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Sample records for adiposity index bai

  1. Comparison of Body Adiposity Index (BAI) and Body Mass Index (BMI) with Estimations of % Body Fat in Clinically Severe Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Geliebter, Allan; Atalayer, Deniz; Flancbaum, Louis; Gibson, Charlisa D.

    2012-01-01

    Body Adiposity Index (BAI), a new surrogate measure of body fat (hip circumference/[height1.5 -18]), has been proposed as an alternative to BMI. We compared BAI with BMI, and each of them with laboratory measures of body fat-derived from bioimpedance analysis (BIA), air displacement (ADP), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in clinically severe obese (CSO) participants. Nineteen pre-bariatric surgery CSO, non-diabetic women were recruited (age=32.6±7.7 SD; BMI=46.5±9.0 kg/m2). Anthropometrics and body fat percentage (% fat) were determined from BIA, ADP, and DXA. Scatter plots with lines of equality and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare BAI and BMI with % fat derived from BIA, ADP, and DXA. BAI and BMI correlated highly with each other (r=0.90, p<0.001). Both BAI and BMI correlated significantly with % fat from BIA and ADP. BAI, however, did not correlate significantly with % fat from DXA (r=0.42, p=0.08) whereas BMI did (r=0.65, p=0.003). BMI was also the single best predictor of % fat from both BIA (r2=0.80, p<0.001) and ADP (r2=0.65, p<0.001). The regression analysis showed that the standard error of the estimate (SEE) or residual error around the regression lines was greater for BAI comparisons than for BMI comparisons with BIA, ADP, and DXA. Consistent with this, the Bland and Altman plots indicated wider 95% confidence intervals for BAI difference comparisons than for BMI difference comparisons with their respective means with BIA, ADP, and DXA. Thus, BAI does not appear to be an appropriate proxy for BMI in clinically severe obese (CSO) women. PMID:23592658

  2. Validation study of the body adiposity index as a predictor of percent body fat in older individuals: findings from the BLSA.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cooper, Jamie A

    2014-09-01

    A new body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5)) - 18) has been developed and validated in adult populations. We aimed to assess the validity of BAI in an older population. We compared the concordance correlation coefficient between BAI, body mass index (BMI), and percent body fat (fat%; by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in an older population (n = 954) participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. BAI was more strongly correlated with fat% than BMI (r of .7 vs .6 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) and exhibited a smaller mean difference from fat% (-5.2 vs -7.6 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) indicating better agreement. In men, however, BMI was in better agreement with fat% (r of .6 vs .7 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) with a smaller mean difference from fat% (-3.0 vs -2.2 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01). Finally, BAI did not accurately predict fat% in people with a fat% below 15%. BAI provides valid estimation of body adiposity in an older adult population; however, BMI may be a better index for older men. Finally, BAI is not accurate in people with extremely low or high body fat percentages. PMID:24158764

  3. Body Shape, Adiposity Index, and Mortality in Postmenopausal Women: Findings from the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Cynthia A.; Garcia, David O.; Wertheim, Betsy C.; Hingle, Melanie D.; Bea, Jennifer W.; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Rohan, Thomas; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Thompson, Patricia A.; Lewis, Cora E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Studies evaluating the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality demonstrate a U-shaped association. To expand, this study evaluated the relationship between adiposity indices, a body shape index (ABSI) and body adiposity index (BAI), and mortality in 77,505 postmenopausal women. Methods A prospective cohort analysis was conducted in the Women’s Health Initiative to ascertain the independent relationships between adiposity indices and mortality in order to inform on the clinical usefulness of alternate measures of mortality risk. ABSI (waist circumference (cm)/[BMI2/3 × height (cm)1/2]), BAI (hip circumference (cm)/[height (m)1.5] − 18), weight, BMI, and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated in relation to mortality risk using adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results ABSI showed a linear association with mortality (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.28–1.47 for quintile 5 vs. 1) while BMI and BAI had U-shaped relationships with HR of 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20–1.40 for obesity II/III BMI and 1.06, 95% CI, 0.99–1.13 for BAI. Higher WC (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.13–1.29 for quintile 5 vs. 1) showed relationships similar to BMI. Conclusions ABSI appears to be a clinically useful measure for estimating mortality risk, perhaps more so than BAI and BMI in postmenopausal women. PMID:26991923

  4. Surrogate markers of visceral adiposity in young adults: waist circumference and body mass index are more accurate than waist hip ratio, model of adipose distribution and visceral adiposity index.

    PubMed

    Borruel, Susana; Moltó, José F; Alpañés, Macarena; Fernández-Durán, Elena; Álvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2014-01-01

    Surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity, a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, are routinely used in clinical practice because objective measurements of visceral adiposity are expensive, may involve exposure to radiation, and their availability is limited. We compared several surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity with ultrasound assessment of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots in 99 young Caucasian adults, including 20 women without androgen excess, 53 women with polycystic ovary syndrome, and 26 men. Obesity was present in 7, 21, and 7 subjects, respectively. We obtained body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), model of adipose distribution (MOAD), visceral adiposity index (VAI), and ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots and hepatic steatosis. WC and BMI showed the strongest correlations with ultrasound measurements of visceral adiposity. Only WHR correlated with sex hormones. Linear stepwise regression models including VAI were only slightly stronger than models including BMI or WC in explaining the variability in the insulin sensitivity index (yet BMI and WC had higher individual standardized coefficients of regression), and these models were superior to those including WHR and MOAD. WC showed 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.88-0.99) and BMI showed 0.91 (0.85-0.98) probability of identifying the presence of hepatic steatosis according to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. In conclusion, WC and BMI not only the simplest to obtain, but are also the most accurate surrogate markers of visceral adiposity in young adults, and are good indicators of insulin resistance and powerful predictors of the presence of hepatic steatosis.

  5. Monitoring of temperature-mediated adipose tissue phase transitions by refractive-index measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, I. Yu.; Popov, A. P.; Bykov, A. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring of temperature-mediated adipose tissue phase transitions were studied in vitro using an Abbe refractometer. The 1-2-mm thick porcine fat tissues slices were used in the experiments. The observed change in the tissue was associated with several phase transitions of lipid components of the adipose tissue. It was found that overall heating of a sample from the room to higher temperature led to more pronounced and tissue changes in refractive index if other experimental conditions were kept constant. We observed an abrupt change in the refractive index in the temperature range of 37-60 °C.

  6. The Validity of Body Adiposity Indices in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Egyptian Women

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Kamal, Sanaa; Reyad, Hanaa; Yousef, Walaa; Hassan, Naglaa; Helwa, Iman; Kholoussi, Shams

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the associations between the body adiposity indices and risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components in Egyptian women and to evaluate their predictive power. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis performed on 180 Egyptian women aged between 25-35 years. They were 90 women with MS diagnosed by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and 90 healthy age matched controls. Body adiposity index (BAI), body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated and serum samples were analyzed for metabolic parameters. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) was used to determine the discriminatory capacity of BAI, WHR WHtR and BMI for MS. RESULTS: Area under the curve (AUC) was highest for BIA, followed by WHR, WHtR and then BMI. All adiposity indices were significantly correlated with metabolic components and BAI had the highest correlation coefficients compared to other indices. CONCLUSION: BAI is a practical predictor for MS and has satisfactory diagnostic accuracy for diagnosing MS among Egyptian women and can be used in addition to WHR, WHtR and BMI for identifying MS in the field studies. PMID:27275324

  7. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, K. M.; Paiva, L. L.; Sanchez, S. E.; Revilla, L.; Lopez, T.; Yasuda, M. B.; Yanez, N. D.; Gelaye, B.; Williams, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG). For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS. PMID:21331161

  8. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J.; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies.

  9. Changing guards: time to move beyond body mass index for population monitoring of excess adiposity.

    PubMed

    Tanamas, S K; Lean, M E J; Combet, E; Vlassopoulos, A; Zimmet, P Z; Peeters, A

    2016-07-01

    With the obesity epidemic, and the effects of aging populations, human phenotypes have changed over two generations, possibly more dramatically than in other species previously. As obesity is an important and growing hazard for population health, we recommend a systematic evaluation of the optimal measure(s) for population-level excess body fat. Ideal measure(s) for monitoring body composition and obesity should be simple, as accurate and sensitive as possible, and provide good categorization of related health risks. Combinations of anthropometric markers or predictive equations may facilitate better use of anthropometric data than single measures to estimate body composition for populations. Here, we provide new evidence that increasing proportions of aging populations are at high health-risk according to waist circumference, but not body mass index (BMI), so continued use of BMI as the principal population-level measure substantially underestimates the health-burden from excess adiposity.

  10. Renal Cell Carcinoma and Visceral Adipose Index: a new risk parameter

    PubMed Central

    Otunctemur, Alper; Dursun, Murat; Ozer, Kutan; Horsanali, Ozan; Ozbek, Emin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between tumor size and grade with visceral adipose index (VAI) levels in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 310 consecutive patients with RCC who underwent radical nephrectomy at our institution between January 2007 and May 2014. VAI was calculates for males and females seperately as this formula like previous study. The relationship between tumor size and nuclear grade with VAI levels were evaluated statisticaly. Analyses were completed using Chi-square tests and Logistic regression analysis. Results: Among the 310 total patients analyzed in our study, there were 176 males (56.8%) and 134 females (43.2%). VAI levels were statistically higher in men and women with high tumor size (p<0.001). VAI levels were statistically higher in men and women with high fuhrman grade (p<0.001). Conclusions: The components of VAI may have effect on tumor carcinogenesis in similar pathways. In our study patients with high VAI levels were found to have statistically significant higher nuclear grade and tumor size. VAI can be a useful index for the evaluation and calculation of renal cell cancer aggressiviness. Further studies with more patients are needed to confirm our study. PMID:27532115

  11. Time variation of adipose tissue refractive index under photodynamic treatment: in vitro study using OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Trunina, Natalia A.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2012-03-01

    Time variation of the adipose tissue refractive index under photodynamic treatment was studied using OCT. Fat tissue slices 200-500 μm thick were used in in vitro experiments. To stain the fat tissue we used water-ethanol solutions of indocyanine green (ICG) and brilliant green (BG) with the concentration 1 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml, respectively. The CW laser diode (VD-VII DPSS, 808 nm) and the dental diode irradiator Ultra Lume Led 5 (442 and 597 nm) were used for irradiation of tissue slices. The irradiation time was 5 min for the laser and 15 min for the diode lamp. The experiments were carried out at room temperature. It was discovered the immersion optical clearing of fat tissue slices due to fat cell lipolysis under photodynamic treatment. Released cell content works as an immersion agent, thus the relative refractive index of tissue scatterers decreasing with the time elapsed after the treatment. These data support the hypothesis that photodynamic treatment induces fat cell lipolysis for some period after treatment.

