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Sample records for adiposity index bai

  1. Body adiposity index (BAI) correlates with BMI and body fat pre- and post-bariatric surgery but is not an adequate substitute for BMI in severely obese women.

    PubMed

    Gibson, C D; Atalayer, D; Flancbaum, L; Geliebter, A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Body Adiposity Index (BAI), a new surrogate measure of body fat (hip circumference/[height 1.5-18]), has been proposed as a more accurate alternative to BMI. We compared BAI with BMI and their correlations with measures of body fat, waist circumference (WC), and indirect indices of fat pre- and post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: Sixteen clinically severe obese (CSO) non-diabetic women (age = 33.9± 7.9 SD; BMI = 46.5±9.5 kg/m(2)) were assessed pre-surgery, and at 2 (n=9) and 5 mo (n=8) post-surgery. Body fat percentage (% fat) was estimated with bioimpedance analysis (BIA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). WC, an indicator of central fat, and both plasma leptin (ng/ml) and insulin (mU/l) concentrations were measured as indirect body fat indices. Pre- and post-surgery values were analyzed with Pearson correlations and linear regressions. RESULTS: BAI and BMI correlated significantly with each other pre-surgery and at each time point post surgery. BAI and BMI also correlated significantly with % fat from BIA and ADP; however, only BMI correlated significantly with % fat from DXA pre- and post-RYGB. BMI was the single best predictor of WC and leptin at 2 and 5 mo post-surgery and had significant longitudinal changes correlating with % fat from BIA and DXA as well as with leptin. DISCUSSION: Both BAI and BMI were good surrogates of % fat as estimated from BIA and ADP, but only BMI was a good surrogate of % fat from DXA in CSO women. Thus, BAI may not be a better alternative to BMI.

  2. Brief communication: Body mass index, body adiposity index, and percent body fat in Asians.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Yonglan; Zheng, Lianbin; Yu, Keli

    2013-10-01

    Human obesity is a growing epidemic throughout the world. Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used as a good indicator of obesity. Body adiposity index (BAI = hip circumference (cm)/stature (m)(1.5) - 18), as a new surrogate measure, has been proposed recently as an alternative to BMI. This study, for the first time, compares BMI and BAI for predicting percent body fat (PBF; estimated from skinfolds) in a sample of 302 Buryat adults (148 men and 154 women) living in China. The BMI and BAI were strongly correlated with PBF in both men and women. The correlation coefficient between BMI and PBF was higher than that between BAI and PBF for both sexes. For the linear regression analysis, BMI better predicted PBF in both men and women; the variation around the regression lines for each sex was greater for BAI comparisons. For the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the ROC curve for BMI was higher than that for BAI for each sex, which suggests that the discriminatory capacity of the BMI is higher than the one of BAI. Taken together, we conclude that BMI is a more reliable indicator of PBF derived from skinfold thickness in adult Buryats.

  3. Body adiposity index and incident hypertension: The Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Moliner-Urdiales, D; Artero, E G; Sui, X; España-Romero, V; Lee, DC; Blair, S N

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim The body adiposity index (BAI) has been recently proposed as a new method to estimate the percentage of body fat. The association between BAI and hypertension risk has not been investigated yet. The aim of our study was to evaluate the ability of BAI to predict hypertension in males and females compared with traditional body adiposity measures. Methods and Results The present follow-up analysis comprised 10 309 individuals (2259 females) free of hypertension from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, who completed a baseline examination during 1988–2003. Body adiposity measures included BAI, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, percentage of body fat and waist to hip ratio (WHR). Incident hypertension was ascertained from responses to mail-back surveys between 1990 and 2004. During an average of 9.1 years of follow-up, 872 subjects (107 females) became hypertensive. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) showed that males in the highest categories of all body adiposity measures showed a higher incident risk of hypertension (HRs ranged from 1.37 to 2.09). Females showed a higher incident risk of hypertension only in the highest categories of BAI, BMI and WHR (HRs ranged from 1.84 to 3.36). Conclusion Our results suggest that in order to predict incident hypertension BAI could be considered as an alternative to traditional body adiposity measures. PMID:24974319

  4. Validation study of the body adiposity index as a predictor of percent body fat in older individuals: findings from the BLSA.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cooper, Jamie A

    2014-09-01

    A new body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5)) - 18) has been developed and validated in adult populations. We aimed to assess the validity of BAI in an older population. We compared the concordance correlation coefficient between BAI, body mass index (BMI), and percent body fat (fat%; by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in an older population (n = 954) participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. BAI was more strongly correlated with fat% than BMI (r of .7 vs .6 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) and exhibited a smaller mean difference from fat% (-5.2 vs -7.6 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) indicating better agreement. In men, however, BMI was in better agreement with fat% (r of .6 vs .7 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) with a smaller mean difference from fat% (-3.0 vs -2.2 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01). Finally, BAI did not accurately predict fat% in people with a fat% below 15%. BAI provides valid estimation of body adiposity in an older adult population; however, BMI may be a better index for older men. Finally, BAI is not accurate in people with extremely low or high body fat percentages.

  5. Predictive Validity of the Body Adiposity Index in Overweight and Obese Adults Using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo

    2016-01-01

    The body adiposity index (BAI) is a recent anthropometric measure proven to be valid in predicting body fat percentage (BF%) in some populations. However, the results have been inconsistent across populations. This study was designed to verify the validity of BAI in predicting BF% in a sample of overweight/obese adults, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the reference method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 48 participants (54% women, mean age 41.0 ± 7.3 years old). DEXA was used as the “gold standard” to determine BF%. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the association between BAI and BF%, as assessed by DEXA. A paired sample t-test was used to test differences in mean BF% obtained with BAI and DEXA methods. To evaluate the concordance between BF% as measured by DEXA and as estimated by BAI, we used Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman agreement analysis. The correlation between BF% obtained by DEXA and that estimated by BAI was r = 0.844, p < 0.001. Paired t-test showed a significant mean difference in BF% between methods (BAI = 33.3 ± 6.2 vs. DEXA 39.0 ± 6.1; p < 0.001). The bias of the BAI was −6.0 ± 3.0 BF% (95% CI = −12.0 to 1.0), indicating that the BAI method significantly underestimated the BF% compared to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was considered stronger (ρc = 0.923, 95% CI = 0.862 to 0.957). In obese adults, BAI presented low agreement with BF% measured by DEXA; therefore, BAI is not recommended for BF% prediction in this overweight/obese sample studied. PMID:27916871

  6. Predictive Validity of the Body Adiposity Index in Overweight and Obese Adults Using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo

    2016-11-30

    The body adiposity index (BAI) is a recent anthropometric measure proven to be valid in predicting body fat percentage (BF%) in some populations. However, the results have been inconsistent across populations. This study was designed to verify the validity of BAI in predicting BF% in a sample of overweight/obese adults, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the reference method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 48 participants (54% women, mean age 41.0 ± 7.3 years old). DEXA was used as the "gold standard" to determine BF%. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the association between BAI and BF%, as assessed by DEXA. A paired sample t-test was used to test differences in mean BF% obtained with BAI and DEXA methods. To evaluate the concordance between BF% as measured by DEXA and as estimated by BAI, we used Lin's concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman agreement analysis. The correlation between BF% obtained by DEXA and that estimated by BAI was r = 0.844, p < 0.001. Paired t-test showed a significant mean difference in BF% between methods (BAI = 33.3 ± 6.2 vs. DEXA 39.0 ± 6.1; p < 0.001). The bias of the BAI was -6.0 ± 3.0 BF% (95% CI = -12.0 to 1.0), indicating that the BAI method significantly underestimated the BF% compared to the reference method. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was considered stronger (ρc = 0.923, 95% CI = 0.862 to 0.957). In obese adults, BAI presented low agreement with BF% measured by DEXA; therefore, BAI is not recommended for BF% prediction in this overweight/obese sample studied.

  7. Body Shape, Adiposity Index, and Mortality in Postmenopausal Women: Findings from the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Cynthia A.; Garcia, David O.; Wertheim, Betsy C.; Hingle, Melanie D.; Bea, Jennifer W.; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Rohan, Thomas; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Thompson, Patricia A.; Lewis, Cora E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Studies evaluating the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality demonstrate a U-shaped association. To expand, this study evaluated the relationship between adiposity indices, a body shape index (ABSI) and body adiposity index (BAI), and mortality in 77,505 postmenopausal women. Methods A prospective cohort analysis was conducted in the Women’s Health Initiative to ascertain the independent relationships between adiposity indices and mortality in order to inform on the clinical usefulness of alternate measures of mortality risk. ABSI (waist circumference (cm)/[BMI2/3 × height (cm)1/2]), BAI (hip circumference (cm)/[height (m)1.5] − 18), weight, BMI, and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated in relation to mortality risk using adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results ABSI showed a linear association with mortality (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.28–1.47 for quintile 5 vs. 1) while BMI and BAI had U-shaped relationships with HR of 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20–1.40 for obesity II/III BMI and 1.06, 95% CI, 0.99–1.13 for BAI. Higher WC (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.13–1.29 for quintile 5 vs. 1) showed relationships similar to BMI. Conclusions ABSI appears to be a clinically useful measure for estimating mortality risk, perhaps more so than BAI and BMI in postmenopausal women. PMID:26991923

  8. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL-Adults Study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-01-17

    Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5))(-18)) was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF%) in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3). We used the Lin's concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland-Altman's agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and the coefficient of determination (R²) between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)). The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R² = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001). For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI) = -6.0 to 18.2), indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = -0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414). In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels.

  9. Obesity as Assessed by Body Adiposity Index and Multivariable Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Welborn, Timothy A.; Goh, Louise G. H.; Howat, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the role of body adiposity index (BAI) in predicting cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, in comparison with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and the waist circumference to hip circumference ratio (WHR). This study was a prospective 15 year mortality follow-up of 4175 Australian males, free of heart disease, diabetes and stroke. The Framingham Risk Scores (FRS) for CHD and CVD death were calculated at baseline for all subjects. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the effects of the measures of obesity on CVD and CHD mortality, before adjustment and after adjustment for FRS. The predictive ability of BAI, though present in the unadjusted analyses, was generally not significant after adjustment for age and FRS for both CVD and CHD mortality. BMI behaved similarly to BAI in that its predictive ability was generally not significant after adjustments. Both WC and WHR were significant predictors of CVD and CHD mortality and remained significant after adjustment for covariates. BAI appeared to be of potential interest as a measure of % body fat and of obesity, but was ineffective in predicting CVD and CHD. PMID:24714547

  10. The "bioeffect assessment index" (BAI). A concept for the quantification of effects of marine pollution by an integrated biomarker approach.

    PubMed

    Broeg, K; Westernhagen, H V; Zander, S; Körting, W; Koehler, A

    2005-05-01

    The "bioeffect assessment index" (BAI) is based on the integration of several pathological endpoints measured in the liver of European flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)) during a long term study of biological effects of pollution in the German Bight. The BAI represents a modification of the "health assessment index" since it includes solely validated biomarkers reflecting toxically induced alterations at different levels of biological organisation in order to quantify the effects of environmental pollution. The concept of the BAI is based on the observation of progressive deleterious effects from early responses to late effects. Specific "key events" were detected, representing progressive stages of functional deterioration. The biomarkers selected from a whole battery of cellular markers for the BAI calculation reflect deleterious effects of various classes of contaminants such as heavy metals, organochlorines, pesticides, PAHs, and therefore reflect general toxicity in an integrative manner. Selected biomarkers were: lysosomal perturbations (reduced membrane stability), storage disorders (lipid accumulation) as early markers for toxic effects of liver cells, and the size of macrophage aggregates and their acid phosphatase activity. The latter two markers are indicative for the modulation of non-specific immune response which represents longer time scale responses after chronic exposure.

  11. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL—Adults Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5))−18) was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF%) in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3). We used the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland–Altman’s agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and the coefficient of determination (R2) between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)). The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R2 = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001). For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI) = −6.0 to 18.2), indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = −0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414). In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels. PMID:28106719

  12. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Body Adiposity Index, and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in Two Populations in Brazil: General and Amerindian

    PubMed Central

    Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Mourao-Junior, Carlos Alberto; de Oliveira, Camila Maciel; Krieger, José E.; Mill, José G.; Pereira, Alexandre C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The use of the anthropometric indices of adiposity, especially body mass index and waist circumference in the prediction of diabetes mellitus has been widely explored. Recently, a new body composition index, the body adiposity index was proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of body mass index, waist circumference, and body adiposity index in the risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design and methods A total of 1,572 individuals from the general population of Vitoria City, Brazil and 620 Amerindians from the Aracruz Indian Reserve, Brazil were randomly selected. BMI, waist circumference, and BAI were determined according to a standard protocol. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by the presence of fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or by the use of antidiabetic drugs. Results The area under the curve was similar for all anthropometric indices tested in the Amerindian population, but with very different sensitivities or specificities. In women from the general population, the area under the curve of waist circumference was significantly higher than that of the body adiposity index. Regarding risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the body adiposity index was a better risk predictor than body mass index and waist circumference in the Amerindian population and was the index with highest odds ratio for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men from the general population, while in women from the general population waist circumference was the best risk predictor. Conclusion Body adiposity index was the best risk predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Amerindian population and men from the general population. Our data suggest that the body adiposity index is a useful tool for the risk assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in admixture populations. PMID:24937307

  13. Evaluation of Hip/HeightP Ratio as an Index for Adiposity and Metabolic Complications in Obese Children: Comparison with Waist-related Indices

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kenichiro; Nagahara, Keiko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Itabashi, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether body adiposity index (BAI; hip/height1.5–18), pediatric BAI (BAIp; hip/height0.8–38), and other hip/heightP ratios are useful in obese children. Method: Ninety obese Japanese children, 55 boys and 35 girls, who visited our University Clinic, were enrolled. The age was 9.92 ± 2.6 (mean ± SD) years, and the percentage overweight (POW) was 51.6 ± 18.8%. We set the power value of the hip/heightP 0, 0.5, 0.8, 1, 1.5, and 2 and studied the association with overweight indices, biochemical data, and fat area measured by computed tomography. Waist, waist/height ratio, and waist/hip ratio were also evaluated. Results: Hip/height and hip/height0.8 (BAIp) were more closely correlated with POW, body mass index percentile, and percentage body fat than hip/height1.5 (BAI). The correlation coefficient of hip/height with POW (r = 0.855) was the highest among the studied hip/heightP indices. The approximate line to predict POW was 411 × hip/height−207. The waist/height was also highly correlated with POW (r = 0.879). Hip and hip/height0.5 were more closely correlated with visceral fat area than hip/height, BAIp, and hip/height1.5. Hip and hip/height0.5 were significantly correlated with insulin. Only hip was also significantly associated with dyslipidemia. All hip/heightP indices were not significantly correlated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Waist was significantly correlated with serum lipids, ALT, and insulin. Conclusion: Hip/height and BAIp are better markers for overweight (adiposity) in obese children than BAI. However, hip/height, BAIp, and BAI are not useful to predict metabolic complications. Waist appears to be the best index for obese children overall at this time. PMID:27298049

  14. The Validity of Body Adiposity Indices in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Egyptian Women

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Kamal, Sanaa; Reyad, Hanaa; Yousef, Walaa; Hassan, Naglaa; Helwa, Iman; Kholoussi, Shams

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the associations between the body adiposity indices and risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components in Egyptian women and to evaluate their predictive power. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis performed on 180 Egyptian women aged between 25-35 years. They were 90 women with MS diagnosed by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and 90 healthy age matched controls. Body adiposity index (BAI), body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated and serum samples were analyzed for metabolic parameters. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) was used to determine the discriminatory capacity of BAI, WHR WHtR and BMI for MS. RESULTS: Area under the curve (AUC) was highest for BIA, followed by WHR, WHtR and then BMI. All adiposity indices were significantly correlated with metabolic components and BAI had the highest correlation coefficients compared to other indices. CONCLUSION: BAI is a practical predictor for MS and has satisfactory diagnostic accuracy for diagnosing MS among Egyptian women and can be used in addition to WHR, WHtR and BMI for identifying MS in the field studies. PMID:27275324

  15. Predictive performance of the visceral adiposity index for a visceral adiposity-related risk: Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Visceral adiposity index (VAI) has recently been developed based on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), triglycerides (TGs), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). We examined predictive performances for incident diabetes of the VAI per se and as compared to the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR). Methods Participants free of diabetes at baseline with at least one follow-up examination (5,964) were included for the current study. Weibull regression models were developed for interval-censored survival data. Absolute and relative integrated discriminatory improvement index (IDI) and cut-point-based and cut-point-free net reclassification improvement index (NRI) were used as measures of predictive ability for incident diabetes added by VAI, as compared to the MetS and WHtR. Results The annual incidence rate of diabetes was 0.85 per 1000 person. Mean VAI was 3.06 (95%CIs 2.99-3.13). Diabetes risk factors levels increased in stepwise fashion across VAI quintiles. Risk gradient between the highest and lowest quintile of VAI was 4.5 (95%CIs 3.0-6.9). VAI significantly improved predictive ability of the MetS. The relative IDI and cut-point free NRI for predictive ability added to MetS by VAI were 30.3% (95%CIs 18.8-41.8%) and 30.7% (95%CIs 20.8-40.7%), respectively. WHtR, outperformed VAI with cut-point-free NRI of 24.6% (95%CIs 14.1-35.2%). Conclusions In conclusion, although VAI could be a prognostic tool for incident diabetes events, gathering information on its components (WC, BMI, TGs, and HDL-C) is unlikely to improve the prediction ability beyond what could be achieved by the simply assessable and commonly available information on WHtR. PMID:21619588

  16. Influence of glycemic index and glycemic load of the diet on the risk of overweight and adiposity in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Kellen Cristine; Nobre, Luciana Neri; Vicente, Sofia Emanuelle de Castro Ferreira; Moreira, Lidiane Lopes; Lessa, Angelina do Carmo; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between the glycemic index and the glycemic load of the diet with the risk of overweight and high adiposity in children with 5 years of age. Methods: Cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of 232 children born and living in Diamantina (MG, Brazil). Parents and/or guardians provided the food intake data, using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, past history and socioeconomic conditions. Anthropometric and fatness data were collected from the children. The dietary glycemic index and the glycemic load were calculated from the food intake. The glycemic index and glycemic load effect on overweight and adiposity in children was assessed by the Poisson regression (p<0.05). Results: The prevalence of overweight by body mass index was 17.3%, and high adiposity was observed in 3.4% and 6.9% by triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold, respectively. No difference was reported between the mean body mass index, triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold according to the glycemic index and glycemic load tertiles; however, the overweight group presented a higher carbohydrate intake (p=0.04). No association was found between glycemic index and glycemic load with overweight and adiposity among the children assessed. Conclusions: The glycemic index and glycemic load of the diet were not identified as risk factors for overweight and adiposity in this cross-sectional study. PMID:27215968

  17. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, K. M.; Paiva, L. L.; Sanchez, S. E.; Revilla, L.; Lopez, T.; Yasuda, M. B.; Yanez, N. D.; Gelaye, B.; Williams, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG). For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS. PMID:21331161

  18. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J.; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies.

  19. Anthropometric measures of adiposity as correlates of atherogenic index of plasma in non-obese sedentary Nigerian males.

    PubMed

    Ezeukwu, Antoninus O; Agwubike, Elias O

    2014-01-01

    Background The increase in cardiovascular events has necessitated the identification of possible predictors that can help in predicting atherogenicity. Objective The study sought to identify the anthropometric measures of adiposity that are associated with atherogenic risk in sedentary, non-obese, young male adults. Methods A cross-sectional design was used to recruit a purposive sample of 414 sedentary males in a university campus. Anthropometric measures of adiposity, lipid parameters, and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) were assessed. Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression were used to analyze the data collected. Alpha level was set at p<0.05. Results There was a high risk of cardiovascular events (AIP=0.36±0.04 SD) among the participants. A significant correlation (p=0.000) was obtained between each of the anthropometric measures (except conicity index) and AIP. Body mass index, body adiposity index, and percent body fat were significant predictors accounting for 38.9, 3.1, and 2.2% of the variance due to AIP. Conclusions Sedentary status among young males is associated with high atherogenic risk in the presence of normal lipid and anthropometric parameters. Both central and general measures of adiposity predict less than half of the atherogenic risk in sedentary young males.

  20. Discriminatory Ability of Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) in Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome: A Population Based Study.

    PubMed

    Motamed, N; Khonsari, M R; Rabiee, B; Ajdarkosh, H; Hemasi, G R; Sohrabi, M R; Maadi, M; Zamani, F

    2017-03-01

    Background Visceral adiposity index (VAI) has been suggested as an index of visceral adiposity. This study was conducted to determine the discriminatory ability of VAI in diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods and materials We used the data of 5 312 subjects aged 18-74 years of a cohort study conducted among 6 140 individuals aged 10-90 years in Amol, northern Iran. The city population was divided into 16 strata based on gender and age groups in 10-year intervals. The subjects were randomly selected from each stratum. MetS was defined based on National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATPIII), American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) update of Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and joint interim statement (JIS) definitions. The discriminatory ability of VAI and other obesity measures were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results While waist circumference (WC) showed the highest discriminatory ability for MetS in IDF definition in men (AUC=0.899 [CI=0.888-0.910]), VAI had the greatest discriminatory ability according to other definitions in men and women. The related AUCs of VAI were 0.866 (95%CI: 0.850-0.881), 0.829 (95%CI: 0.813-0.846), 0.859 (95%CI: 0.844-0.873) and 0.876 (95%CI: 0.863-0.889) based on NCEP/ATPIII, AHA/NHLBI update of ATPIII, IDF and JIS definition in men, and also 0.888 (95%CI: 0.875-0.902), 0.894 (95%CI: 0.881-0.907), 0.883 (95%CI: 0.869-0.897) and 0.879 (95%CI: 0.864-0.894) in women, respectively. Conclusion VAI showed an excellent discriminatory ability in diagnosis of MetS. Considering its relatively simple calculation, this index could be suggested as a reliable tool in medical practice.

  1. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Melissa A; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies. PMID:24634735

  2. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index-adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, S B; Peterson, C M; Thomas, D M; Heo, M; Schuna, J M

    2016-03-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations.

  3. Applicability of the visceral adiposity index (VAI) in predicting components of metabolic syndrome in young adults.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Jéssica; Vogel, Patrícia; Eckhardt, Cristiane; Morelo, Simone Dal Bosco

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: El síndrome metabólico (SM) es uno de los principales factores de riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV), y la identificación de sus componentes en los adultos jóvenes puede constituir una importante herramienta de prevención. Objetivo: Analizar la aplicabilidad del Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) para la predicción de componentes del SM en adultos jóvenes. Métodos: Estudio transversal con 444 individuos, edad 25,6 ± 6,5, 77,7% del sexo femenino. Se obtuvieron datos sobre el peso, talla, circunferencia de cintura (CC), el porcentaje de grasa corporal (%GC), glucemia, triglicéridos (TG), colesterol total (CT), colesterol HDL (HDL-c), colesterol LDL (LDL-c), y la presión arterial (PA), así como información sobre sus estilos de vida. Se calculó Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC), la proporción de cintura a la altura (PCA) y VAI. Mediciones de adiposidad se compararon con los componentes del SM, y por VAI, se determinó la capacidad predictiva de ocurrencia de los componentes de SM y el área a bajo la curva ROC. Resultados: VAI se correlaciona a la glucosa (r= 0,136), HDL-c (r=-436) y TG (r=0,825) en las mujeres y entre los hombres, se correlaciona a la glucosa (r=0,258), HDL-c (r=-0,550), TG (r=0,897), y la PAD (r= 0,290). Un aumento de VAI se asoció a un mayor riesgo de obesidad abdominal (OR=1,86), hipertrigliceridemia (OR=30,74), y bajo HDL-c (OR=3,95). Entre los indicadores de obesidad, VAI presentó una mayor área bajo la curva de aumento de triglicéridos y bajos niveles de HDL-c. Conclusión: VAI presentó una asociación a los componentes del SM en hombres, y em mujeres con un mayor riesgo de obesidad abdominal, hipertrigliceridemia y bajos niveles de HDL-c, demostrando ser un buen predictor de componentes de SM, incluso entre adultos jóvenes sanos.

  4. The effect of ponderal index at birth on the relationships between common LEP and LEPR polymorphisms and adiposity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Labayen, Idoia; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Moreno, Luis A; Ortega, Francisco B; Beghin, Laurent; DeHenauw, Stefaan; Benito, Pedro J; Diaz, Ligia E; Ferrari, Marika; Moschonis, George; Kafatos, Anthony; Molnar, Dénes; Widhalm, Kurt; Dallongeville, Jean; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the effect of ponderal index (PI) at birth on the relationships between eight common polymorphisms of the leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes and adiposity in adolescents. A total of 823 European adolescents (45.4% girls) aged 14.8 ± 1.4 years were genotyped for the LEP (rs2167270, rs12706832, rs10244329, rs2071045, and rs3828942) and LEPR (rs1137100, rs1137101, and rs8179183) polymorphisms. The PI was calculated from parental reports of birth weight and length. Fat mass index (FMI) was calculated. Analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders. An "adiposity-risk-allele score" based on genotypes at the three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with adolescents' FMI in adolescents within the lower tertile of PI was calculated. The LEP rs10244329 and rs3828942 polymorphisms were associated with higher FMI only in adolescents within the lower PI tertile (+0.55 kg/m(2) per minor T allele, P = 0.040, and +0.58 kg/m(2) per major G allele, P = 0.028, respectively). The LEPR rs8179183 polymorphism was significantly associated with higher FMI in adolescents within the lower PI tertile (+0.87 kg/m(2) per minor C allele, P = 0.006). After correction for multiple comparisons, only the association between the LEPR rs8179183 and FMI persisted. However, each additional risk allele conferred 0.53 kg/m(2) greater FMI in adolescents within the lower tertile of PI (P = 0.008). In conclusion, our results suggest that those adolescents born with lower PI could be more vulnerable to the influence of the LEP rs10244329 and rs3828942 polymorphisms and LEPR rs8179183 polymorphism on total adiposity content. Due to the relatively small sample size, these findings should be replicated in further larger population samples.

  5. Functional analysis of seven genes linked to body mass index and adiposity by genome-wide association studies: a review.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a total of about 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that show significant linkage to body mass index, a widely utilised surrogate measure of adiposity. However, only 8 of these associations have been confirmed by follow-up GWAS using more sophisticated measures of adiposity (computed tomography). Among these 8, there is a SNP close to the gene FTO which has been the subject of considerable work to diagnose its function. The remaining 7 SNPs are adjacent to, or within, the genes NEGR1, TMEM18, ETV5, FLJ35779, LINGO2, SH2B1 and GIPR, most of which are less well studied than FTO, particularly in the context of obesity. This article reviews the available data on the functions of these genes, including information gleaned from studies in humans and animal models. At present, we have virtually no information on the putative mechanism associating the genes FLJ35779 and LINGO2 to obesity. All of these genes are expressed in the brain, and for 2 of them (SH2B1 and GIPR), a direct link to the appetite regulation system is known. SH2B1 is an enhancer of intracellular signalling in the JAK-STAT pathway, and GIPR is the receptor for an appetite-linked hormone (GIP) produced by the alimentary tract. NEGR1, ETV5 and SH2B1 all have suggested roles in neurite outgrowth, and hence SNPs adjacent to these genes may affect development of the energy balance circuitry. Although the genes have central patterns of gene expression, implying a central neuronal connection to energy balance, for at least 4 of them (NEGR1, TMEM18, SH2B1 and GIPR), there are also significant peripheral functions related to adipose tissue biology. These functions may contribute to their effects on the obese phenotype.

  6. Adiposity Indexes as Phenotype-Specific Markers of Preclinical Metabolic Alterations and Cardiovascular Risk in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Mario, Fernanda Missio; Graff, Scheila Karen; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2017-02-15

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition in women of reproductive age. 2 PCOS phenotypes (classic and ovulatory) are currently recognized as the most prevalent, with important differences in terms of cardiometabolic features. We studied the performance of different adiposity indexes to predict preclinical metabolic alterations and cardiovascular risk in 234 women with PCOS (173 with classic and 61 with ovulatory PCOS) and 129 controls. Performance of waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, conicity index, lipid accumulation product, and visceral adiposity index was assessed based on HOMA-IR ≥ 3.8 as reference standard for screening preclinical metabolic alterations and cardiovascular risk factors in each group. Lipid accumulation product had the best accuracy for classic PCOS, and visceral adiposity index had the best accuracy for ovulatory PCOS. By applying the cutoff point of lipid accumulation product<34, we identified a subgroup of patients without cardiometabolic alterations (P<0.05) in the group with classic PCOS, a population at higher risk for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance. In ovulatory PCOS, visceral adiposity index ≥ 1.32 was capable of detecting women with significantly higher blood pressure and less favorable glycemic and lipid variables as compared to ovulatory PCOS with lower visceral adiposity index (P<0.05). These results suggest LAP ≥ 34 as the best marker for classic PCOS, and VAI ≥ 1.32 for ovulatory PCOS women. Both indexes can be easily calculated with measures obtained in routine clinical practice and may be useful to detect cardiometabolic risk and secure early interventions.

  7. Acknowledging the importance of BAI accounts.

    PubMed

    Levin, Steve

    2011-09-01

    For hospitals, balance after insurance (BAI) refers to revenue from uninsured patients and from patients with patient responsibility after insurance. BAI is a rapidly growing share of hospital revenue as a result of substitution from high-deductible commercial insurance plans-revenue that tends to convert to cash relatively easily and quickly-meaning that an increasing share of hospital cash flow is now due from the patient. Hospitals should make sure that their self-pay patients receive excellent customer service: It not only improves the likelihood of a greater yield, but also-perhaps more important-helps ensure customer loyalty and willingness to recommend the facility to others.

  8. Effect of orlistat alone or in combination with Garcinia cambogia on visceral adiposity index in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-kuraishy, Hayder M.; Al-Gareeb, Ali I.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of orlistat alone and in combination with Garcinia cambogia on visceral adiposity index (VAI) in obese patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 99 obese male patients were recruited with aged range between 37 and 46 years. They were randomized into three equal groups, first group treated with orlistat 120 mg/day, second group treated with G. cambogia 166 mg/day, and third group treated with orlistat 120 mg/day plus G. cambogia 166 mg/day. The duration of the treatments was three consecutive months. Body mass index (BMI), VAI, blood pressure, blood glucose, total lipid profile, atherogenic index, and cardiac risk ratio were recorded at baseline and after 3 months. Results: The treatment with G. cambogia leads to reduction in VAI P < 0.05, whereas orlistat has a beneficial effect on cardiometabolic profiles without a reduction in VAI P > 0.05. Combined therapy of G. cambogia plus orlistat showed the more significant effect in reduction of VAI P < 0.05, cardiometabolic profiles and anthropometric measures P < 0.01 compared to pretreatment period. Conclusion: Combination of G. cambogia with orlistat lead to more significant effect than orlistat alone in amelioration of cardiometabolic profile and VAI in obese patients. PMID:27757272

  9. Prognostic significance of the Complex "Visceral Adiposity Index" vs. simple anthropometric measures: Tehran lipid and glucose study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Visceral adiposity index (VAI) has recently been suggested to be used as a surrogate of visceral adiposity. We examined if VAI could improve predictive performances for CVD of the Framingham's general CVD algorithm (a multivariate model incorporating established CVD risk factors). We compared the predictive abilities of the VAI with those of simple anthropometric measures i.e. BMI, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) or waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR). Design and methods In a nine-year population-based follow-up, 6 407 (2 778 men) participants, free of CVD at baseline, aged ≥ 30 years were eligible for the current analysis. The risk of CVD was estimated by incorporating VAI, BMI, WHpR, and WHtR, one at a time, into multivariate accelerated failure time models. Results We documented 534 CVD events with the annual incidence rate (95%CIs) being 7.3 (6.4-8.3) among women and 13.0 (11.7-14.6) among men. Risk of future CVD increased with increasing levels of VAI among both men and women. VAI was associated with multivariate-adjusted increased risk of incident CVD among women. However, the magnitude of risk conferred by VAI was not significantly higher than those conferred by BMI, WHpR, or WHtR. Among men, after adjustment for established CVD risk factors, VAI was no longer associated with increased risk of CVD. VAI failed to add to the predictive ability of the Framingham general CVD algorithm. Conclusions Using VAI instead of simple anthropometric measures may lead to loss of much information needed for predicting incident CVD. PMID:22394430

  10. Visceral Adiposity Index and Lipid Accumulation Product Index: Two Alternate Body Indices to Identify Chronic Kidney Disease among the Rural Population in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Dongxue; Chang, Ye; Chen, Yintao; Chen, Shuang; Yu, Shasha; Guo, Xiaofan; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare the relative strength of the association between anthropometric obesity indices and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Another objective was to examine whether the visceral adiposity index (VAI) and lipid accumulation product index (LAPI) can identify CKD in the rural population of China. There were 5168 males and 6024 females involved in this cross-sectional study, and 237 participants (2.12%) suffered from CKD. Obesity indices included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), VAI and LAPI. VAI and LAPI were calculated with triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), BMI and WC. VAI = [WC/39.68 + (1.88 × BMI)] × (TG /1.03) × (1.31/ HDL) for males; VAI = [WC/36.58 + (1.89 × BMI)] × (TG/0.81) × (1.52/HDL) for females. LAPI = (WC-65) × TG for males, LAPI = (WC-58) × TG for females. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. The prevalence of CKD increased across quartiles for WHtR, VAI and LAPI. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of the presence of CKD for the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile of each anthropometric measure showed that the VAI was the best predictor of CKD in females (OR: 4.21, 95% CI: 2.09–8.47, p < 0.001). VAI showed the highest AUC for CKD (AUC: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.65–0.72) and LAPI came second (AUC: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.61–0.70) in females compared with BMI (both p-values < 0.001). However, compared with the traditional index of the BMI, the anthropometric measures VAI, LAPI, WC, and WHtR had no statistically significant capacity to predict CKD in males. Our results showed that both VAI and LAPI were significantly associated with CKD in the rural population of northeast China. Furthermore, VAI and LAPI were superior to BMI, WC and WHtR for predicting CKD only in females. PMID:27983609

  11. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age—Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Horan, Mary K.; McGowan, Ciara A.; Gibney, Eileen R.; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age. PMID:26742066

  12. Visceral Adiposity and Anthropometric Indicators as Screening Tools of Metabolic Syndrome among Low Income Rural Adults in Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shu-xia; Zhang, Xiang-hui; Zhang, Jing-yu; He, Jia; Yan, Yi-zhong; Ma, Jiao-long; Ma, Ru-lin; Guo, Heng; Mu, La-ti; Li, Shu-gang; Niu, Qiang; Rui, Dong-sheng; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jia-ming; Wang, Kui; Xu, Shang-zhi; Gao, Xiang; Ding, Yu-song

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on metabolic syndrome (MetS) examined urban and high income settings. We thus investigated the prevalence of MetS among a multi-ethnic population living in a low income rural area and explored the use of visceral adiposity and anthropometric indicators to identify men and women with MetS. We recruited 10,029 individuals of nomadic Kazakhs, rural Uyghur and Han residents in Xinjiang, China. MetS was defined by the Joint Interim Statement criteria. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to compare the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of each index. The age-adjusted prevalence of MetS was 21.8%. The visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), body adiposity index (BAI) and the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were significantly associated with MetS, independent of ethnic, age, and other covariates. The AUC of VAI, LAP and WHtR were all greater than 0.7, and the LAP was the index that most accurately identified MetS status in men (AUC = 0.853) and women (AUC = 0.817), with the optimal cut-offs of 34.7 and 27.3, respectively. In conclusion, the prevalence of MetS in low income rural adults of Xinjiang was high and the LAP was an effective indicator for the screening of MetS. PMID:27782221

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PPARD +294T > C (rs2016520) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 609 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 573 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the PPARD +294T > C polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.001 for all). The frequency of T and C alleles was 77.50% and 22.50% in Bai Ku Yao, and 72.43% and 27.57% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequency of TT, TC and CC genotypes was 60.59%, 33.83% and 5.53% in Bai Ku Yao, and 52.18%, 40.50% and 7.32% in Han (P < 0.05); respectively. The subjects with CC genotype in Bai Ku Yao had higher serum LDL-C and ApoB levels and lower the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the subjects with TT and TC genotypes in females but not in males. The C allele carriers in Han had higher serum TC levels in males (P < 0.01) and ApoB levels in females (P < 0.05) than the C allele noncarriers. Serum TC and ApoB levels were correlated with genotypes in Han (P < 0.05 for each) but not in Bai Ku Yao. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups. Conclusions These results suggest that the association of PPARD +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is

  14. Polymorphism of rs1044925 in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) gene and serum lipid profiles is not well known in different ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was carried out to clarify the association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 626 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 624 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A and C alleles was 79.0% and 21.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 87.3% and 12.7% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of AA, AC and CC genotypes was 63.2%, 31.4% and 5.2% in Bai Ku Yao, and 75.6%, 23.2% and 1.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were different between the AA and AC/CC genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). The C allele carriers had lower serum TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels as compared with the C allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were correlated with genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that the polymorphism of rs1044925 in the ACAT-1 gene is mainly associated with female serum TC, LDL-C and

  15. Adiposity indices in children.

    PubMed

    Rolland-Cachera, M F; Sempé, M; Guilloud-Bataille, M; Patois, E; Péquignot-Guggenbuhl, F; Fautrad, V

    1982-07-01

    On the basis of a longitudinal study of growth in French children, we attempted to find a valid index for estimating adiposity, and to specify the optimal conditions for its use. The Quetelet index was found suitable for application to children, but as with all methods, a certain lack of precision proved unavoidable because of the different stages of growth observed at a given age. For use by clinicians, we provide charts, based on the Quetelet index and on age, permitting estimation of adiposity in any child on the basis of longitudinal study measurements. For use by epidemiologists, we give standard values for studying groups of subjects, even when a reference population is not available. Body adiposity may be expressed independently of age and sex.

  16. Transformation of Consciousness: Decoding Conceptual Metaphors in Mira Bai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrita; Anisha

    2016-01-01

    Mira Bai, a saint-poet of North India is an important figure in medieval Hindi literature. Her "bhajan"-s (songs) profoundly represent the transforming of consciousness working through conceptual metaphors which fall in the realm of religious poetry wherein target domains are generally abstract. Since, the working of the mind is more…

  17. Influence of high-normal serum TSH levels on major cardiovascular risk factors and Visceral Adiposity Index in euthyroid type 2 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Giandalia, A; Russo, G T; Romeo, E L; Alibrandi, A; Villari, P; Mirto, A A; Armentano, G; Benvenga, S; Cucinotta, D

    2014-09-01

    Although several observations indicate that serum TSH levels in the high normal range are related to cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors in the general population, similar data are limited in diabetic subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential associations between TSH serum levels within the normal range and major metabolic and non-metabolic CVD risk factors in a cohort of euthyroid type 2 diabetic subjects. Thyroid hormones, TSH levels, anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose control, and blood pressure were measured in 490 euthyroid type 2 diabetic subjects, consecutively attending two outpatient diabetic units in Southern Italy. In all subjects, we also calculated the Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI), an obesity-related index associated with CVD risk. Diabetic women showed higher mean serum TSH levels and lower FT4 concentration than diabetic men, while FT3 levels were comparable in the two genders. Stratifying the study population according to quartiles of TSH levels, subjects in the highest TSH quartile were more likely to be female and younger, with higher values of BMI and waist circumference (P = 0.05 both), higher triglycerides (P = 0.002) and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.01), higher VAI values (P = 0.02), and lower FT4 levels (P = 0.05), when compared to those in the lowest quartile. At multivariate analysis, a younger age, female gender, triglycerides levels, and waist circumference were independently associated with higher TSH levels. In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic subjects with no evidence of thyroid disease, higher TSH concentrations within the normal range were more frequent in women and in younger subjects, and they were associated with visceral obesity and higher triglycerides concentrations, two well-known CVD risk factors.

  18. Increased Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Independent of Body Adiposity in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Controls in falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Acquah, Samuel; Boampong, Johnson Nyarko; Eghan Jnr, Benjamin Ackon

    2016-01-01

    Information on the extent to which oxidative stress and inflammation occur in the presence of falciparum malaria and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the same individual is limited. This study sought to investigate the extent of inflammation and oxidative stress in adult uncomplicated malaria by measuring fasting levels of lipid peroxides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and total antioxidant power (TAP) before and during falciparum malaria, in 100 respondents with type 2 diabetes and 100 age-matched controls in the Cape Coast metropolis of Ghana. Also, body adiposity index, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio were computed. Before and during falciparum malaria, diabetes patients exhibited higher (P < 0.05) levels of CRP and peroxides than controls but TAP and BAI were comparable (P > 0.05) between the two groups. Baseline CRP correlated positively (r = 0.341, P = 0.002) with peroxide only in the diabetic group. During malaria, TAP level in both study groups declined (P < 0.05) by 80% of their baseline levels. CRP correlated negatively (r = −0.352, P = 0.011) with TAP in the control but not the diabetic group. Uncomplicated falciparum malaria elevated inflammation and peroxidation but decreased antioxidant power independent of adiposity. This finding may have implication on cardiovascular health. PMID:27298824

  19. Visceral adiposity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Heno F; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Egan, Brent M

    2016-01-01

    The association of anthropometric (waist circumference) and hemodynamic (blood pressure) changes with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism has been motivation for a lot of discussions in the last 30 years. Nowadays, blood pressure, body mass index/abdominal circumference, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are considered in the definition of Metabolic syndrome, referred as Visceral adiposity syndrome (VAS) in the present review. However, more than 250 years ago an association between visceral and mediastinal obesity with hypertension, gout, and obstructive apnea had already been recognized. Expansion of visceral adipose tissue secondary to chronic over-consumption of calories stimulates the recruitment of macrophages, which assume an inflammatory phenotype and produce cytokines that directly interfere with insulin signaling, resulting in insulin resistance. In turn, insulin resistance (IR) manifests itself in various tissues, contributing to the overall phenotype of VAS. For example, in white adipose tissue, IR results in lipolysis, increased free fatty acids release and worsening of inflammation, since fatty acids can bind to Toll-like receptors. In the liver, IR results in increased hepatic glucose production, contributing to hyperglycemia; in the vascular endothelium and kidney, IR results in vasoconstriction, sodium retention and, consequently, arterial hypertension. Other players have been recognized in the development of VAS, such as genetic predisposition, epigenetic factors associated with exposure to an unfavourable intrauterine environment and the gut microbiota. More recently, experimental and clinical studies have shown the autonomic nervous system participates in modulating visceral adipose tissue. The sympathetic nervous system is related to adipose tissue function and differentiation through beta1, beta2, beta3, alpha1, and alpha2 adrenergic receptors. The relation is bidirectional: sympathetic denervation of

  20. Adipose tissue stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 index is increased and linoleic acid is decreased in obesity-prone rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty acid (FA) composition and desaturase indices are associated with obesity and related metabolic conditions. However, it is unclear to what extent desaturase activity in different lipid fractions contribute to obesity susceptibility. Our aim was to test whether desaturase activity and FA composition are linked to an obese phenotype in rats that are either obesity prone (OP) or resistant (OR) on a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods Two groups of Sprague–Dawley rats were given ad libitum (AL-HFD) or calorically restricted (HFD-paired; pair fed to calories consumed by chow-fed rats) access to a HFD. The AL-HFD group was categorized into OP and OR sub-groups based on weight gain over 5 weeks. Five different lipid fractions were examined in OP and OR rats with regard to proportions of essential and very long-chain polyunsaturated FAs: linoleic acid (LA), alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) product 16:1n-7. FA ratios were used to estimate activities of the delta-5-desaturase (20:4n-6/20:3n-6), delta-6-desaturase (18:3n-6/18:2n-6), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1; 16:1n-7/16:0, SCD-16 and 18:1n-9/18:0, SCD-18), de novo lipogenesis (16:0/18:2n-6) and FA elongation (18:0/16:0). Fasting insulin, glucose, adiponectin and leptin concentrations were measured in plasma. Results After AL-HFD access, OP rats had a significantly higher SCD-16 index and 16:1n-7 proportion, but a significantly lower LA proportion, in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) triacylglycerols, as well as significantly higher insulin and leptin concentrations, compared with OR rats. No differences were found between the two phenotypes in liver (phospholipids; triacylglycerols) or plasma (cholesterol esters; phospholipids) lipid fractions or for plasma glucose or adiponectin concentrations. For the desaturase indices of the HFD-paired rats, the only significant differences compared with the OP or OR rats were higher SCD-16 and

  1. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Bai and Han ethnic groups in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Li, H-L; Dong, L; Li, Q; Zhang, L; Chen, J; Zou, F-C; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-03-01

    Eating raw pork and/or liver is a custom of the Bai ethnic group in China. Most people living in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, southwestern China are of Bai ethnicity. Little is known of the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Bai and Han ethnic populations in this region. In the present survey, a total of 555 and 595 blood samples were obtained from Bai and Han ethnic groups in Dali urban and rural areas, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to examine T. gondii IgG antibodies. Total positive rate of anti-T. gondii IgG in Bai and Han groups in this region was 21·6% (248/1150). The total seroprevalence of T. gondii was significantly higher in the Bai ethnic group (32·3%, 179/555) than in the Han ethnic group (11·6%, 69/595) (P < 0·01). The results of statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between cat feeding/non-cat feeding groups in the Bai ethnic group, the most important risk factor was consumption of raw pork and/or liver for the Bai group, but feeding a cat may be the main route of T. gondii infection for the Han group. Therefore, it is essential to implement integrated strategies to prevent and control T. gondii infection in this unique region of the world.

  2. G-protein coupled receptor BAI3 promotes myoblast fusion in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Hamoud, Noumeira; Tran, Viviane; Croteau, Louis-Philippe; Kania, Artur; Côté, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Muscle fibers form as a result of myoblast fusion, yet the cell surface receptors regulating this process are unknown in vertebrates. In Drosophila, myoblast fusion involves the activation of the Rac pathway by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Myoblast City and its scaffolding protein ELMO, downstream of cell-surface cell-adhesion receptors. We previously showed that the mammalian ortholog of Myoblast City, DOCK1, functions in an evolutionarily conserved manner to promote myoblast fusion in mice. In search for regulators of myoblast fusion, we identified the G-protein coupled receptor brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor (BAI3) as a cell surface protein that interacts with ELMO. In cultured cells, BAI3 or ELMO1/2 loss of function severely impaired myoblast fusion without affecting differentiation and cannot be rescued by reexpression of BAI3 mutants deficient in ELMO binding. The related BAI protein family member, BAI1, is functionally distinct from BAI3, because it cannot rescue the myoblast fusion defects caused by the loss of BAI3 function. Finally, embryonic muscle precursor expression of a BAI3 mutant unable to bind ELMO was sufficient to block myoblast fusion in vivo. Collectively, our findings provide a role for BAI3 in the relay of extracellular fusion signals to their intracellular effectors, identifying it as an essential transmembrane protein for embryonic vertebrate myoblast fusion. PMID:24567399

  3. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The aim of the present study was to eveluate the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 780 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 686 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 77.4% and 22.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 60.9% and 39.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 58.7%, 37.3% and 4.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 32.6%, 56.4% and 11.0% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC and LDL-C in both ethnic groups were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01). The T allele carriers had higher serum TC and LDL-C levels than the T allele noncarriers. The levels of ApoB in Han were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum ApoB levels as compared with the T allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, TG and LDL-C in Bai Ku Yao were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001), whereas the levels of LDL-C in Han were associated with genotypes (P < 0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in the both ethnic

  4. Language Contact as Bilingual Contrast among Bai Language Users in Jianchuan County, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefright, Brook Emerson

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores Bai language use in Jianchuan County, China. On the basis of interviews with 42 language users, transcripts of spontaneous conversation and elicited narratives, excerpts from Bai texts in an alphabetic orthography and Chinese characters, and six months of participant observation, I demonstrate how language users'…

  5. Adiposity rebound in children: a simple indicator for predicting obesity.

    PubMed

    Rolland-Cachera, M F; Deheeger, M; Bellisle, F; Sempé, M; Guilloud-Bataille, M; Patois, E

    1984-01-01

    To follow and predict the evolution of adiposity during growth, individual adiposity curves, assessed by the weight/height2 index, were drawn for 151 children from the age of 1 month to 16 yr. Adiposity increases during the 1st yr and then decreases. A renewed rise, termed here the adiposity rebound, occurs at about 6 yr. Individual weight/height2 curves may differ regarding their percentile range level and age at adiposity rebound. The present study shows a relationship between the age at adiposity rebound and final adiposity. An early rebound (before 5.5 yr) is followed by a significantly higher adiposity level than a later rebound (after 7 yr). This phenomenon is observed whatever the subject's adiposity at 1 yr. The present observations might be connected with the cellularity of adipose tissue.

  6. The Beneficial Effects of Combined Grape Pomace and Omija Fruit Extracts on Hyperglycemia, Adiposity and Hepatic Steatosis in db/db Mice: A Comparison with Major Index Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Su-Jung; Park, Hae-Jin; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Moon, Byoung Seok; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of combined grape pomace and omija fruit extracts (GO) on diabetes-related metabolic changes in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. The effects of GO were compared with those of a resveratrol and schizandrin mixture (RS), which is a mixture of major components of GO. Mice were fed a normal diet with RS (0.005% resveratrol and 0.02% schizandrin in diet, w/w) or GO (0.3% grape pomace ethanol extract and 0.05% omija fruit ethanol extract in diet, w/w) for seven weeks. RS and GO not only lowered the levels of blood and plasma glucose, HbA1c, insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with a simultaneous decrease in hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes activities and adiposity, but also improved preservation of the pancreatic β-cells. Plasma leptin and resistin levels were lower while the plasma adiponectin level was higher in the RS and GO groups than in the control group. Especially, GO increased hepatic glucokinase activity and gene expression and improved hepatic steatosis by elevating fatty acid oxidation compared to RS. These findings suggest that GO ameliorates hyperglycemia, adiposity and hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetic mice. PMID:25272231

  7. Classification of different degrees of adiposity in sedentary rats

    PubMed Central

    Leopoldo, A.S.; Lima-Leopoldo, A.P.; Nascimento, A.F.; Luvizotto, R.A.M.; Sugizaki, M.M.; Campos, D.H.S.; da Silva, D.C.T.; Padovani, C.R.; Cicogna, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    In experimental studies, several parameters, such as body weight, body mass index, adiposity index, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, have commonly been used to demonstrate increased adiposity and investigate the mechanisms underlying obesity and sedentary lifestyles. However, these investigations have not classified the degree of adiposity nor defined adiposity categories for rats, such as normal, overweight, and obese. The aim of the study was to characterize the degree of adiposity in rats fed a high-fat diet using cluster analysis and to create adiposity intervals in an experimental model of obesity. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were fed a normal (n=41) or a high-fat (n=43) diet for 15 weeks. Obesity was defined based on the adiposity index; and the degree of adiposity was evaluated using cluster analysis. Cluster analysis allowed the rats to be classified into two groups (overweight and obese). The obese group displayed significantly higher total body fat and a higher adiposity index compared with those of the overweight group. No differences in systolic blood pressure or nonesterified fatty acid, glucose, total cholesterol, or triglyceride levels were observed between the obese and overweight groups. The adiposity index of the obese group was positively correlated with final body weight, total body fat, and leptin levels. Despite the classification of sedentary rats into overweight and obese groups, it was not possible to identify differences in the comorbidities between the two groups. PMID:26909787

  8. Xuan Bai Cheng Qi formula as an adjuvant treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of the syndrome type phlegm-heat obstructing the lungs: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat AECOPD as adjunctive therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the TCM formula Xuan Bai Cheng Qi as an adjuvant therapy for AECOPD patients with the syndrome type of phlegm-heat obstructing the lungs. Methods A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. A total of 244 patients were divided into the intervention group (n = 122, treated with conventional medicine and Xuan Bai Cheng Qi) and the control group (n = 122, treated with conventional medicine and placebo). Total symptom scores (cough, phlegm, wheezing, chest congestion) before treatment and at 3, 5, 7, 10 days post-treatment were recorded. Lung function, arterial blood gas, serum inflammatory cytokines, oxidation/anti-oxidation index were observed before treatment and at the end of the 10-day treatment. Results A total of 242 patients completed the study. The full analysis set (FAS) population was 244 and the per-protocol analysis set (PPS) population was 229. After the 10-day treatment, symptom scores of the Xuan Bai Cheng Qi group were significantly lower over time compared with the control group (FAS: mean difference -1.84, 95% CI -2.66 to -1.03, P < .001; PPS: mean difference -1.87, 95% CI -2.71 to -1.03, P < .001). FEV1, FVC, and FEV1%pred were significantly higher over time in the Xuan Bai Cheng Qi group compared with those in the control group (day 10, FAS and PPS: P < .05). PaO2 and PaCO2 were significantly improved in the Xuan Bai Cheng Qi group (day 10, FAS and PPS: P < .05). Xuan Bai Cheng Qi was also found to ameliorate cytokine levels and oxidation/antioxidant index compared with placebo. There were no differences in safety variables and adverse events between the two groups. Conclusions Xuan Bai Cheng Qi formula appears to be a

  9. BAI1 Orchestrates Macrophage Inflammatory Response to HSV Infection-Implications for Oncolytic Viral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Bolyard, Chelsea; Meisen, W Hans; Banasavadi-Siddegowda, Yeshavanth; Hardcastle, Jayson; Yoo, Ji Young; Wohleb, Eric S; Wojton, Jeffrey; Yu, Jun-Ge; Dubin, Samuel; Khosla, Maninder; Xu, Bo; Smith, Jonathan; Alvarez-Breckenridge, Christopher; Pow-Anpongkul, Pete; Pichiorri, Flavia; Zhang, Jianying; Old, Matthew; Zhu, Dan; Van Meir, Erwin G; Godbout, Jonathan P; Caligiuri, Michael A; Yu, Jianhua; Kaur, Balveen

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: Brain angiogenesis inhibitor (BAI1) facilitates phagocytosis and bacterial pathogen clearance by macrophages; however, its role in viral infections is unknown. Here, we examined the role of BAI1, and its N-terminal cleavage fragment (Vstat120) in antiviral macrophage responses to oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV).Experimental Design: Changes in infiltration and activation of monocytic and microglial cells after treatment of glioma-bearing mice brains with a control (rHSVQ1) or Vstat120-expressing (RAMBO) oHSV was analyzed using flow cytometry. Co-culture of infected glioma cells with macrophages or microglia was used to examine antiviral signaling. Cytokine array gene expression and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) helped evaluate changes in macrophage signaling in response to viral infection. TNFα-blocking antibodies and macrophages derived from Bai1(-/-) mice were used.Results: RAMBO treatment of mice reduced recruitment and activation of macrophages/microglia in mice with brain tumors, and showed increased virus replication compared with rHSVQ1. Cytokine gene expression array revealed that RAMBO significantly altered the macrophage inflammatory response to infected glioma cells via altered secretion of TNFα. Furthermore, we showed that BAI1 mediated macrophage TNFα induction in response to oHSV therapy. Intracranial inoculation of wild-type/RAMBO virus in Bai1(-/-) or wild-type non-tumor-bearing mice revealed the safety of this approach.Conclusions: We have uncovered a new role for BAI1 in facilitating macrophage anti-viral responses. We show that arming oHSV with antiangiogenic Vstat120 also shields them from inflammatory macrophage antiviral response, without reducing safety. Clin Cancer Res; 23(7); 1809-19. ©2016 AACR.

  10. Adiposity and Blood Pressure in 110 000 Mexican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gnatiuc, Louisa; Halsey, Jim; Herrington, William G.; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Lewington, Sarah; Collins, Rory; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Peto, Richard; Kuri-Morales, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reached differing conclusions about the importance of general versus central markers of adiposity to blood pressure, leading to suggestions that population-specific adiposity thresholds may be needed. We examined the relevance of adiposity to blood pressure among 111 911 men and women who, when recruited into the Mexico City Prospective Study, were aged 35 to 89 years, had no chronic disease, and were not taking antihypertensives. Linear regression was used to estimate the effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 2 markers of general adiposity (body mass index and height-adjusted weight) and 4 markers of central adiposity (waist circumference, hip circumference, waist:hip ratio, and waist:height ratio), adjusted for relevant confounders. Mean (SD) adiposity levels were: body mass index (28.7±4.5 kg/m2), height-adjusted weight (70.2±11.2 kg), waist circumference (93.3±10.6 cm), hip circumference (104.0±9.0 cm), waist:hip ratio (0.90±0.06), and waist:height ratio (0.60±0.07). Associations with blood pressure were linear with no threshold levels below which lower general or central adiposity was not associated with lower blood pressure. On average, each 1 SD higher measured adiposity marker was associated with a 3 mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure and 2 mm Hg higher diastolic blood pressure (SEs <0.1 mm Hg), but for the waist:hip ratio, associations were only approximately half as strong. General adiposity associations were independent of central adiposity, but central adiposity associations were substantially reduced by adjustment for general adiposity. Findings were similar for men and women. In Mexican adults, often overweight or obese, markers of general adiposity were stronger independent predictors of blood pressure than measured markers of central adiposity, with no threshold effects. PMID:28223471

  11. Do assortative preferences contribute to assortative mating for adiposity?

    PubMed

    Fisher, Claire I; Fincher, Corey L; Hahn, Amanda C; Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-11-01

    Assortative mating for adiposity, whereby levels of adiposity in romantic partners tend to be positively correlated, has implications for population health due to the combined effects of partners' levels of adiposity on fertility and/or offspring health. Although assortative preferences for cues of adiposity, whereby leaner people are inherently more attracted to leaner individuals, have been proposed as a factor in assortative mating for adiposity, there have been no direct tests of this issue. Because of this, and because of recent work suggesting that facial cues of adiposity convey information about others' health that may be particularly important for mate preferences, we tested the contribution of assortative preferences for facial cues of adiposity to assortative mating for adiposity (assessed from body mass index, BMI) in a sample of romantic couples. Romantic partners' BMIs were positively correlated and this correlation was not due to the effects of age or relationship duration. However, although men and women with leaner partners showed stronger preferences for cues of low levels of adiposity, controlling for these preferences did not weaken the correlation between partners' BMIs. Indeed, own BMI and preferences were uncorrelated. These results suggest that assortative preferences for facial cues of adiposity contribute little (if at all) to assortative mating for adiposity.

  12. Overeating styles and adiposity among multiethnic youth.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Tracey; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Janice; Tepper, Beverly J; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-02-01

    Reasons for inconsistent associations between overeating styles and adiposity among youth may include differences in effects by age, gender, or ethnicity; failure to control for social desirability of response; or adiposity measurement limitations. This study examined the relationship between overeating styles and multiple measures of adiposity, after controlling for social desirability and testing for moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender. Data from 304 9-10 year old children and 264 17-18 year old adolescents equally representing African American, Hispanic, and White ethnic groups were extracted from a larger cross-sectional study. Measures included the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (restrained, external, and emotional overeating subscales), the "Lie Scale" from the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and measured weight, height, waist circumference, and triceps skinfold. BMI z-score and a global adiposity index were calculated. Mixed model linear regression showed restraint was positively and external eating was negatively related to measures of adiposity. African American youth had a stronger inverse association between emotional eating and adiposity than White or Hispanic youth. Relationships were not influenced by social desirability nor moderated by age or gender. Overeating styles are related to adiposity in nearly all youth but the nature of these associations are moderated by ethnicity.

  13. Genetic variant of V825I in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    .05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusion The present study suggests that the V825I polymorphism in the ABCA1 gene is associated with male serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels in the Han, and serum TC levels in the Bai Ku Yao populations. The difference in the association of V825I polymorphism and serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different ABCA1 gene-enviromental interactions. PMID:21247457

  14. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  15. Habituation to a stressor predicts adolescents' adiposity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Objectives: Stress is associated with gains in adiposity. One factor that determines how much stress is experienced is how quickly an adolescent reduces responding (habituates) across repeated stressors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of body mass index pe...

  16. Scintillation properties of Eu2+-doped KBa2I5 and K2BaI4

    DOE PAGES

    Stand, L.; Zhuravleva, M.; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; ...

    2015-09-25

    We report two new ternary metal halide scintillators, KBa2I5 and K2BaI4, activated with divalent europium. Single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed that KBa2I5 has a monoclinic structure (P21/c) and that K2BaI4 has a rhombohedral structure (R3c). Differential scanning calorimetry showed singular melting and crystallization points, making these compounds viable candidates for melt growth. We grew 13 mm diameter single crystals of KBa2I5:Eu2+ and K2BaI4:Eu2+ in evacuated quartz ampoules via the vertical Bridgman technique. The optimal Eu2+ concentration was 4% for KBa2I5 and 7% for K2BaI4. The X-ray excited emissions at 444 nm for KBa2I5:Eu 4% and 448 nm for K2BaI4:Eumore » 7% arise from the 5d-4f radiative transition in Eu2+. KBa2I5:Eu 4% has a light yield of 90,000 photons/MeV, with an energy resolution of 2.4% and K2BaI4:Eu 7% has a light yield of 63,000 ph/MeV, with an energy resolution of 2.9% at 662 keV. Both crystals have an excellent proportional response to a wide range of gamma-ray energies.« less

  17. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  18. Defining dermal adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Driskell, Ryan R; Jahoda, Colin A B; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Watt, Fiona M; Horsley, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    Here, we explore the evolution and development of skin-associated adipose tissue with the goal of establishing nomenclature for this tissue. Underlying the reticular dermis, a thick layer of adipocytes exists that encases mature hair follicles in rodents and humans. The association of lipid-filled cells with the skin is found in many invertebrate and vertebrate species. Historically, this layer of adipocytes has been termed subcutaneous adipose, hypodermis and subcutis. Recent data have revealed a common precursor for dermal fibroblasts and intradermal adipocytes during development. Furthermore, the development of adipocytes in the skin is independent from that of subcutaneous adipose tissue development. Finally, the role of adipocytes has been shown to be relevant for epidermal homoeostasis during hair follicle regeneration and wound healing. Thus, we propose a refined nomenclature for the cells and adipose tissue underlying the reticular dermis as intradermal adipocytes and dermal white adipose tissue, respectively.

  19. Comparative profiling of gene expression in Camellia sinensis L. cultivar AnJiBaiCha leaves during periodic albinism.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ling; Xiong, Li-Gui; Deng, Ting-Ting; Wu, Yang; Li, Juan; Liu, Shuo-Qian; Huang, Jian-An; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2015-04-25

    The AnJiBaiCha albino mutant tea cultivar has a reversible albino phenotype at low temperatures. Albino AnJiBaiCha leaves contain high levels of amino acids, which are important components affecting the quality of tea as a beverage. To examine the molecular mechanism of albinism and amino acid enrichment in AnJiBaiCha, we used the amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique to isolate genes that are differentially expressed during periodic albinism in AnJiBaiCha. A total of 127 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were successfully sequenced; among those, 60 TDFs showed high similarity to sequences with known functions, but 67 TDFs were not similar to any known genes. The identified transcripts include transcription factors, ubiquitination-related genes, chloroplast biogenesis genes, signal transduction genes, stress-related genes, cell cycle genes, and carbohydrate and energy metabolism genes. To validate the cDNA-AFLP results, quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the differential expression of six of the identified genes. The cDNA-AFLP and quantitative real-time PCR results correlated well, indicating that the cDNA-AFLP results are reliable. This study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms by which periodic albinism and amino acid accumulation take place in AnJiBaiCha.

