or prevention, have limited interactions with hormonal contraceptive methods, with the exception of efavirenz. Although depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is not affected, limited data on implants and combined oral contraceptive pills suggest that efavirenz-containing combination antiretroviral therapy may compromise contraceptive effectiveness of these methods. However, implants remain very effective despite such drug interactions. Antiretroviral plasma concentrations and effectiveness are generally not affected by hormonal contraceptives. Conclusion: Women taking antiretrovirals, for treatment or prevention, should not be denied access to the full range of hormonal contraceptive options, but should be counseled on the expected rates of unplanned pregnancy associated with all contraceptive methods, in order to make their own informed choices. PMID:28060009

  19. Actions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Glinsky, Gennadi V.

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3); this receptor also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of T4. Tetrac inhibits the binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. Expression of the CX3CL1 gene is downregulated by tetrac, suggesting that T4 and T3 may stimulate fractalkine expression. Independently of its specific receptor (CX3CR1), fractalkine binds to αvβ3 at a site proximal to the thyroid hormone-tetrac receptor and changes the physical state of the integrin. Tetrac also affects expression of the genes for other CNS-relevant chemokines, including CCL20, CCL26, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL10. The chemokine products of these genes are important to vascularity of the brain, particularly of the choroid plexus, to inflammatory processes in the CNS and, in certain cases, to neuroprotection. Thyroid hormones are known to contribute to regulation of each of these CNS functions. We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. PMID:27493972

  20. The common molecular players in plant hormone crosstalk and signaling.

    PubMed

    Ohri, Puja; Bhardwaj, Renu; Bali, Shagun; Kaur, Ravinderjit; Jasrotia, Shivam; Khajuria, Anjali; Parihar, Ripu D

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth and development is under the control of mutual interactions among plant hormones. The five classical categories of plant hormones include auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid and ethylene. Additionally, newer classes of plant hormones have been recognized like brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and polyamines. These hormones play significant roles in regulating the plant growth and development. Various receptors and key signaling components of these hormones have been studied and identified. At genetic level, crosstalk among the various plant hormones is found to be antagonistic or synergistic. In addition, components of signaling pathway of one plant hormone interact with the signaling components of other hormone. Thus, an attempt has been made to review the literature regarding the role of plant hormones in plant physiology and the common molecular players in their signaling and crosstalk.

  1. Thyroid hormone signaling in energy homeostasis and energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    McAninch, Elizabeth A.; Bianco, Antonio C.

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid hormone plays a significant role in diverse processes related to growth, development, differentiation, and metabolism. Thyroid hormone signaling modulates energy expenditure through both central and peripheral pathways. At the cellular level, the thyroid hormone exerts its effects after concerted mechanisms facilitate binding to the thyroid hormone receptor. In the hypothalamus, signals from a range of metabolic pathways, including appetite, temperature, afferent stimuli via the autonomic nervous system, availability of energy substrates, hormones, and other biologically active molecules, converge to maintain plasma thyroid hormone at the appropriate level to preserve energy homeostasis. At the tissue level, thyroid hormone actions on metabolism are controlled by transmembrane transporters, deiodinases, and thyroid hormone receptors. In the modern environment, humans are susceptible to an energy surplus, which has resulted in an obesity epidemic and thus understanding the contribution of the thyroid hormone to cellular and organism metabolism is increasingly relevant. PMID:24697152

  2. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.

    1983-01-01

    Dolk's (1936) finding that more growth hormone diffuses from the lower side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot than from the upper side is presently confirmed by means of both an isotope dilution assay and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and it is established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physicochemical demonstration that there is more IAA on the lower sides of a geostimulated plant shoot. It is also found that free IAA primarily occurs in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, while IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. A highly sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay shows that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the nonvascular tissue.

  3. Steroid hormone sulphation in lead workers.

    PubMed Central

    Apostoli, P; Romeo, L; Peroni, E; Ferioli, A; Ferrari, S; Pasini, F; Aprili, F

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism of steroid hormones has been investigated in 10 workers exposed to lead and in 10 non-exposed subjects to determine whether lead interferes with the first or second phase reactions of steroid hormone biotransformation, or both. In the exposed workers blood lead concentrations (PbB) ranged from 45 to 69 micrograms/100 ml; in the controls PbB was less than 25 micrograms/100 ml. No statistical differences were found for the total amount of the urinary hormone metabolites, but a drop of about 50% was observed for the sulphated portion. It is suggested that lead interferes with the mechanisms of sulphoconjugation through an effect on the cytosol enzymes sulphotransferase and sulphokinase. PMID:2930732

  4. Thyroid hormone and seasonal regulation of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Takashi

    2013-08-01

    Organisms living outside the tropics use changes in photoperiod to adapt to seasonal changes in the environment. Several models have contributed to an understanding of this mechanism at the molecular and endocrine levels. Subtropical birds are excellent models for the study of these mechanisms because of their rapid and dramatic response to changes in photoperiod. Studies of birds have demonstrated that light is perceived by a deep brain photoreceptor and long day-induced thyrotropin (TSH) from the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland causes local thyroid hormone activation within the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). The locally generated bioactive thyroid hormone, T₃, regulates seasonal gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, and hence gonadotropin secretion. In mammals, the eyes are the only photoreceptor involved in photoperiodic time perception and nocturnal melatonin secretion provides an endocrine signal of photoperiod to the PT to regulate TSH. Here, I review the current understanding of the hypothalamic mechanisms controlling seasonal reproduction in mammals and birds.

  5. Thyroid Hormones, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Antonio; Di Segni, Chantal; Raimondo, Sebastiano; Olivieri, Giulio; Silvestrini, Andrea; Meucci, Elisabetta; Currò, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are closely related processes, as well exemplified in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. OS is also related to hormonal derangement in a reciprocal way. Among the various hormonal influences that operate on the antioxidant balance, thyroid hormones play particularly important roles, since both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been shown to be associated with OS in animals and humans. In this context, the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) that typically manifests as reduced conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in different acute and chronic systemic conditions is still a debated topic. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome are reviewed, together with the roles of deiodinases, the enzymes responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3, in both physiological and pathological situations. The presence of OS indexes in NTIS supports the hypothesis that it represents a condition of hypothyroidism at the tissue level and not only an adaptive mechanism to diseases.

  6. Strigolactones: a new hormone with a past.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yuichiro; McCourt, Peter

    2009-10-01

    The recent discovery of an endogenous hormonal activity for strigolactones in shoot branching was surprising since these molecules were thought to mostly play roles as signaling molecules between organisms. Even in the context of plant hormones, strigolactones appear to be different in that their role in plant development is quite restricted. This most probably reflects early days and new hormonal functions will most probably be found for these compounds in the future. In this respect, the exogenous role of strigolactones in parasitic plant seed germination may hint to functions of this compound in seed development. However, showing new roles for strigolactones in the seed or any other aspect of plant development for that matter will require developing assays in model genetic systems such as Arabidopsis and rice where we can take full advantage of the experimental tools that are available.

  7. Thyroid Hormones, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Raimondo, Sebastiano; Olivieri, Giulio; Meucci, Elisabetta; Currò, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are closely related processes, as well exemplified in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. OS is also related to hormonal derangement in a reciprocal way. Among the various hormonal influences that operate on the antioxidant balance, thyroid hormones play particularly important roles, since both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been shown to be associated with OS in animals and humans. In this context, the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) that typically manifests as reduced conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in different acute and chronic systemic conditions is still a debated topic. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome are reviewed, together with the roles of deiodinases, the enzymes responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3, in both physiological and pathological situations. The presence of OS indexes in NTIS supports the hypothesis that it represents a condition of hypothyroidism at the tissue level and not only an adaptive mechanism to diseases. PMID:27051079

  8. [Hormonal treatment for menopause and arterial risk].

    PubMed

    Gueyffier, François; Cornu, Catherine

    2005-02-28

    Is hormonal atmosphere before menopause the cause of the lower risk of coronary heart disease in women? Big clinical trials do not validate this hypothesis, however simple and attractive: in 5 primary or secondary prevention trials, estrogens alone or in association with progestatives to near 32000 women after menopause, do not leave hope for a significant reduction of coronary risk, and show in contrast an 30% increase of stroke risk. These results highlight the crucial importance of clinical trials to validate therapeutic models. The remaining hypotheses on the nature of hormonal treatments and the administration route must follow the same validation process. The prescription of hormonal treatment for menopause illustrates the importance of informed decision including individualised estimate of the risk to benefit ratio.

  9. The Gut Hormones in Appetite Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Jayasena, Channa N.; Bloom, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has received much attention worldwide in association with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. At present, bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for obesity in which long-term weight loss is achieved in patients. By contrast, pharmacological interventions for obesity are usually followed by weight regain. Although the exact mechanisms of long-term weight loss following bariatric surgery are yet to be fully elucidated, several gut hormones have been implicated. Gut hormones play a critical role in relaying signals of nutritional and energy status from the gut to the central nervous system, in order to regulate food intake. Cholecystokinin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin act through distinct yet synergistic mechanisms to suppress appetite, whereas ghrelin stimulates food intake. Here, we discuss the role of gut hormones in the regulation of food intake and body weight. PMID:21949903

  10. Preventing leaf identity theft with hormones.

    PubMed

    Lumba, Shelley; McCourt, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Genetic analysis of plant development has begun to demonstrate the importance of hormone synthesis and transport in regulating morphogenesis. In the case of leaf development, for example, auxin pooling determines where a primordium will emerge and leads to the activation of transcription factors, which determine leaf identities by modulating abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) concentrations. Signal transduction studies suggest that negative regulation of transcription factors through protein turnover is commonly used as a mechanism of hormone action. Together, these findings suggest that auxin might degrade a repressor that allows the activation of genes that modulate ABA/GA ratios in emerging leaves. With our increased understanding of the molecular basis of hormone signaling, it is becoming possible to overlay important regulators onto signaling modules that determine morphological outputs.

  11. Modification of Chromatin Structure by the Thyroid Hormone Receptor.

    PubMed

    Li; Sachs; Shi; Wolffe

    1999-05-01

    Pioneering experiments and recent observations have established the thyroid hormone receptor as a master manipulator of the chromosomal environment in targeting the activation and repression of transcription. Here we review how the thyroid hormone receptor is assembled into chromatin, where in the absence of thyroid hormone the receptor recruits histone deacetylase to silence transcription. On addition of hormone, the receptor undergoes a conformational change that leads to the release of deacetylase, while facilitating the recruitment of transcriptional coactivators that act as histone acetyltransferases. We discuss the biological importance of these observations for gene control by the thyroid hormone receptor and for oncogenic transformation by the mutated thyroid hormone receptor, v-ErbA.

  12. The role of sex hormones on fibromyalgia pain mediators.

    PubMed

    Bramwell, Bethany L

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the role of the sex hormones in the pain mechanisms and various effects on nociceptors is imperative to managing potential underlying hormone disruptions in chronic pain syndromes. The myriad of overlapping symptoms between mid-life hormone imbalances and mid-life onset of fibromyalgia syndrome in women indicates a role for sex hormones in the etiology of fibromyalgia syndrome, which is, as of yet, unsupported by the literature. However, fibromyalgia treatment should be tailored to the individual needs of the patient, and adrenal, thyroid, and ovarian hormone support can lessen the painful burden of fibromyalgia through the modulation of various hormone-regulated pain-production pathways.

  13. Minireview: Nuclear Receptor-Controlled Steroid Hormone Synthesis and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinhan; Cheng, Qiuqiong; Xie, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Steroid hormones are essential in normal physiology whereas disruptions in hormonal homeostasis represent an important etiological factor for many human diseases. Steroid hormones exert most of their functions through the binding and activation of nuclear hormone receptors (NRs or NHRs), a superfamily of DNA-binding and often ligand-dependent transcription factors. In recent years, accumulating evidence has suggested that NRs can also regulate the biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones. This review will focus on the recent progress in our understanding of the regulatory role of NRs in hormonal homeostasis and the implications of this regulation in physiology and diseases. PMID:19762543

  14. Effects of retinoic acid on growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene expression and growth hormone secretion in rat anterior pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Maliza, Rita; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Azuma, Morio; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2016-06-30

    Retinoic acid (RA) is an important signaling molecule in embryonic development and adult tissue. The actions of RA are mediated by the nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), which regulate gene expression. RAR and RXR are widely expressed in the anterior pituitary gland. RA was reported to stimulate growth hormone (GH) gene expression in the anterior pituitary cells. However, current evidence is unclear on the role of RA in gene expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (Ghrh-r), growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghs-r) and somatostatin receptors (Sst-rs). Using isolated anterior pituitary cells of rats, we examined the effects of RA on gene expression of these receptors and GH release. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA; 10(-6) M) for 24 h increased gene expression levels of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r; however, expressions of Sst-r2 and Sst-r5 were unchanged. Combination treatment with the RAR-agonist Am80 and RXR-agonist PA024 mimicked the effects of ATRA on Ghrh-r and Ghs-r gene expressions. Exposure of isolated pituitary cells to ATRA had no effect on basal GH release. In contrast, ATRA increased growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)- and ghrelin-stimulated GH release from cultured anterior pituitary cells. Our results suggest that expressions of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r are regulated by RA through the RAR-RXR receptor complex and that RA enhances the effects of GHRH and ghrelin on GH release from the anterior pituitary gland.

  15. Receptors for parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide: from molecular cloning to definition of diseases.

    PubMed

    Jüppner, H; Schipani, E

    1996-07-01

    The parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor belongs to a distinct family of G protein-coupled receptors, the members of which usually signal through at least two second messenger systems, adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C. The parathyroid hormone/ parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor is most abundantly expressed in bone, kidney and growth-plate chondrocytes, and, at lower levels, in a variety of fetal and adult tissues. To search for human diseases that are caused by parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor defects, genomic DNA of patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib and of patients with Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia was screened for mutations in all coding exons of the receptor gene. Inactivating parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor mutations were excluded in patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib. However, a receptor mutation that causes agonist-independent, constitutive cAMP accumulation was identified in a patient with Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, a rare form of short-limbed dwarfism associated with hypercalcemia despite normal or low concentrations of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide. These findings allow the conclusion to be drawn that parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptors mediate the endocrine actions of parathyroid hormone, which are required for the control of calcium homeostasis and the autocrine-paracrine actions of parathyroid hormone-related peptide, which are required for normal growth-plate development.

  16. Plant Biology. Hormones and the green revolution.

    PubMed

    Salamini, Francesco

    2003-10-03

    The success of the green revolution largely resulted from the creation of dwarf cultivars of wheat and rice, which had much higher yields than conventional crops. Characterization of these dwarf cultivars showed that the mutant genes were involved in either the synthesis or signaling of gibberellin, a plant growth hormone. In his Perspective, Salamini highlights new work (Multani et al.) that identifies the cause of dwarfism in agronomically important varieties of maize and sorghum. In these cases, dwarfism is caused by defective transport of another growth hormone called auxin.

  17. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  18. New active series of growth hormone secretagogues.

    PubMed

    Guerlavais, Vincent; Boeglin, Damien; Mousseaux, Delphine; Oiry, Catherine; Heitz, Annie; Deghenghi, Romano; Locatelli, Vittorio; Torsello, Antonio; Ghé, Corrado; Catapano, Filomena; Muccioli, Giampiero; Galleyrand, Jean-Claude; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean

    2003-03-27

    New growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) analogues were synthesized and evaluated for growth hormone releasing activity. This series derived from EP-51389 is based on a gem-diamino structure. Compounds that exhibited higher in vivo GH-releasing potency than hexarelin in rat (subcutaneous administration) were then tested per os in beagle dogs and for their binding affinity to human pituitary GHS receptors and to hGHS-R 1a. Compound 7 (JMV 1843, H-Aib-(d)-Trp-(d)-gTrp-formyl) showed high potency in these tests and was selected for clinical studies.(1)

  19. Calcitonin-like diuretic hormones in insects.

    PubMed

    Zandawala, Meet

    2012-10-01

    Insect neuropeptides control various biological processes including growth, development, homeostasis and reproduction. The calcitonin-like diuretic hormone (CT/DH) is one such neuropeptide that has been shown to affect salt and water transport by Malpighian tubules of several insects. With an increase in the number of sequenced insect genomes, CT/DHs have been predicted in several insect species, making it easier to characterize the gene encoding this hormone and determine its function in the species in question. This mini review summarizes the current knowledge on insect CT/DHs, focusing on mRNA and peptide structures, distribution patterns, physiological roles, and receptors in insects.

  20. Gut hormone GPCRs: structure, function, drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Cordomí, Arnau; Fourmy, Daniel; Tikhonova, Irina G

    2016-12-01

    Crystallization and determination of the high resolution three-dimensional structure of the β2-adrenergic receptor in 2007 was followed by structure elucidation of a number of other receptors, including those for neurotensin and glucagon. These major advances foster the understanding of structure-activity relationship of these receptors and structure-based rational design of new ligands having more predictable activity. At present, structure determination of gut hormone receptors in complex with their ligands (natural, synthetic) and interacting signalling proteins, for example, G-proteins, arrestins, represents a challenge which promises to revolutionize gut hormone endocrinonology.

  1. Hypopituitarism: growth hormone and corticotropin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Capatina, Cristina; Wass, John A H

    2015-03-01

    This article presents an overview of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) and corticotropin deficiency (central adrenal failure, CAI). Both conditions can result from various ailments affecting the hypothalamus or pituitary gland (most frequently a tumor in the area or its treatment). Clinical manifestations are subtle in AGHD but potentially life-threatening in CAI. The diagnosis needs dynamic testing in most cases. Treatment of AGHD is recommended in patients with documented severe deficiency, and treatment of CAI is mandatory in all cases. Despite significant progress in replacement hormonal therapy, more physiologic treatments and more reliable indicators of treatment adequacy are still needed.

  2. Insulin sensitivity and counter-regulatory hormones in hypothyroidism and during thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Stanická, Sona; Vondra, Karel; Pelikánová, Terezie; Vlcek, Petr; Hill, Martin; Zamrazil, Václav

    2005-01-01

    We examined insulin sensitivity and secretion, together with the levels of selected glucoregulatory hormones, in 15 female patients with severe hypothyroidism (H) and during subsequent thyroid hormone replacement therapy (HRT) using the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique. Insulin action, as evaluated by glucose disposal, the insulin sensitivity index, and fasting post-hepatic insulin delivery rate were established. The basal levels of insulin, C-peptide and counter-regulatory hormones were measured in basal condition. In H, glucose disposal (p<0.01), the insulin sensitivity index (p<0.01) and post-hepatic insulin delivery rate (p<0.05) were significantly lower than during HRT. No significant changes in the levels of fasting insulin and C-peptide were observed. The levels of counter-regulatory hormones in patients with H were significantly higher than during HRT (glucagon, p<0.05; epinephrine, p<0.01; cortisol, p<0.05; growth hormone, p<0.05). In H, an inverse correlation between insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion was observed (p<0.05). Cortisol was the most important factor affecting the variability of insulin sensitivity values, regardless of thyroid function (p=0.0012). In conclusion, H altered both insulin sensitivity and the levels of selected counter-regulatory hormones. The situation was restored by HRT, as manifested not only by normalisation of insulin sensitivity, secretion and levels of glucoregulatory hormones, but also by improvement of their relationships.

  3. Sex, hormones and neurogenesis in the hippocampus: hormonal modulation of neurogenesis and potential functional implications.

    PubMed

    Galea, L A M; Wainwright, S R; Roes, M M; Duarte-Guterman, P; Chow, C; Hamson, D K

    2013-11-01

    The hippocampus is an area of the brain that undergoes dramatic plasticity in response to experience and hormone exposure. The hippocampus retains the ability to produce new neurones in most mammalian species and is a structure that is targeted in a number of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, many of which are influenced by both sex and sex hormone exposure. Intriguingly, gonadal and adrenal hormones affect the structure and function of the hippocampus differently in males and females. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is regulated by both gonadal and adrenal hormones in a sex- and experience-dependent way. Sex differences in the effects of steroid hormones to modulate hippocampal plasticity should not be completely unexpected because the physiology of males and females is different, with the most notable difference being that females gestate and nurse the offspring. Furthermore, reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy and mothering) results in permanent changes to the maternal brain, including the hippocampus. This review outlines the ability of gonadal and stress hormones to modulate multiple aspects of neurogenesis (cell proliferation and cell survival) in both male and female rodents. The function of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is linked to spatial memory and depression, and the present review provides early evidence of the functional links between the hormonal modulation of neurogenesis that may contribute to the regulation of cognition and stress.

  4. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Okinaga, Hiroko; Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Tomoki

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. {yields} Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. {yields} Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor {alpha}, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  5. Plant hormone signaling during development: insights from computational models.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Marina; Farcot, Etienne; Vernoux, Teva

    2013-02-01

    Recent years have seen an impressive increase in our knowledge of the topology of plant hormone signaling networks. The complexity of these topologies has motivated the development of models for several hormones to aid understanding of how signaling networks process hormonal inputs. Such work has generated essential insights into the mechanisms of hormone perception and of regulation of cellular responses such as transcription in response to hormones. In addition, modeling approaches have contributed significantly to exploring how spatio-temporal regulation of hormone signaling contributes to plant growth and patterning. New tools have also been developed to obtain quantitative information on hormone distribution during development and to test model predictions, opening the way for quantitative understanding of the developmental roles of hormones.

  6. Effects of phenobarbital on thyroid hormone contabolism in rat hepatocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hepatic enzyme inducers such as phenobarbital (PB) decrease circulating thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in rodents. PB induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes increases thyroid hormones catabolism and biliary elimination. This study examines the catabolism and cl...

  7. Unlocking the Secrets of The Love Hormone Kisspeptin

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163223.html Unlocking the Secrets of the Love Hormone Kisspeptin Injections of the substance might boost ... boost the activity of a hormone linked to love and sex, British researchers report. The naturally occurring ...

  8. Preventing Growth Hormone Abuse: An Emerging Health Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, George L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Facts about growth hormone abuse should be incorporated into substance abuse components of health education curriculums. Sources, uses, and dangers associated with human growth hormones are discussed. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  9. Hormone Metabolism During Potato Tuber Dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At harvest and for an indeterminate period thereafter potato tubers will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. The length of tuber dormancy is dependent on cultivar and pre- and postharvest environmental conditions. Plant hormones have been shown to be involved in all phases of dormancy prog...

  10. Plant Hormones: How They Affect Root Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhard, Diana Hereda

    This science study aid, produced by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, includes a series of plant rooting activities for secondary science classes. The material in the pamphlet is written for students and includes background information on plant hormones, a vocabulary list, and five learning activities. Objectives, needed materials, and…

  11. Effects of thyroid hormones on the heart.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Uricoechea, Hernando; Bonelo-Perdomo, Anilsa; Sierra-Torres, Carlos Hernán

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones have a significant impact on heart function, mediated by genomic and non-genomic effects. Consequently, thyroid hormone deficiencies, as well as excesses, are expected to result in profound changes in cardiac function regulation and cardiovascular hemodynamics. Thyroid hormones upregulate the expression of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-activated ATPase and downregulate the expression of phospholamban. Overall, hyperthyroidism is characterized by an increase in resting heart rate, blood volume, stroke volume, myocardial contractility, and ejection fraction. The development of "high-output heart failure" in hyperthyroidism may be due to "tachycardia-mediated cardiomyopathy". On the other hand, in a hypothyroid state, thyroid hormone deficiency results in lower heart rate and weakening of myocardial contraction and relaxation, with prolonged systolic and early diastolic times. Cardiac preload is decreased due to impaired diastolic function. Cardiac afterload is increased, and chronotropic and inotropic functions are reduced. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is relatively common in patients over 65 years of age. In general, subclinical hypothyroidism increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and CHD events, but not of total mortality. The risk of CHD mortality and atrial fibrillation (but not other outcomes) in subclinical hyperthyroidism is higher among patients with very low levels of thyrotropin. Finally, medications such as amiodarone may induce hypothyroidism (mediated by the Wolff-Chaikoff), as well as hyperthyroidism (mediated by the Jod-Basedow effect). In both instances, the underlying cause is the high concentration of iodine in this medication.

  12. Lymphocyte GH-axis hormones in immunity.

    PubMed

    Weigent, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    The production and utilization of common ligands and their receptors by cells of the immune and neuroendocrine systems constitutes a biochemical information circuit between and within the immune and neuroendocrine systems. The sharing of ligands and receptors allows the immune system to serve as the sixth sense notifying the nervous system of the presence of foreign entities. Within this framework, it is also clear that immune cell functions can be altered by neuroendocrine hormones and that cells of the immune system have the ability to produce neuroendocrine hormones. This review summarizes a part of this knowledge with particular emphasis on growth hormone (GH). The past two decades have uncovered a lot of detail about the actions of GH, acting through its receptor, at the molecular and cellular level and its influence on the immune system. The production and action of immune cell-derived GH is less well developed although its important role in immunity is also slowly emerging. Here we discuss the production of GH, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and their cognate receptors on cells of the immune system and their influence via endocrine/autocrine/paracrine and intracrine pathways on immune function. The intracellular mechanisms of action of immune cell-derived GH are still largely unexplored, and it is anticipated that further work in this particular area will establish an important role for this source of GH in normal physiology and in pathologic situations.