  12. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Melissa A; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-02-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies. PMID:24634735

  13. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Melissa A; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies. PMID:24634735

  14. Maternal low glycaemic index diet, fat intake and postprandial glucose influences neonatal adiposity – secondary analysis from the ROLO study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The in utero environment is known to affect fetal development however many of the mechanisms by which this occurs remain unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal dietary macronutrient intake and lifestyle throughout pregnancy and neonatal weight and adiposity. Methods This was an analysis of 542 mother and infant pairs from the ROLO study (Randomised cOntrol trial of LOw glycaemic index diet versus no dietary intervention to prevent recurrence of fetal macrosomia). Food diaries as well as food frequency and lifestyle and physical activity questionnaires were completed during pregnancy. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and neonatal anthropometry was measured at birth. Results Multiple linear regression analysis revealed the main maternal factor associated with increased birth weight was greater gestational weight gain R2adj23.3% (F = 11.547, p < 0.001). The main maternal factor associated with increased birth length was non-smoking status R2adj27.8% (F = 6.193, p < 0.001). Neonatal central adiposity (determined using waist:length ratio) was negatively associated with maternal age, and positively associated with the following parameters: smoking status, maternal pre-pregnancy arm circumference, percentage energy from saturated fat in late pregnancy, postprandial glucose at 28 weeks gestation and membership of the control group with a positive trend towards association with trimester 2 glycaemic load R2adj 38.1% (F = 8.000, p < 0.001). Conclusions Several maternal diet and lifestyle factors were associated with neonatal anthropometry . Low glycaemic index dietary intervention in pregnancy was found to have a beneficial effect on neonatal central adiposity. Additionally, central adiposity was positively associated with maternal dietary fat intake and postprandial glucose highlighting the important role of healthy diet in pregnancy in promoting normal neonatal adiposity

  15. Applicability of the visceral adiposity index (VAI) in predicting components of metabolic syndrome in young adults.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Jéssica; Vogel, Patrícia; Eckhardt, Cristiane; Morelo, Simone Dal Bosco

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: El síndrome metabólico (SM) es uno de los principales factores de riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV), y la identificación de sus componentes en los adultos jóvenes puede constituir una importante herramienta de prevención. Objetivo: Analizar la aplicabilidad del Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) para la predicción de componentes del SM en adultos jóvenes. Métodos: Estudio transversal con 444 individuos, edad 25,6 ± 6,5, 77,7% del sexo femenino. Se obtuvieron datos sobre el peso, talla, circunferencia de cintura (CC), el porcentaje de grasa corporal (%GC), glucemia, triglicéridos (TG), colesterol total (CT), colesterol HDL (HDL-c), colesterol LDL (LDL-c), y la presión arterial (PA), así como información sobre sus estilos de vida. Se calculó Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC), la proporción de cintura a la altura (PCA) y VAI. Mediciones de adiposidad se compararon con los componentes del SM, y por VAI, se determinó la capacidad predictiva de ocurrencia de los componentes de SM y el área a bajo la curva ROC. Resultados: VAI se correlaciona a la glucosa (r= 0,136), HDL-c (r=-436) y TG (r=0,825) en las mujeres y entre los hombres, se correlaciona a la glucosa (r=0,258), HDL-c (r=-0,550), TG (r=0,897), y la PAD (r= 0,290). Un aumento de VAI se asoció a un mayor riesgo de obesidad abdominal (OR=1,86), hipertrigliceridemia (OR=30,74), y bajo HDL-c (OR=3,95). Entre los indicadores de obesidad, VAI presentó una mayor área bajo la curva de aumento de triglicéridos y bajos niveles de HDL-c. Conclusión: VAI presentó una asociación a los componentes del SM en hombres, y em mujeres con un mayor riesgo de obesidad abdominal, hipertrigliceridemia y bajos niveles de HDL-c, demostrando ser un buen predictor de componentes de SM, incluso entre adultos jóvenes sanos.

  16. Functional analysis of seven genes linked to body mass index and adiposity by genome-wide association studies: a review.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a total of about 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that show significant linkage to body mass index, a widely utilised surrogate measure of adiposity. However, only 8 of these associations have been confirmed by follow-up GWAS using more sophisticated measures of adiposity (computed tomography). Among these 8, there is a SNP close to the gene FTO which has been the subject of considerable work to diagnose its function. The remaining 7 SNPs are adjacent to, or within, the genes NEGR1, TMEM18, ETV5, FLJ35779, LINGO2, SH2B1 and GIPR, most of which are less well studied than FTO, particularly in the context of obesity. This article reviews the available data on the functions of these genes, including information gleaned from studies in humans and animal models. At present, we have virtually no information on the putative mechanism associating the genes FLJ35779 and LINGO2 to obesity. All of these genes are expressed in the brain, and for 2 of them (SH2B1 and GIPR), a direct link to the appetite regulation system is known. SH2B1 is an enhancer of intracellular signalling in the JAK-STAT pathway, and GIPR is the receptor for an appetite-linked hormone (GIP) produced by the alimentary tract. NEGR1, ETV5 and SH2B1 all have suggested roles in neurite outgrowth, and hence SNPs adjacent to these genes may affect development of the energy balance circuitry. Although the genes have central patterns of gene expression, implying a central neuronal connection to energy balance, for at least 4 of them (NEGR1, TMEM18, SH2B1 and GIPR), there are also significant peripheral functions related to adipose tissue biology. These functions may contribute to their effects on the obese phenotype.

  17. Acknowledging the importance of BAI accounts.

    PubMed

    Levin, Steve

    2011-09-01

    For hospitals, balance after insurance (BAI) refers to revenue from uninsured patients and from patients with patient responsibility after insurance. BAI is a rapidly growing share of hospital revenue as a result of substitution from high-deductible commercial insurance plans-revenue that tends to convert to cash relatively easily and quickly-meaning that an increasing share of hospital cash flow is now due from the patient. Hospitals should make sure that their self-pay patients receive excellent customer service: It not only improves the likelihood of a greater yield, but also-perhaps more important-helps ensure customer loyalty and willingness to recommend the facility to others.

  18. Effect of orlistat alone or in combination with Garcinia cambogia on visceral adiposity index in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-kuraishy, Hayder M.; Al-Gareeb, Ali I.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of orlistat alone and in combination with Garcinia cambogia on visceral adiposity index (VAI) in obese patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 99 obese male patients were recruited with aged range between 37 and 46 years. They were randomized into three equal groups, first group treated with orlistat 120 mg/day, second group treated with G. cambogia 166 mg/day, and third group treated with orlistat 120 mg/day plus G. cambogia 166 mg/day. The duration of the treatments was three consecutive months. Body mass index (BMI), VAI, blood pressure, blood glucose, total lipid profile, atherogenic index, and cardiac risk ratio were recorded at baseline and after 3 months. Results: The treatment with G. cambogia leads to reduction in VAI P < 0.05, whereas orlistat has a beneficial effect on cardiometabolic profiles without a reduction in VAI P > 0.05. Combined therapy of G. cambogia plus orlistat showed the more significant effect in reduction of VAI P < 0.05, cardiometabolic profiles and anthropometric measures P < 0.01 compared to pretreatment period. Conclusion: Combination of G. cambogia with orlistat lead to more significant effect than orlistat alone in amelioration of cardiometabolic profile and VAI in obese patients. PMID:27757272

  19. Acknowledging the importance of BAI accounts.

    PubMed

    Levin, Steve

    2011-09-01

    For hospitals, balance after insurance (BAI) refers to revenue from uninsured patients and from patients with patient responsibility after insurance. BAI is a rapidly growing share of hospital revenue as a result of substitution from high-deductible commercial insurance plans-revenue that tends to convert to cash relatively easily and quickly-meaning that an increasing share of hospital cash flow is now due from the patient. Hospitals should make sure that their self-pay patients receive excellent customer service: It not only improves the likelihood of a greater yield, but also-perhaps more important-helps ensure customer loyalty and willingness to recommend the facility to others. PMID:21923047

  20. Is the body adiposity index (hip circumference/height(1.5)) more strongly related to skinfold thicknesses and risk factor levels than is BMI? The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Freedman, David S; Blanck, Heidi M; Dietz, William H; DasMahapatra, Pronabesh; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2013-01-28

    Because of its strong association (r 0.85) with percentage of body fat determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, hip circumference divided by height(1.5) (the body adiposity index) has recently been proposed as an index of body fatness among adults. We examined whether this proposed index was more strongly associated with skinfold thicknesses and levels of CVD risk factors (lipids, fasting insulin and glucose, and blood pressure) than was BMI among 2369 18- to 49-year-olds in the Bogalusa Heart Study. All analyses indicated that the body adiposity index was less strongly associated with skinfold thicknesses and CVD risk factors than was either waist circumference or BMI. Correlations with the skinfold sum, for example, were r 0.81 (BMI) v. r 0.75 (body adiposity index) among men, and r 0.87 (BMI) v. r 0.80 among women; P< 0.001 for both differences. An overall index of seven CVD risk factors was also more strongly associated with BMI (r 0.58) and waist circumference (r 0.61) than with the body adiposity index (r 0.49). The weaker associations with the body adiposity index were observed in analyses stratified by sex, race, age and year of examination. Multivariable analyses indicated that if either BMI or waist circumference were known, the body adiposity index provided no additional information on skinfold thicknesses or risk factor levels. These findings indicate that the body adiposity index is likely to be an inferior index of adiposity than is either BMI or waist circumference.

  1. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age—Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Horan, Mary K.; McGowan, Ciara A.; Gibney, Eileen R.; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age. PMID:26742066

  2. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age--Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Horan, Mary K; McGowan, Ciara A; Gibney, Eileen R; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-01-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age.