  20. Structure and Functional Characterization of a Bile Acid 7α Dehydratase BaiE in Secondary Bile Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmik, Shiva; Chiu, Hsien-Po; Jones, David H.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Miller, Mitchell D.; Xu, Qingping; Farr, Carol L.; Ridlon, Jason M.; Wells, James E.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Wilson, Ian A.; Hylemon, Phillip B.; Lesley, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of the primary bile acids cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) to the secondary bile acids deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA) is performed by a few species of intestinal bacteria in the genus Clostridium through a multistep biochemical pathway that removes a 7α-hydroxyl group. The rate-determining enzyme in this pathway is bile acid 7α-dehydratase (baiE). In this study, we report crystal structures of apo-BaiE and its putative product-bound (3-oxo-Δ4,6- lithocholyl-Coenzyme A (CoA)) complex. BaiE is a trimer with a twisted α+β barrel fold with similarity to the Nuclear Transport Factor 2 (NTF2) superfamily. Tyr30, Asp35 and His83 form a catalytic triad that is conserved across this family. Site-directed mutagenesis of BaiE from Clostridium scindens VPI 12708 confirmed that these residues are essential for catalysis and also confirmed the importance of other conserved residues, Tyr54 and Arg146, which are involved in substrate binding and affect catalytic turnover. Steady state kinetic studies revealed that the BaiE homologs are able to turn over 3-oxo-Δ4-bile acid and CoA-conjugated 3-oxo-Δ4-bile acid substrates with comparable efficiency questioning the role of CoA-conjugation in the bile acid metabolism pathway. PMID:26650892

  1. Long-Term Monitoring of Dzanga Bai Forest Elephants: Forest Clearing Use Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Turkalo, Andrea K.; Wrege, Peter H.; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Individual identification of the relatively cryptic forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) at forest clearings currently provides the highest quality monitoring data on this ecologically important but increasingly threatened species. Here we present baseline data from the first 20 years of an individually based study of this species, conducted at the Dzanga Clearing, Central African Republic. A total of 3,128 elephants were identified over the 20-year study (1,244 adults; 675 females, 569 males). It took approximately four years for the majority of elephants visiting the clearing to be identified, but new elephants entered the clearing every year of the study. The study population was relatively stable, varying from 1,668 to 1,864 individuals (including juveniles and infants), with increasingly fewer males than females over time. The age-class distribution for females remained qualitatively unchanged between 1995 and 2010, while the proportion of adult males decreased from 20% to 10%, likely reflecting increased mortality. Visitation patterns by individuals were highly variable, with some elephants visiting monthly while others were ephemeral users with visits separated by multiple years. The number of individuals in the clearing at any time varied between 40 and 100 individuals, and there was little evidence of a seasonal pattern in this variation. The number of elephants entering the clearing together (defined here as a social group) averaged 1.49 (range 1–12) for males and 2.67 (range 1–14) for females. This collation of 20 years of intensive forest elephant monitoring provides the first detailed, long term look at the ecology of bai visitation for this species, offering insight to the ecological significance and motivation for bai use, social behavior, and threats to forest elephants. We discuss likely drivers (rainfall, compression, illegal killing, etc.) influencing bai visitation rates. This study provides the baseline for future demographic and behavioral

  2. Residual stress dependant anisotropic band gap of various (hkl) oriented BaI2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Gulia, Vikash; Vedeshwar, Agnikumar G.

    2013-11-01

    The thermally evaporated layer structured BaI2 grows in various completely preferred (hkl) film orientations with different growth parameters like film thickness, deposition rate, substrate temperature, etc. which were characterized by structural, morphological, and optical absorption measurements. Structural analysis reveals the strain in the films and the optical absorption shows a direct type band gap. The varying band gaps of these films were found to scale linearly with their strain. The elastic moduli and other constants were also calculated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) formalism implemented in WIEN2K code for converting the strain into residual stress. Films of different six (hkl) orientations show stress free anisotropic band gaps (2.48-3.43 eV) and both positive and negative pressure coefficients. The negative and positive pressure coefficients of band gap are attributed to the strain in I-I (or Ba-Ba or both) and Ba-I distances along [hkl], respectively. The calculated band gaps are also compared with those experimentally determined. The average pressure coefficient of band gap of all six orientations (-0.071 eV/GPa) found to be significantly higher than that calculated (-0.047 eV/GPa) by volumetric pressure dependence. Various these issues have been discussed with consistent arguments. The electron effective mass me*=0.66m0 and the hole effective mass mh*=0.53m0 have been determined from the calculated band structure.

  3. The Adhesion-GPCR BAI1 Regulates Synaptogenesis by Controlling the Recruitment of the Par3/Tiam1 Polarity Complex to Synaptic Sites

    PubMed Central

    Duman, Joseph G.; Tzeng, Christopher P.; Tu, Yen-Kuei; Munjal, Tina; Schwechter, Brandon; Ho, Tammy Szu-Yu; Tolias, Kimberley F.

    2013-01-01

    Excitatory synapses are polarized structures that primarily reside on dendritic spines in the brain. The small GTPase Rac1 regulates the development and plasticity of synapses and spines by modulating actin dynamics. By restricting the Rac1-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Tiam1 to spines, the polarity protein Par3 promotes synapse development by spatially controlling Rac1 activation. However, the mechanism for recruiting Par3 to spines is unknown. Here, we identify brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) as a synaptic adhesion GPCR that is required for spinogenesis and synaptogenesis in mice and rats. We show that BAI1 interacts with Par3/Tiam1 and recruits these proteins to synaptic sites. BAI1 knockdown results in Par3/Tiam1 mislocalization and loss of activated Rac1 and filamentous actin from spines. Interestingly, BAI1 also mediates Rac-dependent engulfment in professional phagocytes through its interaction with a different Rac1-guanine nucleotide exchange factor module, ELMO/DOCK180. However, this interaction is dispensable for BAI1’s role in synapse development because a BAI1 mutant that cannot interact with ELMO/DOCK180 rescues spine defects in BAI1-knockdown neurons, whereas a mutant that cannot interact with Par3/Tiam1 rescues neither spine defects nor Par3 localization. Further, overexpression of Tiam1 rescues BAI1 knockdown spine phenotypes. These results indicate that BAI1 plays an important role in synaptogenesis that is mechanistically distinct from its role in phagocytosis. Furthermore, our results provide the first example of a cell surface receptor that targets members of the PAR polarity complex to synapses. PMID:23595754

  4. The brain-artefact interface (BAI): a challenge for archaeology and cultural neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Malafouris, Lambros

    2010-06-01

    Cultural neuroscience provides a new approach for understanding the impact of culture on the human brain (and vice versa) opening thus new avenues for cross-disciplinary collaboration with archaeology and anthropology. Finding new meaningful and productive unit of analysis is essential for such collaboration. But what can archaeological preoccupation with material culture and long-term change contribute to this end? In this article, I introduce and discuss the notion of the brain-artefact interface (BAI) as a useful conceptual bridge between neuroplastisty and the extended mind. I argue that a key challenge for archaeology and cultural neuroscience lies in the cross-disciplinary understanding of the processes by which our plastic enculturated brains become constituted within the wider extended networks of non-biological artefacts and cultural practices that delineate the real spatial and temporal boundaries of the human cognitive map.

  5. The brain–artefact interface (BAI): a challenge for archaeology and cultural neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience provides a new approach for understanding the impact of culture on the human brain (and vice versa) opening thus new avenues for cross-disciplinary collaboration with archaeology and anthropology. Finding new meaningful and productive unit of analysis is essential for such collaboration. But what can archaeological preoccupation with material culture and long-term change contribute to this end? In this article, I introduce and discuss the notion of the brain–artefact interface (BAI) as a useful conceptual bridge between neuroplastisty and the extended mind. I argue that a key challenge for archaeology and cultural neuroscience lies in the cross-disciplinary understanding of the processes by which our plastic enculturated brains become constituted within the wider extended networks of non-biological artefacts and cultural practices that delineate the real spatial and temporal boundaries of the human cognitive map. PMID:20123661

  6. Incense and ritual plant use in Southwest China: A case study among the Bai in Shaxi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ritual and religious uses of plant-derived smoke are widespread throughout the world. Our research focuses on Southwest China, where the use of incense is very common. This study aims to document and analyze contemporary ritual plant uses by the Bai people of Shaxi Township (Jianchuan County, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province), including their related ethnobotanical knowledge, practices, and beliefs. Methods The present study builds on previous ethnobotanical research in Shaxi, which started in 2005. Interviews focusing on ritual plant use and associated beliefs were carried out with a total of 44 Bai informants in September 2009 and May and June 2010. The results are supplemented with information on the local religion collected from June to December 2010. All documented species were vouchered, and are deposited at the herbaria of Kunming Institute of Botany (KUN) and the University of Zurich (Z/ZT). Results A total of 17 species have been documented for use in incense. They are always used in mixtures and are either burned in the form of powders in a censer or as joss sticks. The smell of the smoke is the main criterion for the selection of the incense plants. Incense is burned for communication with spiritual entities at graves, temples, and cooking stoves, as well as for personal well-being. Cupressus funebris Endl., Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall., and Ligustrum sempervirens (Franch.) Lingelsh. are the most important incense species. Others serve as substitutes or are used to stretch incense powders. Conclusions In Shaxi the use of incense mixtures at the household and community level is regularly practiced for communication with ancestors, ghosts, and deities and in some cases to strengthen self-awareness. Some of the documented species are widely used in central Asia and Europe, hinting at the well documented knowledge exchange that occurred in Shaxi, which was a major hub along the influential Southern Silk Road. PMID:22165897

  7. Adiposity distribution influences circulating adiponectin levels.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Mitchell; James, Roland; Marks, Jacqueline; Zhao, Shi; Szabo, Aniko; Kidambi, Srividya

    2014-10-01

    Thirty percent of obese individuals are metabolically healthy and were noted to have increased peripheral obesity. Adipose tissue is the primary source of adiponectin, an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties. Lower adiponectin levels are observed in individuals with obesity and those at risk for cardiovascular disease. Conversely, higher levels are noted in some obese individuals who are metabolically healthy. Our objective was to determine whether abdominal adiposity distribution, rather than body mass index (BMI) status, influences plasma adiponectin level. A total of 424 subjects (female, 255) of Northern European ancestry were recruited from "Take Off Pounds Sensibly" weight loss club members. Demographics, anthropometrics, and dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry of the whole body, and computed tomography scan of the abdomen were performed to obtain total body fat content and to quantify subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), respectively. Laboratory measurements included fasting plasma glucose, insulin, lipid panel, and adiponectin. Age- and gender-adjusted correlation analyses showed that adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, total fat mass, and VAT. A positive correlation was noted with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fat-free mass (P < 0.05). SAT-to-VAT ratios were also significantly associated with adiponectin (r = 0.13, P = 0.001). Further, the best positive predictors for plasma adiponectin were found to be SAT-to-VAT ratios and gender by regression analyses (P < 0.01). Abdominal adiposity distribution is an important predictor of plasma adiponectin and obese individuals with higher SAT-to-VAT ratios may have higher adiponectin levels.

  8. Mechanosensation in an adipose fin

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Adipose fins are found on approximately 20% of ray-finned fish species. The apparently rudimentary anatomy of adipose fins inspired a longstanding hypothesis that these fins are vestigial and lack function. However, adipose fins have evolved repeatedly within Teleostei, suggesting adaptive function. Recently, adipose fins were proposed to function as mechanosensors, detecting fluid flow anterior to the caudal fin. Here we test the hypothesis that adipose fins are mechanosensitive in the catfish Corydoras aeneus. Neural activity, recorded from nerves that innervate the fin, was shown to encode information on both movement and position of the fin membrane, including the magnitude of fin membrane displacement. Thus, the adipose fin of C. aeneus is mechanosensitive and has the capacity to function as a ‘precaudal flow sensor’. These data force re-evaluation of adipose fin clipping, a common strategy for tagging fishes, and inform hypotheses of how function evolves in novel vertebrate appendages. PMID:26984621

  9. Bay-annulated indigo (BAI) as an excellent electron accepting building block for high performance organic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi; He, Bo; Pun, Andrew

    2016-04-19

    A novel electron acceptor based on bay-annulated indigo (BAI) was synthesized and used for the preparation of a series of high performance donor-acceptor small molecules and polymers. The resulting materials possess low-lying LUMO energy level and small HOMO-LUMO gaps, while their films exhibited high crystallinity upon thermal treatment, commensurate with high field effect mobilities and ambipolar transfer characteristics.

  10. Bay-annulated indigo (BAI) as an excellent electron accepting building block for high performance organic semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Yi; He, Bo; Pun, Andrew

    2015-11-24

    A novel electron acceptor based on bay-annulated indigo (BAI) was synthesized and used for the preparation of a series of high performance donor-acceptor small molecules and polymers. The resulting materials possess low-lying LUMO energy level and small HOMO-LUMO gaps, while their films exhibited high crystallinity upon thermal treatment, commensurate with high field effect mobilities and ambipolar transfer characteristics.

  11. Structural and Functional Characterization of BaiA, An Enzyme Involved in Secondary Bile Acid Synthesis in Human Gut Microbe

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmik, Shiva; Jones, David H.; Chiu, Hsien-Po; Park, In-Hee; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Farr, Carol L.; Tien, Henry J.; Agarwalla, Sanjay; Lesley, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant influence of secondary bile acids on human health and disease, limited structural and biochemical information is available for the key gut microbial enzymes catalyzing its synthesis. Herein, we report apo- and co-factor bound crystal structures of BaiA2, a short chain dehydrogenase/reductase from Clostridium scindens VPI 12708 that represent the first protein structure of this pathway. The structures elucidated the basis of co-factor specificity and mechanism of proton relay. A conformational restriction involving Glu42 located in the co-factor binding site seems crucial in determining co-factor specificity. Limited flexibility of Glu42 results in imminent steric and electrostatic hindrance with 2′-phosphate group of NADP(H). Consistent with crystal structures, steady-state kinetic characterization performed with both BaiA2 and BaiA1, a close homolog with 92% sequence identity, revealed specificity constant (kcat/KM) of NADP+ at least an order of magnitude lower than NAD+. Substitution of Glu42 with Ala improved specificity towards NADP+ by 10- fold compared to wild type. The co-factor bound structure uncovered a novel nicotinamide-hydroxyl ion (NAD+-OH−) adduct contraposing previously reported adducts. The OH− of the adduct in BaiA2 is distal to C4 atom of nicotinamide and proximal to 2′-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. Moreover, it is located at intermediary distances between terminal functional groups of active site residues Tyr157 (2.7 Å) and Lys161 (4.5 Å). Based on these observations we propose an involvement of NAD+-OH− adduct in proton relay instead of hydride transfer as noted for previous adducts. PMID:23836456

  12. Adipose tissue chromium and vanadium disbalance in high-fat fed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Kwan, Olga V; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the current study is to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content and adipose tissue dysfunction in a model of diet-induced obesity. A total of 26 female Wistar rats were fed either standard or high-fat diet (31.6% of fat from total caloric content) for 3 months. High-fat-feeding resulted in 21 and 33% decrease in adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content, respectively. No change was seen in hair chromium or vanadium levels. Statistical analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of adipose tissue Cr and V with animal morphometric parameters and adipocyte size. Significant inverse dependence was observed between adipose tissue Cr and V and serum leptin and proinflammatory cytokines' levels. At the same time, adipose tissue Cr and V levels were characterized by positive correlation between serum adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratio. Adipose tissue Cr and V were inversely correlated (p<0.05) with insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) levels. Cr and V concentrations were not correlated with serum glucose in either high-fat fed or control rats; however, both serum glucose and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in high-fat fed, compared to control, rats. The results allow to hypothesize that impairment of adipose tissue Cr and V content plays a certain role in the development of adipose tissue endocrine dysfunction in obesity.

  13. Adiposity, obesity, and arterial aging: longitudinal study of aortic stiffness in the Whitehall II cohort.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin J; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Tabak, Adam G; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Marmot, Michael G; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-08-01

    We sought to determine whether adiposity in later midlife is an independent predictor of accelerated stiffening of the aorta. Whitehall II study participants (3789 men; 1383 women) underwent carotid-femoral applanation tonometry at the mean age of 66 and again 4 years later. General adiposity by body mass index, central adiposity by waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and fat mass percent by body impedance were assessed 5 years before and at baseline. In linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and mean arterial pressure, all adiposity measures were associated with aortic stiffening measured as increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) between baseline and follow-up. The associations were similar in the metabolically healthy and unhealthy, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria excluding waist circumference. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels accounted for part of the longitudinal association between adiposity and PWV change. Adjusting for chronic disease, antihypertensive medication and risk factors, standardized effects of general and central adiposity and fat mass percent on PWV increase (m/s) were similar (0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.24, P=0.003; 0.17, 0.08-0.27, P<0.001; 0.14, 0.05-0.22, P=0.002, respectively). Previous adiposity was associated with aortic stiffening independent of change in adiposity, glycaemia, and lipid levels across PWV assessments. We estimated that the body mass index-linked PWV increase will account for 12% of the projected increase in cardiovascular risk because of high body mass index. General and central adiposity in later midlife were strong independent predictors of aortic stiffening. Our findings suggest that adiposity is an important and potentially modifiable determinant of arterial aging.

  14. The effects of facial adiposity on attractiveness and perceived leadership ability.

    PubMed

    Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Facial attractiveness has a positive influence on electoral success both in experimental paradigms and in the real world. One parameter that influences facial attractiveness and social judgements is facial adiposity (a facial correlate to body mass index, BMI). Overweight people have high facial adiposity and are perceived to be less attractive and lower in leadership ability. Here, we used an interactive design in order to assess whether the most attractive level of facial adiposity is also perceived as most leader-like. We found that participants reduced facial adiposity more to maximize attractiveness than to maximize perceived leadership ability. These results indicate that facial appearance impacts leadership judgements beyond the effects of attractiveness. We suggest that the disparity between optimal facial adiposity in attractiveness and leadership judgements stems from social trends that have produced thin ideals for attractiveness, while leadership judgements are associated with perception of physical dominance.

  15. Multivitamin restriction increases adiposity and disrupts glucose homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Amara, Nisserine Ben; Marcotorchino, Julie; Tourniaire, Franck; Astier, Julien; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Darmon, Patrice; Landrier, Jean-François

    2014-07-01

    A strong association between obesity and low plasma concentrations of vitamins has been widely reported; however, the causality of this relationship is still not established. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of a multivitamin restriction diet (MRD) on body weight, adiposity and glucose homeostasis in mice. The mice were given a standard diet or a diet containing 50 % of the recommended vitamin intake (MRD) for 12 weeks. At the end of the experiment, total body weight was 6 % higher in MRD animals than in the control group, and the adiposity of the MRD animals more than doubled. The HOMA-IR index of the MRD animals was significantly increased. The adipose tissue of MRD animals had lower expression of mRNA encoding adiponectin and Pnpla2 (47 and 32 %, respectively) and 43 % higher leptin mRNA levels. In the liver, the mRNA levels of Pparα and Pgc1α were reduced (29 and 69 %, respectively) in MRD mice. Finally, the level of β-hydroxybutyrate, a ketonic body reflecting fatty acid oxidation, was decreased by 45 % in MRD mice. Our results suggest that MRD promotes adiposity, possibly by decreasing adipose tissue lipolysis and hepatic β-oxidation. These results could highlight a possible role of vitamin deficiency in the etiology of obesity and associated disorders.

  16. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Dordevic, Aimee L; Pendergast, Felicity J; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K; Larsen, Amy E; Sinclair, Andrew J; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  17. Adiposity in childhood brain tumors: A report from the Canadian Study of Determinants of Endometabolic Health in Children (CanDECIDE Study)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kuan-Wen; Souza, Russell J. de; Fleming, Adam; Singh, Sheila K.; Johnston, Donna L.; Zelcer, Shayna M.; Rassekh, Shahrad Rod; Burrow, Sarah; Scheinemann, Katrin; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, M. Constantine

    2017-01-01

    Children with brain tumors (CBT) are at high risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes compared to the general population. Recently, adiposity has been reported to be more informative for cardiometabolic risk stratification than body mass index (BMI) in the general population. The goal of this study is to describe the adiposity phenotype in CBT, and to establish adiposity determinants. We recruited CBT (n = 56) and non-cancer controls (n = 106). Percent body fat (%FM), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were measured to determine total and central adiposity, respectively. Regression analyses were used to evaluate adiposity determinants. CBT had higher total and central adiposity compared to non-cancer controls despite having similar BMI measurements. Those with tumors at the supratentorial region had increased total and central adiposity, while those who received radiotherapy had increased total adiposity. In conclusion, CBT have increased total and central adiposity in the presence of similar BMI levels when compared to non-cancer controls. Adiposity, especially central adiposity, is a potential cardiometabolic risk factor present relatively early in life in CBT. Defining interventions to target adiposity may improve long-term outcomes by preventing cardiometabolic disorders in CBT. PMID:28327649

  18. Adiposity in childhood brain tumors: A report from the Canadian Study of Determinants of Endometabolic Health in Children (CanDECIDE Study).

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuan-Wen; Souza, Russell J de; Fleming, Adam; Singh, Sheila K; Johnston, Donna L; Zelcer, Shayna M; Rassekh, Shahrad Rod; Burrow, Sarah; Scheinemann, Katrin; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, M Constantine

    2017-03-22

    Children with brain tumors (CBT) are at high risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes compared to the general population. Recently, adiposity has been reported to be more informative for cardiometabolic risk stratification than body mass index (BMI) in the general population. The goal of this study is to describe the adiposity phenotype in CBT, and to establish adiposity determinants. We recruited CBT (n = 56) and non-cancer controls (n = 106). Percent body fat (%FM), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were measured to determine total and central adiposity, respectively. Regression analyses were used to evaluate adiposity determinants. CBT had higher total and central adiposity compared to non-cancer controls despite having similar BMI measurements. Those with tumors at the supratentorial region had increased total and central adiposity, while those who received radiotherapy had increased total adiposity. In conclusion, CBT have increased total and central adiposity in the presence of similar BMI levels when compared to non-cancer controls. Adiposity, especially central adiposity, is a potential cardiometabolic risk factor present relatively early in life in CBT. Defining interventions to target adiposity may improve long-term outcomes by preventing cardiometabolic disorders in CBT.

  19. Role of Bai-Shao towards the antidepressant effect of Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San using metabonomics integrated with chemical fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xing; Jia, Hongmei; Zhou, Chao; Zhang, Hongwu; Yu, Meng; Yang, Junshan; Zou, Zhongmei

    2015-12-01

    Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San (CSGS) is a classical traditional Chinese medicine formula for the treatment of depression. As one of the single herbs in CSGS, Bai-Shao displayed antidepressant effect. In order to explore the role of Bai-Shao towards the antidepressant effect of CSGS, the metabolic regulation and chemical profiles of CSGS with and without Bai-Shao (QBS) were investigated using metabonomics integrated with chemical fingerprinting. At first, partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis was applied to characterize the potential biomarkers associated with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression. Among 46 differential metabolites found in the ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) and (1)H NMR-based urinary metabonomics, 20 were significantly correlated with the preferred sucrose consumption observed in behavior experiments and were considered as biomarkers to evaluate the antidepressant effect of CSGS. Based on differential regulation on CUMS-induced metabolic disturbances with CSGS and QBS treatments, we concluded that Bai-Shao made crucial contribution to CSGS in the improvement of the metabolic deviations of six biomarkers (i.e., glutamate, acetoacetic acid, creatinine, xanthurenic acid, kynurenic acid, and N-acetylserotonin) disturbed in CUMS-induced depression. While the chemical constituents of Bai-Shao contributed to CSGS were paeoniflorin, albiflorin, isomaltopaeoniflorin, and benzoylpaeoniflorin based on the multivariate analysis of the UPLC-Q-TOF/MS chemical profiles from CSGS and QBS extracts. These findings suggested that Bai-Shao played an indispensable role in the antidepressant effect of CSGS.

  20. Low density lipoprotein receptor gene Ava II polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several common genetic polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene have associated with modifications of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, but the results are not consistent in different populations. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 1024 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 792 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A- and A+ alleles was 65.5% and 34.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 80.7% and 19.3% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of A-A-, A-A+ and A+A+ genotypes was 42.6%, 45.9% and 11.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 64.9%, 31.6% and 3.5% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. There was also significant difference in the genotypic frequencies between males and females in Bai Ku Yao (P <0.05), and in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C (>3.20 mmol/L) subgroups in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each) and between males and females in Han (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of LDL-C in males and TC and HDL-C in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for all) in Bai Ku Yao, whereas the levels of HDL-C in males and HDL-C and ApoA1 in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001) in Han. The subjects with A+A+ genotype had

  1. Obesity and prostate cancer: gene expression signature of human periprostatic adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Periprostatic (PP) adipose tissue surrounds the prostate, an organ with a high predisposition to become malignant. Frequently, growing prostatic tumor cells extend beyond the prostatic organ towards this fat depot. This study aimed to determine the genome-wide expression of genes in PP adipose tissue in obesity/overweight (OB/OW) and prostate cancer patients. Methods Differentially expressed genes in human PP adipose tissue were identified using microarrays. Analyses were conducted according to the donors' body mass index characteristics (OB/OW versus lean) and prostate disease (extra prostatic cancer versus organ confined prostate cancer versus benign prostatic hyperplasia). Selected genes with altered expression were validated by real-time PCR. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to investigate gene ontology, canonical pathways and functional networks. Results In the PP adipose tissue of OB/OW subjects, we found altered expression of genes encoding molecules involved in adipogenic/anti-lipolytic, proliferative/anti-apoptotic, and mild immunoinflammatory processes (for example, FADS1, down-regulated, and LEP and ANGPT1, both up-regulated). Conversely, in the PP adipose tissue of subjects with prostate cancer, altered genes were related to adipose tissue cellular activity (increased cell proliferation/differentiation, cell cycle activation and anti-apoptosis), whereas a downward impact on immunity and inflammation was also observed, mostly related to the complement (down-regulation of CFH). Interestingly, we found that the microRNA MIRLET7A2 was overexpressed in the PP adipose tissue of prostate cancer patients. Conclusions Obesity and excess adiposity modified the expression of PP adipose tissue genes to ultimately foster fat mass growth. In patients with prostate cancer the expression profile of PP adipose tissue accounted for hypercellularity and reduced immunosurveillance. Both findings may be liable to promote a favorable environment for

  2. Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Obregon, Maria-Jesus

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases). The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. “Brite” or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs) that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2, and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that lead to activation of UCP1 in WAT

  3. Cardiac adipose tissue and atrial fibrillation: the perils of adiposity.

    PubMed

    Hatem, Stéphane N; Redheuil, Alban; Gandjbakhch, Estelle

    2016-04-01

    The amount of adipose tissue that accumulates around the atria is associated with the risk, persistence, and severity of atrial fibrillation (AF). A strong body of clinical and experimental evidence indicates that this relationship is not an epiphenomenon but is the result of complex crosstalk between the adipose tissue and the neighbouring atrial myocardium. For instance, epicardial adipose tissue is a major source of adipokines, inflammatory cytokines, or reactive oxidative species, which can contribute to the fibrotic remodelling of the atrial myocardium. Fibro-fatty infiltrations of the subepicardium could also contribute to the functional disorganization of the atrial myocardium. The observation that obesity is associated with distinct structural and functional remodelling of the atria has opened new perspectives of treating AF substrate with aggressive risk factor management. Advances in cardiac imaging should lead to an improved ability to visualize myocardial fat depositions and to localize AF substrates.

  4. Human omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibit specific lipidomic signatures.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Pamplona, Reinald; Ricart, Wifredo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Despite their differential effects on human metabolic pathophysiology, the differences in omental and subcutaneous lipidomes are largely unknown. To explore this field, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used for lipidome analyses of adipose tissue samples (visceral and subcutaneous) selected from a group of obese subjects (n=38). Transcriptomics and in vitro studies in adipocytes were used to confirm the pathways affected by location. The analyses revealed the existence of obesity-related specific lipidome signatures in each of these locations, attributed to selective enrichment of specific triglycerides, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids, because these were not observed in adipose tissues from nonobese individuals. The changes were compatible with subcutaneous enrichment in pathways involved in adipogenesis, triacylglyceride synthesis, and lipid droplet formation, as well as increased α-oxidation. Marked differences between omental and subcutaneous depots in obese individuals were seen in the association of lipid species with metabolic traits (body mass index and insulin sensitivity). Targeted studies also revealed increased cholesterol (Δ56%) and cholesterol epoxide (Δ34%) concentrations in omental adipose tissue. In view of the effects of cholesterol epoxide, which induced enhanced expression of adipocyte differentiation and α-oxidation genes in human omental adipocytes, a novel role for cholesterol epoxide as a signaling molecule for differentiation is proposed. In summary, in obesity, adipose tissue exhibits a location-specific differential lipid profile that may contribute to explaining part of its distinct pathogenic role.

  5. Overeating styles and adiposity among multiethnic youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reasons for inconsistent associations between overeating styles and adiposity among youth may include differences in effects by age, gender, or ethnicity; failure to control for social desirability of response; or adiposity measurement limitations. This study examined the relationship between overea...

  6. Development of thermogenic adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Loncar, D

    1991-09-01

    Besides having a metabolic and insulatory-supporting function, adipose tissue in endotherms also performs a thermogenic function. Thermogenic adipocytes contain specific UC-mitochondria with uncoupling protein (UCP) and produce heat. Thermogenic adipose tissue has two forms: brown adipose tissue (BAT) and convertible adipose tissue (CAT). Brown adipocytes have UC-mitochondria and express UCP throughout the entire life of small rodents, chiropterans, and insectivores. However, in other endotherms and in humans CAT participates as thermogenic tissue only during early postnatal period. Both BAT and CAT start to develop in utero, although in some animals (hamsters, marsupials) or in some particular areas (thoraco-periaortal and medio-perirenal areas in rats) development of thermogenic adipose tissue starts after birth. Postnatal development of BAT in small endotherms is characterized by quantitative changes (the amount of UC-mitochondria, UCP, and lipids). Postnatal development of CAT causes qualitative changes during which UC-mitochondria in convertible adipocytes are replaced by common, nonthermogenic C-mitochondria; vascularization of adipocytes drops to a low level and, with lipid accumulation, convertible adipocytes appear as lipid-store cells. Postnatal development of CAT can be modulated or reversed by the environmental temperature. The duration of postnatal changes varies between species; i.e., cats, rabbits and sheep, change their thermogenic form of CAT into the lipid-store form within the first postnatal month, while in humans the same process takes up to 15-20 years. In maturity all these large endotherms have CAT in lipid-store form. In light of these results, the question of participation of thermogenic adipose tissue in the regulation of human obesity needs to be answered.

  7. Visual illusions and inattention: Their association with adiposity among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Lance O

    2015-12-01

    The Delboeuf concentric circle illusion is frequently invoked as an explanation for the hypothesized association between dinner plate size and overeating. We examined its association with adiposity among 162 girls, aged 14-18 years. We also examined the association of adiposity with neural and behavioral responses during a separate visual discrimination task. The analysis showed that girls with a body mass index percentile ≥ 85, or with greater triceps skinfold thickness, exhibited less sensitivity to the Delboeuf illusion than girls with normal adiposity. The excess adiposity group also exhibited significantly smaller electroencephalographic responses and more errors during the separate visual discrimination task. In combination, the findings from the two tasks suggest that girls with an elevated body mass are less sensitive to visual cues in their environment. The implications of these findings for weight loss education should be considered.

  8. Application of Rosenbrock search technique to reduce the drilling cost of a well in Bai-Hassan oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Aswad, Z.A.R.; Al-Hadad, S.M.S.

    1983-03-01

    The powerful Rosenbrock search technique, which optimizes both the search directions using the Gram-Schmidt procedure and the step size using the Fibonacci line search method, has been used to optimize the drilling program of an oil well drilled in Bai-Hassan oil field in Kirkuk, Iran, using the twodimensional drilling model of Galle and Woods. This model shows the effect of the two major controllable variables, weight on bit and rotary speed, on the drilling rate, while considering other controllable variables such as the mud properties, hydrostatic pressure, hydraulic design, and bit selection. The effect of tooth dullness on the drilling rate is also considered. Increasing the weight on the drill bit with a small increase or decrease in ratary speed resulted in a significant decrease in the drilling cost for most bit runs. It was found that a 48% reduction in this cost and a 97-hour savings in the total drilling time was possible under certain conditions.

  9. Force Protection Joint Experiment (FPJE) Battlefield Anti-Intrusion System (BAIS) sensors data analysis and filtering metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barngrover, C. M.; Laird, R. T.; Kramer, T. A.; Cruickshanks, J. R.; Cutler, S. H.

    2009-04-01

    The FPJE was an experiment to consider the best way to develop and evaluate a system of systems approach to Force Protection. It was sponsored by Physical Security Equipment Action Group (PSEAG) and Joint Program Manager - Guardian (JPM-G), and was managed by the Product Manager - Force Protection Systems (PM-FPS). The experiment was an effort to utilize existing technical solutions from all branches of the military in order to provide more efficient and effective force protection. The FPJE consisted of four separate Integration Assessments (IA), which were intended as opportunities to assess the status of integration, automation and fusion efforts, and the effectiveness of the current configuration and "system" components. The underlying goal of the FPJE was to increase integration, automation, and fusion of the many different sensors and their data to provide enhanced situational awareness and a common operational picture. One such sensor system is the Battlefield Anti-Intrusion System (BAIS), which is a system of seismic and acoustic unmanned ground sensors. These sensors were originally designed for employment by infantry soldiers at the platoon level to provide early warning of personnel and vehicle intrusion in austere environments. However, when employed around airfields and high traffic areas, the sensitivity of these sensors can cause an excessive number of detections. During the second FPJE-IA all of the BAIS detections and the locations of all Opposing Forces were logged and analyzed to determine the accuracy rate of the sensors. This analysis revealed that with minimal filtering of detections, the number of false positives and false negatives could be reduced substantially to manageable levels while using the sensors within extreme operational acoustic and seismic noise conditions that are beyond the design requirements.

  10. Testing the fetal overnutrition hypothesis; the relationship of maternal and paternal adiposity to adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in Indian children

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Karat, Samuel C; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Objective We aimed to test the fetal overnutrition hypothesis by comparing the associations of maternal and paternal adiposity (sum of skinfolds) with adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in children. Design Children from a prospective birth cohort had anthropometry, fat percentage (bio-impedance), plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations and blood pressure measured at 9·5 years of age. Detailed anthropometric measurements were recorded for mothers (at 30 ± 2 weeks’ gestation) and fathers (5 years following the index pregnancy). Setting Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India. Subjects Children (n 504), born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Results Twenty-eight per cent of mothers and 38 % of fathers were overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25·0 kg/m2), but only 4 % of the children were overweight/obese (WHO age- and sex-specific BMI ≥ 18·2 kg/m2). The children’s adiposity (BMI, sum of skinfolds, fat percentage and waist circumference), fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance increased with increasing maternal and paternal sum of skinfolds adjusted for the child’s sex, age and socio-economic status. Maternal and paternal effects were similar. The associations with fasting insulin and insulin resistance were attenuated after adjusting for the child’s current adiposity. Conclusions In this population, both maternal and paternal adiposity equally predict adiposity and insulin resistance in the children. This suggests that shared family environment and lifestyle, or genetic/epigenetic factors, influence child adiposity. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that there is an intrauterine overnutrition effect of maternal adiposity in non-diabetic pregnancies, although we cannot rule out such an effect in cases of extreme maternal obesity, which is rare in our population. PMID:22895107

  11. Visceral adipose tissue but not subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with urine and serum metabolites.

    PubMed

    Schlecht, Inga; Gronwald, Wolfram; Behrens, Gundula; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Hertel, Johannes; Hochrein, Jochen; Zacharias, Helena U; Fischer, Beate; Oefner, Peter J; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a complex multifactorial phenotype that influences several metabolic pathways. Yet, few studies have examined the relations of different body fat compartments to urinary and serum metabolites. Anthropometric phenotypes (visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), the ratio between VAT and SAT (VSR), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC)) and urinary and serum metabolite concentrations measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were measured in a population-based sample of 228 healthy adults. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models, corrected for multiple testing using the false discovery rate, were used to associate anthropometric phenotypes with metabolites. We adjusted for potential confounding variables: age, sex, smoking, physical activity, menopausal status, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary glucose, and fasting status. In a fully adjusted logistic regression model dichotomized for the absence or presence of quantifiable metabolite amounts, VAT, BMI and WC were inversely related to urinary choline (ß = -0.18, p = 2.73*10-3), glycolic acid (ß = -0.20, 0.02), and guanidinoacetic acid (ß = -0.12, p = 0.04), and positively related to ethanolamine (ß = 0.18, p = 0.02) and dimethylamine (ß = 0.32, p = 0.02). BMI and WC were additionally inversely related to urinary glutamine and lactic acid. Moreover, WC was inversely associated with the detection of serine. VAT, but none of the other anthropometric parameters, was related to serum essential amino acids, such as valine, isoleucine, and phenylalanine among men. Compared to other adiposity measures, VAT demonstrated the strongest and most significant relations to urinary and serum metabolites. The distinct relations of VAT, SAT, VSR, BMI, and WC to metabolites emphasize the importance of accurately differentiating between body fat compartments when evaluating the potential role of metabolic regulation in the development of obesity

  12. Prenatal stress due to a natural disaster predicts adiposity in childhood: the Iowa Flood Study.

    PubMed

    Dancause, Kelsey N; Laplante, David P; Hart, Kimberly J; O'Hara, Michael W; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Brunet, Alain; King, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal stress can affect lifelong physical growth, including increased obesity risk. However, human studies remain limited. Natural disasters provide models of independent stressors unrelated to confounding maternal characteristics. We assessed degree of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during severe flooding. At ages 2.5 and 4 years we assessed body mass index (BMI), subscapular plus triceps skinfolds (SS + TR, an index of total adiposity), and SS : TR ratio (an index of central adiposity) in their children (n = 106). Hierarchical regressions controlled first for several potential confounds. Controlling for these, flood exposure during early gestation predicted greater BMI increase from age 2.5 to 4, as well as total adiposity at 2.5. Greater maternal hardship and distress due to the floods, as well as other nonflood life events during pregnancy, independently predicted greater increase in total adiposity between 2.5 and 4 years. These results support the hypothesis that prenatal stress increases adiposity beginning in childhood and suggest that early gestation is a sensitive period. Results further highlight the additive effects of maternal objective and subjective stress, life events, and depression, emphasizing the importance of continued studies on multiple, detailed measures of maternal mental health and experience in pregnancy and child growth.

  13. Assessment of brown adipose tissue function.

    PubMed

    Virtue, Sam; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this review we discuss practical considerations for the assessment of brown adipose tissue in rodent models, focusing on mice. The central aim of the review is to provide a critical appraisal of the utility of specialized techniques for assessing brown adipose tissue function in vivo. We cover several of the most common specialized methods for analysing brown adipose tissue function in vivo, including assessment of maximal thermogenic capacity by indirect calorimetry and the measurement of sympathetic tone to brown adipose tissue. While these techniques are powerful, they are not readily available to all laboratories; therefore we also cover several simple measurements that, particularly in combination, can be used to determine if a mouse model is likely to have alterations in brown adipose tissue function. Such techniques include: pair feeding, analysis of brown adipose tissue lipid content and mRNA and protein markers of brown adipose tissue activation.

  14. Assessment of brown adipose tissue function

    PubMed Central

    Virtue, Sam; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this review we discuss practical considerations for the assessment of brown adipose tissue in rodent models, focusing on mice. The central aim of the review is to provide a critical appraisal of the utility of specialized techniques for assessing brown adipose tissue function in vivo. We cover several of the most common specialized methods for analysing brown adipose tissue function in vivo, including assessment of maximal thermogenic capacity by indirect calorimetry and the measurement of sympathetic tone to brown adipose tissue. While these techniques are powerful, they are not readily available to all laboratories; therefore we also cover several simple measurements that, particularly in combination, can be used to determine if a mouse model is likely to have alterations in brown adipose tissue function. Such techniques include: pair feeding, analysis of brown adipose tissue lipid content and mRNA and protein markers of brown adipose tissue activation. PMID:23760815

  15. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    PubMed

    Beijer, Emiel; Schoenmakers, Janna; Vijgen, Guy; Kessels, Fons; Dingemans, Anne-Marie; Schrauwen, Patrick; Wouters, Miel; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter; Teule, Jaap; Brans, Boudewijn

    2012-03-05

    Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT). Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and so-called brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activation, but its quantitative impact on energy expenditure and weight loss is controversial. Prospective clinical studies can address the potential role of BAT in cancer cachexia using (18)F-fluoro- deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning, with careful consideration of co-factors such as diet, exposure to the cold, physical activity and body mass index, that all seem to act on BAT recruitment and activity.

  16. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    PubMed Central

    Beijer, Emiel; Schoenmakers, Janna; Vijgen, Guy; Kessels, Fons; Dingemans, Anne-Marie; Schrauwen, Patrick; Wouters, Miel; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter; Teule, Jaap; Brans, Boudewijn

    2012-01-01

    Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT). Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and so-called brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activation, but its quantitative impact on energy expenditure and weight loss is controversial. Prospective clinical studies can address the potential role of BAT in cancer cachexia using 18F-fluoro- deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning, with careful consideration of co-factors such as diet, exposure to the cold, physical activity and body mass index, that all seem to act on BAT recruitment and activity. PMID:25992201

  17. Association of Adiposity and Mental Health Functioning across the Lifespan: Findings from Understanding Society (The UK Household Longitudinal Study)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence on the adiposity-mental health associations is mixed, with studies finding positive, negative or no associations, and less is known about how these associations may vary by age. Objective To examine the association of adiposity -body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage body fat (BF%)- with mental health functioning across the adult lifespan. Methods Data from 11,257 participants (aged 18+) of Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study (waves 2 and 3, 5/2010-7/2013) were employed. Regressions of mental health functioning, assessed by the Mental Component Summary (MCS-12) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), on adiposity measures (continuous or dichotomous indicators) were estimated adjusted for covariates. Polynomial age-adiposity interactions were estimated. Results Higher adiposity was associated with poorer mental health functioning. This emerged in the 30s, increased up to mid-40s (all central adiposity and obesity-BF% measures) or early 50s (all BMI measures) and then decreased with age. Underlying physical health generally accounted for these associations except for central adiposity, where associations remained statistically significant from the mid-30s to50s. Cardiovascular, followed by arthritis and endocrine, conditions played the greatest role in attenuating the associations under investigation. Conclusions We found strong age-specific patterns in the adiposity-mental health functioning association that varied across adiposity measures. Underlying physical health had the dominant role in attenuating these associations. Policy makers and health professionals should target increased adiposity, mainly central adiposity, as it is a risk factor for poor mental health functioning in those aged between mid-30s to 50 years. PMID:26849046

  18. Amelioration of insulin resistance by rosiglitazone is associated with increased adipose cell size in obese type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Eliasson, Bjorn; Smith, Ulf; Mullen, Shawn; Cushman, Samuel W; Sherman, Arthur S; Yang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Early studies reported that the size of adipose cells positively correlates with insulin resistance, but recent evidence suggests that the relationship between adipose cell size and insulin resistance is more complex. We previously reported that among BMI-matched moderately obese subjects who were either insulin sensitive or resistant insulin resistance correlated with the proportion of small adipose cells, rather than the size of the large adipose cells, whereas the size of large adipose cells was found to be a predictor of insulin resistance in the first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. The relationship between adipose cellularity and insulin resistance thus appears to depend on the metabolic state of the individual. We did a longitudinal study with T2D patients treated with the insulin-sensitizer rosiglitazone to test the hypothesis that improved insulin sensitivity is associated with increased adipocyte size. Eleven T2D patients were recruited and treated with rosiglitazone for 90 days. Blood samples and needle biopsies of abdominal subcutaneous fat were taken at six time points and analyzed for cell size distributions. Rosiglitazone treatment ameliorated insulin resistance as evidenced by significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose and increased index of insulin sensitivity, QUICKI. In association with this, we found significantly increased size of the large adipose cells and, with a weaker effect, increased proportion of small adipose cells. We conclude rosiglitazone treatment both enlarges existing large adipose cells and recruits new small adipose cells in T2D patients, improving fat storage capacity in adipose tissue and thus systemic insulin sensitivity. PMID:26317056

  19. Targeting adipose tissue via systemic gene therapy.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, S M; Hinkle, C; Chen, S-J; Sandhu, A; Hovhannisyan, R; Stephan, S; Lagor, W R; Ahima, R S; Johnston, J C; Reilly, M P

    2014-07-01

    Adipose tissue has a critical role in energy and metabolic homeostasis, but it is challenging to adapt techniques to modulate adipose function in vivo. Here we develop an in vivo, systemic method of gene transfer specifically targeting adipose tissue using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. We constructed AAV vectors containing cytomegalovirus promoter-regulated reporter genes, intravenously injected adult mice with vectors using multiple AAV serotypes, and determined that AAV2/8 best targeted adipose tissue. Altering vectors to contain adiponectin promoter/enhancer elements and liver-specific microRNA-122 target sites restricted reporter gene expression to adipose tissue. As proof of efficacy, the leptin gene was incorporated into the adipose-targeted expression vector, package into AAV2/8 and administered intravenously to 9- to 10-week-old ob/ob mice. Phenotypic changes were measured over an 8-week period. Leptin mRNA and protein were expressed in adipose and leptin protein was secreted into plasma. Mice responded with reversal of weight gain, decreased hyperinsulinemia and improved glucose tolerance. AAV2/8-mediated systemic delivery of an adipose-targeted expression vector can replace a gene lacking in adipose tissue and correct a mouse model of human disease, demonstrating experimental application and therapeutic potential in disorders of adipose.

  20. Central Adiposity is Negatively Associated with Hippocampal-Dependent Relational Memory among Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naiman A.; Baym, Carol L.; Monti, Jim M.; Raine, Lauren B.; Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Moore, R. Davis; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between adiposity and hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory forms among prepubertal children. Study design Prepubertal children (7–9-year-olds, n = 126), classified as non-overweight (<85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 73]) or overweight/obese (≥85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 53]), completed relational (hippocampal-dependent) and item (hippocampal-independent) memory tasks, and performance was assessed with both direct (behavioral accuracy) and indirect (preferential disproportionate viewing [PDV]) measures. Adiposity (%whole body fat mass, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and total abdominal adipose tissue) was assessed using DXA. Backward regressions identified significant (P <0.05) predictive models of memory performance. Covariates included age, sex, pubertal timing, socioeconomic status, IQ, oxygen consumption (VO2max), and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Results Among overweight/obese children, total abdominal adipose tissue was a significant negative predictor of relational memory behavioral accuracy, and pubertal timing together with socioeconomic status jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. In contrast, among non-overweight children, male sex predicted item memory behavioral accuracy, and a model consisting of socioeconomic status and BMI z-score jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. Conclusions Regional, and not whole body, fat deposition was selectively and negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight/obese prepubertal children. PMID:25454939

  1. Association of the LIPG 584C > T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Endothelial lipase (EL) is a major determinant of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism, but the association of endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) polymorphism and serum HDL-C levels is scarce and conflicting in diverse populations. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. This study was designed to detect the association of LIPG 584C > T (rs2000813) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 645 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 638 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LIPG 584C > T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05 - 0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 73.5% and 26.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 67.9% and 32.1% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 50.4%, 46.2% and 3.4% in Bai Ku Yao, and 41.4%, 53.1% and 5.5% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. Serum HDL-C levels in both ethnic groups were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). Serum TC levels in both ethnic groups were also different between the CC and CT/TT genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). The T allele carriers had higher serum HDL-C and TC levels than the T allele noncarriers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the levels of HDL-C and ApoB were correlated with genotypes in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each), whereas the levels of TC and HDL-C were associated with genotypes in Han Chinese (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in the both ethnic

  2. The Roles of Adipokines, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance in Modest Obesity and Early Metabolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Min; Joung, Kyong Hye; Lee, Ju Hee; You, Bo Ram; Choi, Min Jeong; Ryu, Min Jeong; Ko, Young Bok; Lee, Min A.; Lee, Junguee; Ku, Bon Jeong; Shong, Minho; Lee, Ki Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    The roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in obesity-associated insulin resistance have been explored in both animal and human studies. However, our current understanding of obesity-associated insulin resistance relies on studies of artificial metabolic extremes. The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in human patients with modest obesity and early metabolic dysfunction. We obtained omental adipose tissue and fasting blood samples from 51 females undergoing gynecologic surgery. We investigated serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines as well as the mRNA expression of proinflammatory and macrophage phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue using ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR. We measured adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage infiltration using immunohistochemical analysis. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR and body mass index. The levels of expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue were also higher in the obese group (body mass index ≥ 25). The expression of mRNA MCP-1 in visceral adipose tissue was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.428, p = 0.037) but not with HOMA-IR, whereas TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue was correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.462, p = 0.035) but not with body mass index. There was no obvious change in macrophage phenotype or macrophage infiltration in patients with modest obesity or early metabolic dysfunction. Expression of mRNA CD163/CD68 was significantly related to mitochondrial-associated genes and serum inflammatory cytokine levels of resistin and leptin. These results suggest that changes in the production of inflammatory biomolecules precede increased immune cell infiltration and induction of a macrophage phenotype switch in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, serum resistin and leptin have specific

  3. Adipose tissue immunity and cancer.

    PubMed

    Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Frühbeck, Gema

    2013-10-02

    Inflammation and altered immune response are important components of obesity and contribute greatly to the promotion of obesity-related metabolic complications, especially cancer development. Adipose tissue expansion is associated with increased infiltration of various types of immune cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Thus, adipocytes and infiltrating immune cells secrete pro-inflammatory adipokines and cytokines providing a microenvironment favorable for tumor growth. Accumulation of B and T cells in adipose tissue precedes macrophage infiltration causing a chronic low-grade inflammation. Phenotypic switching toward M1 macrophages and Th1 T cells constitutes an important mechanism described in the obese state correlating with increased tumor growth risk. Other possible synergic mechanisms causing a dysfunctional adipose tissue include fatty acid-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and hypoxia. Recent investigations have started to unravel the intricacy of the cross-talk between tumor cell/immune cell/adipocyte. In this sense, future therapies should take into account the combination of anti-inflammatory approaches that target the tumor microenvironment with more sophisticated and selective anti-tumoral drugs.

  4. Brown adipose tissue and thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fenzl, Anna; Kiefer, Florian W

    2014-07-01

    The growing understanding of adipose tissue as an important endocrine organ with multiple metabolic functions has directed the attention to the (patho)physiology of distinct fat depots. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), in contrast to bona fide white fat, can dissipate significant amounts of chemical energy through uncoupled respiration and heat production (thermogenesis). This process is mediated by the major thermogenic factor uncoupling protein-1 and can be activated by certain stimuli, such as cold exposure, adrenergic compounds or genetic alterations. White adipose tissue (WAT) depots, however, also possess the capacity to acquire brown fat characteristics in response to thermogenic stimuli. The induction of a BAT-like cellular and molecular program in WAT has recently been termed "browning" or "beiging". Promotion of BAT activity or the browning of WAT is associated with in vivo cold tolerance, increased energy expenditure, and protection against obesity and type 2 diabetes. These preclinical observations have gained additional significance with the recent discovery that active BAT is present in adult humans and can be detected by 18fluor-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography coupled with computed tomography. As in rodents, human BAT can be activated by cold exposure and is associated with increased energy turnover and lower body fat mass. Despite the tremendous progress in brown fat research in recent years, pharmacological concepts to harness BAT function therapeutically are currently still lacking.

  5. Epicardial Adiposity in Children with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Eren, Erdal; Koca, Bulent; Ture, Mehmet; Guzel, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Obesity increases cardiac diseases by increasing tendency to atherosclerosis. Our aim was to define epicardial adipose tissue thickness, and its related factors in obese children. Methods: Total of 94 patients were divided into obesity with metabolic syndrome (MS) (n=30), obesity without MS (n=33), and control (n=31) groups. Auxological values with fasting glucose, fasting insulin, alanine transaminase, serum lipid levels, and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels were evaluated. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness, interventricular septum thickness and left ventricular mass were measured by echocardiography. Findings: Weight, body mass index, waist circumference, insulin, alanine transaminase, and high sensitive C-reactive protein values were markedly higher in obesity group when compared with controls (P<0.001). Epicardial adipose tissue thickness was 0.64±0.23 cm in obesity with MS; 0.60±0.20 cm in obesity without MS, and 0.27±0.12 cm in control group (P<0.001). Interventricular septum thickness and left ventricular mass values were markedly high in obesity without MS group (P<0.001 and P=0.002). Conclusion: Our study has indicated that obesity has unfavorable effects on heart starting in the adolescence. PMID:25755863

  6. Cellularity of adipose tissue in fetal pig.

    PubMed

    Desnoyers, F; Pascal, G; Etienne, M; Vodovar, N

    1980-03-01

    Adipose tissue cellularity was studied in the 85-day-old Large-White pig fetus. The aim of this work was to count the adipose cells of forming tissue in an animal species which could be a possible model for studying adipose tissue in humans. Using a morphometric method with electron microscopy, mean triglyceride volume per cell was determined independently of mean cell volume. This method is suitable for counting adipose cells in the early stage of differentiation whatever their size and lipid inclusion volume. Site-by-site dissection of adipose tissue was not feasible in the 85-day old fetus and adipose cell number was computed by dividing total carcass triglyceride volume by mean triglyceride volume per cell. The carcass triglyceride seemed to originate only from adipose cells. The mean total carcass triglyceride volume per fetus (1.84 g) was low but, owing to the low mean triglyceride volume per cell (180.28 microns3), the adipose cell number (11.15 X 10(9)) was relatively important, as it represented about 27% of the extramuscular adipose cell number in the Large-White adult pig (41 X 10(9)).

  7. Commonality versus specificity among adiposity traits in normal-weight and moderately overweight adults

    PubMed Central

    Raja, GK; Sarzynski, MA; Katzmarzyk, PT; Johnson, WD; Tchoukalova, Y; Smith, SR; Bouchard, C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many adiposity traits have been related to health complications and premature death. These adiposity traits are intercorrelated but their underlying structure has not been extensively investigated. We report on the degree of commonality and specificity among multiple adiposity traits in normal-weight and moderately overweight adult males and females (mean body mass index (BMI) = 22.9 kg m−2, s.d. = 2.4). METHODS A total of 75 healthy participants were assessed for a panel of adiposity traits including leg, arm, trunk, total fat masses and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) derived from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), hepatic and muscle lipids from proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, fat cell volume from an abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy (n = 36) and conventional anthropometry (BMI and waist girth). Spearman’s correlations were calculated and were subjected to factor analysis. RESULTS Arm, leg, trunk and total fat masses correlated positively (r = 0.78–0.95) with each other. VAT correlated weakly with fat mass indicators (r = 0.24–0.31). Intrahepatic lipids (IHL) correlated weakly with all fat mass traits (r = 0.09–0.34), whereas correlations between DXA depots and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were inconsequential. The four DXA fat mass measures, VAT, IHL and IMCL depots segregated as four independent factors that accounted for 96% of the overall adiposity variance. BMI and waist girth were moderately correlated with the arm, leg, trunk and total fat and weakly with VAT, IHL and IMCL. CONCLUSION Adiposity traits share a substantial degree of commonality, but there is considerable specificity across the adiposity variance space. For instance, VAT, IHL and IMCL are typically poorly correlated with each other and are poorly to weakly associated with the other adiposity traits. The same is true for BMI and waist girth, commonly used anthropometric indicators of adiposity. These results do not support the view that it will be

  8. Ethnic Differences in Effects of Maternal Pre-Pregnancy and Pregnancy Adiposity on Offspring Size and Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xinyi; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Tint, Mya Thway; Soh, Shu E.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Yeo, George Seow-Heong; Kwek, Kenneth; Chan, Jerry Kok-Yen; Gluckman, Peter D.; Chong, Yap Seng; Yap, Fabian; Holbrook, Joanna D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Maternal adiposity and overnutrition, both before and during pregnancy, plays a key role in the subsequent development of obesity and metabolic outcomes in offspring. Objective: We explored the hypothesis that maternal adiposity (pre-pregnancy and at 26–28 weeks' gestation) and mid-pregnancy gestational weight gain (GWG) are independently associated with offspring size and adiposity in early childhood, and determined whether these effects are ethnicity dependent. Design: In a prospective mother-offspring cohort study (N = 976, 56% Chinese, 26% Malay, and 18% Indian), we assessed the associations of offspring size (weight, length) and adiposity (subscapular and triceps skinfolds), measured at birth and age 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo, with maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (ppBMI), mid-pregnancy GWG, and mid-pregnancy four-site skinfold thicknesses (triceps, biceps, subscapular, suprailiac). Results: ppBMI and mid-pregnancy GWG were independently associated with postnatal weight up to 2 y and skinfold thickness at birth. Weight and subscapular and triceps skinfolds at birth increased by 2.56% (95% confidence interval, 1.68–3.45%), 3.85% (2.16–5.57%), and 2.14% (0.54–3.75%), respectively for every SD increase in ppBMI. Similarly, a one-SD increase in GWG increased weight and subscapular and triceps skinfolds at birth by 2.44% (1.66–3.23%), 3.28% (1.75–4.84%), and 3.23% (1.65–4.84%), respectively. ppBMI and mid-pregnancy suprailiac skinfold independently predicted postnatal skinfold adiposity up to 2 years of age, whereas only GWG predicted postnatal length. The associations of GWG with postnatal weight and length were present only among Chinese and Indians, but not Malays (P < .05 for interaction). Conclusions: ppBMI and GWG are independent modifiable factors for child size and adiposity up to 2 years of age. The associations are ethnic-dependent, and underscore the importance of ethnic specific studies before generalizing the applicability of

  9. Author Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diodato, Virgil P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the effectiveness of using author-supplied indexing to increase subject control in information retrieval, and describes a study which compared author indexing for articles published in "American Mathematical Society" journals to indexing of the same articles by an editor of "Mathematical Reviews." Nine references are…

  10. Sirtuins 1-7 expression in human adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral fat depots: influence of obesity and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Stefania; Di Rocco, Giuliana; Toietta, Gabriele; Russo, Matteo A; Petrangeli, Elisa; Salvatori, Luisa

    2016-11-14

    The sirtuin family comprises seven NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases which control the overall health of organisms through the regulation of pleiotropic metabolic pathways. Sirtuins are important modulators of adipose tissue metabolism and their expression is higher in lean than obese subjects. At present, the role of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells has not been investigated yet. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the expression of the complete panel of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells isolated from both subcutaneous and visceral fat of non-obese and obese subjects. We aimed at investigating the influence of obesity on sirtuins' levels, their role in obesity-associated inflammation, and the relationship with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, which also plays functions in adipose tissue metabolism. The mRNA levels in the four types of adipose-derived stem cells were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in untreated cells and also after 8 h of hypoxia exposure. Correlations among sirtuins' expression and clinical and molecular parameters were also analyzed. We found that sirtuin1-6 exhibited significant higher mRNA expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells of non-obese subjects. Sirtuin1-6 levels were markedly reduced in visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients. Sirtuins' expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells correlated negatively with body mass index and C-reactive protein and positively with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta. Finally, only in the visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients hypoxia-induced mRNA expression of all of the sirtuins. Our results highlight that sirtuins' levels in adipose-derived stem cells are consistent with protective effects against visceral obesity and inflammation, and suggest a transcriptional mechanism through which acute hypoxia up-regulates sirtuins in the visceral

  11. Renin dynamics in adipose tissue: adipose tissue control of local renin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Jason D; Krueth, Stacy B; Bernlohr, David A; Katz, Stephen A

    2009-02-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in a variety of adipose tissue functions, including tissue growth, differentiation, metabolism, and inflammation. Although expression of all components necessary for a locally derived adipose tissue RAS has been demonstrated within adipose tissue, independence of local adipose RAS component concentrations from corresponding plasma RAS fluctuations has not been addressed. To analyze this, we varied in vivo rat plasma concentrations of two RAS components, renin and angiotensinogen (AGT), to determine the influence of their plasma concentrations on adipose and cardiac tissue levels in both perfused (plasma removed) and nonperfused samples. Variation of plasma RAS components was accomplished by four treatment groups: normal, DOCA salt, bilateral nephrectomy, and losartan. Adipose and cardiac tissue AGT concentrations correlated positively with plasma values. Perfusion of adipose tissue decreased AGT concentrations by 11.1%, indicating that adipose tissue AGT was in equilibrium with plasma. Cardiac tissue renin levels positively correlated with plasma renin concentration for all treatments. In contrast, adipose tissue renin levels did not correlate with plasma renin, with the exception of extremely high plasma renin concentrations achieved in the losartan-treated group. These results suggest that adipose tissue may control its own local renin concentration independently of plasma renin as a potential mechanism for maintaining a functional local adipose RAS.

  12. Adipose tissue: cell heterogeneity and functional diversity.

    PubMed

    Esteve Ràfols, Montserrat

    2014-02-01

    There are two types of adipose tissue in the body whose function appears to be clearly differentiated. White adipose tissue stores energy reserves as fat, whereas the metabolic function of brown adipose tissue is lipid oxidation to produce heat. A good balance between them is important to maintain energy homeostasis. The concept of white adipose tissue has radically changed in the past decades, and is now considered as an endocrine organ that secretes many factors with autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions. In addition, we can no longer consider white adipose tissue as a single tissue, because it shows different metabolic profiles in its different locations, with also different implications. Although the characteristic cell of adipose tissue is the adipocyte, this is not the only cell type present in adipose tissue, neither the most abundant. Other cell types in adipose tissue described include stem cells, preadipocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. The balance between these different cell types and their expression profile is closely related to maintenance of energy homeostasis. Increases in adipocyte size, number and type of lymphocytes, and infiltrated macrophages are closely related to the metabolic syndrome diseases. The study of regulation of proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes and stem cells, and understanding of the interrelationship between the different cell types will provide new targets for action against these diseases.