  13. How Early Hormones Shape Gender Development

    PubMed Central

    Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Beltz, Adriene M.

    2015-01-01

    Many important psychological characteristics show sex differences, and are influenced by sex hormones at different developmental periods. We focus on the role of sex hormones in early development, particularly the differential effects of prenatal androgens on aspects of gender development. Increasing evidence confirms that prenatal androgens have facilitative effects on male-typed activity interests and engagement (including child toy preferences and adult careers), and spatial abilities, but relatively minimal effects on gender identity. Recent emphasis has been directed to the psychological mechanisms underlying these effects (including sex differences in propulsive movement, and androgen effects on interest in people versus things), and neural substrates of androgen effects (including regional brain volumes, and neural responses to mental rotation, sexually arousing stimuli, emotion, and reward). Ongoing and planned work is focused on understanding the ways in which hormones act jointly with the social environment across time to produce varying trajectories of gender development, and clarifying mechanisms by which androgens affect behaviors. Such work will be facilitated by applying lessons from other species, and by expanding methodology. Understanding hormonal influences on gender development enhances knowledge of psychological development generally, and has important implications for basic and applied questions, including sex differences in psychopathology, women’s underrepresentation in science and math, and clinical care of individuals with variations in gender expression. PMID:26688827

  14. Pharmaceuticals and Hormones in the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some of the earliest initial reports from Europe and the United States demonstrated that a variety of pharmaceuticals and hormones could be found in surface waters, source waters, drinking water, and influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It is unknown...

  15. A short history of hormone measurement.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Huge changes have occurred in the measurement of hormones over the last 50 years or so. Methods have become simplified, sensitivity has increased manyfold, and automation has allowed the analysis of large number of specimens in a single day. The most significant steps in the history of hormone measurement were the development of radioimmunoassay and later the production of monoclonal antibodies. There has also been increased commercialization, the technique has been applied to an ever-increasing range of substances, and radioactive measurement has been replaced with colorimetric, fluorescent, and chemiluminescent end-points. However, all these changes have not been without their problems. Collaboration between laboratories has seen standardization of reagents and methods, the development of reference methods, and the setting up of external quality assurance schemes. All these have led to improved sensitivity, precision, and reliability. More recently tandem mass spectrometry has brought further improvements in the measurement of certain hormones. Although many hormones are now measured by automated systems there is still a place for manual assays whether developed in-house or by using a commercial kit.

  16. Growth Hormone Deficiency, Brain Development, and Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Available from: American Medical Association, 535 N. Dearborn Street, Chicago, Illinois 60610. In order to determine what effect, if any, growth hormone (GH) has on human brain development, 29 patients (mean age 11.7 years) with GH deficiency were selected according to the following criteria: no evidence of reversible GH deficiency, onset of…

  17. Melatonin hormone profile in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Awad, Hosni; Halawa, Fawzy; Mostafa, Taymour; Atta, Hazem

    2006-06-01

    Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland. There is much controversy about its relationship to the male reproductive process. In this study, seminal plasma as well as the serum melatonin levels were studied in different infertile male groups and were correlated with their semen parameters and hormonal levels. One hundred twenty male cases subdivided into six equal groups were consecutively included; fertile normozoospermic men, oligoasthenozoospermia (OA), OA with leucocytospermia, OA with varicocele, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) with high serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and NOA with normal FSH. Semen analysis, estimation of melatonin, FSH, testosterone (T) and prolactin (PRL) hormone was carried out. Mean level of serum melatonin was higher than its corresponding seminal concentrations in all investigated groups with a positive correlation between their levels (r = 0.532, p = 0.01). Serum and seminal plasma melatonin levels in all infertile groups were reduced significantly compared with their levels in the fertile group. The lowest concentrations were in OA with leucocytospermia group. Melatonin in both serum and semen demonstrated significant correlation with sperm motility (r = 607, 0.623 respectively, p = 0.01). Serum melatonin correlated positively with serum PRL (r = 0.611, p = 0.01). It may be concluded that melatonin may be involved in the modulation of reproductive neuroendocrine axis in male infertility. Also, low levels of melatonin in semen were observed in infertile groups having reduced sperm motility, leucocytospermia, varicocele and NOA.

  18. THYROID HORMONE DISRUPTION: FROM KINETICS TO DYNAMICS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are chemicals that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormones (THs), or change circulating or t...

  19. Prolactin and growth hormone in fish osmoregulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sakamoto, T.; McCormick, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    Prolactin is an important regulator of multiple biological functions in vertebrates, and has been viewed as essential to ion uptake as well as reduction in ion and water permeability of osmoregulatory surfaces in freshwater and euryhaline fish. Prolactin-releasing peptide seems to stimulate prolactin expression in the pituitary and peripheral organs during freshwater adaptation. Growth hormone, a member of the same family of hormones as prolactin, promotes acclimation to seawater in several teleost fish, at least in part through the action of insulin-like growth factor I. In branchial epithelia, development and differentiation of the seawater-type chloride cell (and their underlying biochemistry) is regulated by GH, IGF-I, and cortisol, whereas the freshwater-type chloride cell is regulated by prolactin and cortisol. In the epithelia of gastrointestinal tract, prolactin induces cell proliferation during freshwater adaptation, whereas cortisol stimulates both cell proliferation and apoptosis. We propose that control of salinity acclimation in teleosts by prolactin and growth hormone primarily involves regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation (the latter including upregulation of specific ion transporters), and that there is an important interaction of these hormones with corticosteroids. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Growth hormone: health considerations beyond height gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The therapeutic benefit of growth hormone (GH) therapy in improving height in short children is widely recognized; however, GH therapy is associated with other metabolic actions that may be of benefit in these children. Beneficial effects of GH on body composition have been documented in several dif...

  1. Hormones, nicotine, and cocaine: clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Mello, Nancy K

    2010-06-01

    Nicotine and cocaine each stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axis hormones, and there is increasing evidence that the hormonal milieu may modulate the abuse-related effects of these drugs. This review summarizes some clinical studies of the acute effects of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine on plasma drug and hormone levels and subjective effects ratings. The temporal covariance between these dependent measures was assessed with a rapid (2 min) sampling procedure in nicotine-dependent volunteers or current cocaine users. Cigarette smoking and IV cocaine each stimulated a rapid increase in LH and ACTH, followed by gradual increases in cortisol and DHEA. Positive subjective effects ratings increased immediately after initiation of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine administration. However, in contrast to cocaine's sustained positive effects (<20 min), ratings of "high" and "rush" began to decrease within one or two puffs of a high-nicotine cigarette while nicotine levels were increasing. Peak nicotine levels increased progressively after each of three successive cigarettes smoked at 60 min intervals, but the magnitude of the subjective effects ratings and peak ACTH and cortisol levels diminished. Only DHEA increased consistently after successive cigarettes. The possible influence of neuroactive hormones on nicotine dependence and cocaine abuse and the implications for treatment of these addictive disorders are discussed.

  2. Hormones, Nicotine and Cocaine: Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Nancy K.

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine and cocaine each stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axis hormones, and there is increasing evidence that the hormonal milieu may modulate the abuse-related effects of these drugs. This review summarizes some clinical studies of the acute effects of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine on plasma drug and hormone levels, and subjective effects ratings. The temporal covariance between these dependent measures was assessed with a rapid (two min) sampling procedure in nicotine-dependent volunteers or current cocaine users. Cigarette smoking and IV cocaine each stimulated a rapid increase in LH and ACTH, followed by gradual increases in cortisol and DHEA. Positive subjective effects ratings increased immediately after initiation of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine administration. However, in contrast to cocaine’s sustained positive effects (< 20 min), ratings of “High” and “Rush” began to decrease within one or two puffs of a high nicotine cigarette while nicotine levels were increasing. Peak nicotine levels increased progressively after each of three successive cigarettes smoked at 60 min intervals, but the magnitude of the subjective effects ratings and peak ACTH and cortisol levels diminished. Only DHEA increased consistently after successive cigarettes. The possible influence of neuroactive hormones on nicotine dependence and cocaine abuse, and implications for treatment of these addictive disorders is discussed. PMID:19835877

  3. Plant hormones and ecophysiology of conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, W.J.

    1995-07-01

    Over the past 30 years, there have been very substantial fluctuations in the interests of plant scientists in the involvement of plant growth regulators in the control of physiology, growth, and development of plants. In the years following the identification of the five major classes of growth regulators and identification of other groups of compounds of somewhat more restricted interest, an enormous number of papers reported the effects of hormones applied externally to a very wide range of plants. During this period, it became very fashionable to compare effects of hormones with the effects of the environment on developmental and physiological phenomena and to suggest a regulatory role for the hormone(s) in the processes under consideration. Ross et al. (1983) have published a very comprehensive survey of the effects of growth regulators applied externally to conifers, and even 10 years later, it is difficult to improve on what they have done. Nevertheless, in the light of recent changes in our understanding of how growth regulators may work, it is necessary to reexamine this field and ask what we really know about the involvement of growth regulators in the ecophysiology of conifers.

  4. Thyroid hormone transporters in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jurgen; Friesema, Edith C H; Milici, Carmelina; Visser, Theo J

    2005-08-01

    Cellular entry is required for conversion of thyroid hormone by the intracellular deiodinases and for binding of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T(3)) to its nuclear receptors. Recently, several transporters capable of thyroid hormone transport have been identified. Functional expression studies using Xenopus laevis oocytes have demonstrated that organic anion transporters (e.g., OATPs), and L-type amino acid transporters (LATs) facilitate thyroid hormone uptake. Among these, OATP1C1 has a high affinity and specificity for thyroxine (T(4)). OATP1C1 is expressed in capillaries throughout the brain, suggesting it is critical for transport of T(4) over the blood-brain barrier. We have also characterized a member of the monocarboxylate transporter family, MCT8, as a very active and specific thyroid hormone transporter. Human MCT8 shows preference for T(3) as the ligand. MCT8 is highly expressed in liver and brain but is also widely distributed in other tissues. The MCT8 gene is located on the X chromosome. Recently, mutations in MCT8 have been found to be associated with severe X-linked psychomotor retardation and strongly elevated serum T(3) levels.

  5. Fate and transport of reproductive hormone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An invited overview of the NSF funded projects 0730492 "Effects of Animal Manure Storage and Disposal on the Fate and Transport of Manure-Borne Hormones," and 0244169 "Fate and Transport of an Endocrine Disruptor in Soil-Water Systems." We will highlight the Research and Educational contributions by...

  6. Search for novel therapies for triple negative breast cancers (TNBC): analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH).

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Stefan; Seitz, Stephan; Engel, Jörg B; Montero, Alberto; Ortmann, Olaf; Perez, Roberto; Block, Norman L; Schally, Andrew V

    2012-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype that is clinically negative for the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Patients with TNBC have a worse clinical outcome, as measured by time to metastasis and median overall survival. Chemotherapy has been the mainstay of treatment of TNBC but responses are disappointing. A substantial proportion of TNBC expresses luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), receptors for LHRH, in addition to receptors for growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). These receptors represent potential therapeutic targets. Potent antagonists of GHRH and LHRH receptors have been developed in recent years and these antagonists inhibit the growth, tumorigenicity and metastatic potential of various human experimental malignancies. These antagonists could be utilized for the treatment of TNBC. The targeted cytotoxic analog of LHRH, AN-152 (AEZS-108) containing doxorubicin, must also be strongly considered for therapy of TNBC. Experimental studies suggest the merit of clinical trials with LHRH antagonists and AEZS-108 in TNBC patients.

  7. Human Growth Hormone: The Latest Ergogenic Aid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Virginia S.

    1988-01-01

    Believing that synthetic human growth hormone (hGH) will lead to athletic prowess and fortune, some parents and young athletes wish to use the drug to enhance sports performance. Should hGH become widely available, its abuse could present many problems, from potential health risks to the ethics of drug-enhanced athletic performance. (JL)

  8. Current status of hormone therapy in patients with hormone receptor positive (HR+) advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, Elsa; Armengol-Alonso, Alejandra; Muñoz, Montserrat; Seguí-Palmer, Miguel Ángel

    2014-12-01

    The natural history of HR+ breast cancer tends to be different from hormone receptor-negative disease in terms of time to recurrence, site of recurrence and overall aggressiveness of the disease. The developmental strategies of hormone therapy for the treatment of breast cancer have led to the classes of selective estrogen receptor modulators, selective estrogen receptor downregulators, and aromatase inhibitors. These therapeutic options have improved breast cancer outcomes in the metastatic setting, thereby delaying the need for chemotherapy. However, a subset of hormone receptor-positive breast cancers do not benefit from endocrine therapy (intrinsic resistance), and all HR+ metastatic breast cancers ultimately develop resistance to hormonal therapies (acquired resistance). Considering the multiple pathways involved in the HR network, targeting other components of pathologically activated intracellular signaling in breast cancer may prove to be a new direction in clinical research. This review focuses on current and emerging treatments for HR+ metastatic breast cancer.

  9. Suppression of androgen production by D-tryptophan-6-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in man.

    PubMed Central

    Tolis, G; Mehta, A; Comaru-Schally, A M; Schally, A V

    1981-01-01

    Four male transsexual subjects were given a superactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogue, D-tryptophan-6-LHRH at daily doses of 100 micrograms for 3--6 mo. A decrease in beard growth, acne, and erectile potency was noted; the latter was documented objectively with the recordings of nocturnal penile tumescence episodes. Plasma testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels fell to castrate values; basal prolactin and luteinizing hormone levels showed a small decline, whereas the acutely releasable luteinizing hormone was significantly suppressed. A rise of plasma testosterone from castrate to normal levels was demonstrable with the use of human chorionic gonadotropin. Discontinuation of treatment led to a normalization of erectile potency and plasma testosterone. The suppression of Leydig cell function by D-tryptophan-6-LHRH might have wide application in reproductive biology and in endocrine-dependent neoplasia (where it could replace surgical castration). PMID:6456277

  10. Structure-activity relationship of crustacean peptide hormones.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hidekazu

    2016-01-01

    In crustaceans, various physiological events, such as molting, vitellogenesis, and sex differentiation, are regulated by peptide hormones. To understanding the functional sites of these hormones, many structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies have been published. In this review, the author focuses the SAR of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone-family peptides and androgenic gland hormone and describes the detailed results of our and other research groups. The future perspectives will be also discussed.

  11. SnapShot: Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Coate, Katie C; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-12-04

    Specialized endocrine cells secrete a variety of peptide hormones all along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making it one of the largest endocrine organs in the body. Nutrients and developmental and neural cues trigger the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones from specialized endocrine cells along the GI tract. These hormones act in target tissues to facilitate digestion and regulate energy homeostasis. This SnapShot summarizes the production and functions of GI hormones.

  12. Genetic and Functional Studies Implicate Synaptic Overgrowth and Ring Gland cAMP/PKA Signaling Defects in the Drosophila melanogaster Neurofibromatosis-1 Growth Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Walker, James A.; Gouzi, Jean Y.; Long, Jennifer B.; Huang, Sidong; Maher, Robert C.; Xia, Hongjing; Khalil, Kheyal; Ray, Arjun; Van Vactor, David; Bernards, René; Bernards, André

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a genetic disease that affects 1 in 3,000, is caused by loss of a large evolutionary conserved protein that serves as a GTPase Activating Protein (GAP) for Ras. Among Drosophila melanogaster Nf1 (dNf1) null mutant phenotypes, learning/memory deficits and reduced overall growth resemble human NF1 symptoms. These and other dNf1 defects are relatively insensitive to manipulations that reduce Ras signaling strength but are suppressed by increasing signaling through the 3′-5′ cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) dependent Protein Kinase A (PKA) pathway, or phenocopied by inhibiting this pathway. However, whether dNf1 affects cAMP/PKA signaling directly or indirectly remains controversial. To shed light on this issue we screened 486 1st and 2nd chromosome deficiencies that uncover >80% of annotated genes for dominant modifiers of the dNf1 pupal size defect, identifying responsible genes in crosses with mutant alleles or by tissue-specific RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown. Validating the screen, identified suppressors include the previously implicated dAlk tyrosine kinase, its activating ligand jelly belly (jeb), two other genes involved in Ras/ERK signal transduction and several involved in cAMP/PKA signaling. Novel modifiers that implicate synaptic defects in the dNf1 growth deficiency include the intersectin-related synaptic scaffold protein Dap160 and the cholecystokinin receptor-related CCKLR-17D1 drosulfakinin receptor. Providing mechanistic clues, we show that dAlk, jeb and CCKLR-17D1 are among mutants that also suppress a recently identified dNf1 neuromuscular junction (NMJ) overgrowth phenotype and that manipulations that increase cAMP/PKA signaling in adipokinetic hormone (AKH)-producing cells at the base of the neuroendocrine ring gland restore the dNf1 growth deficiency. Finally, supporting our previous contention that ALK might be a therapeutic target in NF1, we report that human ALK is expressed in cells that give rise

  13. Thyroid hormones states and brain development interactions.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osama M; El-Gareib, A W; El-Bakry, A M; Abd El-Tawab, S M; Ahmed, R G

    2008-04-01

    The action of thyroid hormones (THs) in the brain is strictly regulated, since these hormones play a crucial role in the development and physiological functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). Disorders of the thyroid gland are among the most common endocrine maladies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify in broad terms the interactions between thyroid hormone states or actions and brain development. THs regulate the neuronal cytoarchitecture, neuronal growth and synaptogenesis, and their receptors are widely distributed in the CNS. Any deficiency or increase of them (hypo- or hyperthyroidism) during these periods may result in an irreversible impairment, morphological and cytoarchitecture abnormalities, disorganization, maldevelopment and physical retardation. This includes abnormal neuronal proliferation, migration, decreased dendritic densities and dendritic arborizations. This drastic effect may be responsible for the loss of neurons vital functions and may lead, in turn, to the biochemical dysfunctions. This could explain the physiological and behavioral changes observed in the animals or human during thyroid dysfunction. It can be hypothesized that the sensitive to the thyroid hormones is not only remarked in the neonatal period but also prior to birth, and THs change during the development may lead to the brain damage if not corrected shortly after the birth. Thus, the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental abnormalities might be related to the thyroid hormones is plausible. Taken together, the alterations of neurotransmitters and disturbance in the GABA, adenosine and pro/antioxidant systems in CNS due to the thyroid dysfunction may retard the neurogenesis and CNS growth and the reverse is true. In general, THs disorder during early life may lead to distortions rather than synchronized shifts in the relative development of several central transmitter systems that leads to a multitude of irreversible morphological and biochemical

  14. Hormone Receptor Expression in Human Fascial Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Fede, C.; Albertin, G.; Petrelli, L.; Sfriso, M.M.; Biz, C.; De Caro, R.

    2016-01-01

    Many epidemiologic, clinical, and experimental findings point to sex differences in myofascial pain in view of the fact that adult women tend to have more myofascial problems with respect to men. It is possible that one of the stimuli to sensitization of fascial nociceptors could come from hormonal factors such as estrogen and relaxin, that are involved in extracellular matrix and collagen remodeling and thus contribute to functions of myofascial tissue. Immunohistochemical and molecular investigations (real-time PCR analysis) of relaxin receptor 1 (RXFP1) and estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) localization were carried out on samples of human fascia collected from 8 volunteers patients during orthopedic surgery (all females, between 42 and 70 yrs, divided into pre- and post-menopausal groups), and in fibroblasts isolated from deep fascia, to examine both protein and RNA expression levels. We can assume that the two sex hormone receptors analyzed are expressed in all the human fascial districts examined and in fascial fibroblasts culture cells, to a lesser degree in the post-menopausal with respect to the pre-menopausal women. Hormone receptor expression was concentrated in the fibroblasts, and RXFP1 was also evident in blood vessels and nerves. Our results are the first demonstrating that the fibroblasts located within different districts of the muscular fasciae express sex hormone receptors and can help to explain the link between hormonal factors and myofascial pain. It is known, in fact, that estrogen and relaxin play a key role in extracellular matrix remodeling by inhibiting fibrosis and inflammatory activities, both important factors affecting fascial stiffness and sensitization of fascial nociceptors. PMID:28076930

  15. Anti-TNF and sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Sulli, Alberto; Capellino, Silvia; Villaggio, Barbara; Montagna, Paola; Pizzorni, Carmen; Paolino, Sabrina; Seriolo, Bruno; Felli, Lamberto; Straub, Rainer H

    2006-06-01

    Whenever serum estrogen concentrations are normal in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, lower androgen concentrations (i.e., testosterone, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEAS]) are detected in the serum as well as in the synovial fluid of male and female RA patients. The presence in the RA synovial fluid of a significant altered sex hormone balance resulting in lower immunosuppressive androgens and higher immuno-enhancing estrogens, might determine a favorable condition for the development of the immunomediated RA synovitis. The inflammatory cytokines (i.e., TNF-alpha), particularly increased in RA synovitis, are able to markedly stimulate the aromatase activity in peripheral tissues and, therefore, induce the peripheral metabolism from androgens to estrogens. The effects of TNF blockers (and generally of anticytokine agents) on peripheral sex hormone levels seem exerted in a faster way at the level of the RA synovial tissue (before any influence on serum levels) where they seem to block the conversion from androgens (anti-inflammatory) to estrogens (proinflammatory) induced by aromatase. Therefore, the beneficial effects of restoring synovial androgens might be clinically more evident in male RA patients (as recently observed in ANTARES study) since they suffer more for the lack of androgens (anti-inflammatory) on account of the action of TNF-alpha on peripheral hormonal conversion. However, therapy (3 months) with anti-TNF did not change serum levels of typical sex hormones in patients with RA, although baseline values were largely different from controls. In patients with at least long-standing RA, this indicates that alterations of serum sex hormones and altered activity of respective converting enzymes are imprinted for a long-lasting period over at least 12 weeks.

  16. Linker histones in hormonal gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Vicent, G P; Wright, R H G; Beato, M

    2016-03-01

    In the present review, we summarize advances in our knowledge on the role of the histone H1 family of proteins in breast cancer cells, focusing on their response to progestins. Histone H1 plays a dual role in gene regulation by hormones, both as a structural component of chromatin and as a dynamic modulator of transcription. It contributes to hormonal regulation of the MMTV promoter by stabilizing a homogeneous nucleosome positioning, which reduces basal transcription whereas at the same time promoting progesterone receptor binding and nucleosome remodeling. These combined effects enhance hormone dependent gene transcription, which eventually requires H1 phosphorylation and displacement. Various isoforms of histone H1 have specific functions in differentiated breast cancer cells and compact nucleosomal arrays to different extents in vitro. Genome-wide studies show that histone H1 has a key role in chromatin dynamics of hormone regulated genes. A complex sequence of enzymatic events, including phosphorylation by CDK2, PARylation by PARP1 and the ATP-dependent activity of NURF, are required for H1 displacement and gene de-repression, as a prerequisite for further nucleosome remodeling. Similarly, during hormone-dependent gene repression a dedicated enzymatic mechanism controls H1 deposition at promoters by a complex containing HP1γ, LSD1 and BRG1, the ATPase of the BAF complex. Thus, a broader vision of the histone code should include histone H1, as the linker histone variants actively participate in the regulation of the chromatin structure. How modifications of the core histones tails affect H1 modifications and vice versa is one of the many questions that remains to be addressed to provide a more comprehensive view of the histone cross-talk mechanisms.

  17. Overlapping nongenomic and genomic actions of thyroid hormone and steroids

    PubMed Central

    Hammes, Stephen R.; Davis, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The genomic actions of thyroid hormone and steroids depend upon primary interactions of the hormones with their specific nuclear receptor proteins. Formation of nuclear co-activator or co-repressor complexes involving the liganded receptors subsequently result in transcriptional events—either activation or suppression—at genes that are specific targets of thyroid hormone or steroids. Nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone and steroids are in contrast initiated at binding sites on the plasma membrane or in cytoplasm or organelles and do not primarily require formation of intranuclear receptor protein-hormone complexes. Importantly, hormonal actions that begin nongenomically outside the nucleus often culminate in changes in nuclear transcriptional events that are regulated by both traditional intranuclear receptors as well as other nuclear transcription factors. In the case of thyroid hormone, the extranuclear receptor can be the classical “nuclear” thyroid receptor (TR), a TR isoform, or integrin αvβ3. In the case of steroid hormones, the membrane receptor is usually, but not always, the classical “nuclear” steroid receptor. This concept defines the paradigm of overlapping nongenomic and genomic hormone mechanisms of action. Here we review some examples of how extranuclear signaling by thyroid hormone and by estrogens and androgens modulates intranuclear hormone signaling to regulate a number of vital biological processes both in normal physiology and in cancer progression. We also point out that nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone may mimic effects of estrogen in certain tumors. PMID:26303085

  18. 21 CFR 522.1820 - Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1820 Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a... standard pituitary luteinizing hormone and is reconstituted for use by addition of 5 milliliters of...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1370 - Human growth hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Human growth hormone test system. 862.1370 Section 862.1370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 862.1370 Human growth hormone test system. (a) Identification. A human growth hormone...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1370 - Human growth hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Human growth hormone test system. 862.1370 Section 862.1370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 862.1370 Human growth hormone test system. (a) Identification. A human growth hormone...