  3. Visceral Adiposity and Anthropometric Indicators as Screening Tools of Metabolic Syndrome among Low Income Rural Adults in Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shu-xia; Zhang, Xiang-hui; Zhang, Jing-yu; He, Jia; Yan, Yi-zhong; Ma, Jiao-long; Ma, Ru-lin; Guo, Heng; Mu, La-ti; Li, Shu-gang; Niu, Qiang; Rui, Dong-sheng; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jia-ming; Wang, Kui; Xu, Shang-zhi; Gao, Xiang; Ding, Yu-song

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on metabolic syndrome (MetS) examined urban and high income settings. We thus investigated the prevalence of MetS among a multi-ethnic population living in a low income rural area and explored the use of visceral adiposity and anthropometric indicators to identify men and women with MetS. We recruited 10,029 individuals of nomadic Kazakhs, rural Uyghur and Han residents in Xinjiang, China. MetS was defined by the Joint Interim Statement criteria. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to compare the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of each index. The age-adjusted prevalence of MetS was 21.8%. The visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), body adiposity index (BAI) and the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were significantly associated with MetS, independent of ethnic, age, and other covariates. The AUC of VAI, LAP and WHtR were all greater than 0.7, and the LAP was the index that most accurately identified MetS status in men (AUC = 0.853) and women (AUC = 0.817), with the optimal cut-offs of 34.7 and 27.3, respectively. In conclusion, the prevalence of MetS in low income rural adults of Xinjiang was high and the LAP was an effective indicator for the screening of MetS. PMID:27782221

  4. The mRNA expression of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor in human adipose tissue is positively correlated with body mass index.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hien Fuh; Chin, Kin Fah; Chan, Kok-Gan; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2015-06-01

    suPLAUR is the transcript variant that encodes the soluble form of the urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor (suPLAUR). This soluble protein has been shown to enhance leukocyte migration and adhesion, and its circulatory level is increased in inflammatory states. In this pilot study, we used RNA-Seq to examine the splicing pattern of PLAUR in omental adipose tissues from obese and lean individuals. Of the three transcript variants of the PLAUR gene, only the proportion of suPLAUR (transcript variant 2) increases in obesity. After removing the effects of gender and age, the expression of suPLAUR is positively correlated with body mass index. This observation was validated using RT-qPCR with an independent cohort of samples. Additionally, in our RNA-Seq differential expression analysis, we also observed, in obese adipose tissues, an up-regulation of genes encoding other proteins involved in the process of chemotaxis and leukocyte adhesion; of particular interest is the integrin beta 2 (ITGB2) that is known to interact with suPLAUR in leukocyte adhesion. These findings suggest an important role for suPLAUR in the recruitment of immune cells to obese adipose tissue, in the pathogenesis of obesity. PMID:26284904

  5. Adiposity is associated with DNA methylation profile in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Agha, Golareh; Houseman, E Andres; Kelsey, Karl T; Eaton, Charles B; Buka, Stephen L; Loucks, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adiposity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, suggesting an important role for adipose tissue in the development of these conditions. The epigenetic underpinnings of adiposity are not well understood, and studies of DNA methylation in relation to adiposity have rarely focused on target adipose tissue. Objectives were to evaluate whether genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in subcutaneous adipose tissue and peripheral blood leukocytes are associated with measures of adiposity, including central fat mass, body fat distribution and body mass index. Methods: Participants were 106 men and women (mean age 47 years) from the New England Family Study. DNA methylation was evaluated using the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip. Adiposity phenotypes included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-assessed android fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio and trunk:limb fat ratio, as well as body mass index. Results: Adipose tissue genome-wide DNA methylation profiles were associated with all four adiposity phenotypes, after adjusting for race, sex and current smoking (omnibus p-values <0.001). After further adjustment for adipose cell-mixture effects, associations with android fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio, and trunk:limb fat ratio remained. In gene-specific analyses, adiposity phenotypes were associated with adipose tissue DNA methylation in several genes that are biologically relevant to the development of adiposity, such as AOC3, LIPE, SOD3, AQP7 and CETP. Blood DNA methylation profiles were not associated with adiposity, before or after adjustment for blood leukocyte cell mixture effects. Conclusion: Findings show that DNA methylation patterns in adipose tissue are associated with adiposity. PMID:25541553

  6. Polymorphism of rs1044925 in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) gene and serum lipid profiles is not well known in different ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was carried out to clarify the association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 626 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 624 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A and C alleles was 79.0% and 21.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 87.3% and 12.7% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of AA, AC and CC genotypes was 63.2%, 31.4% and 5.2% in Bai Ku Yao, and 75.6%, 23.2% and 1.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were different between the AA and AC/CC genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). The C allele carriers had lower serum TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels as compared with the C allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were correlated with genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that the polymorphism of rs1044925 in the ACAT-1 gene is mainly associated with female serum TC, LDL-C and

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PPARD +294T > C (rs2016520) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 609 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 573 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the PPARD +294T > C polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.001 for all). The frequency of T and C alleles was 77.50% and 22.50% in Bai Ku Yao, and 72.43% and 27.57% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequency of TT, TC and CC genotypes was 60.59%, 33.83% and 5.53% in Bai Ku Yao, and 52.18%, 40.50% and 7.32% in Han (P < 0.05); respectively. The subjects with CC genotype in Bai Ku Yao had higher serum LDL-C and ApoB levels and lower the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the subjects with TT and TC genotypes in females but not in males. The C allele carriers in Han had higher serum TC levels in males (P < 0.01) and ApoB levels in females (P < 0.05) than the C allele noncarriers. Serum TC and ApoB levels were correlated with genotypes in Han (P < 0.05 for each) but not in Bai Ku Yao. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups. Conclusions These results suggest that the association of PPARD +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is

  8. Development and Validation of the Biophilic Attitudes Inventory (BAI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letourneau, Lawrence E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the viability of an instrument called the Biophilic Attitudes Inventory (BAI), a pen-and-paper instrument intended to measure attitudes toward nature that, according to naturalist Edward O. Wilson, are rooted in an innate predisposition that humans possess to connect with other forms of life. Utilizing confirmatory factor…

  9. Increased Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Independent of Body Adiposity in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Controls in falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Acquah, Samuel; Boampong, Johnson Nyarko; Eghan Jnr, Benjamin Ackon

    2016-01-01

    Information on the extent to which oxidative stress and inflammation occur in the presence of falciparum malaria and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the same individual is limited. This study sought to investigate the extent of inflammation and oxidative stress in adult uncomplicated malaria by measuring fasting levels of lipid peroxides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and total antioxidant power (TAP) before and during falciparum malaria, in 100 respondents with type 2 diabetes and 100 age-matched controls in the Cape Coast metropolis of Ghana. Also, body adiposity index, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio were computed. Before and during falciparum malaria, diabetes patients exhibited higher (P < 0.05) levels of CRP and peroxides than controls but TAP and BAI were comparable (P > 0.05) between the two groups. Baseline CRP correlated positively (r = 0.341, P = 0.002) with peroxide only in the diabetic group. During malaria, TAP level in both study groups declined (P < 0.05) by 80% of their baseline levels. CRP correlated negatively (r = −0.352, P = 0.011) with TAP in the control but not the diabetic group. Uncomplicated falciparum malaria elevated inflammation and peroxidation but decreased antioxidant power independent of adiposity. This finding may have implication on cardiovascular health. PMID:27298824

  10. The association of physical activity and cholesterol concentrations across different combinations of central adiposity and body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Addoh, Ovuokerie

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate if those who are physically active,compared to physically inactive, have better cholesterol profiles across different combinations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Methods: Data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 16 095). Cholesterol parameters included total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TC/HDL-C ratio, triglycerides and at herogenic index(Log10 [triglycerides/HDL-C]). Physical activity (PA) was assessed via self-report, with BMI and WC objectively measured. Cholesterol concentrations of 6 combinations of BMI and WC were evaluated among active and inactive participants. Multivariable linear regression analysis was utilized. Results: Findings were not consistent across sex. There was little evidence to suggest an association of PA on TC across varying BMI and WC combinations. For example, among those who had an obese BMI and high WC, inactive participants did not have different TC level when compared to active participants (β = -1.2; 95% CI: -3.9-1.5, P = 0.38). There was evidence to suggest a favorable association of PA on HDL-C, triglycerides and at herogenic index across varying BMI and WC combinations. For example, among those who had an obese BMI and high WC, inactive (vs. active) participants had a lower HDL-C (βadjusted = -1.6, P < 0.01). When considering either gender, there was sufficient evidence to suggest a favorable association of PA on at least one of the evaluated cholesterol parameters for each of the BMI/WC combinations with the exception of normal BMI and high WC. Conclusion: Except for those having normal weight central obesity, PA is favorably associated with cholesterol parameters across various combinations of BMI and WC. PMID:27579256

  11. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The aim of the present study was to eveluate the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 780 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 686 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 77.4% and 22.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 60.9% and 39.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 58.7%, 37.3% and 4.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 32.6%, 56.4% and 11.0% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC and LDL-C in both ethnic groups were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01). The T allele carriers had higher serum TC and LDL-C levels than the T allele noncarriers. The levels of ApoB in Han were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum ApoB levels as compared with the T allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, TG and LDL-C in Bai Ku Yao were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001), whereas the levels of LDL-C in Han were associated with genotypes (P < 0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in the both ethnic

  12. Visceral adiposity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Heno F; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Egan, Brent M

    2016-01-01

    The association of anthropometric (waist circumference) and hemodynamic (blood pressure) changes with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism has been motivation for a lot of discussions in the last 30 years. Nowadays, blood pressure, body mass index/abdominal circumference, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are considered in the definition of Metabolic syndrome, referred as Visceral adiposity syndrome (VAS) in the present review. However, more than 250 years ago an association between visceral and mediastinal obesity with hypertension, gout, and obstructive apnea had already been recognized. Expansion of visceral adipose tissue secondary to chronic over-consumption of calories stimulates the recruitment of macrophages, which assume an inflammatory phenotype and produce cytokines that directly interfere with insulin signaling, resulting in insulin resistance. In turn, insulin resistance (IR) manifests itself in various tissues, contributing to the overall phenotype of VAS. For example, in white adipose tissue, IR results in lipolysis, increased free fatty acids release and worsening of inflammation, since fatty acids can bind to Toll-like receptors. In the liver, IR results in increased hepatic glucose production, contributing to hyperglycemia; in the vascular endothelium and kidney, IR results in vasoconstriction, sodium retention and, consequently, arterial hypertension. Other players have been recognized in the development of VAS, such as genetic predisposition, epigenetic factors associated with exposure to an unfavourable intrauterine environment and the gut microbiota. More recently, experimental and clinical studies have shown the autonomic nervous system participates in modulating visceral adipose tissue. The sympathetic nervous system is related to adipose tissue function and differentiation through beta1, beta2, beta3, alpha1, and alpha2 adrenergic receptors. The relation is bidirectional: sympathetic denervation of

  13. Language Contact as Bilingual Contrast among Bai Language Users in Jianchuan County, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefright, Brook Emerson

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores Bai language use in Jianchuan County, China. On the basis of interviews with 42 language users, transcripts of spontaneous conversation and elicited narratives, excerpts from Bai texts in an alphabetic orthography and Chinese characters, and six months of participant observation, I demonstrate how language users'…