  13. Reduction in Adiposity, β-Cell Function, Insulin Sensitivity, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Prospective Study among Japanese with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Maki; Morita, Akemi; Goto, Atsushi; Deura, Kijo; Sasaki, Satoshi; Aiba, Naomi; Shimbo, Takuro; Terauchi, Yasuo; Miyachi, Motohiko; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Watanabe, Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Background A reduction in adiposity may be associated with an improvement in insulin sensitivity and β-cell function as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; however, few studies have investigated these associations in a longitudinal setting. Methods To investigate these associations over a 1-year period, we conducted an observational analysis of 196 Japanese subjects with obesity in the Saku Control Obesity Program. We investigated the relations between changes in adiposity (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, subcutaneous fat area [SFAT], and visceral fat area [VFAT]) and changes in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), the homeostasis model assessment β cell function (HOMA-β), lipids, and blood pressure. Results All adiposity changes were positively associated with HbA1c and FPG changes. Reductions in BMI and VFAT were associated with HOMA-β reduction. Reductions in all adiposity measures were associated with an improvement in the ISI. Changes in most adiposity measures were positively associated with changes in blood pressure and lipid levels, except for LDL. Conclusion The present findings provide additional supportive evidence indicating that a reduction in adiposity may lead to an improvement in insulin sensitivity and the reduction of CVD risk factors in obese individuals. PMID:23483954

  14. Adiposity Trajectory and Its associations with Plasma Adipokine Levels in Children and Adolescents – A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shenghui; Liu, Rong; Arguelles, Lester; Wang, Guoying; Zhang, Jun; Shen, Xiaoming; Wang, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the associations of longitudinal adiposity measures with two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, and their ratio in children and adolescents. Methods A total of 953 children and adolescents participated in a 6-year longitudinal study. Body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat (%BF), and fat mass index (FMI) were used to assess adiposity status. Results After adjusting for possible confounders, our regression models revealed that BMI, %BF, and FMI, in both the baseline and follow-up survey, were independently associated with a higher level of leptin and the leptin/adiponectin ratio at the follow-up survey, whereas the significant association with adiponectin only partly existed in adiposity measures at the follow-up visit. Moreover, the longitudinal change in adiposity measures was found to be a significant predictor for follow-up plasma adipokine levels. Compared with the low→low group, the medium→medium group, up-trend group, and high→high group all showed a significantly increased level of leptin and leptin/adiponectin ratio. The up-trend group and high→high group also had significantly decreased adiponectin levels. Conclusions Our findings highlight the importance of adiposity surveillance and the utility of adipokines as biomarkers for adverse metabolic consequences of childhood adiposity. PMID:26704698

  15. Sex differences in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Fuente-Martín, Esther; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Ros, Purificación; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and its associated secondary complications are active areas of investigation in search of effective treatments. As a result of this intensified research numerous differences between males and females at all levels of metabolic control have come to the forefront. These differences include not only the amount and distribution of adipose tissue, but also differences in its metabolic capacity and functions between the sexes. Here, we review some of the recent advances in our understanding of these dimorphisms and emphasize the fact that these differences between males and females must be taken into consideration in hopes of obtaining successful treatments for both sexes. PMID:23991358

  16. Mitochondria and endocrine function of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Medina-Gómez, Gema

    2012-12-01

    Excess of adipose tissue is accompanied by an increase in the risk of developing insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other complications. Nevertheless, total or partial absence of fat or its accumulation in other tissues (lipotoxicity) is also associated to these complications. White adipose tissue (WAT) was traditionally considered a metabolically active storage tissue for lipids while brown adipose tissue (BAT) was considered as a thermogenic adipose tissue with higher oxidative capacity. Nowadays, WAT is also considered an endocrine organ that contributes to energy homeostasis. Experimental evidence tends to link the malfunction of adipose mitochondria with the development of obesity and T2D. This review discusses the importance of mitochondrial function in adipocyte biology and the increased evidences of mitochondria dysfunction in these epidemics. New strategies targeting adipocyte mitochondria from WAT and BAT are also discussed as therapies against obesity and its complications in the near future.

  17. Nutrition, insulin resistance and dysfunctional adipose tissue determine the different components of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat that may be harmful to health. Today, obesity is a major public health problem, affecting in greater or lesser proportion all demographic groups. Obesity is estimated by body mass index (BMI) in a clinical setting, but BMI reports neither body composition nor the location of excess body fat. Deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for approximately 65% of all deaths, and adiposity and mainly abdominal adiposity are associated with all these disorders. Adipose tissue could expand to inflexibility levels. Then, adiposity is associated with a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, with increased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release, which interfere with adipose cell differentiation, and the action pattern of adiponectin and leptin until the adipose tissue begins to be dysfunctional. In this state the subject presents insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, probably the first step of a dysfunctional metabolic system. Subsequent to central obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, hypertension and fatty liver are grouped in the so-called metabolic syndrome (MetS). In subjects with MetS an energy balance is critical to maintain a healthy body weight, mainly limiting the intake of high energy density foods (fat). However, high-carbohydrate rich (CHO) diets increase postprandial peaks of insulin and glucose. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are also increased, which interferes with reverse cholesterol transport lowering high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, CHO-rich diets could move fat from peripheral to central deposits and reduce adiponectin activity in peripheral adipose tissue. All these are improved with monounsaturated fatty acid-rich diets. Lastly, increased portions of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids also decrease triglyceride levels, and complement the healthy diet that is recommended in patients with MetS. PMID

  18. Physical Activity and Adiposity Markers at Older Ages: Accelerometer Vs Questionnaire Data

    PubMed Central

    Sabia, Séverine; Cogranne, Pol; van Hees, Vincent T.; Bell, Joshua A.; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical activity is critically important for successful aging, but its effect on adiposity markers at older ages is unclear as much of the evidence comes from self-reported data on physical activity. We assessed the associations of questionnaire-assessed and accelerometer-assessed physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults. Design/Setting/Participants This was a cross-sectional study on 3940 participants (age range 60-83 years) of the Whitehall II study who completed a 20-item physical activity questionnaire and wore a wrist-mounted accelerometer for 9 days in 2012 and 2013. Measurements Total physical activity was estimated using metabolic equivalent hours/week for the questionnaire and mean acceleration for the accelerometer. Time spent in moderate-and-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was also assessed by questionnaire and accelerometer. Adiposity assessment included body mass index, waist circumference, and fat mass index. Fat mass index was calculated as fat mass/height² (kg/m²), with fat mass estimated using bioimpedance. Results Greater total physical activity was associated with lower adiposity for all adiposity markers in a dose-response manner. In men, the strength of this association was 2.4 to 2.8 times stronger with the accelerometer than with questionnaire data. In women, it was 1.9 to 2.3 times stronger. For MVPA, questionnaire data in men suggested no further benefit for adiposity markers past 1 hour/week of activity. This was not the case for accelerometer-assessed MVPA where, for example, compared with men undertaking <1 hour/week of accelerometer-assessed MVPA, waist circumference was 3.06 (95% confidence interval 2.06–4.06) cm lower in those performing MVPA 1–2.5 hours/week, 4.69 (3.47–5.91) cm lower in those undertaking 2.5–4 hours/week, and 7.11 (5.93–8.29) cm lower in those performing ≥4 hours/week. Conclusions The association of physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults was

  19. Pmch-deficiency in rats is associated with normal adipocyte differentiation and lower sympathetic adipose drive.

    PubMed

    Mul, Joram D; O'Duibhir, Eoghan; Shrestha, Yogendra B; Koppen, Arjen; Vargoviç, Peter; Toonen, Pim W; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Kvetnansky, Richard; Kalkhoven, Eric; Cuppen, Edwin; Bartness, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    The orexigenic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), a product of Pmch, is an important mediator of energy homeostasis. Pmch-deficient rodents are lean and smaller, characterized by lower food intake, body-, and fat mass. Pmch is expressed in hypothalamic neurons that ultimately are components in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) drive to white and interscapular brown adipose tissue (WAT, iBAT, respectively). MCH binds to MCH receptor 1 (MCH1R), which is present on adipocytes. Currently it is unknown if Pmch-ablation changes adipocyte differentiation or sympathetic adipose drive. Using Pmch-deficient and wild-type rats on a standard low-fat diet, we analyzed dorsal subcutaneous and perirenal WAT mass and adipocyte morphology (size and number) throughout development, and indices of sympathetic activation in WAT and iBAT during adulthood. Moreover, using an in vitro approach we investigated the ability of MCH to modulate 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Pmch-deficiency decreased dorsal subcutaneous and perirenal WAT mass by reducing adipocyte size, but not number. In line with this, in vitro 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation was unaffected by MCH. Finally, adult Pmch-deficient rats had lower norepinephrine turnover (an index of sympathetic adipose drive) in WAT and iBAT than wild-type rats. Collectively, our data indicate that MCH/MCH1R-pathway does not modify adipocyte differentiation, whereas Pmch-deficiency in laboratory rats lowers adiposity throughout development and sympathetic adipose drive during adulthood.

  20. Differential Role of Adipose Tissues in Obesity and Related Metabolic and Vascular Complications

    PubMed Central

    Beneit, Nuria; Díaz-Castroverde, Sabela

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the contribution of white, brown, and perivascular adipose tissues to the pathophysiology of obesity and its associated metabolic and vascular complications. Weight gain in obesity generates excess of fat, usually visceral fat, and activates the inflammatory response in the adipocytes and then in other tissues such as liver. Therefore, low systemic inflammation responsible for insulin resistance contributes to atherosclerotic process. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between body mass index and brown adipose tissue activity has been described. For these reasons, in recent years, in order to combat obesity and its related complications, as a complement to conventional treatments, a new insight is focusing on the role of the thermogenic function of brown and perivascular adipose tissues as a promising therapy in humans. These lines of knowledge are focused on the design of new drugs, or other approaches, in order to increase the mass and/or activity of brown adipose tissue or the browning process of beige cells from white adipose tissue. These new treatments may contribute not only to reduce obesity but also to prevent highly prevalent complications such as type 2 diabetes and other vascular alterations, such as hypertension or atherosclerosis. PMID:27766104

  1. The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 gene E670G polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a key role in regulating plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. However, the association of E670G (rs505151) polymorphism in the PCSK9 gene and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 649 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 646 participants of Han were randomly selected from our previous samples. Genotypes of the PCSK9 E670G polymorphism were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of G allele was 2.00% in Bai Ku Yao and 4.80% in Han (P < 0.01). There was significant difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between Bai Ku Yao and Han (P < 0.01); between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C subgroups (> 3.20 mmol/L, P < 0.01) in Bai Ku Yao; and between normal HDL-C (≥ 0.91 mmol/L) and low HDL-C (< 0.91 mmol/L, P < 0.05), between normal ApoAI (≥ 1.00 g/L) and low ApoAI (< 1.00 g/L, P < 0.05), or between normal ApoAI/ApoB ratio (≥ 1.00) and low ApoAI/ApoB ratio (< 1.00, P < 0.01) subgroups in Han. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C levels and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the G allele noncarriers in males (P < 0.05 for each), whereas the G allele carriers had lower serum ApoB levels and higher the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers in females (P < 0.05 for all). Serum HDL-C and Apo

  2. Ageing, adipose tissue, fatty acids and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pararasa, Chathyan; Bailey, Clifford J; Griffiths, Helen R

    2015-04-01

    A common feature of ageing is the alteration in tissue distribution and composition, with a shift in fat away from lower body and subcutaneous depots to visceral and ectopic sites. Redistribution of adipose tissue towards an ectopic site can have dramatic effects on metabolic function. In skeletal muscle, increased ectopic adiposity is linked to insulin resistance through lipid mediators such as ceramide or DAG, inhibiting the insulin receptor signalling pathway. Additionally, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease is increased with elevated visceral adipose distribution. In ageing, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional, with the pathway of differentiation of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes becoming impaired; this results in dysfunctional adipocytes less able to store fat and subsequent fat redistribution to ectopic sites. Low grade systemic inflammation is commonly observed in ageing, and may drive the adipose tissue dysfunction, as proinflammatory cytokines are capable of inhibiting adipocyte differentiation. Beyond increased ectopic adiposity, the effect of impaired adipose tissue function is an elevation in systemic free fatty acids (FFA), a common feature of many metabolic disorders. Saturated fatty acids can be regarded as the most detrimental of FFA, being capable of inducing insulin resistance and inflammation through lipid mediators such as ceramide, which can increase risk of developing atherosclerosis. Elevated FFA, in particular saturated fatty acids, maybe a driving factor for both the increased insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease risk and inflammation in older adults.

  3. A peptide probe for targeted brown adipose tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Azhdarinia, Ali; Daquinag, Alexes C; Tseng, Chieh; Ghosh, Sukhen C; Ghosh, Pradip; Amaya-Manzanares, Felipe; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2013-01-01

    The presence of brown adipose tissue responsible for thermogenic energy dissipation has been revealed in adult humans and has high clinical importance. Owing to limitations of current methods for brown adipose tissue detection, analysing the abundance and localization of brown adipose tissue in the body has remained challenging. Here we screen a combinatorial peptide library in mice and characterize a peptide (with the sequence CPATAERPC) that selectively binds to the vascular endothelium of brown adipose tissue, but not of intraperitoneal white adipose tissue. We show that in addition to brown adipose tissue, this peptide probe also recognizes the vasculature of brown adipose tissue-like depots of subcutaneous white adipose tissue. Our results indicate that the CPATAERPC peptide localizes to brown adipose tissue even in the absence of sympathetic nervous system stimulation. Finally, we demonstrate that this probe can be used to identify brown adipose tissue depots in mice by whole-body near-infrared fluorescence imaging.

  4. Studies of coumarins from the Chinese drug Qianhu, XXVII: structure of a new simple coumarin glycoside from Bai-Hua Qianhu, Peucedanum praeruptorum.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hirotaka; Okada, Yoshihito; Baba, Masaki; Okuyama, Toru

    2008-09-01

    A new simple coumarin glycoside, named praeroside VI (1), along with six known coumarins, were isolated from an aqueous extract of Bai-Hua Qianhu, the root of Peucedanum praeruptorum DUNN. (Umbelliferae). Spectroscopic analysis and chemical studies were carried out to investigate the structure of the new coumarin, which was concluded to be 1. Additionally, two simple glycosidic coumarins and four simple nonglycosidic coumarins were identified as apiosylskimmin (2), hymexelsin (3), umbelliferone (4), scopoletin (5), isofraxidin (6) and 8-carboxy-7-hydroxy coumarin (7), respectively. This is the first reported identification of compound 7 as a constituent of plant materials.

  5. Brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, angiogenesis: pathophysiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Honek, Jennifer; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Iwamoto, Hideki; Seki, Takahiro; Cao, Yihai

    2014-07-01

    The number of obese and overweight individuals is globally rising, and obesity-associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are among the most common causes of death. While white adipose tissue is the key player in the storage of energy, active brown adipose tissue expends energy due to its thermogenic capacity. Expanding and activating brown adipose tissue using pharmacological approaches therefore might offer an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention to counteract obesity and its consequences for metabolic health.

  6. Brown adipose tissue and bone

    PubMed Central

    Lidell, M E; Enerbäck, S

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is capable of transforming chemically stored energy, in the form of triglycerides, into heat. Recent studies have shown that metabolically active BAT is present in a large proportion of adult humans, where its activity correlates with a favorable metabolic status. Hence, the tissue is now regarded as an interesting target for therapies against obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes, the hypothesis being that an induction of BAT would be beneficial for these disease states. Apart from the association between BAT activity and a healthier metabolic status, later studies have also shown a positive correlation between BAT volume and both bone cross-sectional area and bone mineral density, suggesting that BAT might stimulate bone anabolism. The aim of this review is to give the reader a brief overview of the BAT research field and to summarize and discuss recent findings regarding BAT being a potential player in bone metabolism. PMID:27152171

  7. A indicator of visceral adipose dysfunction to evaluate metabolic health in adult Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ming-Feng; Chen, Ying; Lin, Huan-Dong; Ma, Hui; Li, Xiao-Ming; Aleteng, Qiqige; Li, Qian; Wang, Dan; Hu, Yu; Pan, Bai-shen; Li, Xue-Jun; Li, Xiao-Ying; Gao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Visceral adipose dysfunction is a major cause of metabolic disorders. However, there is lack of a clinical index for prediction of visceral fat dysfunction in Asians. The present study aims to establish a visceral adiposity index for evaluation of metabolic health status in Chinese, the largest Asian ethnic group. 485 subjects were recruited from Lianqian Community, Xiamen and received abdominal computed tomography(CT) for visceral fat area. A Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) was created using multivariate linear regression analyses, and was further validated in 6495 subjects recruited from Changfeng Community, Shanghai. CVAI was well associated with visceral obesity (r = 0.68, P < 0.001) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.60, P < 0.001). The AUROCs were 0.89(0.88–0.90), 0.72(0.71–0.73), 0.69(0.68–0.71) and 0.67(0.65–0.68) for determination of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diabetes and prediabetes, respectively. CVAI was more valuable compared to BMI and waist circumference in evaluation of metabolic risks (all P < 0.001), even in subjects with metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW) and metabolically healthy obese/overweight (MHO). This study demonstrates that CVAI is a reliable and applicable index for evaluation of visceral fat dysfunction in Chinese. It might be used to evaluate metabolic health status in Asians. PMID:27905531

  8. Characterization of adipose tissue macrophages and adipose-derived stem cells in critical wounds

    PubMed Central

    Tilstam, Pathricia V.; Springenberg-Jung, Katrin; Boecker, Arne Hendrick; Schmitz, Corinna; Heinrichs, Daniel; Hwang, Soo Seok; Stromps, Jan Philipp; Ganse, Bergita; Kopp, Ruedger; Knobe, Matthias; Bernhagen, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous adipose tissue is a rich source of adipose tissue macrophages and adipose-derived stem cells which both play a key role in wound repair. While macrophages can be divided into the classically-activated M1 and the alternatively-activated M2 phenotype, ASCs are characterized by the expression of specific stem cell markers. Methods In the present study, we have investigated the expression of common macrophage polarization and stem cell markers in acutely inflamed adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipose tissue adjacent to acutely inflamed wounds of 20 patients and 20 healthy subjects were harvested and underwent qPCR and flow cytometry analysis. Results Expression levels of the M1-specific markers CD80, iNOS, and IL-1b were significantly elevated in inflammatory adipose tissue when compared to healthy adipose tissue, whereas the M2-specific markers CD163 and TGF-β were decreased. By flow cytometry, a significant shift of adipose tissue macrophage populations towards the M1 phenotype was confirmed. Furthermore, a decrease in the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD29, CD34, and CD105 was observed whereas CD73 and CD90 remained unchanged. Discussion This is the first report describing the predominance of M1 adipose tissue macrophages and the reduction of stem cell marker expression in acutely inflamed, non-healing wounds. PMID:28070458

  9. Adipose-Vascular Coupling and Potential Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gollasch, Maik

    2017-01-06

    Excess visceral adipose tissue is associated with increased risk of high blood pressure, lipid disorders, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ with multiple humoral and metabolic roles in regulating whole-body physiology. However, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) also plays a functional role in regulating the contractile state of the underlying smooth muscle cell layer. Work during the past decade has shown that this adipose-vascular coupling is achieved by production of numerous substances released from PVAT. Animal disease models have been instrumental in identifying biological and pathophysiological functions of this regulation. These studies have produced strong evidence that alterations in the paracrine control of PVAT in the regulation of arterial tone contribute to vascular dysfunction in obesity, hypertension, and cardiometabolic disease. Perivascular relaxing factors, or perhaps their putative targets, might represent exciting new targets for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  10. Flow Cytometry Analyses of Adipose Tissue Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kae Won; Morris, David L.; Lumeng, Carey N.

    2014-01-01

    Within adipose tissue, multiple leukocyte interactions contribute to metabolic homeostasis in health as well as to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance with obesity. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are the predominant leukocyte population in fat and contribute to obesity-induced inflammation. Characterization of ATMs and other leukocytes in the stromal vascular fraction from fat has benefited from the use of flow cytometry and flow-assisted cell sorting techniques. These methods permit the immunophenotyping, quantification, and purification of these unique cell populations from multiple adipose tissue depots in rodents and humans. Proper isolation, quantification, and characterization of ATM phenotypes are critical for understanding their role in adipose tissue function and obesity-induced metabolic diseases. Here, we present the flow cytometry protocols for phenotyping ATMs in lean and obese mice employed by our laboratory. PMID:24480353

  11. New Physiological Aspects of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Trayhurn, Paul; Arch, Jonathan R S

    2014-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue is specialised for the generation of heat by non-shivering mechanisms. In rodents, the tissue plays a role in energy balance and the development of obesity, as well as in thermoregulation. Studies using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), together with the identification of uncoupling protein-1, have provided definitive evidence that brown adipose tissue is present in adult humans. Brown fat activity is stimulated by cold exposure, declines with age and is inversely proportional to BMI. This has led to renewed interest in the tissue as a therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity. Brown adipose tissue also plays a role in glucose disposal and triglyceride clearance, implicating it in the metabolic syndrome. A potential mechanism for increasing thermogenesis is by the 'browning' of white adipose depots through the recruitment of the recently identified third type of adipocyte - the brite (or beige) fat cell.

  12. Biochemistry of adipose tissue: an endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Marisa; Oliveira, Teresa; Fernandes, Ruben

    2013-04-20

    Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert tissue that stores fat. This tissue is capable of expanding to accommodate increased lipids through hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and by initiating differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Adipose tissue metabolism exerts an impact on whole-body metabolism. As an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones. These are active in a range of processes, such as control of nutritional intake (leptin, angiotensin), control of sensitivity to insulin and inflammatory process mediators (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, among others) and pathways (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and acylation stimulating protein (ASP) for example). This paper reviews some of the biochemical and metabolic aspects of adipose tissue and its relationship to inflammatory disease and insulin resistance.

  13. Biochemistry of adipose tissue: an endocrine organ

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Marisa; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert tissue that stores fat. This tissue is capable of expanding to accommodate increased lipids through hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and by initiating differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Adipose tissue metabolism exerts an impact on whole-body metabolism. As an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones. These are active in a range of processes, such as control of nutritional intake (leptin, angiotensin), control of sensitivity to insulin and inflammatory process mediators (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, among others) and pathways (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and acylation stimulating protein (ASP) for example). This paper reviews some of the biochemical and metabolic aspects of adipose tissue and its relationship to inflammatory disease and insulin resistance. PMID:23671428

  14. Implication of European-derived adiposity loci in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hester, JM; Wing, MR; Li, J; Palmer, ND; Xu, J; Hicks, PJ; Roh, BH; Norris, JM; Wagenknecht, LE; Langefeld, CD; Freedman, BI; Bowden, DW; Ng, MCY

    2012-01-01

    Objective Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple novel loci associated with adiposity in European-derived study populations. Limited study of these loci has been reported in African Americans. Here we examined the effects of these previously identified adiposity loci in African Americans. Methods A total of 46 representative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 loci that were previously reported in GWAS in Europeans (including FTO and MC4R) were genotyped in 4992 subjects from six African-American cohorts. These SNPs were tested for association with body mass index (BMI) after adjustment for age, gender, disease status and population structure in each cohort. Meta-analysis was conducted to combine the results. Results Meta-analysis of 4992 subjects revealed seven SNPs near four loci, including NEGR1, TMEM18, SH2B1/ATP2A1 and MC4R, showing significant association at 0.005adiposity in Europeans. These loci are all highly expressed in the brain, consistent with an important role for central nervous system processes in weight regulation. However, further comprehensive examination of these regions may be necessary to fine map and elucidate for possible genetic differences between these two populations. PMID:21750520

  15. Adiposity and hand osteoarthritis: the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obesity, usually characterized by the body mass index (BMI), is a risk factor for hand osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated whether adipose tissue and abdominal fat distribution are associated with hand OA. Methods The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is a population-based cohort aged 45 to 65 years, including 5315 participants (53% women, median BMI 29.9 kg/m2). Fat percentage and fat mass (FM) (kg) were estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was calculated. In 1721 participants, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (cm2) were assessed using abdominal MR imaging. Hand OA was defined according to the ACR criteria. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the association of fat percentage, FM, WHR, VAT and SAT with hand OA using logistic regression analyses per standard deviation, stratified by sex and adjusted for age. Results Hand OA was present in 8% of men and 20% of women. Fat percentage was associated with hand OA in men (OR 1.34 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.61)) and women (OR 1.26 (1.05 to 1.51)), as was FM. WHR was associated with hand OA in men (OR 1.45 (1.13 to 1.85)), and to a lesser extent in women (OR 1.17 (1.00 to 1.36)). Subgroup analysis revealed that VAT was associated with hand OA in men (OR1.33 (1.01 to 1.75)). This association increased after additional adjustment for FM (OR 1.51 (1.13 to 2.03)). Conclusions Fat percentage, FM and WHR were associated with hand OA. VAT was associated with hand OA in men, suggesting involvement of visceral fat in hand OA. PMID:24447395

  16. Adipose Clocks: Burning the Midnight Oil

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Emma; Lamia, Katja A.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian clocks optimize the timing of physiological processes in synchrony with daily recurring and therefore predictable changes in the environment. Until the late 1990s, circadian clocks were thought to exist only in the central nervous systems of animals; elegant studies in cultured fibroblasts and using genetically encoded reporters in Drosophila melanogaster and in mice showed that clocks are ubiquitous and cell autonomous. These findings inspired investigations of the advantages construed by enabling each organ to independently adjust its function to the time of day. Studies of rhythmic gene expression in several organs suggested that peripheral organ clocks might play an important role in optimizing metabolic physiology by synchronizing tissue-intrinsic metabolic processes to cycles of nutrient availability and energy requirements. The effects of clock disruption in liver, pancreas, muscle, and adipose tissues support that hypothesis. Adipose tissues coordinate energy storage and utilization and modulate behavior and the physiology of other organs by secreting hormones known as “adipokines.” Due to behavior- and environment-driven diurnal variations in supply and demand for chemical and thermal energy, adipose tissues might represent an important peripheral location for coordinating circadian energy balance (intake, storage, and utilization) over the whole organism. Given the complexity of adipose cell types and depots, the sensitivity of adipose tissue biology to age and diet composition, and the plethora of known and yet-to-be-discovered adipokines and lipokines, we have just begun to scratch the surface of understanding the role of circadian clocks in adipose tissues. PMID:25926681

  17. Adipose Clocks: Burning the Midnight Oil.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Emma; Lamia, Katja A

    2015-10-01

    Circadian clocks optimize the timing of physiological processes in synchrony with daily recurring and therefore predictable changes in the environment. Until the late 1990s, circadian clocks were thought to exist only in the central nervous systems of animals; elegant studies in cultured fibroblasts and using genetically encoded reporters in Drosophila melanogaster and in mice showed that clocks are ubiquitous and cell autonomous. These findings inspired investigations of the advantages construed by enabling each organ to independently adjust its function to the time of day. Studies of rhythmic gene expression in several organs suggested that peripheral organ clocks might play an important role in optimizing metabolic physiology by synchronizing tissue-intrinsic metabolic processes to cycles of nutrient availability and energy requirements. The effects of clock disruption in liver, pancreas, muscle, and adipose tissues support that hypothesis. Adipose tissues coordinate energy storage and utilization and modulate behavior and the physiology of other organs by secreting hormones known as "adipokines." Due to behavior- and environment-driven diurnal variations in supply and demand for chemical and thermal energy, adipose tissues might represent an important peripheral location for coordinating circadian energy balance (intake, storage, and utilization) over the whole organism. Given the complexity of adipose cell types and depots, the sensitivity of adipose tissue biology to age and diet composition, and the plethora of known and yet-to-be-discovered adipokines and lipokines, we have just begun to scratch the surface of understanding the role of circadian clocks in adipose tissues.

  18. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beige” adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  19. [Correlation between epicardial adipose tissue thickness and slow flow of non-obstructive coronary artery].

    PubMed

    Wu, Q; Yang, B

    2016-11-24

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between epicardial adipose thickness and slow flow of non-obstructive coronary artery. Methods: Clinical data of patients with coronary angiography examination evidenced stenosis<50% in our department from May 2014 to May 2015 were retrospectively analyzed.According to the level of TIMI in angiography, patients were divided into slow blood flow group (TIMI Ⅰ-Ⅱ, n=16) and normal blood flow group (TIMI Ⅲ, n=127). All epicardial adipose thickness was determined by echocardiography and data of biochemical data (fibrinogen, whole blood viscosity at high shear rate, erythrocyte aggregation index, platelet count, and platelet aggregation rate) were also analyzed.Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify whether epicardial adipose thickness was a risk factor for the occurrence of slow flow of non-obstructive coronary artery.A linear regression analysis was used to identify the correlation between epicardial adipose thickness and severity of slow flow of non-obstructive coronary artery.Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the predicting value of epicardial adipose thickness on slow flow of non-obstructive coronary artery. Results: The epicardial adipose thickness was significantly thicker in slow blood flow group than in normal blood flow group ((8.18±2.25) mm vs. (4.65±0.88) mm, P<0.01). The plasma fibrinogen concentration((4.17±1.13) g/L vs.(2.29±0.92) g/L, P<0.01), erythrocyte aggregation index (7.88±1.07 vs. 5.46±1.17, P<0.01), platelet count ((274.1±8.6)×10(9)/L vs.(215.3±72.3)×10(9)/L, P<0.01) and platelet aggregation rate ((0.81±0.11)% vs.(0.64±0.12)%, P<0.01) were significantly higher in slow blood flow group than in normal blood flow group.Whole blood viscosity at high shear rate was similar between the two groups ((4.16±0.56) mPa·s vs.(3.88±0.51) mPa·s, P>0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that epicardial adipose thickness was a

  20. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction: Clinical Relevance and Diagnostic Possibilities.

    PubMed

    Schrover, I M; Spiering, W; Leiner, T; Visseren, F L J

    2016-04-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction is defined as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines, causing insulin resistance, systemic low-grade inflammation, hypercoagulability, and elevated blood pressure. These can lead to cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus type 2. Although quantity of adipose tissue is an important determinant of adipose tissue dysfunction, it can be diagnosed in both obese and lean individuals. This implies that not only quantity of adipose tissue should be used as a measure for adipose tissue dysfunction. Instead, focus should be on measuring quality of adipose tissue, which can be done with diagnostic modalities ranging from anthropometric measurements to tissue biopsies and advanced imaging techniques. In daily clinical practice, high quantity of visceral adipose tissue (reflected in high waist circumference or adipose tissue imaging), insulin resistance, or presence of the metabolic syndrome are easy and low-cost diagnostic modalities to evaluate presence or absence of adipose tissue dysfunction.

  1. Variants in the CNR1 and the FAAH genes and adiposity traits in the community

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, Wolfgang; Manning, Alisa K.; Florez, Jose C.; Dupuis, Josée; Cupples, L. Adrienne; McAteer, Jarred B.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Meigs, James B.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacologic blockade of the endocannabinoid receptor 1 leads to weight loss and an improved metabolic risk profile in overweight and obese individuals. We hypothesize that common genetic variants in the CNR1 (encoding endocannabinoid receptor 1) and FAAH genes (encoding fatty acid amide hydrolase, a key enzyme hydrolyzing endocannabinoids) are associated with adiposity traits. We genotyped 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CNR1 and 9 SNPs in the FAAH gene in 2,415 Framingham Offspring Study participants (mean age 61±10 years; 52.6% women; mean BMI 28.2±5.4 kg/m2; 30.3% obese) and studied them for association with cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of adiposity (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, change over time in BMI and waist circumference, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue) using linear mixed-effect models. The selected SNPs captured 85% (r2=0.8) of the common variation (minor allele frequency >5%) at the CNR1 locus and 96% (r2=0.8) of the common variation at the FAAH locus (defined as the genomic segment containing the gene +20 kb upstream and +10 kb downstream). After correction for multiple testing, none of the SNPs in the CNR1 gene or in the FAAH gene displayed statistical evidence for association with BMI, waist circumference and visceral adipose tissue or subcutaneous adipose tissue (all P>0.18). Despite comprehensive SNP mapping across the genes and their regulatory regions in a large unselected sample, we failed to find evidence for an association of common variants in the CNR1 and FAAH genes with measures of adiposity in our community-based sample. PMID:19165169

  2. Relationship Between Adiposity and Pulmonary Function in School-Aged Canadian Children.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sara; Little, Julian; Chen, Yue

    2014-09-01

    Reduced lung function has been observed in adults with excess adiposity; however, in children, the relationship between adiposity and lung function is not clearly understood. A sample of 1,583 children, less than 18 years of age, from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) was used to examine the associations of various anthropometric and skinfold measures with lung function parameters. The mean age of the sample was 12.15 (0.096). In normal weight boys, body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV0.75 and FEV1; while in overweight or obese boys, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio showed inverse correlations with pulmonary function measures. Similarly, in normal weight girls, BMI and WC had positive associations with lung function measures but no inverse effect of adiposity was observed in overweight or obese girls. Skinfold analysis showed that only triceps skinfold had a significant inverse association with FVC and borderline significant associations with FEV0.75 and FEV1 in normal weight boys; while in overweight or obese boys, all the skinfold indicators displayed inverse correlations with lung function. The best predictor of lung function was triceps skinfold with βstd=-0.3869 for FVC, -0.3496 for FEV0.75 and -0.3668 for FEV1. No inverse correlations between skinfolds and lung function were observed in girls. Adiposity had differing effects on respiratory function that were dependent on sex and BMI group with the most significant effect on the overweight or obese boys. The most important indicator of adiposity in boys with BMI <30 kg/m(2) was triceps skinfold. In girls, adiposity was not associated with poor lung function.

  3. The independent prospective associations of activity intensity and dietary energy density with adiposity in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    van Sluijs, Esther M F; Sharp, Stephen J; Ambrosini, Gina L; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-03-14

    There is limited evidence on the prospective association of time spent in activity intensity (sedentary (SED), moderate (MPA) or vigorous (VPA) physical activity) and dietary intake with adiposity indicators in young people. This study aimed to assess associations between (1) baseline objectively measured activity intensity, dietary energy density (DED) and 4-year change in adiposity and (2) 4-year change in activity intensity/DED and adiposity at follow-up. We conducted cohort analyses including 367 participants (10 years at baseline, 14 years at follow-up) with valid data for objectively measured activity (Actigraph), DED (4-d food diary), anthropometry (waist circumference (WC), %body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), weight status) and covariates. Linear and logistic regression models were fit, including adjustment for DED and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results showed that baseline DED was associated with change in WC (β for 1kJ/g difference: 0·71; 95% CI 0·26, 1·17), particularly in boys (1·26; 95% CI 0·41, 2·16 v. girls: 0·26; 95% CI -0·34, 0·87), but not with %BF, FMI or weight status. In contrast, baseline SED, MPA or VPA were not associated with any of the outcomes. Change in DED was negatively associated with FMI (β for 1kJ/g increase: -0·86; 95% CI -1·59, -0·12) and %BF (-0·86; 95% CI -1·25, -0·11) but not WC (-0·27; 95% CI -1·02, 0·48). Change in SED, MPA and VPA did not predict adiposity at follow-up. In conclusion, activity intensity was not prospectively associated with adiposity, whereas the directions of associations with DED were inconsistent. To inform public health efforts, future studies should continue to analyse longitudinal data to further understand the independent role of different energy-balance behaviours in changes in adiposity in early adolescence.

  4. Cross-sectional and prospective associations between moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time with adiposity in children

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Adilson; Minderico, Cláudia; Martins, Sandra; Palmeira, António; Ekelund, Ulf; Sardinha, Luís B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) have both been suggested as potential risk factors for adiposity in children. However, there is paucity of data examining the temporal associations between these variables. Objective This study aimed to analyze the cross-sectional and prospective associations between PA, SED and body composition in children. Methods 510 children (age at baseline 10.1±0.8, age at follow up 11.8±0.9) from 6 Portuguese schools from the Oeiras Municipality participated in this study. PA and SED were measured by accelerometry and trunk fat mass (TFM) and body fat mass (BFM) were measured by Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fat mass index (FMI) was calculated as BFM divided by height squared. Several regression models adjusted for age, sex, maturity status, follow-up duration, baseline levels of the outcome variable, and SED or MVPA were performed. Results Moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) (min/d) was cross-sectionally inversely associated with adiposity indexes (FMI, TFM, BFM). Adiposity indexes were inversely associated with time in MVPA. In prospective analyses, MVPA was associated with a lower levels of FMI (β=−0.37, 95% CI: −0.49 to −0.26, p<0.001), TFM (β=−0.20, 95% CI: −0.29 to −0.10, p<0.001), and BFM (β=−0.37, 95% CI: −0.49 to −0.26, p<0.001). When the model was adjusted for age, sex, maturity status and for baseline levels of the outcome variables MVPA remained a significant predictor of lower adiposity indexes (FMI: β=−0.09, 95% CI: −0.16 to −0.01, p<0.05; TFM: β=−0.08, 95% CI: −0.15 to −0.01, p<0.05; BFM: β=−0.07, 95% CI: −0.15 to 0.00, p<0.05). Adiposity was not associated with MVPA when modeled as the exposure in prospective analyses. SED was not related with adiposity indexes, except for the relationship with FMI. Conclusions In cross-sectional and prospective analyses, MVPA is associated with lower adiposity independent of covariates and SED. Results suggest that

  5. Obesity and central adiposity in Japanese immigrants: role of the Western dietary pattern.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sandra R G; Lerario, Daniel D G; Gimeno, Suely G A; Sanudo, Adriana; Franco, Laércio J

    2002-11-01

    We examined the association of nutritional factors with body fat deposition in a representative sample (n=530, aged 40-79 years) of first and second-generation Japanese-Brazilian population who was submitted to standardized questionnaires, including nutritional data, clinical examination and laboratory procedures. Dietary data were compared between groups of subjects defined by the presence of obesity or central adiposity. Associations of body mass index or waist circumference (dependent variables) with energy and nutrient intakes (main exposure of interest) were analyzed by multiple linear regression, with adjustment for gender, age, physical activity and generation. Groups of obese subjects and those with central adiposity consumed higher proportions of energy as fat and lower as carbohydrate than those without obesity and central adiposity (p<0.05). Stratifying by generation, second-generation was shown to take more energy as fat than the first-generation (p<0.05). In the regression models, protein intake was the only variable significantly associated with body mass index. Replacing body mass index by the waist circumference, male sex and protein intake were shown to be independent predictors of central adiposity. When second-generation was taken, total energy intake and all macronutrient intakes became significantly associated with body mass index (p<0.05) but only protein intake predicted waist circumference. We speculate that Japanese-Brazilians, genetically prone to insulin resistance, when exposed to unfavorable environment will express a number of metabolic disturbances. A deleterious dietary pattern may contribute to weight gain, was associated with abdominal fat deposition in particular a protein-rich diet, and reflected by their waist circumference. Intra-abdominal fat could be triggering insulin resistance, which would explain the increased prevalence rates of diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension seen in Japanese-Brazilians.

  6. Effects of Sit Up Exercise Training on Adipose Cell Size and Adiposity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Frank I.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This article reports on an experiment that evaluated the effects of a 27-day sit up exercise training program on adipose cell size and adiposity. Fat biopsies were taken by needle aspiration from male subjects before and after a progressive training regimen. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  7. Altered pattern of cannabinoid type 1 receptor expression in adipose tissue of dysmetabolic and overweight patients.

    PubMed

    Sarzani, Riccardo; Bordicchia, Marica; Marcucci, Pierfrancesco; Bedetta, Samuele; Santini, Silvia; Giovagnoli, Andrea; Scappini, Lorena; Minardi, Daniele; Muzzonigro, Giovanni; Dessì-Fulgheri, Paolo; Rappelli, Alessandro

    2009-03-01

    In overweight patients (OW), the increased peripheral activity of the endocannabinoid system in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) may be mediated by cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor expression. We determined whether CB1 receptor splice variants and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissues are associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Gene expression with multiple-primers real-time polymerase chain reaction (TaqMan; Applied Biosystem, Weiterstadt, Germany) was performed to study VAT and paired subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) mRNA from 36 consecutive patients undergoing nephrectomy. Cannabinoid type 1A and CB1E mRNAs variants with the longer version of exon 4 were expressed. The CB1 expression in perirenal VAT significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI). Paired subcutaneous/perirenal samples from normal-weight patients (BMI < 25 kg/m(2)) showed higher CB1 expression in SAT (P = .002), whereas in OW (BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2)), the higher CB1 expression was in VAT (P = .038). In unpaired samples, SAT of normal-weight patients had significantly higher CB1 mRNA levels compared with SAT of OW, whereas higher CB1 expression (P = .009) was found in VAT of OW (n = 25). Overweight patients with increased visceral CB1 expression had higher waist circumference (P < .01), insulin (P < .01), and homeostasis model assessment index (P < .01). In addition, patients with the MetS (n = 22) showed higher CB1 expression in perirenal adipose tissues (P = .007). Visceral adipose CB1 expression correlated with BMI. Overweight patients and those with MetS showed a CB1 expression pattern supporting a CB1-mediated overactivity of the endocannabinoid system in human VAT.

  8. Direct effects of leptin on brown and white adipose tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Siegrist-Kaiser, C A; Pauli, V; Juge-Aubry, C E; Boss, O; Pernin, A; Chin, W W; Cusin, I; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F; Burger, A G; Zapf, J; Meier, C A

    1997-01-01

    Leptin is thought to exert its actions on energy homeostasis through the long form of the leptin receptor (OB-Rb), which is present in the hypothalamus and in certain peripheral organs, including adipose tissue. In this study, we examined whether leptin has direct effects on the function of brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT, respectively) at the metabolic and molecular levels. The chronic peripheral intravenous administration of leptin in vivo for 4 d resulted in a 1.6-fold increase in the in vivo glucose utilization index of BAT, whereas no significant change was found after intracerebroventricular administration compared with pair-fed control rats, compatible with a direct effect of leptin on BAT. The effect of leptin on WAT fat pads from lean Zucker Fa/ fa rats was assessed ex vivo, where a 9- and 16-fold increase in the rate of lipolysis was observed after 2 h of exposure to 0.1 and 10 nM leptin, respectively. In contrast, no increase in lipolysis was observed in the fat pads from obese fa/fa rats, which harbor an inactivating mutation in the OB-Rb. At the level of gene expression, leptin treatment for 24 h increased malic enzyme and lipoprotein lipase RNA 1.8+/-0.17 and 1.9+/-0.14-fold, respectively, while aP2 mRNA levels were unaltered in primary cultures of brown adipocytes from lean Fa/fa rats. Importantly, however, no significant effect of leptin was observed on these genes in brown adipocytes from obese fa/fa animals. The presence of OB-Rb receptors in adipose tissue was substantiated by the detection of its transcripts by RT-PCR, and leptin treatment in vivo and in vitro activated the specific STATs implicated in the signaling pathway of the OB-Rb. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that leptin has direct effects on BAT and WAT, resulting in the activation of the Jak/STAT pathway and the increased expression of certain target genes, which may partially account for the observed increase in glucose utilization and lipolysis in leptin

  9. Adipose Tissue CIDEA Is Associated, Independently of Weight Variation, to Change in Insulin Resistance during a Longitudinal Weight Control Dietary Program in Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Montastier, Emilie; Déjean, Sébastien; Le Gall, Caroline; Saris, Wim H. M.; Langin, Dominique; Viguerie, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Aim Weight loss reduces risk factors associated with obesity. However, long-term metabolic improvement remains a challenge. We investigated quantitative gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals and its relationship with low calorie diet and long term weight maintenance induced changes in insulin resistance. Research Design Three hundred eleven overweight and obese individuals followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-week low calorie diet followed by a 6-month ad libitum weight-maintenance diet. Individuals were clustered according to insulin resistance trajectories assessed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Adipose tissue mRNA levels of 267 genes selected for regulation according to obesity, metabolic status and response to dieting was assessed using high throughput RT-qPCR. A combination of discriminant analyses was used to identify genes with regulation according to insulin resistance trajectories. Partial correlation was used to control for change in body mass index. Results Three different HOMA-IR profile groups were determined. HOMA-IR improved during low calorie diet in the 3 groups. At the end of the 6-month follow-up, groups A and B had reduced HOMA-IR by 50%. In group C, HOMA-IR had returned to baseline values. Genes were differentially expressed in the adipose tissue of individuals according to groups but a single gene, CIDEA, was common to all phases of the dietary intervention. Changes in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels paralleled variations in insulin sensitivity independently of change in body mass index. Overall, CIDEA was up-regulated in adipose tissue of individuals with successful long term insulin resistance relapse and not in adipose tissue of unsuccessful individuals. Conclusion The concomitant change in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels and insulin sensitivity suggests a beneficial role of adipose tissue CIDEA in long term glucose homeostasis, independently of weight

  10. Intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissues: Bad vs. good adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hausman, Gary J; Basu, Urmila; Du, Min; Fernyhough-Culver, Melinda; Dodson, Michael V

    2014-01-01

    Human studies of the influence of aging and other factors on intermuscular fat (INTMF) were reviewed. Intermuscular fat increased with weight loss, weight gain, or with no weight change with age in humans. An increase in INTMF represents a similar threat to type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance as does visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Studies of INTMF in animals covered topics such as quantitative deposition and genetic relationships with other fat depots. The relationship between leanness and higher proportions of INTMF fat in pigs was not observed in human studies and was not corroborated by other pig studies. In humans, changes in muscle mass, strength and quality are associated with INTMF accretion with aging. Gene expression profiling and intrinsic methylation differences in pigs demonstrated that INTMF and VAT are primarily associated with inflammatory and immune processes. It seems that in the pig and humans, INTMF and VAT share a similar pattern of distribution and a similar association of components dictating insulin sensitivity. Studies on intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in meat animals were reviewed. Gene expression analysis and genetic analysis have identified candidate genes involved in IM adipocyte development. Intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in human muscle is only seen during aging and some pathological circumstance. Several genetic links between human and meat animal adipogenesis have been identified. In pigs, the Lipin1 and Lipin 2 gene have strong genetic effects on IM accumulation. Lipin1 deficiency results in immature adipocyte development in human lipodystrophy. In humans, overexpression of Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) facilitates intramyocellular lipid accretion whereas in pigs PLIN2 gene expression is associated with IM deposition. Lipins and perilipins may influence intramuscular lipid regardless of species. PMID:26317048

  11. INDEXING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  12. Circadian Rhythms in Adipose Tissue Physiology.

    PubMed

    Kiehn, Jana-Thabea; Tsang, Anthony H; Heyde, Isabel; Leinweber, Brinja; Kolbe, Isa; Leliavski, Alexei; Oster, Henrik

    2017-03-16

    The different types of adipose tissues fulfill a wide range of biological functions-from energy storage to hormone secretion and thermogenesis-many of which show pronounced variations over the course of the day. Such 24-h rhythms in physiology and behavior are coordinated by endogenous circadian clocks found in all tissues and cells, including adipocytes. At the molecular level, these clocks are based on interlocked transcriptional-translational feedback loops comprised of a set of clock genes/proteins. Tissue-specific clock-controlled transcriptional programs translate time-of-day information into physiologically relevant signals. In adipose tissues, clock gene control has been documented for adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, lipid metabolism as well as endocrine function and other adipose oscillations are under control of systemic signals tied to endocrine, neuronal, or behavioral rhythms. Circadian rhythm disruption, for example, by night shift work or through genetic alterations, is associated with changes in adipocyte metabolism and hormone secretion. At the same time, adipose metabolic state feeds back to central and peripheral clocks, adjusting behavioral and physiological rhythms. In this overview article, we summarize our current knowledge about the crosstalk between circadian clocks and energy metabolism with a focus on adipose physiology. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:383-427, 2017.

  13. [New anatomo clinic approach of adipose tissue].

    PubMed

    Dardour, J-C

    2012-10-01

    For a long time, adipose tissue was supposed to be inert with only a function of long-term energetic reserve. The obesity, abnormal accumulation of fat, for its part has always been considered the sole result of hyperphagia, itself secondary to a lack of willingness of the subject. This article focuses on the multiple aspects and functions of the different fatty tissues. One must distinguish brown adipose tissue (AT) and the white AT. This includes visceral fat and subcutaneous AT, which itself is divided into two sectors, a genetic fat and grease that we called ecological. The brown adipose tissue has essentially a function of thermogenesis. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT), from a certain volume, behaves as true endocrine gland acting on glycemic and lipid function. In addition to its role of energy reserve, the sub cutaneous AT has a mechanical role of shock absorber and fabric slip. We will emphasize finally the genetic aspect still too misunderstood and underestimated that regulates the different functions of the adipose tissue.

  14. Brown adipose tissue growth and development.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  15. Visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Results Numerous epidemiological studies consistently identify increased risk of developing carcinoma in the obese. Adipose tissue, particularly viscerally located fat, is metabolically active and exerts systemic endocrine effects. Putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and carcinogenesis include the paracrine effects of adipose tissue and systemic alterations associated with obesity. Systemic changes in the obese state include chronic inflammation and alterations in adipokines and sex steroids. Insulin and the insulin-like growth factor axis influence tumorigenesis and also have a complex relationship with adiposity. There is evidence to suggest that insulin and the IGF axis play an important role in mediating obesity associated malignancy. Conclusions There is much evidence to support a role for obesity in cancer progression, however further research is warranted to determine the specific effect of excess visceral adipose tissue on tumorigenesis. Investigation of the potential mechanisms underpinning the association, including the role of insulin and the IGF axis, will improve understanding of the obesity and cancer link and may uncover targets for intervention. PMID:21696633

  16. Investigating the associations between adiposity, life course overweight trajectories, and telomere length

    PubMed Central

    Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Watkins, Johnathan; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya; Hardy, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Obesity may accelerate ageing through chronic inflammation. To further examine this association, we assessed current adiposity, adiposity at early adulthood and life course overweight trajectories in relation to leukocyte telomere length (LTL). We included a total of 7,008 nationally representative U.S. residents and collected information on objectively measured body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and percent body fat. BMI at age 25 and overweight trajectories were assessed using self-reported history. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) relative to a standard DNA reference (T/S ratio) was quantified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Linear regression models were used to examine the difference in LTL across adiposity measures at examination, BMI at age 25, and overweight trajectories. A 0.2% decrease in telomere length (95% CI:−0.3 to −0.07%) was observed for every kg/m2 increase in BMI, whereas a unit increase in waist circumference (cm) and percent body fat contributed to a 0.09% and 0.01% decrease in LTL, respectively. Higher BMI and being obese at age 25 contributed to lower LTL at older ages. Associations between weight loss through life course and LTL were observed, which further marked the importance of life course adiposity dynamics as a determinant of ageing. PMID:27650676

  17. Impaired tethering and fusion of GLUT4 vesicles in insulin-resistant human adipose cells.

    PubMed

    Lizunov, Vladimir A; Lee, Jo-Ping; Skarulis, Monica C; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Cushman, Samuel W; Stenkula, Karin G

    2013-09-01

    Systemic glucose homeostasis is profoundly influenced by adipose cell function. Here we investigated GLUT4 dynamics in living adipose cells from human subjects with varying BMI and insulin sensitivity index (Si) values. Cells were transfected with hemagglutinin (HA)-GLUT4-green fluorescent protein (GFP)/mCherry (red fluorescence), and were imaged live using total internal reflection fluorescence and confocal microscopy. HA-GLUT4-GFP redistribution to the plasma membrane (PM) was quantified by surface-exposed HA epitope. In the basal state, GLUT4 storage vesicle (GSV) trafficking to and fusion with the PM were invariant with donor subject Si, as was total cell-surface GLUT4. In cells from insulin-sensitive subjects, insulin augmented GSV tethering and fusion approximately threefold, resulting in a corresponding increase in total PM GLUT4. However, with decreasing Si, these effects diminished progressively. All insulin-induced effects on GLUT4 redistribution and trafficking correlated strongly with Si and only weakly with BMI. Thus, while basal GLUT4 dynamics and total cell-surface GLUT4 are intact in human adipose cells, independent of donor Si, cells from insulin-resistant donors show markedly impaired GSV tethering and fusion responses to insulin, even after overnight culture. This altered insulin responsiveness is consistent with the hypothesis that adipose cellular dysfunction is a primary contributor to systemic metabolic dysfunction.

  18. The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Natália P.; Euclydes, Verônica V.; Simões, Fernanda A.; Vaz-de-Lima, Lourdes R. A.; De Brito, Cyro A.; Luzia, Liania A.; Devakumar, Delan; Rondó, Patrícia H. C.

    2017-01-01

    Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM%) was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin (p = 0.001) and pre-pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001; adj. R2 = 0.19) were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results. PMID:28241462

  19. Hypoxic Living and Exercise Training Alter Adipose Tissue Leptin/Leptin Receptor in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingli; Feng, Lianshi; Xie, Minhao; Zhang, Li; Xu, Jianfang; He, Zihong; You, Tongjian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n = 10 each): control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1-4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4), living, and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1-4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4), and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1-4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4). Epididymal adipose tissue expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor were determined Results: Compared to hypoxic living and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 3-4 weeks resulted in lower Lee index (P < 0.05-0.01), and higher expression of leptin and leptin receptor (P < 0.05-0.01) in adipose tissue. Conclusion: In a rodent model of altitude training, living, and exercise training in hypoxic conditions resulted in greater alterations in obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor than hypoxic living alone and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions.

  20. Hypoxic Living and Exercise Training Alter Adipose Tissue Leptin/Leptin Receptor in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yingli; Feng, Lianshi; Xie, Minhao; Zhang, Li; Xu, Jianfang; He, Zihong; You, Tongjian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n = 10 each): control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1–4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4), living, and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1–4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4), and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1–4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4). Epididymal adipose tissue expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor were determined Results: Compared to hypoxic living and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 3–4 weeks resulted in lower Lee index (P < 0.05–0.01), and higher expression of leptin and leptin receptor (P < 0.05–0.01) in adipose tissue. Conclusion: In a rodent model of altitude training, living, and exercise training in hypoxic conditions resulted in greater alterations in obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor than hypoxic living alone and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions. PMID:27932989

  1. Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of age (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of age (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535

  2. Cholinoceptor-mediated effects on glycerol output from human adipose tissue using in situ microdialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, K.; Arner, P.

    1995-01-01

    1. Possible cholinoceptor-mediated effects on lipolysis were investigated in vivo in human subcutaneous adipose tissue of non-obese, non-smoking, healthy subjects, by use of microdialysis. Cholinomimetic and sympathomimetic agents were added to the ingoing dialysate solvent. 2. Addition of nicotine to the perfusion solvent caused a concentration-dependent reversible increase in the levels of glycerol in the dialysate (lipolysis index). The opposite effect (also concentration-dependent and reversible) was caused by the addition of carbachol. The maximum effects were 100% stimulation and 50% inhibition, respectively, by nicotine and carbachol. Neither nicotine nor carbachol stimulated nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue (as measured with an ethanol escape technique). 3. The nicotine effect in situ was concentration-dependently counteracted by the nicotinic cholinoceptor antagonist, mecamylamine. Likewise, the carbachol effect was concentration-dependently counteracted by the muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonist, atropine. 4. When adipose tissue was pretreated with phentolamine plus propranolol in order to obtain a complete alpha and beta-adrenoceptor blockade, the subsequent addition of nicotine or carbachol still induced an increase and decrease in dialysate glycerol levels (lipolytic or antilipolytic effects), respectively. When adipose tissue was pretreated with mecamylamine or atropine, the subsequent addition of acetylcholine caused a reversible decrease and increase, respectively, of the dialysate glycerol levels. 5. Nicotine and carbachol had no effects on glycerol release from human isolated subcutaneous fat cells that were incubated in vivo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7582538

  3. Investigating the associations between adiposity, life course overweight trajectories, and telomere length.

    PubMed

    Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Watkins, Johnathan; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya; Hardy, Rebecca

    2016-09-18

    Obesity may accelerate ageing through chronic inflammation. To further examine this association, we assessed current adiposity, adiposity at early adulthood and life course overweight trajectories in relation to leukocyte telomere length (LTL). We included a total of 7,008 nationally representative U.S. residents and collected information on objectively measured body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and percent body fat. BMI at age 25 and overweight trajectories were assessed using self-reported history. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) relative to a standard DNA reference (T/S ratio) was quantified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Linear regression models were used to examine the difference in LTL across adiposity measures at examination, BMI at age 25, and overweight trajectories. A 0.2% decrease in telomere length (95% CI: -0.3 to -0.07%) was observed for every kg/m2 increase in BMI, whereas a unit increase in waist circumference (cm) and percent body fat contributed to a 0.09% and 0.01% decrease in LTL, respectively. Higher BMI and being obese at age 25 contributed to lower LTL at older ages. Associations between weight loss through life course and LTL were observed, which further marked the importance of life course adiposity dynamics as a determinant of ageing.

  4. Tenomodulin promotes human adipocyte differentiation and beneficial visceral adipose tissue expansion

    PubMed Central

    Senol-Cosar, Ozlem; Flach, Rachel J. Roth; DiStefano, Marina; Chawla, Anil; Nicoloro, Sarah; Straubhaar, Juerg; Hardy, Olga T.; Noh, Hye Lim; Kim, Jason K.; Wabitsch, Martin; Scherer, Philipp E.; Czech, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Proper regulation of energy storage in adipose tissue is crucial for maintaining insulin sensitivity and molecules contributing to this process have not been fully revealed. Here we show that type II transmembrane protein tenomodulin (TNMD) is upregulated in adipose tissue of insulin-resistant versus insulin-sensitive individuals, who were matched for body mass index (BMI). TNMD expression increases in human preadipocytes during differentiation, whereas silencing TNMD blocks adipogenesis. Upon high-fat diet feeding, transgenic mice overexpressing Tnmd develop increased epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) mass, and preadipocytes derived from Tnmd transgenic mice display greater proliferation, consistent with elevated adipogenesis. In Tnmd transgenic mice, lipogenic genes are upregulated in eWAT, as is Ucp1 in brown fat, while liver triglyceride accumulation is attenuated. Despite expanded eWAT, transgenic animals display improved systemic insulin sensitivity, decreased collagen deposition and inflammation in eWAT, and increased insulin stimulation of Akt phosphorylation. Our data suggest that TNMD acts as a protective factor in visceral adipose tissue to alleviate insulin resistance in obesity. PMID:26880110

  5. Proline oxidase-adipose triglyceride lipase pathway restrains adipose cell death and tissue inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lettieri Barbato, D; Aquilano, K; Baldelli, S; Cannata, S M; Bernardini, S; Rotilio, G; Ciriolo, M R

    2014-01-01

    The nutrient-sensing lipolytic enzyme adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) has a key role in adipose tissue function, and alterations in its activity have been implicated in many age-related metabolic disorders. In adipose tissue reduced blood vessel density is related to hypoxia state, cell death and inflammation. Here we demonstrate that adipocytes of poorly vascularized enlarged visceral adipose tissue (i.e. adipose tissue of old mice) suffer from limited nutrient delivery. In particular, nutrient starvation elicits increased activity of mitochondrial proline oxidase/dehydrogenase (POX/PRODH) that is causal in triggering a ROS-dependent induction of ATGL. We demonstrate that ATGL promotes the expression of genes related to mitochondrial oxidative metabolism (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α), thus setting a metabolic switch towards fat utilization that supplies energy to starved adipocytes and prevents cell death, as well as adipose tissue inflammation. Taken together, these results identify ATGL as a stress resistance mediator in adipocytes, restraining visceral adipose tissue dysfunction typical of age-related metabolic disorders.

  6. Crystal structure, stability, and optoelectronic properties of the organic-inorganic wide-band-gap perovskite CH3NH3BaI3 : Candidate for transparent conductor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Akash; Balasubramaniam, K. R.; Kangsabanik, Jiban; Vikram, Alam, Aftab

    2016-11-01

    Structural stability, electronic structure, and optical properties of CH3NH3BaI3 hybrid perovskite are examined from theory as well as experiment. Solution-processed thin films of CH3NH3BaI3 exhibited a high transparency in the wavelength range of 400-825 nm (1.5-3.1 eV for which the photon current density is highest in the solar spectrum) which essentially justifies a high band gap of 4 eV obtained by theoretical estimation. Also, the x-ray diffraction patterns of the thin films match well with the {00 l } peaks of the simulated pattern obtained from the relaxed unit cell of CH3NH3BaI3 , crystallizing in the I 4 /m c m space group, with lattice parameters, a =9.30 Å, c =13.94 Å. Atom projected density of state and band structure calculations reveal the conduction and valence band edges to be comprised primarily of barium d orbitals and iodine p orbitals, respectively. The larger band gap of CH3NH3BaI3 compared to CH3NH3PbI3 can be attributed to the lower electronegativity coupled with the lack of d orbitals in the valence band of Ba2 +. A more detailed analysis reveals the excellent chemical and mechanical stability of CH3NH3BaI3 against humidity, unlike its lead halide counterpart, which degrades under such conditions. We propose La to be a suitable dopant to make this compound a promising candidate for transparent conductor applications, especially for all perovskite solar cells. This claim is supported by our calculated results on charge concentration, effective mass, and vacancy formation energies.

  7. Adipose Tissue Characteristics Related to Weight Z-Score in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Haro-Mora, Juan Jesus; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Porras, Nuria; Alcazar, Dolores; Gaztambide, Joaquin; Ruiz-Orpez, Antonio; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Gomez-Zumaquero, Juan M.; Garcia-Fuentes, Eduardo; Lopez-Siguero, Juan P; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity has grown very fast over recent decades and now it represents a serious public health problem. The number of adipocytes is set in childhood and adolescence and then, an effective understanding of the development of adipose tissue during these periods will help in the prevention of this pathology. Objectives The current study aimed to determine which adipose tissue characteristics are related to a high weight Z-score in childhood. Patients and Methods The current study included 82 children aged 5-130 months who underwent inguinal hernia surgery. Anthropometric variables were measured, and a nutritional and physical activity questionnaire was completed. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples, taken during the operation, were analyzed for preadipocyte number, adipocyte volume, fatty acid composition (gas chromatography of FAME), and relative gene expression of various genes (real time PCR). Results The results showed that children with a higher weight Z-score spend more time in sedentary activities and less time running or involved in active games. SCD-1 activity index, arachidonic/linoleic index, and adipocyte volume were significantly higher in children with a weight Z-score greater than 0. The preadipocyte number and the genetic expression of the studied genes did not differ between the groups. A multiple regression analysis was done to determine which variables were related to the weight Z-score. R2 values indicated that the model which included adipocyte volume, SREBP-1c, SCD-1 expression, and activity index, predicted 59% of the variability in the weight Z-score among the children. The main variables associated with adipocyte volume were PPARγ, Adiponectin, CB1R expressions, as well as the SCD-1 activity and normalized weight. Conclusions It was concluded that in childhood, the weight Z-score is related to adipocyte volume and adipose tissue gene expression. PMID:23825978

  8. Enzymatic intracrine regulation of white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    DiSilvestro, David; Petrosino, Jennifer; Aldoori, Ayat; Melgar-Bermudez, Emiliano; Wells, Alexandra; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal fat formation has become a permanent risk factor for metabolic syndrome and various cancers in one-third of the world's population of obese and even lean patients. Formation of abdominal fat involves additional mechanisms beyond an imbalance in energy intake and expenditure, which explains systemic obesity. In this review, we briefly summarized autonomous regulatory circuits that locally produce hormones from inactive precursors or nutrients for intra-/auto-/paracrine signaling in white adipose depots. Enzymatic pathways activating steroid and thyroid hormones in adipose depots were compared with enzymatic production of retinoic acid from vitamin A. We discussed the role of intracrine circuits in fat-depot functions and strategies to reduce abdominal adiposity through thermogenic adipocytes with interrupted generation of retinoic acid. PMID:25390015

  9. [An exploration of the training of medical talents in China for Ryukyu islands based on the Liu qiu bai wen (One Hundred Question of Ryukyu)].

    PubMed

    He, Lanping

    2014-09-01

    Ryukyu sent more than 20 batches of returned students to China for studying during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, many of whom were studying medicine. Liu qiu bai wen (One Hundred Question of Ryukyu) was the record of discussion between Cao Cunxin, a famous doctor of the Qing Dynasty, and the oversea disciples of Lü Fengyi from Ryukyu. However, it was not only a medical book, but also served as an important witness on overseas dissemination of TCM, and the fresh case of Chinese training medical talented persons for Ryukyu. Training Ryukyu medical students in the Qing Dynasty was good for the expansion of Chinese medicine in the Ryukyu, and promoted the development and social progress of the Ryukyu medicine and health, made a significant contribution to maintain the friendly relationship between the two countries.