  1. 21 CFR 522.1820 - Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1820 Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a... standard pituitary luteinizing hormone and is reconstituted for use by addition of 5 milliliters of...

  2. 21 CFR 522.1820 - Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1820 Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a... standard pituitary luteinizing hormone and is reconstituted for use by addition of 5 milliliters of...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1820 - Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1820 Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a... standard pituitary luteinizing hormone and is reconstituted for use by addition of 5 milliliters of...

  4. Active immunization to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone to inhibit the induction of mammary tumors in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ravdin, P.M.; Jordan, V.C.

    1988-01-01

    Immunization of female rats with a bovine serum albumin-luteinizing hormone releasing hormone conjugate results in suppression of dimethylbenzanthracene mammary tumor incidence. Tumor incidence was 1.3, and 1.29 tumors per rat in bovine serum albumin alone (n = 10) and unimmunized (n = 18) control groups, but no tumors were found in the bovine serum albumin-luteinizing hormone releasing hormone conjugate immunized animals (n = 10). In a second experiment immunization with bovine serum albumin-luteinizing hormone releasing hormone conjugates reduced tumor incidence to 0.3 tumors per rat (n = 10) from the 1.2 tumors per animal seen in the control animals (n = 10) immunized with bovine serum albumin alone. Bovine serum albumin-luteinizing hormone immunization caused the production of anti-LHRH antibodies, an interruption of estrous cycles, lowered serum estradiol and progesterone levels, and atrophy of the ovaries and uteri. Immunization BSA-hormone conjugates is a novel anti-tumor strategy.

  5. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo. PMID:25750611

  6. Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Distribution in the Anterior Hypothalamus of the Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Castañeyra-Ruiz, Leandro; González-Marrero, Ibrahim; Castañeyra-Ruiz, Agustín; González-Toledo, Juan M.; Castañeyra-Ruiz, María; de Paz-Carmona, Héctor; Castañeyra-Perdomo, Agustín; Carmona-Calero, Emilia M.

    2013-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons and fibers are located in the anteroventral hypothalamus, specifically in the preoptic medial area and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. Most luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons project to the median eminence where they are secreted in the pituitary portal system in order to control the release of gonadotropin. The aim of this study is to provide, using immunohistochemistry and female brain rats, a new description of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone fibers and neuron localization in the anterior hypothalamus. The greatest amount of the LHRH immunoreactive material was found in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis that is located around the anterior region of the third ventricle. The intensity of the reaction of LHRH immunoreactive material decreases from cephalic to caudal localization; therefore, the greatest immunoreaction is in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, followed by the dorsomedial preoptic area, the ventromedial preoptic area, and finally the ventrolateral medial preoptic area, and in fibers surrounding the suprachiasmatic nucleus and subependymal layer on the floor of the third ventricle where the least amount immunoreactive material is found. PMID:25938107

  7. Modulation of angiogenesis by thyroid hormone and hormone analogues: implications for cancer management.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Shaker A; Lin, Hung-Yun; Tang, Heng Yuan; Hercbergs, Aleck; Luidens, Mary K; Davis, Paul J

    2014-07-01

    Acting via a cell surface receptor on integrin αvβ3, thyroid hormone is pro-angiogenic. Nongenomic mechanisms of actions of the hormone and hormone analogues at αvβ3 include modulation of activities of multiple vascular growth factor receptors and their ligands (vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, epidermal growth factor), as well as of angiogenic chemokines (CX3 family). Thyroid hormone also may increase activity of small molecules that support neovascularization (bradykinin, angiotensin II) and stimulate endothelial cell motility. Therapeutic angio-inhibition in the setting of cancer may be opposed by endogenous thyroid hormone, particularly when a single vascular growth factor is the treatment target. This may be a particular issue in management of aggressive or recurrent tumors. It is desirable to have access to chemotherapies that affect multiple steps in angiogenesis and to examine as alternatives in aggressive cancers the induction of subclinical hypothyroidism or use of antagonists of the αvβ3 thyroid hormone receptor that are under development.

  8. Exogenous Hormone Use: Oral Contraceptives, Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy, and Health Outcomes in the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Grodstein, Francine; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) to our understanding of the complex relationship between exogenous hormones and health outcomes in women. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS and NHS II from 1976 to 2016. Results. Oral contraceptive and postmenopausal hormone use were studied in relation to major health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Current or recent oral contraceptive use is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (mainly among smokers), melanoma, and breast cancer, and a lower risk of colorectal and ovarian cancer. Although hormone therapy is not indicated primarily for chronic disease prevention, findings from the NHS and a recent analysis of the Women’s Health Initiative indicate that younger women who are closer to menopause onset have a more favorable risk–benefit profile than do older women from use of hormone therapy for relief of vasomotor symptoms. Conclusions. With updated information on hormone use, lifestyle factors, and other variables, the NHS and NHS II continue to contribute to our understanding of the complex relationship between exogenous hormones and health outcomes in women. PMID:27459451

  9. Enzyme immunoassay for rat growth hormone: applications to the study of growth hormone variants

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, M.A.; Hymer, W.C.

    1987-06-29

    A sensitive and specific competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for rat growth hormone was developed. In this assay soluble growth hormone and growth hormone adsorbed to a solid-phase support compete for monkey anti-growth hormone antibody binding sites. The immobilized antibody-growth hormone complex is detected and quantified using goat anti-monkey immunoglobin G covalently conjugated to horse radish peroxidase. Therefore, a high concentration of soluble growth hormone in the sample will result in low absorbance detection from the colored products of the enzyme reaction. Assay parameters were optimized by investigating the concentration of reagents and the reaction kinetics in each of the assay steps. The assay can be performed in 27 hours. A sensitivity range of 0.19 ng to 25 ng in the region of 10 to 90% binding was obtained. Near 50% binding (3 ng) the intraassay coefficient of variation (CV) was 5.54% and the interassay CV was 5.33%. The correlation coefficient (r/sup 2/) between radioimmunoassay and EIA was 0.956 and followed the curve Y = 0.78X + 1.0. 9 references, 6 figures.

  10. Structural Basis for Antibody Discrimination between Two Hormones That Recognize the Parathyroid Hormone Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    McKinstry, William J.; Polekhina, Galina; Diefenbach-Jagger, Hannelore; Ho, Patricia W.M.; Sato, Koh; Onuma, Etsuro; Gillespie, Matthew T.; Martin, T. John; Parker, Michael W.

    2009-08-18

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) plays a vital role in the embryonic development of the skeleton and other tissues. When it is produced in excess by cancers it can cause hypercalcemia, and its local production by breast cancer cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis formation in that disease. Antibodies have been developed that neutralize the action of PTHrP through its receptor, parathyroid hormone receptor 1, without influencing parathyroid hormone action through the same receptor. Such neutralizing antibodies against PTHrP are therapeutically effective in animal models of the humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy and of bone metastasis formation. We have determined the crystal structure of the complex between PTHrP (residues 1-108) and a neutralizing monoclonal anti-PTHrP antibody that reveals the only point of contact is an {alpha}-helical structure extending from residues 14-29. Another striking feature is that the same residues that interact with the antibody also interact with parathyroid hormone receptor 1, showing that the antibody and the receptor binding site on the hormone closely overlap. The structure explains how the antibody discriminates between the two hormones and provides information that could be used in the development of novel agonists and antagonists of their common receptor.

  11. Luteinizing hormone release and androgen production of avian hybrids in response to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone injection.

    PubMed

    Mathis, G F; Burke, W H; McDougald, L R

    1983-04-01

    The levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and androgens were measured in sterile avian hybrids. Guinea fowl-chicken and peafowl-guinea fowl hybrids were bled before and after injection with LH- releasing hormone (LHRH). The preinjection LH levels for the guinea fowl-chicken hybrids were below or at the very lower limit of the assay sensitivity and the peafowl-guinea fowl hybrids averaged 1.3 ng/ml. Within 10 min after LHRH injection, LH had increased dramatically in both hybrids and then began to slowly decline. Androgen levels in the guinea fowl-chicken hybrids increased from 16.2 pg/ml to 95.2 pg/ml and continued to increase, reaching 287 pg/ml at the last bleeding 60 min after injection.

  12. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Binds to a Site in the Rat Growth Hormone Promoter Required for Induction by Thyroid Hormone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Ronald J.; Brent, Gregory A.; Warne, Robert L.; Reed Larsen, P.; Moore, David D.

    1987-08-01

    Transcription of the rat growth hormone (rGH) gene in pituitary cells is increased by addition of thyroid hormone (T3). This induction is dependent on the presence of specific sequences just upstream of the rGH promoter. We have partially purified T3 receptor from rat liver and examined its interaction with these rGH sequences. We show here that T3 receptor binds specifically to a site just upstream of the basal rGH promoter. This binding site includes two copies of a 7-base-pair direct repeat, the centers of which are separated by 10 base pairs. Deletions that specifically remove the T3 receptor binding site drastically reduce response to T3 in transient transfection experiments. These results demonstrate that T3 receptor can recognize specific DNA sequences and suggest that it can act directly as a positive transcriptional regulatory factor.

  13. Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH): Measurement of Intracellular, Secreted, and Circulating Hormone in Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is a hormone produced in the pituitary that stimulates the thyroid gland to grow and produce thyroid hormone (TH). The concentration of TH controls developmental changes that take place in a wide variety of organisms. Many use the metaphoric ch...

  14. Sex hormones and the female voice.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, J; Abitbol, P; Abitbol, B

    1999-09-01

    In the following, the authors examine the relationship between hormonal climate and the female voice through discussion of hormonal biochemistry and physiology and informal reporting on a study of 197 women with either premenstrual or menopausal voice syndrome. These facts are placed in a larger historical and cultural context, which is inextricably bound to the understanding of the female voice. The female voice evolves from childhood to menopause, under the varied influences of estrogens, progesterone, and testosterone. These hormones are the dominant factor in determining voice changes throughout life. For example, a woman's voice always develops masculine characteristics after an injection of testosterone. Such a change is irreversible. Conversely, male castrati had feminine voices because they lacked the physiologic changes associated with testosterone. The vocal instrument is comprised of the vibratory body, the respiratory power source and the oropharyngeal resonating chambers. Voice is characterized by its intensity, frequency, and harmonics. The harmonics are hormonally dependent. This is illustrated by the changes that occur during male and female puberty: In the female, the impact of estrogens at puberty, in concert with progesterone, produces the characteristics of the female voice, with a fundamental frequency one third lower than that of a child. In the male, androgens released at puberty are responsible for the male vocal frequency, an octave lower than that of a child. Premenstrual vocal syndrome is characterized by vocal fatigue, decreased range, a loss of power and loss of certain harmonics. The syndrome usually starts some 4-5 days before menstruation in some 33% of women. Vocal professionals are particularly affected. Dynamic vocal exploration by televideoendoscopy shows congestion, microvarices, edema of the posterior third of the vocal folds and a loss of its vibratory amplitude. The authors studied 97 premenstrual women who were prescribed a

  15. The behavior of renal-regulating hormones during hypogravic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1985-01-01

    The regulation of fluid and electrolyte behavior during space flight is believed to be under control, in large part, of a group of hormones which have their major effects on renal excretion. The hormones studied include renin-angitensin, aldosterone, and antidiuretic hormone (ADH). The regulatory systems of these renal-regulating hormones as they act individually and in concert with each other are analyzed. The analysis is based on simulations of the mathematical model of Guyton. A generalized theory is described which accounts for both short-term and long-term behavior of this set of hormones.

  16. Cortistatin vaccination--a solution to growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Moaeen-ud-Din, M; Malik, Nosheen; Guo, Yang Li; Ali, Ahmad; Babar, Masroor Ellahi

    2009-12-01

    Cortistatin and somatostatin are neuropeptides which have inhibitory effects on growth hormone through common five receptors. Although, both have inhibitory effects but, only cortistatin has direct inhibitory effects on growth hormone secretagogue and is more potent inhibitor of growth hormone than somatostatin. This control of growth hormone can be manipulated through immunoneutralization of cortistatin through cortistatin DNA vaccine rather than antibodies application. A DNA vaccine of cortistatin can be produced using recombinant DNA technology in a eukaryotic expression system and will serve as a tool not to only alleviate the growth hormone deficiency problems in human but, can also be used to improve growth rate in farm animals.

  17. The role of hormones in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    ROMAN, IULIA IOANA; CONSTANTIN, ANNE-MARIE; MARINA, MIHAELA ELENA; ORASAN, REMUS IOAN

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic, common skin disease, which affects the patient’s quality of life to the highest degree. Several exogenous factors and endogenous hormonal changes may act as triggers for psoriasis. The skin possesses a true endocrine system, which is very important in multiple systemic diseases. A number of conditions are associated with psoriasis, and its severity can also be influenced by hormones. Even though the sex hormones and prolactin have a major role in psoriasis pathogenicity, there are a lot of other hormones which can influence the psoriasis clinical manifestations: glucocorticoids, epinephrine, thyroid hormones, and insulin. PMID:27004020

  18. Hormone (ACTH, T3) content of immunophenotyped lymphocyte subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Pállinger, Éva; Kiss, Gergely Attila; Csaba, György

    2016-12-01

    Cells of the immune system synthesize, store, and secrete polypeptide and amino acid type hormones, which also influence their functions, having receptors for different hormones. In the present experiment immunophenotyped immune cells isolated from bone marrow, thymus, and peritoneal fluid of mice were used for demonstrating the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and triiodothyronine (T3) hormone production of differentiating immune cells. Both hormones were found in each cell type, and in each maturation state, which means that all cells are participating in the hormonal function of the immune system. The lineage-independent presence of ACTH and T3 in differentiating hematopoietic cells denotes that their expression ubiquitous during lymphocyte development. Higher ACTH and T3 content of B cells shows that these cells are the most hormonally active and suggests that the hormones may have an autocrine regulatory role in B cell development. Developing T cells showed heterogeneous hormone production which was associated with their maturation state. Differences in the hormone contents of immune cells isolated from different organs indicate that their hormone production is defined by their differentiation or maturation state, however, possibly also by the local microenvironment.

  19. Neuronal control of breathing: sex and stress hormones.

    PubMed

    Behan, Mary; Kinkead, Richard

    2011-10-01

    There is a growing public awareness that hormones can have a significant impact on most biological systems, including the control of breathing. This review will focus on the actions of two broad classes of hormones on the neuronal control of breathing: sex hormones and stress hormones. The majority of these hormones are steroids; a striking feature is that both groups are derived from cholesterol. Stress hormones also include many peptides which are produced primarily within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and secreted into the brain or into the circulatory system. In this article we will first review and discuss the role of sex hormones in respiratory control throughout life, emphasizing how natural fluctuations in hormones are reflected in ventilatory metrics and how disruption of their endogenous cycle can predispose to respiratory disease. These effects may be mediated directly by sex hormone receptors or indirectly by neurotransmitter systems. Next, we will discuss the origins of hypothalamic stress hormones and their relationship with the respiratory control system. This relationship is 2-fold: (i) via direct anatomical connections to brainstem respiratory control centers, and (ii) via steroid hormones released from the adrenal gland in response to signals from the pituitary gland. Finally, the impact of stress on the development of neural circuits involved in breathing is evaluated in animal models, and the consequences of early stress on respiratory health and disease is discussed.

  20. Thyroid hormones and growth in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Tarım, Ömer

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate growth by several mechanisms. In addition to their negative feedback effect on the stimulatory hormones thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyrotropin (TSH), thyroid hormones also regulate their receptors in various physiological and pathological conditions. Up-regulation and down-regulation of the thyroid receptors fine-tune the biological effects exerted by the thyroid hormones. Interestingly, the deiodinase enzyme system is another intrinsic regulator of thyroid physiology that adjusts the availability of thyroid hormones to the tissues, which is essential for normal growth and development. Almost all chronic diseases of childhood impair growth and development. Every disease may have a unique mechanism to halt linear growth, but reduced serum concentration or diminished local availability of thyroid hormones seems to be a common pathway. Therefore, the effects of systemic diseases on thyroid physiology must be taken into consideration in the evaluation of growth retardation in affected children.

  1. Thyroid Hormones, Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components.

    PubMed

    Delitala, Alessandro P; Fanciulli, Giuseppe; Pes, Giovanni M; Maioli, Margherita; Delitala, Giuseppe

    2017-03-20

    Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of various metabolic parameters, which included diabetes, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, abdominal obesity, and hypertension. It has merged as a worldwide epidemic and a major public health care concern. However, due to the different criteria used for the assessment, the frequency of metabolic syndrome in the general population is variable but it more common in the older people. Metabolic syndrome is closely linked to cardiovascular risk and increases cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality. Recent evidences showed that alterations of the thyroid function could have an impact on the components of the metabolic syndrome, suggesting that thyroid hormones have a variety of effects on energy homeostasis, lipid and glucose metabolism, and blood pressure. In this review we summarize available data on the action of thyroid hormone on the components of metabolic syndrome.

  2. Metabolic hormones, dopamine circuits, and feeding

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Nandakumar S.; Guarnieri, Douglas J.; DiLeone, Ralph J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence has emerged demonstrating that metabolic hormones such as ghrelin and leptin can act on ventral tegmental area (VTA) midbrain dopamine neurons to influence feeding. The VTA is the origin of mesolimbic dopamine neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) to influence behavior. While blockade of dopamine via systemic antagonists or targeted gene delete can impair food intake, local NAc dopamine manipulations have little effect on food intake. Notably, non-dopaminergic manipulations in the VTA and NAc produce more consistent effects on feeding and food choice. More recent genetic evidence supports a role for the substantia nigra-striatal dopamine pathways in food intake, while the VTA-NAc circuit is more likely involved in higher-order aspects of food acquisition, such as motivation and cue associations. This rich and complex literature should be considered in models of how peripheral hormones influence feeding behavior via action on the midbrain circuits. PMID:19836414

  3. Hormone replacement therapy: the need for reconsideration.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, L

    1993-12-01

    Millions of menopausal women are taking hormone supplements. Observational studies suggest that unopposed estrogens reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and fractures and increase the risk of endometrial cancer and, possibly, breast cancer. In the absence of information from randomized trials, how much of the apparent beneficial effect on heart disease is due to the tendency of healthier women to use these drugs is unknown. The effect on the cardiovascular system of estrogen taken with a progestin is unknown, and this regimen may increase the risk of breast cancer. An approach to health and illness that focuses on a single cause or preventive and on single organ systems is severely limited. Alternative ways to improve cardiovascular and skeletal health that do not increase the risk of cancer are available. A reconsideration of the appropriate use of hormone supplements is needed.

  4. Gut hormone release after intestinal resection.

    PubMed Central

    Besterman, H S; Adrian, T E; Mallinson, C N; Christofides, N D; Sarson, D L; Pera, A; Lombardo, L; Modigliani, R; Bloom, S R

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of gut and pancreatic hormones in the adaptive responses to gut resection, plasma concentrations of the circulating hormones were measured, in response to a test breakfast, in patients with either small or large intestinal resection and in healthy control subjects. In 18 patients with partial ileal resection a significant threefold rise was found in basal and postprandial levels of pancreatic polypeptide, a fourfold increase in motilin, and more than a twofold increase in gastrin and enteroglucagon levels compared with healthy controls. In contrast, nine patients with colonic resection had a threefold rise in levels of pancreatic polypeptide only. One or more of these peptides may have a role in stimulating the adaptive changes found after gut resection. PMID:7117905

  5. Gut hormones and the control of appetite.

    PubMed

    Small, Caroline J; Bloom, Stephen R

    2004-08-01

    Obesity is the main cause of premature death in the UK. Worldwide its prevalence is accelerating. It has been hypothesized that a gut nutriment sensor signals to appetite centres in the brain to reduce food intake after meals. Gut hormones have been identified as an important mechanism for this. Ghrelin stimulates, and glucagon like peptide-1, oxyntomodulin, peptide YY (PYY), cholecystokinin and pancreatic polypeptide inhibit, appetite. At physiological postprandial concentrations they can alter food intake markedly in humans and rodents. In addition, in obese humans fasting levels of PYY are suppressed and postprandial release is reduced. Administration of gut hormones might provide a novel and physiological approach in anti-obesity therapy. Here, we summarize some of the recent advances in this field.

  6. Nutrient detection by incretin hormone secreting cells

    PubMed Central

    Diakogiannaki, Eleftheria; Gribble, Fiona M.; Reimann, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulintropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted after a meal. Like other enteroendocrine hormones they help to orchestrate the bodies' response to the availability of newly absorbable nutrients and are noteworthy as they stimulate postprandial insulin secretion, underlying what is known as the incretin effect. GLP-1-mimetics are now widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and advantages over older insulinotropic therapies include weight loss. An alternative treatment regime might be the recruitment of endogenous GLP-1, however, very little is known about the physiological control of enteroendocrine responses. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms to detect nutrient arrival in the gut that have been implicated within the incretin secreting cells. PMID:22182802

  7. Pneumosinus dilatans multiplex associated with hormonal imbalance.

    PubMed

    Ushas, P; Ravi, V; Painatt, Jaeson Mohanan; Nair, Preeti P

    2013-08-26

    Pneumosinus dilatans describes an abnormal dilation of one or more paranasal sinuses without radiological evidence of localised bone destruction, hyperostosis or mucous membrane thickening. Dilation of mastoid air cells also occurs rarely along with involvement of paranasal sinuses. This rare combination of unknown aetiology was reported in two cases in the literature and termed 'Pneumosinus Dilatans Multiplex' (PSDM). It is usually asymptomatic, and is detected incidentally on plain radiography, CT or MRI. If left untreated, it can further erode the bone leading to complications such as facial asymmetry, neurological disorders and pathological fractures. The aetiology of the condition remains obscure. Various hypotheses proposed are the presence of gas-forming microorganisms, spontaneous drainage of a mucocele, the presence of a one-way valve, dysregulation of hormonal levels leading to a disturbance of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity. This paper describes a case of PSDM possibly secondary to hormonal disturbance.

  8. Venous thromboembolism in women taking hormonal contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Molina, Angeles; Monreal, Manuel

    2010-02-01

    Hormonal contraceptives are a popular method of contraception, but their use has been associated with an increased risk for venous thromboembolism. In order to reduce such risk, these compounds have been changed in their dosage, chemical composition and route of administration. The absolute risk of death from pulmonary embolism in contraceptive users has been estimated to be 10.5 (95% CI: 6.2-16.6) per million woman-years. The safest option is an oral contraceptive containing levonorgestrel combined with a low dose of estrogen. Identifying women at increased risk for venous thromboembolism is difficult, and greater use of thromboprophylaxis during immobility or minor surgery should be warranted. Several authors have called for all women to be screened for thrombophilia before prescription of hormonal contraceptives, but its cost-effectiveness remains uncertain.

  9. The pituitary growth hormone cell in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, Wesley C.; Grindeland, R.

    1989-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH), produced and secreted from specialized cells in the pituitary gland, controls the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. It is also probably involved in the regulation of proper function of bone, muscle and immune systems. The behavior of the GH cell system was studied by flying either isolated pituitary cells or live rats. In the latter case, pituitary GH cells are prepared on return to earth and then either transplanted into hypophysectomized rats or placed into cell culture so that function of GH cells in-vivo vs. in-vitro can be compared. The results from three flights to date (STS-8, 1983; SL-3, 1985; Cosmos 1887, 1987) established that the ability of GH cells to release hormone, on return to earth, is compromised. The mechanism(s) responsible for this attenuation response is unknown. However, the data are sufficiently positive to indicate that the nature of the secretory defect resides directly within the GH cells.

  10. Dimerization of Human Growth Hormone by Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Brian C.; Mulkerrin, Michael G.; Wells, James A.

    1991-08-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography and sedimentation equilibrium studies demonstrated that zinc ion (Zn2+) induced the dimerization of human growth hormone (hGH). Scatchard analysis of 65Zn2+ binding to hGH showed that two Zn2+ ions associate per dimer of hGH in a cooperative fashion. Cobalt (II) can substitute for Zn2+ in the hormone dimer and gives a visible spectrum characteristic of cobalt coordinated in a tetrahedral fashion by oxygen- and nitrogen-containing ligands. Replacement of potential Zn2+ ligands (His18, His21, and Glu174) in hGH with alanine weakened both Zn2+ binding and hGH dimer formation. The Zn2+-hGH dimer was more stable than monomeric hGH to denaturation in guanidine-HCl. Formation of a Zn2+-hGH dimeric complex may be important for storage of hGH in secretory granules.