  14. Species classification and bioactive ingredients accumulation of BaiJiangCao based on characteristic inorganic elements analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wen-Lan, Li; Xue, Zhang; Xin-Xin, Yang; Shuai, Wang; Lin, Zhao; Huan-Jun, Zhao; Yong-Rui, Bao; Chen-Feng, Ji; Ning, Chen; Zheng, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch and Patrinia villosa (Thunb.) Juss., two species herbs with the same Chinese name “BaiJiangCao”, are important ancient herbal medicines widely used for more than 2000 years. The clinical application of two species herb is confused due to the difficult identification. Objective: The objective was to authenticate the species of BaiJiangCao and analyze the accumulation of bioactive ingredients based on characteristic inorganic elements analysis. Materials and Methods: Content of 32 inorganic elements in BaiJiangCao from different habitats were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the characteristic inorganic elements were picked to distinguish the species of the herb by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Contents of two bioactive ingredients, luteoloside, and oleanolic acid, in the samples, were also analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography method. Relationship between accumulation of bioactive ingredients and content of macroelements in BaiJiangCao was established by statistics. Results: A 4 macroelements (Na, Mg, K, Fe) in 32 determined inorganic elements were picked for characteristic inorganic elements. Content of Na, Mg, K and Fe showed positive correlations with that of luteoloside, content of Na, Mg showed positive correlations with that of oleanolic acid, but content of K and Fe showed negative correlations with that of oleanolic acid. Conclusion: It is for the first time to utilize the characteristic inorganic elements as an index to classify the herb species by the method of ICP-MS and multivariate analysis. And it is also the first report to investigate the influence of inorganic elements in herb on the accumulation of bioactive components which could affect the pharmacological efficacy of the herb medicine. And this method could also be utilized in research of corresponding aspects. PMID:26600721

  15. Xuan Bai Cheng Qi formula as an adjuvant treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of the syndrome type phlegm-heat obstructing the lungs: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat AECOPD as adjunctive therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the TCM formula Xuan Bai Cheng Qi as an adjuvant therapy for AECOPD patients with the syndrome type of phlegm-heat obstructing the lungs. Methods A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. A total of 244 patients were divided into the intervention group (n = 122, treated with conventional medicine and Xuan Bai Cheng Qi) and the control group (n = 122, treated with conventional medicine and placebo). Total symptom scores (cough, phlegm, wheezing, chest congestion) before treatment and at 3, 5, 7, 10 days post-treatment were recorded. Lung function, arterial blood gas, serum inflammatory cytokines, oxidation/anti-oxidation index were observed before treatment and at the end of the 10-day treatment. Results A total of 242 patients completed the study. The full analysis set (FAS) population was 244 and the per-protocol analysis set (PPS) population was 229. After the 10-day treatment, symptom scores of the Xuan Bai Cheng Qi group were significantly lower over time compared with the control group (FAS: mean difference -1.84, 95% CI -2.66 to -1.03, P < .001; PPS: mean difference -1.87, 95% CI -2.71 to -1.03, P < .001). FEV1, FVC, and FEV1%pred were significantly higher over time in the Xuan Bai Cheng Qi group compared with those in the control group (day 10, FAS and PPS: P < .05). PaO2 and PaCO2 were significantly improved in the Xuan Bai Cheng Qi group (day 10, FAS and PPS: P < .05). Xuan Bai Cheng Qi was also found to ameliorate cytokine levels and oxidation/antioxidant index compared with placebo. There were no differences in safety variables and adverse events between the two groups. Conclusions Xuan Bai Cheng Qi formula appears to be a

  16. Biological effects of eukaryotic recombinant plasmid pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 transfection on T24 cells and HUVECs

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Da-Wei; Hu, Hai-Long; Sun, Yan; Tang, Yang; Lei, Ming-De; Liu, Li-Wei; Han, Rui-Fa; Wu, Chang-Li

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the biological effect on T24 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) of transfection with brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor-1 (BAI-1). The recombinant plasmid pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 was transfected into human superficial bladder tumor cells (T24) and HUVECs, in parallel with the vector control. mRNA and protein expression levels of BAI-1 were then detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting, respectively. Cell apoptosis of T24 cells and HUVECs prior and subsequent to transfection with BAI-1 was analyzed by flow cytometric analysis. Proliferation of T24 cells and HUVECs prior and subsequent to transfection of BAI-1 was assessed by the MTT method. T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver-M61-BA1-1 were classed as the experimental group; T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with p-Receiver-M61 were the control group. qPCR and western blotting methods confirmed that there was positive expression of BAI-1 in T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver-M61-BAI-1, however BAI-1 was not expressed in T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver-M61. The results of the MTT assay demonstrated that absorbance was markedly reduced in HUVECs at 12, 48 and 72 h subsequent to transfection with pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 when compared with that of the control group and in T24 cells transfected with p-Receiver-M61-BAI-1. Furthermore, flow cytometry results also indicated that the apoptotic rate of HUVECs transfected with p-Receiver-M61-BAI-1 was significantly increased compared with that of the control group and T24 cells transfected with p-Receiver-M61-BAI-1. BAI-1 was observed to markedly inhibit the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells in vitro, however, no direct inhibition by BAI-1 was observed in T24 cells. In conclusion, BAI-1 is suggested to be a potential novel therapautic target for the inhibition of tumor neovascularization. PMID:27356780

  17. Physical inactivity, excess adiposity and premature mortality.

    PubMed

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Janssen, I; Ardern, C I

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to review the evidence that physical inactivity and excess adiposity are related to an increased risk of all-cause mortality, and to better identify the independent contributions of each to all-cause mortality rates. A variance-based method of meta-analysis was used to summarize the relationships from available studies. The summary relative risk of all-cause mortality for physical activity from the 55 analyses (31 studies) that included an index of adiposity as a covariate was 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-0.821, whereas it was 0.82 [95% CI 0.80-0.84] for the 44 analyses (26 studies) that did not include an index of adiposity. Thus, physically active individuals have a lower risk of mortality by comparison to physically inactive peers, independent of level of adiposity. The summary relative risk of all-cause mortality for an elevated body mass index (BMI) from the 25 analyses (13 studies) that included physical activity as a covariate was 1.23 [95% CI 1.18-1.29], and it was 1.24 [95% CI 1.21-1.28] for the 81 analyses (36 studies) that did not include physical activity as a covariate. Studies that used a measure of adiposity other than the BMI show similar relationships with mortality, and stratified analyses indicate that both physical inactivity and adiposity are important determinants of mortality risk.

  18. Genetic variant of V825I in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    .05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusion The present study suggests that the V825I polymorphism in the ABCA1 gene is associated with male serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels in the Han, and serum TC levels in the Bai Ku Yao populations. The difference in the association of V825I polymorphism and serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different ABCA1 gene-enviromental interactions. PMID:21247457

  19. Association between Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Height Ratio and Adiposity in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Martin-Calvo, Nerea; Moreno-Galarraga, Laura; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel

    2016-08-20

    Obesity is defined as an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been suggested as the gold standard to define obesity, but because its use is complex and expensive, anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) or the waist-to-height ratio (WtHr) have been used as alternatives. The aim of this study was to review the published literature and investigate the correlation of BMI and WtHr with body fat (BF) measured by DEXA in pediatric populations. References were sought in PubMed/Medline and Embase datasets. Five original articles, published between 2013 and 2015, were finally included in this review. Their sample size ranged from 83 to 5355, and the age of participants ranged from 4.9 to 19 years old. The most frequently reported association measurements were the coefficients of determination (R²), followed by correlation coefficients and least-squares regression coefficients. BF measured by DEXA was strongly correlated with both BMI (R² ranging from 0.32 to 0.91) and WtHr (R² ranging from 0.49 to 0.73). Thus, either BMI or WtHr may be useful to define obesity when more sophisticated techniques are not available. Our systematic review of the available literature found that neither index demonstrated superiority in assessing obesity in children.

  20. Association between Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Height Ratio and Adiposity in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Martin-Calvo, Nerea; Moreno-Galarraga, Laura; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is defined as an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been suggested as the gold standard to define obesity, but because its use is complex and expensive, anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) or the waist-to-height ratio (WtHr) have been used as alternatives. The aim of this study was to review the published literature and investigate the correlation of BMI and WtHr with body fat (BF) measured by DEXA in pediatric populations. References were sought in PubMed/Medline and Embase datasets. Five original articles, published between 2013 and 2015, were finally included in this review. Their sample size ranged from 83 to 5355, and the age of participants ranged from 4.9 to 19 years old. The most frequently reported association measurements were the coefficients of determination (R²), followed by correlation coefficients and least-squares regression coefficients. BF measured by DEXA was strongly correlated with both BMI (R² ranging from 0.32 to 0.91) and WtHr (R² ranging from 0.49 to 0.73). Thus, either BMI or WtHr may be useful to define obesity when more sophisticated techniques are not available. Our systematic review of the available literature found that neither index demonstrated superiority in assessing obesity in children. PMID:27556485

  1. Association between Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Height Ratio and Adiposity in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Calvo, Nerea; Moreno-Galarraga, Laura; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is defined as an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been suggested as the gold standard to define obesity, but because its use is complex and expensive, anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) or the waist-to-height ratio (WtHr) have been used as alternatives. The aim of this study was to review the published literature and investigate the correlation of BMI and WtHr with body fat (BF) measured by DEXA in pediatric populations. References were sought in PubMed/Medline and Embase datasets. Five original articles, published between 2013 and 2015, were finally included in this review. Their sample size ranged from 83 to 5355, and the age of participants ranged from 4.9 to 19 years old. The most frequently reported association measurements were the coefficients of determination (R2), followed by correlation coefficients and least-squares regression coefficients. BF measured by DEXA was strongly correlated with both BMI (R2 ranging from 0.32 to 0.91) and WtHr (R2 ranging from 0.49 to 0.73). Thus, either BMI or WtHr may be useful to define obesity when more sophisticated techniques are not available. Our systematic review of the available literature found that neither index demonstrated superiority in assessing obesity in children. PMID:27556485

  2. The adhesion-GPCR BAI3, a gene linked to psychiatric disorders, regulates dendrite morphogenesis in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, V; Usardi, A; Sigoillot, S M; Talleur, M; Iyer, K; Mariani, J; Isope, P; Vodjdani, G; Heintz, N; Selimi, F