  10. KK/Ta Mice Administered Lactobacillus plantarum Strain No. 14 Have Lower Adiposity and Higher Insulin Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Takuma; Takemura, Naoki; Yoshida, Ayako; Sonoyama, Kei

    2013-01-01

    Excess accumulation of white adipose tissue can lead to obesity-related metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance. We previously reported that intragastric administration of Lactobacillus plantarum No. 14 reduced adipocyte size in diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. The present study tested whether L. plantarum No. 14 affects adiposity and insulin sensitivity in an animal model of type-2 diabetes mellitus. Male KK/Ta mice were fed a normal-fat diet and intragastrically given L. plantarum No. 14 (10(8) CFU/mouse) or vehicle daily for 10 weeks. Interscapular brown adipose tissue and inguinal, mesenteric, and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue weights, serum leptin and insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were significantly lower in L. plantarum No. 14-fed mice than in vehicle-fed mice. The sum of the inguinal, epididymal, mesenteric and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue weights correlated with serum leptin and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations and HOMA-IR. The mesenteric adipose tissue mRNA levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α were significantly lower in L. plantarum No. 14-fed mice than in vehicle-fed mice. Mesenteric adipose tissue weight correlated with interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA levels. HOMA-IR correlated with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA levels. These data suggest that L. plantarum No. 14 prevents the development of insulin resistance, which is at least partly attributable to the prevention of obesity, in KK/Ta mice.

  11. Impact of Adiposity on Incident Hypertension Is Modified by Insulin Resistance in Adults: Longitudinal Observation From the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Huijie; Li, Shengxu; Li, Ying; Liu, Yaozhong; Fernandez, Camilo; Harville, Emily; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Adiposity and insulin resistance are closely associated with hypertension. This study aims to investigate whether the association between adiposity and hypertension is modified by insulin resistance. The cohort consisted of 1624 middle-aged normotensive black and white adults aged 18 to 43 years at baseline who followed for 16 years on average. Overweight/obesity at baseline was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥25, and insulin resistance was measured using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Prevalence of incident hypertension was compared between the insulin-sensitive adiposity and insulin-resistant adiposity groups. The prevalence of incident hypertension was higher in the insulin-resistant adiposity than in the insulin-sensitive adiposity group (32.1% versus 22.1%, P<0.001). In multivariable logistic analyses, adjusted for baseline age, race, sex, follow-up years, and smoking, baseline insulin-resistant obesity was associated with incident hypertension (odds ratio, 1.9; P=0.008). Odds ratios did not differ between blacks and whites (P=0.238). Of note, the odds ratios of BMI associated with hypertension significantly increased with increasing quartiles of baseline homeostasis model assessment (odds ratio, 1.3, 1.1, 1.5, and 2.5 in quartiles I, II, III, and IV, respectively; P=0.006 for trend). Slopes of increasing follow-up blood pressure with baseline BMI, measured as regression coefficients (β), were significantly greater in insulin-resistant than in insulin-sensitive individuals (β=0.74 versus β=0.35 for systolic blood pressure, P=0.004 for difference; β=0.51 versus β=0.23 for diastolic blood pressure, P=0.001 for difference). These findings suggest that insulin resistance has a synergistic effect on the obesity-hypertension association in young adults, indicating that the role of adiposity in the development of hypertension is modified by insulin resistance.

  12. Depression and adipose polyunsaturated fatty acids in the survivors of the Seven Countries Study population of Crete.

    PubMed

    Mamalakis, George; Kiriakakis, Michael; Tsibinos, George; Kafatos, Anthony

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between adipose tissue polyunsaturated fatty acids, an index of long-term or habitual fatty acid dietary intake and depression. The sample consisted of 150 elderly males from the island of Crete. The subjects were survivors of the Greek Seven Countries Study group. The mean age was 84 years. The number of subjects with complete data on all variables studied was 63. Subjects were examined by the Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Clinic of the University of Crete. Depression was assessed through the use of the short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Depression correlated negatively with adipose tissue alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3). Depressed subjects had significantly reduced (-10.5%) adipose tissue C18:3n-3 levels than non-depressed subjects. The observed negative relation between adipose tissue C18:3n-3 and depression, in the present study, appears to indicate increasing long-term dietary C18:3n-3 intakes with decreasing depression. This agrees with findings of other studies indicating an inverse relation between depression and consumption of fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. This is the first literature report of a relation between adipose tissue C18:3n-3 and depression. Furthermore, this is the first report of a relation between adipose PUFA and depression in an elderly sample. Depression has been reported to be associated with elevated cytokines, such as, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, INF-gamma and INF-alpha. Fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids, on the other hand, have been reported to inhibit cytokine production. The observed negative relation between adipose C18:3n-3 and depression, therefore, may stem from the inhibiting effect of C18:3n-3 or its long-chain metabolites on cytokine synthesis.

  13. Association of adiposity genetic variants with menarche timing in 92,105 women of European descent.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rhodes, Lindsay; Demerath, Ellen W; Cousminer, Diana L; Tao, Ran; Dreyfus, Jill G; Esko, Tõnu; Smith, Albert V; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore; McArdle, Patrick F; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Elks, Cathy E; Strachan, David P; Kutalik, Zoltán; Vollenweider, Peter; Feenstra, Bjarke; Boyd, Heather A; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Broer, Linda; Zillikens, M Carola; Oostra, Ben; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Perry, John R B; Murray, Anna; Koller, Daniel L; Lai, Dongbing; Corre, Tanguy; Toniolo, Daniela; Albrecht, Eva; Stöckl, Doris; Grallert, Harald; Gieger, Christian; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Rudan, Igor; Wilson, James F; He, Chunyan; Kraft, Peter; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I; Byrne, Enda M; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Warrington, Nicole M; Pennell, Craig E; Stolk, Lisette; Visser, Jenny A; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lin, Peng; Fisher, Sherri L; Bierut, Laura J; Crisponi, Laura; Porcu, Eleonora; Mangino, Massimo; Zhai, Guangju; Spector, Tim D; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda M; Ridker, Paul M; Poole, Charles; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Murabito, Joanne M; Chasman, Daniel I; Widen, Elisabeth; North, Kari E; Ong, Ken K; Franceschini, Nora

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is of global health concern. There are well-described inverse relationships between female pubertal timing and obesity. Recent genome-wide association studies of age at menarche identified several obesity-related variants. Using data from the ReproGen Consortium, we employed meta-analytical techniques to estimate the associations of 95 a priori and recently identified obesity-related (body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), waist circumference, and waist:hip ratio) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with age at menarche in 92,116 women of European descent from 38 studies (1970-2010), in order to estimate associations between genetic variants associated with central or overall adiposity and pubertal timing in girls. Investigators in each study performed a separate analysis of associations between the selected SNPs and age at menarche (ages 9-17 years) using linear regression models and adjusting for birth year, site (as appropriate), and population stratification. Heterogeneity of effect-measure estimates was investigated using meta-regression. Six novel associations of body mass index loci with age at menarche were identified, and 11 adiposity loci previously reported to be associated with age at menarche were confirmed, but none of the central adiposity variants individually showed significant associations. These findings suggest complex genetic relationships between menarche and overall obesity, and to a lesser extent central obesity, in normal processes of growth and development.

  14. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rocio I; Low Wang, Cecilia C; Wolfe, Pamela; Havranek, Edward P; Long, Carlin S; Bessesen, Daniel H

    2015-12-22

    Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA) compared to non-Latino whites (NLW). Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.). We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue), insulin sensitivity (IVGTT), and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003), and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R² = 0.42, p < 0.01). Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  15. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Rocio I.; Low Wang, Cecilia C.; Wolfe, Pamela; Havranek, Edward P.; Long, Carlin S.; Bessesen, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA) compared to non-Latino whites (NLW). Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.). We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue), insulin sensitivity (IVGTT), and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003), and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.42, p < 0.01). Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors. PMID:26703682

  16. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index–adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, S. B.; Peterson, C. M.; Thomas, D. M.; Heo, M.; Schuna, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. PMID:26663309

  17. Pmch-Deficiency in Rats Is Associated with Normal Adipocyte Differentiation and Lower Sympathetic Adipose Drive

    PubMed Central

    Mul, Joram D.; O’Duibhir, Eoghan; Shrestha, Yogendra B.; Koppen, Arjen; Vargoviç, Peter; Toonen, Pim W.; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Kvetnansky, Richard; Kalkhoven, Eric; Cuppen, Edwin; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    The orexigenic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), a product of Pmch, is an important mediator of energy homeostasis. Pmch-deficient rodents are lean and smaller, characterized by lower food intake, body-, and fat mass. Pmch is expressed in hypothalamic neurons that ultimately are components in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) drive to white and interscapular brown adipose tissue (WAT, iBAT, respectively). MCH binds to MCH receptor 1 (MCH1R), which is present on adipocytes. Currently it is unknown if Pmch-ablation changes adipocyte differentiation or sympathetic adipose drive. Using Pmch-deficient and wild-type rats on a standard low-fat diet, we analyzed dorsal subcutaneous and perirenal WAT mass and adipocyte morphology (size and number) throughout development, and indices of sympathetic activation in WAT and iBAT during adulthood. Moreover, using an in vitro approach we investigated the ability of MCH to modulate 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Pmch-deficiency decreased dorsal subcutaneous and perirenal WAT mass by reducing adipocyte size, but not number. In line with this, in vitro 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation was unaffected by MCH. Finally, adult Pmch-deficient rats had lower norepinephrine turnover (an index of sympathetic adipose drive) in WAT and iBAT than wild-type rats. Collectively, our data indicate that MCH/MCH1R-pathway does not modify adipocyte differentiation, whereas Pmch-deficiency in laboratory rats lowers adiposity throughout development and sympathetic adipose drive during adulthood. PMID:23555928

  18. Branch Area Index of Solitary Trees: Understanding Its Significance in Regulating Ecosystem Services.

    PubMed

    Sjöman, J Deak; Hirons, A; Sjöman, H

    2016-01-01

    The chief aim of this study was to investigate how different species of solitary trees in temperate urban areas vary in their branch structure during winter by assessing branch area indices (BAIs). The BAI data showed significant differences ( < 0.0001) between species and genotypes. The lowest mean BAI in the dataset was for L., which had a BAI of 0.27. L. 'Fastigiata' represented the largest mean BAI of 2.09. The results from the BAI analysis further indicate that within the same species group differences occur between genotypes. For example, the five genotypes of L. range from a mean BAI of 1.77 for 'Globosum' to a mean BAI of 0.50 for 'Fassen Black'. A further aim was to apply the compiled BAI data in the computational modeling program of ENVI-met 3.1, which simulates the surface-air interaction and microclimates in complex urban settings. The simulations focused on mean radiant temperature and wind speed. Results illustrate how wind speed on the leeward side of the trees gradually decrease with an increasing BAI. With an increasing BAI, the Tmrt decreases to the leeward of the row of trees. The results are further discussed in the perspective of sustainable urban development (i.e., where, why, and how the species studied could be integrated in the urban fabric). This is of particular interest for the design of urban green space in densely built-up urban environments where space may be restricted.

  19. [White adipose tissue dysfunction observed in obesity].

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Ewa; Zieliński, Andrzej

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a disease with continuingly increasing prevalence. It occurs worldwide independently of age group, material status or country of origin. At these times the most common reasons for obesity are bad eating habits and dramatic reduction of physical activity, which cause the energy imbalance of organism. Fundamental alteration observed in obese subjects is white adipose tissue overgrowth, which is linked to increased incidence of obesity-related comorbidities, such as: cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes or digestive tract diseases. What is more, obesity is also a risk factor for some cancers. Special risk for diseases linked to excessive weight is associated with overgrowth of visceral type of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue, which is the main energy storehouse in body and acts also as an endocrine organ, undergoes both the morphological and the functional changes in obesity, having a negative impact on whole body function. In this article we summarize the most important alterations in morphology and function of white adipose tissue, observed in obese subjects.

  20. Correlates of adiposity among Latino preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood obesity is at record high levels in the US and disproportionately affects Latino children; however, studies examining Latino preschool children's obesity-related risk factors are sparse. This study determined correlates of Latino preschoolers' (ages 3-5 years) adiposity to inform future ob...

  1. Does bariatric surgery improve adipose tissue function?

    PubMed Central

    Frikke-Schmidt, H.; O’Rourke, R. W.; Lumeng, C. N.; Sandoval, D. A.; Seeley, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Not only do these types of surgeries produce significant weight loss but also they improve insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolic function. The aim of this review is to explore how altered physiology of adipose tissue may contribute to the potent metabolic effects of some of these procedures. This includes specific effects on various fat depots, the function of individual adipocytes and the interaction between adipose tissue and other key metabolic tissues. Besides a dramatic loss of fat mass, bariatric surgery shifts the distribution of fat from visceral to the subcutaneous compartment favoring metabolic improvement. The sensitivity towards lipolysis controlled by insulin and catecholamines is improved, adipokine secretion is altered and local adipose inflammation as well as systemic inflammatory markers decreases. Some of these changes have been shown to be weight loss independent, and novel hypothesis for these effects includes include changes in bile acid metabolism, gut microbiota and central regulation of metabolism. In conclusion bariatric surgery is capable of improving aspects of adipose tissue function and do so in some cases in ways that are not entirely explained by the potent effect of surgery. PMID:27272117

  2. Integrated control of brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Marzetti, Emanuele; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Savera, Giulia; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Calvani, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has evolved as a unique thermogenic organ that allows placental mammals to withstand cold environmental temperatures through the dissipation of metabolic energy in the form of heat. Although traditionally believed to be lost shortly after birth, metabolically active BAT depots have recently been identified in a large percentage of human adults. Besides classical brown cells, a distinct type of thermogenic adipocytes named beige or brite (brown in white) cells are recruited in white adipose tissue depots under specific stimuli. Given the well-known energy-dissipating properties of thermogenic adipose tissue and its function of metabolic sink for glucose and lipids, this tissue has attracted considerable research interest as a possible target for treating obesity and metabolic disease. The complex network of interorgan connections that regulate BAT and brite tissue mass and function is a major hurdle for the development of therapeutic strategies against metabolic disorders. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the regulation of BAT and brite adipose tissue function. The possibility of targeting these tissues to treat obesity and other metabolic disorders is also discussed.

  3. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material

    PubMed Central

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth.; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  4. Integrated control of brown adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Marzetti, Emanuele; D’Angelo, Emanuela; Savera, Giulia; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Calvani, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has evolved as a unique thermogenic organ that allows placental mammals to withstand cold environmental temperatures through the dissipation of metabolic energy in the form of heat. Although traditionally believed to be lost shortly after birth, metabolically active BAT depots have recently been identified in a large percentage of human adults. Besides classical brown cells, a distinct type of thermogenic adipocytes named beige or brite (brown in white) cells are recruited in white adipose tissue depots under specific stimuli. Given the well-known energy-dissipating properties of thermogenic adipose tissue and its function of metabolic sink for glucose and lipids, this tissue has attracted considerable research interest as a possible target for treating obesity and metabolic disease. The complex network of interorgan connections that regulate BAT and brite tissue mass and function is a major hurdle for the development of therapeutic strategies against metabolic disorders. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the regulation of BAT and brite adipose tissue function. The possibility of targeting these tissues to treat obesity and other metabolic disorders is also discussed. PMID:27524955

  5. Nutritional regulation of lipid metabolism in human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Coppack, S W; Patel, J N; Lawrence, V J

    2001-01-01

    Pfeiffer and colleagues years ago pointed out that different distributions and amounts of adipose tissue are associated with abnormalities of lipolysis and lipoprotein metabolism. Adipose tissue has several crucial roles including (i) mobilization from stores of fatty acids as an energy source, (ii) catabolism of lipoproteins such as very-low-density lipoprotein and (iii) synthesis and release of hormonal signals such as leptin and interleukin-6. These adipose tissue actions are crucially regulated by nutrition. The review considers the existence of metabolic pathways and modes of regulation within adipose tissue, and how such metabolic activity can be quantitated in humans. Nutrition can influence adipose tissue at several 'levels'. Firstly the level of obesity or malnutrition has important effects on many aspects of adipose tissue metabolism. Secondly short-term overfeeding, underfeeding and exercise have major impacts on adipose tissue behaviour. Lastly, specific nutrients are capable of regulating adipose tissue metabolism. Recently there have been considerable advances in understanding adipose tissue metabolism and in particular its regulation. This review discusses the behaviour of adipose tissue under various nutritional conditions. There is then a review of recent work examining the ways in which nutritional influences act via intra-cellular mechanisms, insulin and the sympathetic innervation of adipose tissue.

  6. Lipids, adiposity and tendinopathy: is there a mechanistic link? Critical review

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Alex; Zwerver, Johannes; Grewal, Navi; de Sa, Agnetha; Alktebi, Thuraya; Granville, David J; Hart, David A

    2015-01-01

    Being overweight or obese is associated with an elevated risk of tendon pathology. However, for sportspeople the epidemiological data linking weight or adiposity on one hand, and risk of tendon pathology on the other, are less consistent. Indeed, the mechanistic links between diet, adiposity and tendon pathology remain largely unexamined. Recent studies have begun to examine the effects of dietary interventions on outcomes such as tendon biomechanics or pain. Oxidised low-density lipoprotein has been shown to (A) accumulate in the tendon tissues of mice that eat a fatty diet and (B) induce a pathological phenotype in human tendon cells. This paper addresses the current debate: is excessive body mass index (causing increased load and strain on tendon tissue) per se the underlying mechanism? Or do local or systemic influences of fat on tendons predispose to tendon pathology? This narrative review argues that excessive blood lipids may be an important avenue for clinical investigations. PMID:25488953

  7. Lipids, adiposity and tendinopathy: is there a mechanistic link? Critical review.

    PubMed

    Scott, Alex; Zwerver, Johannes; Grewal, Navi; de Sa, Agnetha; Alktebi, Thuraya; Granville, David J; Hart, David A

    2015-08-01

    Being overweight or obese is associated with an elevated risk of tendon pathology. However, for sportspeople the epidemiological data linking weight or adiposity on one hand, and risk of tendon pathology on the other, are less consistent. Indeed, the mechanistic links between diet, adiposity and tendon pathology remain largely unexamined. Recent studies have begun to examine the effects of dietary interventions on outcomes such as tendon biomechanics or pain. Oxidised low-density lipoprotein has been shown to (A) accumulate in the tendon tissues of mice that eat a fatty diet and (B) induce a pathological phenotype in human tendon cells. This paper addresses the current debate: is excessive body mass index (causing increased load and strain on tendon tissue) per se the underlying mechanism? Or do local or systemic influences of fat on tendons predispose to tendon pathology? This narrative review argues that excessive blood lipids may be an important avenue for clinical investigations.

  8. Resveratrol regulates lipolysis via adipose triglyceride lipase.

    PubMed

    Lasa, Arrate; Schweiger, Martina; Kotzbeck, Petra; Churruca, Itziar; Simón, Edurne; Zechner, Rudolf; Portillo, María del Puy

    2012-04-01

    Resveratrol has been reported to increase adrenaline-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The general aim of the present work was to gain more insight concerning the effects of trans-resveratrol on lipid mobilization. The specific purpose was to assess the involvement of the two main lipases: adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), in the activation of lipolysis induced by this molecule. For lipolysis experiments, 3T3-L1 and human SGBS adipocytes as well as adipose tissue from wild-type, ATGL knockout and HSL knockout mice were used. Moreover, gene and protein expressions of these lipases were analyzed. Resveratrol-induced free fatty acids release but not glycerol release in 3T3-L1 under basal and isoproterenol-stimulating conditions and under isoproterenol-stimulating conditions in SGBS adipocytes. When HSL was blocked by compound 76-0079, free fatty acid release was still induced by resveratrol. By contrast, in the presence of the compound C, an inhibitor of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, resveratrol effect was totally blunted. Resveratrol increased ATGL gene and protein expressions, an effect that was not observed for HSL. Resveratrol increased fatty acids release in epididymal adipose tissue from wild-type and HSL knockout mice but not in that adipose tissue from ATGL knockout mice. Taking as a whole, the present results provide novel evidence that resveratrol regulates lipolytic activity in human and murine adipocytes, as well as in white adipose tissue from mice, acting mainly on ATGL at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Enzyme activation seems to be induced via adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase.

  9. Association between adiposity and systemic atherosclerosis: a protocol of a cross-sectional autopsy study

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Aline; Suemoto, Claudia Kimie; Farias, Daniela Souza; Campos, Fernanda Marinho; da Silva, Karen Cristina Souza; Cuelho, Anderson; Leite, Renata Elaine Paraízo; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata Eloah de Lucena; Grinberg, Lea Tenenholz; Farfel, José Marcelo; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adiposity has been associated with atherosclerosis in clinical studies. However, few autopsy studies have investigated this association, and they had only examined the coronary artery disease. Moreover, most studies had small sample sizes and were limited to middle-aged or young adults. Our aim is to investigate the association between adiposity and systemic atherosclerosis in an autopsy study. Methods and analysis A sample of 240 deceased with 30 years or more will be evaluated. The sample size was calculated using the lowest correlation coefficient found in previous studies (r=0.109), assuming a power of 90% and α=0.05. We will collect information about sociodemographics, frequency of previous contact of the deceased's next of kin and cardiovascular risk factors. We will measure neck, waist and hip circumferences, weight, height and abdominal subcutaneous tissue thickness, and then we will calculate the body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio and body shape index. We will also weigh the pericardial and abdominal visceral fat, the heart, and we will measure the left ventricular wall thickness. We will evaluate the presence of myocardial infarction, the degree of atherosclerosis in the aorta, carotid, coronary and cerebral arteries and plaque composition in carotid, coronary and cerebral arteries. For each individual, we will fix arterial and adipose tissue samples in 10% formalin and freeze another adipose tissue sample at −80°C for future studies. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted by the Ethics Committee of University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Brazil. Results will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. PMID:27621828

  10. Tracking the development of adiposity from one month of age to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Rolland-Cachera, M F; Deheeger, M; Guilloud-Bataille, M; Avons, P; Patois, E; Sempé, M

    1987-01-01

    The development of adiposity was followed in 164 subjects from the age of one month to adulthood. The 25th and 75th centiles of the weight/height2 (W/H2) index were chosen as cut-off points to define the lean, medium and fat subjects at both one and 21 years of age. Only 42% of the children remained in their original category, that is 41% of the lean infants at one year stayed lean, 42% of the medium infants stayed medium and 41% of the fat infants stayed fat. Accordingly, most fat infants did not stay fat, but twice as many fat as non-fat infants became fat adults (41 and 20% respectively). The relative risk of being fat adults was 1 for the lean, 1 for the medium and 2 for the fat infants at one year. Several paths of development emerged: they were related to age at the second rise in adiposity, termed adiposity rebound, which usually occurs at about six years, as observed on skinfold thickness and W/H2 charts. The earlier the rebound, the higher the adiposity at adult age, whether this was measured by W/H2 index or subscapular skinfold. The cohorts of children who left the channel they had been following included fat infants with a late rebound who subsequently returned to normal, and lean infants with an early rebound who grew fatter. Other cohorts remained in their original groups, for example, fat infants with an early rebound who stayed fat and lean infants with a late one who stayed lean. Age at rebound provided two indications: the existence of a regulartory process among the transiently fat or lean infants who returned to average after a late or early rebound respectively, and pathological development among the children who became fat or lean after an early or late rebound. Age at rebound is an indicator of the subsequent development of fatness.

  11. Associations of Different Adipose Tissue Depots with Insulin Resistance: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingzhi; Hu, Tian; Zhang, Shaoyan; Zhou, Li

    2015-12-21

    Fat distribution is strongly associated with insulin resistance, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, associations of different adipose tissue depots or/and obesity indices with insulin resistance have not been systematically evaluated. In this study we examined associations of different adipose tissue depots/obesity indices with insulin resistance, as measured by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in observational studies. A total of 40 studies with 56 populations and 29 adipose tissue depots/obesity indices were included in the meta-analysis. There were strong correlation between HOMA-IR and visceral fat mass (r = 0.570, 95% confidence interval(CI): 0.424~0.687), total fat mass (r = 0.492, 95%CI: 0.407~0.570), body mass index (r = 0.482, 95%CI: 0.445~0.518) and waist circumference (r = 0.466, 95%CI: 0.432~0.500), except lower extremity fat (r = 0.088, 95%CI: -0.116~0.285). Sample size, diabetic status, gender, mean of body mass index, and race contributed to heterogeneity of these associations. This study showed a positive correlation between insulin resistance and most adipose tissue depots/obesity indices, and the strongest association is for visceral fat mass.

  12. Hyperleptinemia independent of body adiposity in women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Homann, Diogo; Carvalho, Humberto Moreira; Stefanello, Joice Mara Facco; Góes, Suelen Meira; Lopes, André Luiz; de Oliveira, Alvaro Reischak; Leite, Neiva

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in patients with fibromyalgia is high, which makes these patients more likely to trigger metabolic changes. It is also uncertain whether the clinical manifestations of fibromyalgia alter the metabolism in these patients. This study investigates the influence of adiposity indicators and presence of fibromyalgia on leptin and acylated ghrelin levels, which are hormones responsible for controlling energy homeostasis. Seventeen women with fibromyalgia (patients) and fifteen healthy women (controls) were evaluated. Pain intensity, physical activity level characteristics and leptin and acylated ghrelin levels were assessed. General linear models, using a main-effects model, were used to test the effect of fibromyalgia (patients vs. controls) on the relationship of leptin and acylated ghrelin with anthropometric indicators [body mass index, waist circumference (WC) and WC by height]. Patients showed higher leptin levels (controls: 9.1 ± 6.7 vs. patients: 22.4 ± 10.6 ng/mL; p < 0.01) and lower acylated ghrelin levels (controls: 188.7 ± 103.4 vs. patients: 126.7 ± 47.8 pg/mL; p = 0.04). The anthropometric variables, entered into linear models as independent variables, significantly influenced both leptin and acylated ghrelin levels (p < 0.01). The explained variance (R(2)) of the models containing leptin was higher (R(2) = 0.52-0.61) compared to the models containing acylated ghrelin (R(2) = 0.24-0.27). When analyzing the influence of the presence of fibromyalgia (study group: women with fibromyalgia vs. healthy women), only the leptin levels were influenced. High leptin levels independent of adiposity in women with fibromyalgia may be associated with the clinical condition of this syndrome.

  13. Insulin action in adipose tissue in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta-Blanco, Francisco; Botella-Carretero, Jose Ignacio; Iglesias, Pedro; Balsa, José Antonio; Zamarrón, Isabel; De la Puerta, Cristina; Arrieta, Juan José; Ramos, Francisco; Vázquez, Clotilde; Rovira, Adela

    2011-01-01

    Background: Insulin action has been reported to be normal in type 1 diabetic patients. However, some studies have reported an insulin resistance state in these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate insulin resistance in a group of type 1 diabetic patients. We studied the insulin action in adipose tissue and analyzed the effects of duration of disease, body mass index (BMI), and glycosylated hemoglobin on insulin action at the receptor and postreceptor levels in adipocytes. Methods: Nine female type 1 diabetic patients with different durations of disease and eight nondiabetic female patients of comparable age and BMI were studied. 125I-insulin binding and U-[14C]-D-glucose transport was measured in a sample of subcutaneous gluteus adipose tissue obtained by open surgical biopsy from each subject. Results: The duration of disease was negatively correlated with both 125I-insulin binding capacity (r = −0.70, P < 0.05) and basal and maximum insulin-stimulated glucose transport (r = −0.87, P < 0.01, and r = −0.88, P < 0.01, respectively). Maximum specific 125I-insulin binding to the receptors in adipocytes was higher in the group of patients with a shorter duration of disease (P < 0.01). Basal and maximum insulin-stimulated glucose transport was significantly higher in the group with less than 5 years of disease (P < 0.01). No correlation was found between BMI and insulin action. Conclusion: Female type 1 diabetic patients have normal insulin action. There is a high glucose uptake in the early phase of the disease, although a longer duration of disease appears to be a contributing factor to a decrease in insulin action in these patients, and involving both receptor and postreceptor mechanisms. PMID:21475629

  14. Human adipose tissue expresses intrinsic circadian rhythm in insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Benso, Maria P; Rivero-Gutierrez, Belen; Lopez-Minguez, Jesus; Anzola, Andrea; Diez-Noguera, Antoni; Madrid, Juan A; Lujan, Juan A; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Scheer, Frank A J L; Garaulet, Marta

    2016-09-01

    In humans, insulin sensitivity varies according to time of day, with decreased values in the evening and at night. Mechanisms responsible for the diurnal variation in insulin sensitivity are unclear. We investigated whether human adipose tissue (AT) expresses intrinsic circadian rhythms in insulin sensitivity that could contribute to this phenomenon. Subcutaneous and visceral AT biopsies were obtained from extremely obese participants (body mass index, 41.8 ± 6.3 kg/m(2); 46 ± 11 y) during gastric-bypass surgery. To assess the rhythm in insulin signaling, AKT phosphorylation was determined every 4 h over 24 h in vitro in response to different insulin concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 100 nM). Data revealed that subcutaneous AT exhibited robust circadian rhythms in insulin signaling (P < 0.00001). Insulin sensitivity reached its maximum (acrophase) around noon, being 54% higher than during midnight (P = 0.009). The amplitude of the rhythm was positively correlated with in vivo sleep duration (r = 0.53; P = 0.023) and negatively correlated with in vivo bedtime (r = -0.54; P = 0.020). No circadian rhythms were detected in visceral AT (P = 0.643). Here, we demonstrate the relevance of the time of the day for how sensitive AT is to the effects of insulin. Subcutaneous AT shows an endogenous circadian rhythm in insulin sensitivity that could provide an underlying mechanism for the daily rhythm in systemic insulin sensitivity.-Carrasco-Benso, M. P., Rivero-Gutierrez, B., Lopez-Minguez, J., Anzola, A., Diez-Noguera, A., Madrid, J. A., Lujan, J. A., Martínez-Augustin, O., Scheer, F. A. J. L., Garaulet, M. Human adipose tissue expresses intrinsic circadian rhythm in insulin sensitivity.

  15. Adipose tissue gene expression and metabolic health of obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Das, Swapan Kumar; Ma, Lijun; Sharma, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Obese subjects with a similar body mass index (BMI) exhibit substantial heterogeneity in gluco- and cardio-metabolic heath phenotypes. However, defining genes that underlie the heterogeneity of metabolic features among obese individuals and determining metabolically healthy and unhealthy phenotypes remain challenging. We conducted unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue transcripts from 30 obese men and women ≥40 years old. Despite similar BMIs in all subjects, we found two distinct subgroups, one metabolically healthy (Group 1) and one metabolically unhealthy (Group 2). Subjects in Group 2 showed significantly higher total cholesterol (p=0.005), LDL cholesterol (p=0.006), 2h-Insulin during OGTT (p=0.015) and lower insulin sensitivity (SI, p=0.029) compared to Group 1. We identified significant up-regulation of 141 genes (e.g. MMP9 and SPP1) and down-regulation of 17 genes (e.g. NDRG4 and GINS3) in group 2 subjects. Intriguingly, these differentially expressed transcripts were enriched for genes involved in cardiovascular disease-related processes (p=2.81×10−11–3.74×10−02) and pathways involved in immune and inflammatory response (p=8.32×10−5–0.04). Two down-regulated genes, NDRG4 and GINS3, have been located in a genomic interval associated with cardiac repolarization in published GWASs and zebra fish knockout models. Our study provides evidence that perturbations in the adipose tissue gene expression network are important in defining metabolic health in obese subjects. PMID:25520251

  16. Postnatal changes in fatty acids composition of brown adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Ogawa, K.; Kuroshima, A.

    1992-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is higher during the early postnatal period, decreasing towards a low adult level. The present study examined postnatal changes in the lipid composition of BAT. BAT from pre-weaning rats at 4 and 14 days old showed the following differences in lipid composition compared to that from adults of 12 weeks old. (i) Relative weight of interscapular BAT to body weight was markedly greater. (ii) BAT-triglyceride (TG) level was lower, while BAT-phospholipid (PL)level was higher. (iii) In TG fatty acids (FA) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PU; mol %), arachidonate index (AI), unsaturation index (UI) and PU/saturated FA (SA) were higher; rare FA such as eicosadienoate, bishomo- γ-linolenic acid and lignoceric acid in mol % were also higher. (iv) In PL-FA monounsaturated FA (MU) in mol % was lower; PU mol %, AI and UI were higher. These features in BAT of pre-weaning rats resembled those in the cold-acclimated adults, suggesting a close relationship of the PL-FA profile to high activity of BAT.

  17. WANTED: Fully Automated Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of indexing focuses on the possibilities of fully automated indexing. Topics discussed include controlled indexing languages such as subject heading lists and thesauri, free indexing languages, natural indexing languages, computer-aided indexing, expert systems, and the need for greater creativity to further advance automated indexing.…

  18. Elevated fasting plasma ghrelin in prader-willi syndrome adults is not solely explained by their reduced visceral adiposity and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Anthony P; Thomas, E Louise; Brynes, Audrey E; Castroman, Gabriela; Edwards, Ray; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Frost, Gary; Holland, Anthony J; Grossman, Ashley B; Korbonits, Márta; Bloom, Stephen R; Bell, Jimmy D

    2004-04-01

    Plasma ghrelin is elevated in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). This might contribute to obesity or GH deficiency in such patients. Visceral adiposity and insulin resistance are reduced in PWS, which might lead to hyperghrelinemia. We measured fasting plasma ghrelin in control female (n = 39), PWS female (n = 12), and PWS male (n = 6) adults. In controls and PWS, ghrelin was negatively correlated with visceral adiposity, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model insulin resistance index. There was no significant correlation with serum IGF-I in PWS. In stepwise linear regression, visceral adiposity (P < 0.02) had a stronger inverse correlation with ghrelin than sc fat depots in controls and PWS, possibly through hyperinsulinemia, as the correlations with insulin resistance were even stronger (P < 0.01). PWS females had significantly (P < 0.001) elevated ghrelin (mean +/- SD, 661 +/- 360 pg/ml), compared with both nonobese (363 +/- 163) and obese (191 +/- 66) controls. Ghrelin was increased 3.4- to 3.6-fold in PWS females adjusting for total adiposity, 3.2- to 3.4-fold adjusting for visceral adiposity, and 3.0-fold adjusting for insulin resistance. Fasting plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 was normal in PWS females. The hyperghrelinemia in PWS adults is therefore not solely explained by their reduced visceral adiposity and relative hypoinsulinemia. Its cause and consequences await further elucidation.

  19. Longitudinal changes in objectively measured sedentary behaviour and their relationship with adiposity in children and adolescents: systematic review and evidence appraisal.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, C; Reilly, J J; Huang, W Y

    2014-10-01

    This review aimed to determine longitudinal changes in objectively measured overall sedentary behaviour, and to examine their associations with adiposity in children and adolescents. A search for longitudinal studies was performed using several electronic databases. Of 161 potentially eligible papers, 10 for change in sedentary behaviour and 3 for longitudinal associations with change in adiposity were included. Weighted mean increase in daily sedentary behaviour per year was 5.7% for boys and 5.8% for girls. Only one paper included preschool children, and it showed a decrease in sedentary behaviour. Nine studies were from Western countries. Null associations were reported between sedentary behaviour and adiposity in two studies, the other found that increases in sedentary behaviour were associated with increases in adiposity, but only in those with body mass index above the 50th percentile. There was consistent evidence that sedentary behaviour increases with age in school-age children and adolescents, by approximately 30 min extra daily sedentary behaviour per year. There was little evidence on the influence of changes in sedentary behaviour on changes in adiposity. There is a need for more longitudinal research, for more evidence from outside the Western world, and for more studies that examine 'dose-response' associations between changes in sedentary behaviour and changes in adiposity.

  20. Is the adiposity-associated FTO gene variant related to all-cause mortality independent of adiposity? Meta-analysis of data from 169,551 Caucasian adults

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, S. S.; Zhao, J. H.; Chasman, D. I.; Fischer, K.; Qi, Q.; Smith, A. V.; Thinggaard, M.; Jarczok, M. N.; Nalls, M. A.; Trompet, S.; Timpson, N. J.; Schmidt, B.; Jackson, A. U.; Lyytikäinen, L. P.; Verweij, N.; Mueller-Nurasyid, M.; Vikström, M.; Marques-Vidal, P.; Wong, A.; Meidtner, K.; Middelberg, R. P.; Strawbridge, R. J.; Christiansen, L.; Kyvik, K. O.; Hamsten, A.; Jääskeläinen, T.; Tjønneland, A.; Eriksson, J. G.; Whitfield, J. B.; Boeing, H.; Hardy, R.; Vollenweider, P.; Leander, K.; Peters, A.; van der Harst, P.; Kumari, M.; Lehtimäki, T.; Meirhaeghe, A.; Tuomilehto, J.; Jöckel, K.-H.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Sattar, N.; Baumeister, S. E.; Smith, G. Davey; Casas, J. P.; Houston, D. K.; März, W.; Christensen, K.; Gudnason, V.; Hu, F. B.; Metspalu, A.; Ridker, P. M.; Wareham, N. J.; Loos, R. J. F.; Tiemeier, H.; Sonestedt, E.; Sørensen, T. I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the FTO gene showed a much stronger association with all-cause mortality than expected from its association with body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (FMI) and waist circumference (WC). This finding implies that the SNP has strong pleiotropic effects on adiposity and adiposity-independent pathological pathways that leads to increased mortality. To investigate this further, we conducted a meta-analysis of similar data from 34 longitudinal studies including 169,551 adult Caucasians among whom 27,100 died during follow-up. Linear regression showed that the minor allele of the FTO SNP was associated with greater BMI (n = 169,551; 0.32 kg m−2; 95% CI 0.28–0.32, P < 1 × 10−32), WC (n = 152,631; 0.76 cm; 0.68–0.84, P < 1 × 10−32) and FMI (n = 48,192; 0.17 kg m−2; 0.13–0.22, P = 1.0 × 10−13). Cox proportional hazard regression analyses for mortality showed that the hazards ratio (HR) for the minor allele of the FTO SNPs was 1.02 (1.00–1.04, P = 0.097), but the apparent excess risk was eliminated after adjustment for BMI and WC (HR: 1.00; 0.98–1.03, P = 0.662) and for FMI (HR: 1.00; 0.96–1.04, P = 0.932). In conclusion, this study does not support that the FTO SNP is associated with all-cause mortality independently of the adiposity phenotypes. PMID:25752329

  1. Is the adiposity-associated FTO gene variant related to all-cause mortality independent of adiposity? Meta-analysis of data from 169,551 Caucasian adults.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, E; Ängquist, L H; Mirza, S S; Zhao, J H; Chasman, D I; Fischer, K; Qi, Q; Smith, A V; Thinggaard, M; Jarczok, M N; Nalls, M A; Trompet, S; Timpson, N J; Schmidt, B; Jackson, A U; Lyytikäinen, L P; Verweij, N; Mueller-Nurasyid, M; Vikström, M; Marques-Vidal, P; Wong, A; Meidtner, K; Middelberg, R P; Strawbridge, R J; Christiansen, L; Kyvik, K O; Hamsten, A; Jääskeläinen, T; Tjønneland, A; Eriksson, J G; Whitfield, J B; Boeing, H; Hardy, R; Vollenweider, P; Leander, K; Peters, A; van der Harst, P; Kumari, M; Lehtimäki, T; Meirhaeghe, A; Tuomilehto, J; Jöckel, K-H; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Sattar, N; Baumeister, S E; Davey Smith, G; Casas, J P; Houston, D K; März, W; Christensen, K; Gudnason, V; Hu, F B; Metspalu, A; Ridker, P M; Wareham, N J; Loos, R J F; Tiemeier, H; Sonestedt, E; Sørensen, T I A

    2015-04-01

    Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the FTO gene showed a much stronger association with all-cause mortality than expected from its association with body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (FMI) and waist circumference (WC). This finding implies that the SNP has strong pleiotropic effects on adiposity and adiposity-independent pathological pathways that leads to increased mortality. To investigate this further, we conducted a meta-analysis of similar data from 34 longitudinal studies including 169,551 adult Caucasians among whom 27,100 died during follow-up. Linear regression showed that the minor allele of the FTO SNP was associated with greater BMI (n = 169,551; 0.32 kg m(-2) ; 95% CI 0.28-0.32, P < 1 × 10(-32) ), WC (n = 152,631; 0.76 cm; 0.68-0.84, P < 1 × 10(-32) ) and FMI (n = 48,192; 0.17 kg m(-2) ; 0.13-0.22, P = 1.0 × 10(-13) ). Cox proportional hazard regression analyses for mortality showed that the hazards ratio (HR) for the minor allele of the FTO SNPs was 1.02 (1.00-1.04, P = 0.097), but the apparent excess risk was eliminated after adjustment for BMI and WC (HR: 1.00; 0.98-1.03, P = 0.662) and for FMI (HR: 1.00; 0.96-1.04, P = 0.932). In conclusion, this study does not support that the FTO SNP is associated with all-cause mortality independently of the adiposity phenotypes.

  2. NPY antagonism reduces adiposity and attenuates age-related imbalance of adipose tissue metabolism.

    PubMed

    Park, Seongjoon; Fujishita, Chika; Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Kim, Sang Eun; Chiba, Takuya; Mori, Ryoichi; Shimokawa, Isao

    2014-12-01

    An orexigenic hormone, neuropeptide Y (NPY), plays a role not only in the hypothalamic regulation of appetite, but also in the peripheral regulation of lipid metabolism. However, the intracellular mechanisms triggered by NPY to regulate lipid metabolism are poorly understood. Here we report that NPY deficiency reduces white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and ameliorates the age-related imbalance of adipose tissue metabolism in mice. Gene expression involved in adipogenesis/lipogenesis was found to decrease, whereas proteins involved in lipolysis increased in gonadal WAT (gWAT) of NPY-knockout mice. These changes were associated with an activated SIRT1- and PPARγ-mediated pathway. Moreover, the age-related decrease of de novo lipogenesis in gWAT and thermogenesis in inguinal WAT was inhibited by NPY deficiency. Further analysis using 3T3-L1 cells showed that NPY inhibited lipolysis through the Y1 receptor and enhanced lipogenesis following a reduction in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and SIRT1 protein expression. Therefore, NPY appears to act as a key regulator of adipose tissue metabolism via the CREB-SIRT1 signaling pathway. Taken together, NPY deficiency reduces adiposity and ameliorates the age-related imbalance of adipose tissue metabolism, suggesting that antagonism of NPY may be a promising target for drug development to prevent age-related metabolic diseases.

  3. Relationships between Rodent White Adipose Fat Pads and Human White Adipose Fat Depots

    PubMed Central

    Chusyd, Daniella E.; Wang, Donghai; Huffman, Derek M.; Nagy, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue (WAT) development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of WAT. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent WAT as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat. PMID:27148535

  4. 11-Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 expression in white adipose tissue is strongly correlated with adiposity.

    PubMed

    Milagro, Fermin I; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2007-04-01

    Glucocorticoid action within the cells is regulated by the levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and two enzymes, 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1), which converts inactive to active glucocorticoids, and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11betaHSD2), which regulates the access of active glucocorticoids to the receptor by converting cortisol/corticosterone to the glucocorticoid-inactive form cortisone/dehydrocorticosterone. Male Wistar rats developed obesity by being fed a high-fat diet for 56 days, and GR, 11betaHSD1 and 11betaHSD2 gene expression were compared with control-diet fed animals. Gene expression analysis of 11betaHSD1, 11betaHSD2 and GR were performed by RT-PCR in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissue. High-fat fed animals overexpressed 11betaHSD2 in subcutaneous but not in retroperitoneal fat. Interestingly, mRNA levels strongly correlated in both tissues with different parameters related to obesity, such as body weight, adiposity and insulin resistance, suggesting that this gene is a reliable marker of adiposity in this rat model of obesity. Thus, 11betaHSD2 is expressed in adipose tissue by both adipocytes and stromal-vascular cells, which suggests that this enzyme may play an important role in preventing fat accumulation in adipose tissue.

  5. Gene-centric meta-analyses for central adiposity traits in up to 57 412 individuals of European descent confirm known loci and reveal several novel associations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are surrogate measures of central adiposity that are associated with adverse cardiovascular events, type 2 diabetes and cancer independent of body mass index (BMI). WC and WHR are highly heritable with multiple susceptibility loci identified to d...

  6. Rate of change in adiposity and its relationship to concomitant changes in cardiovascular risk variables among biracial (black-white) children and young adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S R; Myers, L; Berenson, G S

    2001-03-01

    To assess the annual rate of change in adiposity and its relationship to concomitant changes in cardiovascular risk variables during childhood and young adulthood, serial data on black and white children (n = 3,459; initial and follow-up mean age, 8.1 and 14.4 years) and young adults (n = 1,263; initial and follow-up mean age, 22.5 and 30.9 years) enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study were examined. Body mass index (BMI) and sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds were used as indicators of adiposity. In addition, measurements were made of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and fasting levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose. Annualized rate of change for each variable was estimated. The rate of increase in adiposity was significantly more pronounced during childhood versus adulthood. Race difference (blacks > whites) in the rate of increase in adiposity was seen only among females. Females, black females in particular, displayed greater rate of increase in adiposity than males. In a multivariate analysis, the rate of increase in adiposity was related independently of baseline age and baseline adiposity to adverse changes in measured cardiovascular risk variables, except glucose. Many of these associations were modulated significantly by race, sex, and age group. The impact was relatively greater for blood pressure and LDL cholesterol in adults and for triglycerides in children. The changes in blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol were greater in whites, while the rate of increase in insulin was greater in blacks. Females displayed greater changes in blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and insulin. On the other hand, the rate of increase in triglycerides was greater in males. These results indicate that increases in adiposity regardless of initial status of body fatness alter cardiovascular risk variables towards increased risk beginning in childhood, and

  7. Determination of inflammatory and prominent proteomic changes in plasma and adipose tissue after high-intensity intermittent training in overweight and obese males

    PubMed Central

    Leggate, Melanie; Carter, Wayne G.; Evans, Matthew J. C.; Vennard, Rebecca A.; Sribala-Sundaram, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether 2 wk of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) altered inflammatory status in plasma and adipose tissue in overweight and obese males. Twelve participants [mean (SD): age 23.7 (5.2) yr, body mass 91.0 (8.0) kg, body mass index 29.1 (3.1) kg/m2] undertook six HIIT sessions over 2 wk. Resting blood and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue samples were collected and insulin sensitivity determined, pre- and posttraining. Inflammatory proteins were quantified in plasma and adipose tissue. There was a significant decrease in soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R; P = 0.050), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, P = 0.047), and adiponectin (P = 0.041) in plasma posttraining. Plasma IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-10, and insulin sensitivity did not change. In adipose tissue, IL-6 significantly decreased (P = 0.036) and IL-6R increased (P = 0.037), while adiponectin tended to decrease (P = 0.056), with no change in ICAM-1 posttraining. TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-10 were not detectable in adipose tissue. Adipose tissue homogenates were then resolved using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and major changes in the adipose tissue proteome, as a consequence of HIIT, were evaluated. This proteomic approach identified significant reductions in annexin A2 (P = 0.046) and fatty acid synthase (P = 0.016) as a response to HIIT. The present investigation suggests 2 wk of HIIT is sufficient to induce beneficial alterations in the resting inflammatory profile and adipose tissue proteome of an overweight and obese male cohort. PMID:22267387

  8. Diferential gene expression and adiposity reduction induced by ascorbic acid supplementation in a cafeteria model of obesity.

    PubMed

    Campión, J; Milagro, F I; Fernández, D; Martínez, J A

    2006-06-01

    Obesity is considered as an inflammatory disease, in which free radical-induced oxidative stress and excessive intake of macronutrients exacerbate their symptoms. In this context, we assessed in rats the possible preventive effect of the supplementation with an antioxidant molecule, ascorbic acid, in order to reduce the adiposity induced by the intake of a high-fat diet. For this purpose, during 56 days, three groups of male Wistar rats were fed on: a) standard pelleted diet, b) Cafeteria diet, c) ascorbate-supplemented (750 mg/kg of body weight) Cafeteria diet. At the end of the experimental period, microarray analysis was used to identify genes transcriptionally induced or repressed by both experimental dietary models (Cafeteria diet supplemented or not with ascorbic acid) in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Dietary ascorbic acid was able to protect against high fat diet effects, reducing the increase of body weight, total body fat and enlargement of different adipose depots induced by the Cafeteria diet without affecting food intake. An association analysis accurately and differentially allowed the detection of gene expression changes related with adiposity and insulin resistance. The genes that more strongly correlated with body fat and HOMA insulin resistance index were involved in adipocyte differentiation, lipid and glucocorticoid metabolism, cell cycle regulation, as well as in several insulin-induced processes. Some other transcripts are regulated by the vitamin C-mediated reduction of adiposity, such as genes that participate in glucocorticoid metabolism, adipogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, or tricarboxylic acid cycle. This strategy was able to link variations in adipose tissue gene expression with markers of diet-induced obesity in rats, such as insulin resistance and body fat content.

  9. A Comprehensive Analysis of Common and Rare Variants to Identify Adiposity Loci in Hispanic Americans: The IRAS Family Study (IRASFS).

    PubMed

    Gao, Chuan; Wang, Nan; Guo, Xiuqing; Ziegler, Julie T; Taylor, Kent D; Xiang, Anny H; Hai, Yang; Kridel, Steven J; Nadler, Jerry L; Kandeel, Fouad; Raffel, Leslie J; Chen, Yii-Der I; Norris, Jill M; Rotter, Jerome I; Watanabe, Richard M; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Bowden, Donald W; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Goodarzi, Mark O; Langefeld, Carl D; Palmer, Nicholette D

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is growing epidemic affecting 35% of adults in the United States. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci associated with obesity. However, the majority of studies have been completed in Caucasians focusing on total body measures of adiposity. Here we report the results from genome-wide and exome chip association studies focusing on total body measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF) and measures of fat deposition including waist circumference (WAIST), waist-hip ratio (WHR), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in Hispanic Americans (nmax = 1263) from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). Five SNPs from two novel loci attained genome-wide significance (P<5.00x10-8) in IRASFS. A missense SNP in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) was associated with WAIST (rs34218846, MAF = 6.8%, PDOM = 1.62x10-8). This protein is postulated to play an important role in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis as demonstrated in cell and knock-out animal models. Four correlated intronic SNPs in the Zinc finger, GRF-type containing 1 gene (ZGRF1; SNP rs1471880, MAF = 48.1%, PDOM = 1.00x10-8) were strongly associated with WHR. The exact biological function of ZGRF1 and the connection with adiposity remains unclear. SNPs with p-values less than 5.00x10-6 from IRASFS were selected for replication. Meta-analysis was computed across seven independent Hispanic-American cohorts (nmax = 4156) and the strongest signal was rs1471880 (PDOM = 8.38x10-6) in ZGRF1 with WAIST. In conclusion, a genome-wide and exome chip association study was conducted that identified two novel loci (IDH1 and ZGRF1) associated with adiposity. While replication efforts were inconclusive, when taken together with the known biology, IDH1 and ZGRF1 warrant further evaluation.

  10. The development and endocrine functions of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Sylvia P; Hausman, Dorothy B; Hausman, Gary J

    2010-07-08

    White adipose tissue is a mesenchymal tissue that begins developing in the fetus. Classically known for storing the body's fuel reserves, adipose tissue is now recognized as an endocrine organ. As such, the secretions from adipose tissue are known to affect several systems such as the vascular and immune systems and play major roles in metabolism. Numerous studies have shown nutrient or hormonal manipulations can greatly influence adipose tissue development. In addition, the associations between various disease states, such as insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease, and disregulation of adipose tissue seen in epidemiological and intervention studies are great. Evaluation of known adipokines suggests these factors secreted from adipose tissue play roles in several pathologies. As the identification of more adipokines and determination of their role in biological systems, and the interactions between adipocytes and other cells types continues, there is little doubt that we will gain a greater appreciation for a tissue once thought to simply store excess energy.

  11. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle plasticity modulates metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara; Kurdiova, Timea; Gasperikova, Daniela; Klimes, Iwar

    2008-12-01

    Obesity, accumulation of adipose tissue, develops when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Adipose tissue is essential for buffering the differences between energy intake and expenditure by accumulating lipids while skeletal muscle is the energy burning machine. Here we adopted the concept that (i) adipose tissue ability to regulate the storage capacity for lipids as well as (ii) dynamic regulation of muscle and adipose tissue secretory and metabolic activity is important for maintaining the metabolic health. This might be at least in part related to tissue plasticity, a phenomenon enabling dynamic modulation of the tissue phenotype in different physiological and pathophysiological situations. Recent advances in our understanding of the complex endocrine function of adipose tissue in regulating lipid metabolism, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodelling, inflammation and oxidative stress prompted us to review the role of tissue plasticity--dynamic changes in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle metabolic and endocrine phenotype--in determining the difference between metabolic health and disease.

  12. Giant cell tumor in adipose package Hoffa

    PubMed Central

    Etcheto, H. Rivarola; Escobar, G.; Blanchod, C. Collazo; Palanconi, M.; Zordan, J.; Salinas, E. Alvarez; Autorino₁, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Tumors of adipose Hoffa package are very uncommon, with isolated cases reported in the literature. His presentation in pediatric patients knee is exceptional. The most frequently described tumors are benign including vellonodular synovitis. The extra-articular localized variant there of is known as giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. It is characterized by locally aggressive nature, and has been described in reports of isolated cases. Objective: A case of giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath in adipose presentation package Hoffa in pediatric patients is presented in this paper. Methods: male patient eleven years with right knee pain after sports practice was evaluated. Physical examination, showed limited extension -30º, joint effusion, stable negative Lachman maneuver without peripheral knee laxity. MRI hyperintense on tumor is observed in T2 and hypointense on T1 homogeneous and defined edges content displayed prior to LCA related to adipose Hoffa package. Results: The tumor specimen was obtained and histopathology is defined as densely cellular tissue accumulation of xantomisados fibrocollagenous with histiocytes and multinucleated giant cells, compatible with giant cell tumor of tendon sheath. Conclusion: The presentation of giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath in Hoffa fat pad is exceptional. However, his suspicion allows adequate preoperative surgical planning, as a whole resection is the only procedure that has been shown to decrease the rate of recurrence of this disease.

  13. The metabolic syndrome of omega3-depleted rats. II. Body weight, adipose tissue mass and glycemic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Sener, Abdullah; Zhang, Ying; Bulur, Nurdan; Louchami, Karim; Malaisse, Willy J; Carpentier, Yvon A

    2009-07-01

    Exposure of 7-week-old normal rats for 3-7 months to a diet deprived of long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids was recently reported to induce changes in the fatty acid content and pattern of liver phospholipids and triglycerides similar to those otherwise found in second generation omega3-depleted rats. In the present study, the changes in body weight, parametrial adipose tissue mass, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and insulin resistance index were investigated in the same control and omega3-depleted rats, which were then given access for 2 to 4-5 weeks to either a flaxseed oil-enriched diet (control and omega3-depleted rats) or a soybean oil-enriched diet (control rats). The body weight failed to differ between control and omega3-depleted rats. The latter rats, however, displayed increases in adipose tissue mass, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance index. In the control rats given access to the soybean or flaxseed oil-enriched diet, body weight and adipose tissue mass were little affected, but both the plasma glucose concentration and insulin resistance index decreased. In the omega3-depleted rats given access to the flaxseed oil-enriched diet, both body weight and adipose tissue mass underwent a rapid, pronounced and sustained increase, whilst the plasma glucose concentration and insulin resistance index decreased similarly to those in the control rats. The present design of omega3 fatty acid dietary deprivation thus reproduces the visceral obesity and insulin resistance otherwise observed in second-generation omega3-depleted rats. However, the supply of exogenous omega3 fatty acids to the omega3-depleted rats failed to oppose visceral obesity, possibly as a result of the orexigenic effects of these omega3 fatty acids.

  14. Androgenic Regulation of White Adipose Tissue-Prostate Cancer Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    rights reserved.1. Introduction White adipose tissue (WAT) is a loose connective tissue that is crucial in the regulation of whole-body fatty-acid...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-1-0275 TITLE: Androgenic Regulation of White Adipose Tissue -Prostate Cancer Interactions PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...2010-05/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0275 Androgenic Regulation of White Adipose Tissue -Prostate Cancer

  15. The NLM Indexing Initiative's Medical Text Indexer.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Alan R; Mork, James G; Gay, Clifford W; Humphrey, Susanne M; Rogers, Willie J

    2004-01-01

    The Medical Text Indexer (MTI) is a program for producing MeSH indexing recommendations. It is the major product of NLM's Indexing Initiative and has been used in both semi-automated and fully automated indexing environments at the Library since mid 2002. We report here on an experiment conducted with MEDLINE indexers to evaluate MTI's performance and to generate ideas for its improvement as a tool for user-assisted indexing. We also discuss some filtering techniques developed to improve MTI's accuracy for use primarily in automatically producing the indexing for several abstracts collections.

  16. Candidate Gene Association Study of BMI-Related Loci, Weight, and Adiposity in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Most genome-wide association studies are confined to middle-aged populations. It is unclear whether associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and obesity persist in old age. We aimed to relate 10 body mass index (BMI)–associated SNPs to weight, BMI, % fat, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in Health ABC and AGES-Reykjavik comprising 4,846 individuals of European Ancestry, and 1,139 African Americans over age 65. SNPs were scaled using effect estimates from candidate SNPs. In Health ABC, a SNP near GNPDA2 was modestly associated with weight and SAT area (p = .008, p = .001). Risk score (sum of scaled SNPs) was associated with weight, BMI, and SAT area (p < .0001 for all), but neither GNPDA2 nor risk score was associated with weight, BMI, visceral adippose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, or % fat in AGES-Reykjavik. In African Americans, a SNP near SEC16B was weakly associated with weight (p = .04). In this sample of older adults, no BMI-associated SNPs were associated with weight or adiposity. PMID:23160366

  17. Insulin Resistance in Adipose Tissue but Not in Liver Is Associated with Aortic Valve Calcification.

    PubMed

    Jorge-Galarza, Esteban; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita; Medina-Urrutia, Aida X; Rodas-Díaz, Marco A; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; González-Salazar, María Del Carmen; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo C; Juárez-Rojas, Juan G

    2016-01-01

    Background. Insulin resistance is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, but its relationship with cardiovascular calcification has yielded conflicting results. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of hepatic and adipose tissue insulin resistance on the presence of coronary artery (CAC > 0) and aortic valve calcification (AVC > 0). Methods. In 1201 subjects (52% women, 53.6 ± 9.3 years old) without familiar and personal history of coronary heart disease, CAC and AVC were assessed by multidetector-computed tomography. Cardiovascular risk factors were documented and lipid profile, inflammation markers, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids were measured. Hepatic insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) indices were calculated. Results. There was a significant relationship between HOMA-IR and Adipo-IR indices (r = 0.758, p < 0.001). Participants in the highest quartiles of HOMA-IR and Adipo-IR indices had a more adverse cardiovascular profile and higher prevalence of CAC > 0 and AVC > 0. After full adjustment, subjects in the highest quartile of Adipo-IR index had higher odds of AVC > 0 (OR: 2.40; 95% CI: 1.30-4.43), as compared to those in the lowest quartile. Conclusions. Adipo-IR was independently associated with AVC > 0. This suggests that abnormal adipose tissue function favors insulin resistance that may promote the development and progression of AVC.

  18. Insulin Resistance in Adipose Tissue but Not in Liver Is Associated with Aortic Valve Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Jorge-Galarza, Esteban; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita; Rodas-Díaz, Marco A.; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; González-Salazar, María del Carmen; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Insulin resistance is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, but its relationship with cardiovascular calcification has yielded conflicting results. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of hepatic and adipose tissue insulin resistance on the presence of coronary artery (CAC > 0) and aortic valve calcification (AVC > 0). Methods. In 1201 subjects (52% women, 53.6 ± 9.3 years old) without familiar and personal history of coronary heart disease, CAC and AVC were assessed by multidetector-computed tomography. Cardiovascular risk factors were documented and lipid profile, inflammation markers, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids were measured. Hepatic insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) indices were calculated. Results. There was a significant relationship between HOMA-IR and Adipo-IR indices (r = 0.758, p < 0.001). Participants in the highest quartiles of HOMA-IR and Adipo-IR indices had a more adverse cardiovascular profile and higher prevalence of CAC > 0 and AVC > 0. After full adjustment, subjects in the highest quartile of Adipo-IR index had higher odds of AVC > 0 (OR: 2.40; 95% CI: 1.30–4.43), as compared to those in the lowest quartile. Conclusions. Adipo-IR was independently associated with AVC > 0. This suggests that abnormal adipose tissue function favors insulin resistance that may promote the development and progression of AVC. PMID:28127113

  19. Elimination of toluene from venous blood and adipose tissue after occupational exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Nise, G; Attewell, R; Skerfving, S; Orbaek, P

    1989-01-01

    In a group of 37 rotogravure printers a close correlation (rs = 0.78) was found between the time weighted toluene exposure during a five day working week (range 8-416 mg/m3, median 75) and the concentration of toluene in subcutaneous adipose tissue (range 1.1-20.7 mg/kg, median 3.8). After exposure ceased, the elimination of toluene was followed up in 11 subjects. The toluene concentration in venous blood decreased non-linearly and the elimination curves contained at least three exponential components. The first two had median estimated half times of nine minutes and two hours respectively. The third component, with a median half time of 90 hours, reflected the decline in adipose tissue, which had a median half time of 79 hours (range 44-178). The study showed protracted endogenous toluene exposure from adipose tissue depots long after the end of exogenous exposure. The observations also suggest that the blood toluene concentrations on Monday mornings might be used as an index of the exposure in the previous week. PMID:2818975

  20. Lower socioeconomic status, adiposity and negative health behaviours in youth: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Sarah; Manlhiot, Cedric; Tyrrell, Pascal N; Dobbin, Stafford; Gibson, Don; Chahal, Nita; Stearne, Karen; Fisher, Amanda; McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-01-01

    Objective Understanding obesity and its modifiable risk factors in youth is key to addressing the burden of cardiovascular disease later in life. Our aim was to examine the associations among adiposity, negative health behaviours and socioeconomic status in youth from the Niagara Region. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional observational study of 3467 grade 9 students during their mandatory health and physical education class to investigate the association between socioeconomic status (postal code), self-reported health behaviour and adiposity in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. Results Median household income was $63 696 and overall percentage below the after-tax low-income cut-off was 4.2%. Negative health behaviours (especially skipped meals, lower fruit and vegetable consumption, higher screen time) were associated with lower income neighbourhoods, however, the absolute effect was small. Those participants in the lowest income quintile had a significantly greater body mass index z-score than those in the highest (0.72±1.19 vs 0.53±1.12), but the overall trend across quintiles was not statistically significant. A similar trend was noted for waist-to-height ratio. The lowest income neighbourhoods according to after-tax low-income cut-off had small but statistically significant associations with higher adiposity compared with the middle or highest income neighbourhoods. Conclusions Obesity prevention efforts should target modifiable behaviours, with particular attention to adolescents from lower income families and neighbourhoods. PMID:25986642

  1. FTO genotype and aging: pleiotropic longitudinal effects on adiposity, brain function, impulsivity and diet.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Y-F; Tanaka, T; Beason-Held, L L; An, Y; Terracciano, A; Sutin, A R; Kraut, M; Singleton, A B; Resnick, S M; Thambisetty, M

    2015-02-01

    Although overweight and obesity are associated with poor health outcomes in the elderly, the biological bases of obesity-related behaviors during aging are poorly understood. Common variants in the FTO gene are associated with adiposity in children and younger adults as well as with adverse mental health in older individuals. However, it is unclear whether FTO influences longitudinal trajectories of adiposity and other intermediate phenotypes relevant to mental health during aging. We examined whether a commonly carried obesity-risk variant in the FTO gene (rs1421085 single-nucleotide polymorphism) influences adiposity and is associated with changes in brain function in participants within the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, one of the longest-running longitudinal aging studies in the United States. Our results show that obesity-related risk allele carriers of FTO gene show dose-dependent increments in body mass index during aging. Moreover, the obesity-related risk allele is associated with reduced medial prefrontal cortical function during aging. Consistent with reduced brain function in regions intrinsic to impulse control and taste responsiveness, risk allele carriers of FTO exhibit dose-dependent increments in both impulsivity and intake of fatty foods. We propose that a common neural mechanism may underlie obesity-associated impulsivity and increased consumption of high-calorie foods during aging.