  11. Hormone Replacement Therapy, Iron, and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    culture models with different status of estrogen and progesterone receptors as well as an iron loaded transgenic mouse model. Our results have shown that...Hormone replacement therapy, iron, estrogen, cell proliferation, progesterone , breast cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...release an egg every month. Estrogen and progesterone together help regulate this event. As a woman matures, the ovaries have fewer eggs to stimulate

  12. Hormonal Control of Breast Cancer Cell Growth.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    known function , which is virtually identical to that of the pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH), is the stimulation of the production of gonadal...HI-1 did not match any previously identified genes, appearing to be a novel gene whose function might be related with process of differentiation. Its...in and in vitro (112-121) indicates that further identification of the functional role of this protein and of others whose synthesis is stimulated by

  13. Novel Strip Test for Circulating Hormones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    level of discrimination will permit 72 hour advance notice of impending ovulation , making the strips a useful tool in family planning in that they...provide sufficient advance notice of ovulation to allow for the lifetime of sperm in the vagina. To implement this novel immunoassay technology, a new...before the peak of luteinizing hormone (LH) until two days after the peak.’ The maximum notification of impending ovulation provided by measurement

  14. Hormonal Involvement in Breast Cancer Gene Amplification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    re-replication creates extra copies of the gene. This in turn will also increase production of the protein encoded by the amplified gene. Hormonal... increases in MCM proteins and Cdt1 have been shown to induce DNA amplification in yeast (Gopalakrishnan et al., 2001; Nguyen et al., 2001; Green et al...2006) and increased Cdt1 results in re-replication in human cells (Dorn et al., 2008). The N- terminus of Cdt1 is important for re-replication

  15. Hormonal causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).

    PubMed

    Pluchino, Nicola; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Wenger, Jean Marie; Petignat, Patrick; Streuli, Isabelle; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disorders play a major role in approximately 8% to 12% of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Indeed, the local hormonal milieu is crucial in both embryo attachment and early pregnancy. Endocrine abnormalities, including thyroid disorders, luteal phase defects, polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperprolactinaemia and diabetes have to be evaluated in any case of RPL. Moreover, elevated androgen levels and some endocrinological aspects of endometriosis are also factors contributing to RPL. In the present article, we review the significance of endocrine disease on RPL.

  16. [Regulation of bone mineralization by parathyroid hormone].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masaru; Tamura, Tatsuya

    2004-06-01

    In randomized clinical trials, parathyroid hormone (PTH) showed potent anabolic effects on the lumbar spine and decreased the risk of incident vertebral fractures dramatically. Although the anabolic effect of PTH on cortical bone in the femoral neck is still unclear, it should be demonstrated in further clinical studies. Concurrent or sequential therapies of PTH and anti-resorptive agents will be one of the major issues of treatment for osteoporosis in the future.

  17. Thyroid Hormone Signaling in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Patrick; Flamant, Frédéric; Godement, Pierre; Glösmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is a crucial regulator of gene expression in the developing and adult retina. Here we sought to map sites of thyroid hormone signaling at the cellular level using the transgenic FINDT3 reporter mouse model in which neurons express β-galactosidase (β-gal) under the control of a hybrid Gal4-TRα receptor when triiodothyronine (T3) and cofactors of thyroid receptor signaling are present. In the adult retina, nearly all neurons of the ganglion cell layer (GCL, ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells) showed strong β-gal labeling. In the inner nuclear layer (INL), a minority of glycineric and GABAergic amacrine cells showed β-gal labeling, whereas the majority of amacrine cells were unlabeled. At the level of amacrine types, β-gal labeling was found in a large proportion of the glycinergic AII amacrines, but only in a small proportion of the cholinergic/GABAergic ‘starburst’ amacrines. At postnatal day 10, there also was a high density of strongly β-gal-labeled neurons in the GCL, but only few amacrine cells were labeled in the INL. There was no labeling of bipolar cells, horizontal cells and Müller glia cells at both stages. Most surprisingly, the photoreceptor somata in the outer nuclear layer also showed no β-gal label, although thyroid hormone is known to control cone opsin expression. This is the first record of thyroid hormone signaling in the inner retina of an adult mammal. We hypothesize that T3 levels in photoreceptors are below the detection threshold of the reporter system. The topographical distribution of β-gal-positive cells in the GCL follows the overall neuron distribution in that layer, with more T3-signaling cells in the ventral than the dorsal half-retina. PMID:27942035

  18. [Hormones and osteoporosis update. Glucocorticoids and bone].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kyoji

    2009-07-01

    Glucocorticoids are a class of vital steroid hormone which exhibit permissive effects on transactivation in a variety of cells, including those in bone. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, on the other hand, predisposes to fragility fracture by compromising bone strength and can be understood as a disease primarily characterized by a deficiency in bone quality. It is a major challenge in bone biology to understand these two contrasting sides of glucocorticoid activity in bone.

  19. The effect of hormones on endometriosis development.

    PubMed

    Parente Barbosa, C; Bentes De Souza, A M; Bianco, B; Christofolini, D M

    2011-08-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynecological condition in which tissue that is histologically similar to the endometrium with glands and/or stroma grows outside the uterine cavity and can lead to pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea and infertility. Many aspects of female reproductive function are strongly influenced by genetic factors and numerous studies have attempted to identify susceptibility genes for disorders affecting female fertility such as endometriosis. The importance of steroid hormones on endometriosis is unquestionable. The disease is most prevalent in women of reproductive age and regresses after menopause and its occurrence before menarche has not been reported. Sex steroids, estrogen and progesterone, are mainly produced in the ovaries and they regulate the growth of endometrial tissue, basically by stimulating and inhibiting cell proliferation, respectively. In addition, estrogen plays an important role in the regulation of cyclic gonadotropin release and in folliculogenesis. Numerous studies have been conducted to demonstrate the interaction of hormone and their receptors with endometriosis with conflict results. Besides, environmental chemicals, known as endocrine disruptors, have the capacity to mimic, block or modulate the endocrine system through the interaction with steroidal receptors. Recently evidences have proposed a putative role for ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the occurrence of endometriosis. Here, we reviewed significant articles regarding the interaction among endometriosis, hormones and genetic polymorphic variants.

  20. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandurski, Robert S.; Schulze, Aga

    Numerous studies, particularly those of H. Dolk in the 1930's, established by means of bio-assay, that more growth hormone diffused from the lower, than from the upper side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot. Now, using an isotope dilution assay, with 4,5,6,7 tetradeutero indole-3-acetic acid as internal standard, and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the method of determination, we have confirmed Dolk's finding and established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is, in fact, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physico-chemical demonstration that there is more free IAA on the lower sides of a geo-stimulated plant shoot. We have also shown that free IAA occurs primarily in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, whereas IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. Now, using an especially sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay we have found that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the non-vascular tissue. Currently, efforts are directed to developing isotope dilution assays, with picogram sensitivity, to determine how this asymmetry of IAA distribution is attained so as to better understand how the plant perceives the geo-stimulus.

  1. Sex hormones in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Roger Lyrio; da Silva, Fabrício Bragança; Ribeiro, Rogério Faustino; Stefanon, Ivanita

    2014-05-01

    Gender-associated differences in the development of cardiovascular diseases have been described in humans and animals. These differences could explain the low incidence of cardiovascular disease in women in the reproductive period, such as stroke, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. The cardiovascular protection observed in females has been attributed to the beneficial effects of estrogen on endothelial function. Besides estrogen, sex hormones are able to modulate blood pressure by acting on important systems as cardiovascular, renal, and neural. They can have complementary or antagonistic actions. For example, testosterone can raise blood pressure by stimulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, whereas estrogen alone or combined with progesterone has been associated with decreased blood pressure. The effects of testosterone in the development of cardiovascular disease are contradictory. Although some researchers suggest a positive effect, others indicate negative actions of testosterone. Estrogens physiologically stimulate the release of endothelium-derived vasodilator factors and inhibit the renin-angiotensin system. Although the cardioprotective effects of estrogen are widely appreciated, little is known about the effects of progesterone, which is commonly used in hormone replacement therapy. Progesterone has both vasodilatory and vasoconstrictive effects in the vasculature, depending on the location of the vessel and the level of exposure. Nevertheless, the mechanisms through which sex hormones modulate blood pressure have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the characterization of those could lead to a better understanding of hypertension in women and men and perhaps to improved forms of therapy.

  2. Thyroid hormone dysfunction during pregnancy: A review

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Aynadis; Terefe, Betelihem; Abebe, Molla; Biadgo, Belete

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid dysfunctions such as hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis and thyroid nodules may develop during pregnancy leading to abortion, placental abruptions, preeclampsia, preterm delivery and reduced intellectual function in the offspring. Epidemiological data have shown the significant role of maternal thyroid hormone in fetal neurologic development and maternal health. It has been suggested that the deleterious effects of thyroid dysfunction can also extend beyond pregnancy and delivery to affect neuro-intellectual development in the early life of the child. Pregnancy poses an important challenge to the maternal thyroid gland as hormone requirements are increased during gestation as a result of an increase in thyroid- binding globulin, the stimulatory effect of HCG on TSH receptors, and increased peripheral thyroid hormone requirements. Maternal thyroid dysfunction is associated with increased risk for early abortion, preterm delivery, neonatal morbidity and other obstetrical complications. Early diagnosis for thyroid dysfunction of pregnant women and treatment of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is important and cost effective to avoid both fetal and maternal complications secondary to thyroid dysfunction. Therefore the aim of this review was to assess the thyroid function changes occurring during pregnancy, the different disorders with their maternal and fetal implications, the laboratory diagnosis and the best ways of management of these conditions. PMID:27981252

  3. IGF-1 and insulin as growth hormones.

    PubMed

    Laron, Zvi

    2004-01-01

    IGF-1 generated in the liver is the anabolic effector and linear growth promoting hormone of the pituitary growth hormone (GH). This is evidenced by dwarfism in states of congenital IGF-1 deficiency, Igf1 gene mutation/deletions or knockouts, and in Laron syndrome (LS), due to GH receptor gene mutations/deletions or IGF-1 receptor blocking. In a positive way, daily IGF-1 administration to stunted patients with LS or hGH gene deletion accelerates linear growth velocity. IGF-1 acts on the proliferative cells of the epiphyseal cartilage. IGF-1 also induces organ and tissue growth; its absence causing organomicria. Insulin shares a common ancestry with IGF-1 and with 45% amino acid homology, as well as very close relationships in the structure of its receptors and post-receptor cascade, also acts as a growth hormone. It has protein anabolic activity and stimulates IGF-1 synthesis. Pancreas agenesis causes short babies, and obese children with hyperinsulinism, with or without pituitary GH, have an accelerated growth rate and skeletal maturation; so do babies with macrosomia. Whether the insulin growth effect is direct, or mediated by IGF-1 or leptin is controversial.

  4. Brain sex differences and hormone influences

    PubMed Central

    Tobet, Stuart; Knoll, J. Gabriel; Hartshorn, Cheryl; Aurand, Emily; Stratton, Matthew; Kumar, Pankaj; Searcy, Brian; McClellan, Kristy

    2009-01-01

    Sex differences in the nervous system come in many forms. Although a majority of sexually dimorphic characteristics in brain have been described in older animals, mechanisms that determine sexually differentiated brain characteristics often operate during critical perinatal periods. Both genetic and hormonal factors likely contribute to physiological mechanisms in development to generate the ontogeny of sexual dimorphisms in brain. Relevant mechanisms may include neurogenesis, cell migration, cell differentiation, cell death, axon guidance and synaptogenesis. On a molecular level, there are several ways to categorize factors that drive brain development. These range from the actions of transcription factors in cell nuclei that regulate the expression of genes that control cell development and differentiation, to effector molecules that directly contribute to signaling from one cell to another. In addition, several peptides or proteins in these and other categories might be referred to as “biomarkers” of sexual differentiation with undetermined functions in development or adulthood. While a majority of sex differences are revealed as a direct consequence of hormone actions, some may only be revealed following genetic or environmental disruption. Sex differences in cell positions in the developing hypothalamus, and steroid hormone influences on cell movements in vitro, suggest that cell migration may be one target for early molecular actions that impact brain development and sexual differentiation. PMID:19207813

  5. Effects of hypothalamic dopamine on growth hormone-releasing hormone-induced growth hormone secretion and thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced prolactin secretion in goats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jin; Hashizume, Tsutomu

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of hypothalamic dopamine (DA) on the secretion of growth hormone (GH) in goats. The GH-releasing response to an intravenous (i.v.) injection of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH, 0.25 μg/kg body weight (BW)) was examined after treatments to augment central DA using carbidopa (carbi, 1 mg/kg BW) and L-dopa (1 mg/kg BW) in male and female goats under a 16-h photoperiod (16 h light, 8 h dark) condition. GHRH significantly and rapidly stimulated the release of GH after its i.v. administration to goats (P < 0.05). The carbi and L-dopa treatments completely suppressed GH-releasing responses to GHRH in both male and female goats (P < 0.05). The prolactin (PRL)-releasing response to an i.v. injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, 1 μg/kg BW) was additionally examined in male goats in this study to confirm modifications to central DA concentrations. The treatments with carbi and L-dopa significantly reduced TRH-induced PRL release in goats (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that hypothalamic DA was involved in the regulatory mechanisms of GH, as well as PRL secretion in goats.

  6. Exercise and the Regulation of Endocrine Hormones.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Anthony C; Lane, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system has profound regulatory effects within the human body and thus the ability to control and maintain appropriate function within many physiological systems (i.e., homeostasis). The hormones associated with the endocrine system utilize autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine actions on the cells of their target tissues within these physiologic systems to adjust homeostasis. The introduction of exercise as a stressor to disrupt homeostasis can greatly amplify and impact the actions of these hormones. To that end, the endocrine response to an acute exercise session occurs in a progression of phases with the magnitude of the response being relative to the exercise work intensity or volume. Various physiologic mechanisms are considered responsible for these responses, although not all are completely understood or elucidated. Chronic exercise training does not eliminate the acute exercise response but may attenuate the overall effect of the responsiveness as the body adapts in a positive fashion to the training stimulus. Regrettably, an excessive intensity and/or volume of training may lead to maladaptation and is associated with inappropriate endocrine hormonal responses. The mechanisms leading to a deleterious maladaptive state are not well understood and require additional research for elucidation.

  7. Hormonal correlates of acne and hirsutism.

    PubMed

    Lucky, A W

    1995-01-16

    Acne is a multifactorial disorder reflecting the role of infection, abnormal keratinization and immunologic reaction, as well as hormonal influences, on the pilosebaceous unit. Clinical studies have correlated elevated levels of androgens, originating in both the adrenal glands and ovaries, with acne. These include total and free testosterone, delta 4-androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, and low levels of sex hormone binding globulin. The pathogenesis of acne initiation in childhood has been linked to rising serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Hirsutism has been more directly correlated with increased levels of serum androgens, notably free testosterone. Underlying causes of elevated androgens in both disorders include very rare tumors, partial or late-onset forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, developmental adrenal abnormalities and, most commonly, polycystic ovary syndrome. Early acne treatment may include topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and tretinoin. More severe disease can be treated systemically (with antibiotics and/or isotretinoin). Very-low-dose corticosteroids can be used to eliminate the adrenal component of hyperandrogenism. Oral contraceptives, especially those that contain low-androgenic progestins, can reduce excessive androgens from any source and specifically suppress the ovary in polycystic ovary syndrome. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, with or without estrogen supplementation, and systemic or topical antiandrogens may play a more important role in the future.

  8. [Hormonal factors in etiology of common acne].

    PubMed

    Bergler-Czop, Beata; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2004-05-01

    Common acne is steatorrhoeic chronic disease, to which specific is, among others, the presence of blackheads, papulopustular eruptions, purulent cysts and cicatrices. Such hormonal factors belong to elements inherent in etiology of the affection. Sebaceous glands have cell receptors on their surface for androgens. In etiopathogenesis of common/simple acne, a decisive role is played by a derivative of testosterone, i.e. 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). However, some experts are of opinion that there is no correlation between the increased intensity of common acne and other symptoms of hyperandrogenism. Numerous authors assume, however, that common acne-affected patients may be sometimes subjected to intense reactions caused by sebaceous glands against physiological androgens concentrations. Naturally, estrogens can inhibit release of such androgens. Under physiological conditions, natural progesterone does not conduct to intensification of the seborrhea, but the activity of sebum secretion may be triggered off by its synthetic counterparts. Hormonal etiology can be very distinctly visible in the steroid, androgenic, premenstrual, menopausal acne, as well as in juvenile acne and acne neonatorum. In case of females affected by acne, hormonal therapy should be persistently supported and consulted with dermatologists, endocrinologists and gynecologists. Antiandrogenic preparations are applied, such as: cyproterone acetate concurrently administered with estrogens and, as well as not so frequently with chlormadinone acetate (independently or during estrogenic therapy).

  9. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2010-03-25

    Growth hormone (GH) is the most important hormonal regulator of postnatal longitudinal growth in man. In adults GH is no longer needed for longitudinal growth. Adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are characterised by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk profile and bone mineral density. It is well established that adult GHD usually is accompanied by an increase in fat accumulation and GH replacement in adult patients with GHD results in reduction of fat mass and abdominal fat mass in particular. It is also recognized that obesity and abdominal obesity in particular results in a secondary reduction in GH secretion and subnormal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. The recovery of the GH IGF-I axis after weight loss suggest an acquired defect, however, the pathophysiologic role of GH in obesity is yet to be fully understood. In clinical studies examining the efficacy of GH in obese subjects very little or no effect are observed with respect to weight loss, whereas GH seems to reduce total and abdominal fat mass in obese subjects. The observed reductions in abdominal fat mass are modest and similar to what can be achieved by diet or exercise interventions.

  10. Sex disparity in colonic adenomagenesis involves promotion by male hormones, not protection by female hormones

    PubMed Central

    Amos-Landgraf, James M.; Heijmans, Jarom; Wielenga, Mattheus C. B.; Dunkin, Elisa; Krentz, Kathy J.; Clipson, Linda; Ederveen, Antwan G.; Groothuis, Patrick G.; Mosselman, Sietse; Muncan, Vanesa; Hommes, Daniel W.; Shedlovsky, Alexandra; Dove, William F.; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2014-01-01

    It recently has been recognized that men develop colonic adenomas and carcinomas at an earlier age and at a higher rate than women. In the ApcPirc/+ (Pirc) rat model of early colonic cancer, this sex susceptibility was recapitulated, with male Pirc rats developing twice as many adenomas as females. Analysis of large datasets revealed that the ApcMin/+ mouse also shows enhanced male susceptibility to adenomagenesis, but only in the colon. In addition, WT mice treated with injections of the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) showed increased numbers of colonic adenomas in males. The mechanism underlying these observations was investigated by manipulation of hormonal status. The preponderance of colonic adenomas in the Pirc rat model allowed a statistically significant investigation in vivo of the mechanism of sex hormone action on the development of colonic adenomas. Females depleted of endogenous hormones by ovariectomy did not exhibit a change in prevalence of adenomas, nor was any effect observed with replacement of one or a combination of female hormones. In contrast, depletion of male hormones by orchidectomy (castration) markedly protected the Pirc rat from adenoma development, whereas supplementation with testosterone reversed that effect. These observations were recapitulated in the AOM mouse model. Androgen receptor was undetectable in the colon or adenomas, making it likely that testosterone acts indirectly on the tumor lineage. Our findings suggest that indirect tumor-promoting effects of testosterone likely explain the disparity between the sexes in the development of colonic adenomas. PMID:25368192

  11. The role of testicular hormones and luteinizing hormone in spatial memory in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Sarah E A; Alla, Juliet; Wheat, Elizabeth; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce; Thornton, Janice E

    2012-04-01

    Attempts to determine the influence of testicular hormones on learning and memory in males have yielded contradictory results. The present studies examined whether testicular hormones are important for maximal levels of spatial memory in young adult male rats. To minimize any effect of stress, we used the Object Location Task which is a spatial working memory task that does not involve food or water deprivation or aversive stimuli for motivation. In Experiment 1 sham gonadectomized male rats demonstrated robust spatial memory, but gonadectomized males showed diminished spatial memory. In Experiment 2 subcutaneous testosterone (T) capsules restored spatial memory performance in gonadectomized male rats, while rats with blank capsules demonstrated compromised spatial memory. In Experiment 3, gonadectomized male rats implanted with blank capsules again showed compromised spatial memory, while those with T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or estradiol (E) capsules demonstrated robust spatial memory, indicating that T's effects may be mediated by its conversion to E or to DHT. Gonadectomized male rats injected with Antide, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist which lowers luteinizing hormone levels, also demonstrated spatial memory, comparable to that shown by T-, E-, or DHT-treated males. These data indicate that testicular androgens are important for maximal levels of spatial working memory in male rats, that testosterone may be converted to E and/or DHT to exert its effects, and that some of the effects of these steroid hormones may occur via negative feedback effects on LH.

  12. Endocrine interactions between plants and animals: Implications of exogenous hormone sources for the evolution of hormone signaling.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ashley E M; Heyland, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Hormones are central to animal physiology, metabolism and development. Details on signal transduction systems and regulation of hormone synthesis, activation and release have only been studied for a small number of animal groups, notably arthropods and chordates. However, a significant body of literature suggests that hormonal signaling systems are not restricted to these phyla. For example, work on several echinoderm species shows that exogenous thyroid hormones (THs) affect larval development and metamorphosis and our new data provide strong evidence for endogenous synthesis of THs in sea urchin larvae. In addition to these endogenous sources, these larvae obtain THs when they consume phytoplankton. Another example of an exogenously acquired hormone or their precursors is in insect and arthropod signaling. Sterols from plants are essential for the synthesis of ecdysteroids, a crucial group of insect morphogenic steroids. The availability of a hormone or hormone precursor from food has implications for understanding hormone function and the evolution of hormonal signaling in animals. For hormone function, it creates an important link between the environment and the regulation of internal homeostatic systems. For the evolution of hormonal signaling it helps us to better understand how complex endocrine mechanisms may have evolved.

  13. The dynamic and static modification of the epigenome by hormones: a role in the developmental origin of hormone related cancers.

    PubMed

    Chiam, Karen; Tilley, Wayne D; Butler, Lisa M; Bianco-Miotto, Tina

    2009-04-01

    There are numerous diseases associated with abnormal hormonal regulation and these include cancers of the breast and prostate. There is substantial evidence that early hormonal perturbations (in utero or during early development) are associated with increased disease susceptibility later in life. These perturbations may arise from exposure to environmental agents or endocrine disruptors which mimic hormones and disrupt normal hormonal signaling. Epigenetic alterations have often been proposed as the underlying mechanism by which early hormonal perturbations may give rise to disease in adulthood. Currently, there is minimal evidence to support a direct link between early hormonal perturbations and epigenetic modifications; or between epigenetic alterations and subsequent onset of cancer. Given that epigenetic modifications may play an important role in hormone-dependent cancers, it is essential to better understand the relationship between the hormonal environment and epigenetic modifications in both normal and disease states. In this review, we highlight several important studies which support the hypothesis that: hormonal perturbations early in life may result in epigenetic changes that may modify hormone receptor function, thereby contributing to an increased risk of developing hormone-related cancers.