    2013-01-01

    Adhesion-G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a poorly studied subgroup of the GPCRs, which have diverse biological roles and are major targets for therapeutic intervention. Among them, the Brain Angiogenesis Inhibitor (BAI) family has been linked to several psychiatric disorders, but despite their very high neuronal expression, the function of these receptors in the central nervous system has barely been analyzed. Our results, obtained using expression knockdown and overexpression experiments, reveal that the BAI3 receptor controls dendritic arborization growth and branching in cultured neurons. This role is confirmed in Purkinje cells in vivo using specific expression of a deficient BAI3 protein in transgenic mice, as well as lentivirus driven knockdown of BAI3 expression. Regulation of dendrite morphogenesis by BAI3 involves activation of the RhoGTPase Rac1 and the binding to a functional ELMO1, a critical Rac1 regulator. Thus, activation of the BAI3 signaling pathway could lead to direct reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton through RhoGTPase signaling in neurons. Given the direct link between RhoGTPase/actin signaling pathways, neuronal morphogenesis and psychiatric disorders, our mechanistic data show the importance of further studying the role of the BAI adhesion-GPCRs to understand the pathophysiology of such brain diseases. PMID:23628982

  3. Human adipose dynamics and metabolic health

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bin; Zhang, Tracy; Xu, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    The two types of adipose tissue in humans, white and brown, have distinct developmental origins and functions. Human white adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in maintaining whole-body energy homeostasis by storing triglycerides when energy is in surplus, releasing free fatty acids as a fuel during energy shortage, and secreting adipokines that are important for regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. The size of white adipose mass needs to be kept at a proper set point. Dramatic expansion of white fat mass causes obesity—now become a global epidemic disease—and increases the risk for the development of many life-threatening diseases. The absence of white adipose tissue or abnormal white adipose tissue redistribution leads to lipodystrophy, a condition often associated with metabolic disorders. Brown adipose tissue is a thermogenic organ whose mass is inversely correlated with body mass index and age. Therapeutic approaches targeting adipose tissue have been proven to be effective in improving obesity-related metabolic disorders, and promising new therapies could be developed in the near future. PMID:23317303

  4. Overeating styles and adiposity among multiethnic youth

    PubMed Central

    Ledoux, Tracey; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Janice; Tepper, Beverly J.; Baranowski, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Reasons for inconsistent associations between overeating styles and adiposity among youth may include differences in effects by age, gender, or ethnicity; failure to control for social desirability of response; or adiposity measurement limitations. This study examined the relationship between overeating styles and multiple measures of adiposity, after controlling for social desirability and testing for moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender. Data from 304 9–10 year old children and 264 17–18 year old adolescents equally representing African American, Hispanic, and White ethnic groups were extracted from a larger cross-sectional study. Measures included the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (restrained, external, and emotional overeating subscales), the “Lie Scale” from the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale, and measured weight, height, waist circumference, and triceps skinfold. BMI z-score and a global adiposity index were calculated. Mixed model linear regression showed restraint was positively and external eating was negatively related to measures of adiposity. African American youth had a stronger inverse association between emotional eating and adiposity than White or Hispanic youth. Relationships were not influenced by social desirability nor moderated by age or gender. Overeating styles are related to adiposity in nearly all youth but the nature of these associations are moderated by ethnicity. PMID:21115080

  5. Scintillation properties of Eu2+-doped KBa2I5 and K2BaI4

    DOE PAGES

    Stand, L.; Zhuravleva, M.; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Johnson, J.; Lindsey, Adam; Melcher, Charles L.

    2015-09-25

    We report two new ternary metal halide scintillators, KBa2I5 and K2BaI4, activated with divalent europium. Single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed that KBa2I5 has a monoclinic structure (P21/c) and that K2BaI4 has a rhombohedral structure (R3c). Differential scanning calorimetry showed singular melting and crystallization points, making these compounds viable candidates for melt growth. We grew 13 mm diameter single crystals of KBa2I5:Eu2+ and K2BaI4:Eu2+ in evacuated quartz ampoules via the vertical Bridgman technique. The optimal Eu2+ concentration was 4% for KBa2I5 and 7% for K2BaI4. The X-ray excited emissions at 444 nm for KBa2I5:Eu 4% and 448 nm for K2BaI4:Eumore » 7% arise from the 5d-4f radiative transition in Eu2+. KBa2I5:Eu 4% has a light yield of 90,000 photons/MeV, with an energy resolution of 2.4% and K2BaI4:Eu 7% has a light yield of 63,000 ph/MeV, with an energy resolution of 2.9% at 662 keV. Both crystals have an excellent proportional response to a wide range of gamma-ray energies.« less

  6. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  7. Habituation to a stressor predicts adolescents' adiposity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Objectives: Stress is associated with gains in adiposity. One factor that determines how much stress is experienced is how quickly an adolescent reduces responding (habituates) across repeated stressors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of body mass index pe...

  8. Bai-Hu-Jia-Ren-Shen-Tang Decoction Reduces Fatty Liver by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui-Kang; Hung, Tzu-Min; Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lee, I-Jung; Chang, Chia-Chuan; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Huang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and associated conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are currently a worldwide health problem. In Asian traditional medicine, Bai-Hu-Jia-Ren-Shen-Tang (BHJRST) is widely used in diabetes patients to reduce thirst. However, whether it has a therapeutic effect on T2DM or NAFLD is not known. The aim of this study was to examine whether BHJRST had a lipid-lowering effect using a HuS-E/2 cell model of fatty liver induced by palmitate and in a db/db mouse model of dyslipidemia. Incubation of HuS-E/2 cells with palmitate markedly increased lipid accumulation and expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), which is involved in lipolysis. BHJRST significantly decreased lipid accumulation and increased ATGL levels and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its primary downstream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which are involved in fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, after twice daily oral administration for six weeks, BHJRST significantly reduced hepatic fat accumulation in db/db mice, as demonstrated by increased hepatic AMPK and ACC phosphorylation, reduced serum triglyceride levels, and reduced hepatic total lipid content. The results show that BHJRST has a lipid-lowering effect in the liver that is mediated by activation of the AMPK signaling pathway. PMID:26508982

  9. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  10. Correlation of visceral adiposity index with chronic kidney disease in the People’s Republic of China: to rediscover the new clinical potential of an old indicator for visceral obesity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaomeng; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Zhihong; Zhu, Shuangshuang; Liu, Xinyu; Zhou, Chaomin; Shao, Xiaofei; Liang, Yan; Duan, Chongyang; Holthöfer, Harry; Zou, Hequn

    2016-01-01

    Aim To validate the association between visceral obesity and pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among individuals aged 40 years and above, and the potential of visceral adiposity index (VAI) to predict CKD. Methods This study was based on a cross-sectional epidemiologic study in the People’s Republic of China. A total of 1,581 residents aged over 40 years were included and divided into four groups based on VAI quartile intervals, namely, Groups I, II, III, and IV (eg, Group I included patients with their VAIs in the lowest quartile). Logistic regression analysis was performed. Results VAI is positively correlated with the albumin-to-creatinine ratio and the prevalence of CKD (P<0.001), and is inversely related to estimated glomerular filtration rate (P<0.001). Using Group I as control, odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to quantify the risk of developing CKD as VAI increased (Group II 1.08 [P>0.05], Group III 1.57 [P<0.05], Group IV 2.31 [P<0.001]). Related factors like age and sex were normalized in the logistic model before calculation. ORs became 1.16 (P>0.05), 1.59 (P<0.05), and 2.14 (P<0.05), respectively, for each group after further normalization considering smoking, drinking, physical activity, education, and the history of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. The same results were not observed after fasting blood glucose and blood pressure levels were included in the normalization. There was no significant difference in the ORs for different groups: 0.94 (P>0.05), 1.11 (P<0.05), and 1.68 (P>0.05), respectively. Conclusion VAI is highly correlated with the prevalence of CKD in the population aged 40 years and above. It can be used to predict the pathogenesis of CKD, which is dependent on fasting blood glucose and blood pressure levels. PMID:27099507

  11. Comparative profiling of gene expression in Camellia sinensis L. cultivar AnJiBaiCha leaves during periodic albinism.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ling; Xiong, Li-Gui; Deng, Ting-Ting; Wu, Yang; Li, Juan; Liu, Shuo-Qian; Huang, Jian-An; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2015-04-25

    The AnJiBaiCha albino mutant tea cultivar has a reversible albino phenotype at low temperatures. Albino AnJiBaiCha leaves contain high levels of amino acids, which are important components affecting the quality of tea as a beverage. To examine the molecular mechanism of albinism and amino acid enrichment in AnJiBaiCha, we used the amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique to isolate genes that are differentially expressed during periodic albinism in AnJiBaiCha. A total of 127 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were successfully sequenced; among those, 60 TDFs showed high similarity to sequences with known functions, but 67 TDFs were not similar to any known genes. The identified transcripts include transcription factors, ubiquitination-related genes, chloroplast biogenesis genes, signal transduction genes, stress-related genes, cell cycle genes, and carbohydrate and energy metabolism genes. To validate the cDNA-AFLP results, quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the differential expression of six of the identified genes. The cDNA-AFLP and quantitative real-time PCR results correlated well, indicating that the cDNA-AFLP results are reliable. This study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms by which periodic albinism and amino acid accumulation take place in AnJiBaiCha.

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA HVS-I and HVS-II in Chinese Bai ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Yin, Cai-Yong; Qian, Xiao-Qin; Fan, Han-Ting; Deng, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Shen, Chun-Mei; Yang, Chun-Hua; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Bo-Feng; Xu, Peng

    2015-03-01

    For forensic and population genetic purposes, a total of 125 unrelated volunteers' blood samples were collected from Chinese Bai ethnic minority group to analyze sequence variation of two hypervariable segments (HVS-I and HVS-II) in the mitochondrial DNA control region. Comparing the HVS-I and HVS-II sequences of the 125 Chinese Bais to the Anderson reference sequence, we found 86 polymorphic loci in HVS-I and 40 in HVS-II in mitochondrial DNA sequences of the Chinese Bai ethnic minority group, which defined 93 and 53 different haplotypes, respectively. Haplotype diversity and the mean pairwise differences were 0.992 ± 0.003 and 6.553 in HVS-I, and 0.877 ± 0.027 and 2.407 in HVS-II, respectively. We defined four macrohaplogroups R, M, N and D with the proportions ranging from 9.6% to 40.0%. With the analysis of the hypervariable domain from nucleotide 16 180-16 193 in HVS-I, our study revealed new haplotypes of sequence variations. In addition, the Fst metric, phylogenetic tree, and principal component analysis demonstrated a close genetic relationship between the Bai group and Chinese Han populations from South China, Changsha, and Guangdong. The results support that the Bai group is a multiorigin ethnic minority that has merged with the Chinese Han population.