  2. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Adiposity in Early and Mid-Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Ana María; Oken, Emily; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Webster, Thomas F.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Sagiv, Sharon K.

    2016-01-01

    range increment of prenatal PFOA concentrations was associated with 0.21 kg/m2 (95% CI: –0.05, 0.48) higher body mass index, 0.76 mm (95% CI: –0.17, 1.70) higher sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness, and 0.17 kg/m2 (95% CI: –0.02, 0.36) higher DXA total fat mass index in mid-childhood. Similar associations were observed for PFOS, PFHxS, and PFNA. We observed null associations for boys and early-childhood adiposity measures.Results: Median (25–75th percentiles) prenatal plasma perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) concentrations in children assessed in early childhood were 5.6 (4.1–7.7), 24.8 (18.4–33.9), 2.4 (1.6–3.8), and 0.6 (0.5–0.9) ng/mL, respectively. Among girls, each interquartile range increment of prenatal PFOA concentrations was associated with 0.21 kg/m2 (95% CI: –0.05, 0.48) higher body mass index, 0.76 mm (95% CI: –0.17, 1.70) higher sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness, and 0.17 kg/m2 (95% CI: –0.02, 0.36) higher DXA total fat mass index in mid-childhood. Similar associations were observed for PFOS, PFHxS, and PFNA. We observed null associations for boys and early-childhood adiposity measures. Conclusions: In this cohort, prenatal exposure to PFASs was associated with small increases in adiposity measurements in mid-childhood, but only among girls.Conclusions: In this cohort, prenatal exposure to PFASs was associated with small increases in adiposity measurements in mid-childhood, but only among girls. Citation: Mora AM, Oken E, Rifas-Shiman SL, Webster TF, Gillman MW, Calafat AM, Ye X, Sagiv SK. 2017. Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and adiposity in early and mid-childhood. Environ Health Perspect 125:467–473; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP246Citation: Mora AM, Oken E, Rifas-Shiman SL, Webster TF, Gillman MW, Calafat AM, Ye X, Sagiv SK. 2017. Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and adiposity

  3. Dioxins and dibenzofurans in adipose tissue of US Vietnam veterans and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, H.K.; Watanabe, K.K.; Breen, J.; Remmers, J.; Conomos, M.G.; Stanley, J.; Flicker, M. )

    1991-03-01

    The primary reason for concern about the adverse effects of exposure to Agent Orange is attributable to its toxic contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or dioxin. We studied adipose tissues from 36 Vietnam veterans, a similar group of 79 non-Vietnam veterans, and 80 civilians; the tissue specimens were selected from the 8,000 archived tissues collected from the non-institutionalized general population by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The geometric mean (+/- standard deviation) dioxin levels in adipose tissue for Vietnam veterans, non-Vietnam veterans, and civilian controls were 11.7 (+/- 1.7), 10.9 (+/- 1.7), and 12.4 (+/- 1.9) parts per trillion on a lipid weight basis, respectively. The mean levels for these groups were not significantly different from each other with or without adjustment for age of individuals, body mass index, and specimen collection year. In addition, none of the surrogate measures of Agent Orange exposure such as military branch, service within specific geographic region, military occupation, and troop location in relation to recorded Agent Orange spray was associated with the dioxin levels in adipose tissue of Vietnam veterans. Our results suggest that heavy exposure to Agent Orange or dioxin for most US troops was unlikely.

  4. Measurements of body fat distribution: assessment of collinearity with body mass, adiposity and height in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and height, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. METHODS : A controlled cross-sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 with normal weight, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 with normal weight and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central (CS) and peripheral skinfolds (PS). The BF% was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. RESULTS : The increase in central fat, represented by WC, UC, WHtR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase in peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh circumference were proportional to the increase in BMI and BF%. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The height showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being fair or weak with waist measurements. CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, as it showed the highest capacity to predict adiposity in each group, and also showed fair or weak correlation with height. PMID:25623729

  5. Abalation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we show ...

  6. Effect of Manual Acupuncture Stimulation at "Bai-Hui" (GV 20) or "Yintáng" (Ex-HN3) on Depressed Rats.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Ken; Tanahashi, Nobuyuki; Amagasu, Nozomi; Mizuno, Kaito; Kawanokuchi, Jun; Yi, Guo; Ishida, Torao

    2017-01-01

    A previous study on rats showed that simultaneous acupuncture stimulation at the "Bai-Hui" (GV 20) and the "Yintáng" (Ex-HN3) acupoints alleviated the state of depression to an extent similar to that achieved by pharmacotherapy. This study investigated whether the alleviation of the depressed state required simultaneous acupuncture at these two acupuncture points. For the purposes of testing the effect of acupuncture on depressive symptoms, we treated a depression model rat, where depression had been induced by using a mild water-immersion stress technique, with either acupuncture stimulation at only one acupuncture point (GV 20 or Ex-HN3) or an antidepressant, and we measured the immobile time for evaluating the state of depression. Anxiety, as a symptom commonly associated with depression, was also evaluated by measuring the number of head dips. Neither the immobile time nor the number of head dips decreased upon acupuncture stimulation. From this study, single acupuncture stimulation at either "GV 20" or "Ex-HN3" alleviated neither the state of depression nor the anxiety. The water-immersion stress used to make the depression model rats was shown not to induce anxiety; however, the stress induced by immobilizing the rats for acupuncture stimulation did lead to anxiety.

  7. Association between Hair Cortisol Concentration and Adiposity Measures among Children and Parents from the “Healthy Start” Study

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Olsen, Nanna J.; Heitmann, Berit L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested a direct association between hair cortisol concentration (HCC) and Body Mass Index (BMI), as well as other adiposity measures. However, these studies have mostly been conducted among adult populations. Objective To examine the association between HCC and different measures of adiposity among a selected group of children predisposed to obesity and their parents. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 363 children and their parents (301 mothers and 231 fathers) participating in the “Healthy Start” study. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations between HCC and adiposity measures while taking into account possible confounding factors. Analyses were performed examining the association between HCC and BMI, fat mass and fat free mass index Z-scores, as well as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio among the children. Likewise, the association between HCC and BMI among the parents was explored. Finally, we examined the association between parental HCC and children’s adiposity measures. Results HCC was directly associated with a higher BMI among the fathers (0.49 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.09, 0.90, P = 0.02] per 100 pg/mg) and the mothers (0.93 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.24, 1.61, P = 0.01] per 100 pg/mg). We found no clear evidence of an association between HCC and adiposity measures among children. However, a high maternal HCC was associated with a high fat mass index and low fat free mass index z-score in the offspring (0.14 SD [95% CI: 0.02, 0.26, P = 0.02] and -0.17 SD [95% CI: -0.30, -0.05, P = 0.01] per 100 pg/mg, respectively). Conclusions Our study found no evidence of an association between HCC and measures of adiposity among children predisposed to obesity. However, HCC may be directly associated with BMI among men and women, and maternal HCC may be related to a higher fat mass and a lower fat free mass among their children. PMID:27662656

  8. Social disorder, physical activity and adiposity in Mexican adults: evidence from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Janssen, Ian

    2014-11-01

    This study analyzed the prospective relationship of community social disorder with sedentary behavior, sport participation, and adiposity in Mexican adults from the National Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS). The sample included 8307 adults (aged ≥20 years) from 145 communities. During a three-year follow-up, participants from communities with high social disorder had a 1.36cm larger increase in waist circumference than participants from communities with low social disorder. However, there were no differences in body mass index, television, or sport participation. These findings emphasize the need to promote healthy social environments in local communities.

  9. Overall and Central Adiposity and Breast Cancer Risk in the Sister Study

    PubMed Central

    White, Alexandra J.; Nichols, Hazel B.; Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Greater body mass index (BMI), a measure of overall adiposity, is associated with higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. The role of central adiposity, often measured by waist circumference, is less well understood especially among premenopausal women. We aimed to examine multiple measures of adiposity in relation to breast cancer in a prospective cohort study. Methods 50,884 Sister Study cohort participants ages 35–74 were enrolled from 2003–2009. Inclusion criteria for the cohort included having a sister previously diagnosed with breast cancer. Trained study personnel measured height, weight, waist and hip circumference during a home visit and study participants completed a detailed questionnaire. Using Cox regression, we estimated multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer risk associated with adiposity measurements, considering tumor subtype and menopausal status. Results In total, 2,009 breast cancers were diagnosed during follow-up (mean=5.4 years). Weight, BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip-ratio were positively associated with overall breast cancer risk and HRs were greater among postmenopausal women, those with hormonally responsive tumors and non-current postmenopausal hormone users. In models that adjusted for BMI, waist circumference associations persisted among both postmenopausal women (81–88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.16, 95%CI 1.01, 1.35; >88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.30, 95% CI 1.10, 1.54) and premenopausal women (81–88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.56, 95%CI 1.19, 2.04; >88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.30, 95% CI 0.91, 1.87). Conclusions Findings from this large, prospective study with examiner-measured body size indicate that waist circumference is independently and positively associated with both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:26193782

  10. Mendelian randomisation analysis strongly implicates adiposity with risk of developing colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, David; Mitchell, Jonathan S; Law, Philip J; Palin, Kimmo; Tuupanen, Sari; Gylfe, Alexandra; Hänninen, Ulrika A; Cajuso, Tatiana; Tanskanen, Tomas; Kondelin, Johanna; Kaasinen, Eevi; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Kaprio, Jaakko; Eriksson, Johan G; Rissanen, Harri; Knekt, Paul; Pukkala, Eero; Jousilahti, Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Palotie, Aarno; Järvinen, Heikki; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Lepistö, Anna; Böhm, Jan; Meklin, Jukka-Pekka; Al-Tassan, Nada A; Palles, Claire; Martin, Lynn; Barclay, Ella; Farrington, Susan M; Timofeeva, Maria N; Meyer, Brian F; Wakil, Salma M; Campbell, Harry; Smith, Christopher G; Idziaszczyk, Shelley; Maughan, Timothy S; Kaplan, Richard; Kerr, Rachel; Kerr, David; Buchanan, Daniel D; Win, Aung K; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Taipale, Jussi; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Cheadle, Jeremy P; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Tomlinson, Ian P; Houlston, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have associated adiposity with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, such studies do not establish a causal relationship. To minimise bias from confounding we performed a Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis to examine the relationship between adiposity and CRC. Methods: We used SNPs associated with adult body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), childhood obesity and birth weight as instrumental variables in a MR analysis of 9254 CRC cases and 18 386 controls. Results: In the MR analysis, the odds ratios (ORs) of CRC risk per unit increase in BMI, WHR and childhood obesity were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02–1.49, P=0.033), 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08–2.34, P=0.019) and 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03–1.13, P=0.018), respectively. There was no evidence for association between birth weight and CRC (OR=1.22, 95% CI: 0.89–1.67, P=0.22). Combining these data with a concurrent MR-based analysis for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (totalling to 18 190 cases, 27 617 controls) provided increased support, ORs for BMI and WHR were 1.26 (95% CI: 1.10–1.44, P=7.7 × 10−4) and 1.40 (95% CI: 1.14–1.72, P=1.2 × 10−3), respectively. Conclusions: These data provide further evidence for a strong causal relationship between adiposity and the risk of developing CRC highlighting the urgent need for prevention and treatment of adiposity. PMID:27336604

  11. Associations of Dispositional Mindfulness with Obesity and Central Adiposity: the New England Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Willoughby B.; Howe, Chanelle J.; Gutman, Roee; Gilman, Stephen E.; Brewer, Judson; Eaton, Charles B.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether dispositional mindfulness (defined as the ability to attend nonjudgmentally to one’s own physical and mental processes) is associated with obesity and central adiposity. Methods Study participants (n=394) were from the New England Family Study, a prospective birth cohort, with median age 47 years. Dispositional mindfulness was assessed using the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Central adiposity was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans with primary outcomes android fat mass and android/gynoid ratio. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m2. Results Multivariable-adjusted regression analyses demonstrated that participants with low vs. high MAAS scores were more likely to be obese (prevalence ratio for obesity= 1.34 (95 % confidence limit (CL): 1.02, 1.77)), adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, birth weight, childhood socioeconomic status, and childhood intelligence. Furthermore, participants with low vs. high MAAS level had a 448 (95 % CL 39, 857) g higher android fat mass and a 0.056 (95 % CL 0.003, 0.110) greater android/gynoid fat mass ratio. Prospective analyses demonstrated that participants who were not obese in childhood and became obese in adulthood (n=154) had −0.21 (95 % CL −0.41, −0.01; p=0.04) lower MAAS scores than participants who were not obese in childhood or adulthood (n=203). Conclusions Dispositional mindfulness may be inversely associated with obesity and adiposity. Replication studies are needed to adequately establish whether low dispositional mindfulness is a risk factor for obesity and adiposity. PMID:26481650

  12. Irbesartan increased PPAR{gamma} activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Moritani, Tomozo; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. {yields} DNA-binding for PPAR{gamma} was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. {yields} Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPAR{gamma} agonistic action of an AT{sub 1} receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPAR{gamma} in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPAR{gamma} in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPAR{gamma} and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  13. Regeneration of Cartilage in Human Knee Osteoarthritis with Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Autologous Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Jaewoo; Lee, Jung Hun; Park, Kwang Seung; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This clinical case series demonstrates that percutaneous injections of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and homogenized extracellular matrix (ECM) in the form of adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF), along with hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) activated by calcium chloride, could regenerate cartilage-like tissue in human knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Autologous lipoaspirates were obtained from adipose tissue of the abdominal origin. Afterward, the lipoaspirates were minced to homogenize the ECM. These homogenized lipoaspirates were then mixed with collagenase and incubated. The resulting mixture of ADSCs and ECM in the form of SVF was injected, along with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, into knees of three Korean patients with OA. The same affected knees were reinjected weekly with additional PRP activated by calcium chloride for 3 weeks. Pretreatment and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, functional rating index, range of motion (ROM), and pain score data were then analyzed. All patients' MRI data showed cartilage-like tissue regeneration. Along with MRI evidence, the measured physical therapy outcomes in terms of ROM, subjective pain, and functional status were all improved. This study demonstrates that percutaneous injection of ADSCs with ECM contained in autologous adipose SVF, in conjunction with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, is a safe and potentially effective minimally invasive therapy for OA of human knees. PMID:27588219

  14. Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance in Peripubertal Girls with First-Degree Family History of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Trottier, Andréanne; Battista, Marie-Claude; Geller, David H; Moreau, Brigitte; Carpentier, André C; Simoneau-Roy, Judith; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess metabolic and endocrine defects in girls genetically predisposed to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design Controlled cross-sectional study. Setting University hospital. Patients Nine girls aged 8–14 years having a first-degree relative diagnosed with PCOS (PCOSr) and 10 age-matched girls unrelated to PCOS. Intervention None. Main outcome measure Insulin sensitivity determined by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing (ISFSivGTT) and insulin-induced non-esterified fatty acid suppression (NEFAsupp), estimated by the log-linear slope of NEFA levels during the first 20 min of FSivGTT. Results In comparison to controls, PCOSr had higher body mass index Z-score (BMI-z), waist circumference and waist/height ratio. Levels of the androgen 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHPg) were significantly increased in PCOSr, independently of adiposity, and inversely correlated with ISFSivGTT. ISFSivGTT was decreased and NEFAsupp was less steep in PCOSr as compared to controls, independently of BMI-z and 17OHPg. NEFAsupp was more pronounced with increasing ISFSivGTT, independently of adiposity. Conclusions Girls at high risk of developing PCOS display increased adiposity and 17OHPg levels, but are mainly characterized by global insulin resistance and resistance to insulin-induced suppression of lipolysis that were independent of adiposity and 17OHPg levels. Therefore, genetic predisposition to PCOS may be related to early insulin resistance and adipocyte dysfunction. PMID:22985947

  15. Soluble LR11/SorLA represses thermogenesis in adipose tissue and correlates with BMI in humans

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Andrew J.; Jiang, Meizi; Peirce, Vivian; Relat, Joana; Virtue, Sam; Ebinuma, Hiroyuki; Fukamachi, Isamu; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Mao; Murano, Takeyoshi; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Jin, Wenlong; Jin, Zhehu; Campbell, Mark; Schneider, Wolfgang J.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Bujo, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an important component of energy expenditure in mammals. Recent studies have confirmed its presence and metabolic role in humans. Defining the physiological regulation of BAT is therefore of great importance for developing strategies to treat metabolic diseases. Here we show that the soluble form of the low-density lipoprotein receptor relative, LR11/SorLA (sLR11), suppresses thermogenesis in adipose tissue in a cell-autonomous manner. Mice lacking LR11 are protected from diet-induced obesity associated with an increased browning of white adipose tissue and hypermetabolism. Treatment of adipocytes with sLR11 inhibits thermogenesis via the bone morphogenetic protein/TGFβ signalling pathway and reduces Smad phosphorylation. In addition, sLR11 levels in humans are shown to positively correlate with body mass index and adiposity. Given the need for tight regulation of a tissue with a high capacity for energy wastage, we propose that LR11 plays an energy conserving role that is exaggerated in states of obesity. PMID:26584636

  16. Fasting energy homeostasis in mice with adipose deficiency of desnutrin/adipose triglyceride lipase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang Wei; Wang, Shu Pei; Casavant, Stéphanie; Moreau, Alain; Yang, Gong She; Mitchell, Grant A

    2012-05-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) catalyzes the first step of lipolysis of cytoplasmic triacylglycerols in white adipose tissue (WAT) and several other organs. We created adipose-specific ATGL-deficient (ATGLAKO) mice. In these mice, in vivo lipolysis, measured as the increase of plasma nonesterified fatty acid and glycerol levels after injection of a β3-adrenergic agonist, was undetectable. In isolated ATGLAKO adipocytes, β3-adrenergic-stimulated glycerol release was 10-fold less than in controls. Under fed conditions, ATGLAKO mice had normal viability, mild obesity, low plasma nonesterified fatty acid levels, increased insulin sensitivity, and increased daytime food intake. After 5 h of fasting, ATGLAKO WAT showed phosphorylation of the major protein kinase A-mediated targets hormone-sensitive lipase and perilipin A and ATGLAKO liver showed low glycogen and triacylglycerol contents. During a 48-h fast, ATGLAKO mice developed striking and complex differences from controls: progressive reduction of oxygen consumption, high respiratory exchange ratio, consistent with reduced fatty acid availability for energy production, lethargy, hypothermia, and undiminished fat mass, but greater loss of lean mass than controls. Plasma of 48 h-fasted ATGLAKO mice had a unique pattern: low 3-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, adiponectin, and fibroblast growth factor 21 with elevated leptin and corticosterone. ATGLAKO WAT, liver, skeletal muscle, and heart showed increased levels of mRNA related to autophagy and proteolysis. In murine ATGL deficiency, adipose lipolysis is critical for fasting energy homeostasis, and fasting imposes proteolytic stress on many organs, including heart and skeletal muscle.

  17. Thyroid hormone status defines brown adipose tissue activity and browning of white adipose tissues in mice

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Juliane; Kranz, Mathias; Klöting, Nora; Kunath, Anne; Steinhoff, Karen; Rijntjes, Eddy; Köhrle, Josef; Zeisig, Vilia; Hankir, Mohammed; Gebhardt, Claudia; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Heiker, John T.; Kralisch, Susan; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Sabri, Osama; Hesse, Swen; Brust, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Krause, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of thyroid hormone dysfunction on brown adipose tissue activity and white adipose tissue browning in mice. Twenty randomized female C57BL/6NTac mice per treatment group housed at room temperature were rendered hypothyroid or hyperthyroid. In-vivo small animal 18F-FDG PET/MRI was performed to determine the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on BAT mass and BAT activity. Ex-vivo14C-acetate loading assay and assessment of thermogenic gene and protein expression permitted analysis of oxidative and thermogenic capacities of WAT and BAT of eu-, hyper and hypothyroid mice. 18F-FDG PET/MRI revealed a lack of brown adipose tissue activity in hypothyroid mice, whereas hyperthyroid mice displayed increased BAT mass alongside enhanced 18F-FDG uptake. In white adipose tissue of both, hyper- and hypothyroid mice, we found a significant induction of thermogenic genes together with multilocular adipocytes expressing UCP1. Taken together, these results suggest that both the hyperthyroid and hypothyroid state stimulate WAT thermogenesis most likely as a consequence of enhanced adrenergic signaling or compensation for impaired BAT function, respectively. PMID:27941950

  18. Ovariectomy in mature mice does not increase food intake, but increases adiposity and adipose tissue inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Menopause, characterized by reduced estrogen (E2), is associated with increased adiposity and metabolic pathology. Molecular mechanisms underlying this association between low E2 status and metabolic disease are not fully elucidated. When mice are fed a high fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity and diab...

  19. Adipose HIF-1α causes obesity by suppressing brown adipose tissue thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jonathan C; Devera, Ronald; Unnikrishnan, Dileep; Shin, Mi-Kyung; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Yao, Qiaoling; Rathore, Aman; Younas, Haris; Halberg, Nils; Scherer, Philipp E; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2017-03-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in adipose tissue is known to promote obesity. We hypothesized that HIF-1α interferes with brown fat thermogenesis, thus decreasing energy expenditure. To test this hypothesis, we compared transgenic mice constitutively expressing HIF-1α in adipose tissues (HIF-1α++) at usual temperature (22 °C), where brown fat is somewhat active, or at thermoneutrality (30 °C), where brown fat is minimally active. HIF-1α++ mice or control litter mates were separated into room temperature (22 °C) or thermoneutrality (30 °C) groups. We assessed weight gain, food intake, calorimetry, activity, and oxygen consumption and transcriptional changes in isolated white and brown adipocytes. At 22 °C, HIF-1α++ mice exhibited accelerated weight gain, cold and glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia, and decreased energy expenditure without changes in food intake or activity. These changes were absent or minimal at thermoneutrality. In brown adipocytes of HIF-1α++ mice, oxygen consumption decreased ~50 % in association with reduced mitochondrial content, uncoupling protein 2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 (PGC-1α). In conclusion, adipose HIF-1α overexpression inhibits thermogenesis and cellular respiration in brown adipose tissue, promoting obesity in the setting of reduced ambient temperature.

  20. Thyroid hormone status defines brown adipose tissue activity and browning of white adipose tissues in mice.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Juliane; Kranz, Mathias; Klöting, Nora; Kunath, Anne; Steinhoff, Karen; Rijntjes, Eddy; Köhrle, Josef; Zeisig, Vilia; Hankir, Mohammed; Gebhardt, Claudia; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Heiker, John T; Kralisch, Susan; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Sabri, Osama; Hesse, Swen; Brust, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Krause, Kerstin

    2016-12-12

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of thyroid hormone dysfunction on brown adipose tissue activity and white adipose tissue browning in mice. Twenty randomized female C57BL/6NTac mice per treatment group housed at room temperature were rendered hypothyroid or hyperthyroid. In-vivo small animal (18)F-FDG PET/MRI was performed to determine the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on BAT mass and BAT activity. Ex-vivo(14)C-acetate loading assay and assessment of thermogenic gene and protein expression permitted analysis of oxidative and thermogenic capacities of WAT and BAT of eu-, hyper and hypothyroid mice. (18)F-FDG PET/MRI revealed a lack of brown adipose tissue activity in hypothyroid mice, whereas hyperthyroid mice displayed increased BAT mass alongside enhanced (18)F-FDG uptake. In white adipose tissue of both, hyper- and hypothyroid mice, we found a significant induction of thermogenic genes together with multilocular adipocytes expressing UCP1. Taken together, these results suggest that both the hyperthyroid and hypothyroid state stimulate WAT thermogenesis most likely as a consequence of enhanced adrenergic signaling or compensation for impaired BAT function, respectively.

  1. Acute pulmonary function response to ozone in young adults as a function of body mass index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese mice. Adiposity has not been examined as a possible modulator of ozone response in humans. We therefore examined the relationship between body mass index and the acute spirometric response to ozone (O(3)) exposur...

  2. Patterns of body size and adiposity among UK children of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin: Child Heart And health Study in England (CHASE Study)

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, Claire M; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Chris G; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine adiposity patterns in UK South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European children using a range of adiposity markers. A cross-sectional survey in London, Birmingham and Leicester primary schools was conducted. Weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thickness values (biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac) were measured. Fat mass was derived from bioimpedance; optimally height-standardized indices were derived for all adiposity markers. Ethnic origin was based on parental self-report. Multilevel models were used to obtain adjusted means and ethnic differences adjusted for gender, age, month, observer and school (fitted as a random effect). A total of 5887 children aged 9–10 years participated (response rate 68%), including 1345 white Europeans, 1523 South Asians and 1570 black African–Caribbeans. Results Compared with white Europeans, South Asians had a higher sum of all skinfolds and fat mass percentage, and their body mass index (BMI) was lower. South Asians were slightly shorter but use of optimally height-standardized indices did not materially affect these comparisons. At any given fat mass, BMI was lower in South Asians than white Europeans. In similar comparisons, black African–Caribbeans had a lower sum of all skinfolds but a higher fat mass percentage, and their BMI was higher. Black African–Caribbeans were markedly taller. Use of optimally height-standardized indices yielded markedly different findings; sum of skinfolds index was markedly lower, whereas fat mass index and weight-for-height index were similar. At any given fat mass, BMI was similar in black African–Caribbeans and white Europeans. Conclusions UK South Asian children have higher adiposity levels and black African–Caribbeans have similar or lower adiposity levels when compared with white Europeans. However, these differences are not well represented by comparisons based on BMI, which systematically

  3. Albumin induced cytokine expression in porcine adipose tissue explants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Albumin has historically been included in medium designed for use with adipose tissue when evaluating metabolism, gene expression or protein secretion. However, recent studies with mouse adipocytes (Ruan et al., J. Biol. Chem. 278:47585-47593, 2003) and human adipose tissue (Schlesinger et al., Ame...

  4. Altered autophagy in human adipose tissues in obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: Autophagy is a housekeeping mechanism, involved in metabolic regulation and stress response, shown recently to regulate lipid droplets biogenesis/breakdown and adipose tissue phenotype. Objective: We hypothesized that in human obesity autophagy may be altered in adipose tissue in a fat d...

  5. Adipose proteome analysis: focus on mediators of insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoli; Hess, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    As is well known, adipose tissue is an important site for lipid metabolism and insulin-responsive glucose uptake. The recent discovery of the endocrine function of adipose tissue and the association of obesity with chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue has reinforced the concept of the central role of adipose tissue in mediating obesity-linked insulin resistance and metabolic dysregulation. The study of adipose cells has provided new insights into the mechanism underlying insulin resistance as well as the therapeutic strategies for diabetes. Numerous efforts have been made in identifying key molecular regulators of insulin action and metabolism, including the utilization of advanced proteomics technology. Various proteomic approaches have been applied to identify the adipose secretome, protein-expression profiling and post-translational modifications in adipose cells in the pathological state. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the proteomics of adipose tissue, and discuss the identified proteins that potentially play important roles in insulin resistance and diabetes. PMID:19086862

  6. FEEDING INFLUENCES ADIPOSE TISSUE RESPONSES TO EXERCISE IN OVERWEIGHT MEN.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Chih; Travers, Rebecca L; Walhin, Jean-Philippe; Gonzalez, Javier T; Koumanov, Francoise; Betts, James A; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-03-14

    Feeding profoundly affects metabolic responses to exercise in various tissues but the effect of feeding status on human adipose tissue responses to exercise has never been studied. Ten healthy overweight men aged 26 ± 5 years (mean ± SD) with a waist circumference of 105 ± 10 cm walked at 60% of maximum oxygen uptake under either FASTED or FED conditions in a randomised, counterbalanced design. Feeding comprised 648 ± 115 kcal 2 h before exercise. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals to examine changes in metabolic parameters and adipokine concentrations. Adipose tissue samples were obtained at baseline and one hour post-exercise to examine changes in adipose tissue mRNA expression and secretion of selected adipokines ex-vivo. Adipose tissue mRNA expression of PDK4, ATGL, HSL, FAT/CD36, GLUT4 and IRS2 in response to exercise were lower in FED compared to FASTED conditions (all p ≤ 0.05). Post-exercise adipose IRS2 protein was affected by feeding (p ≤ 0.05), but Akt2, AMPK, IRS1, GLUT4, PDK4 and HSL protein levels were not different. Feeding status did not impact serum and ex-vivo adipose secretion of IL-6, leptin or adiponectin in response to exercise. This is the first study to show that feeding prior to acute exercise affects post-exercise adipose tissue gene expression and we propose that feeding is likely to blunt long-term adipose tissue adaptation to regular exercise.

  7. Adipose Tissue: Sanctuary for HIV/SIV Persistence and Replication.

    PubMed

    Pallikkuth, Suresh; Mohan, Mahesh

    2015-12-01

    This commentary highlights new findings from a recent study identifying adipose tissue as a potential HIV reservoir and a major site of inflammation during chronic human/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infection. A concise discussion about upcoming challenges and new research avenues for reducing chronic adipose inflammation during HIV/SIV infection is presented.

  8. Cell supermarket: Adipose tissue as a source of stem cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose tissue is derived from numerous sources, and in recent years has been shown to provide numerous cells from what seemingly was a population of homogeneous adipocytes. Considering the types of cells that adipose tissue-derived cells may form, these cells may be useful in a variety of clinical ...

  9. Lipokines and oxysterols: novel adipose-derived lipid hormones linking adipose dysfunction and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Murdolo, Giuseppe; Bartolini, Desirée; Tortoioli, Cristina; Piroddi, Marta; Iuliano, Luigi; Galli, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    The expansion of adipose tissue (AT) is, by definition, a hallmark of obesity. However, not all increases in fat mass are associated with pathophysiological cues. Indeed, whereas a "healthy" fat mass accrual, mainly in the subcutaneous depots, preserves metabolic homeostasis, explaining the occurrence of the metabolically healthy obese phenotype, "unhealthy" AT expansion is importantly associated with insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. The development of a dysfunctional adipose organ may find mechanistic explanation in a reduced ability to recruit new and functional (pre)adipocytes from undifferentiated precursor cells. Such a failure of the adipogenic process underlies the "AT expandability" paradigm. The inability of AT to expand further to store excess nutrients, rather than obesity per se, induces a diabetogenic milieu by promoting the overflow and the ectopic deposition of fatty acids in insulin-dependent organs (i.e., lipotoxicity), the secretion of various metabolically detrimental adipose-derived hormones (i.e., adipokines and lipokines), and the occurrence of local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Hitherto, fatty acids (i.e., lipokines) and the oxidation by-products of cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as nonenzymatic oxysterols and reactive aldehyde species, respectively, emerge as key modulators of (pre)adipocyte signaling through Wnt/β-catenin and MAPK pathways and potential regulators of glucose homeostasis. These and other mechanistic insights linking adipose dysfunction, oxidative stress, and impairment of glucose homeostasis are discussed in this review article, which focuses on adipose peroxidation as a potential instigator of, and a putative therapeutic target for, obesity-associated metabolic dysfunctions.

  10. Adiposity and Mortality in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Baqiyyah; Miller, Rachel G; Costacou, Tina; Fried, Linda; Kelsey, Sheryl; Evans, Rhobert W

    2009-01-01

    Background In the general population, adiposity exhibits a J- or U-shaped relationship with mortality; however, in catabolic states this relationship is often inversely linear. We have recently documented an age-independent increase in overweight/obesity in the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study (EDC) of type 1 diabetes (T1D). As intensified insulin therapy (IIT) may promote weight gain, the impact of weight gain in T1D is of importance. We therefore assessed the association of adiposity with mortality in 655 EDC participants during twenty years of follow-up. Methods Individuals were categorized as underweight (BMI <20), normal (20≤BMI<25), overweight (25≤BMI<30), or obese (BMI≥30). Cox models were constructed using BMI and covariates at baseline, updated means during follow-up, time-varying (reflecting most recent status), and change during adulthood as predictors of mortality. Results The prevalence of IIT (3+ insulin shots daily and/or pump) increased from 7% to 82%. Overweight increased 47%; obesity increased 7-fold. There were 146 deaths. In unadjusted models BMI (modeled continuously) demonstrated a quadratic relationship with mortality (p=0.002, <0.0001, <0.0001 for baseline, updated mean, and time-varying models, respectively). However, only in the time-varying model were the obese significantly different from the normal weight. while the baseline model revealed no differences by BMI category, in both the updated mean and time varying models, the underweight were at greater risk than the normal weight (p<0.0001 both models). The nonlinear relationship of adiposity with mortality remained after adjustment for diabetes complications, biological, or socioeconomic/lifestyle risk factors, with the exception of baseline socioeconomic/lifestyle risk factors where a linear association emerged. Adjustment for waist circumference eliminated the risk in the obese. Finally, weight gain during follow-up was protective. Conclusion The

  11. Regulation of systemic energy homeostasis by serotonin in adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang-Myung; Namkung, Jun; Go, Younghoon; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Kyuho; Kim, Hyeongseok; Park, Bo-Yoon; Lee, Ho Won; Jeon, Yong Hyun; Song, Junghan; Shong, Minho; Yadav, Vijay K.; Karsenty, Gerard; Kajimura, Shingo; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Sangkyu; Kim, Hail

    2015-01-01

    Central serotonin (5-HT) is an anorexigenic neurotransmitter in the brain. However, accumulating evidence suggests peripheral 5-HT may affect organismal energy homeostasis. Here we show 5-HT regulates white and brown adipose tissue function. Pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT synthesis leads to inhibition of lipogenesis in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT), induction of browning in inguinal WAT and activation of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mice with inducible Tph1 KO in adipose tissues exhibit a similar phenotype as mice in which 5-HT synthesis is inhibited pharmacologically, suggesting 5-HT has localized effects on adipose tissues. In addition, Htr3a KO mice exhibit increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain when fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with an Htr2a antagonist reduces lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These data suggest important roles for adipocyte-derived 5-HT in controlling energy homeostasis. PMID:25864946

  12. Role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Rahul; Pouliopoulos, Jim; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Kovoor, Pramesh

    2016-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue is present in normal healthy individuals. It is a unique fat depot that, under physiologic conditions, plays a cardioprotective role. However, excess epicardial adipose tissue has been shown to be associated with prevalence and severity of atrial fibrillation. In arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and myotonic dystrophy, fibrofatty infiltration of the myocardium is associated with ventricular arrhythmias. In the ovine model of ischemic cardiomyopathy, the presence of intramyocardial adipose or lipomatous metaplasia has been associated with increased propensity to ventricular tachycardia. These observations suggest a role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias. In this article, we review the role of cardiac adipose tissue in various cardiac arrhythmias and discuss the possible pathophysiologic mechanisms.

  13. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  14. Maternal diet quality in pregnancy and neonatal adiposity: The Healthy Start Study

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Allison L B; Kaar, Jill L; Crume, Tessa L; Starling, Anne P; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Ringham, Brandy M; Glueck, Deborah H; Norris, Jill M; Barbour, Linda A; Friedman, Jacob E (Jed); Dabelea, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective Poor maternal diet in pregnancy can influence fetal growth and development. We tested the hypothesis that poor maternal diet quality during pregnancy would increase neonatal adiposity (percent fat mass, %FM) at birth by increasing the fat mass (FM) component of neonatal body composition. Methods Our analysis was conducted using a pre-birth observational cohort of 1,079 mother-offspring pairs. Pregnancy diet was assessed via repeated Automated Self-Administered 24-hour dietary recalls, from which Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores were calculated for each mother. HEI-2010 was dichotomized into scores ≤ 57 and scores > 57, with low scores representing poorer diet quality. Neonatal %FM was assessed within 72 hours after birth with air displacement plethysmography. Using univariate and multivariate linear models, we analyzed the relationship between maternal diet quality and neonatal %FM, FM, and fat-free mass (FFM) while adjusting for pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), physical activity, maternal age, smoking, energy intake, preeclampsia, hypertension, infant sex, and gestational age. Results Total HEI-2010 score ranged between 18.2 and 89.5 (mean: 54.2, SD: 13.6). An HEI-2010 score ≤ 57 was significantly associated with higher neonatal %FM (β = 0.58, 95% CI 0.07, 1.1, p<0.05) and FM (β=20.74; 95% CI 1.49, 40.0; p<0.05) but no difference in FFM. Conclusions Poor diet quality during pregnancy increases neonatal adiposity independent of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and total caloric intake. This further implicates maternal diet as a potentially important exposure for fetal adiposity. PMID:27133623

  15. Epicardial Adiposity is Associated with Microalbuminuria in Patients with Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Mujgan Tek; Ebinç, Fatma Ayerden; Okyay, Gülay Ulusal; Kutlugün, Aysun Akbal

    2017-01-01

    Background Measurement of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is suggested as a novel cardiometabolic risk factor. Microalbuminuria is a marker of endothelial dysfunction and is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in patients with systemic hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness and microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients. Methods 75 essential hypertensive patients were included into the study. All subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiography to measure EAT thickness. Spot urine sample was collected for the assessment of microalbuminuria. Patients were divided into two groups according to their spot urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR); Group 1 included normoalbuminuria (0-30 μg/mg); and Group 2: included microalbuminuria (30-300 μg/mg). Thereafter, we evaluated patient characteristics including smoking status, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), antihypertensive treatment, statin therapy and serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglicerides, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine and hemoglobin. Results There was no difference in baseline characteristics between Group 1 and Group 2. Patients with microalbuminuria had significantly higher mean EAT thickness values compared to the normoalbuminuria group (7.1 ± 0.9 vs. 6.6 ± 0.9, p = 0.01). There were positive significant correlations between EAT and age (r = 0.267, p = 0.020), serum creatinine (r = 0.292, p = 0.01), UACR (r = 0.251, p = 0.03), left ventricular mass (r = 0.257, p = 0.03) and left ventricular mass index (r = 0.242, p = 0.04). UACR was independently associated with EAT (p = 0.01) after adjustments were made for age and BMI. Conclusions Epicardial Adipose Tissue (EAT) thickness could be associated with microalbuminuria in patients with essential hypertension. This association could support the recognition of EAT as a credible

  16. Hypertrophy and/or Hyperplasia: Dynamics of Adipose Tissue Growth.

    PubMed

    Jo, Junghyo; Gavrilova, Oksana; Pack, Stephanie; Jou, William; Mullen, Shawn; Sumner, Anne E; Cushman, Samuel W; Periwal, Vipul

    2009-03-01

    Adipose tissue grows by two mechanisms: hyperplasia (cell number increase) and hypertrophy (cell size increase). Genetics and diet affect the relative contributions of these two mechanisms to the growth of adipose tissue in obesity. In this study, the size distributions of epididymal adipose cells from two mouse strains, obesity-resistant FVB/N and obesity-prone C57BL/6, were measured after 2, 4, and 12 weeks under regular and high-fat feeding conditions. The total cell number in the epididymal fat pad was estimated from the fat pad mass and the normalized cell-size distribution. The cell number and volume-weighted mean cell size increase as a function of fat pad mass. To address adipose tissue growth precisely, we developed a mathematical model describing the evolution of the adipose cell-size distributions as a function of the increasing fat pad mass, instead of the increasing chronological time. Our model describes the recruitment of new adipose cells and their subsequent development in different strains, and with different diet regimens, with common mechanisms, but with diet- and genetics-dependent model parameters. Compared to the FVB/N strain, the C57BL/6 strain has greater recruitment of small adipose cells. Hyperplasia is enhanced by high-fat diet in a strain-dependent way, suggesting a synergistic interaction between genetics and diet. Moreover, high-fat feeding increases the rate of adipose cell size growth, independent of strain, reflecting the increase in calories requiring storage. Additionally, high-fat diet leads to a dramatic spreading of the size distribution of adipose cells in both strains; this implies an increase in size fluctuations of adipose cells through lipid turnover.

  17. Behavioral responses of one western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic, to tourists, researchers and trackers.

    PubMed

    Klailova, Michelle; Hodgkinson, Chloe; Lee, Phyllis C

    2010-09-01

    Gorilla tourism, widely perceived as a lucrative industry, is propelled by strong market demand with programs in five countries and for three of four gorilla subspecies. Human presence may negatively affect wild gorillas, potentially lowering immunity and increasing the likelihood of acquiring human-borne disease. Yet, behavioral impacts of humans on wild gorilla behavior remain largely unexplored, particularly for western lowland gorillas. We evaluate the impact of tourist presence, human observer numbers (tourists, trackers, and researchers), and human observer distance on the behavior of one habituated gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Behavioral data were collected for more than 12 months from January 2007. Of silverback aggressive events, 39% (N=229) were human directed, but 65% were low-level soft barks. Adult females, and one in particular, were responsible for the highest number of aggressive events toward humans. Humans maintained closer proximity to the silverback when tourists were present, although tourist numbers had no significant impact on overall group activity budgets or rates of human-directed aggression. However, as research team size increased, group feeding rates decreased. Close observer-silverback distance correlated with a decrease in his feeding rates and an increase in human monitoring. He directed less aggression toward observers at distances >10 m, although observers spent 48.5% of time between 6 and 10 m of the silverback. We discuss gorilla personality as a factor in human-directed aggression. We explore whether the current 7 m distance limit governing gorilla tourism, based on disease transmission risks, is sufficient considering the potential behavioral stressor of close human presence. We recommend increasing minimum observation distance to >10 m where possible, decreasing observer group sizes, particularly after a visit consisting of maximum numbers and restricting tourist access to 1 visit/day.

  18. Physical maturation, life-history classes and age estimates of free-ranging western gorillas--insights from Mbeli Bai, Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Thomas; Hockemba, Mireille Breuer-Ndoundou; Olejniczak, Claudia; Parnell, Richard J; Stokes, Emma J

    2009-02-01

    Physical maturation and life-history parameters are seen as evolutionary adaptations to different ecological and social conditions. Comparison of life-history patterns of closely related species living in diverse environments helps to evaluate the validity of these assumptions but empirical data are lacking. The two gorilla species exhibit substantial differences in their environment, which allows investigation into the role of increased frugivory in shaping western gorilla life histories. We present behavioral and morphological data on western gorilla physical maturation and life-history parameters from a 12.5-year study at Mbeli Bai, a forest clearing in the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park in northern Congo. We assign photographs of known individuals to different life-history classes and propose new age boundaries for life-history classes in western gorillas, which can be used and tested at other western gorilla research sites. Our results show that western gorillas are weaned at a later age compared with mountain gorillas and indicate slower physical maturation of immatures. These findings support the risk-aversion hypothesis for more frugivorous species. However, our methods need to be applied and tested with other gorilla populations. The slow life histories of western gorillas could have major consequences for social structure, mortality patterns and population growth rates that will affect recovery from population crashes of this critically endangered species. We emphasize that long-term studies can provide crucial demographic and life-history data that improve our understanding of life-history evolution and adaptation and help to refine conservation strategies.

  19. The sexually dimorphic role of adipose and adipocyte estrogen receptors in modulating adipose tissue expansion, inflammation, and fibrosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our data demonstrate that estrogens, estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), and estrogen receptor-ßeta (ERßeta) regulate adipose tissue distribution, inflammation, fibrosis, and glucose homeostasis, by determining that alphaERKO mice have increased adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis prior to obesi...

  20. Oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with adiposity in moderate to severe CKD.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Luis F; Shintani, Ayumi; Ikizler, T Alp; Himmelfarb, Jonathan

    2008-03-01

    Adiposity contributes to inflammation and oxidative stress in the general population, but this association has not been examined in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. We investigated the relationship between body mass index, body fat percentage, and markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein) and oxidative stress (F(2)-isoprostanes and protein thiols) in 184 patients with stages III to IV CKD and 43 healthy controls. We found that, on average, patients with CKD had 62% higher F(2)-isoprostanes, 7% lower protein thiols (a measure of endogenous anti-oxidant capacity, inversely related to protein oxidation), and 150% higher C-reactive protein levels than healthy controls (all unadjusted P < 0.001). In separate multivariable linear regression models, body mass index and body fat percentage each positively correlated with levels of F(2)-isoprostanes and C-reactive protein and negatively correlated with levels of protein thiols among patients with CKD after adjusting for age, sex, race, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking history, estimated glomerular filtration rate, total cholesterol, serum albumin, and study site. We conclude that increased adiposity may amplify the oxidative stress and inflammation that accompany moderate to severe CKD. Interventions focused on weight loss may decrease the inflammatory and oxidative burden in CKD, which may ultimately attenuate cardiovascular risk in this population.

  1. Mechanisms Linking Excess Adiposity and Carcinogenesis Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Hernández, Ana I.; Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Frühbeck, Gema

    2014-01-01

    Obesity constitutes one of the most important metabolic diseases being associated to insulin resistance development and increased cardiovascular risk. Association between obesity and cancer has also been well established for several tumor types, such as breast cancer in post-menopausal women, colorectal, and prostate cancer. Cancer is the first death cause in developed countries and the second one in developing countries, with high incidence rates around the world. Furthermore, it has been estimated that 15–20% of all cancer deaths may be attributable to obesity. Tumor growth is regulated by interactions between tumor cells and their tissue microenvironment. In this sense, obesity may lead to cancer development through dysfunctional adipose tissue and altered signaling pathways. In this review, three main pathways relating obesity and cancer development are examined: (i) inflammatory changes leading to macrophage polarization and altered adipokine profile; (ii) insulin resistance development; and (iii) adipose tissue hypoxia. Since obesity and cancer present a high prevalence, the association between these conditions is of great public health significance and studies showing mechanisms by which obesity lead to cancer development and progression are needed to improve prevention and management of these diseases. PMID:24829560

  2. Mechanisms linking excess adiposity and carcinogenesis promotion.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, Ana I; Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Frühbeck, Gema

    2014-01-01

    Obesity constitutes one of the most important metabolic diseases being associated to insulin resistance development and increased cardiovascular risk. Association between obesity and cancer has also been well established for several tumor types, such as breast cancer in post-menopausal women, colorectal, and prostate cancer. Cancer is the first death cause in developed countries and the second one in developing countries, with high incidence rates around the world. Furthermore, it has been estimated that 15-20% of all cancer deaths may be attributable to obesity. Tumor growth is regulated by interactions between tumor cells and their tissue microenvironment. In this sense, obesity may lead to cancer development through dysfunctional adipose tissue and altered signaling pathways. In this review, three main pathways relating obesity and cancer development are examined: (i) inflammatory changes leading to macrophage polarization and altered adipokine profile; (ii) insulin resistance development; and (iii) adipose tissue hypoxia. Since obesity and cancer present a high prevalence, the association between these conditions is of great public health significance and studies showing mechanisms by which obesity lead to cancer development and progression are needed to improve prevention and management of these diseases.

  3. MODULATION OF FOOD REWARD BY ADIPOSITY SIGNALS

    PubMed Central

    Figlewicz, Dianne P.; Naleid, Amy MacDonald; Sipols, Alfred J.

    2007-01-01

    Extensive historical evidence from the drug abuse literature has provided support for the concept that there is functional communication between central nervous system (CNS) circuitries which subserve reward/motivation, and the regulation of energy homeostasis. This concept is substantiated by recent studies that map anatomical pathways, or which demonstrate that hormones and neurotransmitters associated with energy homeostasis regulation can directly modulate reward and motivation behaviors. Studies from our laboratory have focused specifically on the candidate adiposity hormones, insulin and leptin, and show that these hormones can decrease performance in behavioral paradigms that assess the rewarding or motivating properties of food. Additionally we and others have provided evidence that the ventral tegmental area may be one direct target for these effects, and we are currently exploring other potential anatomical targets. Finally, we are beginning to explore the interaction between adiposity signals, chronic maintenance diet of rats, and different types of food rewards to more closely simulate the current food environments of Westernized societies including the U.S. We propose that future studies of food reward should include a more complex environment in the experimental design that takes into account abundance and variety of rewarding foods, psychological stressors, and choices of reward modalities. PMID:17137609

  4. Laser-induced lipolysis on adipose cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solarte, Efrain; Gutierrez, O.; Neira, Rodrigo; Arroyave, J.; Isaza, Carolina; Ramirez, Hugo; Rebolledo, Aldo F.; Criollo, Willian; Ortiz, C.

    2004-10-01

    Recently, a new liposuction technique, using a low-level laser (LLL) device and Ultrawet solution prior to the procedure, demonstrated the movement of fat from the inside to the outside of the adipocyte (Neira et al., 2002). To determine the mechanisms involved, we have performed Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy studies; Light transmittance measurements on adipocyte dilutions; and a study of laser light propagation in adipose tissue. This studies show: 1. Cellular membrane alterations. 2. LLL is capable to reach the deep adipose tissue layer, and 3. The tumescence solution enhances the light propagation by clearing the tissue. MRI studies demonstrated the appearance of fat on laser treated abdominal tissue. Besides, adipocytes were cultivated and irradiated to observe the effects on isolated cells. These last studies show: 1. 635 nm-laser alone is capable of mobilizing cholesterol from the cell membrane; this action is enhanced by the presence of adrenaline and lidocaine. 2. Intracellular fat is released from adipocytes by co joint action of adrenaline, aminophyline and 635 nm-laser. Results are consistent with a laser induced cellular process, which causes fat release from the adipocytes into the intercellular space, besides the modification of the cellular membranes.

  5. Endothelial dysfunction in adipose triglyceride lipase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Schrammel, Astrid; Mussbacher, Marion; Wölkart, Gerald; Stessel, Heike; Pail, Karoline; Winkler, Sarah; Schweiger, Martina; Haemmerle, Guenter; Al Zoughbi, Wael; Höfler, Gerald; Lametschwandtner, Alois; Zechner, Rudolf; Mayer, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Systemic knockout of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the pivotal enzyme of triglyceride lipolysis, results in a murine phenotype that is characterized by progredient cardiac steatosis and severe heart failure. Since cardiac and vascular dysfunction have been closely related in numerous studies we investigated endothelium-dependent and -independent vessel function of ATGL knockout mice. Aortic relaxation studies and Langendorff perfusion experiments of isolated hearts showed that ATGL knockout mice suffer from pronounced micro- and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction. Experiments with agonists directly targeting vascular smooth muscle cells revealed the functional integrity of the smooth muscle cell layer. Loss of vascular reactivity was restored ~ 50% upon treatment of ATGL knockout mice with the PPARα agonist Wy14,643, indicating that this phenomenon is partly a consequence of impaired cardiac contractility. Biochemical analysis revealed that aortic endothelial NO synthase expression and activity were significantly reduced in ATGL deficiency. Enzyme activity was fully restored in ATGL mice treated with the PPARα agonist. Biochemical analysis of perivascular adipose tissue demonstrated that ATGL knockout mice suffer from perivascular inflammatory oxidative stress which occurs independent of cardiac dysfunction and might contribute to vascular defects. Our results reveal a hitherto unrecognized link between disturbed lipid metabolism, obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24657704

  6. Adipose stem cells and skin repair.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae Ho

    2010-06-01

    With the discovery of adipose stem cells (ASCs), 40 years after the identification of bone marrow stem cells, a new era of active stem cell therapy has opened. The abundance of stem cells harvested from adipose tissue enables us to instantly apply primary cells without culture expansion. ASCs are already clinically applied in many other purposes such as cell-enriched lipotransfer, wound healing, skin rejuvenation, scar remodeling and skin tissue engineering. Although cellular mechanism of ASCs is not completely understood, recent researches have disclosed some of their unique functions as mesenchymal stem cells. There have been increasing numbers of scientific reports on the therapeutic effect of ASCs on skin repair, scar remodeling and rejuvenation. Wound healing and scar remodeling are complex, multi-cellular processes that involve coordinated efforts of many cell types and various cytokines. Recent reports showed ASCs as a powerful source of skin regeneration because of their capability to provide not only cellular elements, but also numerous cytokines. Currently, other attractive functions of ASCs in the recovery of extrinsic aging and radiation damage are under active investigation. It seems that autologous ASCs have great promise for applications in repair of skin, rejuvenation of aging skin and aging-related skin lesions. This review will focus on the specific roles of ASCs in skin tissue, especially related with wound healing, radiation injury, scar remodeling, skin rejuvenation and skin engineering.

  7. cGMP and Brown Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Linda S; Larson, Christopher J; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a key mediator in physiological processes such as vascular tone, and its essential involvement in pathways regulating metabolism has been recognized in recent years. Here, we focus on the fundamental role of cGMP in brown adipose tissue (BAT) differentiation and function. In contrast to white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy in the form of lipids, BAT consumes energy stored in lipids to generate heat. This so-called non-shivering thermogenesis takes place in BAT mitochondria, which express the specific uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). The energy combusting properties of BAT render it a promising target in antiobesity strategies in which BAT could burn the surplus energy that has accumulated in obese and overweight individuals. cGMP is generated by guanylyl cyclases upon activation by nitric oxide or natriuretic peptides. It affects several downstream molecules including cGMP-receptor proteins such as cGMP-dependent protein kinase and is degraded by phosphodiesterases. The cGMP pathway contains several signaling molecules that can increase cGMP signaling, resulting in activation and recruitment of brown adipocytes, and hence can enhance the energy combusting features of BAT. In this review we highlight recent results showing the physiological significance of cGMP signaling in BAT, as well as pharmacological options targeting cGMP signaling that bear a high potential to become BAT-centered therapies for the treatment of obesity.

  8. Rare adipose disorders (RADs) masquerading as obesity

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    Rare adipose disorders (RADs) including multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL), lipedema and Dercum's disease (DD) may be misdiagnosed as obesity. Lifestyle changes, such as reduced caloric intake and increased physical activity are standard care for obesity. Although lifestyle changes and bariatric surgery work effectively for the obesity component of RADs, these treatments do not routinely reduce the abnormal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of RADs. RAD SAT likely results from the growth of a brown stem cell population with secondary lymphatic dysfunction in MSL, or by primary vascular and lymphatic dysfunction in lipedema and DD. People with RADs do not lose SAT from caloric limitation and increased energy expenditure alone. In order to improve recognition of RADs apart from obesity, the diagnostic criteria, histology and pathophysiology of RADs are presented and contrasted to familial partial lipodystrophies, acquired partial lipodystrophies and obesity with which they may be confused. Treatment recommendations focus on evidence-based data and include lymphatic decongestive therapy, medications and supplements that support loss of RAD SAT. Associated RAD conditions including depression, anxiety and pain will improve as healthcare providers learn to identify and adopt alternative treatment regimens for the abnormal SAT component of RADs. Effective dietary and exercise regimens are needed in RAD populations to improve quality of life and construct advanced treatment regimens for future generations. PMID:22301856

  9. Subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase gene expression and fatty acid composition in calf- and yearling-fed Angus steers.

    PubMed

    Brooks, M A; Choi, C W; Lunt, D K; Kawachi, H; Smith, S B

    2011-08-01

    We proposed that stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity dictates fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and muscle in beef cattle, regardless of ruminal or hepatic fatty acid hydrogenation or desaturation. Twelve Angus steers were assigned to a calf-fed (CF) group and slaughtered at weaning (8 mo of age; n=4), 12 mo of age (n=4), or 16 mo of age (n=4). Twelve steers were assigned to a yearling-fed (YF) group and slaughtered at 12 mo of age (n=4), 16 mo of age (n=4), and 17.5 mo of age (n=4; 525 kg, market weight). Data were analyzed based on time on the corn-based finishing diet, with terminal age as a covariate, and orthogonal polynomial contrasts were tested on the main effects of treatment group and time on the finishing diet. Fatty acids from duodenal digesta, plasma, liver, LM, and subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue were measured, and SCD gene expression was measured in intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues. In duodenal digesta, palmitic and linoleic acids increased by 100% over the sampling period, α-linolenic acid decreased over the sampling period, and trans-vaccenic acid was greater in YF than in CF steers (all P < 0.01). The proportion of α-linolenic acid decreased over time in all tissues, including liver. The SCD index (ratio of SCD fatty acid products to SCD fatty acid substrates) increased over time in LM and in intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues. The SCD:glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA ratio was virtually undetectable at the initial sampling periods in subcutaneous adipose tissue of YF and CF steers, and it increased over time (P < 0.01). The SCD index and SCD:glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase ratio were greater in intramuscular adipose tissue of CF steers than in that of YF steers. The SCD index did not change over time in liver and decreased over time in duodenal digesta. We conclude that, unlike essential fatty acids, the SFA and MUFA composition of adipose tissue is regulated by adipose

  10. Adipose tissue-organotypic culture system as a promising model for studying adipose tissue biology and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Aoki, Shigehisa; Sonoda, Emiko; Yamasaki, Fumio; Piao, Meihua; Ootani, Akifumi; Yonemitsu, Nobuhisa; Sugihara, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue consists of mature adipocytes, preadipocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), but a culture system for analyzing their cell types within the tissue has not been established. We have recently developed “adipose tissue-organotypic culture system” that maintains unilocular structure, proliferative ability and functions of mature adipocytes for a long term, using three-dimensional collagen gel culture of the tissue fragments. In this system, both preadipocytes and MSCs regenerate actively at the peripheral zone of the fragments. Our method will open up a new way for studying both multiple cell types within adipose tissue and the cell-based mechanisms of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Thus, it seems to be a promising model for investigating adipose tissue biology and regeneration. In this article, we introduce adipose tissue-organotypic culture, and propose two theories regarding the mechanism of tissue regeneration that occurs specifically at peripheral zone of tissue fragments in vitro. PMID:19794899

  11. The effects of calcium channel blocker benidipine and calmodulin antagonist W7 on GDP-binding capacity of brown adipose tissue in mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuh-Min; Lin, Pi-Yao; Chen, Ming-Der

    2009-03-01

    It has been suggested that increased dietary calcium intake can attenuate obesity. Calcium antagonists, such as benidipine, also have been shown to have an anti-obesity effect. However, the mechanism for calcium-related anti-obesity effect has not yet been established. A defective brown adipose tissue thermogenesis has been shown in obese rodents. This study was designed to examine the direct effects of calcium channel blocker benidipine and calmodulin antagonist W7 administration on the adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue taken from the genetically obese mice and their lean controls. The GDP binding to brown-fat cell mitochondria was used as a brown adipose tissue thermogenic index. The results show that benidipine treatment had no marked effect on brown-fat cell GDP-binding capacities in both obese and lean mice. However, GDP-binding capacities were significantly reduced in both obese and lean mice after the W7 administration. The results of this study support the previous finding that benidipine did not have direct thermogenic effect on brown adipose tissue and suggest that the change in intracellular calmodulin availability might contribute to the adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue.