  14. Effect of hypothyroidism on female reproductive hormones

    PubMed Central

    Saran, Sanjay; Gupta, Bharti Sona; Philip, Rajeev; Singh, Kumar Sanjeev; Bende, Sureshrao Anoop; Agroiya, Puspalata; Agrawal, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Objective was to evaluate reproductive hormones levels in hypothyroid women and impact of treatment on their levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 59 women with untreated primary hypothyroidism were included in this prospective study. Venous blood was taken at baseline and after euthyroidism was achieved for measuring serum free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and thyroid peroxidase antibody. Thirty-nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles without any hormonal disturbances served as controls. The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 20 ([SPSS] IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: On an average at diagnosis cases have more serum TSH (mean [M] = 77.85; standard error [SE] = 11.72), PRL (M = 39.65; SE = 4.13) and less serum E2 (M = 50.00; SE = 2.25) and T (M = 35.40; SE = 2.31) than after achieving euthyroidism (M = 1.74; SE = 0.73), (M = 16.04; SE = 0.84), (M = 76.25; SE = 2.60), and (M = 40.29; SE = 2.27), respectively. This difference was statistically significant t (58) = 6.48, P <0.05; t (58) = 6.49, P < 0.05; t (58) = 12.47; P < 0.05; and t (58) = 2.04, P < 0.05; respectively. Although average serum FSH (M = 12.14; SE = 0.40) and LH (M = 5.89; SE = 0.27) were lower in cases at diagnosis than after achieving euthyroidism (M = 12.70; SE = 0.40), (M = 6.22; SE = 0.25), respectively, but these differences were statistically insignificant t (58) = 1.61, P = 0.11; t (58) = 1.11, P = 0.27, respectively. Conclusion: The study has demonstrated low E2 and T levels in hypothyroid women which were increased after achieving euthyroidism. Although average serum FSH and LH were increased in hypothyroid women after achieving euthyroidism but this difference was statistically

  15. Multiple Effects of Growth Hormone in the Body: Is it Really the Hormone for Growth?

    PubMed Central

    Devesa, Jesús; Almengló, Cristina; Devesa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we analyze the effects of growth hormone on a number of tissues and organs and its putative role in the longitudinal growth of an organism. We conclude that the hormone plays a very important role in maintaining the homogeneity of tissues and organs during the normal development of the human body or after an injury. Its effects on growth do not seem to take place during the fetal period or during the early infancy and are mediated by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) during childhood and puberty. In turn, IGF-I transcription is dependent on an adequate GH secretion, and in many tissues, it occurs independent of GH. We propose that GH may be a prohormone, rather than a hormone, since in many tissues and organs, it is proteolytically cleaved in a tissue-specific manner giving origin to shorter GH forms whose activity is still unknown. PMID:27773998

  16. Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone induces growth hormone secretion in adult hypothyroid fowl.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S; Scanes, C G; Klandorf, H

    1988-02-01

    While thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion in adult anesthetized cockerels, the GH response was blocked in anesthetized birds pretreated with thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). Moreover, whereas GH secretion in conscious adult birds was poorly responsive to TRH stimulation, conscious birds made hypothyroid by goitrogen pretreatment (with propylthiouracil, methimazole, or thiourea) were responsive to TRH challenge. Basal circulating GH concentrations in the goitrogen-pretreated birds were also higher than in the vehicle-injected controls. Surgical thyroidectomy similarly increased the basal GH concentration in adult birds and promoted TRH-induced GH secretion. These results demonstrate inhibitory effects of the thyroid hormones on basal and stimulated GH secretion in adult domestic fowl and suggest that GH release in adults is partly under tonic thyroidal inhibition.

  17. Concomitant therapies (glucocorticoids and sex hormones) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scaroni, C; Ceccato, F; Rizzati, S; Mantero, F

    2008-09-01

    Adult-onset GH deficiency (GHD), mostly due to organic lesions of the pituitary-hypothalamic region, is frequently associated with multiple anterior pituitary deficiencies that need long-term substitutive treatment. The GH-IGF-I axis may play an important role in modulating peripheral metabolism of hormones (adrenal, thyroid, and sex hormones) and these interactions may have clinically significant implications on the phenotypes of adult GHD patients and on the effects of the combined replacement hormonal treatment of this condition. By accelerating the peripheral metabolism of cortisol, GH therapy may precipitate adrenal insufficiency in susceptible hypopituitary patients; estrogen replacement blunts the response to GH in women whereas in men with androgen substitution the responsivity increases over time. Endocrinologists should be mindful of these phenomena when starting patients with hypopituitarism on GH replacement therapy.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of infertility-related male hormonal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kathrins, Martin; Niederberger, Craig

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of infertility-related hormonal dysfunction in men requires an understanding of the hormonal basis of spermatogenesis. The best method for accurately determining male androgenization status remains elusive. Treatment of hormonal dysfunction can fall into two categories - empirical and targeted. Empirical therapy refers to experience-based treatment approaches in the absence of an identifiable aetiology. Targeted therapy refers to the correction of a specific underlying hormonal abnormality. However, the tools available for inferring the intratesticular hormonal environment are unreliable. Thus, understanding the limitations of serum hormonal assays is very important for determining male androgen status. Furthermore, bulk seminal parameters are notoriously variable and consequently unreliable for measuring responses to hormonal therapy. In the setting of azoospermia owing to spermatogenic dysfunction, hormonal therapy - relying on truly objective parameters including the return of sperm to the ejaculate or successful surgical sperm retrieval - is a promising treatment. This approach to the treatment of fertility-related hormonal dysfunction in men contrasts with the current state of its counterpart in female reproductive endocrinology. Treatment of male hormonal dysfunction has long emphasized empirical therapy, whereas treatment of the corollary female dysfunction has been directed at specific deficits.

  19. Differential action of glycoprotein hormones: significance in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Arya, Swathy V; Rao, A J

    2014-02-01

    Growth of multicellular organisms depends on maintenance of proper balance between proliferation and differentiation. Any disturbance in this balance in animal cells can lead to cancer. Experimental evidence is provided to conclude with special reference to the action of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on Sertoli cells, and luteinizing hormone (LH) on Leydig cells that these hormones exert a differential action on their target cells, i.e., stimulate proliferation when the cells are in an undifferentiated state which is the situation with cancer cells and promote only functional parameters when the cell are fully differentiated. Hormones and growth factors play a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. There is a growing body of evidence that various tumors express some hormones at high levels as well as their cognate receptors indicating the possibility of a role in progression of cancer. Hormones such as LH, FSH, and thyroid-stimulating hormone have been reported to stimulate cell proliferation and act as tumor promoter in a variety of hormone-dependent cancers including gonads, lung, thyroid, uterus, breast, prostate, etc. This review summarizes evidence to conclude that these hormones are produced by some cancer tissues to promote their own growth. Also an attempt is made to explain the significance of the differential action of hormones in progression of cancer with special reference to prostate cancer.

  20. Sex hormones, sex hormone binding globulin, and vertebral fractures in older men.

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Schousboe, John T; Harrison, Stephanie L; Ensrud, Kristine E; Black, Dennis; Cauley, Jane A; Cummings, Steven R; LeBlanc, Erin S; Laughlin, Gail A; Nielson, Carrie M; Broughton, Augusta; Kado, Deborah M; Hoffman, Andrew R; Jamal, Sophie A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Orwoll, Eric S

    2016-03-01

    The association between sex hormones and sex hormone binding globin (SHBG) with vertebral fractures in men is not well studied. In these analyses, we determined whether sex hormones and SHBG were associated with greater likelihood of vertebral fractures in a prospective cohort study of community dwelling older men. We included data from participants in MrOS who had been randomly selected for hormone measurement (N=1463, including 1054 with follow-up data 4.6years later). Major outcomes included prevalent vertebral fracture (semi-quantitative grade≥2, N=140, 9.6%) and new or worsening vertebral fracture (change in SQ grade≥1, N=55, 5.2%). Odds ratios per SD decrease in sex hormones and per SD increase in SHBG were estimated with logistic regression adjusted for potentially confounding factors, including age, bone mineral density, and other sex hormones. Higher SHBG was associated with a greater likelihood of prevalent vertebral fractures (OR: 1.38 per SD increase, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.72). Total estradiol analyzed as a continuous variable was not associated with prevalent vertebral fractures (OR per SD decrease: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.68 to 1.10). Men with total estradiol values ≤17pg/ml had a borderline higher likelihood of prevalent fracture than men with higher values (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.99, 2.16). There was no association between total testosterone and prevalent fracture. In longitudinal analyses, SHBG (OR: 1.42 per SD increase, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.95) was associated with new or worsening vertebral fracture, but there was no association with total estradiol or total testosterone. In conclusion, higher SHBG (but not testosterone or estradiol) is an independent risk factor for vertebral fractures in older men.

  1. Transport of thyroid hormones via the choroid plexus into the brain: the roles of transthyretin and thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Samantha J; Wijayagunaratne, Roshen C; D'Souza, Damian G; Darras, Veerle M; Van Herck, Stijn L J

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are key players in regulating brain development. Thus, transfer of appropriate quantities of thyroid hormones from the blood into the brain at specific stages of development is critical. The choroid plexus forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In reptiles, birds and mammals, the main protein synthesized and secreted by the choroid plexus is a thyroid hormone distributor protein: transthyretin. This transthyretin is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and moves thyroid hormones from the blood into the cerebrospinal fluid. Maximal transthyretin synthesis in the choroid plexus occurs just prior to the period of rapid brain growth, suggesting that choroid plexus-derived transthyretin moves thyroid hormones from blood into cerebrospinal fluid just prior to when thyroid hormones are required for rapid brain growth. The structure of transthyretin has been highly conserved, implying strong selection pressure and an important function. In mammals, transthyretin binds T4 (precursor form of thyroid hormone) with higher affinity than T3 (active form of thyroid hormone). In all other vertebrates, transthyretin binds T3 with higher affinity than T4. As mammals are the exception, we should not base our thinking about the role of transthyretin in the choroid plexus solely on mammalian data. Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters are involved in moving thyroid hormones into and out of cells and have been identified in many tissues, including the choroid plexus. Thyroid hormones enter the choroid plexus via thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters and leave the choroid plexus to enter the cerebrospinal fluid via either thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters or via choroid plexus-derived transthyretin secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid. The quantitative contribution of each route during development remains to be elucidated. This is part of a review series on ontogeny and phylogeny of brain barrier mechanisms.

  2. Transport of thyroid hormones via the choroid plexus into the brain: the roles of transthyretin and thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Samantha J.; Wijayagunaratne, Roshen C.; D'Souza, Damian G.; Darras, Veerle M.; Van Herck, Stijn L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are key players in regulating brain development. Thus, transfer of appropriate quantities of thyroid hormones from the blood into the brain at specific stages of development is critical. The choroid plexus forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In reptiles, birds and mammals, the main protein synthesized and secreted by the choroid plexus is a thyroid hormone distributor protein: transthyretin. This transthyretin is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and moves thyroid hormones from the blood into the cerebrospinal fluid. Maximal transthyretin synthesis in the choroid plexus occurs just prior to the period of rapid brain growth, suggesting that choroid plexus-derived transthyretin moves thyroid hormones from blood into cerebrospinal fluid just prior to when thyroid hormones are required for rapid brain growth. The structure of transthyretin has been highly conserved, implying strong selection pressure and an important function. In mammals, transthyretin binds T4 (precursor form of thyroid hormone) with higher affinity than T3 (active form of thyroid hormone). In all other vertebrates, transthyretin binds T3 with higher affinity than T4. As mammals are the exception, we should not base our thinking about the role of transthyretin in the choroid plexus solely on mammalian data. Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters are involved in moving thyroid hormones into and out of cells and have been identified in many tissues, including the choroid plexus. Thyroid hormones enter the choroid plexus via thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters and leave the choroid plexus to enter the cerebrospinal fluid via either thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters or via choroid plexus-derived transthyretin secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid. The quantitative contribution of each route during development remains to be elucidated. This is part of a review series on ontogeny and phylogeny of brain barrier mechanisms. PMID:25784853

  3. Hormone balance and abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Zvi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2011-06-01

    Plant hormones play central roles in the ability of plants to adapt to changing environments, by mediating growth, development, nutrient allocation, and source/sink transitions. Although ABA is the most studied stress-responsive hormone, the role of cytokinins, brassinosteroids, and auxins during environmental stress is emerging. Recent evidence indicated that plant hormones are involved in multiple processes. Cross-talk between the different plant hormones results in synergetic or antagonic interactions that play crucial roles in response of plants to abiotic stress. The characterization of the molecular mechanisms regulating hormone synthesis, signaling, and action are facilitating the modification of hormone biosynthetic pathways for the generation of transgenic crop plants with enhanced abiotic stress tolerance.

  4. Pituitary resistance to thyroid hormones: pathophysiology and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoru; Shigematsu, Satoshi; Inaba, Hidefumi; Takei, Masahiro; Takeda, Teiji; Komatsu, Mitsuhisa

    2011-12-01

    Thyroid hormone secretion suppresses the expression of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), both of which are strictly controlled by a negative feedback loop between the hypothalamus-pituitary and thyroid. Pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone (PRTH) is defined as resistance to the action of thyroid hormone that is more severe in the pituitary than at the peripheral tissue level. Although the molecular basis of PRTH is not well understood, the clinical issue mainly involves imbalance between the hypothalamus-pituitary and peripheral thyroid hormone responsivity, which may induce peripheral thyrotoxic phenomena. Here, we review the pathogenesis and molecular aspects of PRTH, present a single case with inappropriate TSH secretion suffering from thyrotoxicosis treated with PTU, and discuss the possible choice of therapeutic options to correct the imbalance of thyroid hormone responsivity in both the hypothalamus-pituitary and peripheral tissues.

  5. Studies on the nature of plasma growth hormone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S.; Grindeland, R. E.; Reilly, T. J.; Yang, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents further evidence for the existence of two discrete forms of growth hormone in human plasma, one which is detectable by both radioimmunoassay and bioassay and is immunoreactive, and the other, termed 'bioactive', which is detected by tibial bioassay but shows little reactivity with currently available antisera to pituitary growth hormone. The same division of immunoactive and bioactive growth hormone occurs in rats, though with less disparity. Tests on rats indicated that the bioactive hormone is preferentially released into jugular vein plasma and that plasma concentrations of the bioactive hormone can be enhanced by insulin administration. The bioactive hormone was detectable by tibial assays in Cohn fractions IV, IV-1, and IV-4, and could be concentrated about 40-fold by fractionation with (NaPO3)6 and (NH4)2SO4.

  6. Inhibitors of sex hormones: development of experimental models.

    PubMed

    Frost, P; Gomez, E C

    1972-01-01

    Inhibitors of sex hormones and the development of experimental models are discussed. Compounds that inhibit the action of androgens and estrogens are defined, and the possible mechanisms of action presented are: 1) inhibition of hormone synthesis; 2) inhibition of uptake of hormone into target tissues; 3) inhibition of the retention of hormone in target tissues; 4) inhibition of the binding of hormone to nonenzyme macromolecules; and 5) inhibition of the metabolism of a hormone to a more active form. Effects of antiandrogen on skin such as hirsutism, sebum production, and acne are briefly covered. Methods of study included inhibition of in vitro metabolism of testosterone by human foreskin and the use of the hamster flank organ for the bioassay of antiandrogens.

  7. Degradation of veterinary antibiotics and hormone during broiler manure composting.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2013-03-01

    The fate of nine veterinary antibiotics and one hormone in broiler manure during 40 days of composting was investigated. Results showed that composting can significantly reduce the concentration of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in broiler manure, making application of the post-compost manure safer for soil application. More than 99% of the nine antibiotics and one hormone involved in this study were removed from the manure during 40 days of composting. The target antibiotics and hormone showed short half-life in broiler manure composting, ranging from 1.3 to 3.8 days. The relationship between the physico-chemical properties of soil, manure and manure compost and its veterinary antibiotic and hormone concentration was statistically evaluated by Pearson correlation matrix. The concentration of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in manure compost was suggested to be affected by physico-chemical properties such as pH, temperature, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and metal contents.

  8. Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy and Risk of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Carcaillon, Laure; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; Oger, Emmanuel; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Elbaz, Alexis; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— The benefit/risk analysis of hormone therapy in postmenopausal women is not straightforward and depends on cardiovascular disease. Evidence supports the safety of transdermal estrogens and the importance of progestogens for thrombotic risk. However, the differential association of oral and transdermal estrogens with stroke remains poorly investigated. Furthermore, there are no data regarding the impact of progestogens. Methods— We set up a nested case–control study of ischemic stroke (IS) within all French women aged 51 to 62 years between 2009 and 2011 without personal history of cardiovascular disease or contraindication to hormone therapy. Participants were identified using the French National Health Insurance database, which includes complete drug claims for the past 3 years and French National hospital data. We identified 3144 hospitalized IS cases who were matched for age and zip code to 12 158 controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results— Compared with nonusers, the adjusted ORs of IS were1.58 (95% CI, 1.01–2.49) in oral estrogen users and 0.83 (0.56–1.24) in transdermal estrogens users (P<0.01). There was no association of IS with use of progesterone (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.49–1.26), pregnanes (OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.60–1.67), and nortestosterones (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.62–2.58), whereas norpregnanes increased IS risk (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.05–4.81). Conclusions— Both route of estrogen administration and progestogens were important determinants of IS. Our findings suggest that transdermal estrogens might be the safest option for short-term hormone therapy use. PMID:27256671

  9. Molecular biology of the peptide hormone families.

    PubMed

    Pearson, R K; Anderson, B; Dixon, J E

    1993-12-01

    The application of recombinant molecular biology has lead to remarkable advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of cell function in general and of the polarized GI endocrine cell in particular. This article focuses on some of the advances made towards determining the contribution of peptide hormone gene regulation to the regulation of physiological events in the GI tract. Application of these techniques to other subcellular processes involved in peptide hormone physiology such as subcellular trafficing in the regulated secretory pathway and post-translational processing have been equally impressive. For example, many of the key enzymes in the peptide hormone processing cascade have been cloned and are being studied at a molecular level. We have focused this article on the SS and gastrin peptides because of their known physiologic importance and interactions, and the depth of analysis accomplished to date. Studies using SS and gastrin as models have established principals that cover the spectrum of luminal regulation of gene activity to the identification of a single amino acid residue responsible for cAMP induction of SS gene expression. Many genes in the GI endocrine system have been cloned and the article by Dr. Habener (elsewhere in this issue) discusses progress made in understanding the complex regulation of the glucagon gene. We anticipate similar advances in studies of cholecystokinin, secretin, motilin, VIP, pancreatic polypeptide, and neuropeptide Y, whose genes have been cloned and initially characterized. Finally, as outlined in this article, the mechanisms of regulation of a specific gene often differ between sites of expression, even within the GI tract. Direct studies of the subcellular mechanisms regulating gene expression and other processes in GI endocrine cells await novel methods to maintain and propagate these cells. These studies will almost certainly involve new and creative uses of recombinant molecular biology.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls as hormonally active structural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, J.D. ); Waller, C.L. )

    1994-03-01

    Among the environmental chemicals that may be able to disrupt the endocrine systems of animals and humans, the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a chemical class of considerable concern. One possible mechanism by which PCBs may interfere with endocrine function is their ability to mimic natural hormones. These actions reflect a close relationship between the physicochemical properties encoded in the PCB molecular structure and the responses they evoke in biological systems. These physiocochemical properties determine the molecular reactivities of PCBs and are responsible for their recognition as biological acceptors and receptors, as well as for triggering molecular mechanisms that lead to tissue response. [open quotes]Coplanarity[close quotes] of PCB phenyl rings and [open quotes]laterality[close quotes] of chlorine atoms are important structural features determining specific binding behavior with proteins and certain toxic responses in biological systems. We compare qualitative structure-activity relationships for PCBs with the limited information on the related non-coplanar chlorinated diphenyl ethers, providing further insights into the nature of the molecular recognition processes and support for the structural relationship of PCBs to thyroid hormones. Steriodlike activity requires conformational restriction and possibility hydroxylation. We offer some simple molecular recognition models to account for the importance of these different structural features in the structure-activity relationships that permit one to express PCB reactivities in terms of dioxin, thyroxine, and estradiol equivalents. The available data support the involvement of PCBs as mimics of thyroid and other steroidal hormones. The potential for reproductive and developmental toxicity associated with human exposure to PCBs is of particular concern. 53 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Hormone supply of the organism in prolonged emotional stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amiragova, M. G.; Stulnikov, B. V.; Svirskaya, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of prolonged emotional stress of varying genesis on the hormonal function of the pancreas, thyroid gland, and adrenal cortex was studied. The amount of the hormonal secretion was found to depend on the type of adaptation activity and its duration. High secretion of the hormones observed outside the adaptation activity was examined as an index of the phase transition of defense reactions to the phase of overstress.

  12. Male hormonal contraception: looking back and moving forward.

    PubMed

    Roth, M Y; Page, S T; Bremner, W J

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous contraceptive options available to women, approximately half of all pregnancies in the United States and worldwide are unplanned. Women and men support the development of reversible male contraception strategies, but none have been brought to market. Herein we review the physiologic basis for male hormonal contraception, the history of male hormonal contraception development, currents agents in development as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contraception for men.

  13. Can Reproductive Hormones Modulate Host Immunity to Breast Cancer Antigens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    AD Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0668 TITLE: Can Reproductive Hormones Modulate Host Immunity to Breast Cancer Antigens PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Richard T...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Can Reproductive Hormones Modulate Host Immunity to Breast Cancer Antigens 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-!1-0668 5c...neu-N mice can be readily applied to clinical trial development. The goal of the present work is to test the hypothesis that reproductive hormones can

  14. Male Hormonal Contraception: Looking Back and Moving Forward

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Mara Y.; Page, Stephanie T.; Bremner, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous contraceptive options available to women, approximately half of all pregnancies in the United States and worldwide are unplanned. Women and men support the development of reversible male contraception strategies, but none have been brought to market. Herein we review the physiologic basis for male hormonal contraception, the history of male hormonal contraception development, currents agents in development, as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contraception for men. PMID:26453296

  15. Steroid plant hormones: effects outside plant kingdom.

    PubMed

    Zhabinskii, Vladimir N; Khripach, Natalia B; Khripach, Vladimir A

    2015-05-01

    Brassinosteroids (BS) are the first group of steroid-hormonal compounds isolated from and acting in plants. Among numerous physiological effects of BS growth stimulation and adaptogenic activities are especially remarkable. In this review, we provide evidence that BS possess similar types of activity also beyond plant kingdom at concentrations comparable with those for plants. This finding allows looking at steroids from a new point of view: how common are the mechanisms of steroid bioregulation in different types of organisms from protozoa to higher animals.

  16. [How to stop hormone replacement therapy?].

    PubMed

    Polo, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy is indicated for the treatment of menopausal and urogenital symptoms. The therapy is recommended to be started at the lowest effective dose for a minimum period of time. Discontinuation of the therapy or at least reduction of the dose should be considered yearly. The treatment can be stopped immediately or gradually. The risk of recurrence of menopausal symptoms is equal for both techniques of cessation. Furthermore, the number of those having restarted the therapy does not differ between cessation techniques. A woman is thus able to choose her own cessation technique. Immediate cessation is often successful, whereby complicated instructions for drug reduction are avoided.

  17. Azoospermia: clinical, hormonal, and biochemical investigation.

    PubMed

    Papadimas, J; Papadopoulou, F; Ioannidis, S; Spanos, E; Tarlatzis, B; Bontis, J; Mantalenakis, S

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, hormonal and biochemical characteristics of infertile men with azoospermia. A total of 187 azoospermic out of 2610 infertile men (7.2%) were studied. Mean testicular volume and basal plasma levels of FSH were the most useful parameters concerning the evaluation of azoospermia. Basal plasma levels of LH and T were useful only in azoospermic men with hypogonadism, whereas plasma PRL levels, semen volume, and seminal plasma fructose levels were not found to be of common use except in selected cases.

  18. Hormone purification by isoelectric focusing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of a ground-prototype of an apparatus for recycling isoelectric focusing was evaluated in an effort to provide technology for large scale purification of peptide hormones, proteins, and other biologicals. Special emphasis was given to the effects of gravity on the function of the apparatus and to the determination of potential advantages deriveable from its use in a microgravity environment. A theoretical model of isoelectric focusing sing chemically defined buffer systems for the establishment of the pH gradients was developed. The model was transformed to a form suitable for computer simulations and was used extensively for the design of experimental buffers.

  19. Hormonal contraceptives and travel to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Linda E

    2015-03-01

    Women frequently ask about the safety and efficacy of using hormonal contraception (HC), either oral contraceptive pills (OC) or other forms, when traveling to high altitude locales. What are the risks and benefits of using HC at high altitude? Does HC affect acclimatization, exercise performance, or occurrence of acute mountain sickness? This article reviews current data regarding the risks and benefits of HC at high altitude, both demonstrated and theoretical, with the aim of helping health care providers to advise women traveling above 2500 meters. Most healthy women can safely use HC when traveling to high altitude, but should be aware of the potential risks and inconveniences.

  20. Random Secretion of Growth Hormone in Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prank, Klaus; Kloppstech, Mirko; Nowlan, Steven J.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Brabant, Georg

    1996-08-01

    In normal humans, growth hormone (GH) is secreted from a gland located adjacent to the brain (pituitary) into the blood in distinct pulses, but in patients bearing a tumor within the pituitary (acromegaly) GH is excessively secreted in an irregular manner. It has been hypothesized that GH secretion in the diseased state becomes random. This hypothesis is supported by demonstrating that GH secretion in patients with acromegaly cannot be distinguished from a variety of linear stochastic processes based on the predictability of the fluctuations of GH concentration in the bloodstream.

  1. Both ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone are necessary for hormonal mammary carcinogenesis in ovariectomized ACI rats.