  13. The adhesion GPCR BAI1 mediates macrophage ROS production and microbicidal activity against Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Emily A.; Lee, Chang Sup; Owen, Katherine A.; D’Souza, Ryan S.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.; Casanova, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The detection of microbes and initiation of an innate immune response occur through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are critical for the production of inflammatory cytokines and activation of the cellular microbicidal machinery. In particular, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase complex is a critical component of the macrophage bactericidal machinery. We previously characterized brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1), a member of the adhesion family of G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein)–coupled receptors (GPCRs), as a PRR that mediates the selective phagocytic uptake of Gram-negative bacteria by macrophages. We showed that BAI1 promoted phagosomal ROS production through activation of the Rho family guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rac1, thereby stimulating NADPH oxidase activity. Primary BAI1-deficient macrophages exhibited attenuated Rac GTPase activity and reduced ROS production in response to several Gram-negative bacteria, resulting in impaired microbicidal activity. Furthermore, in a peritoneal infection model, BAI1-deficient mice exhibited increased susceptibility to death by bacterial challenge because of impaired bacterial clearance. Together, these findings suggest that BAI1 mediates the clearance of Gram-negative bacteria by stimulating both phagocytosis and NADPH oxidase activation, thereby coupling bacterial detection to the cellular microbicidal machinery. PMID:26838550

  14. Structure and functional characterization of a bile acid 7α dehydratase BaiE in secondary bile acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Shiva; Chiu, Hsien-Po; Jones, David H; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Miller, Mitchell D; Xu, Qingping; Farr, Carol L; Ridlon, Jason M; Wells, James E; Elsliger, Marc-André; Wilson, Ian A; Hylemon, Phillip B; Lesley, Scott A

    2016-03-01

    Conversion of the primary bile acids cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) to the secondary bile acids deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA) is performed by a few species of intestinal bacteria in the genus Clostridium through a multistep biochemical pathway that removes a 7α-hydroxyl group. The rate-determining enzyme in this pathway is bile acid 7α-dehydratase (baiE). In this study, crystal structures of apo-BaiE and its putative product-bound [3-oxo-Δ(4,6) -lithocholyl-Coenzyme A (CoA)] complex are reported. BaiE is a trimer with a twisted α + β barrel fold with similarity to the Nuclear Transport Factor 2 (NTF2) superfamily. Tyr30, Asp35, and His83 form a catalytic triad that is conserved across this family. Site-directed mutagenesis of BaiE from Clostridium scindens VPI 12708 confirm that these residues are essential for catalysis and also the importance of other conserved residues, Tyr54 and Arg146, which are involved in substrate binding and affect catalytic turnover. Steady-state kinetic studies reveal that the BaiE homologs are able to turn over 3-oxo-Δ(4) -bile acid and CoA-conjugated 3-oxo-Δ(4) -bile acid substrates with comparable efficiency questioning the role of CoA-conjugation in the bile acid metabolism pathway. PMID:26650892

  15. Comparative profiling of gene expression in Camellia sinensis L. cultivar AnJiBaiCha leaves during periodic albinism.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ling; Xiong, Li-Gui; Deng, Ting-Ting; Wu, Yang; Li, Juan; Liu, Shuo-Qian; Huang, Jian-An; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2015-04-25

    The AnJiBaiCha albino mutant tea cultivar has a reversible albino phenotype at low temperatures. Albino AnJiBaiCha leaves contain high levels of amino acids, which are important components affecting the quality of tea as a beverage. To examine the molecular mechanism of albinism and amino acid enrichment in AnJiBaiCha, we used the amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique to isolate genes that are differentially expressed during periodic albinism in AnJiBaiCha. A total of 127 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were successfully sequenced; among those, 60 TDFs showed high similarity to sequences with known functions, but 67 TDFs were not similar to any known genes. The identified transcripts include transcription factors, ubiquitination-related genes, chloroplast biogenesis genes, signal transduction genes, stress-related genes, cell cycle genes, and carbohydrate and energy metabolism genes. To validate the cDNA-AFLP results, quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the differential expression of six of the identified genes. The cDNA-AFLP and quantitative real-time PCR results correlated well, indicating that the cDNA-AFLP results are reliable. This study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms by which periodic albinism and amino acid accumulation take place in AnJiBaiCha. PMID:25576956

  16. Adipose tissue angiogenesis assay.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rodriguez, Raziel; Gealekman, Olga; Kruse, Maxwell E; Rosenthal, Brittany; Rao, Kishore; Min, Soyun; Bellve, Karl D; Lifshitz, Lawrence M; Corvera, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Changes in adipose tissue mass must be accompanied by parallel changes in microcirculation. Investigating the mechanisms that regulate adipose tissue angiogenesis could lead to better understanding of adipose tissue function and reveal new potential therapeutic strategies. Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new capillaries from existing microvessels. This process can be recapitulated in vitro, by incubation of tissue in extracellular matrix components in the presence of pro-angiogenic factors. Here, we describe a method to study angiogenesis from adipose tissue fragments obtained from mouse and human tissue. This assay can be used to define effects of diverse factors added in vitro, as well as the role of endogenously produced factors on angiogenesis. We also describe approaches to quantify angiogenic potential for the purpose of enabling comparisons between subjects, thus providing information on the role of physiological conditions of the donor on adipose tissue angiogenic potential.

  17. Long-term monitoring of Dzanga Bai forest elephants: forest clearing use patterns.

    PubMed

    Turkalo, Andrea K; Wrege, Peter H; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Individual identification of the relatively cryptic forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) at forest clearings currently provides the highest quality monitoring data on this ecologically important but increasingly threatened species. Here we present baseline data from the first 20 years of an individually based study of this species, conducted at the Dzanga Clearing, Central African Republic. A total of 3,128 elephants were identified over the 20-year study (1,244 adults; 675 females, 569 males). It took approximately four years for the majority of elephants visiting the clearing to be identified, but new elephants entered the clearing every year of the study. The study population was relatively stable, varying from 1,668 to 1,864 individuals (including juveniles and infants), with increasingly fewer males than females over time. The age-class distribution for females remained qualitatively unchanged between 1995 and 2010, while the proportion of adult males decreased from 20% to 10%, likely reflecting increased mortality. Visitation patterns by individuals were highly variable, with some elephants visiting monthly while others were ephemeral users with visits separated by multiple years. The number of individuals in the clearing at any time varied between 40 and 100 individuals, and there was little evidence of a seasonal pattern in this variation. The number of elephants entering the clearing together (defined here as a social group) averaged 1.49 (range 1-12) for males and 2.67 (range 1-14) for females. This collation of 20 years of intensive forest elephant monitoring provides the first detailed, long term look at the ecology of bai visitation for this species, offering insight to the ecological significance and motivation for bai use, social behavior, and threats to forest elephants. We discuss likely drivers (rainfall, compression, illegal killing, etc.) influencing bai visitation rates. This study provides the baseline for future demographic and behavioral

  18. Long-Term Monitoring of Dzanga Bai Forest Elephants: Forest Clearing Use Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Turkalo, Andrea K.; Wrege, Peter H.; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Individual identification of the relatively cryptic forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) at forest clearings currently provides the highest quality monitoring data on this ecologically important but increasingly threatened species. Here we present baseline data from the first 20 years of an individually based study of this species, conducted at the Dzanga Clearing, Central African Republic. A total of 3,128 elephants were identified over the 20-year study (1,244 adults; 675 females, 569 males). It took approximately four years for the majority of elephants visiting the clearing to be identified, but new elephants entered the clearing every year of the study. The study population was relatively stable, varying from 1,668 to 1,864 individuals (including juveniles and infants), with increasingly fewer males than females over time. The age-class distribution for females remained qualitatively unchanged between 1995 and 2010, while the proportion of adult males decreased from 20% to 10%, likely reflecting increased mortality. Visitation patterns by individuals were highly variable, with some elephants visiting monthly while others were ephemeral users with visits separated by multiple years. The number of individuals in the clearing at any time varied between 40 and 100 individuals, and there was little evidence of a seasonal pattern in this variation. The number of elephants entering the clearing together (defined here as a social group) averaged 1.49 (range 1–12) for males and 2.67 (range 1–14) for females. This collation of 20 years of intensive forest elephant monitoring provides the first detailed, long term look at the ecology of bai visitation for this species, offering insight to the ecological significance and motivation for bai use, social behavior, and threats to forest elephants. We discuss likely drivers (rainfall, compression, illegal killing, etc.) influencing bai visitation rates. This study provides the baseline for future demographic and behavioral

  19. Experimental spatial sampling study of the real-time ultrasonic pulse-echo BAI-mode imaging technique.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiangtao; Morris, Scott A; O'Brien, William D

    2003-04-01

    The ultrasonic pulse-echo backscattered amplitude integral (BAI)-mode imaging technique has been developed to inspect the seal integrity of hermetically sealed, flexible food packages. With a focused 17.3-MHz transducer acquiring radio frequency (RF) echo data in a static rectilinear stop-and-go pattern, this technique was able to reliably detect channel defects as small as 38 microm in diameter and occasionally detect 6-microm-diameter channels. This contribution presents our experimental spatial sampling study of the BAI-mode imaging technique with a continuous zigzag scanning protocol that simulates a real-time production line inspection method in continuous motion. Two transducers (f/2 17.3 MHz and f/3 20.3 MHz) were used to acquire RF echo data in a zigzag raster pattern from plastic film samples bearing rectilinear point reflector arrays of varying grid spacings. The average BAI-value difference (deltaBAI) between defective and intact regions and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were used to assess image quality as a function of three spatial sampling variables: transducer spatial scanning step size, array sample grid spacing, and transducer -6-dB pulse-echo focal beam spot size. For a given grid size, the deltaBAI and CNR degraded as scanning step size in each spatial dimension increased. There is an engineering trade-off between the BAI-mode image quality and the transducer spatial sampling. The optimal spatial sampling step size has been identified to be between one and two times the -6-dB pulse-echo focal beam lateral diameter. PMID:12744399

  20. Allele frequency of 19 autosomal STR loci in the Bai population from the southwestern region of mainland China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Hong, Yine; Li, Xiujiang; Yang, Jinmeng; Li, Lanjiang; Huang, Ying; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Hui; Xu, Bingying

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a 19 STR loci database using the Bai population from China. This multiplex amplification kit included 13 CODIS STR markers and six plus STR markers (D19S433, Penta E, D2S1338, Penta D, D6S1043, and D12S391) that were successfully analyzed by using 1158 DNA samples from the Bai population from the southwestern part of mainland China. These results indicate that this multiplex amplification kit may provide significant polymorphic information for kinship testing and relationship investigations.