  12. Relations among Adiposity and Insulin Resistance with Flow-Mediated Dilation, Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, and Arterial Stiffness in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Justin R.; Dengel, Donald R.; Jacobs, David R.; Sinaiko, Alan; Kelly, Aaron S.; Steinberger, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the associations of adiposity and insulin resistance with measures of vascular structure and function in children. Study design A cross-sectional study included 252 children (age 15.1±2.4 yrs; body mass index (BMI)-percentile 68.2±26.5%; Tanner 2–5). Measurements of body fat percentage (BF%) were obtained with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and visceral fat (VAT) with computed tomography (CT). Insulin resistance was measured with hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Vascular measurements for endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMD]), vascular structure (carotid intima-media thickness [cIMT]), vascular stiffness (carotid incremental elastic modulus [cIEM]), and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were analyzed by tertiles of adiposity and insulin resistance. Additional analyses with ANCOVA and linear regression, were adjusted for Tanner, sex, race, and family relationship; FMD was also adjusted for baseline artery diameter. Results FMD was positively associated with high adiposity (BMI, BF%, and VAT) (p<0.01 all). Insulin resistance was not associated with FMD. cIMT was significantly, positively related to obesity, VAT, and insulin resistance (p<0.05 all). No differences in cIEM and PWV were observed in relation to adiposity or insulin resistance. Conclusions The findings suggest that adiposity is associated with higher FMD, and insulin resistance and VAT are associated with higher cIMT in children. Further research is needed to clarify the progression of these relations. PMID:26427963

  13. The Associations between Various Ectopic Visceral Adiposity and Body Surface Electrocardiographic Alterations: Potential Differences between Local and Remote Systemic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Po-Ching; Chang, Shun-Chuan; Yun, Chun-Ho; Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Hou, Charles Jia-Yin; Liu, Chia-Yuan; Yang, Fei-Shih; Wu, Tung-Hsin; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Yeh, Hung-I

    2016-01-01

    Background The associations between pericardial adiposity and altered atrial conduction had been demonstrated. However, data comparing differential effects of various body sites visceral adiposity on atrial and ventricular electrocardiographic alterations remains largely unknown. Methods and Results We assessed both peri-cardial fat (PCF) and peri-aortic visceral adiposity (TAT) using dedicated computed tomography (CT) software (Aquarius 3D Workstation, TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA, USA), with anthropometrics including body mass index (BMI) and biochemical data obtained. We further related PCF and TAT data to standardized 12-leads electrocardiogram (ECG), including P and QRS wave morphologies. Among 3,087 study subjects (mean age, 49.6 years; 28% women), we observed a linear association among greater visceral adiposity burden, leftward deviation of P and QRS axes, longer PR interval and widened QRS duration (all p<0.001). These associations became attenuated after accounting for BMI and baseline clinical co-variates, with greater PCF remained independently associated with prolonged QRS duration (β = 0.91 [95% CI: 0.52, 1.31] per 1-SD increase in PCF, p<0.001). Finally, both PCF and TAT showed incremental value in identifying abnormally high PR interval (>200ms, likelihood-ratio: 33.17 to 41.4 & 39.03 for PCF and TAT) and widened QRS duration (>100ms, likelihood-ratio: 55.67 to 65.4 & 61.94 for PCF and TAT, all X2 p<0.05) when superimposed on age and BMI. Conclusion We show in our data greater visceral fat burden may have differential associations on several body surface electrocardiographic parameters. Compared to remote adiposity, those surrounding the heart tissue demonstrated greater influences on altered cardiac activation or conduction, indicating a possible local biological effect. PMID:27391045

  14. Adipose Tissue Promotes a Serum Cytokine Profile Related to Lower Insulin Sensitivity after Chronic Central Leptin Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Canelles, Sandra; Perianes-Cachero, Arancha; Arilla-Ferreiro, Eduardo; Argente, Jesús; Barrios, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is an inflammatory state characterized by an augment in circulating inflammatory factors. Leptin may modulate the synthesis of these factors by white adipose tissue decreasing insulin sensitivity. We have examined the effect of chronic central administration of leptin on circulating levels of cytokines and the possible relationship with cytokine expression and protein content as well as with leptin and insulin signaling in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlation between circulating levels of cytokines and peripheral insulin resistance. We studied 18 male Wistar rats divided into controls (C), those treated icv for 14 days with a daily dose of 12 μg of leptin (L) and a pair-fed group (PF) that received the same food amount consumed by the leptin group. Serum leptin and insulin were measured by ELISA, mRNA levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by real time PCR and serum and adipose tissue levels of these cytokines by multiplexed bead immunoassay. Serum leptin, IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and HOMA-IR were increased in L and TNF-α was decreased in PF and L. Serum leptin and IL-2 levels correlate positively with HOMA-IR index and negatively with serum glucose levels during an ip insulin tolerance test. In L, an increase in mRNA levels of IL-2 was found in both adipose depots and IFN-γ only in visceral tissue. Activation of leptin signaling was increased and insulin signaling decreased in subcutaneous fat of L. In conclusion, leptin mediates the production of inflammatory cytokines by adipose tissue independent of its effects on food intake, decreasing insulin sensitivity. PMID:23056516

  15. Obesity Determines the Immunophenotypic Profile and Functional Characteristics of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Pachón-Peña, Gisela; Serena, Carolina; Ejarque, Miriam; Petriz, Jordi; Duran, Xevi; Oliva-Olivera, W.; Simó, Rafael; Tinahones, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a major source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which possess a variety of properties that make them ideal candidates for regenerative and immunomodulatory therapies. Here, we compared the immunophenotypic profile of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) from lean and obese individuals, and explored its relationship with the apparent altered plasticity of hASCs. We also hypothesized that persistent hypoxia treatment of cultured hASCs may be necessary but not sufficient to drive significant changes in mature adipocytes. hASCs were obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy, adult, female donors undergoing abdominal plastic surgery: lean (n = 8; body mass index [BMI]: 23 ± 1 kg/m2) and obese (n = 8; BMI: 35 ± 5 kg/m2). Cell surface marker expression, proliferation and migration capacity, and adipogenic differentiation potential of cultured hASCs at two different oxygen conditions were studied. Compared with lean-derived hASCs, obese-derived hASCs demonstrated increased proliferation and migration capacity but decreased lipid droplet accumulation, correlating with a higher expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-II and cluster of differentiation (CD) 106 and lower expression of CD29. Of interest, adipogenic differentiation modified CD106, CD49b, HLA-ABC surface protein expression, which was dependent on the donor’s BMI. Additionally, low oxygen tension increased proliferation and migration of lean but not obese hASCs, which correlated with an altered CD36 and CD49b immunophenotypic profile. In summary, the differences observed in proliferation, migration, and differentiation capacity in obese hASCs occurred in parallel with changes in cell surface markers, both under basal conditions and during differentiation. Therefore, obesity is an important determinant of stem cell function independent of oxygen tension. Significance The obesity-related hypoxic environment may have latent effects on human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal

  16. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross

  17. Adipose Recruitment and Activation of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Fuel Metaflammation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amrit Raj; Bhattacharya, Roopkatha; Bhattacharya, Shamik; Nargis, Titli; Rahaman, Oindrila; Duttagupta, Pritam; Raychaudhuri, Deblina; Liu, Chinky Shiu Chen; Roy, Shounak; Ghosh, Parasar; Khanna, Shashi; Chaudhuri, Tamonas; Tantia, Om; Haak, Stefan; Bandyopadhyay, Santu; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chakrabarti, Partha; Ganguly, Dipyaman

    2016-11-01

    In obese individuals, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is the seat of chronic low-grade inflammation (metaflammation), but the mechanistic link between increased adiposity and metaflammation largely remains unclear. In obese individuals, deregulation of a specific adipokine, chemerin, contributes to innate initiation of metaflammation by recruiting circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) into VAT through chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1). Adipose tissue-derived high-mobility group B1 (HMGB1) protein activates Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in the adipose-recruited pDCs by transporting extracellular DNA through receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and induces production of type I interferons (IFNs). Type I IFNs in turn help in proinflammatory polarization of adipose-resident macrophages. IFN signature gene expression in VAT correlates with both adipose tissue and systemic insulin resistance (IR) in obese individuals, which is represented by ADIPO-IR and HOMA2-IR, respectively, and defines two subgroups with different susceptibility to IR. Thus, this study reveals a pathway that drives adipose tissue inflammation and consequent IR in obesity.

  18. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle blood flow during mental stress

    SciTech Connect

    Linde, B.; Hjemdahl, P.; Freyschuss, U.; Juhlin-Dannfelt, A.

    1989-01-01

    Mental stress (a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)) increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilation in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation.

  19. Brown adipose tissue (Na+-K+)-ATPase activity and substrate uptake during the breeding cycle of rats.

    PubMed

    Zamora, F; Arola, L

    1989-05-01

    Brown adipose tissue (Na+-K+)-ATPase activity, in vitro glucose and 2-aminoisobutyric acid uptake, as well as mitochondrial GDP-binding and succinate dehydrogenase activity were determined in order to study the relationship between these parameters and the thermogenic status. Analysis were carried out on control animal, pregnant rats, dams and pups during lactation, GDP-binding, (Na+-K+)-ATPase and glucose uptake were found to be decreased in brown adipose tissue from pregnant rats and dams, and increased in pups, 2-aminoisobutyric acid uptake was only increased in pups, but no changes were observed in the other experimental groups tested. GDP-binding and (Na+-K+)-ATPase activity showed a parallelism which suggests that the enzyme is a good index of thermogenic status of the animal.

  20. Brown Adipose Tissue and Browning Agents: Irisin and FGF21 in the Development of Obesity in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pyrżak, B; Demkow, U; Kucharska, A M

    2015-01-01

    In the pediatric population, especially in early infancy, the activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the highest. Further in life BAT is more active in individuals with a lower body mass index and one can expect that BAT is protective against childhood obesity. The development of BAT throughout the whole life can be regulated by genetic, endocrine, and environmental factors. Three distinct adipose depots have been identified: white, brown, and beige adipocytes. The process by which BAT can become beige is still unclear and is an area of intensive research. The "browning agents" increase energy expenditure through the production of heat. Numerous factors known as "browning agents" have currently been described. In humans, recent studies justify a notion of a role of novel myokines: irisin and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in the metabolism and development of obesity. This review describes a possible role of irisin and FGF21 in the pathogenesis of obesity in children.

  1. Total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, N.; Harsas, W.; Marolt, R.S.; Morton, M.; Pollack, J.K.

    1988-12-01

    As far as the authors could ascertain only 4 well-documented analytical studies have been carried out in Australia determining the total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue. The latest of these studies was published over 16 years ago. Therefore it is timely and important to re-examine the total DDT and dieldrin concentration within the adipose tissue of the Australian population. The present investigation has analyzed 290 samples of human adipose tissue obtained from Westmead Hospital situated in an outer suburb of Sydney, New South Wales for their content of total DDT and dieldrin.

  2. An inherited mild middle-aged adiposity in wild mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, M. E.; MacSwiney, F. M.

    1979-01-01

    In a warfarin-resistant population of wild mice reared in the laboratory, a dominant gene for adiposity, Ad, was found to segregate. The onset of obesity is at 4--6 months, and adipose mice suffer from hyperinsulinaemia; the sexes differ in penetrance, males having greater penetrance then females. Linkage backcrosses show the gene to be situated on chromosome 7 with about 25% recombination with the closely linked warfarin-resistance genes War, and frizzy, fr. The finding of adipose in two other wild populations also carrying War is discussed as an ecological and physiological problem. PMID:429792

  3. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value.

  4. Laser light propagation in adipose tissue and laser effects on adipose cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solarte, Efraín; Rebolledo, Aldo; Gutierrez, Oscar; Criollo, William; Neira, Rodrigo; Arroyave, José; Ramírez, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    Recently Neira et al. have presented a new liposuction technique that demonstrated the movement of fat from inside to outside of the cell, using a low-level laser device during a liposuction procedure with Ultrawet solution. The clinical observations, allowed this new surgical development, started a set of physical, histological and pharmacological studies aimed to determine the mechanisms involved in the observed fat mobilization concomitant to external laser application in liposuction procedures. Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy, studies show that the cellular arrangement of normal adipose tissue changes when laser light from a diode laser: 10 mW, 635 nm is applied. Laser exposures longer than 6 minutes cause the total destruction of the adipocyte panicles. Detailed observation of the adipose cells show that by short irradiation times (less than four minutes) the cell membrane exhibits dark zones, that collapse by longer laser exposures. Optical measurements show that effective penetration length depends on the laser intensity. Moreover, the light scattering is enhanced by diffraction and subsequent interference effects, and the tumescent solution produces a clearing of the tissue optical medium. Finally, isolate adipose cell observation show that fat release from adipocytes is a concomitant effect between the tumescent solution (adrenaline) and laser light, revealing a synergism which conduces to the aperture, and maybe the disruption, of the cell membrane. All these studies were consistent with a laser induced cellular process, which causes fat release from inside the adipocytes into the intercellular space, besides a strong modification of the cellular membranes.

  5. Dietary soy protein improves adipose tissue dysfunction by modulating parameters related with oxidative stress in dyslipidemic insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Illesca, Paola G; Álvarez, Silvina M; Selenscig, Dante A; Ferreira, María Del R; Giménez, María S; Lombardo, Yolanda B; D'Alessandro, María E

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigates the benefits of the dietary intake of soy protein on adipose tissue dysfunction in a rat model that mimics several aspects of the human metabolic syndrome. Wistar rats were fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD) for 4 months. After that, half of the animals continued with SRD until month 8 while in the other half, casein protein was replaced by isolated soy protein for 4 months (SRD-S). A reference group consumed a control diet all the time. In adipose tissue we determined: i) the activities of antioxidant enzymes, gene expression of Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione redox state ii) the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), ROS levels and the gene expression of NAD(P)H oxidase iii) the expression of the nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor-2 (Nrf2). Besides, adiposity visceral index, insulin sensitivity, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in plasma were determined. Compared with the SRD-fed rats, the animals fed a SRD-S showed: activity normalization of SOD and glutathione reductase, improvement of mRNA SOD and normalization of mRNA GPx without changes in the expression of the Nrf2, and improvement of glutathione redox state. These results were accompanied by a normalization of XO activity and improvement of both the ROS production as well as TNF-α levels in plasma. Besides, adipocyte size distribution, adiposity visceral index and insulin sensitivity improved. The results suggest that soy protein can be a complementary nutrient for treating some signs of the metabolic syndrome.

  6. MC3R gene polymorphisms are associated with early childhood adiposity gain and infant appetite in an Asian population*

    PubMed Central

    Tint, M. T.; Teh, A. L.; Holbrook, J. D.; Quah, P. L.; Chong, M. F.‐F.; Lin, X.; Soh, S. E.; Saw, S.‐M.; Kwek, K.; Godfrey, K. M.; Gluckman, P. D.; Chong, Y. S.; Lek, N.; Yap, F.; Lee, Y. S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Polymorphic variants within human melanocortin‐3 receptor gene (MC3R) gene have been associated with obesity. However, its influence on infancy and early childhood adiposity has not been reported before. Objectives We assessed associations between genotype at polymorphic sites within MC3R with early childhood adiposity and interaction with early childhood appetitive traits. Methods We studied 1090 singletons in an Asian mother–offspring cohort genotyped for MC3R and in a subgroup (n = 422) who had completed Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaires (CEBQ) at 12 months. Children were followed from birth to 48 months, and up to 10 measurements of body mass index and five measures of triceps and subscapular skin‐folds were obtained. Results Independent of potential confounders, each additional MC3R minor allele copy was associated with greater body mass index standard deviation score [B{95% confidence interval}: 0.004 units/month {0.001,0.007}; p = 0.007], triceps [0.009 mm/month {0.001,0.02}; p = 0.021] and subscapular skin‐fold [0.008 mm/month {0.002,0.01}; p = 0.011] gain velocity in the first 48 months. Each additional MC3R minor allele copy was also associated with increased odds of overweight [odds ratio {95% confidence interval}: 1.48{1.17–1.88}] and obesity [1.58{1.10–2.28}] in the first 48 months. Every additional copy of MC3R minor allele was positively associated with ‘slowness‐in‐eating’ appetitive trait [0.24{0.06,0.39}, p = 0.006]; however, the relationship between ‘slowness‐in‐eating’ with adiposity gain was not statistically significant. Conclusions Our findings support the role of MC3R genetic variants in adiposity gain during early childhood. PMID:26663875

  7. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  8. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    2001-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  9. Isoliquiritigenin Attenuates Adipose Tissue Inflammation in vitro and Adipose Tissue Fibrosis through Inhibition of Innate Immune Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yasuharu; Nagai, Yoshinori; Honda, Hiroe; Okamoto, Naoki; Yamamoto, Seiji; Hamashima, Takeru; Ishii, Yoko; Tanaka, Miyako; Suganami, Takayoshi; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Miyake, Kensuke; Takatsu, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Isoliquiritigenin (ILG) is a flavonoid derived from Glycyrrhiza uralensis and potently suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome activation resulting in the improvement of diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation. However, whether ILG affects other pathways besides the inflammasome in adipose tissue inflammation is unknown. We here show that ILG suppresses adipose tissue inflammation by affecting the paracrine loop containing saturated fatty acids and TNF-α by using a co-culture composed of adipocytes and macrophages. ILG suppressed inflammatory changes induced by the co-culture through inhibition of NF-κB activation. This effect was independent of either inhibition of inflammasome activation or activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Moreover, ILG suppressed TNF-α-induced activation of adipocytes, coincident with inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation. Additionally, TNF-α-mediated inhibition of Akt phosphorylation under insulin signaling was alleviated by ILG in adipocytes. ILG suppressed palmitic acid-induced activation of macrophages, with decreasing the level of phosphorylated Jnk expression. Intriguingly, ILG improved high fat diet-induced fibrosis in adipose tissue in vivo. Finally, ILG inhibited TLR4- or Mincle-stimulated expression of fibrosis-related genes in stromal vascular fraction from obese adipose tissue and macrophages in vitro. Thus, ILG can suppress adipose tissue inflammation by both inflammasome-dependent and -independent manners and attenuate adipose tissue fibrosis by targeting innate immune sensors. PMID:26975571

  10. Rorα deficiency and decreased adiposity are associated with induction of thermogenic gene expression in subcutaneous white adipose and brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Lau, Patrick; Tuong, Zewen K; Wang, Shu-Ching; Fitzsimmons, Rebecca L; Goode, Joel M; Thomas, Gethin P; Cowin, Gary J; Pearen, Michael A; Mardon, Karine; Stow, Jennifer L; Muscat, George E O

    2015-01-15

    The Rar-related orphan receptor-α (Rorα) is a nuclear receptor that regulates adiposity and is a potential regulator of energy homeostasis. We have demonstrated that the Rorα-deficient staggerer (sg/sg) mice display a lean and obesity-resistant phenotype. Adaptive Ucp1-dependent thermogenesis in beige/brite and brown adipose tissue serves as a mechanism to increase energy expenditure and resist obesity. DEXA and MRI analysis demonstrated significantly decreased total fat mass and fat/lean mass tissue ratio in male chow-fed sg/sg mice relative to wt mice. In addition, we observed increased Ucp1 expression in brown adipose and subcutaneous white adipose tissue but not in visceral adipose tissue from Rorα-deficient mice. Moreover, this was associated with significant increases in the expression of the mRNAs encoding the thermogenic genes (i.e., markers of brown and beige adipose) Pparα, Errα, Dio2, Acot11/Bfit, Cpt1β, and Cidea in the subcutaneous adipose in the sg/sg relative to WT mice. These changes in thermogenic gene expression involved the significantly increased expression of the (cell-fate controlling) histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 1 (Ehmt1), which stabilizes the Prdm16 transcriptional complex. Moreover, primary brown adipocytes from sg/sg mice displayed a higher metabolic rate, and further analysis was consistent with increased uncoupling. Finally, core body temperature analysis and infrared thermography demonstrated that the sg/sg mice maintained greater thermal control and cold tolerance relative to the WT littermates. We suggest that enhanced Ucp1 and thermogenic gene expression/activity may be an important contributor to the lean, obesity-resistant phenotype in Rorα-deficient mice.

  11. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible.

  12. Serially Transplanted Nonpericytic CD146(-) Adipose Stromal/Stem Cells in Silk Bioscaffolds Regenerate Adipose Tissue In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Trivia P; Bowles, Annie; Lee, Stephen; Abbott, Rosalyn; Tucker, Hugh A; Kaplan, David; Wang, Mei; Strong, Amy; Brown, Quincy; He, Jibao; Bunnell, Bruce A; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2016-04-01

    Progenitors derived from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of white adipose tissue (WAT) possess the ability to form clonal populations and differentiate along multiple lineage pathways. However, the literature continues to vacillate between defining adipocyte progenitors as "stromal" or "stem" cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that a nonpericytic subpopulation of adipose stromal cells, which possess the phenotype, CD45(-) /CD31(-) /CD146(-) /CD34(+) , are mesenchymal, and suggest this may be an endogenous progenitor subpopulation within adipose tissue. We hypothesized that an adipose progenitor could be sorted based on the expression of CD146, CD34, and/or CD29 and when implanted in vivo these cells can persist, proliferate, and regenerate a functional fat pad over serial transplants. SVF cells and culture expanded adipose stromal/stem cells (ASC) ubiquitously expressing the green fluorescent protein transgene (GFP-Tg) were fractionated by flow cytometry. Both freshly isolated SVF and culture expanded ASC were seeded in three-dimensional silk scaffolds, implanted subcutaneously in wild-type hosts, and serially transplanted. Six-week WAT constructs were removed and evaluated for the presence of GFP-Tg adipocytes and stem cells. Flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and confocal microscopy demonstrated GFP-Tg cell persistence, proliferation, and expansion, respectively. Glycerol secretion and glucose uptake assays revealed GFP-Tg adipose was metabolically functional. Constructs seeded with GFP-Tg SVF cells or GFP-Tg ASC exhibited higher SVF yields from digested tissue, and higher construct weights, compared to nonseeded controls. Constructs derived from CD146(-) CD34(+) -enriched GFP-Tg ASC populations exhibited higher hemoglobin saturation, and higher frequency of GFP-Tg cells than unsorted or CD29(+) GFP-Tg ASC counterparts. These data demonstrated successful serial transplantation of nonpericytic adipose-derived progenitors that can

  13. Regulation of adipose triglyceride lipase by rosiglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Liu, L.-F.; Purushotham, A.; Wendel, A. A.; Koba, K.; DeIuliis, J.; Lee, K.; Belury, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To elucidate the mechanism by which rosiglitazone regulates adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Methods Male C57Bl/6 mice were treated with rosiglitazone daily (10 mg/kg body weight), and adipose tissues were weighed and preserved for mRNA and protein analysis of ATGL. In parallel, preadipocyte (3T3-L1) cells were differentiated with insulin/dexamethasone/3-isobutyl-1-methlxanthine cocktail or rosiglitazone, and ATGL levels were measured with real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results Rosiglitazone concomitantly promoted differentiation of pre-adipocytes to functional adipocytes and induced mRNA levels of ATGL. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) antagonist bisphenol A diglycidyl ether significantly abrogated the induction of mRNA, but not protein levels of ATGL by rosiglitazone in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the presence of epinephrine rosiglitazone stimulated free fatty acid release and increased diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT-1) mRNA suggest that ATGL and DGAT-1 may be cooperatively involved in rosiglitazone-stimulated triglyceride hydrolysis and fatty acid re-esterification in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with rosiglitazone or insulin did not appear to alter localization of ATGL staining surrounding lipid droplets. Finally, we found that rosiglitazone increased ATGL mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in the presence of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, suggesting that rosiglitazone regulation of ATGL occurs at the transcriptional level. Conclusions Rosiglitazone directly regulates transcription of ATGL, likely through a PPARγ-mediated mechanism. PMID:18643838

  14. Brown adipose tissue in cetacean blubber.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Ohtsuki, Hirofumi; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Amou, Kento; Sato, Ryo; Doi, Satoru; Kobayashi, Sara; Matsuda, Ayaka; Sugiyama, Makoto; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsuishi, Takashi; Terasawa, Fumio; Shindo, Junji; Endo, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall's and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool waters during

  15. Oestrone sulphate, adipose tissue, and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, R A; Thomson, M L; Killen, E

    1985-01-01

    Oestrone sulphate, the oestrogen in highest concentration in the plasma, may play a role in the induction and growth of breast cancers. By enzymolysis and radioimmunoassay, oestrone sulphate concentrations were measured in 3 biological fluids. High concentrations of the conjugate (up to 775 nmol/l) were detected in breast cyst fluids from some premenopausal women, the concentrations in blood plasma (0.91-4.45 nmol/l) being much lower. Concentrations in the plasmas from postmenopausal women with (0.23-4.63 nmol/l) or without (0.18-1.27 nmol/l) breast cancer were still lower. Oestrone sulphate concentration in cow's milk or cream (0.49-0.67 nmol/l) was also low: dietary intake in these fluids is probably of little consequence. The capacity of breast tissues for hydrolysis of oestrone sulphate was examined in two ways: In tissue slices incubated with 85 pM (3H) oestrone sulphate solution at 37 degrees C, cancers (131-412 fmol/g tissue/hr) and adipose tissues (23-132 fmol/g tissue/hr) hydrolysed significantly more sulphate than did benign tissues (1-36 fmol/g tissue/hr). In tissue homogenates incubated with 5-25 microM [3H] oestrone sulphate at 37 degrees much higher capacities for hydrolysis (nmol/g tissue/hr) were demonstrated with a Km of 2-16.5 microM: cancers (34-394) and benign tissues (9-485) had significantly higher sulphatase activities than adipose tissues (9-39). On a protein basis, however, the sulphatase activities in the 3 tissues were comparable. It is concluded that oestrone sulphate is present in breast cysts and blood plasma and that in vitro, the conjugated hormone can be hydrolysed by breast tissues. The biological significance of these findings in vivo remains to be established.

  16. Brown Adipose Tissue in Cetacean Blubber

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Ohtsuki, Hirofumi; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Amou, Kento; Sato, Ryo; Doi, Satoru; Kobayashi, Sara; Matsuda, Ayaka; Sugiyama, Makoto; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsuishi, Takashi; Terasawa, Fumio; Shindo, Junji; Endo, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall’s and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool waters during

  17. Automating Index Preparation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    Automating Index Preparation* Pehong Chent Michael A. Harrison Computer Science Division University of CaliforniaI Berkeley, CA 94720 March 23, 1987...Abstract Index preparation is a tedious and time-consuming task. In this paper we indicate * how the indexing process can be automated in a way which...identified and analyzed. Specifically, we describe a framework for placing index commands in the document and a general purpose index processor which

  18. [Relationship among prop phenotype, body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and food intake].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Nina Del Rocío; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge Alfonso; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Angulo-Guerrero, Ofelia

    2014-01-01

    The PROP phenotype (6-n-propylthiouracil) has been proposed as indicator of body mass index, adiposity and food intake. This relationship among variables is contradictory. No correlation has been found among the PROP phenotype, body indicators and energy consumption in some studies. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship among PROP taster status, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total body fat (TBF) and food intake. The PROP taster status was established using two scales: the nine-point scale and the general labeled magnitude scale. Dietary habits of participants were recorded online during 35 days. The classification by PROP phenotype varied according to the scale. No significant differences were observed between PROP tasters and PROP non-tasters, with both scales, in body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and energy and macronutrient intake. The PROP phenotype was not an indicator factor of body weight, adiposity and energy and macronutrients consumption in young adults.

  19. Lessons learned from implementation of a demonstration program to reduce the burden of anemia and hookworm in women in Yen Bai Province, Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Phuc, Tran Q; Mihrshahi, Seema; Casey, Gerard J; Phu, Luong B; Tien, Nong T; Caruana, Sonia R; Thach, Tran D; Montresor, Antonio; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2009-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency, anemia and hookworm disease are important public health problems for women of reproductive age living in developing countries and affect the health of newborns and infants. Iron supplementation and deworming treatment are effective in addressing these problems in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Daily iron supplementation and deworming after the first trimester is recommended for pregnant women although these programs usually do not operate efficiently or effectively. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and regular deworming for non-pregnant women may be a viable approach for improving iron status and preventing anemia during the reproductive years. Addressing these diseases at a population level before women become pregnant could significantly improve women's health before and during pregnancy, as well as their infants' growth and development. Methods and Results This paper describes the major processes undertaken in a demonstration intervention of preventive weekly iron-folic acid supplementation with regular deworming for all 52,000 women aged 15–45 years in two districts of Yen Bai province, in northern Viet Nam. The intervention strategy included extensive consultation with community leaders and village, commune, district and provincial health staff, and training for village health workers. Distribution of the drugs was integrated with the existing health service infrastructure and the village health workers were the direct point of contact with women. Iron-folic acid tablets and deworming treatment were provided free of charge from May 2006. An independent Vietnamese NGO was commissioned to evaluate compliance and identify potential problems. The program resulted in effective distribution of iron-folic acid tablets and deworming treatment to all villages in the target districts, with full or partial compliance of 85%. Conclusion Training for health staff, the strong commitment of all partners and the use of appropriate

  20. Validation of Anthropometric Indices of Adiposity against Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging – A Study within the German European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Wald, Diana; Hüsing, Anika; Teucher, Birgit; Wendt, Andrea; Delorme, Stefan; Dinkel, Julien; Vigl, Matthaeus; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Feller, Silke; Hierholzer, Johannes; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Background In epidemiological studies, measures of body fat generally are obtained through anthropometric indices such as the body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and hip circumferences (HC). Such indices, however, can only provide estimates of a person’s true body fat content, overall or by adipose compartment, and may have limited accuracy, especially for the visceral adipose compartment (VAT). Objective To determine the extent to which different body adipose tissue compartments are adequately predicted by anthropometry, and to identify anthropometric measures alone, or in combination to predict overall adiposity and specific adipose tissue compartments, independently of age and body size (height). Methods In a sub-study of 1,192 participants of the German EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohorts, whole-body MRI was performed to determine adipose and muscle tissue compartments. Additional anthropometric measurements of BMI, WC and HC were taken. Results After adjusting for age and height, BMI, WC and HC were better predictors of total body volume (TBV), total adipose tissue (TAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) than for VAT, coronary adipose tissue (CAT) and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT). In both sexes, BMI was the best predictor for TBV (men: r = 0.72 [0.68–0.76], women: r = 0.80 [0.77–0.83]) and SMT (men: r = 0.52 [0.45–0.57], women: r = 0.48 [0.41–0.54]). WC was the best predictor variable for TAT (r = 0.48 [0.41–0.54]), VAT (r = 0.44 [0.37–0.50]) and CAT (r = 0.34 [0.26–0.41]) (men), and for VAT (r = 0.42 [0.35–0.49]) and CAT (r = 0.29 [0.22–0.37]) (women). BMI was the best predictor for TAT (r = 0.49 [0.43–0.55]) (women). HC was the best predictor for SAT (men (r = 0.39 [0.32–0.45]) and women (r = 0.52 [0.46–0.58])). Conclusions Especially the volumes of internal body fat compartments are poorly predicted by anthropometry. A possible implication

  1. Adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysfunction: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Tam, Charmaine S; Redman, Leanne M

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is characterized by a state of chronic low-grade inflammation due to increased immune cells, specifically infiltrated macrophages into adipose tissue, which in turn secrete a range of proinflammatory mediators. This nonselective low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue is systemic in nature and can impair insulin signaling pathways, thus, increasing the risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an update on clinical studies examining the role of adipose tissue in the development of obesity-associated complications in humans. We will discuss adipose tissue inflammation during different scenarios of energy imbalance and metabolic dysfunction including obesity and overfeeding, weight loss by calorie restriction or bariatric surgery, and conditions of insulin resistance (diabetes, polycystic ovarian syndrome).

  2. Non-invasive assessments of adipose tissue metabolism in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rosalyn D.; Borowsky, Francis E.; Quinn, Kyle P.; Bernstein, David L.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineering is a diverse area of research where the developed tissues can be used to study normal adipose tissue functions, create disease models in vitro, and replace soft tissue defects in vivo. Increasing attention has been focused on the highly specialized metabolic pathways that regulate energy storage and release in adipose tissues which affect local and systemic outcomes. Non-invasive, dynamic measurement systems are useful to track these metabolic pathways in the same tissue model over time to evaluate long term cell growth, differentiation, and development within tissue engineering constructs. This approach reduces costs and time in comparison to more traditional destructive methods such as biochemical and immunochemistry assays and proteomics assessments. Towards this goal, this review will focus on important metabolic functions of adipose tissues and strategies to evaluate them with noninvasive in vitro methods. Current non-invasive methods, such as measuring key metabolic markers and endogenous contrast imaging will be explored. PMID:26399988

  3. Adipose-derived stem cells for periodontal tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Morikuni; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells can effectively regenerate destroyed periodontal tissue. Because periodontal tissues are complex, mesenchymal stem cells that can differentiate into many tissue types would aid periodontal tissue regeneration. Indeed, periodontal tissue regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue or bone marrow has been performed in experimental animal models, such as rat, canine, swine, and monkey. We have shown that rat periodontal tissue can be regenerated with adipose-derived stem cells. Adipose tissue contains a large number of stromal cells and is relatively easy to obtain in large quantities, and thus constitutes a very convenient stromal cell source. In this chapter, we introduce a rat periodontal tissue regeneration model using adipose-derived stem cells.

  4. Metabolic syndrome pathophysiology: the role of adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several physiopathological explanations for the metabolic syndrome have been proposed involving insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and ectopic fat accumulation following adipose tissue saturation. However, current concepts create several paradoxes, including limited cardiovascular risk reducti...

  5. Cell Supermarket: Adipose Tissue as a Source of Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, M.V.; Wei, S.; Duarte, M.; Du, M.; Jiang, Z.; Hausman, G.J.; Bergen, W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is derived from numerous sources, and in recent years this tissue has been shown to provide numerous cells from what seemingly was a population of homogeneous adipocytes. Considering the types of cells that adipose tissue-derived cells may form, these cells may be useful in a variety of clinical and scientific applications. The focus of this paper is to reflect on this area of research and to provide a list of potential (future) research areas. PMID:25031654

  6. SFRP2 Is Associated with Increased Adiposity and VEGF Expression

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Rachel K.; Bujalska, Iwona J.; Hassan-Smith, Zaki K.; Hazlehurst, Jonathan M.; Foucault, Danielle R.; Stewart, Paul M.; Tomlinson, Jeremy W.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to assess depot-specific expression and secretion of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) by adipose tissue and its effect on adipocyte biology. We measured serum sFRP2 concentrations in 106 patients in vivo to explore its relationship to fat mass, glycaemia and insulin resistance. Methods Expression of sFRP2 in mouse and human tissues was assessed using polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Western blot confirmed secretion of sFRP2 by adipose tissue into cell culture medium. Effects of recombinant sFRP2 on lipogenesis and preadipocyte proliferation were measured. Preadipocyte expression of the angiogenic genes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells 3 (NFATC3) was measured after recombinant sFRP2 exposure. Complementary clinical studies correlating human serum sFRP2 with age, gender, adiposity and insulin secretion were also performed. Results sFRP2 messenger RNA (mRNA) was expressed in mouse and human adipose tissue. In humans, sFRP2 mRNA expression was 4.2-fold higher in omental than subcutaneous adipose. Omental adipose tissue secreted 63% more sFRP2 protein than subcutaneous. Treatment with recombinant sFRP2 did not impact on lipogenesis or preadipocyte proliferation but was associated with increased VEGF mRNA expression. In human subjects, circulating insulin levels positively correlated with serum sFRP2, and levels were higher in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance (34.2ng/ml) compared to controls (29.5ng/ml). A positive correlation between sFRP2 and BMI was also observed. Conclusions Circulating sFRP2 is associated with adipose tissue mass and has a potential role to drive adipose angiogenesis through enhanced VEGF expression. PMID:27685706

  7. Actigraphy Measured Sleep Indices and Adiposity: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie, Rachel P.; Redline, Susan; Bertoni, Alain G.; Chen, Xiaoli; Ouyang, Pamela; Szklo, Moyses; Lutsey, Pamela L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the cross-sectional relationship between objectively measured sleep characteristics and multiple indices of adiposity in racially/ethnically diverse older adults within the MESA Sleep study (n = 2,146). Methods: 7-day actigraphy was used to assess sleep duration, sleep efficiency, and night-to-night variability. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and total body fat were modeled continuously and according to obesity cut-points. Models were adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables. Results: Participants who slept less than 6 hours a night had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, and body fat relative to those who slept 7–8 hours. Those who slept less than 5 hours had a 16% higher prevalence of general obesity (BMI ≥ 30 vs. < 25 kg/m2) (95% [CI]: 0.08–0.24) and a 9% higher prevalence of abdominal obesity (waist circumference: women ≥ 88 centimeters, men ≥ 102 centimeters; 95% CI: 0.03–0.16) compared to those who slept 7–8 hours. Results were similar for sleep efficiency and night-to-night sleep variability. Conclusions: Among an older multi-ethnic cohort, we found robust associations across multiple indices of sleep and adiposity. Targeting sleep characteristics may be of benefit in obesity interventions, but more research is needed to rule out reverse causality. Citation: Ogilvie RP, Redline S, Bertoni AG, Chen X, Ouyang P, Szklo M, Lutsey PL. Actigraphy measured sleep indices and adiposity: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). SLEEP 2016;39(9):1701–1708. PMID:27306270

  8. [Adiposity and fat distribution in preschool children from low socioeconomic levels in Caracas].

    PubMed

    Pérez, B M; Vásquez, M; Landaeta-Jiménez, M; Rámirez, G; Ledezma, T

    1997-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that body fat distribution in adults is associated with chronical nontransmissible diseases, less is known during the growing years. The current study was undertaken to explore the relationship between level of fatness, fat patterning and some socioenvironmental variables in a group of 449 children aged 3 to 6, living in Caracas, who belong to the poorest Venezuelan socio-economic stratum. Data was analyzed taking nutritional status (weight-for-age), an index of socioeconomic conditions (ICSA), sex and age, as control variables. Using a multivariate analysis we derived first, two groups of households (G1 and G2) as determined by socioeconomic variables, to which principal component analysis was applied to elicited fatness and relative fat patterning through six skinfolds. First component identify level of adiposity, second extremity/trunk fatness, and third upper/lower pattern. Comparison of normal children with those of low weight-for-age showed differences in adiposity and in the upper/lower patterning as detected by the skinfolds involved in the differences: subscapular (-0.53) and supraspinale (0.32) in children with low weight-for-age; triceps (-0.46) and thigh (0.29) in those classified as normal. We found that gender, nutritional condition, environmental variables and age, were significant predictors of the differences in adiposity level; while age and households conditions, appear to be related to upper/lower patterning. The data equally suggests that body fat is more centrally distributed in boys with low weight-for-age. Since these patterns are indicators of risk in the ongoing years, we call tha attention about environmental circumstances.

  9. Relation between leukocyte count, adiposity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in pubertal adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tenório, Thiago Ricardo dos Santos; Farah, Breno Quintella; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Botero, João Paulo; Brito, Daniel Calado; de Moura, Patrícia Muniz Mendes Freire; do Prado, Wagner Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the total and differential leukocyte count in obese and normal-weight adolescents, and to verify their possible relations with cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity indicators. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted with 139 adolescents (107 obese and 32 normal weight) aged between 13 and 18 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by direct gas analysis during an incremental treadmill test. Total leukocytes and subsets were estimated by flow cytometry. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The t-test for independent samples was used for comparison between groups. The relation between leukocytes, cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity indicators was verified by Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regression (adjusted for age and body mass index) tests. Results Obese adolescents had higher leukocyte (8.12±2.36u/L x 103; p=0.001), neutrophil (4.33±1.86u/L x 103; p=0.002), and monocyte (0.70±0.22u/L x 103; p=0.002) counts compared to the levels of normal weight subjects. After the necessary adjustments, cardiorespiratory fitness had a negative association with leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes in boys. Conclusion Obese adolescents had higher total and differential leucocyte count when compared to normal weight individuals. We also observed a weak positive association between adiposity and total leukocyte, monocyte, and neutrophil counts, and in boys, a negative association between cardiorespiratory fitness and total count of leukocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils. PMID:25628191

  10. Longer sleep duration associates with lower adiposity gain in adult short sleepers.

    PubMed

    Chaput, J-P; Després, J-P; Bouchard, C; Tremblay, A

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this longitudinal, observational study was to verify whether a favorable change in sleep duration over 6 years could impact objective indicators of adiposity in adults aged 18-64 years. Short-duration sleepers (≤6 h per day; n=43) at baseline were divided into two groups: (i) those who increased their sleep duration to a 'healthy' length of 7-8 h per day at year 6 (mean increase: 1.52±0.66 h per day; n=23); and (ii) those who maintained their short sleep duration habits (mean change: -0.11±0.38 h per day; n=20). Adult individuals who reported sleeping 7-8 h per day at both baseline and year 6 (n=173) were used as a control group. Change in adiposity indicators for each sleep-duration group was compared by analysis of covariance. We observed that the two short-sleep-duration groups had similar baseline characteristics. However, short-duration sleepers who maintained their short sleep duration experienced a greater increase in body mass index (BMI) (difference: 1.1±0.36 kg m(-2), P<0.05) and fat mass (difference: 2.4±0.64 kg, P<0.05) over the 6-year follow-up period than short-duration sleepers who increased their sleep duration, even after adjustment for relevant covariates. We did not observe any significant difference in adiposity changes between the control group and short-duration sleepers who increased their sleep duration. This study suggests for the first time that shifting sleep duration from a short to a healthier length is associated with an attenuation of fat mass gain.

  11. Smoking, Central Adiposity, and Poor Glycemic Control Increase Risk of Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Nondahl, David M.; Dalton, Dayna S.; Fischer, Mary E.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nieto, F. Javier; Schubert, Carla R.; Tweed, Ted S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine associations between smoking, adiposity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and the 15-yr incidence of hearing impairment (HI). Design The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is a longitudinal population-based cohort study (1993–95 to 2009–2010). Setting Beaver Dam, WI. Participants Participants in the Beaver Dam Eye Study (1988–90; residents of Beaver Dam, WI ages 43–84 years in 1987–88) were eligible for the EHLS. There were 1925 participants with normal hearing at baseline. Measurements 15-year cumulative incidence of HI (pure-tone average (PTA) of hearing thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz > 25 decibels Hearing Level (dB HL) in either ear). Cigarette smoking, exercise, and other factors were ascertained by questionnaire. Blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured. Results Follow-up examinations (≥1) were obtained from 87.2% (n=1678; mean baseline age 61 years). The 15-year cumulative incidence of HI was 56.8%. Adjusting for age and sex, current smoking (Hazard Ratio (HR) =1.31, p=0.048), education (<16 yrs; HR=1.35, p=0.01), waist circumference (HR=1.08 per 10 cm, p=0.017), and poorly controlled diabetes (HR=2.03, p=0.048) were associated with increased risk of HI. Former smokers and people with better controlled diabetes were not at increased risk. Conclusion Smoking, central adiposity and poorly controlled diabetes predicted incident HI. These well-known CVD risk factors, suggest vascular changes may contribute to HI in aging. Interventions targeting reductions in smoking and adiposity, and improved glycemic control in people with diabetes, may help to prevent or delay the onset of HI. PMID:25953199

  12. Using Genetic Variation to Explore the Causal Effect of Maternal Pregnancy Adiposity on Future Offspring Adiposity: A Mendelian Randomisation Study

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Janine F.; Gaillard, Romy; McMahon, George

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that greater maternal adiposity during pregnancy affects lifelong risk of offspring fatness via intrauterine mechanisms. Our aim was to use Mendelian randomisation (MR) to investigate the causal effect of intrauterine exposure to greater maternal body mass index (BMI) on offspring BMI and fat mass from childhood to early adulthood. Methods and Findings We used maternal genetic variants as instrumental variables (IVs) to test the causal effect of maternal BMI in pregnancy on offspring fatness (BMI and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA] determined fat mass index [FMI]) in a MR approach. This was investigated, with repeat measurements, from ages 7 to 18 in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 2,521 to 3,720 for different ages). We then sought to replicate findings with results for BMI at age 6 in Generation R (n = 2,337 for replication sample; n = 6,057 for total pooled sample). In confounder-adjusted multivariable regression in ALSPAC, a 1 standard deviation (SD, equivalent of 3.7 kg/m2) increase in maternal BMI was associated with a 0.25 SD (95% CI 0.21–0.29) increase in offspring BMI at age 7, with similar results at later ages and when FMI was used as the outcome. A weighted genetic risk score was generated from 32 genetic variants robustly associated with BMI (minimum F-statistic = 45 in ALSPAC). The MR results using this genetic risk score as an IV in ALSPAC were close to the null at all ages (e.g., 0.04 SD (95% CI -0.21–0.30) at age 7 and 0.03 SD (95% CI -0.26–0.32) at age 18 per SD increase in maternal BMI), which was similar when a 97 variant generic risk score was used in ALSPAC. When findings from age 7 in ALSPAC were meta-analysed with those from age 6 in Generation R, the pooled confounder-adjusted multivariable regression association was 0.22 SD (95% CI 0.19–0.25) per SD increase in maternal BMI and the pooled MR effect (pooling the 97 variant score results from ALSPAC with the 32

  13. Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging

    PubMed Central

    Buras, Eric D.; Yu, Kaijiang; Wang, Ruitao; Smith, C. Wayne; Wu, Huaizhu; Sheikh-Hamad, David; Sun, Yuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Aging is commonly associated with low-grade adipose inflammation, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone which is known to increase obesity and insulin resistance. We previously reported that the expression of the ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), increases in adipose tissues during aging, and old Ghsr−/− mice exhibit a lean and insulin-sensitive phenotype. Macrophages are major mediators of adipose tissue inflammation, which consist of pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes. Here, we show that in aged mice, GHS-R ablation promotes macrophage phenotypical shift toward anti-inflammatory M2. Old Ghsr−/− mice have reduced macrophage infiltration, M1/M2 ratio, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in white and brown adipose tissues. We also found that peritoneal macrophages of old Ghsr−/− mice produce higher norepinephrine, which is in line with increased alternatively-activated M2 macrophages. Our data further reveal that GHS-R has cell-autonomous effects in macrophages, and GHS-R antagonist suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that ghrelin signaling has an important role in macrophage polarization and adipose tissue inflammation during aging. GHS-R antagonists may serve as a novel and effective therapeutic option for age-associated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:26837433

  14. The role of dietary fat in adipose tissue metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Churruca, Itziar; Portillo, Maria Puy

    2007-10-01

    Energy intake and expenditure tend on average to remain adjusted to each other in order to maintain a stable body weight, which is only likely to be sustained if the fuel mix oxidised is equivalent to the nutrient content of the diet. Whereas protein and carbohydrate degradation and oxidation are closely adjusted to their intakes, fat balance regulation is less precise and that fat is more likely to be stored than oxidised. It has been demonstrated that dietary fatty acids have an influence not only on the fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids, thus modulating several metabolic processes that take place in the adipocyte, but also on the composition and the quantity of different fatty acids in adipose tissue. Moreover, dietary fatty acids also modulate eicosanoid presence, which have hormone-like activities in lipid metabolism regulation in adipose tissue. Until recently, the adipocyte has been considered to be no more than a passive tissue for storage of excess energy. However, there is now compelling evidence that adipocytes have a role as endocrine secretory cells. Some of the adipokines produced by adipose tissue, such as leptin and adiponectin, act on adipose tissue in an autocrine/paracrine manner to regulate adipocyte metabolism. Furthermore, dietary fatty acids may influence the expression of adipokines. The nutrients are among the most influential of the environmental factors that determine the way adipose tissue genes are expressed by functioning as regulators of gene transcription. Therefore, not only dietary fat amount but also dietary fat composition influence adipose tissue metabolism.

  15. Adipose Tissue Oxygenation in Obesity: A Matter of Cardiovascular Risk?

    PubMed

    Landini, Linda; Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Ferrannini, Ele; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a chronic low-grade inflammation disorder characterized by an expansion in adipose tissue mass, is rapidly expanding worldwide leading to an increase in the incidence of comorbidities such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This has led to a renewed interest in the adipose tissue function, historically considered as a passive fat storage. It is now well established that adipose tissue is an organ with an active role in production and release of a variety of molecules called adipocytokines. Dysregulated production of adipocytokines seems to be responsible for the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanisms are still unclear. Hypoxia, that occurs when adipocytes expand in obesity, has been proposed as a possible cause of adipose tissue inflammation. On the other hand, recent studies have shown that adipose tissue oxygen tension was actually higher (hyperoxia) than normal and associated with insulin resistance in obesity, despite a reduction in blood flow. This might be explained by the role of mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Hence, further studies are needed to understand the role of adipose tissue oxygenation and perfusion in obesity to assess pathophysiology and novel opportunities for treating the diseases.

  16. Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ligen; Lee, Jong Han; Buras, Eric D; Yu, Kaijiang; Wang, Ruitao; Smith, C Wayne; Wu, Huaizhu; Sheikh-Hamad, David; Sun, Yuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Aging is commonly associated with low-grade adipose inflammation, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone which is known to increase obesity and insulin resistance. We previously reported that the expression of the ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), increases in adipose tissues during aging, and old Ghsr(-/-) mice exhibit a lean and insulin-sensitive phenotype. Macrophages are major mediators of adipose tissue inflammation, which consist of pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes. Here, we show that in aged mice, GHS-R ablation promotes macrophage phenotypical shift toward anti-inflammatory M2. Old Ghsrp(-/-) mice have reduced macrophage infiltration, M1/M2 ratio, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in white and brown adipose tissues. We also found that peritoneal macrophages of old Ghsrp(-/-) mice produce higher norepinephrine, which is in line with increased alternatively-activated M2 macrophages. Our data further reveal that GHS-R has cell-autonomous effects in macrophages, and GHS-R antagonist suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that ghrelin signaling has an important role in macrophage polarization and adipose tissue inflammation during aging. GHS-R antagonists may serve as a novel and effective therapeutic option for age-associated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.

  17. THE POTENTIAL ROLES FOR ADIPOSE TISSUE IN PERIPHERAL NERVE REGENERATION

    PubMed Central

    Walocko, Frances M.; Khouri, Roger K.; Urbanchek, Melanie G.; Levi, Benjamin; Cederna, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This review summarizes current understanding about the role of adipose-derived tissues in peripheral nerve regeneration and discusses potential advances that would translate this approach into the clinic. Methods We searched PubMed for in vivo, experimental studies on the regenerative effects of adipose-derived tissues on peripheral nerve injuries. We summarized the methods and results for the 42 experiments. Results Adipose-derived tissues enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration in 86% of the experiments. Ninety-five percent evaluated purified, cultured, or differentiated adipose tissue. These approaches have regulatory and scaling burdens, restricting clinical usage. Only one experiment tested the ability of adipose tissue to enhance nerve regeneration in conjunction with nerve autografts, the clinical gold standard. Conclusion Scientific studies illustrate that adipose-derived tissues enhance regeneration of peripheral nerves. Before this approach achieves clinical acceptance, fat processing must become automated and regulatory approval achieved. Animal studies using whole fat grafts are greatly needed for clinical translation. PMID:26773850

  18. Gene Expression Signature in Adipose Tissue of Acromegaly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Irit; Tran, Quynh T.; Barkan, Ariel L.; Saltiel, Alan R.; Chandler, William F.; Bridges, Dave

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of chronic excess growth hormone on adipose tissue, we performed RNA sequencing in adipose tissue biopsies from patients with acromegaly (n = 7) or non-functioning pituitary adenomas (n = 11). The patients underwent clinical and metabolic profiling including assessment of HOMA-IR. Explants of adipose tissue were assayed ex vivo for lipolysis and ceramide levels. Patients with acromegaly had higher glucose, higher insulin levels and higher HOMA-IR score. We observed several previously reported transcriptional changes (IGF1, IGFBP3, CISH, SOCS2) that are known to be induced by GH/IGF-1 in liver but are also induced in adipose tissue. We also identified several novel transcriptional changes, some of which may be important for GH/IGF responses (PTPN3 and PTPN4) and the effects of acromegaly on growth and proliferation. Several differentially expressed transcripts may be important in GH/IGF-1-induced metabolic changes. Specifically, induction of LPL, ABHD5, and NRIP1 can contribute to enhanced lipolysis and may explain the elevated adipose tissue lipolysis in acromegalic patients. Higher expression of TCF7L2 and the fatty acid desaturases FADS1, FADS2 and SCD could contribute to insulin resistance. Ceramides were not different between the two groups. In summary, we have identified the acromegaly gene expression signature in human adipose tissue. The significance of altered expression of specific transcripts will enhance our understanding of the metabolic and proliferative changes associated with acromegaly. PMID:26087292

  19. HOXC10 suppresses browning of white adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Yvonne; Tan, Shi-Xiong; Chia, Sook Yoong; Tan, Hwee Yim Angeline; Gun, Sin Yee; Sun, Lei; Hong, Wanjin; Han, Weiping

    2017-01-01

    Given that increased thermogenesis in white adipose tissue, also known as browning, promotes energy expenditure, significant efforts have been invested to determine the molecular factors involved in this process. Here we show that HOXC10, a homeobox domain-containing transcription factor expressed in subcutaneous white adipose tissue, is a suppressor of genes involved in browning white adipose tissue. Ectopic expression of HOXC10 in adipocytes suppresses brown fat genes, whereas the depletion of HOXC10 in adipocytes and myoblasts increases the expression of brown fat genes. The protein level of HOXC10 inversely correlates with brown fat genes in subcutaneous white adipose tissue of cold-exposed mice. Expression of HOXC10 in mice suppresses cold-induced browning in subcutaneous white adipose tissue and abolishes the beneficial effect of cold exposure on glucose clearance. HOXC10 exerts its effect, at least in part, by suppressing PRDM16 expression. The results support that HOXC10 is a key negative regulator of the process of browning in white adipose tissue. PMID:28186086

  20. Gene Expression Signature in Adipose Tissue of Acromegaly Patients.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Irit; Tran, Quynh T; Barkan, Ariel L; Saltiel, Alan R; Chandler, William F; Bridges, Dave

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of chronic excess growth hormone on adipose tissue, we performed RNA sequencing in adipose tissue biopsies from patients with acromegaly (n = 7) or non-functioning pituitary adenomas (n = 11). The patients underwent clinical and metabolic profiling including assessment of HOMA-IR. Explants of adipose tissue were assayed ex vivo for lipolysis and ceramide levels. Patients with acromegaly had higher glucose, higher insulin levels and higher HOMA-IR score. We observed several previously reported transcriptional changes (IGF1, IGFBP3, CISH, SOCS2) that are known to be induced by GH/IGF-1 in liver but are also induced in adipose tissue. We also identified several novel transcriptional changes, some of which may be important for GH/IGF responses (PTPN3 and PTPN4) and the effects of acromegaly on growth and proliferation. Several differentially expressed transcripts may be important in GH/IGF-1-induced metabolic changes. Specifically, induction of LPL, ABHD5, and NRIP1 can contribute to enhanced lipolysis and may explain the elevated adipose tissue lipolysis in acromegalic patients. Higher expression of TCF7L2 and the fatty acid desaturases FADS1, FADS2 and SCD could contribute to insulin resistance. Ceramides were not different between the two groups. In summary, we have identified the acromegaly gene expression signature in human adipose tissue. The significance of altered expression of specific transcripts will enhance our understanding of the metabolic and proliferative changes associated with acromegaly.

  1. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  2. Refractive index of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zysk, Adam M.; Chaney, Eric J.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2006-05-01

    Near-infrared optical techniques for clinical breast cancer screening in humans are rapidly advancing. Based on the computational inversion of the photon diffusion process through the breast, these techniques rely on optical tissue models for accurate image reconstruction. Recent interest has surfaced regarding the effect of refractive index variations on these reconstructions. Although many data exist regarding the scattering and absorption properties of normal and diseased tissue, no measurements of refractive index appear in the literature. In this paper, we present near-infrared refractive index data acquired from N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced rat mammary tumours, which are similar in pathology and disease progression to human ductal carcinoma. Eight animals, including one control, were employed in this study, yielding data from 32 tumours as well as adjacent adipose and connective tissues.

  3. Molecular Heterogeneities of Adipose Depots - Potential Effects on Adipose-Muscle Cross-Talk in Humans, Mice and Farm Animals

    PubMed Central

    Komolka, Katrin; Albrecht, Elke; Wimmers, Klaus; Michal, Jennifer J.; Maak, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is considered as a major endocrine organ that secretes numerous proteins called adipokines. The heterogeneous nature of adipose tissue in different parts of the body suggests respective heterogeneity of proteomes and secretomes. This review consolidates knowledge from recent studies targeting the diversity of different adipose depots affecting the pattern of secreted adipokines and discusses potential consequences for the cross-talk between adipose and skeletal muscle in humans, rodent models and farm animals. Special attention is paid to muscle-associated fat depots like inter- and intramuscular fat that become focus of attention in the context of the rather new notion of skeletal muscle as a major endocrine organ. Understanding the complexity of communication between adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells will allow developing strategies for improvement of human health and for sustainable production of high quality meat. PMID:25057322

  4. Different adipose tissue depots: Metabolic implications and effects of surgical removal.

    PubMed

    Marcadenti, Aline; de Abreu-Silva, Erlon Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Increased adiposity has been associated to worse metabolic profile, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. There are two main adipose tissue depots in the body, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, which differ in anatomical location. A large body of evidence has shown the metabolic activity of adipose tissue; lipectomy and/or liposuction therefore appear to be alternatives for improving metabolic profile through rapid loss of adipose tissue. However, surgical removal of adipose tissue may be detrimental for metabolism, because subcutaneous adipose tissue has not been associated to metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, animal studies have shown a compensatory growth of adipose tissue in response to lipectomy. This review summarizes the implications of obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction, its relationship with the different adipose tissue depots, and the effects of lipectomy on cardiometabolic risk factors.

  5. Characterization of stromal vascular fraction and adipose stem cells from subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral morbidly obese human adipose tissue depots

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Karina Ribeiro; Côrtes, Isis; Liechocki, Sally; Carneiro, João Regis Ivar; Souza, Antônio Augusto Peixoto; Borojevic, Radovan; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa Menezes

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives The pathological condition of obesity is accompanied by a dysfunctional adipose tissue. We postulate that subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral obese abdominal white adipose tissue depots could have stromal vascular fractions (SVF) with distinct composition and adipose stem cells (ASC) that would differentially account for the pathogenesis of obesity. Methods In order to evaluate the distribution of SVF subpopulations, samples of subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral adipose tissues from morbidly obese women (n = 12, BMI: 46.2±5.1 kg/m2) were collected during bariatric surgery, enzymatically digested and analyzed by flow cytometry (n = 12). ASC from all depots were evaluated for morphology, surface expression, ability to accumulate lipid after induction and cytokine secretion (n = 3). Results A high content of preadipocytes was found in the SVF of subcutaneous depot (p = 0.0178). ASC from the three depots had similar fibroblastoid morphology with a homogeneous expression of CD34, CD146, CD105, CD73 and CD90. ASC from the visceral depot secreted the highest levels of IL-6, MCP-1 and G-CSF (p = 0.0278). Interestingly, preperitoneal ASC under lipid accumulation stimulus showed the lowest levels of all the secreted cytokines, except for adiponectin that was enhanced (p = 0.0278). Conclusions ASC from preperitoneal adipose tissue revealed the less pro-inflammatory properties, although it is an internal adipose depot. Conversely, ASC from visceral adipose tissue are the most pro-inflammatory. Therefore, ASC from subcutaneous, visceral and preperitoneal adipose depots could differentially contribute to the chronic inflammatory scenario of obesity. PMID:28323901

  6. SUITABILITY OF VISCERAL ADIPOSITY INDEX AS A MARKER FOR CARDIOMETABOLIC RISKS IN JORDANIAN ADULTS.

    PubMed

    Numan Ahmad, Mousa; Halim Haddad, Fares

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: el índice de adiposidad visceral (VAI) ha sido propuesto recientemente como predictor de riesgo cardiometabólico, pero su utilidad no ha sido confirmada. Objetivos: evaluar la asociación entre VAI y los índices de adiposidad y riesgo cardiometabólico convencionales y examinar la capacidad predictiva del riesgo VAI en comparación con otros índices de adiposidad. Métodos: en este estudio se incluyeron un total de 1.622 adultos de Jordania, 686 hombres y 936 mujeres, de edad entre 20 y 80 años. Fueron examinados el VAI, el índice de masa corporal (BMI), la circunferencia de la cintura (WC), la relación cintura-cadera (WHR) y la relación cintura-estatura (WHtR) y se determinaron el colesterol de lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL-C), los triglicéridos (TG), la glucosa sérica en ayunas (FSG), y la presión arterial sistólica (SBP) y diastólica (DBP). Se evaluaron las asociaciones, la distribución por edad y género y las diferencias. El receptor de funcionamiento característico (ROC) y el área bajo la curva (AUC) se utilizaron para comparar la capacidad de predicción del riesgo. Resultados: el VAI de las mujeres (6,82 ± 6,43) fue mayor que el de los hombres (4,15 ± 4,62). El VAI severidad aumenta con la edad en una tendencia dosis-respuesta (p < 0,001) en ambos sexos. Las mujeres tuvieron mayor prevalencia que los hombres de alto riesgo de VAI y todos los índices de adiposidad y cardiometabólicos. VAI marcadamente asociado con TG, HDL-C, FSG, SBP y DBP o WHR, WC, WHtR y el BMI en orden respectivo de la potencia de correlación para los índices de riesgo cardiometabólico o adiposidad. En hombres y mujeres, respectivamente, el AUC era más grande para VAI (0,79 vs. 0,77), seguido por WHR (0,73 vs. 0,75), aseo (0,69 vs. 0,74), WHtR (0,65 vs. 0,71) y el BMI (0,53 vs. 0,51). Conclusiones: los hallazgos sugieren que el VAI potencialmente se asocia con riesgos cardiometabólicos y demuestra que es superior a otros índices de adiposidad en la predicción de tales riesgos.

  7. Household food insecurity status and Hispanic immigrant children’s body mass index and adiposity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the high prevalence rates of food insecurity and obesity among children of Hispanic immigrants, there has been a dearth of research on the direct relationship between food insecurity and obesity among this population. Further, prior research examining the association between food insecurity ...

  8. [EVALUATION OF THE BODY ADIPOSITY INDEX IN PREDICTING PERCENTAGE BODY FAT AMONG COLOMBIAN ADULTS].

    PubMed

    González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-07-01

    Objetivo: el índice de adiposidad corporal (IAC) es un sencillo y nuevo método de predicción del porcentaje de grasa corporal (%GC) a través de una simple ecuación que incluye la circunferencia de cadera y la estatura. Hasta la fecha, pocos estudios han evaluado el IAC en la determinación el exceso de grasa en la población colombiana. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la utilidad del IAC como predictor del %GC en adultos de Colombia. Métodos: estudio transversal en 204 hombres del sector educativo de Bogotá, Colombia. Se estimó el IAC con la ecuación de Bergman et al. [(circunferencia de cadera, en cm)/((estatura, en m)1,5 )-18)]. El %GC se determinó a través de bioimpedancia eléctrica tetrapolar (BIA) como la medida de referencia de la adiposidad. Se utilizó el análisis de Bland-Altman para evaluar el grado de acuerdo entre ambos métodos, IAC y BIA, y se evaluaron las relaciones con otras medidas antropométricas mediante el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Resultados: en la población general, el IAC sobreestima el %GC (diferencia de medias: 12,5% [IC95% = -4,04% a -21.02%]), en especial en sujetos con niveles bajos de adiposidad (diferencia de medias: 10,2 ± 3,3). Tras ajustar por edad, el IAC muestra correlaciones significativas con el IMC (r = 0,480), la relación cintura-estatura (r = 0,557) y el %GC por BIA (r = 0,777), p.

  9. The Relationship Between Greater Prepubertal Adiposity, Subsequent Age of Maturation, and Bone Strength During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Glass, Natalie A; Torner, James C; Letuchy, Elena M; Burns, Trudy L; Janz, Kathleen F; Eichenberger Gilmore, Julie M; Schlechte, Janet A; Levy, Steven M

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether greater prepubertal adiposity was associated with subsequent timing of maturation and bone strength during adolescence in 135 girls and 123 boys participating in the Iowa Bone Development Study. Greater adiposity was defined using body mass index (BMI) data at age 8 years to classify participants as overweight (OW, ≥85th percentile for age and sex) or healthy weight (HW). Maturation was defined as the estimated age of peak height velocity (PHV) based on a series of cross-sectional estimates. Measurements were taken at ages 11, 13, 15, and 17 years for estimates of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bone compression (bone strength index), and torsion strength (polar strength-strain index) at the radius and tibia by pQCT, and femoral neck bending strength (section modulus) by hip structural analysis. Bone strength in OW versus HW were evaluated by fitting sex-specific linear mixed models that included centered age (visit age - grand mean age of cohort) as the time variable and adjusted for change in fat mass, and limb length in model 1. Analyses were repeated using biological age (visit age - age PHV) as the time variable for model 1 with additional adjustment for lean mass in model 2. BMI was negatively associated with age of maturation (p < 0.05). OW versus HW girls had significantly greater bone strength (p < 0.001) in model 1, whereas OW versus HW boys had significantly greater bone strength (p < 0.001) at the tibia and femoral neck but not radius (p > 0.05). Analyses were repeated using biological age, which yielded reduced parameter estimates for girls but similar results for boys (model 1.) Differences were no longer present after adjustment for lean mass (model 2) in girls (p > 0.05) whereas differences at the tibia were sustained in boys (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate sex- and site-specific differences in the associations between adiposity, maturation, and

  10. Retention of sedentary obese visceral white adipose tissue phenotype with intermittent physical activity despite reduced adiposity.

    PubMed

    Wainright, Katherine S; Fleming, Nicholas J; Rowles, Joe L; Welly, Rebecca J; Zidon, Terese M; Park, Young-Min; Gaines, T'Keaya L; Scroggins, Rebecca J; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K; Hasty, Alyssa H; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Padilla, Jaume

    2015-09-01

    Regular physical activity is effective in reducing visceral white adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and oxidative stress, and these changes are commonly associated with reduced adiposity. However, the impact of multiple periods of physical activity, intercalated by periods of inactivity, i.e., intermittent physical activity, on markers of AT inflammation and oxidative stress is unknown. In the present study, 5-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into three groups (n = 10/group): sedentary, regular physical activity, and intermittent physical activity, for 24 wk. All animals were singly housed and fed a diet containing 45% kcal from fat. Regularly active mice had access to voluntary running wheels throughout the study period, whereas intermittently active mice had access to running wheels for 3-wk intervals (i.e., 3 wk on/3 wk off) throughout the study. At death, regular and intermittent physical activity was associated with similar reductions in visceral AT mass (approximately -24%, P < 0.05) relative to sedentary. However, regularly, but not intermittently, active mice exhibited decreased expression of visceral AT genes related to inflammation (e.g., monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), immune cell infiltration (e.g., CD68, CD11c, F4/80, CD11b/CD18), oxidative stress (e.g., p47 phagocyte oxidase), and endoplasmic reticulum stress (e.g., CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein; all P < 0.05). Furthermore, regular, but not intermittent, physical activity was associated with a trend toward improvement in glucose tolerance (P = 0.059). Collectively, these findings suggest that intermittent physical activity over a prolonged period of time may lead to a reduction in adiposity but with retention of a sedentary obese white AT and metabolic phenotype.