    PubMed

    Blank, Edward W; Wong, Po-Yin; Lakshmanaswamy, Rajkumar; Guzman, Raphael; Nandi, Satyabrata

    2008-03-04

    August-Copenhagen-Irish (ACI) rats are unique in that the ovary-intact females develop high incidence of mammary cancers induced solely by hormones upon prolonged exposure to high levels of estrogen alone. Studies have also shown that such prolonged exposure to high-dose estrogen results in human-like aneuploid mammary cancers in ovary-intact ACI rats. To determine the role of progesterone in mammary carcinogenesis, six-week-old intact and ovariectomized ACI rats were continuously exposed to low- and high-dose estrogen alone, progesterone alone, low-dose estrogen plus progesterone, and ovariectomized ACI rats with high-dose estrogen plus progesterone. Also, ovariectomized ACI rats were treated with high-dose estrogen plus progesterone plus testosterone to determine the role of the androgen, testosterone, if any, in hormonal mammary carcinogenesis. The results indicate that continuous exposure to high, but not low, concentrations of estrogen alone can induce mammary carcinogenesis in intact but not in ovariectomized rats. Mammary carcinogenesis in ovariectomized ACI rats requires continuous exposure to high concentrations of estrogen and progesterone. The addition of testosterone propionate does not affect tumor incidence in such rats. These results suggest that both ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone are necessary for mammary carcinogenesis induced solely by hormones in ovariectomized ACI rats. Our results are in agreement with the Women's Health Initiative studies, where treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen (ERT) alone did not increase the risk of breast cancer, but estrogen and progesterone (HRT) did.

  2. THYROID HORMONE INSUFFICIENCY AND BRAIN DEVELOPMENT -- DETERMINATION OF NEUROTOXICITY AT LOW LEVELS OF HORMONE DISRUPTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormone (TH) deficiencies during development produce deleterious effects on brain structure and function. The degree to which TH must be perturbed to induce neurotoxicity remains unclear. The present study was conducted as part of a Cooperative Agreement between US EPA, U...

  3. Central administration of chicken growth hormone-releasing hormone decreases food intake in chicks.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Tetsuya; Sugimoto, Ikue; Ogino, Madoka; Khan, Md Sakirul Islam; Masuda, Keiko; Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Wang, Yajun

    2015-02-01

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is well known as a stimulator of growth hormone (GH) secretion. GHRH not only stimulates GH release but also modifies feeding behavior and energy homeostasis in rodents. In chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), on the other hand, two types of GHRH, namely, chicken GHRH (cGHRH) and cGHRH-like peptide (cGHRH-LP), have been identified. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of central injection of cGHRH and cGHRH-LP on feeding behavior in chicks. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of both cGHRH and cGHRH-LP (0.04 to 1 nmol) significantly decreased food intake without any abnormal behavior in chicks. Furthermore, the feeding-inhibitory effect was not abolished by co-injection of the antagonist for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) or corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors, suggesting that the anorexigenic effect of cGHRH and cGHRH-LP might not be related to the PACAP and CRH systems in the brain of chicks. Finally, 24-h food deprivation increased mRNA expression of cGHRH but not cGHRH-LP in the diencephalon. These results suggest that central cGHRH is related to inhibiting feeding behavior and energy homeostasis in chicks.

  4. Enzyme action in the regulation of plant hormone responses.

    PubMed

    Westfall, Corey S; Muehler, Ashley M; Jez, Joseph M

    2013-07-05

    Plants synthesize a chemically diverse range of hormones that regulate growth, development, and responses to environmental stresses. The major classes of plant hormones are specialized metabolites with exquisitely tailored perception and signaling systems, but equally important are the enzymes that control the dose and exposure to the bioactive forms of these molecules. Here, we review new insights into the role of enzyme families, including the SABATH methyltransferases, the methylesterases, the GH3 acyl acid-amido synthetases, and the hormone peptidyl hydrolases, in controlling the biosynthesis and modifications of plant hormones and how these enzymes contribute to the network of chemical signals responsible for plant growth, development, and environmental adaptation.

  5. The effects of hormonal contraceptives on glycemic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, Manuel E.; Alfaro, Andrea A.

    2014-01-01

    A number of side effects have been linked to the use of hormonal contraceptives, among others, alterations in glucose levels. Hence, the objective of this mini-review is to show the main effects of hormonal contraceptive intake on glycemic regulation. First, the most relevant studies on this topic are described, then the mechanisms that might be accountable for this glycemic regulation impairment as exerted by hormonal contraceptives are discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss the ethical responsibility of health professionals to inform about the potential risks on glycemic homeostasis regarding hormonal contraceptive intake. PMID:25249703

  6. Clinical implications of thyroid hormones effects on nervous system development.

    PubMed

    Carreón-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Pérez-Martínez, Leonor

    2012-03-01

    Thyroid hormones have an important role throughout prenatal and postnatal nervous system development. They are involved in several processes such as neurogenesis, gliogenesis, myelination, synaptogenesis, etc., as shown in many cases of deficiency like congenital hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia. Those pathologies if untreated could lead to severe damages in cognitive, motor, neudoendocrine functions among other effects. Some could be reversed after adequate supplementation of thyroid hormones at birth, however there are other cellular processes highly sensitive to low levels of thyroid hormones and lasting a limited period of time during which if thyroid hormone action is lacking or deficient, the functional and structural damages would produce permanent defects.

  7. ON THE EFFECT OF NEUROHYPOPHYSIAL HORMONE ON THYROID ACTIVITY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    THYROID GLAND, BIOCHEMISTRY, HORMONES , INJECTION, DRUGS, CARDIOVASCULAR AGENTS, SECRETION, THYROXINE, EXPOSURE(PHYSIOLOGY), THYROTROPIN, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), TEMPERATURE, BODY WEIGHT, PATHOLOGY, HISTOLOGY.

  8. Biomathematical Modeling of Pulsatile Hormone Secretion: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Evans, William S.; Farhy, Leon S.; Johnson, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Shortly after the recognition of the profound physiological significance of the pulsatile nature of hormone secretion, computer-based modeling techniques were introduced for the identification and characterization of such pulses. Whereas these earlier approaches defined perturbations in hormone concentration-time series, deconvolution procedures were subsequently employed to separate such pulses into their secretion event and clearance components. Stochastic differential equation modeling was also used to define basal and pulsatile hormone secretion. To assess the regulation of individual components within a hormone network, a method that quantitated approximate entropy within hormone concentration-times series was described. To define relationships within coupled hormone systems, methods including cross-correlation and cross-approximate entropy were utilized. To address some of the inherent limitations of these methods, modeling techniques with which to appraise the strength of feedback signaling between and among hormone-secreting components of a network have been developed. Techniques such as dynamic modeling have been utilized to reconstruct dose–response interactions between hormones within coupled systems. A logical extension of these advances will require the development of mathematical methods with which to approximate endocrine networks exhibiting multiple feedback interactions and subsequently reconstruct their parameters based on experimental data for the purpose of testing regulatory hypotheses and estimating alterations in hormone release control mechanisms. PMID:19216934

  9. Psychomotor retardation in a girl with complete growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Dayal, Devi; Malhi, Prabhjot; Kumar Bhalla, Anil; Sachdeva, Naresh; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Infants with complete growth hormone deficiency may suffer from psychomotor retardation in addition to severe growth failure. Without replacement therapy, they may have a compromised intellectual potential manifesting as learning disabilities and attention-deficit disorders in later life. In this communication, we discuss an infant who showed improvement in physical growth after growth hormone therapy but her psychomotor skills did not improve probably due to late start of treatment. There is a need to start growth hormone therapy as early as possible in infants with complete growth hormone deficiency to avoid adverse effects on psychomotor and brain development.

  10. Hormonal alterations in PCOS and its influence on bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Abhaya; Muthusami, Sridhar

    2017-02-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in 4-8% of women worldwide. The prevalence of PCOS in Indian adolescents is 12.2% according to the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). The National Institute of Health has documented that it affects approximately 5 million women of reproductive age in the United States. Hormonal imbalance is the characteristic of many women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The influence of various endocrine changes in PCOS women and their relevance to bone remains to be documented. Hormones, which include gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), insulin, the leutinizing/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) ratio, androgens, estrogens, growth hormones (GH), cortisol, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin are disturbed in PCOS women. These hormones influence bone metabolism in human subjects directly as well as indirectly. The imbalance in these hormones results in increased prevalence of osteoporosis in PCOS women. Limited evidence suggests that the drugs taken during the treatment of PCOS increase the risk of bone fracture in PCOS patients through endocrine disruption. This review is aimed at the identification of the relationship between bone mineral density and hormonal changes in PCOS subjects and identifies potential areas to study bone-related disorders in PCOS women.

  11. Socially selected ornaments influence hormone titers of signalers and receivers

    PubMed Central

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A.; Crocker, Katherine; Huang, Zachary Y.

    2016-01-01

    Decades of behavioral endocrinology research have shown that hormones and behavior have a bidirectional relationship; hormones both influence and respond to social behavior. In contrast, hormones are often thought to have a unidirectional relationship with ornaments. Hormones influence ornament development, but little empirical work has tested how ornaments influence hormones throughout life. Here, we experimentally alter a visual signal of fighting ability in Polistes dominulus paper wasps and measure the behavioral and hormonal consequences of signal alteration in signalers and receivers. We find wasps that signal inaccurately high fighting ability receive more aggression than controls and receiving aggression reduces juvenile hormone (JH) titers. As a result, immediately after contests, inaccurate signalers have lower JH titers than controls. Ornaments also directly influence rival JH titers. Three hours after contests, wasps who interacted with rivals signaling high fighting ability have higher JH titers than wasps who interacted with rivals signaling low fighting ability. Therefore, ornaments influence hormone titers of both signalers and receivers. We demonstrate that relationships between hormones and ornaments are flexible and bidirectional rather than static and unidirectional. Dynamic relationships among ornaments, behavior, and physiology may be an important, but overlooked factor in the evolution of honest communication. PMID:27402762

  12. Animal models to study thyroid hormone action in cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2009-06-01

    Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the development and functional maintenance of the central nervous system including the cerebellum. To study the molecular mechanisms of thyroid hormone action, various animal models have been used. These are classified: (1) congenital hypothyroid animals due to thyroid gland dysgenesis or thyroid dyshormonogenesis, (2) thyroid hormone receptor (TR) gene-mutated animals, and (3) thyroid hormone transport or metabolism-modified animals. TR is a ligand-activated transcription factor. In the presence of ligand, it activates transcription of target gene, whereas it represses the transcription without ligand. Thus, phenotype of TR-knockout mouse is different from that of hypothyroid animal (low thyroid hormone level), in which unliganded TR actively represses the transcription. On the other hand, human patient harboring mutant TR expresses different phenotypes depending on the function of mutated TR. To mimic this phenotype, other animal models are generated. In addition, recent human studies have shown that thyroid hormone transporters such as monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 8 may play an important role in thyroid hormone-mediated brain development. However, MCT8 knockout mouse show different phenotypes from a human patient. This article introduces representative animal models currently used to study various aspects of thyroid hormone, particularly to study the involvement of the thyroid hormone system on the development and functional maintenance of the cerebellum.

  13. Evolutionary Endocrinology of Hormonal Rhythms: Juvenile Hormone Titer Circadian Polymorphism in Gryllus firmus.

    PubMed

    Zera, Anthony J

    2016-08-01

    Daily rhythms for hormonal traits are likely widespread and important aspects of organismal (e.g., life history) adaptation. Yet they remain substantially understudied, especially with respect to variable rhythms within species. The cricket, Gryllus firmus, exhibits a genetically polymorphic circadian rhythm for the blood titer of the key hormone, juvenile hormone (JH). Gryllus firmus is also wing-polymorphic, consisting of a dispersing morph that delays reproduction and a flightless morph with substantially enhanced egg production. JH circadian phenotype strongly covaries with morph type: The blood JH titer is strongly rhythmic in multiple populations artificially-selected for the dispersing morph (LW(f) = long wings with functional flight muscles) and is essentially arrhythmic in populations selected for the SW (short-winged) morph. Association between JH titer cycle and LW(f) morph is also found in natural populations of G. firmus and in several related species in the field. This is one of the very few studies of endocrine titer variation in natural populations of an insect. The morph-specific cycle is underlain by a circadian rhythm in hormone biosynthesis, which in turn is underlain by a rhythm in a brain neuropeptide regulator of JH biosynthesis. The morph-specific JH titer circadian cycle is also strongly correlated with a morph-specific daily rhythm in global gene expression. This is currently the only example of a genetically-variable hormone circadian rhythm in both the laboratory and field that is strongly associated with an ecologically important polymorphism. The extensive information on the underlying causes of the morph-specific JH titer rhythm, coupled with the strong association between the JH circadian rhythm and wing polymorphism makes this system in G. firmus an exceptional experimental model to investigate the mechanisms underlying circadian hormonal adaptations. Genetic polymorphism for the JH titer circadian rhythm in G. firmus is discussed

  14. Comparison of the effect of hormones on the hormone synthesis of Tetrahymena in medium or salt solution.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Lajkó, Eszter; Pállinger, Eva

    2010-11-01

    Tetrahymena pyriformis was maintained in TYM (tryptone-yeast medium) as well as in Losina salt solution. One hour treatment of 10⁻¹⁵ M histamine, serotonin or insulin was given before the histamine, serotonin, triiodothyronine and adrenocorticotropin contents of the cells were measured by flow cytometry after immunocytochemical staining. Maintenance in salt solution increased the hormone level in the cells, and use of the treatment hormone treatments further increased the endogenous hormone content relative to that in medium. The cells in salt mimic better the natural conditions, which means that the effects of hormones under more natural conditions are expressed to a greater extent than the exogenously given hormones in TYM typically used under laboratory conditions. Intercellular hormonal communication between the cells of a Tetrahymena population might assist in the survival of the individual cells.

  15. Gonadotropin hormone releasing hormone agonists alter prefrontal function during verbal encoding in young women.

    PubMed

    Craig, Michael C; Fletcher, Paul C; Daly, Eileen M; Rymer, Janice; Cutter, William J; Brammer, Mick; Giampietro, Vincent; Wickham, Harvey; Maki, Pauline M; Murphy, Declan G M

    2007-01-01

    Gonadotropin hormone releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) are commonly used in clinical practice to suppress gonadal hormone production in the management of various gynaecological conditions and as a treatment for advanced breast and prostate cancer. Animal and human behavioural studies suggest that GnRHa may also have significant effects on memory. However, despite the widespread use of GnRHa, the underlying brain networks and/or stages of memory processing that might be modulated by GnRHa remain poorly understood. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the effect of GnRHa on verbal encoding and retrieval. Neuroimaging outcomes from 15 premenopausal healthy women were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks after Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment. Fifteen matched wait-listed volunteers served as the control group and were assessed at similar intervals during the late follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. GnRHa was associated with changes in brain response during memory encoding but not retrieval. Specifically, GnRHa administration led to a change in the typical pattern of prefrontal activation during successful encoding, with decreased activation in left prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and medial frontal gyrus. Our study suggests that the memory difficulties reported by some women following GnRHa, and possibly at other times of acute ovarian hormone withdrawal (e.g. following surgical menopause and postpartum), may have a clear neurobiological basis; one that manifest during encoding of words and that is evident in decreased activation in prefrontal regions known to sub-serve deep processing of to-be-learned words.

  16. Chronic exposure to pentachlorophenol alters thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone pathway mRNAs in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li-Qin; Zhao, Gao-Feng; Feng, Min; Wen, Wu; Li, Kun; Zhang, Pan-Wei; Peng, Xi; Huo, Wei-Jie; Zhou, Huai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is frequently detected in the aquatic environment and has been implicated as an endocrine disruptor in fish. In the present study, 4-month-old zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 1 of 4 concentrations of PCP (0.1, 1, 9, and 27 µg/L) for 70 d. The effects of PCP exposure on plasma thyroid hormone levels, and the expression levels of selected genes, were measured in the brain and liver. The PCP exposure at 27 µg/L resulted in elevated plasma thyroxine concentrations in male and female zebrafish and depressed 3, 5, 3'-triiodothyronine concentrations in males only. In both sexes, PCP exposure resulted in decreased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone β-subunit (tshβ) and thyroid hormone receptor β (trβ) in the brain, as well as increased liver levels of uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (ugt1ab) and decreased deiodinase 1 (dio1). The authors also identified several sex-specific effects of PCP exposure, including changes in mRNA levels for deiodinase 2 (dio2), cytosolic sulfotransferase (sult1 st5), and transthyretin (ttr) genes in the liver. Environmental PCP exposure also caused an increased malformation rate in offspring that received maternal exposure to PCP. The present study demonstrates that chronic exposure to environmental levels of PCP alters plasma thyroid hormone levels, as well as the expression of genes associated with thyroid hormone signaling and metabolism in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and liver, resulting in abnormal zebrafish development.

  17. Concentrations of triiodothyronine, growth hormone, and luteinizing hormone in the plasma of thyroidectomised fowl (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Harvey, S; Sterling, R J; Klandorf, H

    1983-05-01

    Surgical thyroidectomy increased (P less than 0.05) the basal concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the plasma of 10- to 12-week-old domestic fowl. The administration of thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) (100 micrograms, sc) increased (P less than 0.01) the GH concentration in both intact and thyroidectomised birds. The magnitude of the TRH-induced increase in GH level was greater (P less than 0.01) in thyroidectomised birds than in intact controls. Although TRH had no effect on LH secretion in the controls, it induced a small (P less than 0.05) rise in the plasma LH level in thyroidectomised birds. In both the intact and thyroidectomised birds the LH concentration was enhanced (P less than 0.05) following the administration of LH-releasing hormone (LH-RH) (20 micrograms, sc). The increase in the LH level by LH-RH in the thyroidectomised birds was greater (P less than 0.001) than that in the intact controls. Plasma GH concentrations were unaffected by LH-RH treatment. These results suggest that thyroid hormones inhibit the secretion of LH and GH in birds. In thyroidectomised birds low levels of immunoreactive triiodothyronine (T3)-like material were measurable in the circulation, despite the absence of regenerated thyroid tissue. The administration of TRH (100 micrograms, sc) did not enhance the plasma level of this material in thyroidectomised birds, whereas plasma T3 concentrations were enhanced in intact birds following TRH treatment. These results suggest that the T3 immunoreactive substance in thyroidectomised birds is extrathyroidal in origin.

  18. Experiment K-7-22: Growth Hormone Regulation Synthesis and Secretion in Microgravity. Part 3; Plasma Analysis Hormone Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Popova, I. A.; Grossman, E.; Rudolph, I.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma from space flight and tail suspended rats was analyzed for a number of constituents in order to evaluate their metabolic status and endocrine function. The data presented here cover plasma hormone measurements. Corticosterone, thyroxine, and testosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Prolactin and growth hormone were measured by double antibody immunoassays using hormones and antisera prepared in house. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance.

  19. MULTIPLE STABLE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS IN A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The pituitary hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and inhibin (Ih), are five hormones important for the regulation and maintenance of the human menstrual cycle. The...

  20. Effect of Growth Hormone Deficiency on Brain Structure, Motor Function and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Emma A.; O'Reilly, Michelle A.; Clayden, Jonathan D.; Seunarine, Kiran K.; Chong, Wui K.; Dale, Naomi; Salt, Alison; Clark, Chris A.; Dattani, Mehul T.

    2012-01-01

    The growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis plays a role in normal brain growth but little is known of the effect of growth hormone deficiency on brain structure. Children with isolated growth hormone deficiency (peak growth hormone less than 6.7 [micro]g/l) and idiopathic short stature (peak growth hormone greater than 10 [micro]g/l)…

  1. Temporomandibular disorders and hormones in women.

    PubMed

    Warren, M P; Fried, J L

    2001-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are loosely defined as an assorted set of clinical conditions, characterized by pain and dysfunction of the masticatory system. Pain in the masticatory muscles, in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and in associated hard and soft tissues, limitation in jaw function, and sounds in the TMJ are common symptoms. That women make up the majority of patients treated for TMD is extensively hypothesized and documented in numerous epidemiological studies. Certain contradictory studies exist which propose that there are no statistically significant gender differences in the actual incidence of changes in joint morphology. Nonetheless, extensive literature suggests the disorder is 1.5-2 times more prevalent in women than in men, and that 80% of patients treated for TMD are women. The severity of symptoms is also related to the age of the patients. Pain onset tends to occur after puberty, and peaks in the reproductive years, with the highest prevalence occurring in women aged 20-40, and the lowest among children, adolescents, and the elderly. The gender and age distribution of TMD suggests a possible link between its pathogenesis and the female hormonal axis. In this review, we will use the hypothesis that the overwhelming majority of patients treated for temporomandibular disorders are women and use the available literature to examine the role of hormones in TMD.

  2. Nuclear hormone receptors put immunity on sterols

    PubMed Central

    Santori, Fabio R.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) are transcription factors regulated by small molecules. The functions of NHRs range from development of primary and secondary lymphoid organs, to regulation of differentiation and function of DCs, macrophages and T cells. The human genome has 48 classic (hormone and vitamin receptors) and non-classic (all others) NHRs; 17 non-classic receptors are orphans, meaning that the endogenous ligand is unknown. Understanding the function of orphan NHRs requires the identification of their natural ligands. The mevalonate pathway, including its sterol and non-sterol intermediates and derivatives, is a source of ligands for many classic and non-classic NHRs. For example, cholesterol biosynthetic intermediates (CBIs) are natural ligands for RORγ/γt. CBIs are universal endogenous metabolites in mammalian cells, and to study NHRs that bind CBIs requires ligand-free reporters system in sterol auxotroph cells. Furthermore, RORγ/γt shows broad specificity to sterol lipids, suggesting that RORγ/γt is either a general sterol sensor or specificity is defined by an abundant endogenous ligand. Unlike other NHRs, which regulate specific metabolic pathways, there is no connection between the genetic programs induced by RORγ/γt and ligand biosynthesis. In this review we summarize the roles of non-classic NHRs and their potential ligands in the immune system. PMID:26222181

  3. ``Sex Hormones'' in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-11-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term “sex hormone” is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called “sex hormones” are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found that: (1) all the texts employed the term “sex hormone”; (2) in all texts estrogen is characterized as restricted to females and testosterone is characterized as restricted to males; and (3) in all texts testosterone and estrogen are discussed as exclusively involved in sex-related physiological roles. We conclude that (1) contemporary science textbooks preserve sex-dualistic models of steroid hormones (one sex, one “sex hormone”) that were rejected by medical science in the early 20th century and (2) use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with misconceptions regarding the presence and functions of steroid hormones in male and female bodies.

  4. [Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2014-01-01

    Hyponatremia is a commonly encountered electrolyte abnormality in clinical practice and in some groups of patients is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although the pathophysiology of this disturbance is complex, its understanding is vital to the disorder's evaluation and treatment. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the commonest form of euvolemic hyponatremia and is the clinical and biochemical manifestation of a wide range of disease processes, mostly associated with malignancy, pulmonary, or neurologic disorders, and of pharmacotherapy. Symptoms vary depending on the severity of hyponatremia and, if occur, can range from weakness, mild headache, muscle cramps, nausea, and vomiting to convulsions, coma, and death. Identifying the underlying disorder remains an integral part of the diagnostic evaluation of patients. The most frequently used treatment options include water restriction, oral intake of salt, hypertonic saline and vaptans, being nonpeptide vasopressin antagonists interfering with the antidiuretic effect of the hormone. The aim of our paper is to present a practical diagnostic approach and management of SIADH, with a particular emphasis on the results of recent studies.

  5. Hyperplasia in glands with hormone excess.

    PubMed

    Marx, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Five syndromes share predominantly hyperplastic glands with a primary excess of hormones: neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism, from homozygous mutated CASR, begins severely in utero; congenital non-autoimmune thyrotoxicosis, from mutated TSHR, varies from severe with fetal onset to mild with adult onset; familial male-limited precocious puberty, from mutated LHR, expresses testosterone oversecretion in young boys; hereditary ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, from mutated FSHR, expresses symptomatic systemic vascular permeabilities during pregnancy; and familial hyperaldosteronism type IIIA, from mutated KCNJ5, presents in young children with hypertension and hypokalemia. The grouping of these five syndromes highlights predominant hyperplasia as a stable tissue endpoint and as their tissue stage for all of the hormone excess. Comparisons were made among this and two other groups of syndromes, forming a continuum of gland staging: predominant oversecretions express little or no hyperplasia; predominant hyperplasias express little or no neoplasia; and predominant neoplasias express nodules, adenomas, or cancers. Hyperplasias may progress (5 of 5) to neoplastic stages while predominant oversecretions rarely do (1 of 6; frequencies differ P<0.02). Hyperplasias do not show tumor multiplicity (0 of 5) unlike neoplasias that do (13 of 19; P<0.02). Hyperplasias express mutation of a plasma membrane-bound sensor (5 of 5), while neoplasias rarely do (3 of 14; P<0.002). In conclusion, the multiple distinguishing themes within the hyperplasias establish a robust pathophysiology. It has the shared and novel feature of mutant sensors in the plasma membrane, suggesting that these are major contributors to hyperplasia.