  1. The brain-artefact interface (BAI): a challenge for archaeology and cultural neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Malafouris, Lambros

    2010-06-01

    Cultural neuroscience provides a new approach for understanding the impact of culture on the human brain (and vice versa) opening thus new avenues for cross-disciplinary collaboration with archaeology and anthropology. Finding new meaningful and productive unit of analysis is essential for such collaboration. But what can archaeological preoccupation with material culture and long-term change contribute to this end? In this article, I introduce and discuss the notion of the brain-artefact interface (BAI) as a useful conceptual bridge between neuroplastisty and the extended mind. I argue that a key challenge for archaeology and cultural neuroscience lies in the cross-disciplinary understanding of the processes by which our plastic enculturated brains become constituted within the wider extended networks of non-biological artefacts and cultural practices that delineate the real spatial and temporal boundaries of the human cognitive map.

  2. Study on pyrolysis gas in thermal extraction of Bai Yinhua lignite with industrial washing oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y. M.; Lian, X. P.; Zhao, F. Y.; Xu, Y. Q.; Hu, Y. Q.; Yuan, Z. K.; Hao, X. R.

    2016-08-01

    Industrial washing oil as solvent, pyrolysis gas produced from Bai Yinhua lignite during thermal extraction was studied by gas chromatography. The effects of temperature and solvent coal ration on coal pyrolysis gas were investigated. The results showed that: Pyrolysis gas produced mainly in CO, CO2, O2, H2, CH4, and so on, in which the total amount of oxygen containing compounds nearly 40%, significant effects of deoxidation was achieved. The increase of heat extraction temperature can significantly increase the degree of bond breaking and the gas formation rate, the gas yield and the rate of oxygen increase significantly, while the gas yield increases with the decrease of the solvent coal ration.

  3. The brain–artefact interface (BAI): a challenge for archaeology and cultural neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience provides a new approach for understanding the impact of culture on the human brain (and vice versa) opening thus new avenues for cross-disciplinary collaboration with archaeology and anthropology. Finding new meaningful and productive unit of analysis is essential for such collaboration. But what can archaeological preoccupation with material culture and long-term change contribute to this end? In this article, I introduce and discuss the notion of the brain–artefact interface (BAI) as a useful conceptual bridge between neuroplastisty and the extended mind. I argue that a key challenge for archaeology and cultural neuroscience lies in the cross-disciplinary understanding of the processes by which our plastic enculturated brains become constituted within the wider extended networks of non-biological artefacts and cultural practices that delineate the real spatial and temporal boundaries of the human cognitive map. PMID:20123661

  4. Incense and ritual plant use in Southwest China: A case study among the Bai in Shaxi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ritual and religious uses of plant-derived smoke are widespread throughout the world. Our research focuses on Southwest China, where the use of incense is very common. This study aims to document and analyze contemporary ritual plant uses by the Bai people of Shaxi Township (Jianchuan County, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province), including their related ethnobotanical knowledge, practices, and beliefs. Methods The present study builds on previous ethnobotanical research in Shaxi, which started in 2005. Interviews focusing on ritual plant use and associated beliefs were carried out with a total of 44 Bai informants in September 2009 and May and June 2010. The results are supplemented with information on the local religion collected from June to December 2010. All documented species were vouchered, and are deposited at the herbaria of Kunming Institute of Botany (KUN) and the University of Zurich (Z/ZT). Results A total of 17 species have been documented for use in incense. They are always used in mixtures and are either burned in the form of powders in a censer or as joss sticks. The smell of the smoke is the main criterion for the selection of the incense plants. Incense is burned for communication with spiritual entities at graves, temples, and cooking stoves, as well as for personal well-being. Cupressus funebris Endl., Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall., and Ligustrum sempervirens (Franch.) Lingelsh. are the most important incense species. Others serve as substitutes or are used to stretch incense powders. Conclusions In Shaxi the use of incense mixtures at the household and community level is regularly practiced for communication with ancestors, ghosts, and deities and in some cases to strengthen self-awareness. Some of the documented species are widely used in central Asia and Europe, hinting at the well documented knowledge exchange that occurred in Shaxi, which was a major hub along the influential Southern Silk Road. PMID:22165897

  5. Targeting adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Two different types of adipose tissues can be found in humans enabling them to respond to starvation and cold: white adipose tissue (WAT) is generally known and stores excess energy in the form of triacylglycerol (TG), insulates against cold, and serves as a mechanical cushion. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) helps newborns to cope with cold. BAT has the capacity to uncouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thereby generating heat rather than adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The previously widely held view was that BAT disappears rapidly after birth and is no longer present in adult humans. Using positron emission tomography (PET), however, it was recently shown that metabolically active BAT occurs in defined regions and scattered in WAT of the adult and possibly has an influence on whole-body energy homeostasis. In obese individuals adipose tissue is at the center of metabolic syndrome. Targeting of WAT by thiazolidinediones (TZDs), activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) a ‘master’ regulator of fat cell biology, is a current therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Since its unique capacity to increase energy consumption of the body and to dissipate surplus energy as heat, BAT offers new perspectives as a therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Recent discoveries of new signaling pathways of BAT development give rise to new therapeutic possibilities in order to influence BAT content and activity. PMID:23102228

  6. Is visceral adiposity a significant correlate of subcutaneous adipose cell lipolysis in men?

    PubMed

    Mauriège, P; Brochu, M; Prud'homme, D; Tremblay, A; Nadeau, A; Lemieux, S; Després, J P

    1999-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether site differences in s.c. adipose tissue (AT) lipolysis may be considered a contributing factor to the altered metabolic risk profile of visceral compared to peripheral obese men once the concomitant variation in adipose cell size is taken into account. For this purpose, sc abdominal and femoral fat cell lipolytic responses were investigated in two groups of men (body mass index, 28 +/- 2 kg/m2), aged 36 +/- 3 yr, who were matched for both s.c. abdominal AT area (256 +/- 64 cm2) and s.c. abdominal adipose cell weight (0.55 +/- 0.08 microg lipid/cell) but were characterized by either a high (162 +/- 29 cm2; n = 18) or a low (101 +/- 21 cm2; n = 18) visceral AT deposition. The maximal lipolytic response to epinephrine or to isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic agonist) as well as the maximal antilipolytic effect of either epinephrine or clonidine (alpha2-adrenergic agonist) assessed in s.c. adipocytes were similar among men with low vs. high levels of visceral AT. However, the beta-adrenoceptor sensitivity was increased in s.c. abdominal adipose cells of individuals with a high visceral AT accumulation compared to those with a low intraabdominal fat deposition. Positive relationships were also found between the lipolytic sensitivity of s.c. abdominal adipocytes and plasma insulin concentrations measured in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load. These results suggest that variation in the degree of visceral adiposity in men does not seem to be associated with differences in regional adipose cell maximal lipolytic capacity once fat cell size is taken into account. However, the greater beta-adrenoceptor lipolytic sensitivity of s.c. abdominal adipocytes could be considered a significant correlate of the increased insulinemia observed among men characterized by high levels of visceral AT.

  7. Bay-annulated indigo (BAI) as an excellent electron accepting building block for high performance organic semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Yi; He, Bo; Pun, Andrew

    2016-04-19

    A novel electron acceptor based on bay-annulated indigo (BAI) was synthesized and used for the preparation of a series of high performance donor-acceptor small molecules and polymers. The resulting materials possess low-lying LUMO energy level and small HOMO-LUMO gaps, while their films exhibited high crystallinity upon thermal treatment, commensurate with high field effect mobilities and ambipolar transfer characteristics.

  8. Bay-annulated indigo (BAI) as an excellent electron accepting building block for high performance organic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi; He, Bo; Pun, Andrew

    2015-11-24

    A novel electron acceptor based on bay-annulated indigo (BAI) was synthesized and used for the preparation of a series of high performance donor-acceptor small molecules and polymers. The resulting materials possess low-lying LUMO energy level and small HOMO-LUMO gaps, while their films exhibited high crystallinity upon thermal treatment, commensurate with high field effect mobilities and ambipolar transfer characteristics.

  9. Structural and Functional Characterization of BaiA, An Enzyme Involved in Secondary Bile Acid Synthesis in Human Gut Microbe

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmik, Shiva; Jones, David H.; Chiu, Hsien-Po; Park, In-Hee; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Farr, Carol L.; Tien, Henry J.; Agarwalla, Sanjay; Lesley, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant influence of secondary bile acids on human health and disease, limited structural and biochemical information is available for the key gut microbial enzymes catalyzing its synthesis. Herein, we report apo- and co-factor bound crystal structures of BaiA2, a short chain dehydrogenase/reductase from Clostridium scindens VPI 12708 that represent the first protein structure of this pathway. The structures elucidated the basis of co-factor specificity and mechanism of proton relay. A conformational restriction involving Glu42 located in the co-factor binding site seems crucial in determining co-factor specificity. Limited flexibility of Glu42 results in imminent steric and electrostatic hindrance with 2′-phosphate group of NADP(H). Consistent with crystal structures, steady-state kinetic characterization performed with both BaiA2 and BaiA1, a close homolog with 92% sequence identity, revealed specificity constant (kcat/KM) of NADP+ at least an order of magnitude lower than NAD+. Substitution of Glu42 with Ala improved specificity towards NADP+ by 10- fold compared to wild type. The co-factor bound structure uncovered a novel nicotinamide-hydroxyl ion (NAD+-OH−) adduct contraposing previously reported adducts. The OH− of the adduct in BaiA2 is distal to C4 atom of nicotinamide and proximal to 2′-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. Moreover, it is located at intermediary distances between terminal functional groups of active site residues Tyr157 (2.7 Å) and Lys161 (4.5 Å). Based on these observations we propose an involvement of NAD+-OH− adduct in proton relay instead of hydride transfer as noted for previous adducts. PMID:23836456

  10. Independent stem cell lineages regulate adipose organogenesis and adipose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuwei; Berry, Daniel C.; Tang, Wei; Graff, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Adipose tissues have striking plasticity, highlighted by childhood and adult obesity. Using adipose lineage analyses, smooth muscle actin (SMA)-mural cell fate mapping, and conditional PPARγ deletion to block adipocyte differentiation, we find two phases of adipocyte generation that emanate from two independent adipose progenitor compartments, Developmental and Adult. These two compartments are sequentially required for organ formation and maintenance. Although both Developmental and Adult progenitors are specified during the developmental period and express PPARγ, they have distinct micro-anatomical, functional, morphogenetic and molecular profiles. Further, the two compartments derive from different lineages, while adult adipose progenitors fate map from an SMA+ mural lineage, Developmental progenitors do not. Remarkably, the Adult progenitor compartment appears to be specified earlier than the Developmental cells, and then enters the already developmentally formed adipose depots. Thus, two distinct cell compartments control adipose organ development and organ homeostasis, which may provide discrete therapeutic target for childhood and adult obesity. PMID:25437556