  11. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    PubMed Central

    Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M.W.; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian’an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex SF; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor VA; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John RB; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan JL; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco JC; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, DC; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter EH; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin NA; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth JF; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2014-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, we conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of waist and hip circumference-related traits in up to 224,459 individuals. We identified 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI) and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P<5×10−8). Twenty of the 49 WHRadjBMI loci showed significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which displayed a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation, and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25673412

  12. Brown adipose tissue triglyceride content is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity, independently of age and obesity.

    PubMed

    Raiko, J; Holstila, M; Virtanen, K A; Orava, J; Saunavaara, V; Niemi, T; Laine, J; Taittonen, M; Borra, R J H; Nuutila, P; Parkkola, R

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can non-invasively assess triglyceride content in both supraclavicular fat depots and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) to determine whether these measurements correlate to metabolic variables. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were studied using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and (15)O-H2O PET perfusion during cold exposure, and (1)H-MRS at ambient temperature. Image-guided biopsies were collected from nine volunteers. The supraclavicular triglyceride content determined by (1)H-MRS varied between 60 and 91% [mean ± standard deviation (s.d.) 77 ± 10%]. It correlated positively with body mass index, waist circumference, subcutaneous and visceral fat masses and 8-year diabetes risk based on the Framingham risk score and inversely with HDL cholesterol and insulin sensitivity (M-value; euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp). Subcutaneous WAT had a significantly higher triglyceride content, 76-95% (mean ± s.d. 87 ± 5%; p = 0.0002). In conclusion, the triglyceride content in supraclavicular fat deposits measured by (1)H-MRS may be an independent marker of whole-body insulin sensitivity, independent of brown adipose tissue metabolic activation.

  13. Excess Visceral Adipose Tissue Worsens the Vascular Endothelial Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kurozumi, Akira; Okada, Yosuke; Arao, Tadashi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2016-01-01

    Objective Visceral fat obesity and metabolic syndrome correlate with atherosclerosis in part due to insulin resistance and various other factors. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between vascular endothelial dysfunction and excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods In 71 T2DM patients, the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) was measured using an Endo-PAT 2000, and VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured via CT. We also measured various metabolic markers, including high-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-AN). Results VAT correlated negatively with the natural logarithm of RHI (L_RHI), the primary endpoint (p=0.042, r=-0.242). L_RHI did not correlate with SAT, VAT/SAT, abdominal circumference, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, urinary C-peptide reactivity, HMW-AN, or alanine amino transferase, the secondary endpoints. A linear multivariate analysis via the forced entry method using age, sex, VAT, and smoking history as independent variables and L_RHI as the dependent variable revealed a lack of any determinants of L_RHI. Conclusion Excess VAT worsens the vascular endothelial function, represented by RHI which was analyzed using Endo-PAT, in Japanese patients with T2DM. PMID:27803400

  14. Associations of Dietary Fat, Regional Adiposity, and Blood Pressure in Men

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Terry, Richard B.; Garay, Susan C.; Vranizan, Karen M.; Ellsworth, Nancy; Wood, Peter D.

    2010-01-01

    Mediterranean populations have low incidence rates of cardiovascular disease and hypertension that may be due, in part, to dietary factors, particularly a relatively high intake of monounsaturated fat as olive oil. In this study, nutritional components (as grams per 4200 kJ) (1 kcal = 4.2 kJ) from three-day food records were examined in association with resting blood pressure in a cross-sectional survey of 76 sedentary middle-aged American men, aged 30 to 55 years, with resting blood pressures below 160/100 mm Hg. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures correlated significantly and inversely with monounsaturated fat consumption. Polyunsaturated fat consumption also correlated inversely with diastolic blood pressure; however, this relationship became nonsignificant when adjusted for an index of regional adiposity that characterizes the male-type obesity pattern. Detailed analyses of specific fatty acids showed that the correlations with monounsaturates were specific to oleic acid, and the correlation with polyunsaturates was specific to linoleic acid. Multiple regression analysis suggested that 18.2% of the variance in systolic blood pressure and 23.2% of the variance in diastolic blood pressure were related to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat consumption and regional adiposity. Thus, increased consumption of monounsaturated fat is related inversely to resting blood pressure, although causality remains to be determined. PMID:3586249

  15. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the morbidly obese using a laser Doppler velocimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, Gerald A.; Paton, Barry E.; Maksym, Geoff; Janigan, David; Perey, Bernard

    1992-08-01

    Using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (AF) was recorded in the upright and supine positions in the upper and lower abdomen in 22 morbidly obese patients before gastroplasty. Age was 42 +/- 3 (mean +/- SEM), weight 135 +/- 7 kg, and body mass index (BMI) 51 +/- 3. Adipose flow expressed as mV was: supine, upper abdomen 647 +/- 23, lower abdomen 604 +/- 24; upright, upper abdomen 621 +/- 27, lower abdomen 607 +/- 29. AF was significantly more in the upper than lower abdomen (supine position) and AF was significantly lower in the lower abdomen upright than the upper abdomen supine. Regression analysis of age indicates that blood flow decreases in the lower abdomen so that in the supine position the difference between upper and lower abdomen AF increases. Similar analysis of BMI did not indicate significant trends. These data indicate that with morbid obesity there is lower tissue blood flow to the lower abdomen. This may explain why such patients may develop areas of painful ischemic necrosis in the dependent region of their anterior abdominal pannus.

  16. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M W; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Vernon Smith, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V A; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Hua Zhao, Jing; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R B; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J C; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter E H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth J F; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2015-02-12

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.

  17. Causal effects of socioeconomic status on central adiposity risks: Evidence using panel data from urban Mexico.

    PubMed

    Levasseur, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Associated with overweight, obesity and chronic diseases, the nutrition transition process reveals important socioeconomic issues in Mexico. Using panel data from the Mexican Family Life Survey, the purpose of the study is to estimate the causal effect of household socioeconomic status (SES) on nutritional outcomes among urban adults. We divide the analysis into two steps. First, using a mixed clustering procedure, we distinguish four socioeconomic classes based on income, educational and occupational dimensions: (i) a poor class; (ii) a lower-middle class; (iii) an upper-middle class; (iv) a rich class. Second, using an econometric framework adapted to our study (the Hausman-Taylor estimator), we measure the impact of belonging to these socioeconomic groups on individual anthropometric indicators, based on the body-mass index (BMI) and the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Our results make several contributions: (i) we show that a new middle class, rising out of poverty, is the most exposed to the risks of adiposity; (ii) as individuals from the upper class seem to be fatter than individuals from the upper-middle class, we can reject the assumption of an inverted U-shaped relationship between socioeconomic and anthropometric status as commonly suggested in emerging economies; (iii) the influence of SES on central adiposity appears to be particularly strong for men.

  18. The NLM Indexing Initiative.

    PubMed

    Aronson, A R; Bodenreider, O; Chang, H F; Humphrey, S M; Mork, J G; Nelson, S J; Rindflesch, T C; Wilbur, W J

    2000-01-01

    The objective of NLM's Indexing Initiative (IND) is to investigate methods whereby automated indexing methods partially or completely substitute for current indexing practices. The project will be considered a success if methods can be designed and implemented that result in retrieval performance that is equal to or better than the retrieval performance of systems based principally on humanly assigned index terms. We describe the current state of the project and discuss our plans for the future.

  19. Gradient Index Lens Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-19

    Finally, an assessment of the current technologies in gradient index has been made. This includes a series of recommendations w’iich will be...17 III. Ray Tracing in Anamorphic Gradient Index Media ......... 20 IV. Fabrication of Six Gradient Index Samples ............. 27 V. Technology ...for a basic understanding of what can and cannot be done with gradient index lenses, aside from any lack of technology for making a paricular gradient

  20. Human periprostatic adipose tissue promotes prostate cancer aggressiveness in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness and mortality. The contribution of periprostatic adipose tissue, which is often infiltrated by malignant cells, to cancer progression is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to determine if periprostatic adipose tissue is linked with aggressive tumor biology in prostate cancer. Methods Supernatants of whole adipose tissue (explants) or stromal vascular fraction (SVF) from paired fat samples of periprostatic (PP) and pre-peritoneal visceral (VIS) anatomic origin from different donors were prepared and analyzed for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 activity. The effects of those conditioned media (CM) on growth and migration of hormone-refractory (PC-3) and hormone-sensitive (LNCaP) prostate cancer cells were measured. Results We show here that PP adipose tissue of overweight men has higher MMP9 activity in comparison with normal subjects. The observed increased activities of both MMP2 and MMP9 in PP whole adipose tissue explants, likely reveal the contribution of adipocytes plus stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) as opposed to SVF alone. MMP2 activity was higher for PP when compared to VIS adipose tissue. When PC-3 cells were stimulated with CM from PP adipose tissue explants, increased proliferative and migratory capacities were observed, but not in the presence of SVF. Conversely, when LNCaP cells were stimulated with PP explants CM, we found enhanced motility despite the inhibition of proliferation, whereas CM derived from SVF increased both cell proliferation and motility. Explants culture and using adipose tissue of PP origin are most effective in promoting proliferation and migration of PC-3 cells, as respectively compared with SVF culture and using adipose tissue of VIS origin. In LNCaP cells, while explants CM cause increased migration compared to SVF, the use of PP adipose tissue to generate CM result in the increase of both cellular proliferation and migration. Conclusions Our

  1. Kaiser's Systematic Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a system of subject indexing developed by Julius Kaiser (1868-1927) which is based on "concretes" and "processes" to govern the form of subject headings and subdivisions. Elements of amplification, guides for the subject index, and criticism of Kaiser's systematic indexing are noted. Five sources are given. (EJS)

  2. Automatic Versus Manual Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject indexing. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic indexing was found equivalent to manual indexing. (Author/KP)

  3. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  4. Does self-reported physical activity associate with high blood pressure in adolescents when adiposity is adjusted for?

    PubMed

    Barros, Mauro V G; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Honda Barros, Simone Storino; Mota, Jorge; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that both low physical activity (PA) and adiposity are associated with a higher risk of hypertension. However, the relationship between PA and blood pressure in adolescents is controversial and other studies have reported that no association was observed. Of particular interest is the evaluation of whether the association between PA and high blood pressure is independent of adiposity. A sample of 3764 Brazilian adolescents who attend high schools was selected using random cluster sampling. Data were collected using the Global School-based Student Health Survey, anthropometry, and blood pressure readings. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 14.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 13.5-15.7), higher amongst males (20.0%; 95%CI 18.0-22.1) compared with females (10.9%; 95%CI 9.7-12.3). Sixty-six per cent of the adolescents were reported to be insufficiently active. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 12.8% (95%CI 11.0-14.7) amongst active compared with 15.4% (95%CI 14.0-16.9) amongst insufficiently active adolescents. The association between PA and high blood pressure was observed only amongst females after adjusting for waist circumference (odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95%CI 1.21-2.31) and body mass index (OR 1.71; 95%CI 1.23-2.37). Notwithstanding levels of adiposity, higher PA levels are associated with a lower prevalence of high blood pressure amongst females, although not amongst males.

  5. Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity in early pregnancy together predict impaired glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, L R; Berger, H; Retnakaran, R; Vlachou, P A; Maguire, J L; Nathens, A B; Connelly, P W; Ray, J G

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity individually reflect insulin resistance, but their combined effect on glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy is unknown. A cohort of 476 pregnant women prospectively underwent sonographic assessment of hepatic fat and visceral (VAT) and total (TAT) adipose tissue at 11–14 weeks' gestation. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation between the presence of maternal hepatic fat and/or the upper quartile (Q) of either VAT or TAT and the odds of developing the composite outcome of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or gestational diabetes mellitus at 24–28 weeks' gestation, based on a 75 g OGTT. Upon adjusting for maternal age, ethnicity, family history of DM and body mass index (BMI), the co-presence of hepatic fat and quartile 4 (Q4) of VAT (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.5, 95% CI: 2.3–18.5) or hepatic fat and Q4 of TAT (aOR 7.8 95% CI 2.8–21.7) were each associated with the composite outcome, relative to women with neither sonographic feature. First-trimester sonographic evidence of maternal hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity may independently predict the development of impaired glucose homeostasis and GDM in mid-pregnancy. PMID:27643724

  6. Serum Chemerin Levels are Associated with Visceral Adiposity, Independent of Waist Circumference, in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Dae Young; Kang, Jun Goo; Lee, Seong Jin; Ihm, Sung Hee; Lee, Eun Jig; Choi, Moon Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Chemerin has been suggested to be linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the relationship between visceral adiposity and chemerin levels remains unclear in subjects with T2DM. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum chemerin levels and visceral adiposity. Materials and Methods This study included 102 subjects newly diagnosed with T2DM. The relationships between serum chemerin levels and clinical and biochemical parameters were examined. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the predictable factors of serum chemerin levels. Results Serum chemerin levels showed significant positive correlations with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), visceral fat thickness (VFT), insulin levels, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and levels of triglycerides (log-transformed) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, while showing significant negative correlations with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. After adjusting for BMI and WC, VFT showed a significant relationship with serum chemerin levels (r=0.222, p=0.027). Moreover, VFT was an independent predictive factor of serum chemerin levels (β=0.242, p=0.041). Conclusion We demonstrated that chemerin is linked to metabolic syndrome components. Moreover, serum chemerin levels were associated significantly with obesity, especially visceral adipose tissue, in subjects with T2DM. PMID:28120562

  7. BMP4-mediated brown fat-like changes in white adipose tissue alter glucose and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Shu-Wen; Tang, Yan; Li, Xi; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, You-You; Huang, Hai-Yan; Xue, Rui-Dan; Yu, Hao-Yong; Guo, Liang; Gao, Hui-Di; Liu, Yan; Sun, Xia; Li, Yi-Ming; Jia, Wei-Ping; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2013-02-26

    Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in adipocytes of white adipose tissue (WAT) produces "white adipocytes" with characteristics of brown fat and leads to a reduction of adiposity and its metabolic complications. Although BMP4 is known to induce commitment of pluripotent stem cells to the adipocyte lineage by producing cells that possess the characteristics of preadipocytes, its effects on the mature white adipocyte phenotype and function were unknown. Forced expression of a BMP4 transgene in white adipocytes of mice gives rise to reduced WAT mass and white adipocyte size along with an increased number of a white adipocyte cell types with brown adipocyte characteristics comparable to those of beige or brite adipocytes. These changes correlate closely with increased energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity, and protection against diet-induced obesity and diabetes. Conversely, BMP4-deficient mice exhibit enlarged white adipocyte morphology and impaired insulin sensitivity. We identify peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC1α) as the target of BMP signaling required for these brown fat-like changes in WAT. This effect of BMP4 on WAT appears to extend to human adipose tissue, because the level of expression of BMP4 in WAT correlates inversely with body mass index. These findings provide a genetic and metabolic basis for BMP4's role in altering insulin sensitivity by affecting WAT development.

  8. Relationships of maternal and paternal anthropometry with neonatal body size, proportions and adiposity in an Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan C K; Cole, Tim J; O'Callaghan, Michael; Stock, Jay T

    2015-04-01

    The patterns of association between maternal or paternal and neonatal phenotype may offer insight into how neonatal characteristics are shaped by evolutionary processes, such as conflicting parental interests in fetal investment and obstetric constraints. Paternal interests are theoretically served by maximizing fetal growth, and maternal interests by managing investment in current and future offspring, but whether paternal and maternal influences act on different components of overall size is unknown. We tested whether parents' prepregnancy height and body mass index (BMI) were related to neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, head circumference, absolute and proportional limb segment and trunk lengths, subcutaneous fat) among 1,041 Australian neonates using stepwise linear regression. Maternal and paternal height and maternal BMI were associated with birthweight. Paternal height related to offspring forearm and lower leg lengths, maternal height and BMI to neonatal head circumference, and maternal BMI to offspring adiposity. Principal components analysis identified three components of variability reflecting neonatal "head and trunk skeletal size," "adiposity," and "limb lengths." Regression analyses of the component scores supported the associations of head and trunk size or adiposity with maternal anthropometry, and limb lengths with paternal anthropometry. Our results suggest that while neonatal fatness reflects environmental conditions (maternal physiology), head circumference and limb and trunk lengths show differing associations with parental anthropometry. These patterns may reflect genetics, parental imprinting and environmental influences in a manner consistent with parental conflicts of interest. Paternal height may relate to neonatal limb length as a means of increasing fetal growth without exacerbating the risk of obstetric complications.

  9. Fat mass- and obesity-associated gene Fto affects the dietary response in mouse white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Ronkainen, Justiina; Huusko, Tuija J; Soininen, Raija; Mondini, Eleonora; Cinti, Francesca; Mäkelä, Kari A; Kovalainen, Miia; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sebert, Sylvain; Savolainen, Markku J; Salonurmi, Tuire

    2015-03-18

    Common variants of human fat mass- and obesity-associated gene Fto have been linked with higher body mass index, but the biological explanation for the link has remained obscure. Recent findings suggest that these variants affect the homeobox protein IRX3. Here we report that FTO has a role in white adipose tissue which modifies its response to high-fat feeding. Wild type and Fto-deficient mice were exposed to standard or high-fat diet for 16 weeks after which metabolism, behavior and white adipose tissue morphology were analyzed together with adipokine levels and relative expression of genes regulating white adipose tissue adipogenesis and Irx3. Our results indicate that Fto deficiency increases the expression of genes related to adipogenesis preventing adipocytes from becoming hypertrophic after high-fat diet. In addition, we report a novel finding of increased Irx3 expression in Fto-deficient mice after high-fat feeding indicating a complex link between FTO, IRX3 and fat metabolism.

  10. Associations of Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy with Offspring Adiposity from Birth Until 54 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Tint, Mya-Thway; Chia, Airu; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D.; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Saw, Seang-Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M.; van Dam, Rob M.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-01-01

    Most studies linking maternal diet with offspring adiposity have focused on single nutrients or foods, but a dietary pattern approach is more representative of the overall diet. We thus aimed to investigate the relations between maternal dietary patterns and offspring adiposity in a multi-ethnic Asian mother–offspring cohort in Singapore. We derived maternal dietary patterns using maternal dietary intake information at 26–28 weeks of gestation, of which associations with offspring body mass index (BMI), abdominal circumference (AC), subscapular skinfold (SS), and triceps skinfold (TS) were assessed using longitudinal data analysis (linear mixed effects (LME)) and multiple linear regression at ages 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 months. Three dietary patterns were derived: (1) vegetables-fruit-and-white rice (VFR); (2) seafood-and-noodles (SfN); and (3) pasta-cheese-and-bread (PCB). In the LME model adjusting for potential confounders, each standard deviation (SD) increase in maternal VFR pattern score was associated with 0.09 mm lower offspring TS. Individual time-point analysis additionally revealed that higher VFR score was generally associated with lower postnatal offspring BMI z-score, TS, SS, and sum of skinfolds (SS + TS) at ages 18 months and older. Maternal adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of fast food was associated with lower offspring adiposity. PMID:28025503

  11. Sugared water consumption by adult offspring of mothers fed a protein-restricted diet during pregnancy results in increased offspring adiposity: the second hit effect.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Rodríguez, M; Martínez-Gómez, M; Cuevas, E; Nicolás, L; Castelán, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E; Rodríguez-Antolín, J

    2014-02-01

    Poor maternal nutrition predisposes offspring to metabolic disease. This predisposition is modified by various postnatal factors. We hypothesised that coupled to the initial effects of developmental programming due to a maternal low-protein diet, a second hit resulting from increased offspring postnatal sugar consumption would lead to additional changes in metabolism and adipose tissue function. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of sugared water consumption (5% sucrose in the drinking-water) on adult offspring adiposity as a 'second hit' following exposure to maternal protein restriction during pregnancy. We studied four offspring groups: (1) offspring of mothers fed the control diet (C); (2) offspring of mothers fed the restricted protein diet (R); (3) offspring of control mothers that drank sugared water (C-S); (4) offspring of restricted mothers that drank sugared water (R-S). Maternal diet in pregnancy was considered the first factor and sugared water consumption as the second factor - the second hit. Body weight and total energy consumption, before and after sugared water consumption, were similar in all the groups. Sugared water consumption increased TAG, insulin and cholesterol concentrations in both the sexes of the C-S and R-S offspring. Sugared water consumption increased leptin concentrations in the R-S females and males but not in the R offspring. There was also an interaction between sugared water and maternal diet in males. Sugared water consumption increased adipocyte size and adiposity index in both females and males, but the interaction with maternal diet was observed only in females. Adiposity index and plasma leptin concentrations were positively correlated in both the sexes. The present study shows that a second hit during adulthood can amplify the effects of higher adiposity arising due to poor maternal pregnancy diet in an offspring sex dependent fashion.

  12. Metabolic Signatures of Adiposity in Young Adults: Mendelian Randomization Analysis and Effects of Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Würtz, Peter; Wang, Qin; Kangas, Antti J.; Richmond, Rebecca C.; Skarp, Joni; Tiainen, Mika; Tynkkynen, Tuulia; Soininen, Pasi; Havulinna, Aki S.; Kaakinen, Marika; Viikari, Jorma S.; Savolainen, Markku J.; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Männistö, Satu; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Vanhala, Mauno; Elliott, Paul; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Raitakari, Olli T.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smith, George Davey; Ala-Korpela, Mika

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased adiposity is linked with higher risk for cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to determine to what extent elevated body mass index (BMI) within the normal weight range has causal effects on the detailed systemic metabolite profile in early adulthood. Methods and Findings We used Mendelian randomization to estimate causal effects of BMI on 82 metabolic measures in 12,664 adolescents and young adults from four population-based cohorts in Finland (mean age 26 y, range 16–39 y; 51% women; mean ± standard deviation BMI 24±4 kg/m2). Circulating metabolites were quantified by high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics and biochemical assays. In cross-sectional analyses, elevated BMI was adversely associated with cardiometabolic risk markers throughout the systemic metabolite profile, including lipoprotein subclasses, fatty acid composition, amino acids, inflammatory markers, and various hormones (p<0.0005 for 68 measures). Metabolite associations with BMI were generally stronger for men than for women (median 136%, interquartile range 125%–183%). A gene score for predisposition to elevated BMI, composed of 32 established genetic correlates, was used as the instrument to assess causality. Causal effects of elevated BMI closely matched observational estimates (correspondence 87%±3%; R2 = 0.89), suggesting causative influences of adiposity on the levels of numerous metabolites (p<0.0005 for 24 measures), including lipoprotein lipid subclasses and particle size, branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, and inflammation-related glycoprotein acetyls. Causal analyses of certain metabolites and potential sex differences warrant stronger statistical power. Metabolite changes associated with change in BMI during 6 y of follow-up were examined for 1,488 individuals. Change in BMI was accompanied by widespread metabolite changes, which had an association pattern similar to that of the cross-sectional observations, yet with greater metabolic

  13. Brown adipose tissue as a secretory organ.

    PubMed

    Villarroya, Francesc; Cereijo, Rubén; Villarroya, Joan; Giralt, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the main site of adaptive thermogenesis and experimental studies have associated BAT activity with protection against obesity and metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia. Active BAT is present in adult humans and its activity is impaired in patients with obesity. The ability of BAT to protect against chronic metabolic disease has traditionally been attributed to its capacity to utilize glucose and lipids for thermogenesis. However, BAT might also have a secretory role, which could contribute to the systemic consequences of BAT activity. Several BAT-derived molecules that act in a paracrine or autocrine manner have been identified. Most of these factors promote hypertrophy and hyperplasia of BAT, vascularization, innervation and blood flow, processes that are all associated with BAT recruitment when thermogenic activity is enhanced. Additionally, BAT can release regulatory molecules that act on other tissues and organs. This secretory capacity of BAT is thought to be involved in the beneficial effects of BAT transplantation in rodents. Fibroblast growth factor 21, IL-6 and neuregulin 4 are among the first BAT-derived endocrine factors to be identified. In this Review, we discuss the current understanding of the regulatory molecules (the so-called brown adipokines or batokines) that are released by BAT that influence systemic metabolism and convey the beneficial metabolic effects of BAT activation. The identification of such adipokines might also direct drug discovery approaches for managing obesity and its associated chronic metabolic diseases.

  14. Hypothalamic control of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Labbé, Sebastien M.; Caron, Alexandre; Lanfray, Damien; Monge-Rofarello, Boris; Bartness, Timothy J.; Richard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known, in large part from animal studies, that the control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is insured by the central nervous system (CNS), which integrates several stimuli in order to control BAT activation through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). SNS-mediated BAT activity is governed by diverse neurons found in brain structures involved in homeostatic regulations and whose activity is modulated by various factors including oscillations of energy fluxes. The characterization of these neurons has always represented a challenging issue. The available literature suggests that the neuronal circuits controlling BAT thermogenesis are largely part of an autonomic circuitry involving the hypothalamus, brainstem and the SNS efferent neurons. In the present review, we recapitulate the latest progresses in regards to the hypothalamic regulation of BAT metabolism. We briefly addressed the role of the thermoregulatory pathway and its interactions with the energy balance systems in the control of thermogenesis. We also reviewed the involvement of the brain melanocortin and endocannabinoid systems as well as the emerging role of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) neurons in BAT thermogenesis. Finally, we examined the link existing between these systems and the homeostatic factors that modulate their activities. PMID:26578907

  15. Adipose tissue lymphocytes: types and roles.

    PubMed

    Caspar-Bauguil, S; Cousin, B; Bour, S; Casteilla, L; Castiella, L; Penicaud, L; Carpéné, C

    2009-12-01

    Besides adipocytes, specialized in lipid handling and involved in energy balance regulation, white adipose tissue (WAT) is mainly composed of other cell types among which lymphocytes represent a non-negligible proportion. Different types of lymphocytes (B, alphabetaT, gammadeltaT, NK and NKT) have been detected in WAT of rodents or humans, and vary in their relative proportion according to the fat pad anatomical location. The lymphocytes found in intra-abdominal, visceral fat pads seem representative of innate immunity, while those present in subcutaneous fat depots are part of adaptive immunity, at least in mice. Both the number and the activity of the different lymphocyte classes, except B lymphocytes, are modified in obesity. Several of these modifications in the relative proportions of the lymphocyte classes depend on the degree of obesity, or on leptin concentration, or even fat depot anatomical location. Recent studies suggest that alterations of lymphocyte number and composition precede the macrophage increase and the enhanced inflammatory state of WAT found in obesity. Lymphocytes express receptors to adipokines while several proinflammatory chemokines are produced in WAT, rendering intricate crosstalk between fat and immune cells. However, the evidences and controversies available so far are in favour of an involvement of lymphocytes in the control of the number of other cells in WAT, either adipocytes or immune cells and of their secretory and metabolic activities. Therefore, immunotherapy deserves to be considered as a promising approach to treat the endocrino-metabolic disorders associated to excessive fat mass development.

  16. Osteogenesis of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grottkau, Brian E.; Lin, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Current treatment options for skeletal repair, including immobilization, rigid fixation, alloplastic materials and bone grafts, have significant limitations. Bone tissue engineering offers a promising method for the repair of bone deficieny caused by fractures, bone loss and tumors. The use of adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) has received attention because of the self-renewal ability, high proliferative capacity and potential of osteogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo studies of bone regeneration. Although cell therapies using ASCs are widely promising in various clinical fields, no large human clinical trials exist for bone tissue engineering. The aim of this review is to introduce how they are harvested, examine the characterization of ASCs, to review the mechanisms of osteogenic differentiation, to analyze the effect of mechanical and chemical stimuli on ASC osteodifferentiation, to summarize the current knowledge about usage of ASC in vivo studies and clinical trials, and finally to conclude with a general summary of the field and comments on its future direction. PMID:26273498

  17. Central Control of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Madden, Christopher J.; Tupone, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. Mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a significant source of neurally regulated metabolic heat production in many species from mouse to man. BAT thermogenesis is regulated by neural networks in the central nervous system which responds to feedforward afferent signals from cutaneous and core body thermoreceptors and to feedback signals from brain thermosensitive neurons to activate BAT sympathetic nerve activity. This review summarizes the research leading to a model of the feedforward reflex pathway through which environmental cold stimulates BAT thermogenesis and includes the influence on this thermoregulatory network of the pyrogenic mediator, prostaglandin E2, to increase body temperature during fever. The cold thermal afferent circuit from cutaneous thermal receptors, through second-order thermosensory neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord ascends to activate neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus which drive GABAergic interneurons in the preoptic area (POA) to inhibit warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons of the POA. The resulting disinhibition of BAT thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus activates BAT sympathetic premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the rostral raphe pallidus, which provide excitatory, and possibly disinhibitory, inputs to spinal sympathetic circuits to drive BAT thermogenesis. Other recently recognized central sites influencing BAT thermogenesis and energy expenditure are also described. PMID:22389645

  18. A Prospective Study of LINE-1DNA Methylation and Development of Adiposity in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Perng, Wei; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marín, Constanza; Rozek, Laura S.; Baylin, Ana; Villamor, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Repetitive element DNA methylation is related to prominent obesity-related chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease; yet, little is known of its relation with weight status. We examined associations of LINE-1 DNA methylation with changes in adiposity and linear growth in a longitudinal study of school-age children from Bogotá, Colombia. Methods We quantified methylation of LINE-1 elements from peripheral leukocytes of 553 children aged 5–12 years at baseline using pyrosequencing technology. Anthropometric characteristics were measured periodically for a median of 30 months. We estimated mean change in three age-and sex-standardized indicators of adiposity: body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-score, waist circumference Z-score, and subscapular-to-triceps skinfold thickness ratio Z-score according to quartiles of LINE-1 methylation using mixed effects regression models. We also examined associations with height-for-age Z-score. Results There were non-linear, inverse relations of LINE-1 methylation with BMI-for-age Z-score and the skinfold thickness ratio Z-score. After adjustment for baseline age and socioeconomic status, boys in the lowest quartile of LINE-1 methylation experienced annual gains in BMI-for-age Z-score and skinfold thickness ratio Z-score that were 0.06 Z/year (P = 0.04) and 0.07 Z/year (P = 0.03), respectively, higher than those in the upper three quartiles. The relation of LINE-1 methylation and annual change in waist circumference followed a decreasing monotonic trend across the four quartiles (P trend = 0.02). DNA methylation was not related to any of the adiposity indicators in girls. There were no associations between LINE-1 methylation and linear growth in either sex. Conclusions Lower LINE-1 DNA methylation is related to development of adiposity in boys. PMID:23638120

  19. Biochemical hyperandrogenism is associated with metabolic syndrome independently of adiposity and insulin resistance in Romanian polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Albu, Alice; Radian, Serban; Fica, Simona; Barbu, Carmen Gabriela

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether Romanian polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients have an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to study the involvement of adiposity, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in the pathogenesis of MetS in PCOS. A total of 398 PCOS patients and 126 controls were evaluated between January 2006 and December 2012. MetS was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the correlations among variables of interest by grouping them in few components, and principal component (PCs) scores were saved and used as independent variables in logistic regression. The prevalence of MetS was higher among patients with PCOS (20.4 %) than in controls (11.1 %, p < 0.05). In PCOS patients, PCA extracted three PCs from the analyzed variables. First PC aggregated variables related to adiposity and insulin resistance, with factor loadings showing strong relationship between these parameters. The second PC included markers of hyperandrogenemia and was best represented by free androgen index (FAI) which correlated strongly and exclusively with this PC. The third component was best represented by hirsutism. Logistic regression analysis revealed that in PCOS patients, the first and the second PCs were independently associated with MetS, whereas the third component was not. Romanian PCOS patients have an increased risk for MetS; adiposity, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenemia, but not hirsutism, are independent predictors of MetS presence. Our data also suggest that insulin resistance is only secondary to increased adiposity and FAI is a good marker of biochemical hyperandrogenism with little influences from the metabolic component.

  20. Investigating the Bidirectional Associations of Adiposity with Sleep Duration in Older Adults: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA)

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, Victoria; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Steptoe, Andrew; Kumari, Meena

    2017-01-01

    Cross-sectional analyses of adiposity and sleep duration in younger adults suggest that increased adiposity is associated with shorter sleep. Prospective studies have yielded mixed findings, and the direction of this association in older adults is unclear. We examined the cross-sectional and potential bi-directional, prospective associations between adiposity and sleep duration (covariates included demographics, health behaviours, and health problems) in 5,015 respondents from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), at baseline and follow-up. Following adjustment for covariates, we observed no significant cross-sectional relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sleep duration [(unstandardized) B = −0.28 minutes, (95% Confidence Intervals (CI) = −0.012; 0.002), p = 0.190], or waist circumference (WC) and sleep duration [(unstandardized) B = −0.10 minutes, (95% CI = −0.004; 0.001), p = 0.270]. Prospectively, both baseline BMI [B = −0.42 minutes, (95% CI = −0.013; −0.002), p = 0.013] and WC [B = −0.18 minutes, (95% CI = −0.005; −0.000), p = 0.016] were associated with decreased sleep duration at follow-up, independently of covariates. There was, however, no association between baseline sleep duration and change in BMI or WC (p > 0.05). In older adults, our findings suggested that greater adiposity is associated with decreases in sleep duration over time; however the effect was very small. PMID:28067295

  1. Electrospinning adipose tissue-derived extracellular matrix for adipose stem cell culture.

    PubMed

    Francis, Michael P; Sachs, Patrick C; Madurantakam, Parthasarathy A; Sell, Scott A; Elmore, Lynne W; Bowlin, Gary L; Holt, Shawn E

    2012-07-01

    Basement membrane-rich extracellular matrices, particularly murine sarcoma-derived Matrigel, play important roles in regenerative medicine research, exhibiting marked cellular responses in vitro and in vivo, although with limited clinical applications. We find that a human-derived matrix from lipoaspirate fat, a tissue rich in basement membrane components, can be fabricated by electrospinning and used to support cell culture. We describe practical applications and purification of extracellular matrix (ECM) from adipose tissue (At-ECM) and its use in electrospinning scaffolds and adipose stem cell (ASC) culture. The matrix composition of this purified and electrospun At-ECM was assessed histochemically for basement membrane, connective tissue, collagen, elastic fibers/elastin, glycoprotein, and proteoglycans. Each histochemical stain was positive in fat tissue, purified At-ECM, and electrospun At-ECM, and to some extent positive in a 10:90 blend with polydioxanone (PDO). We also show that electrospun At-ECM, alone and blended with PDO, supports ASC attachment and growth, suggesting that electrospun At-ECM scaffolds support ASC cultivation. These studies show that At-ECM can be isolated and electrospun as a basement membrane-rich tissue engineering matrix capable of supporting stem cells, providing the groundwork for an array of future regenerative medicine advances.

  2. Identification of differentially expressed genes in omental adipose tissues of obese patients by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jie; Ni, Yu-hui; Gong, Hai-xia; Fei, Li; Pan, Xiao-qin; Guo, Mei; Chen, Rong-hua; Guo, Xi-rong

    2007-01-12

    To identify differentially expressed genes between obese individuals and normal control, we have undertaken suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Omental adipose tissues were obtained via abdominal surgery for appendicitis in both 13 obese subjects [BMI (body mass index) >30 kg/m2] and 13 normal subjects (BMI >18 and <25 kg/m2). Following SSH, about one thousand clones were sequenced and found to derive from 426 different genes. These predominately expressed genes included genes involved in lipid metabolism, cytokines, signal transduction, GLUT4 translocation, cell cycle and growth, cytoskeleton, and others. Although more detailed analyses are necessary, it is anticipated that further study of genes identified will provide insights into their specific roles in the etiology of obesity.

  3. Long-term IGF-I treatment of children with Laron syndrome increases adiposity.

    PubMed

    Laron, Zvi; Ginsberg, Shira; Lilos, Pnina; Arbiv, Mira; Vaisman, Nahum

    2006-02-01

    Laron syndrome (LS) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by deletions or mutations in the GH receptor gene leading to an inability of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) generation. Among the major resulting body changes are dwarfism and obesity. The only effective treatment is daily administration of biosynthetic IGF-I. Body composition determination by DEXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) of three girls with LS treated by IGF-I for 1, 3 and 11 1/2 years, respectively, revealed that concomitantly with the increase in growth there was a significant increase in body adipose tissue to double or triple the normal values. Due to the underdevelopment of the muscular and skeletal systems body mass index (BMI) did not accurately reflect the degree of obesity. In conclusion, IGF-I similar to insulin, exerts an adipogenic effect.

  4. The necroptosis-inducing kinase RIPK3 dampens adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Gautheron, Jérémie; Vucur, Mihael; Schneider, Anne T.; Severi, Ilenia; Roderburg, Christoph; Roy, Sanchari; Bartneck, Matthias; Schrammen, Peter; Diaz, Mauricio Berriel; Ehling, Josef; Gremse, Felix; Heymann, Felix; Koppe, Christiane; Lammers, Twan; Kiessling, Fabian; Van Best, Niels; Pabst, Oliver; Courtois, Gilles; Linkermann, Andreas; Krautwald, Stefan; Neumann, Ulf P.; Tacke, Frank; Trautwein, Christian; Green, Douglas R.; Longerich, Thomas; Frey, Norbert; Luedde, Mark; Bluher, Matthias; Herzig, Stephan; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Luedde, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) mediates necroptosis, a form of programmed cell death that promotes inflammation in various pathological conditions, suggesting that it might be a privileged pharmacological target. However, its function in glucose homeostasis and obesity has been unknown. Here we show that RIPK3 is over expressed in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese mice fed with a choline-deficient high-fat diet. Genetic inactivation of Ripk3 promotes increased Caspase-8-dependent adipocyte apoptosis and WAT inflammation, associated with impaired insulin signalling in WAT as the basis for glucose intolerance. Similarly to mice, in visceral WAT of obese humans, RIPK3 is overexpressed and correlates with the body mass index and metabolic serum markers. Together, these findings provide evidence that RIPK3 in WAT maintains tissue homeostasis and suppresses inflammation and adipocyte apoptosis, suggesting that systemic targeting of necroptosis might be associated with the risk of promoting insulin resistance in obese patients. PMID:27323669

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of visceral adipose from healthy and diabetic obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Sandeep Kumar; Jain, Priyanka; Mathur, Prashant; Punjabi, Poonam; Agarwal, Atima; Sharma, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the role of visceral fat accumulation in the occurrence and progression of metabolic syndrome is of considerable interest. In order to understand the difference between visceral tissue biology of healthy and unhealthy obese individuals, we have used microarray profiling to compare genome-wide expression differences between visceral adipose tissue biopsies obtained from obese diabetics, and those from age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal glucose tolerance subjects. Whereas genes upregulated in diabetics showed enrichment of natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, the downregulated genes showed enrichment of biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. Given the known inhibitory effect of unsaturated fatty acids on inflammation and natural killer cell number or activity, our results suggest that visceral inflammation resulting from decreased levels of unsaturated fatty acids may underlie progression of diabetes in obese individuals. PMID:23869300

  6. Fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue in genetically heat-tolerant FOK rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Furuyama, F.; Kuroshima, A.

    The phospholipid fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was examined in inbred heat-tolerant FOK rats and compared with that in conventional Wistar rats not previously exposed to heat. The FOK rats showed higher unsaturation states, as indicated by higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a higher unsaturation index and polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio. This higher level of unsaturation was characterized by the higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It may be concluded that the increased docosahexaenoic acid level in BAT phospholipids brings about the hyperplasia of BAT, causing an enhancement of its in vivo thermogernic activity as well as the systemic non-shivering thermogenesis observed in heat-tolerant FOK rats.

  7. UCP1 in adipose tissues: two steps to full browning.

    PubMed

    Kalinovich, Anastasia V; de Jong, Jasper M A; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2017-03-01

    The possibility that brown adipose tissue thermogenesis can be recruited in order to combat the development of obesity has led to a high interest in the identification of "browning agents", i.e. agents that increase the amount and activity of UCP1 in brown and brite/beige adipose tissues. However, functional analysis of the browning process yields confusingly different results when the analysis is performed in one of two alternative steps. Thus, in one of the steps, using cold acclimation as a potent model browning agent, we find that if the browning process is followed in mice initially housed at 21 °C (the most common procedure), there is only weak molecular evidence for increases in UCP1 gene expression or UCP1 protein abundance in classical brown adipose tissue; however, in brite/beige adipose depots, there are large increases, apparently associating functional browning with events only in the brite/beige tissues. Contrastingly, in another step, if the process is followed starting with mice initially housed at 30 °C (thermoneutrality for mice, thus similar to normal human conditions), large increases in UCP1 gene expression and UCP1 protein abundance are observed in the classical brown adipose tissue depots; there is then practically no observable UCP1 gene expression in brite/beige tissues. This apparent conundrum can be resolved when it is realized that the classical brown adipose tissue at 21 °C is already essentially fully differentiated and thus expands extensively through proliferation upon further browning induction, rather than by further enhancing cellular differentiation. When the limiting factor for thermogenesis, i.e. the total amount of UCP1 protein per depot, is analyzed, classical brown adipose tissue is by far the predominant site for the browning process, irrespective of which of the two steps is analyzed. There are to date no published data demonstrating that alternative browning agents would selectively promote brite/beige tissues

  8. Thrombospondin-1 regulates adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in diet-induced obesity enhancing adipose inflammation and stimulating adipocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ping; Gonzalez-Quesada, Carlos; Li, Na; Cavalera, Michele; Lee, Dong-Wook

    2013-01-01

    As a typical matricellular protein, thrombospondin (TSP)-1, binds to the structural matrix and regulates cellular behavior by modulating growth factor and cytokine signaling. Obesity and diabetes are associated with marked upregulation of TSP-1 in adipose tissue. We hypothesized that endogenous TSP-1 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Accordingly, we examined the effects of TSP-1 gene disruption on weight gain, adiposity, and adipose tissue inflammation in mice receiving a high-fat diet (HFD: 60% fat, 20% carbohydrate) or a high-carbohydrate low-fat diet (HCLFD: 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate). HFD mice had significantly higher TSP-1 expression in perigonadal adipose tissue; TSP-1 was predominantly localized in the adipose interstitium. TSP-1 loss attenuated weight gain and fat accumulation in HFD and HCLFD groups. Compared with corresponding wild-type animals, TSP-1-null mice had decreased insulin levels but exhibited elevated free fatty acid and triglyceride levels, suggesting impaired fatty acid uptake. TSP-1 loss did not affect adipocyte size and had no effect on adipose vascular density. However, TSP-1-null mice exhibited attenuated tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression and reduced macrophage infiltration, suggesting a role for TSP-1 in mediating obesity-associated inflammation. In vitro, TSP-1 enhanced proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes but did not modulate inflammatory cytokine and chemokine synthesis. In conclusion, TSP-1 upregulation contributes to weight gain, adipose growth, and the pathogenesis of metabolic dysfunction. The effects of TSP-1 may involve stimulation of adipocyte proliferation, activation of inflammatory signaling, and facilitated fatty acid uptake by adipocytes. PMID:23757408

  9. Characterization of adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and their function in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Andreas; Friemel, Alexandra; Fornoff, Friderike; Adjan, Mouhib; Solbach, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types and thus considered useful for regenerative medicine. However, this differentiation feature seems to be associated with tumor initiation and metastasis raising safety concerns, which requires further investigation. In this study, we isolated adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous as well as from visceral adipose tissues of the same donor and systematically compared their features. Although being characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells, subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells tend to be spindle form-like and are more able to home to cancer cells, whereas visceral adipose-derived stem cells incline to be “epithelial”-like and more competent to differentiate. Moreover, compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells, visceral adipose-derived stem cells are more capable of promoting proliferation, inducing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, enhancing migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by cell-cell contact and by secreting interleukins such as IL-6 and IL-8. Importantly, ASCs affect the low malignant breast cancer cells MCF-7 more than the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. Induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is mediated by the activation of multiple pathways especially the PI3K/AKT signaling in breast cancer cells. BCL6, an important player in B-cell lymphoma and breast cancer progression, is crucial for this transition. Finally, this transition fuels malignant properties of breast cancer cells and render them resistant to ATP competitive Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors BI 2535 and BI 6727. PMID:26439686

  10. Characterization of adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and their function in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Andreas; Friemel, Alexandra; Fornoff, Friderike; Adjan, Mouhib; Solbach, Christine; Yuan, Juping; Louwen, Frank

    2015-10-27

    Adipose-derived stem cells are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types and thus considered useful for regenerative medicine. However, this differentiation feature seems to be associated with tumor initiation and metastasis raising safety concerns, which requires further investigation. In this study, we isolated adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous as well as from visceral adipose tissues of the same donor and systematically compared their features. Although being characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells, subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells tend to be spindle form-like and are more able to home to cancer cells, whereas visceral adipose-derived stem cells incline to be "epithelial"-like and more competent to differentiate. Moreover, compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells, visceral adipose-derived stem cells are more capable of promoting proliferation, inducing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, enhancing migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by cell-cell contact and by secreting interleukins such as IL-6 and IL-8. Importantly, ASCs affect the low malignant breast cancer cells MCF-7 more than the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. Induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is mediated by the activation of multiple pathways especially the PI3K/AKT signaling in breast cancer cells. BCL6, an important player in B-cell lymphoma and breast cancer progression, is crucial for this transition. Finally, this transition fuels malignant properties of breast cancer cells and render them resistant to ATP competitive Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors BI 2535 and BI 6727.

  11. New Adipose Tissue Formation by Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells with Hyaluronic Acid Gel in Immunodeficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shu-Hung; Lin, Yun-Nan; Lee, Su-Shin; Chai, Chee-Yin; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Tsai-Ming; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently available injectable fillers have demonstrated limited durability. This report proposes the in vitro culture of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) on hyaluronic acid (HA) gel for in vivo growth of de novo adipose tissue. Methods: For in vitro studies, hASCs were isolated from human adipose tissue and were confirmed by multi-lineage differentiation and flow cytometry. hASCs were cultured on HA gel. The effectiveness of cell attachment and proliferation on HA gel was surveyed by inverted light microscopy. For in vivo studies, HA gel containing hASCs, hASCs without HA gel, HA gel alone were allocated and subcutaneously injected into the subcutaneous pocket in the back of nude mice (n=6) in each group. At eight weeks post-injection, the implants were harvested for histological examination by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, Oil-Red O stain and immunohistochemical staining. The human-specific Alu gene was examined. Results: hASCs were well attachment and proliferation on the HA gel. In vivo grafts showed well-organized new adipose tissue on the HA gel by histologic examination and Oil-Red O stain. Analysis of neo-adipose tissues by PCR revealed the presence of the Alu gene. This study demonstrated not only the successful culture of hASCs on HA gel, but also their full proliferation and differentiation into adipose tissue. Conclusions: The efficacy of injected filler could be permanent since the reduction of the volume of the HA gel after bioabsorption could be replaced by new adipose tissue generated by hASCs. This is a promising approach for developing long lasting soft tissue filler. PMID:25589892

  12. [Interests and potentials of adipose tissue in scleroderma].

    PubMed

    Daumas, A; Eraud, J; Hautier, A; Sabatier, F; Magalon, G; Granel, B

    2013-12-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a disorder involving the connective tissue, arterioles and microvessels. It is characterized by skin and visceral fibrosis and ischemic phenomena. Currently, therapy is limited and no antifibrotic treatment has proven its efficacy. Beyond some severe organ lesions (pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, scleroderma renal crisis), which only concern a minority of patients, the skin sclerosis of hands and face and the vasculopathy lead to physical and psychological disability in most patients. Thus, functional improvement of hand motion and face represents a priority for patient therapy. Due to its easy obtention by fat lipopaspirate and adipocytes survival, re injection of adipose tissue is a common therapy used in plastic surgery for its voluming effect. Identification and characterization of the adipose tissue-derived stroma vascular fraction, mainly including mesenchymal stem cells, have revolutionized the science showing that adipose tissue is a valuable source of multipotent stem cells, able to migrate to site of injury and to differentiate according to the receiver tissue's needs. Due to easy harvest by liposuction, its abundance in mesenchymal cells far higher that the bone marrow, and stroma vascular fraction's ability to differentiate and secrete growth angiogenic and antiapoptotic factors, the use of adipose tissue is becoming more attractive in regenerative medicine. We here present the interest of adipose tissue use in the treatment of the hands and face in scleroderma.

  13. Natural killer T cells in adipose tissue prevent insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Schipper, Henk S.; Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; van de Graaf, Stan F.J.; Venken, Koen; Koppen, Arjen; Stienstra, Rinke; Prop, Serge; Meerding, Jenny; Hamers, Nicole; Besra, Gurdyal; Boon, Louis; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E.S.; Elewaut, Dirk; Prakken, Berent; Kersten, Sander; Boes, Marianne; Kalkhoven, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Lipid overload and adipocyte dysfunction are key to the development of insulin resistance and can be induced by a high-fat diet. CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have been proposed as mediators between lipid overload and insulin resistance, but recent studies found decreased iNKT cell numbers and marginal effects of iNKT cell depletion on insulin resistance under high-fat diet conditions. Here, we focused on the role of iNKT cells under normal conditions. We showed that iNKT cell–deficient mice on a low-fat diet, considered a normal diet for mice, displayed a distinctive insulin resistance phenotype without overt adipose tissue inflammation. Insulin resistance was characterized by adipocyte dysfunction, including adipocyte hypertrophy, increased leptin, and decreased adiponectin levels. The lack of liver abnormalities in CD1d-null mice together with the enrichment of CD1d-restricted iNKT cells in both mouse and human adipose tissue indicated a specific role for adipose tissue–resident iNKT cells in the development of insulin resistance. Strikingly, iNKT cell function was directly modulated by adipocytes, which acted as lipid antigen-presenting cells in a CD1d-mediated fashion. Based on these findings, we propose that, especially under low-fat diet conditions, adipose tissue–resident iNKT cells maintain healthy adipose tissue through direct interplay with adipocytes and prevent insulin resistance. PMID:22863618

  14. Natural killer T cells in adipose tissue prevent insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Schipper, Henk S; Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; van de Graaf, Stan F J; Venken, Koen; Koppen, Arjen; Stienstra, Rinke; Prop, Serge; Meerding, Jenny; Hamers, Nicole; Besra, Gurdyal; Boon, Louis; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Elewaut, Dirk; Prakken, Berent; Kersten, Sander; Boes, Marianne; Kalkhoven, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Lipid overload and adipocyte dysfunction are key to the development of insulin resistance and can be induced by a high-fat diet. CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have been proposed as mediators between lipid overload and insulin resistance, but recent studies found decreased iNKT cell numbers and marginal effects of iNKT cell depletion on insulin resistance under high-fat diet conditions. Here, we focused on the role of iNKT cells under normal conditions. We showed that iNKT cell-deficient mice on a low-fat diet, considered a normal diet for mice, displayed a distinctive insulin resistance phenotype without overt adipose tissue inflammation. Insulin resistance was characterized by adipocyte dysfunction, including adipocyte hypertrophy, increased leptin, and decreased adiponectin levels. The lack of liver abnormalities in CD1d-null mice together with the enrichment of CD1d-restricted iNKT cells in both mouse and human adipose tissue indicated a specific role for adipose tissue-resident iNKT cells in the development of insulin resistance. Strikingly, iNKT cell function was directly modulated by adipocytes, which acted as lipid antigen-presenting cells in a CD1d-mediated fashion. Based on these findings, we propose that, especially under low-fat diet conditions, adipose tissue-resident iNKT cells maintain healthy adipose tissue through direct interplay with adipocytes and prevent insulin resistance.

  15. DNA methylation mediates the impact of exposure to prenatal maternal stress on BMI and central adiposity in children at age 13½ years: Project Ice Storm.

    PubMed

    Cao-Lei, Lei; Dancause, Kelsey N; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Massart, Renaud; Szyf, Moshe; Liu, Aihua; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in animals and humans predicts obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. Epigenetic modification of gene function is considered one possible mechanism by which PNMS results in poor outcomes in offspring. Our goal was to determine the role of maternal objective exposure and subjective distress on child BMI and central adiposity at 13½ years of age, and to test the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the effect of PNMS on growth. Mothers were pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec ice storm. We assessed their objective exposure and subjective distress in June 1998. At age 13½ their children were weighed and measured (n = 66); a subsample provided blood samples for epigenetic studies (n = 31). Objective and subjective PNMS correlated with central adiposity (waist-to-height ratio); only objective PNMS predicted body mass index (BMI). Bootstrapping analyses showed that the methylation level of genes from established Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways showed significant mediation of the effect of objective PNMS on both central adiposity and BMI. However, the negative mediating effects indicate that, although greater objective PNMS predicts greater BMI and adiposity, this effect is dampened by the effects of objective PNMS on DNA methylation, suggesting a protective role of the selected genes from Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways. We provide data supporting that DNA methylation is a potential mechanism involved in the long-term adaptation and programming of the genome in response to early adverse environmental factors.

  16. Social Patterning in Adiposity in Adolescence: Prospective Observations from the Chinese Birth Cohort ‘‘Children of 1997’’

    PubMed Central

    Hui, L. L.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low early life socio-economic position is more strongly associated with adiposity among women than men. We examined whether the sex difference of social patterning in general and central adiposity exists before adulthood. Methods In Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” birth cohort, we used multivariable regression to examine the association of parental education, a marker of early life socio-economic position, with body mass index (BMI) (n = 7252, 88% follow-up) and waist-height ratio (n = 5636, 68% follow-up), at 14 years. Results Parental education of Grade 9 or below, compared to Grade 12 or above, was associated with higher waist-height ratio z-score particularly in girls (0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19, 0.41) compared to boys (0.12, 95% CI 0.02, 0.22) (p for sex interaction = 0.02). Lower parental education was associated with greater BMI z-score in adolescents of locally born mothers, but not adolescents of migrant mothers, with no difference by sex. Conclusions Different social patterning in different markers of adiposity may imply different sociological and biological mediating pathways. A stronger association between low early life socio-economic position and waist-height ratio in adolescent girls may indicate sex-specific influences of SEP related early life exposures on central adiposity. PMID:26735134

  17. Identification of a Novel Function of Adipocyte Plasma Membrane-Associated Protein (APMAP) in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus by Proteomic Analysis of Omental Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuhang; Gao, Jing; Yin, Jiajing; Gu, Liping; Liu, Xing; Chen, Su; Huang, Qianfang; Lu, Huifang; Yang, Yuemin; Zhou, Hu; Wang, Yufan; Peng, Yongde

    2016-02-05

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is considered as an early stage of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we compared demographic and clinical data between six GDM subjects and six normal glucose tolerance (NGT; healthy controls) subjects and found that homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) increased in GDM. Many previous studies demonstrated that omental adipose tissue dysfunction could induce insulin resistance. Thus, to investigate the cause of insulin resistance in GDM, we used label-free proteomics to identify differentially expressed proteins in omental adipose tissues from GDM and NGT subjects (data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003095). A total of 3528 proteins were identified, including 66 significantly changed proteins. Adipocyte plasma membrane-associated protein (APMAP, a.k.a. C20orf3), one of the differentially expressed proteins, was down-regulated in GDM omental adipose tissues. Furthermore, mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used to simulate omental adipocytes. The inhibition of APMAP expression by RNAi impaired insulin signaling and activated NFκB signaling in these adipocytes. Our study revealed that the down-regulation of APMAP in omental adipose tissue may play an important role in insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of GDM.

  18. DNA methylation mediates the impact of exposure to prenatal maternal stress on BMI and central adiposity in children at age 13½ years: Project Ice Storm

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Lei, Lei; Dancause, Kelsey N; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Massart, Renaud; Szyf, Moshe; Liu, Aihua; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in animals and humans predicts obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. Epigenetic modification of gene function is considered one possible mechanism by which PNMS results in poor outcomes in offspring. Our goal was to determine the role of maternal objective exposure and subjective distress on child BMI and central adiposity at 13½ years of age, and to test the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the effect of PNMS on growth. Mothers were pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec ice storm. We assessed their objective exposure and subjective distress in June 1998. At age 13½ their children were weighed and measured (n = 66); a subsample provided blood samples for epigenetic studies (n = 31). Objective and subjective PNMS correlated with central adiposity (waist-to-height ratio); only objective PNMS predicted body mass index (BMI). Bootstrapping analyses showed that the methylation level of genes from established Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways showed significant mediation of the effect of objective PNMS on both central adiposity and BMI. However, the negative mediating effects indicate that, although greater objective PNMS predicts greater BMI and adiposity, this effect is dampened by the effects of objective PNMS on DNA methylation, suggesting a protective role of the selected genes from Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways. We provide data supporting that DNA methylation is a potential mechanism involved in the long-term adaptation and programming of the genome in response to early adverse environmental factors. PMID:26098974

  19. Effects of hypergravity on adipose-derived stem cell morphology, mechanical property and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Tavakolinejad, Alireza; Rabbani, Mohsen; Janmaleki, Mohsen

    2015-08-21

    Alteration in specific inertial conditions can lead to changes in morphology, proliferation, mechanical properties and cytoskeleton of cells. In this report, the effects of hypergravity on morphology of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) are indicated. ADSCs were repeatedly exposed to discontinuous hypergravity conditions of 10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g by utilizing centrifuge (three times of 20 min exposure, with an interval of 40 min at 1 g). Cell morphology in terms of length, width and cell elongation index and cytoskeleton of actin filaments and microtubules were analyzed by image processing. Consistent changes observed in cell elongation index as morphological change. Moreover, cell proliferation was assessed and mechanical properties of cells in case of elastic modulus of cells were evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Increase in proliferation and decrease in elastic modulus of cells are further results of this study. Staining ADSC was done to show changes in cytoskeleton of the cells associated to hypergravity condition specifically in microfilament and microtubule components. After exposing to hypergravity, significant changes were observed in microfilaments and microtubule density as components of cytoskeleton. It was concluded that there could be a relationship between changes in morphology and MFs as the main component of the cells. - Highlights: • Hypergravity (10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g) affects on adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs). • ADSCs after exposure to the hypergravity are more slender. • The height of ADSCs increases in all test groups comparing their control group. • Hypergravity decreases ADSCs modulus of elasticity and cell actin fiber content. • Hypergravity enhances proliferation rate of ADSCs.

  20. Extent, Causes, and Consequences of Small RNA Expression Variation in Human Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Knights, Andrew J.; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; van de Bunt, Martijn; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Bartonicek, Nenad; van Dongen, Stijn; Mägi, Reedik; Nisbet, James; Barrett, Amy; Rantalainen, Mattias; Nica, Alexandra C.; Quail, Michael A.; Small, Kerrin S.; Glass, Daniel; Enright, Anton J.; Winn, John; Deloukas, Panos; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Spector, Timothy D.; Durbin, Richard; Lindgren, Cecilia M.

    2012-01-01

    Small RNAs are functional molecules that modulate mRNA transcripts and have been implicated in the aetiology of several common diseases. However, little is known about the extent of their variability within the human population. Here, we characterise the extent, causes, and effects of naturally occurring variation in expression and sequence of small RNAs from adipose tissue in relation to genotype, gene expression, and metabolic traits in the MuTHER reference cohort. We profiled the expression of 15 to 30 base pair RNA molecules in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 131 individuals using high-throughput sequencing, and quantified levels of 591 microRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs. We identified three genetic variants and three RNA editing events. Highly expressed small RNAs are more conserved within mammals than average, as are those with highly variable expression. We identified 14 genetic loci significantly associated with nearby small RNA expression levels, seven of which also regulate an mRNA transcript level in the same region. In addition, these loci are enriched for variants significant in genome-wide association studies for body mass index. Contrary to expectation, we found no evidence for negative correlation between expression level of a microRNA and its target mRNAs. Trunk fat mass, body mass index, and fasting insulin were associated with more than twenty small RNA expression levels each, while fasting glucose had no significant associations. This study highlights the similar genetic complexity and shared genetic control of small RNA and mRNA transcripts, and gives a quantitative picture of small RNA expression variation in the human population. PMID:22589741

  1. Molecular pathways regulating the formation of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianfei; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Huiqin; Mao, Yushan; Wang, Anshi; Wang, Xin; Zou, Zuquan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is functionally composed of brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue. The unique thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue results from expression of uncoupling protein 1 in the mitochondrial inner membrane. On the basis of recent findings that adult humans have functionally active brown adipose tissue, it is now recognized as playing a much more important role in human metabolism than was previously thought. More importantly, brown-like adipocytes can be recruited in white adipose tissue upon environmental stimulation and pharmacologic treatment, and this change is associated with increased energy expenditure, contributing to a lean and healthy phenotype. Thus, the promotion of brown-like adipocyte development in white adipose tissue offers novel possibilities for the development of therapeutic strategies to combat obesity and related metabolic diseases. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the recruitment of brown-like adipocyte in white adipose tissue.