  6. Reproductive hormones and blood pressure during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kristiansson, P; Wang, J X

    2001-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in cardiovasular changes during human pregnancy and the complicated aetiology of gestational hypertension are unclear. Reproductive hormones have known effects on the cardiovascular system in the non-pregnant state and in animal systems, but their effects in human pregnancy are uncertain. In this study of pregnant women, the effects of serum concentrations of relaxin, progesterone and oestradiol on arterial blood pressure were studied. Higher serum concentrations of progesterone and relaxin, but not oestradiol, in early pregnancy were related to lower mean systolic blood pressures in the second and third trimesters. No relationship was found between hormonal concentrations and diastolic blood pressures. However, women with a diastolic blood pressure of >90 mmHg in late pregnancy showed statistically significant lower relaxin concentrations in early pregnancy in comparison with women whose diastolic blood pressure was

  7. Transport of thyroid hormone in brain.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Eva K; Schweizer, Ulrich; Köhrle, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) transport into the brain is not only pivotal for development and differentiation, but also for maintenance and regulation of adult central nervous system (CNS) function. In this review, we highlight some key factors and structures regulating TH uptake and distribution. Serum TH binding proteins play a major role for the availability of TH since only free hormone concentrations may dictate cellular uptake. One of these proteins, transthyretin is also present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after being secreted by the choroid plexus. Entry routes into the brain like the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and the blood-CSF-barrier will be explicated regarding fetal and adult status. Recently identified TH transmembrane transporters (THTT) like monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8) play a major role in uptake of TH across the BBB but as well in transport between cells like astrocytes and neurons within the brain. Species differences in transporter expression will be presented and interference of TH transport by endogenous and exogenous compounds including endocrine disruptors and drugs will be discussed.

  8. Transport of Thyroid Hormone in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Eva K.; Schweizer, Ulrich; Köhrle, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) transport into the brain is not only pivotal for development and differentiation, but also for maintenance and regulation of adult central nervous system (CNS) function. In this review, we highlight some key factors and structures regulating TH uptake and distribution. Serum TH binding proteins play a major role for the availability of TH since only free hormone concentrations may dictate cellular uptake. One of these proteins, transthyretin is also present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after being secreted by the choroid plexus. Entry routes into the brain like the blood–brain-barrier (BBB) and the blood–CSF-barrier will be explicated regarding fetal and adult status. Recently identified TH transmembrane transporters (THTT) like monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8) play a major role in uptake of TH across the BBB but as well in transport between cells like astrocytes and neurons within the brain. Species differences in transporter expression will be presented and interference of TH transport by endogenous and exogenous compounds including endocrine disruptors and drugs will be discussed. PMID:25009532

  9. Phytoestrogens: hormonal action and brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lephart, Edwin D; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Lund, Trent D

    2005-04-15

    Because of their protective effects in age-related diseases and hormone-dependent cancers, the use of phytoestrogens (isoflavones) as 'natural' remedies has gained prominence. Isoflavones are estrogen mimics that bind estrogen receptors and act like natural selective estrogen receptors modulators. However, limited data exists regarding the influence of soy-derived dietary isoflavones in brain. This brief review will address these topics and examine the influence of dietary isoflavones on sexually dimorphic hypothalamic nuclei. We have observed that altering the isoflavone content within diet significantly affects both the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (a structure that is larger in males than in females) and the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (a structure that is larger in females than in males). Specifically, when animals were switched from phytoestrogen-rich to a phytoestrogen-free diet the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area was decreased in males (no alterations were detected in females). Conversely, when the anteroventral periventricular nucleus was examined, volume changes were recorded in males and females opposite to the patterns observed for the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Given the practical limitations of examining the effects of dietary phytoestrogens in the human brain, it is important to establish comparative data sets to elucidate phytoestrogen's hormone action and potentially its beneficial brain health effects.

  10. Detecting growth hormone misuse in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Richard I. G.

    2013-01-01

    Athletes have been misusing growth hormone (GH) for its anabolic and metabolic effects since the early 1980s, at least a decade before endocrinologists began to treat adults with GH deficiency. Although there is an ongoing debate about whether GH is performance enhancing, recent studies suggest that GH improves strength and sprint capacity, particularly when combined with anabolic steroids. The detection of GH misuse is challenging because it is an endogenous hormone. Two approaches have been developed to detect GH misuse; the first is based on the measurement of pituitary GH isoforms and the ratio of 22-kDa isoform to total GH. The second is based on the measurement of insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (P-III-NP) which increase in a dose-dependent manner in response to GH administration. Both methodologies have been approved by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and have led to the detection of a number of athletes misusing GH. PMID:24251151

  11. DEHP reduces thyroid hormones via interacting with hormone synthesis-related proteins, deiodinases, transthyretin, receptors, and hepatic enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Letian; Wei, Li; Li, Lianbing

    2015-08-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used extensively in many personal care and consumer products, resulting in widespread nonoccupational human exposure through multiple routes and media. Limited studies suggest that exposure to DEHP may be associated with altered thyroid function, but detailed mechanisms are unclear. In order to elucidate potential mechanisms by which DEHP disturbs thyroid hormone homeostasis, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were dosed with DEHP by gavage at 0, 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg/day for 30 days and sacrificed within 24 h after the last dose. Gene expressions of thyroid hormone receptors, deiodinases, transthyretin, and hepatic enzymes were measured by RT-PCR; protein levels of transthyretin were also analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that DEHP caused histological changes in the thyroid and follicular epithelial cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia were observed. DEHP significantly reduced thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) levels, whereas thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was not affected. After exposure to DEHP, biosynthesis of thyroid hormones was suppressed, and sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) levels were significantly reduced. Additionally, levels of deiodinases and transthyretin were also affected. TSH receptor (TSHr) level was downregulated, while TRH receptor (TRHr) level was upregulated. Metabolism of thyroid hormones was accelerated due to elevated gene expression of hepatic enzymes (UDPGTs and CYP2B1) by DEHP. Taken together, observed findings indicate that DEHP could reduce thyroid hormones through influencing biosynthesis, biotransformation, biotransport, receptor levels, and metabolism of thyroid hormones.

  12. Neither bovine somatotropin nor growth hormone-releasing factor alters expression of thyroid hormone receptors in liver and mammary tissues.

    PubMed

    Capuco, A V; Binelli, M; Tucker, H A

    2011-10-01

    Physiological effects of thyroid hormones are mediated primarily by binding of triiodothyronine to specific nuclear receptors. Organ-specific changes in production of triiodothyronine from its prohormone, thyroxine, have been hypothesized to target the action of thyroid hormones on the mammary gland and play a role in mediating or augmenting a galactopoietic response to bovine somatotropin (bST). Additionally, tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormones may be altered by changes in the number or affinity of nuclear receptors for thyroid hormones. In the present study, effects of bST and bovine growth hormone-releasing factor (bGRF) on thyroid hormone receptors in liver and mammary gland were studied. Lactating Holstein cows received continuous infusions of bST or bGRF for 63 d or served as uninfused controls. Nuclei were isolated from harvested mammary and liver tissues and incubated with [(125)I]-triiodothyronine. Treatments did not alter the capacity or affinity of specific binding sites for triiodothyronine in liver or mammary nuclei. Evaluation of transcript abundance for thyroid hormone receptors showed that isoforms of thyroid hormone receptor or retinoid receptor (which may influence thyroid receptor action) expressed in the mammary gland were not altered by bST or bGRF treatment. Data do not support the hypothesis that administration of bST or bGRF alters sensitivity of mammary tissue by changing expression of thyroid hormone receptors.

  13. Effects of oral chlortetracycline and dietary protein level on plasma concentrations of growth hormone and thyroid hormones in beef steers before and after challenge with a combination of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and growth hormone-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Rumsey, T S; McLeod, K; Elsasser, T H; Kahl, S; Baldwin, R L

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a subtherapeutic level of chlortetracycline (CTC) fed to growing beef steers under conditions of limited and adequate dietary protein on plasma concentrations of GH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid hormones before and after an injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) + GHRH. Young beef steers (n = 32; average BW = 285 kg) were assigned to a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments of either a 10 or 13% crude protein diet (70% concentrate, 15% wheat straw, and 15% cottonseed hulls) and either a corn meal carrier or carrier + 350 mg of CTC daily top dressed on the diet. Steers were fed ad libitum amounts of diet for 56 d, and a jugular catheter was then placed in each steer in four groups (two steers from each treatment combination per group) during four consecutive days (one group per day). Each steer was injected via the jugular catheter with 1.0 microg/kg BW TRH + .1 microg/kg BW GHRH in 10 mL of saline at 0800. Blood samples were collected at -30, -15, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 120, 240, and 360 min after releasing hormone injection. Plasma samples were analyzed for GH, TSH, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). After 84 d on trial, the steers were slaughtered and the pituitary and samples of liver were collected and analyzed for 5'-deiodinase activity. Feeding CTC attenuated the GH response to releasing hormone challenge by 26% for both area under the response curve (P<.03) and peak response (P<.10). Likewise, CTC attenuated the TSH response to releasing hormone challenge for area under the response curve by 16% (P<.10) and peak response by 33% (P<.02), and attenuated the T4 response for area under the curve by 12% (P<.08) and peak response by 14% (P<.04). Type II deiodinase activity in the pituitary was 36% less (P<.02) in CTC-fed steers than in steers not fed CTC. The results of this study are interpreted to suggest that feeding subtherapeutic levels of CTC to young

  14. Effect of growth hormone-releasing factor on growth hormone release in children with radiation-induced growth hormone deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lustig, R.H.; Schriock, E.A.; Kaplan, S.L.; Grumbach, M.M.

    1985-08-01

    Five male children who received cranial irradiation for extrahypothalamic intracranial neoplasms or leukemia and subsequently developed severe growth hormone (GH) deficiency were challenged with synthetic growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF-44), in an attempt to distinguish hypothalamic from pituitary dysfunction as a cause of their GH deficiency, and to assess the readily releasable GH reserve in the pituitary. In response to a pulse of GRF-44 (5 micrograms/kg intravenously), mean peak GH levels rose to values higher than those evoked by the pharmacologic agents L-dopa or arginine (6.4 +/- 1.3 ng/mL v 1.5 +/- 0.4 ng/mL, P less than .05). The peak GH value occurred at a mean of 26.0 minutes after administration of GRF-44. These responses were similar to those obtained in children with severe GH deficiency due to other etiologies (peak GH 6.3 +/- 1.7 ng/mL, mean 28.0 minutes). In addition, there was a trend toward an inverse relationship between peak GH response to GRF-44 and the postirradiation interval. Prolactin and somatomedin-C levels did not change significantly after the administration of a single dose of GRF-44. The results of this study support the hypothesis that cranial irradiation in children can lead to hypothalamic GRF deficiency secondary to radiation injury of hypothalamic GRF-secreting neurons. This study also lends support to the potential therapeutic usefulness of GRF-44 or an analog for GH deficiency secondary to cranial irradiation.

  15. Regulation of rat luteinizing hormone subunit messenger ribonucleic acids by gonadal steroid hormones.

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, S D; Bowers, S M; Need, L R; Chin, W W

    1986-01-01

    Little is known about the hormonal regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) biosynthesis. We have studied the regulation of LH messenger RNA (mRNA) levels by gonadal-steroid hormones in the rat. In one set of experiments, male and female rats were surgically gonadectomized (GDX) and killed 1, 3, 7, 14, 22, and 31 d postoperatively. In another set of experiments, male and female rats were surgically GDX and were injected subcutaneously with testosterone propionate (500 micrograms/100 g body wt per d) or 17 beta-estradiol 3-benzoate (10 micrograms/100 g body wt per d), respectively, beginning 3 wk postoperatively. Levels of serum LH were determined by radioimmunoassay and levels of LH subunit mRNAs in single pituitary glands were determined by blot hybridization analysis using labeled synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes that correspond to portions of the coding regions of the rat alpha- and LH beta-subunit mRNAs. 4 wk after gonadectomy, serum LH levels rose nine- and 20-fold, while alpha-subunit mRNA levels rose six- and 10-fold, and LH beta-subunit levels rose seven- and 14-fold, compared with controls in males and females, respectively. In gonadal-steroid hormone-treated male and female GDX rats, serum LH levels fell to 8 and 36% of control values, while alpha-subunit mRNA levels declined to 22 and 19%, and LH beta-subunit mRNA levels declined to 6 and 10% of control values, 48 h after injections were initiated, in males and females, respectively. We conclude that gonadal-steroid hormones negatively regulate the levels of both subunit mRNAs in GDX rats in a pattern that parallels the changes in serum LH values. These data suggest that gonadal-steroid hormone regulation of LH biosynthesis occurs, at least in part, at the level of LH subunit mRNAs due to effects at the transcriptional and/or RNA stability levels. Images PMID:2418065

  16. Stress Hormones and Their Regulation in a Captive Dolphin Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Stress Hormones and Their Regulation in a Captive Dolphin ...understanding of how the stress response operates in marine mammals by evaluating markers of stress in a captive dolphin population. This research effort will...determine baseline levels of putative stress hormones and evaluate the functional consequences of increased stress in the bottlenose dolphin

  17. Genetic Polymorphisms, Hormone Levels, and Hot Flashes in Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Chrissy; Gallicchio, Lisa; Miller, Susan R.; Langenberg, Patricia; Zacur, Howard; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Hot flashes disrupt the lives of millions of women each year. Although hot flashes are a public health concern, little is known about risk factors that predispose women to hot flashes. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine whether sex steroid hormone levels and genetic polymorphisms in hormone biosynthesis and degradation enzymes are associated with the risk of hot flashes. Methods In a cross-sectional study design, midlife women aged 45 to 54 years (n=639) were recruited from Baltimore and its surrounding counties. Participants completed a questionnaire and donated a blood sample for steroid hormone analysis and genotyping. The associations between genetic polymorphisms and hormone levels, as well as the associations between genetic polymorphisms, hormone levels, and hot flashes were examined using statistical models. Results A polymorphism in CYP1B1 was associated with lower dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and progesterone levels, while a polymorphism in CYP19 (aromatase) was associated with higher testosterone and DHEA-S levels. Lower progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels, lower free estradiol index, and a higher ratio of total androgens to total estrogens were associated with the experiencing of hot flashes. A polymorphism in CYP1B1 and a polymorphism in 3βHSD were both associated with hot flashes. Conclusion Some genetic polymorphisms may be associated with altered levels of hormones in midlife women. Further, selected genetic polymorphisms and altered hormone levels may be associated with the risk of hot flashes in midlife women. PMID:17187946

  18. Asprosin, a fasting-induced glucogenic protein hormone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hepatic glucose release into the circulation is vital for brain function and survival during periods of fasting and is modulated by an array of hormones that precisely regulate plasma glucose levels. We have identified a fasting-induced protein hormone that modulates hepatic glucose release. It is t...

  19. BACULOVIRUS REPLICATION ALTERS HORMONE-REGULATED HOST DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The baculovirus Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus interferes with insect larval development by altering the host's hormonal system. The level of haemolymph ecdysteroids, the insect moulting hormone, was found to be higher in virus-infected larvae than in uninfected cont...

  20. The role of thyroid hormone in sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, José Carlos; Andersen, Mônica Levy

    2014-03-01

    Sleep deprivation is a stressful condition, as the subject experiences feelings of inadequate well-being and exhibits impairments in his/her functioning. However, in some circumstances sleep deprivation may be crucial for survival of the individual. Most likely, complex neural circuits and hormones play a role in allowing sleep deprivation to occur. For instance, thyroid hormone activity sharply increases when an individual is in a state of sleep deprivation. We believe that this increase is central to sleep deprivation physiology. During sleep deprivation, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis initially increases as a consequence of increased release of thyroid stimulating hormone from the pituitary. Subsequently, as sleep deprivation continues, the sympathetic nervous system is recruited through its anatomical connection with the thyroid gland. While thyroid stimulating hormone levels markedly increase during sleep deprivation, it has been suggested that these increases are secondary to sleep deprivation. However, there is little evidence to support this assumption. We believe that the physiology of the thyroid axis during sleep deprivation and the actions of the effector hormone thyroid hormone suggest that thyroid hormone inhibits sleep and not the contrary. To our knowledge, few studies have addressed the possible neural functions that enable sleep deprivation. In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that an augmentation in the thyroid hormone axis is central to a subject's ability to curtail sleep.

  1. Hypoglycemia associated with clonidine testing for growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Huang, C; Banerjee, K; Sochett, E; Perlman, K; Wherrett, D; Daneman, D

    2001-08-01

    We have observed 4 cases of hypoglycemia associated with clonidine stimulation of growth hormone secretion; only one patient had growth hormone deficiency. Significant drowsiness after administration of clonidine may prolong the period of fasting in these children and mask early signs and symptoms, leading to severe hypoglycemia.

  2. Pubertal Development: Correspondence between Hormonal and Physical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2009-01-01

    Puberty is advanced by sex hormones, yet it is not clear how it is best measured. The interrelation of multiple indices of puberty was examined, including the Pubertal Development Scale (PDS), a picture-based interview about puberty (PBIP), and a physical exam. These physical pubertal measures were then associated with basal hormones responsible…

  3. Hormones and endocrine disruptors in human seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Hampl, R; Kubatova, J; Heracek, J; Sobotka, V; Starka, L

    2013-07-01

    Seminal plasma represents a unique environment for maturation, nutrition, and protection of male germ cells from damaging agents. It contains an array of organic as well as inorganic chemicals, encompassing a number of biologically and immunologically active compounds, including hormones. Seminal plasma contains also various pollutants transferred from outer environment known as endocrine disruptors. They interfere with hormones at the receptor level, act as inhibitors of their biosynthesis, and affect hormone regulation.In this minireview, the main groups of hormones detected in seminal plasma are summarized. Seminal gonadal steroids were investigated mostly with aim to use them as biomarkers of impaired spermatogenesis (sperm count, motility, morphology). Concentrations of hormones in the seminal plasma often differ considerably from the blood plasma levels in dependence on their origin. In some instances (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol), their informative value is higher than determination in blood.Out of peptide hormones detected in seminal plasma, peptides of transforming growth factor beta family, especially antimullerian hormone, and oligopeptides related to thyrotropin releasing hormone have the high informative value, while assessment of seminal gonadotropins and prolactin does not bring advantage over determination in blood.Though there is a large body of information about the endocrine disruptors' impact on male reproduction, especially with their potential role in decline of male reproductive functions within the last decades, there are only scarce reports on their presence in seminal plasma. Herein, the main groups of endocrine disruptors found in seminal plasma are reviewed, and the use of their determination for investigation of fertility disorders is discussed.

  4. Small-Molecule Hormones: Molecular Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Budzińska, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Small-molecule hormones play crucial roles in the development and in the maintenance of an adult mammalian organism. On the molecular level, they regulate a plethora of biological pathways. Part of their actions depends on their transcription-regulating properties, exerted by highly specific nuclear receptors which are hormone-dependent transcription factors. Nuclear hormone receptors interact with coactivators, corepressors, basal transcription factors, and other transcription factors in order to modulate the activity of target genes in a manner that is dependent on tissue, age and developmental and pathophysiological states. The biological effect of this mechanism becomes apparent not earlier than 30–60 minutes after hormonal stimulus. In addition, small-molecule hormones modify the function of the cell by a number of nongenomic mechanisms, involving interaction with proteins localized in the plasma membrane, in the cytoplasm, as well as with proteins localized in other cellular membranes and in nonnuclear cellular compartments. The identity of such proteins is still under investigation; however, it seems that extranuclear fractions of nuclear hormone receptors commonly serve this function. A direct interaction of small-molecule hormones with membrane phospholipids and with mRNA is also postulated. In these mechanisms, the reaction to hormonal stimulus appears within seconds or minutes. PMID:23533406

  5. Hormonal profile impact on female sexual function in young women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the impact of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual function. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.

  6. Hormones and the Resistance of Women to Paracoccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Jata; Restrepo, Angela; Clemons, Karl V.; Stevens, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most important endemic and systemic mycoses in Latin America, presents several clinical pictures. Epidemiological studies indicate a striking rarity of disease (but not infection) in females, but only during the reproductive years. This suggested a hormonal interaction between female hormones and the etiologic dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Many fungi have been shown to use hormonal (pheromonal) fungal molecules for intercellular communication, and there are increasing numbers of examples of interactions between mammalian hormones and fungi, including the specific binding of mammalian hormones by fungal proteins, and suggestions of mammalian hormonal modulation of fungal behavior. This suggests an evolutionary conservation of hormonal receptor systems. We recount studies showing the specific hormonal binding of mammalian estrogen to proteins in P. brasiliensis and an action of estrogen to specifically block the transition from the saprophytic form to the invasive form of the fungus in vitro. This block has been demonstrated to occur in vivo in animal studies. These unique observations are consistent with an estrogen-fungus receptor-mediated effect on pathogenesis. The fungal genes responsive to estrogen action are under study. PMID:21482727

  7. Removal of Hormones and Antibiotics by Nanofiltration Membranes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The removal of several hormones and antibiotics by nanofiltration membranes was studied in mixed solutions. The effects of solution chemistry, organic matter and salinity were investigated on the rejection of tetracycline’s and sulfanamides and selected hormones and their adsorption on membranes. ...

  8. Starting Hormone Therapy at Menopause Increases Breast Cancer Risk

    Cancer.gov

    According to a January 28, 2011 article in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, women who start taking menopausal hormone therapy around the time of menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who begin taking hormones a few years later.

  9. Hormonal actions in the Protozoan stress: A review.

    PubMed

    Csaba, György

    2015-12-01

    In the higher ranked animals the alteration of the environment can provoke a uniform reaction named general adaptation system (GAS), which is a manifestation of stress, caused by different stressors. During GAS certain organs show typical reactions and two members of the hormonal system are activated: epinephine and glucocorticoids. As the unicellular ciliate Tetrahymena also synthesize most of the mammalian-like hormones (except steroids), it can respond to stress by a hormonal reaction. The main differences, related to the mammalian GAS hormonal reaction are, that 1) in Tetrahymena the level of all of the hormones studied significantly elevates under the effect of heat, osmotic or chemical stress and 2) the single stress effect is durable. It is manifested at least to the 100th generations, which means that it is inherited epigenetically. Not only hormone synthesis but the receptorial hormone binding is also elevated, which means that the whole hormonal system is activated. The stress reaction (GAS) phylogenetically can be deduced to a unicellular (Protozoan) level however, prokaryotes - which are also stress-reactive - are using another mechanisms.

  10. Placental steroid hormone biosynthesis in primate pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, E D; Pepe, G J

    1990-02-01

    Substantial advances in our understanding of placental function have resulted from recent establishment of in vitro approaches, such as cell culture, and application of molecular methods to study placental steroidogenesis. Insight into the processes of placental cell differentiation and hormonal function has been gained from culture of relatively pure preparations of cytotrophoblast. Various factors, e.g. cAMP and peptide growth factors, have been shown to have striking effects on progesterone and estrogen formation by placental tissue under in vitro conditions. Using advanced molecular approaches, the genes governing specific enzymes critical to placental steroidogenesis have been identified. Regulation of the mRNAs encoding specific enzyme peptides and thus expression of the genes by factors, such as cAMP, have been elucidated by Northern analysis and other techniques. It is critical that these contemporary approaches continue to be implemented aggressively to further elucidate placental function. However, it is clear from a survey of the literature, particularly of the past decade, that the vast majority of investigation in the area has been conducted in vitro. It is essential to determine whether the factors that have been observed to regulate placental endocrine function in vitro are operable in vivo. It is only with in vivo study that the dynamics of steroidogenesis and the complex functional relationships between placenta, fetus, and mother will be uncovered and understood. It is increasingly evident that the regulation of placental steroidogenesis involves autocrine and/or paracrine mechanisms, similar to those integral to hormone biosynthesis within other reproductive organs, e.g. ovary and testis. For example, as discussed above, estrogen regulates LDL uptake and P-450scc, and thus apparently is involved in generating substrate for progesterone production within the placenta. Conversely, progesterone has effects on 17 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase

  11. Abnormal serum thyroid hormones concentration with healthy functional gland: a review on the metabolic role of thyroid hormones transporter proteins.

    PubMed

    Azad, Reza Mansourian

    2011-03-01

    Laboratory findings can definitely help the patients not to enter into status, where the damage might be happen due to a miss-diagnosis based on clinical assessment alone. The secondary disease accompanied with thyroid patients should also carefully check out due to the interference which some diseases can cause in the amount of serum thyroid hormone, particularly the free thyroxin. The dilemma over thyroid clinical diagnosis occur due to variation on serum thyroid hormone which initiated by other non-thyroidal disorders which can play an important roles in metabolic disorders of thyroid hormone due to the alteration which occur on the serum level of thyroid hormone transporter proteins. The majority of serum thyroid hormones of up to 95-99% are bound to the carrier proteins mainly to Thyroxin-Binding Globulins (TBG), some transthyretin already known as pre-albumin and albumin which are all synthesis in the liver and any modification which alter their production may alter the status of thyroid hormones. It seems TBG, transthyretin and albumin carries 75, 20, 5% of thyroid hormones within blood circulation, respectively. The dilemma facing the thyroid hormones following disruption of thyroid hormone transporter protein synthesis originate from this fact that any alteration of these protein contribute to the alteration of total thyroid and free serum thyroid hormones which are in fact the biologically active form of thyroid hormones. The subsequent of latter implication result in miss-understanding and miss-diagnosis of thyroid function tests, with possible wrongly thyroid clinical care, followed by undesired therapy of otherwise healthy thyroid.