  2. Diet quality across early childhood and adiposity at 6 years: the Southampton Women's Survey

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, H; Crozier, S R; Harvey, N C; Godfrey, K M; Inskip, H M; Cooper, C; Robinson, S M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poor diet quality in early childhood is inconsistently linked to obesity risk. Understanding may be limited by the use of cross-sectional data and the use of body mass index (BMI) to define adiposity in childhood. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine the effects of continued exposure to diets of varying quality across early childhood in relation to adiposity at 6 years. Methods: One thousand and eighteen children from a prospective UK birth cohort were studied. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires when the children were aged 6 and 12 months, and 3 and 6 years; diet quality was determined according to scores for a principal component analysis-defined dietary pattern at each age (characterized by frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables and fish). At each age, children were allocated a value of 0/1/2 according to third of the distribution (bottom/middle/top) their diet quality score was in; values were summed to calculate an overall diet quality index (DQI) for early childhood (range 0–8). Obesity outcomes considered at 6 years were dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-assessed fat mass and BMI. Results: One hundred and seven (11%) children had a DQI=0, indicating a consistently low diet quality, 339 (33%) had a DQI=1–3, 378 (37%) had a DQI=4–6 and 194 (19%) had a DQI=7–8. There was a strong association between lower DQI and higher fat mass z-score at 6 years that was robust to adjustment for confounders (fat mass s.d. per 1-unit DQI increase: β=−0.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.09, −0.01), P=0.01). In comparison with children who had the highest diet quality (DQI=7–8), this amounted to a difference in fat mass of 14% (95% CI: 2%, 28%) at 6 years for children with the poorest diets (DQI=0). In contrast, no independent associations were observed between DQI and BMI. Conclusions: Continued exposure to diets of low quality across early childhood is linked to adiposity at the age of 6 years. PMID:26121960

  3. Bisphenol A and Adiposity in an Inner-City Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hoepner, Lori A.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Widen, Elizabeth M.; Hassoun, Abeer; Oberfield, Sharon E.; Mueller, Noel T.; Diaz, Diurka; Calafat, Antonia M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early-life exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) may contribute to the development of obesity. Prospective evidence in humans on this topic is limited. Objectives: We examined prenatal and early-childhood BPA exposures in relation to childhood measures of adiposity in the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) New York City birth cohort. Methods: BPA concentrations were measured in prenatal (n = 375) and child ages 3 (n = 408) and 5 years (n = 518) spot urine samples. Childhood anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance outcomes included body mass index z-scores (BMIZ) at 5 and 7 years, and fat mass index (FMI), percent body fat (%BF), and waist circumference (WC) at 7 years. Associations were evaluated using multiple linear regression with continuous and tertile BPA concentrations. Results: Prenatal urinary BPA concentrations were positively associated with child age 7 FMI (β = 0.31 kg/m2; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.60, p = 0.04), %BF (β = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.03, 1.55, p = 0.04), and WC (β = 1.29 cm; 95% CI: 0.29, 2.30, p = 0.01), but not BMIZ, or change in BMIZ between ages 5 and 7 years (all p-values > 0.1). FMI results were sex-specific. Child urinary BPA concentrations were not associated with child anthropometric outcomes (all p-values > 0.05). Conclusions: Analyses of the CCCEH longitudinal birth cohort found associations between prenatal urinary BPA concentrations and FMI, %BF, and WC. Our results suggest that prenatal BPA exposure may contribute to developmental origins of adiposity. These findings are consistent with several prior studies, raising concern about the pervasiveness of BPA. Citation: Hoepner LA, Whyatt RM, Widen EM, Hassoun A, Oberfield SE, Mueller NT, Diaz D, Calafat AM, Perera FP, Rundle AG. 2016. Bisphenol A and adiposity in an inner-city birth cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:1644–1650; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP205 PMID:27187982

  4. In Vivo Dedifferentiation of Adult Adipose Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Feng; Dong, Ziqing; Chang, Qiang; Gao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adipocytes can dedifferentiate into fibroblast-like cells in vitro and thereby acquire proliferation and multipotent capacities to participate in the repair of various organs and tissues. Whether dedifferentiation occurs under physiological or pathological conditions in vivo is unknown. Methods A tissue expander was placed under the inguinal fat pads of rats and gradually expanded by injection of water. Samples were collected at various time points, and morphological, histological, cytological, ultrastructural, and gene expression analyses were conducted. In a separate experiment, purified green fluorescent protein+ adipocytes were transplanted into C57 mice and collected at various time points. The transplanted adipocytes were assessed by bioluminescence imaging and whole-mount staining. Results The expanded fat pad was obviously thinner than the untreated fat pad on the opposite side. It was also tougher in texture and with more blood vessels attached. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy indicated there were fewer monolocular adipocytes in the expanded fat pad and the morphology of these cells was altered, most notably their lipid content was discarded. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expanded fat pad contained an increased number of proliferative cells, which may have been derived from adipocytes. Following removal of the tissue expander, many small adipocytes were observed. Bioluminescence imaging suggested that some adipocytes survived when transplanted into an ischemic-hypoxic environment. Whole-mount staining revealed that surviving adipocytes underwent a process similar to adipocyte dedifferentiation in vitro. Monolocular adipocytes became multilocular adipocytes and then fibroblast-like cells. Conclusions Mature adipocytes may be able to dedifferentiate in vivo, and this may be an adipose tissue self-repair mechanism. The capacity of adipocytes to dedifferentiate into stem cell-like cells may also have a

  5. A new approach to electron diffraction analysis of symmetric triatomic molecules with large-amplitude bending motion : The equilibrium geometry, force field and vibrational frequencies of BaI2 as determined by electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, V. P.; Gershikov, A. G.; Altman, A. B.; Romanov, G. V.; Ivanov, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    Diffraction data on BaI 2, analyzed by a new approach, indicate an anharmonic potential with a barrier of 71(12) cm -1 at a linear geometry. The structural and vibrational parameters were found to be reh(Ba-I o) = 3.150(7)Å, ∠ eIBaI = 148.0(9) °, fq = 0.69(8) mdyn/Å, fqq= 0.14(6) mdyn/Å, k2 = -0.0075(15) mdyn/Å, k4 = 0.0025(9) mdyn/Å 3, v1 = 106(12) cm -1 and v3 = 145(21) cm -1. The bending frequency v2 is predicted to be near 16 cm -1.

  6. Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaSR) activation elevates proinflammatory factor expression in human adipose cells and adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cifuentes, Mariana; Fuentes, Cecilia; Acevedo, Ingrid; Villalobos, Elisa; Hugo, Eric; Ben Jonathan, Nira; Reyes, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    We have previously established that human adipose cells and the human adipose cell line LS14 express the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) and that its expression is elevated upon exposure to inflammatory cytokines that are typically elevated in obese humans. Research in recent years has established that an important part of the adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of obesity derive from a dysfunction of the tissue, one of the mechanisms being a disordered secretion pattern leading to an excess of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Given the reported association of the CaSR to inflammatory processes in other tissues, we sought to evaluate its role elevating the adipose expression of inflammatory factors. We exposed adipose tissue and in-vitro cultured LS14 preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes to the calcimimetic cinacalcet and evaluated the expression or production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL6, IL1β and TNFα as well as the chemoattractant factor CCL2. CaSR activation elicited an elevation in the expression of the inflammatory factors, which was in part reverted by SN50, an inhibitor of the inflammatory mediator NFκB. Our observations suggest that CaSR activation elevates cytokine and chemokine production through a signaling pathway involving activation of NFκB nuclear translocation. These findings confirm the relevance of the CaSR in the pathophysiology of obesity-induced adipose tissue dysfunction, with an interesting potential for pharmacological manipulation in the fight against obesity- associated diseases. PMID:22449852

  7. Cost Index Flying

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    continually alter applicable cost indexes . Computed KC-10 Cost Index Equation Using the dollar figures given above, our CI equation reads : CI = CT / C...COST INDEX FLYING GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER John M. Mirtich, Major, USAF AFIT/IMO/ENS/11-11 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY...AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED

  8. Recent Advances in Proteomic Studies of Adipose Tissues and Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Won Kon; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Han, Baek Soo; Lee, Sang Chul; Bae, Kwang-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that is associated with significantly increased levels of risk of a number of metabolic disorders. Despite these enhanced health risks, the worldwide prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past few decades. Obesity is caused by the accumulation of an abnormal amount of body fat in adipose tissue, which is composed mostly of adipocytes. Thus, a deeper understanding of the regulation mechanism of adipose tissue and/or adipocytes can provide a clue for overcoming obesity-related metabolic diseases. In this review, we describe recent advances in the study of adipose tissue and/or adipocytes, focusing on proteomic approaches. In addition, we suggest future research directions for proteomic studies which may lead to novel treatments of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:25734986

  9. The effect of hypokinesia on lipid metabolism in adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, Ladislav; Kvetn̆anský, Richard; Ficková, Mária

    The increase of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in plasma was observed in rats subjected to hypokinesia for 1-60 days. In the period of recovery (7 and 21 days after 60 days immobilization) the content of NEFA returned to control values. The increase of fatty acid release from adipose tissue was observed in hypokinetic rats, however the stimulation of lipolysis by norepinephrine was lower in rats exposed to hypokinesis. The decrease of the binding capacity and a diminished number of beta-adrenergic receptors were found in animals after hypokinesia. The augmentation of the incorporation of glucose into lipids and the marked increase in the stimulation of lipogenesis by insulin were found in adipose tissue of rats subjected to long-term hypokinesia. These results showed an important effect of hypokinesia on lipid mobilization, on lipogenesis and on the processes of hormone regulation in adipose tissue.

  10. Growth hormone and adipose tissue: beyond the adipocyte

    PubMed Central

    Berryman, Darlene E.; List, Edward O.; Sackmann-Sala, Lucila; Lubbers, Ellen; Munn, Rachel; Kopchick, John J.

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades have seen resurgence in the interest in, and research on, adipose tissue. In part, the increased interest stems from an alarming increase in obesity rates worldwide. However, an understanding that this once simple tissue is significantly more intricate and interactive than previously realized has fostered additional attention. While few would argue that growth hormone (GH) radically alters adipose tissue, a better appreciation of the newer complexities requires that GH's influence on this tissue be reexamined. Therefore, the objective of this review is to describe the more recent understanding of adipose tissue and how GH may influence and contribute to these newer complexities with special focus on the available data from mice with altered GH action. PMID:21470887

  11. Hkat, a novel nutritionally regulated transmembrane protein in adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ren

    2012-01-01

    White adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ regulating many aspects of whole body physiology and pathology. Adipogenesis, a process in which premature cells differentiate into adipocytes, is a complex process that includes orchestrated changes in gene expression and cell morphology in response to various nutritional and hormonal stimuli. To profile transcriptome changes in response to nutritional stimulation, we performed RNA-seq on fat in mice treated with either a high-fat diet or fasting. We identified a novel nutritionally regulated gene, Gm12824, named Hkat (heart, kidney, adipose-enriched transmembrane protein). We show that both fasting and obesity dramatically reduce Hkat in white adipose tissue, and that fasting reduces while obesity increases its expression in brown fat. Hkat is localized to the plasma membrane and induced during adipogenesis. Therefore, Hkat is a novel nutritionally regulated gene that is potentially involved in metabolism.

  12. Assessment of feline abdominal adipose tissue using computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyeon; Kim, Mieun; Choi, Mihyun; Lee, Namsoon; Chang, Jinhwa; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Mincheol

    2010-12-01

    Obesity is a common nutritional disorder in cats and it increases the risk factors for various diseases. The aim of this study is to suggest a method for the evaluation of feline obesity using computed tomography. The attenuation range from -156 to -106 was determined as the range of feline abdominal adipose tissue. With this range, total (TAT), visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues were measured. The best correlation between the adipose tissue in cross-sectional image and entire abdomen volume was obtained at the L3 and L5 levels. The mean VAT/SAT ratio was 1.18±0.32, which was much higher than in humans. The cats with an overweight body condition had a significantly lower VAT/SAT ratio than cats with an ideal body condition. This technique may contribute to both the clinical diagnosis and the experimental study of feline obesity.

  13. The dimensions of indexing.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, W John; Kim, Won

    2003-01-01

    Indexing of documents is an important strategy intended to make the literature more readily available to the user. Here we describe several dimensions of indexing that are important if indexing is to be optimal. These dimensions are coverage, predictability, and transparency. MeSH terms and text words are compared in MEDLINE in regard to these dimensions. Part of our analysis consists in applying AdaBoost with decisions trees as the weak learners to estimate how reliably index terms are being assigned and how complex the criteria are by which they are being assigned. Our conclusions are that MeSH terms are more predictable and more transparent than text words.

  14. Regulation of cholesteryl ester transfer activity in adipose tissue: comparison between hamster and rat species.

    PubMed

    Shen, G X; Angel, A

    1995-07-01

    The present study demonstrates cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) in cultured hamster and rat adipose tissue. Cultured hamster and rat adipose tissue fragments released CETA into the conditioned medium, and this was associated with a reciprocal decrease in adipose tissue CETA. Regional variations in adipose CETA were observed. The levels of CETA released from cultured hamster and rat adipocytes were higher than those from adipose tissue fragments. In hamsters but not in rats, the secretion of CETA from cultured adipose tissue was increased by insulin and inhibited by EDTA in a dose-dependent fashion. Monoclonal antibodies against human cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibited the CETA secreted from hamster adipose tissue but not that from rat adipose tissue. Fasting for 24 h and a high-cholesterol saturated fat-rich diet increased adipose CETA in hamsters and rats, and this was associated with an elevation of plasma CETA only in hamsters. This supports the view that, in hamsters, adipose CETA has in situ and intravascular functions, whereas in rats the role of adipose CETA is restricted to tissue-specific functions. Hamster cholesteryl ester transfer protein may differ from rat adipose-associated CETA in the structure of the active site and the regulatory mechanism for its secretion.

  15. Association between subcutaneous white adipose tissue and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but the distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in adipose tissue is not known. Objectives: To determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons an...

  16. Adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Morikuni; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Innovative developments in the multidisciplinary field of tissue engineering have yielded various implementation strategies and the possibility of functional tissue regeneration. Technologic advances in the combination of stem cells, biomaterials, and growth factors have created unique opportunities to fabricate tissues in vivo and in vitro. The therapeutic potential of human multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are harvested from bone marrow and adipose tissue, has generated increasing interest in a wide variety of biomedical disciplines. These cells can differentiate into a variety of tissue types, including bone, cartilage, fat, and nerve tissue. Adipose-derived stem cells have some advantages compared with other sources of stem cells, most notably that a large number of cells can be easily and quickly isolated from adipose tissue. In current clinical therapy for periodontal tissue regeneration, several methods have been developed and applied either alone or in combination, such as enamel matrix proteins, guided tissue regeneration, autologous/allogeneic/xenogeneic bone grafts, and growth factors. However, there are various limitations and shortcomings for periodontal tissue regeneration using current methods. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using MSCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because the various secreted growth factors from MSCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissue but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. Adipose-derived stem cells are especially effective for neovascularization compared with other MSC sources. In this review, the possibility and potential of adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine are introduced. Of particular interest, periodontal tissue regeneration with adipose-derived stem cells is discussed.

  17. Asthma Control, Adiposity and Adipokines among Inner-City Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kattan, Meyer; Kumar, Rajesh; Bloomberg, Gordon R.; Mitchell, Herman E.; Calatroni, Agustin; Gergen, Peter J.; Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Visness, Cynthia M.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Steinbach, Suzanne F.; Szefler, Stanley J.; Sorkness, Christine A.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Teach, Stephen J.; Gan, Vanthaya N.

    2010-01-01

    Background There is an association between adiposity and asthma prevalence, but the relationship to asthma control is unclear. Objectives To understand the relationships among adiposity, gender, and asthma control in inner-city adolescents with asthma. Methods We prospectively followed 368 adolescents with moderate to severe asthma (ages 12–20 years) living in 10 urban areas for one year. Asthma symptoms and exacerbations were recorded, and pulmonary function and exhaled nitric oxide were measured every 6 weeks. Adiposity measures (BMI, DEXA scans) were made, and blood was collected for allergy markers, adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP. Results More than 60% of females and 50% of males were above the 85th percentile of BMI-for-age. Higher BMI was associated with more symptom days (R= 0.18, P<0.01) and exacerbations (R=0.18, P=0.06) among females only. Adiponectin was inversely related to asthma symptoms (R=− 0.18, P<0.05) and exacerbations (R=− 0.20, P<0.05) and positively with FEV1/FVC (R=0.15, P<0.05) in males only, independent of body size. There was no relationship between adiposity or adipokines and total IgE, blood eosinophils and exhaled nitric oxide. DEXA provided little additional value in relating adiposity to asthma outcome in this population of adolescents. Conclusion Adiposity is associated with poorer asthma control in females. Adiponectin is associated with improved asthma control in males. PMID:20226295

  18. Metabolic characteristics of human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissueafter overnight fast

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Sandy M.

    2012-01-01

    Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue is one of the largest fat depots and contributes the major proportion of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Little is known about aspects of human adipose tissue metabolism in vivo other than lipolysis. Here we collated data from 331 experiments in 255 healthy volunteers over a 23-year period, in which subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism was studied by measurements of arterio-venous differences after an overnight fast. NEFA and glycerol were released in a ratio of 2.7:1, different (P < 0.001) from the value of 3.0 that would indicate no fatty acid re-esterification. Fatty acid re-esterification was 10.2 ± 1.4%. Extraction of triacylglycerol (TG) (fractional extraction 5.7 ± 0.4%) indicated intravascular lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase, and this contributed 21 ± 3% of the glycerol released. Glucose uptake (fractional extraction 2.6 ± 0.3%) was partitioned around 20–25% for provision of glycerol 3-phosphate and 30% into lactate production. There was release of lactate and pyruvate, with extraction of the ketone bodies 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, although these were small numerically compared with TG and glucose uptake. NEFA release (expressed per 100 g tissue) correlated inversely with measures of fat mass (e.g., with BMI, rs = −0.24, P < 0.001). We examined within-person variability. Systemic NEFA concentrations, NEFA release, fatty acid re-esterification, and adipose tissue blood flow were all more consistent within than between individuals. This picture of human adipose tissue metabolism in the fasted state should contribute to a greater understanding of adipose tissue physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:22167523

  19. A stringent validation of mouse adipose tissue identity markers.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jasper M A; Larsson, Ola; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2015-06-15

    The nature of brown adipose tissue in humans is presently debated: whether it is classical brown or of brite/beige nature. The dissimilar developmental origins and proposed distinct functions of the brown and brite/beige tissues make it essential to ascertain the identity of human depots with the perspective of recruiting and activating them for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. For identification of the tissues, a number of marker genes have been proposed, but the validity of the markers has not been well documented. We used established brown (interscapular), brite (inguinal), and white (epididymal) mouse adipose tissues and corresponding primary cell cultures as validators and examined the informative value of a series of suggested markers earlier used in the discussion considering the nature of human brown adipose tissue. Most of these markers unexpectedly turned out to be noninformative concerning tissue classification (Car4, Cited1, Ebf3, Eva1, Fbxo31, Fgf21, Lhx8, Hoxc8, and Hoxc9). Only Zic1 (brown), Cd137, Epsti1, Tbx1, Tmem26 (brite), and Tcf21 (white) proved to be informative in these three tissues. However, the expression of the brite markers was not maintained in cell culture. In a more extensive set of adipose depots, these validated markers provide new information about depot identity. Principal component analysis supported our single-gene conclusions. Furthermore, Zic1, Hoxc8, Hoxc9, and Tcf21 displayed anteroposterior expression patterns, indicating a relationship between anatomic localization and adipose tissue identity (and possibly function). Together, the observed expression patterns of these validated marker genes necessitates reconsideration of adipose depot identity in mice and humans.

  20. Adiposity, physical activity and risk of diabetes mellitus: prospective data from the population-based HUNT study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Hjerkind, Kirsti Vik; Nilsen, Tom I L

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity may counteract the adverse effects of adiposity on cardiovascular mortality; however, the evidence of a similar effect on diabetes is sparse. This study examines whether physical activity may compensate for the adverse effect of adiposity on diabetes risk. Methods The study population consisted of 38 231 individuals aged 20 years or more who participated in two consecutive waves of the prospective longitudinal Nord-Trøndelag Health Study in Norway: in 1984–1986 and in 1995–1997. A Poisson regression model with SEs derived from robust variance was used to estimate adjusted risk ratios of diabetes between categories of body mass index and physical activity. Results Risk of diabetes increased both with increasing body mass (Ptrend <0.001) and with decreasing physical activity level (Ptrend <0.001 in men and 0.01 in women). Combined analyses showed that men who were both obese and had low activity levels had a risk ratio of 17 (95% CI 9.52 to 30) compared to men who were normal weight and highly active, whereas obese men who reported high activity had a risk ratio of 13 (95% CI 6.92 to 26). Corresponding analysis in obese women produced risk ratios of 15 (95% CI 9.18 to 25) and 13 (95% CI 7.42 to 21) among women reporting low and high activity levels, respectively. Conclusions This study shows that overweight and obesity are associated with a substantially increased risk of diabetes, particularly among those who also reported being physically inactive. High levels of physical activity were associated with a lower risk of diabetes within all categories of body mass index, but there was no clear evidence that being physically active could entirely compensate for the adverse effect of adiposity on diabetes risk. PMID:28093432

  1. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

  2. Estimation of truncal adiposity using waist circumference or the sum of trunk skinfolds: a pilot study for insulin resistance screening in hirsute patients with or without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Toscani, Mariana; Migliavacca, Raphaella; Sisson de Castro, José Augusto; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2007-07-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is a prevalent metabolic disturbance among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Central adiposity, a marker of IR and an accurate anthropometric method to estimate truncal adiposity, may represent a key clinical tool for IR screening in subpopulations at higher metabolic and cardiovascular risk, such as women with PCOS. The aims of the present study were (1) to investigate the influence of androgens on IR and central obesity in overweight or obese hirsute women with or without PCOS and (2) to test the reliability of the sum of trunk skinfolds (subscapular, suprailiac, and abdominal) to estimate truncal adiposity. This observational, cross-sectional study included 37 hirsute patients with body mass index of 25 kg/m(2) or greater and aged between 14 and 41 years. Twenty-four had PCOS, and 13 had ovulatory cycles, normal androgen levels, and isolated hirsutism, named idiopathic hirsutism (IH). Nutritional, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory evaluations were performed. Body composition was assessed by measurement of waist circumference and skinfold thickness and by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Both groups presented similar ages, body mass index, and hirsutism score. The PCOS group had higher androgen levels, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, and fasting insulin levels. Free androgen index was positively associated with HOMA, independent of truncal adiposity (r = 0.441, P = .009). Strong correlations were also observed between truncal adiposity measured by DXA and both the sum of trunk skinfolds (r = 0.863, P = .0001) and waist circumference in hirsute patients (r = 0.947, P = .0001). In our study, IR (HOMA index >/=3.8) was associated with truncal obesity, with a more androgenic profile, and with an unfavorable lipid profile. In conclusion, hirsutism per se appears not to be a risk for IR and related cardiovascular disease unless there is presence of

  3. Vitamin D and adipose tissue—more than storage

    PubMed Central

    Mutt, Shivaprakash J.; Hyppönen, Elina; Saarnio, Juha; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The pandemic increase in obesity is inversely associated with vitamin D levels. While a higher BMI was causally related to lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), no evidence was obtained for a BMI lowering effect by higher 25(OH)D. Some of the physiological functions of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol) via its receptor within the adipose tissue have been investigated such as its effect on energy balance, adipogenesis, adipokine, and cytokine secretion. Adipose tissue inflammation has been recognized as the key component of metabolic disorders, e.g., in the metabolic syndrome. The adipose organ secretes more than 260 different proteins/peptides. However, the molecular basis of the interactions of 1,25(OH)2D3, vitamin D binding proteins (VDBPs) and nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) after sequestration in adipose tissue and their regulations are still unclear. 1,25(OH)2D3 and its inactive metabolites are known to inhibit the formation of adipocytes in mouse 3T3-L1 cell line. In humans, 1,25(OH)2D3 promotes preadipocyte differentiation under cell culture conditions. Further evidence of its important functions is given by VDR knock out (VDR−/−) and CYP27B1 knock out (CYP27B1 −/−) mouse models: Both VDR−/− and CYP27B1−/− models are highly resistant to the diet induced weight gain, while the specific overexpression of human VDR in adipose tissue leads to increased adipose tissue mass. The analysis of microarray datasets from human adipocytes treated with macrophage-secreted products up-regulated VDR and CYP27B1 genes indicating the capacity of adipocytes to even produce active 1,25(OH)2D3. Experimental studies demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D3 has an active role in adipose tissue by modulating inflammation, adipogenesis and adipocyte secretion. Yet, further in vivo studies are needed to address the effects and the effective dosages of vitamin D in human adipose tissue and its relevance in the associated diseases. PMID:25009502

  4. Osteopontin: Relation between Adipose Tissue and Bone Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Antonietta; Monda, Vincenzo; Viggiano, Emanuela; Valenzano, Anna; Esposito, Teresa; Cibelli, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein mainly associated with bone metabolism and remodeling. Besides its physiological functions, OPN is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disease states, such as obesity and osteoporosis. Importantly, during the last decades obesity and osteoporosis have become among the main threats to health worldwide. Because OPN is a protein principally expressed in cells with multifaceted effects on bone morphogenesis and remodeling and because it seems to be one of the most overexpressed genes in the adipose tissue of the obese contributing to osteoporosis, this mini review will highlight recent insights about relation between adipose tissue and bone homeostasis. PMID:28194185

  5. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, M.V.; Vierck, J.L.; Hausman, G.J.; Guan, L.L.; Fernyhough, M.E.; Poulos, S.P.; Mir, P.S.; Jiang, Z.

    2010-04-02

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  6. Indexing for Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton, Ernest J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development of a functional indexing system that is tailored to the thinking involved in the process of invention. Classification by function is discussed; matrix representation is explained; a controlled vocabulary of verbs, objects, and modifiers is described; and the relation to other indexing systems is examined. (13 references)…

  7. Indexing Editorial Cartoons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple-Sokol, Angie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses access to editorial cartoons, including the importance and worth of editorial cartoons; sources, including newspapers, museums, and special cartoon collections; indexing and classification; subject access; indexing by illustrator and subject; technology and access, including digital data; access to special collections; and access to…

  8. Linked Phrase Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Timothy C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a computer-assisted system for the production of printed indexes based on networks of concept relations expressed in natural-language-like form. The LIPHIS is designed to handle more complex networks of concept relations, and so produce better indexing of highly detailed subjects. (Author/CWM)

  9. EMMSE Media Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.

    This index provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The index is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…

  10. A Computer Calculated Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Francis J.

    The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…

  11. Transfer Index: One Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinselman, James L.

    A transfer index of the proportion of students in California's community colleges transferring to the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) system for fall 1982, 1983, and 1984 is presented in this report. Introductory material provides one definition of an appropriate index of transfer rates, i.e., the ratio of…

  12. Universal Index System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos; Wallace, Sarah

    1993-01-01

    The Universal Index System (UIS) is an index management system that uses a uniform interface to solve the heterogeneity problem among database management systems. UIS provides an easy-to-use common interface to access all underlying data, but also allows different underlying database management systems, storage representations, and access methods.

  13. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and…

  14. A Factor Simplicity Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2003-01-01

    Proposes an index for assessing the degree of factor simplicity in the context of principal components and exploratory factor analysis. The index does not depend on the scale of the factors, and its maximum and minimum are related only to the degree of simplicity in the loading matrix. (SLD)

  15. Gradient index retroreflector

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Clyde B.

    1988-01-01

    A retroreflector is formed of a graded index lens with a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded index lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.

  16. Adipose tissue branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism modulates circulating BCAA levels.

    PubMed

    Herman, Mark A; She, Pengxiang; Peroni, Odile D; Lynch, Christopher J; Kahn, Barbara B

    2010-04-09

    Whereas the role of adipose tissue in glucose and lipid homeostasis is widely recognized, its role in systemic protein and amino acid metabolism is less well-appreciated. In vitro and ex vivo experiments suggest that adipose tissue can metabolize substantial amounts of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). However, the role of adipose tissue in regulating BCAA metabolism in vivo is controversial. Interest in the contribution of adipose tissue to BCAA metabolism has been renewed with recent observations demonstrating down-regulation of BCAA oxidation enzymes in adipose tissue in obese and insulin-resistant humans. Using gene set enrichment analysis, we observe alterations in adipose-tissue BCAA enzyme expression caused by adipose-selective genetic alterations in the GLUT4 glucose-transporter expression. We show that the rate of adipose tissue BCAA oxidation per mg of tissue from normal mice is higher than in skeletal muscle. In mice overexpressing GLUT4 specifically in adipose tissue, we observe coordinate down-regulation of BCAA metabolizing enzymes selectively in adipose tissue. This decreases BCAA oxidation rates in adipose tissue, but not in muscle, in association with increased circulating BCAA levels. To confirm the capacity of adipose tissue to modulate circulating BCAA levels in vivo, we demonstrate that transplantation of normal adipose tissue into mice that are globally defective in peripheral BCAA metabolism reduces circulating BCAA levels by 30% (fasting)-50% (fed state). These results demonstrate for the first time the capacity of adipose tissue to catabolize circulating BCAAs in vivo and that coordinate regulation of adipose-tissue BCAA enzymes may modulate circulating BCAA levels.

  17. Bovine dedifferentiated adipose tissue (DFAT) cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shengjuan; Du, Min; Jiang, Zhihua; Duarte, Marcio S; Fernyhough-Culver, Melinda; Albrecht, Elke; Will, Katja; Zan, Linsen; Hausman, Gary J; Elabd, Elham M Youssef; Bergen, Werner G; Basu, Urmila; Dodson, Michael V

    2013-01-01

    Dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) are derived from lipid-containing (mature) adipocytes, which possess the ability to symmetrically or asymmetrically proliferate, replicate, and redifferentiate/transdifferentiate. Robust cell isolation and downstream culture methods are needed to isolate large numbers of DFAT cells from any (one) adipose depot in order to establish population dynamics and regulation of the cells within and across laboratories. In order to establish more consistent/repeatable methodology here we report on two different methods to establish viable DFAT cell cultures: both traditional cell culture flasks and non-traditional (flat) cell culture plates were used for ceiling culture establishment. Adipocytes (maternal cells of the DFAT cells) were easier to remove from flat culture plates than flasks and the flat plates also allowed cloning rings to be utilized for cell/cell population isolation. While additional aspects of usage of flat-bottomed cell culture plates may yet need to be optimized by definition of optimum bio-coating to enhance cell attachment, utilization of flat plate approaches will allow more efficient study of the dedifferentiation process or the DFAT progeny cells. To extend our preliminary observations, dedifferentiation of Wagyu intramuscular fat (IMF)-derived mature adipocytes and redifferentiation ability of DFAT cells utilizing the aforementioned isolation protocols were examined in traditional basal media/differentiation induction media (DMI) containing adipogenic inducement reagents. In the absence of treatment approximately 10% isolated Wagyu IMF-mature adipocytes dedifferentiated spontaneously and 70% DFAT cells displayed protracted adipogenesis 12 d after confluence in vitro. Lipid-free intracellular vesicles in the cytoplasm (vesicles possessing an intact membrane but with no any observable or stainable lipid inside) were observed during redifferentiation. One to 30% DFAT cells redifferentiated into lipid

  18. Regulation of adiposity by dietary calcium.

    PubMed

    Zemel, M B; Shi, H; Greer, B; Dirienzo, D; Zemel, P C

    2000-06-01

    Recent data from this laboratory demonstrate that increasing adipocyte intracellular Ca(2+) results in a coordinated stimulation of lipogenesis and inhibition of lipolysis. We have also noted that increasing dietary calcium of obese patients for 1 year resulted in a 4.9 kg loss of body fat (P<0.01). Accordingly, we tested the possibility that calcitrophic hormones may act on adipocytes to increase Ca(2+) and lipid metabolism by measuring the effects of 1, 25-(OH)(2)-D in primary cultures of human adipocytes, and found significant, sustained increases in intracellular Ca(2+) and a corresponding marked inhibition of lipolysis (EC(50) approximately 50 pM; P<0.001), suggesting that dietary calcium could reduce adipocyte mass by suppressing 1,25-(OH)(2)-D. To test this hypothesis, we placed transgenic mice expressing the agouti gene specifically in adipocytes on a low (0.4%) Ca/high fat/high sucrose diet either unsupplemented or with 25 or 50% of the protein replaced by non-fat dry milk or supplemented to 1.2% Ca with CaCO(3) for 6 wk. Weight gain and fat pad mass were reduced by 26-39% by the three high calcium diets (P<0.001). The high calcium diets exerted a corresponding 51% inhibition of adipocyte fatty acid synthase expression and activity (P<0.002) and stimulation of lipolysis by 3. 4- to 5.2-fold (P<0.015). This concept of calcium modulation of adiposity was further evaluated epidemiologically in the NHANES III data set. After controlling for energy intake, relative risk of being in the highest quartile of body fat was set to 1.00 for the lowest quartile of Ca intake and was reduced to 0.75, 0.40, and 0.16 for the second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively, of calcium intake for women (n=380;P<0.0009); a similar inverse relationship was also noted in men (n=7114; P<0.0006). Thus, increasing dietary calcium suppresses adipocyte intracellular Ca(2+) and thereby modulates energy metabolism and attenuates obesity risk.

  19. Exercise Regulation of Marrow Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Pagnotti, Gabriel M.; Styner, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Despite association with low bone density and skeletal fractures, marrow adipose tissue (MAT) remains poorly understood. The marrow adipocyte originates from the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) pool that also gives rise to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and myocytes, among other cell types. To date, the presence of MAT has been attributed to preferential biasing of MSC into the adipocyte rather than osteoblast lineage, thus negatively impacting bone formation. Here, we focus on understanding the physiology of MAT in the setting of exercise, dietary interventions, and pharmacologic agents that alter fat metabolism. The beneficial effect of exercise on musculoskeletal strength is known: exercise induces bone formation, encourages growth of skeletally supportive tissues, inhibits bone resorption, and alters skeletal architecture through direct and indirect effects on a multiplicity of cells involved in skeletal adaptation. MAT is less well studied due to the lack of reproducible quantification techniques. In recent work, osmium-based 3D quantification shows a robust response of MAT to both dietary and exercise intervention in that MAT is elevated in response to high-fat diet and can be suppressed following daily exercise. Exercise-induced bone formation correlates with suppression of MAT, such that exercise effects might be due to either calorie expenditure from this depot or from mechanical biasing of MSC lineage away from fat and toward bone, or a combination thereof. Following treatment with the anti-diabetes drug rosiglitazone – a PPARγ-agonist known to increase MAT and fracture risk – mice demonstrate a fivefold higher femur MAT volume compared to the controls. In addition to preventing MAT accumulation in control mice, exercise intervention significantly lowers MAT accumulation in rosiglitazone-treated mice. Importantly, exercise induction of trabecular bone volume is unhindered by rosiglitazone. Thus, despite rosiglitazone augmentation of MAT, exercise

  20. alpha-Linolenic acid content of adipose breast tissue: a host determinant of the risk of early metastasis in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Bougnoux, P.; Koscielny, S.; Chajès, V.; Descamps, P.; Couet, C.; Calais, G.

    1994-01-01

    The association between the levels of various fatty acids in adipose breast tissue and the emergence of visceral metastases was prospectively studied in a cohort of 121 patients with an initially localised breast cancer. Adipose breast tissue was obtained at the time of initial surgery, and its fatty acid content analysed by capillary gas chromatography. A low level of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) in adipose breast tissue was associated with positive axillary lymph node status and with the presence of vascular invasion, but not with tumour size or mitotic index. After an average 31 months of follow-up, 21 patients developed metastases. Large tumour size, high mitotic index, presence of vascular invasion and low level of 18:3n-3 were single factors significantly associated with an increased risk of metastasis. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to identify prognostic factors. Low 18:3n-3 level and large tumour size were the two factors predictive of metastases. These results suggest that host alpha-linolenic acid has a specific role in the metastatic process in vivo. Further understanding of the biology of this essential fatty acid of the n-3 series is needed in breast carcinoma. PMID:7914425

  1. Lack of an association of depression with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue and serum phospholipids in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Mamalakis, George; Kiriakakis, Michael; Tsibinos, George; Jansen, Eugene; Cremers, Hans; Strien, Carlo; Hatzis, Christos; Moschandreas, Joanna; Linardakis, Manolis; Kromhout, Daan; Kafatos, Anthony

    2008-03-01

    Studies have shown that depression relates to biomarkers of both short-term and long-term polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. However, it is not known which of these two biomarkers is more closely related to depression. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of depression with both adipose tissue and serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids and to assess the importance of each of these two biomarkers in relating to depression. This is a cross-sectional study of healthy adults from the island of Crete. Subjects were examined by the Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Clinic of the University of Crete. Subjects were 394 healthy adults (175 males, 219 females) aged 18-60. The sample consisted of farmers from a number of rural communities of Crete. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography in adipose tissue and serum phospholipids. Information about depression was obtained through the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZSRDS). Adipose tissue alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (C18:3n-3) was inversely correlated to BDI (r=-0.17, p<0.02). Multiple linear regression analysis taking into account the possible confounding effect of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking and educational level did not confirm this association. The other polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue were not related to depression. Serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids did not correlate with depression. This study did not show that the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the adipose tissue are better predictors of depression than those in serum phospholipids.

  2. Efficacy of thigh volume ratios assessed via stereovision body imaging as a predictor of visceral adipose tissue measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M Reese; Yu, Wurong; Xu, Bugao

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The research examined the efficacy of regional volumes of thigh ratios assessed by stereovision body imaging (SBI) as a predictor of visceral adipose tissue measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Body measurements obtained via SBI also were utilized to explore disparities of body size and shape in men and women. Method 121 participants were measured for total/regional body volumes and ratios via SBI and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue areas by MRI. Results Thigh to torso and thigh to abdomen-hip volume ratios were the most reliable parameters to predict the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue depots compared to other body measurements. Thigh volume in relation to torso [odds ratios (OR) 0.44] and abdomen-hip (OR 0.41) volumes were negatively associated with increased risks of greater visceral adipose tissue depots, even after controlling for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Irrespective of BMI classification, men exhibited greater total body (80.95L vs. 72.41L), torso (39.26L vs. 34.13L), and abdomen-hip (29.01L vs. 25.85L) volumes than women. Women had higher thigh volumes (4.93L vs. 3.99L) and lower-body volume ratios [thigh to total body (0.07 vs. 0.05), thigh to torso (0.15 vs. 0.11), and thigh to abdomen-hip (0.20 vs. 0.15); p<0.05]. Conclusions The unique parameters of the volumes of thigh in relation to torso and abdomen-hip, by SBI were highly effective in predicting visceral adipose tissue deposition. The SBI provided an efficient method for determining body size and shape in men and women via total and regional body volumes and ratios. PMID:25645428

  3. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat.

  4. A cis-eQTL in PFKFB2 is associated with diabetic nephropathy, adiposity and insulin secretion in American Indians.

    PubMed

    Muller, Yunhua L; Piaggi, Paolo; Hanson, Robert L; Kobes, Sayuko; Bhutta, Shujera; Abdussamad, Maryam; Leak-Johnson, Tennille; Kretzler, Matthias; Huang, Ke; Weil, E Jennifer; Nelson, Robert G; Knowler, William C; Bogardus, Clifton; Baier, Leslie J

    2015-05-15

    A prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) in Pima Indians identified a variant within PFKFB2 (rs17258746) associated with body mass index (BMI). PFKFB2 encodes 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase isoform 2, which plays a role in glucose metabolism. To follow-up on the GWAS, tag SNPs across PFKFB2 were genotyped in American Indians (AI) who had longitudinal data on BMI (n = 6839), type 2 diabetes (T2D; n = 7710), diabetic nephropathy (DN; n = 2452), % body fat (n = 555) and insulin secretion (n = 298). Two SNPs were further genotyped in urban AI to assess replication for DN (n = 864). PFKFB2 expression was measured in 201 adipose biopsies using real-time RT-PCR and 61 kidney biopsies using the Affymetrix U133 array. Two SNPs (rs17258746 and rs11120137), which capture the same signal, were associated with maximum BMI in adulthood (β = 1.02 per risk allele, P = 7.3 × 10(-4)), maximum BMI z-score in childhood (β = 0.079, P = 0.03) and % body fat in adulthood (β = 3.4%, P = 3 × 10(-7)). The adiposity-increasing allele correlated with lower PFKFB2 adipose expression (β = 0.81, P = 9.4 × 10(-4)). Lower expression of PFKFB2 further correlated with higher % body fat (r = -0.16, P = 0.02) and BMI (r = -0.17, P = 0.02). This allele was also associated with increased risk for DN in both cohorts of AI [odds ratio = 1.64 (1.32-2.02), P = 5.8 × 10(-6)], and similarly correlated with lower PFKFB2 expression in kidney glomeruli (β = 0.87, P = 0.03). The same allele was also associated with lower insulin secretion assessed by acute insulin response (β = 0.78, P = 0.03) and 30-min plasma insulin concentrations (β = 0.78, P = 1.1 × 10(-4)). Variation in PFKFB2 appears to reduce PFKFB2 expression in adipose and kidney tissues, and thereby increase risk for adiposity and DN.

  5. A novel animal model linking adiposity to altered circadian rhythms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers have provided evidence for a link between obesity and altered circadian rhythms (e.g., shift work, disrupted sleep), but the mechanism for this association is still unknown. Adipocytes possess an intrinsic circadian clock, and circadian rhythms in adipocytokines and adipose tissue metab...

  6. Maternal nutritional manipulations program adipose tissue dysfunction in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lecoutre, Simon; Breton, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Based on the concept of Developmental Origin of Health and Disease, both human and animal studies have demonstrated a close link between nutrient supply perturbations in the fetus or neonate (i.e., maternal undernutrition, obesity, gestational diabetes and/or rapid catch-up growth) and increased risk of adult-onset obesity. Indeed, the adipose tissue has been recognized as a key target of developmental programming in a sex-and depot-specific manner. Despite different developmental time windows, similar mechanisms of adipose tissue programming have been described in rodents and in bigger mammals (sheep, primates). Maternal nutritional manipulations reprogram offspring's adipose tissue resulting in series of alterations: enhanced adipogenesis and lipogenesis, impaired sympathetic activity with reduced noradrenergic innervations and thermogenesis as well as low-grade inflammation. These changes affect adipose tissue development, distribution and composition predisposing offspring to fat accumulation. Modifications of hormonal tissue sensitivity (i.e., leptin, insulin, glucocorticoids) and/or epigenetic mechanisms leading to persistent changes in gene expression may account for long-lasting programming across generations. PMID:26029119

  7. Leptin selectively decreases visceral adiposity and enhances insulin action.

    PubMed Central

    Barzilai, N; Wang, J; Massilon, D; Vuguin, P; Hawkins, M; Rossetti, L

    1997-01-01

    Intraabdominal adiposity and insulin resistance are risk factors for diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, arteriosclerosis, and mortality. Leptin, a fat-derived protein encoded by the ob gene, has been postulated to be a sensor of energy storage in adipose tissue capable of mediating a feedback signal to sites involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Here, we provide evidence for specific effects of leptin on fat distribution and in vivo insulin action. Leptin (LEP) or vehicle (CON) was administered by osmotic minipumps for 8 d to pair-fed adult rats. During the 8 d of the study, body weight and total fat mass decreased similarly in LEP and in CON. However, while moderate calorie restriction (CON) resulted in similar decreases in whole body (by 20%) and visceral (by 21%) fat, leptin administration led to a specific and marked decrease (by 62%) in visceral adiposity. During physiologic hyperinsulinemia (insulin clamp), leptin markedly enhanced insulin action on both inhibition of hepatic glucose production and stimulation of glucose uptake. Finally, leptin exerted complex effects on the hepatic gene expression of key metabolic enzymes and on the intrahepatic partitioning of metabolic fluxes, which are likely to represent a defense against excessive storage of energy in adipose depots. These studies demonstrate novel actions of circulating leptin in the regulation of fat distribution, insulin action, and hepatic gene expression and suggest that it may play a role in the pathophysiology of abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:9399957

  8. Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging is commonly associated with low-grade adipose inflammation, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone which is known to increase obesity and insulin resistance. We previously reported that the expression of the ghrelin receptor, growth ho...

  9. Lipin-1 and lipin-3 together determine adiposity in vivo☆

    PubMed Central

    Csaki, Lauren S.; Dwyer, Jennifer R.; Li, Xia; Nguyen, Michael H.K.; Dewald, Jay; Brindley, David N.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Yoshinaga, Yuko; de Jong, Pieter; Fong, Loren; Young, Stephen G.; Reue, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The lipin protein family of phosphatidate phosphatases has an established role in triacylglycerol synthesis and storage. Physiological roles for lipin-1 and lipin-2 have been identified, but the role of lipin-3 has remained mysterious. Using lipin single- and double-knockout models we identified a cooperative relationship between lipin-3 and lipin-1 that influences adipogenesis in vitro and adiposity in vivo. Furthermore, natural genetic variations in Lpin1 and Lpin3 expression levels across 100 mouse strains correlate with adiposity. Analysis of PAP activity in additional metabolic tissues from lipin single- and double-knockout mice also revealed roles for lipin-1 and lipin-3 in spleen, kidney, and liver, for lipin-1 alone in heart and skeletal muscle, and for lipin-1 and lipin-2 in lung and brain. Our findings establish that lipin-1 and lipin-3 cooperate in vivo to determine adipose tissue PAP activity and adiposity, and may have implications in understanding the protection of lipin-1-deficient humans from overt lipodystrophy. PMID:24634820

  10. Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sam, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common hormonal disorder among reproductive-age women and is associated with a high risk for metabolic disorders. Adiposity and insulin resistance are two prevalent conditions in PCOS and the likely culprits for the heightened metabolic risk. Up to 60% of women with PCOS are considered to be overweight or obese, and even among non-obese women with PCOS there is an increased accumulation of adipose tissue in abdominal depots. Insulin resistance in PCOS is unique and independent of obesity, as even non-obese women with this condition are frequently insulin resistant. However, obesity substantially aggravates the insulin resistance and the metabolic and reproductive abnormalities in women with PCOS. Recently, it has been shown that many aspects of adipose tissue function in PCOS are abnormal, and these abnormalities likely predispose to development of insulin resistance even in the absence of obesity. This review provides an overview of these abnormalities and their impact on development of metabolic disorders. At the end, an overview of the therapeutic options for management of adiposity and its complications in PCOS are discussed.

  11. Obesity induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Lumeng, Carey N; Bodzin, Jennifer L; Saltiel, Alan R

    2007-01-01

    Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) infiltrate adipose tissue during obesity and contribute to insulin resistance. We hypothesized that macrophages migrating to adipose tissue upon high-fat feeding may differ from those that reside there under normal diet conditions. To this end, we found a novel F4/80(+)CD11c(+) population of ATMs in adipose tissue of obese mice that was not seen in lean mice. ATMs from lean mice expressed many genes characteristic of M2 or "alternatively activated" macrophages, including Ym1, arginase 1, and Il10. Diet-induced obesity decreased expression of these genes in ATMs while increasing expression of genes such as those encoding TNF-alpha and iNOS that are characteristic of M1 or "classically activated" macrophages. Interestingly, ATMs from obese C-C motif chemokine receptor 2-KO (Ccr2-KO) mice express M2 markers at levels similar to those from lean mice. The antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10, which was overexpressed in ATMs from lean mice, protected adipocytes from TNF-alpha-induced insulin resistance. Thus, diet-induced obesity leads to a shift in the activation state of ATMs from an M2-polarized state in lean animals that may protect adipocytes from inflammation to an M1 proinflammatory state that contributes to insulin resistance.

  12. Obesity induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophage polarization

    PubMed Central

    Lumeng, Carey N.; Bodzin, Jennifer L.; Saltiel, Alan R.

    2007-01-01

    Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) infiltrate adipose tissue during obesity and contribute to insulin resistance. We hypothesized that macrophages migrating to adipose tissue upon high-fat feeding may differ from those that reside there under normal diet conditions. To this end, we found a novel F4/80+CD11c+ population of ATMs in adipose tissue of obese mice that was not seen in lean mice. ATMs from lean mice expressed many genes characteristic of M2 or “alternatively activated” macrophages, including Ym1, arginase 1, and Il10. Diet-induced obesity decreased expression of these genes in ATMs while increasing expression of genes such as those encoding TNF-α and iNOS that are characteristic of M1 or “classically activated” macrophages. Interestingly, ATMs from obese C-C motif chemokine receptor 2–KO (Ccr2-KO) mice express M2 markers at levels similar to those from lean mice. The antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10, which was overexpressed in ATMs from lean mice, protected adipocytes from TNF-α–induced insulin resistance. Thus, diet-induced obesity leads to a shift in the activation state of ATMs from an M2-polarized state in lean animals that may protect adipocytes from inflammation to an M1 proinflammatory state that contributes to insulin resistance. PMID:17200717

  13. Active commuting to elementary school and adiposity: An observational study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active commuting to school (ACS; walking or cycling to school) appears promising for decreasing children's obesity risk, although long-term studies are sparse. The aim was to examine whether kindergarten ACS was associated with fifth grade adiposity. This study was a secondary analysis of the Early ...

  14. Potential vorticity index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcilon, Albert; Weng, Hengyi

    1990-01-01

    Using standard data analysis techniques, researchers explore the links between disturbance growth and quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity (PV) gradients; appearance and disappearance of cutoff lows and blocking highs and their relation to a zonal index (properly defined in terms of PV); and teleconnections between different flow patterns and their relation to the zonal index. It was found that the PV index and the eddy index correlate better than a zonal index (defined by zonal wind) and the eddy index. In the frequency domain there are three frequencies (.03, .07 and .17 cpd (cycle per day) corresponding to periods of 33, 14 and 6 days) at which PV index and the eddy index exhibit local maxima. The high correlation found at periods of 33 days is mainly due to eddy activity at high latitudes while the local correlation maxima found at the shorter periods are mainly due mid-latitude eddy activity. The correlation between the PV index and the geopotential height anomaly at 500 mb, at each grid point in the Northern Hemisphere, shows the existence of most of the teleconnection patterns summarized by Wallace and Gutzler (1981): the North Atlantic Oscillation, the North Pacific Oscillation, and the Pacific/North American patterns. Results show that the Isentropic Potential Vorticity (IPV) analysis can be a very useful and powerful tool when used to understand the dynamics of several large scale atmospheric systems. Although the data are limited to only one winter, and it is difficult to assess the statistical significance of the correlation coefficients presented here, the results are encouraging from physical viewpoint.

  15. CREBH-FGF21 axis improves hepatic steatosis by suppressing adipose tissue lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Gil; Xu, Xu; Cho, Sungyun; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Myung-Shik; Kersten, Sander; Lee, Ann-Hwee

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue lipolysis produces glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) that serve as energy sources during nutrient scarcity. Adipose tissue lipolysis is tightly regulated and excessive lipolysis causes hepatic steatosis, as NEFA released from adipose tissue constitutes a major source of TG in the liver of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. Here we show that the liver-enriched transcription factor CREBH is activated by TG accumulation and induces FGF21, which suppresses adipose tissue lipolysis, ameliorating hepatic steatosis. CREBH-deficient mice developed severe hepatic steatosis due to increased adipose tissue lipolysis, when fasted or fed a high-fat low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. FGF21 production was impaired in CREBH-deficient mice, and adenoviral overexpression of FGF21 suppressed adipose tissue lipolysis and improved hepatic steatosis in these mice. Thus, our results uncover a negative feedback loop in which CREBH regulates NEFA flux from adipose tissue to the liver via FGF21. PMID:27301791

  16. Index Construction, A Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    Application in Science, S5G37 Technology , and Humanities, N.Y., N.Y: John Wiley & Sons, C 1969. Z695.9 Harrod, Leonard Montague, ed. Indexers on... Indexing Terminology, Posting Terms and KWOC, DESK Alexandria, VA: DDC, May, 1979. Z1035.1 Library of Congress. Main Reading Room, Reference Collection...A1544 750 INDEX CONSTRUCTON AR BI OGRAPHYU ARMY FIEL ARTILERY SHOOL FORT SIL OR MILE R SEP 84 USA FASM -DSB- A0 VNtASIIEFG 5/2 NI MONSOONSfl 0841

  17. Glycemic index and disease.

    PubMed

    Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2002-07-01

    It has been suggested that foods with a high glycemic index are detrimental to health and that healthy people should be told to avoid these foods. This paper takes the position that not enough valid scientific data are available to launch a public health campaign to disseminate such a recommendation. This paper explores the glycemic index and its validity and discusses the effect of postprandial glucose and insulin responses on food intake, obesity, type 1 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Presented herein are the reasons why it is premature to recommend that the general population avoid foods with a high glycemic index.

  18. Left Atrial Epicardial Adiposity and Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Batal, Omar; Schoenhagen, Paul; Shao, Mingyuan; Ayyad, Ala Eddin; Van Wagoner, David R.; Halliburton, Sandra S.; Tchou, Patrick J.; Chung, Mina K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been linked to inflammatory factors and obesity. Epicardial fat is a source of several inflammatory mediators related to the development of coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that periatrial fat may have a similar role in the development of AF. Methods and Results Left atrium (LA) epicardial fat pad thickness was measured in consecutive cardiac CT angiograms performed for coronary artery disease or AF. Patients were grouped by AF burden: no (n=73), paroxysmal (n=60), or persistent (n=36) AF. In a short-axis view at the mid LA, periatrial epicardial fat thickness was measured at the esophagus (LA-ESO), main pulmonary artery, and thoracic aorta; retrosternal fat was measured in axial view (right coronary ostium level). LA area was determined in the 4-chamber view. LA-ESO fat was thicker in patients with persistent AF versus paroxysmal AF (P=0.011) or no AF (P=0.003). LA area was larger in patients with persistent AF than paroxysmal AF (P=0.004) or without AF (P<0.001). LA-ESO was a significant predictor of AF burden even after adjusting for age, body mass index, and LA area (odds ratio, 5.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.39 to 20.24; P=0.015). A propensity score–adjusted multivariable logistic regression that included age, body mass index, LA area, and comorbidities was also performed and the relationship remained statistically significant (P=0.008). Conclusions Increased posterior LA fat thickness appears to be associated with AF burden independent of age, body mass index, or LA area. Further studies are necessary to examine cause and effect, and if inflammatory, paracrine mediators explain this association. PMID:20504944

  19. Exercise Effects on White Adipose Tissue: Beiging and Metabolic Adaptations.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kristin I; Middelbeek, Roeland J W; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2015-07-01

    Regular physical activity and exercise training have long been known to cause adaptations to white adipose tissue (WAT), including decreases in cell size and lipid content and increases in mitochondrial proteins. In this article, we discuss recent studies that have investigated the effects of exercise training on mitochondrial function, the "beiging" of WAT, regulation of adipokines, metabolic effects of trained adipose tissue on systemic metabolism, and depot-specific responses to exercise training. The major WAT depots in the body are found in the visceral cavity (vWAT) and subcutaneously (scWAT). In rodent models, exercise training increases mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in both these adipose tissue depots. Exercise training also increases expression of the brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in both adipose tissue depots, although these effects are much more pronounced in scWAT. Consistent with the increase in UCP1, exercise training increases the presence of brown-like adipocytes in scWAT, also known as browning or beiging. Training results in changes in the gene expression of thousands of scWAT genes and an altered adipokine profile in both scWAT and vWAT. Transplantation of trained scWAT in sedentary recipient mice results in striking improvements in skeletal muscle glucose uptake and whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Human and rodent exercise studies have indicated that exercise training can alter circulating adipokine concentration as well as adipokine expression in adipose tissue. Thus, the profound changes to WAT in response to exercise training may be part of the mechanism by which exercise improves whole-body metabolic health.

  20. Myocardial regeneration potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xiaowen; Alt, Eckhard

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving tremendous attention from basic scientists and clinicians and hold great promise for myocardial regeneration. {yields} For practical reasons, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells are attractive stem cells for future clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium. {yields} This review summarizes the characteristics of cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential and the, underlying mechanisms, and safety issues. -- Abstract: Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold promise for myocardial regeneration. For practical reasons, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are attractive cells for clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium based on the following advantages: abundant adipose tissue in most patients and easy accessibility with minimally invasive lipoaspiration procedure. Several recent studies have demonstrated that both cultured and freshly isolated ASCs could improve cardiac function in animal model of myocardial infarction. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of ASCs on myocardial regeneration are not fully understood. Growing evidence indicates that transplantation of ASCs improve cardiac function via the differentiation into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, and through paracrine pathways. Paracrine factors secreted by injected ASCs enhance angiogenesis, reduce cell apoptosis rates, and promote neuron sprouts in damaged myocardium. In addition, Injection of ASCs increases electrical stability of the injured heart. Furthermore, there are no reported cases of arrhythmia or tumorigenesis in any studies regarding myocardial regeneration with ASCs. This review summarizes the characteristics of both cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential, and the

  1. Caspase Induction and BCL2 Inhibition in Human Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Tinahones, Francisco José; Coín Aragüez, Leticia; Murri, Mora; Oliva Olivera, Wilfredo; Mayas Torres, María Dolores; Barbarroja, Nuria; Gomez Huelgas, Ricardo; Malagón, Maria M.; El Bekay, Rajaa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Cell death determines the onset of obesity and associated insulin resistance. Here, we analyze the relationship among obesity, adipose tissue apoptosis, and insulin signaling. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The expression levels of initiator (CASP8/9) and effector (CASP3/7) caspases as well as antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma (BCL)2 and inflammatory markers were assessed in visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue from patients with different degrees of obesity and without insulin resistance or diabetes. Adipose tissue explants from lean subjects were cultured with TNF-α or IL-6, and the expression of apoptotic and insulin signaling components was analyzed and compared with basal expression levels in morbidly obese subjects. RESULTS SAT and VAT exhibited increased CASP3/7 and CASP8/9 expression levels and decreased BCL2 expression with BMI increase. These changes were accompanied by increased inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels and macrophage infiltration markers. In obese subjects, CASP3/7 activation and BCL2 downregulation correlated with the IRS-1/2–expression levels. Expression levels of caspases, BCL2, p21, p53, IRS-1/2, GLUT4, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, and leukocyte antigen-related phosphatase in TNF-α– or IL-6–treated explants from lean subjects were comparable with those found in adipose tissue samples from morbidly obese subjects. These insulin component expression levels were reverted with CASP3/7 inhibition in these TNF-α– or IL-6–treated explants. CONCLUSIONS Body fat mass increase is associated with CASP3/7 and BCL2 expression in adipose tissue. Moreover, this proapoptotic state correlated with insulin signaling, suggesting its potential contribution to the development of insulin resistance. PMID:23193206

  2. Metabolic remodeling of white adipose tissue in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Timothy D.; Holden, Candice R.; Sansbury, Brian E.; Gibb, Andrew A.; Shah, Jasmit; Zafar, Nagma; Tang, Yunan; Hellmann, Jason; Rai, Shesh N.; Spite, Matthew; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue metabolism is a critical regulator of adiposity and whole body energy expenditure; however, metabolic changes that occur in white adipose tissue (WAT) with obesity remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to understand the metabolic and bioenergetic changes occurring in WAT with obesity. Wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) showed significant increases in whole body adiposity, had significantly lower V̇o2, V̇co2, and respiratory exchange ratios, and demonstrated worsened glucose and insulin tolerance compared with low-fat-fed mice. Metabolomic analysis of WAT showed marked changes in lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate, nucleotide, and energy metabolism. Tissue levels of succinate and malate were elevated, and metabolites that could enter the Krebs cycle via anaplerosis were mostly diminished in high-fat-fed mice, suggesting altered mitochondrial metabolism. Despite no change in basal oxygen consumption or mitochondrial DNA abundance, citrate synthase activity was decreased by more than 50%, and responses to FCCP were increased in WAT from mice fed a high-fat diet. Moreover, Pgc1a was downregulated and Cox7a1 upregulated after 6 wk of HFD. After 12 wk of high-fat diet, the abundance of several proteins in the mitochondrial respiratory chain or matrix was diminished. These changes were accompanied by increased Parkin and Pink1, decreased p62 and LC3-I, and ultrastructural changes suggestive of autophagy and mitochondrial remodeling. These studies demonstrate coordinated restructuring of metabolism and autophagy that could contribute to the hypertrophy and whitening of adipose tissue in obesity. PMID:24918202

  3. Myostatin Attenuation In Vivo Reduces Adiposity, but Activates Adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Naisi; Yang, Qiyuan; Walker, Ryan G.; Thompson, Thomas B.; Du, Min

    2016-01-01

    A potentially novel approach for treating obesity includes attenuating myostatin as this increases muscle mass and decreases fat mass. Notwithstanding, conflicting studies report that myostatin stimulates or inhibits adipogenesis and it is unknown whether reduced adiposity with myostatin attenuation results from changes in fat deposition or adipogenesis. We therefore quantified changes in the stem, transit amplifying and progenitor cell pool in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) using label-retaining wild-type and mstn−/− (Jekyll) mice. Muscle mass was larger in Jekyll mice, WAT and BAT mass was smaller and label induction was equal in all tissues from both wild-type and Jekyll mice. The number of label-retaining cells, however, dissipated quicker in WAT and BAT of Jekyll mice and was only 25% and 17%, respectively, of wild-type cell counts 1 month after induction. Adipose cell density was significantly higher in Jekyll mice and increased over time concomitant with label-retaining cell disappearance, which is consistent with enhanced expansion and differentiation of the stem, transit amplifying and progenitor pool. Stromal vascular cells from Jekyll WAT and BAT differentiated into mature adipocytes at a faster rate than wild-type cells and although Jekyll WAT cells also proliferated quicker in vitro, those from BAT did not. Differentiation marker expression in vitro, however, suggests that mstn−/− BAT preadipocytes are far more sensitive to the suppressive effects of myostatin. These results suggest that myostatin attenuation stimulates adipogenesis in vivo and that the reduced adiposity in mstn−/− animals results from nutrient partitioning away from fat and in support of muscle. PMID:26580671

  4. Exercise Effects on White Adipose Tissue: Beiging and Metabolic Adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Kristin I.; Middelbeek, Roeland J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity and exercise training have long been known to cause adaptations to white adipose tissue (WAT), including decreases in cell size and lipid content and increases in mitochondrial proteins. In this article, we discuss recent studies that have investigated the effects of exercise training on mitochondrial function, the “beiging” of WAT, regulation of adipokines, metabolic effects of trained adipose tissue on systemic metabolism, and depot-specific responses to exercise training. The major WAT depots in the body are found in the visceral cavity (vWAT) and subcutaneously (scWAT). In rodent models, exercise training increases mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in both these adipose tissue depots. Exercise training also increases expression of the brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in both adipose tissue depots, although these effects are much more pronounced in scWAT. Consistent with the increase in UCP1, exercise training increases the presence of brown-like adipocytes in scWAT, also known as browning or beiging. Training results in changes in the gene expression of thousands of scWAT genes and an altered adipokine profile in both scWAT and vWAT. Transplantation of trained scWAT in sedentary recipient mice results in striking improvements in skeletal muscle glucose uptake and whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Human and rodent exercise studies have indicated that exercise training can alter circulating adipokine concentration as well as adipokine expression in adipose tissue. Thus, the profound changes to WAT in response to exercise training may be part of the mechanism by which exercise improves whole-body metabolic health. PMID:26050668

  5. Subcutaneous Adipose Cell Size and Distribution: Relationship to Insulin Resistance and Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, T; Lamendola, C; Coghlan, N; Liu, TC; Lerner, K; Sherman, A; Cushman, SW

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic heterogeneity among obese individuals may be attributable to differences in adipose cell size. We sought to clarify this by quantifying adipose cell-size distribution, body fat, and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in overweight/moderately-obese individuals. 148 healthy nondiabetic subjects with BMI 25–38 kg/m2 underwent subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies and quantification of insulin-mediated glucose uptake with steady-state plasma glucose concentrations (SSPG) during the modified insulin suppression test. Cell-size distributions were obtained with Beckman Coulter Multisizer. Primary endpoints included % small adipose cells and diameter of large adipose cells. Cell-size and metabolic parameters were compared by regression for the whole group; according to IR and IS subgroups; and by body fat quintile. Both large and small adipose cells were present in nearly equal proportions. Percent small cells was associated with SSPG (r=0.26, p=0.003). Compared to BMI-matched IS individuals, IR counterparts demonstrated fewer, but larger large adipose cells, and a greater proportion of small-to-large adipose cells. Diameter of the large adipose cells was associated with %body fat (r=0.26, p=0.014), female sex (r=0.21, p=0.036), and SSPG (r=0.20, p=0.012). In the highest vs lowest % body fat quintile, adipose cell size increased by only 7% whereas adipose cell number increased by 74%. Recruitment of adipose cells is required for expansion of body fat mass beyond BMI of 25 kg/m2. Insulin resistance is associated with accumulation of small adipose cells and enlargement of large adipose cells. These data support the notion that impaired adipogenesis may underlie insulin resistance. PMID:23666871

  6. NASA 1981 photography index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An index of representative photographs is presented. Color transparencies and black and white glossies of major launches, Mariner spacecraft, Pioneer spacecraft, planets and other space phenomena, Skylab, space shuttle, Viking spacecraft, and Voyager spacecraft are included.