  12. Space weightlessness and hormonal changes in human subjects and experimental animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Data from spaceflight and bed rest studies are briefly described and the difficulties in interpreting these results are discussed. Growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, insulin, aldosterone, and other hormones are addressed.

  13. Increased survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer receiving chemo and hormone therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Men with hormone-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer who received the chemotherapy drug docetaxel given at the start of standard hormone therapy lived longer than patients who received hormone therapy alone, according to early results from a NIH-supporte

  14. Organized for sex – steroid hormones and the developing hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Kathryn M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2017-01-01

    Steroid hormones of gonadal origin act on the neonatal brain, particularly the hypothalamus, to produce sex differences that underlie copulatory behavior. Neuroanatomical sex differences include regional volume, cell number, connectivity, morphology, physiology, neurotransmitter phenotype and molecular signaling, all of which are determined by the action of steroid hormones, particularly by estradiol in males, and are established by diverse downstream effects. Sex differences in distinct hypothalamic regions can be organized by the same steroid hormone, but the direction of a sex difference is often specific to one region or cell type, illustrating the wide range of effects that steroid hormones have on the developing brain. Substantial progress has been made in elucidating the downstream mechanisms through which gonadal hormones sexually differentiate the brain, but gaps remain in establishing the precise relationship between changes in neuronal morphology and behavior. A complete understanding of sexual differentiation will require integrating the diverse mechanisms across multiple brain regions into a functional network that regulates behavioral output. PMID:21143664

  15. Effects of hormones on in vitro maturation of cattle oocytes.

    PubMed

    Smetanina, I G; Tatarinova, L V; Krivokharchenko, A S

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency of cattle oocyte maturation in vitro was studied in protein-free MEM-α with hormones and in completely definite culture medium without hormones. Oocyte capacity to develop after fertilization to the morula/blastocyst and blastocyst stages served as a criterion of effective maturation. The increase in follicle-stimulating hormone concentration in the medium by one or two orders of magnitude in comparison with the "standard" level of 1 μg/ml deteriorated the development of embryos to the preimplantation stages. Serum gonadotropin from pregnant mares worked similarly as follicle-stimulating hormone. Oocytes that underwent maturation without hormones developed to the blastocyst stage, though the percentage of dividing embryos was significantly less and there was a trend to worse development of the embryos to the preimplantation stages.

  16. [Recent advances in sample preparation methods of plant hormones].

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Wang, Lus; Wu, Dapeng; Duan, Chunfeng; Guan, Yafeng

    2014-04-01

    Plant hormones are a group of naturally occurring trace substances which play a crucial role in controlling the plant development, growth and environment response. With the development of the chromatography and mass spectroscopy technique, chromatographic analytical method has become a widely used way for plant hormone analysis. Among the steps of chromatographic analysis, sample preparation is undoubtedly the most vital one. Thus, a highly selective and efficient sample preparation method is critical for accurate identification and quantification of phytohormones. For the three major kinds of plant hormones including acidic plant hormones & basic plant hormones, brassinosteroids and plant polypeptides, the sample preparation methods are reviewed in sequence especially the recently developed methods. The review includes novel methods, devices, extractive materials and derivative reagents for sample preparation of phytohormones analysis. Especially, some related works of our group are included. At last, the future developments in this field are also prospected.

  17. A Pivotal Role of DELLAs in Regulating Multiple Hormone Signals.

    PubMed

    Davière, Jean-Michel; Achard, Patrick

    2016-01-04

    Plant phenotypic plasticity is controlled by diverse hormone pathways, which integrate and convey information from multiple developmental and environmental signals. Moreover, in plants many processes such as growth, development, and defense are regulated in similar ways by multiple hormones. Among them, gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones with pleiotropic actions, regulating various growth processes throughout the plant life cycle. Previous work has revealed extensive interplay between GAs and other hormones, but the molecular mechanism became apparent only recently. Molecular and physiological studies have demonstrated that DELLA proteins, considered as master negative regulators of GA signaling, integrate multiple hormone signaling pathways through physical interactions with transcription factors or regulatory proteins from different families. In this review, we summarize the latest progress in GA signaling and its direct crosstalk with the main phytohormone signaling, emphasizing the multifaceted role of DELLA proteins with key components of major hormone signaling pathways.

  18. New approaches to thyroid hormones and purinergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Gabriel Fernandes; Buffon, Andréia; Bruno, Alessandra Nejar

    2013-01-01

    It is known that thyroid hormones influence a wide variety of events at the molecular, cellular, and functional levels. Thyroid hormones (TH) play pivotal roles in growth, cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, development, and metabolic homeostasis via thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) by controlling the expression of TR target genes. Most of these effects result in pathological and physiological events and are already well described in the literature. Even so, many recent studies have been devoted to bringing new information on problems in controlling the synthesis and release of these hormones and to elucidating mechanisms of the action of these hormones unconventionally. The purinergic system was recently linked to thyroid diseases, including enzymes, receptors, and enzyme products related to neurotransmitter release, nociception, behavior, and other vascular systems. Thus, throughout this text we intend to relate the relationship between the TH in physiological and pathological situations with the purinergic signaling.

  19. New Approaches to Thyroid Hormones and Purinergic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Gabriel Fernandes; Buffon, Andréia; Bruno, Alessandra Nejar

    2013-01-01

    It is known that thyroid hormones influence a wide variety of events at the molecular, cellular, and functional levels. Thyroid hormones (TH) play pivotal roles in growth, cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, development, and metabolic homeostasis via thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) by controlling the expression of TR target genes. Most of these effects result in pathological and physiological events and are already well described in the literature. Even so, many recent studies have been devoted to bringing new information on problems in controlling the synthesis and release of these hormones and to elucidating mechanisms of the action of these hormones unconventionally. The purinergic system was recently linked to thyroid diseases, including enzymes, receptors, and enzyme products related to neurotransmitter release, nociception, behavior, and other vascular systems. Thus, throughout this text we intend to relate the relationship between the TH in physiological and pathological situations with the purinergic signaling. PMID:23956925

  20. Can Bayliss and Starling gut hormones cure a worldwide pandemic?

    PubMed Central

    Scott, R V; Tan, T M; Bloom, S R

    2014-01-01

    Bayliss and Starling first coined the term ‘hormone’ with reference to secretin, a substance they found that was produced by the gut, but released into the blood stream to act at a distance. The intestine is now known as the largest endocrine organ in the body, and it produces numerous hormones with a wide range of functions. These include controlling appetite and energy homeostasis. Obesity is one of the greatest health threats facing the world today. At present, the only successful treatment is surgery. Bariatric procedures such as the Roux-en-Y bypass work by elevating gut hormones that induce satiety. Significant research has gone into producing versions of these hormones that can be delivered therapeutically to treat obesity. This review looks at the role of gut hormones in obesity, and the development of gut hormone-derived obesity treatments. PMID:25217372

  1. Puberty, hormones, and sex differences in alcohol abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Witt, Ellen D

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences in patterns of drinking and rates of alcohol abuse and dependence begin to emerge during the transition from late puberty to young adulthood. Increases in pubertal hormones, including gonadal and stress hormones, are a prominent developmental feature of adolescence and could contribute to the progression of sex differences in alcohol drinking patterns during puberty. This paper reviews experimental and correlational studies of gonadal and stress-related hormone changes and their effects on alcohol drinking and other associated actions of alcohol. Mechanisms are suggested by which reproductive hormones and stress-related hormones may modulate neural circuits within the brain reward system to produce sex differences in alcohol drinking patterns and vulnerability to alcohol abuse and dependence which become apparent during the late pubertal period.

  2. Dysregulation of male sex hormones in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    El-Serafi, A T; Osama, S; El-Zalat, H; EL-Deen, I M

    2016-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection is a serious problem all over the world and has a special importance in Egypt, where the prevalence of infection is 14.7% of population. In males, HCV is associated with sexual dysfunction and changes in the semen parameters. This study aimed at estimation of a panel of the most important related hormones in the serum of patients and illustration of their correlation to the routine laboratory investigations. The four studied hormones showed alteration in the patients in comparison with the controls. While androstenedione, prolactin and testosterone were significantly increased in patients, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate was decreased. These changes in the hormones were not related to the liver functions, pathological grade or even viral load. We hypothesised a model of how HCV can induce these hormonal changes and recommended to add these hormones to the follow-up panel of male patients with HCV.

  3. Neuroprotective Actions of Ghrelin and Growth Hormone Secretagogues

    PubMed Central

    Frago, Laura M.; Baquedano, Eva; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    The brain incorporates and coordinates information based on the hormonal environment, receiving information from peripheral tissues through the circulation. Although it was initially thought that hormones only acted on the hypothalamus to perform endocrine functions, it is now known that they in fact exert diverse actions on many different brain regions including the hypothalamus. Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that stimulates growth hormone secretion and food intake to regulate energy homeostasis and body weight by binding to its receptor, growth hormone secretagogues–GH secretagogue-receptor, which is most highly expressed in the pituitary and hypothalamus. In addition, ghrelin has effects on learning and memory, reward and motivation, anxiety, and depression, and could be a potential therapeutic agent in neurodegenerative disorders where excitotoxic neuronal cell death and inflammatory processes are involved. PMID:21994488

  4. Advances in bioanalytical techniques to measure steroid hormones in serum.

    PubMed

    French, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Steroid hormones are measured clinically to determine if a patient has a pathological process occurring in the adrenal gland, or other hormone responsive organs. They are very similar in structure making them analytically challenging to measure. Additionally, these hormones have vast concentration differences in human serum adding to the measurement complexity. GC-MS was the gold standard methodology used to measure steroid hormones clinically, followed by radioimmunoassay, but that was replaced by immunoassay due to ease of use. LC-MS/MS has now become a popular alternative owing to simplified sample preparation than for GC-MS and increased specificity and sensitivity over immunoassay. This review will discuss these methodologies and some new developments that could simplify and improve steroid hormone analysis in serum.

  5. The ubiquitin-proteasome system regulates plant hormone signaling

    PubMed Central

    Santner, Aaron; Estelle, Mark

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Plants utilize the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to modulate nearly every aspect of growth and development. Ubiquitin is covalently attached to target proteins through the action of three enzymes known as E1, E2, and E3. The ultimate outcome of this post-translational modification depends on the nature of the ubiquitin linkage and the extent of polyubiquitination. In most cases, ubiquitination results in degradation of the target protein in the 26S proteasome. During the last 10 years it has become clear that the UPS plays a prominent regulatory role in hormone biology. E3 ubiquitin ligases in particular actively participate in hormone perception, de-repression of hormone signaling pathways, degradation of hormone specific transcription factors, and regulation of hormone biosynthesis. It is certain that additional functions will be discovered as more of the nearly 1200 potential E3s in plants are elucidated. PMID:20409276

  6. Hormonal relations of radiation-induced tumors of Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Campell, B.R.; Persinger, S.M.; Town, C.D. )

    1989-04-01

    When gamma-irradiated Arabidopsis seed was germinated, tumors appeared on hypocotyls and apical meristems of the resulting plants. Several tumors have been cultured on hormone free medium for over two years since excision from the plants. The tumor lines display a range of phenotypes suggestive of abnormal hormone balance. To determine whether hormone overproduction or hypersensitivity is involved in tumorigenesis, we are measuring hormone levels in the tumor lines and characterizing their response to exogenously supplied growth regulators. Growth of two tumor lines is stimulated by either NAA or BAP, one is stimulated by NAA only, two by BAP only, and one is stimulated by neither. Growth of all lines tested thus far is inhibited by gibberellic acid, ethephon and ACC. The tumor lines appear more sensitive to ACC than normal callus tissue. Most tumors studied to date appear unlikely to have arisen due to increased hormone sensitivity. Experiments are in progress to determine auxin and cytokinin levels in the tumor lines.

  7. New approaches to male non-hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Nya-Ngatchou, Jean-Jacques; Amory, John K

    2013-03-01

    A non-hormonal male contraceptive is a contraceptive that does not involve the administration of hormones or hormone blockers. This review will focus on the use of lonidamine derivatives and inhibitors of retinoic acid biosynthesis and function as approaches to male non-hormonal contraception. Two current lonidamine derivatives, adjudin and H2-gamendazole, are in development as male contraceptives. These potent anti-spermatogenic compounds impair the integrity of the apical ectoplasmic specialization, resulting in premature spermiation and infertility. Another approach to male contraceptive development is the inhibition of retinoic acid in the testes, as retinoic acid signaling is necessary for spermatogenesis. The administration of the retinoic acid receptor antagonist BMS-189453 reversibly inhibits spermatogenesis in mice. Similarly, oral dosing of WIN 18,446, which inhibits testicular retinoic acid biosynthesis, effectively contracepts rabbits. Hopefully, one of these approaches to non-hormonal male contraception will prove to be safe and effective in future clinical trials.

  8. Hormonal therapy for endometriosis: from molecular research to bedside.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Claudia; Biscione, Antonella; Morgante, Giuseppe; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Luisi, Stefano; Petraglia, Felice

    2017-02-01

    Endometriotic lesions are associated with hormonal imbalance, including increased estrogen synthesis, metabolism and progesterone resistance. These hormonal changes cause increased proliferation, inflammation, pain and infertility. Hormonal imbalances are targets for treatment. Therapeutic strategies and innovations of hormonal drugs for endometriosis are increasing. Acting on estrogen receptors are hormonal drugs decreasing systemic and local estrogen synthesis (GnRH analogs, GnRH antagonists, Aromatase inhibitors) or estrogen activity (selective estrogen receptor modulators). The progesterone resistance is counteracted by progestins (Medroxyprogesterone acetate, Dienogest, Danazol, Levonorgestrel) or by Selective progesterone receptor modulators, a class of drugs under development. The future trend will be to define new drugs to use for prolonged period of time and with poor side effects considering endometriosis a chronic disease.

  9. Host stress hormones alter vector feeding preferences, success, and productivity.

    PubMed

    Gervasi, Stephanie S; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan; Burgan, Sarah C; Schrey, Aaron W; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R; Martin, Lynn B

    2016-08-17

    Stress hormones might represent a key link between individual-level infection outcome, population-level parasite transmission, and zoonotic disease risk. Although the effects of stress on immunity are well known, stress hormones could also affect host-vector interactions via modification of host behaviours or vector-feeding patterns and subsequent reproductive success. Here, we experimentally manipulated songbird stress hormones and examined subsequent feeding preferences, feeding success, and productivity of mosquito vectors in addition to defensive behaviours of hosts. Despite being more defensive, birds with elevated stress hormone concentrations were approximately twice as likely to be fed on by mosquitoes compared to control birds. Moreover, stress hormones altered the relationship between the timing of laying and clutch size in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our results suggest that host stress could affect the transmission dynamics of vector-borne parasites via multiple pathways.

  10. Sex hormones and HCV: an unresolved mystery.

    PubMed

    Mekky, Radwa Y; Abdelaziz, Ahmed I

    2013-01-01

    The biological differences between males and females advocate the ultimate need for gender-specific medicine. The variation in response to viral infection as well as therapy among different genders makes it very intriguing to reveal the responsible factors for causing this discrepancy. HCV is one of the most noxious infectious diseases, however the impact of gender on the response to HCV has received negligible attention in the literature. The controversial studies concerning the effect of gender on the outcome of interferon-based therapy urge a need to judge the gender discrepancy in host factors responsible for both interferon release and action. The main aim of this review is to disentangle the interplay between sex hormones and several viral and host factors responsible for viral clearance in an attempt to clarify the role of gender in modulating the response to HCV as well as interferon-based therapy.

  11. [Experience with gestodene-containing hormonal contraceptive].

    PubMed

    Szabó, L; Nagy, K; Godó, G

    1998-03-01

    An oral contraceptive containing gestodene (Minulet) was examined in collaborating with the Richter-Wyeth Pharmaceutical Factory. The authors present their experiences of monitoring of 591 cycles of a hundred women between 18 and 35 years of age. There were no pregnancy and severe side effects during that period. Irregular bleeding occurred in 17.5% of women in the beginning of the treatment, however it gradually decreased and ceased by the fifth cycle. Both the length and the quantity of the withdrawal bleeding decreased by the end of the sixth cycle. During the observation there was no amenorrhoea and the dysmenorrhoea presented a decreasing tendency, expressing in per cent of the cycles. Their own data support, that the oral contraceptives containing gestodene meet requirements of today's medical science, and beyond the low hormone content they also fulfil the next demands: reliable contraceptive effect, efficacy, excellent cycle control, good tolerability and limited side effects.

  12. Circadian Rhythms and Hormonal Homeostasis: Pathophysiological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Gnocchi, Davide; Bruscalupi, Giovannella

    2017-01-01

    Over recent years, a deeper comprehension of the molecular mechanisms that control biological clocks and circadian rhythms has been achieved. In fact, many studies have contributed to unravelling the importance of the molecular clock for the regulation of our physiology, including hormonal and metabolic homeostasis. Here we will review the structure, organisation and molecular machinery that make our circadian clock work, and its relevance for the proper functioning of physiological processes. We will also describe the interconnections between circadian rhythms and endocrine homeostasis, as well as the underlying consequences that circadian dysregulations might have in the development of several pathologic affections. Finally, we will discuss how a better knowledge of such relationships might prove helpful in designing new therapeutic approaches for endocrine and metabolic diseases. PMID:28165421

  13. Radioimmunoassay for. gamma. -melanocyte stimulating hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Shibasaki, T.; Ling, N.; Guillemin, R.

    1980-05-26

    A specific radioimmunoassay for ..gamma..-melanocyte stimulating hormone-like peptides was developed. An antiserum raised in rabbit to synthetic bovine ..gamma../sub 3/-MSH, one of the possible ..gamma..-MSH peptides, specifically recognizes the portion between His/sup 5/ and Arg/sup 14/ of ..gamma../sub 3/-MSH without significant cross-reaction with other synthetic ..gamma..-MSH-like peptides, ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..-MSH, adrenocorticotropin, and ..beta..-endorphin. The usable range of this RIA is 10 pg to 600 pg of synthetic ..gamma../sub 3/-MSH. Three immunoreactive ..gamma..-MSH peaks were thus found in gel permeation chromatography of the whole bovine pituitary extract.

  14. Growth and growth hormone: An overview.

    PubMed

    Teran, Enrique; Chesner, Jaclyn; Rapaport, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Growth is a good indicator of a child's health. Growth disturbances, including short stature or growth failure, could be indications of illnesses such as chronic disease, nutritional deficits, celiac disease or hormonal abnormalities. Therefore, a careful assessment of the various requirements for normal growth needs to be done by history, physical examination, and screening laboratory tests. More details will be reviewed about the GH-IGF axis, its abnormalities with special emphasis on GH deficiency, its diagnosis and treatment. GH treatment indications in the US will be reviewed and a few only will be highlighted. They will include GH deficiency, as well as the treatment of children born SGA, including the results of a US study using FDA approved dose of 0.48mg/kg/week. GH deficiency in adults will also be briefly reviewed. Treatment of patients with SHOX deficiency will also be discussed. Possible side effects of GH treatment and the importance of monitoring safety will be highlighted.

  15. Role of thyroid hormones in ventricular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Viswanathan; Gerdes, A Martin

    2015-04-01

    Cardiac remodeling includes alterations in molecular, cellular, and interstitial systems contributing to changes in size, shape, and function of the heart. This may be the result of injury, alterations in hemodynamic load, neurohormonal effects, electrical abnormalities, metabolic changes, etc. Thyroid hormones (THs) serve as master regulators for diverse remodeling processes of the cardiovascular system-from the prenatal period to death. THs promote a beneficial cardiomyocyte shape and improve contractility, relaxation, and survival via reversal of molecular remodeling. THs reduce fibrosis by decreasing interstitial collagen and reduce the incidence and duration of arrhythmias via remodeling ion channel expression and function. THs restore metabolic function and also improve blood flow both by direct effects on the vessel architecture and decreasing atherosclerosis. Optimal levels of THs both in the circulation and in cardiac tissues are critical for normal homeostasis. This review highlights TH-based remodeling and clinically translatable strategies for diverse cardiovascular disorders.

  16. Juvenile hormone esterase: biochemistry and structure

    PubMed Central

    Kamita, Shizuo G.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Normal insect development requires a precisely timed, precipitous drop in hemolymph juvenile hormone (JH) titer. This drop occurs through a coordinated halt in JH biosynthesis and increase in JH metabolism. In many species, JH esterase (JHE) is critical for metabolism of the resonance-stabilized methyl ester of JH. JHE metabolizes JH with a high kcat/KM ratio that results primarily from an exceptionally low KM. Here we review the biochemistry and structure of authentic and recombinant JHEs from six insect orders, and present updated diagnostic criteria that help to distinguish JHEs from other carboxylesterases. The use of a JHE-encoding gene to improve the insecticidal efficacy of biopesticides is also discussed. PMID:23543805

  17. Multiple exportins influence thyroid hormone receptor localization

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Kelly S.; Dziedzic, Rose C.; Nelson, Hallie N.; Stern, Mary E.; Roggero, Vincent R.; Bondzi, Cornelius; Allison, Lizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and regulates target genes involved in metabolism and development. Previously, we showed that TR follows a CRM1/calreticulin-mediated nuclear export pathway. However, two lines of evidence suggest TR also follows another pathway: export is only partially blocked by leptomycin B (LMB), a CRM1-specific inhibitor; and we identified nuclear export signals in TR that are LMB-resistant. To determine whether other exportins are involved in TR shuttling, we used RNA interference and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching shuttling assays in transfected cells. Knockdown of exportins 4, 5, and 7 altered TR shuttling dynamics, and when exportins 5 and 7 were overexpressed, TR distribution shifted towards the cytosol. To further assess the effects of exportin overexpression, we examined transactivation of a TR-responsive reporter gene. Our data indicate that multiple exportins influence TR localization, highlighting a fine balance of nuclear import, retention, and export that modulates TR function. PMID:25911113

  18. Growth hormone deficiency in treated acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Mazziotti, Gherardo; Marzullo, Paolo; Doga, Mauro; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Giustina, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) of the adult is characterized by reduced quality of life (QoL) and physical fitness, skeletal fragility, and increased weight and cardiovascular risk. Hypopituitarism may develop in patients after definitive treatment of acromegaly, but an exact prevalence of GHD in this population is still uncertain owing to limited awareness and the scarce and conflicting data available on this topic. Because acromegaly and GHD may yield adverse consequences on similar target systems, the final outcomes of some complications of acromegaly may be further affected by the occurrence of GHD. However, it is still largely unknown whether patients with post-acromegaly GHD may benefit from GH replacement. We review the diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of GHD in adult patients treated for acromegaly.

  19. Hormonal management of migraine at menopause.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Rossella E; Sances, Grazia; Detaddei, Silvia; Ornati, Alessandra; Chiovato, Luca; Polatti, Franco

    2009-06-01

    In this review, we underline the importance of linking migraine to reproductive stages for optimal management of such a common disease across the lifespan of women. Menopause has a variable effect on migraine depending on individual vulnerability to neuroendocrine changes induced by estrogen fluctuations and on the length of menopausal transition. Indeed, an association between estrogen 'milieu' and attacks of migraine is strongly supported by several lines of evidence. During the perimenopause, it is likely to observe a worsening of migraine, and a tailored hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) to minimize estrogen/progesterone imbalance may be effective. In the natural menopause, women experience a more favourable course of migraine in comparison with those who have surgical menopause. When severe climacteric symptoms are present, postmenopausal women may be treated with continuous HRT. Even tibolone may be useful when analgesic overuse is documented. However, the transdermal route of oestradiol administration in the lowest effective dose should be preferred to avoid potential vascular risk.

  20. Hand osteoarthritis, menopause and menopausal hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Watt, Fiona E

    2016-01-01

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the commonest musculoskeletal conditions, primarily affecting women over the age of 50, typically around the age of the menopause. Symptomatic disease can give rise to substantial pain, impairment of hand function and quality of life, leading to significant socioeconomic cost. There is currently no disease-modifying therapy, representing a huge unmet clinical need. The evidence for a relationship between hand OA and the menopause is summarised. Whether there is evidence for an effect of menopausal hormonal therapy on the incidence, prevalence or severity of symptomatic hand OA is critically reviewed, and gaps in our knowledge identified. Lastly, the potential mechanisms by which estrogen, or newer agents such as SERMs, might act to interfere with disease pathogenesis are overviewed. The need for specifically designed, controlled trials of agents in cohorts with symptomatic hand OA, refractory to standard symptomatic management is highlighted.