  11. Subcutaneous adipose tissue fatty acid desaturation in adults with and without rare adipose disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity has been described in obese states, with an increased desaturation index (DI) suggesting enhanced lipogenesis. Differences in the DI among various phenotypes of abnormal adiposity have not been studied. Abnormal accumulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue occurs in rare adipose disorders (RADs) including Dercum's disease (DD), multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL), and familial multiple lipomatosis (FML). Examining the DI in subcutaneous fat of people with DD, MSL and FML may provide information on adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism in these disorders. The aims of this pilot study were: 1) to determine if differences in adipose tissue DIs are present among RADs, and 2) to determine if the DIs correlate to clinical or biochemical parameters. Methods Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained from human participants with DD (n = 6), MSL (n = 5), FML (n = 8) and obese Controls (n = 6). Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The DIs (palmitoleic/palmitic, oleic/stearic, vaccenic/stearic ratios) were calculated from the gas chromatogram peak intensities. SCD1 gene expression was determined. Spearman's correlations between the DIs and available clinical or biochemical data were performed. Results In DD subjects, the vaccenic/stearic index was lower (p < 0.05) in comparison to Controls. Percent of total of the saturated fatty acid myristic acid was higher in DD compared with Controls and FML. Percent of monounsaturated vaccenic acid in DD trended lower when compared with Controls, and was decreased in comparison to FML. In MSL, total percent of the polyunsaturated fatty acids was significantly lower than in the Control group (p < 0.05). In the total cohort of subjects, the palmitoleic/palmitic and oleic/stearic DIs positively correlated with age, BMI, and percent body fat. Conclusions The positive associations between the DIs and measures of adiposity (BMI and percent body fat

  12. Adipose tissue extract promotes adipose tissue regeneration in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zijing; Yuan, Yi; Gao, Jianhua; Lu, Feng

    2016-05-01

    An adipose tissue engineering chamber model of spontaneous adipose tissue generation from an existing fat flap has been described. However, the chamber does not completely fill with adipose tissue in this model. Here, the effect of adipose tissue extract (ATE) on adipose tissue regeneration was investigated. In vitro, the adipogenic and angiogenic capacities of ATE were evaluated using Oil Red O and tube formation assays on adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs), respectively. In vivo, saline or ATE was injected into the adipose tissue engineering chamber 1 week after its implantation. At different time points post-injection, the contents were morphometrically, histologically, and immunohistochemically evaluated, and the expression of growth factors and adipogenic genes was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time PCR. With the exception of the baseline control group, in which fat flaps were not inserted into a chamber, the total volume of fat flap tissue increased significantly in all groups, especially in the ATE group. Better morphology and structure, a thinner capsule, and more vessels were observed in the ATE group than in the control group. Expression of angiogenic growth factors and adipogenic markers were significantly higher in the ATE group. ATE therefore significantly promoted adipose tissue regeneration and reduced capsule formation in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model. These data suggest that ATE provides a more angiogenic and adipogenic microenvironment for adipose tissue formation by releasing various cytokines and growth factors that also inhibit capsule formation.

  13. Steroid biosynthesis in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehan; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Vihma, Veera

    2015-11-01

    Tissue-specific expression of steroidogenic enzymes allows the modulation of active steroid levels in a local manner. Thus, the measurement of local steroid concentrations, rather than the circulating levels, has been recognized as a more accurate indicator of the steroid action within a specific tissue. Adipose tissue, one of the largest endocrine tissues in the human body, has been established as an important site for steroid storage and metabolism. Locally produced steroids, through the enzymatic conversion from steroid precursors delivered to adipose tissue, have been proven to either functionally regulate adipose tissue metabolism, or quantitatively contribute to the whole body's steroid levels. Most recently, it has been suggested that adipose tissue may contain the steroidogenic machinery necessary for the initiation of steroid biosynthesis de novo from cholesterol. This review summarizes the evidence indicating the presence of the entire steroidogenic apparatus in adipose tissue and discusses the potential roles of local steroid products in modulating adipose tissue activity and other metabolic parameters.

  14. [Spectral analysis of pottery-painting pigments from the Monarch Bai Tomb of Zhongli State].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Zhang; Zhang, Ju-Zhong; Zuo, Jian; Kan, Xu-Hang; Zhou, Qun

    2010-04-01

    Based on the analysis of Raman spectroscopy and XRD methods, the structures of different pigments on the painted pottery from the Monarch Bai Tomb of Zhongli State in the middle and late Spring and Autumn period at Shungdun Village, Bengbu City, Anhui Province were analyzed. The result shows that all the pigments, including red, yellow and black pigments, have been well preserved, and these three pigments were identified as cinnabar, goethite and carbon black respectively. Both Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis show that the crystal composition of red pigments, cinnabar, is very pure without quartz crystal, the associated crystal of natural cinnabar, and at the same time the crystal size of cinnabar is possibly at the nanometer scale. It suggests that this red pigments perhaps were a synthetic material or processed and purified by our ancestors. The discovery of goethite shows that this mineral has been used as pigments as early as in the Spring and Autumn period. This is the earliest example that goethite was used as yellow pigments.

  15. Adipose tissue chromium and vanadium disbalance in high-fat fed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Kwan, Olga V; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the current study is to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content and adipose tissue dysfunction in a model of diet-induced obesity. A total of 26 female Wistar rats were fed either standard or high-fat diet (31.6% of fat from total caloric content) for 3 months. High-fat-feeding resulted in 21 and 33% decrease in adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content, respectively. No change was seen in hair chromium or vanadium levels. Statistical analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of adipose tissue Cr and V with animal morphometric parameters and adipocyte size. Significant inverse dependence was observed between adipose tissue Cr and V and serum leptin and proinflammatory cytokines' levels. At the same time, adipose tissue Cr and V levels were characterized by positive correlation between serum adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratio. Adipose tissue Cr and V were inversely correlated (p<0.05) with insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) levels. Cr and V concentrations were not correlated with serum glucose in either high-fat fed or control rats; however, both serum glucose and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in high-fat fed, compared to control, rats. The results allow to hypothesize that impairment of adipose tissue Cr and V content plays a certain role in the development of adipose tissue endocrine dysfunction in obesity.

  16. Adiposity, obesity, and arterial aging: longitudinal study of aortic stiffness in the Whitehall II cohort.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin J; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Tabak, Adam G; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Marmot, Michael G; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-08-01

    We sought to determine whether adiposity in later midlife is an independent predictor of accelerated stiffening of the aorta. Whitehall II study participants (3789 men; 1383 women) underwent carotid-femoral applanation tonometry at the mean age of 66 and again 4 years later. General adiposity by body mass index, central adiposity by waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and fat mass percent by body impedance were assessed 5 years before and at baseline. In linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and mean arterial pressure, all adiposity measures were associated with aortic stiffening measured as increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) between baseline and follow-up. The associations were similar in the metabolically healthy and unhealthy, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria excluding waist circumference. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels accounted for part of the longitudinal association between adiposity and PWV change. Adjusting for chronic disease, antihypertensive medication and risk factors, standardized effects of general and central adiposity and fat mass percent on PWV increase (m/s) were similar (0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.24, P=0.003; 0.17, 0.08-0.27, P<0.001; 0.14, 0.05-0.22, P=0.002, respectively). Previous adiposity was associated with aortic stiffening independent of change in adiposity, glycaemia, and lipid levels across PWV assessments. We estimated that the body mass index-linked PWV increase will account for 12% of the projected increase in cardiovascular risk because of high body mass index. General and central adiposity in later midlife were strong independent predictors of aortic stiffening. Our findings suggest that adiposity is an important and potentially modifiable determinant of arterial aging. PMID:26056335

  17. Fascia Origin of Adipose Cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Xueying; Lyu, Ying; Wang, Weiyi; Zhang, Yanfei; Li, Danhua; Wei, Suning; Du, Congkuo; Geng, Bin; Sztalryd, Carole; Xu, Guoheng

    2016-05-01

    Adipocytes might arise from vascular stromal cells, pericytes and endothelia within adipose tissue or from bone marrow cells resident in nonadipose tissue. Here, we identified adipose precursor cells resident in fascia, an uninterrupted sheet of connective tissue that extends throughout the body. The cells and fragments of superficial fascia from the rat hindlimb were highly capable of spontaneous and induced adipogenic differentiation but not myogenic and osteogenic differentiation. Fascial preadipocytes expressed multiple markers of adipogenic progenitors, similar to subcutaneous adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) but discriminative from visceral ASCs. Such preadipocytes resided in fascial vasculature and were physiologically active in vivo. In growing rats, adipocytes dynamically arose from the adventitia to form a thin adipose layer in the fascia. Later, some adipocytes appeared to overlay on top of other adipocytes, an early sign for the formation of three-dimensional adipose tissue in fascia. The primitive adipose lobules extended invariably along blood vessels toward the distal fascia areas. At the lobule front, nascent capillaries wrapped and passed ahead of mature adipocytes to form the distal neovasculature niche, which might replenish the pool of preadipocytes and supply nutrients and hormones necessary for continuous adipogenesis. Our findings suggest a novel model for the origin of adipocytes from the fascia, which explains both neogenesis and expansion of adipose tissue. Fascial preadipocytes generate adipose cells to form primitive adipose lobules in superficial fascia, a subcutaneous nonadipose tissue. With continuous adipogenesis, these primitive adipose lobules newly formed in superficial fascia may be the rudiment of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Stem Cells 2016;34:1407-1419.

  18. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  19. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  20. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Tharp, Kevin M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  1. THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY IDENTIFICATION FOR RHUBARB AND PHELLODENDRI AMURENSIS CORTEX IN SHUANG-BAI CATAPLASM AND STUDY OF SKIN IRRITATION ASSAY.

    PubMed

    Tian, Y G; Qin, S M; Ding, L

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to raise a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) identification method for rhubarb and Phellodendri Amurensis Cortex and inspected skin irritation induced by them. It applied the TLC identification for Rhubarb and Phellodendri Amurensis Cortex in Shuang-bai cataplasm prescription. In this study six rabbits were divided into two groups to observe the skin irritation from Shuang-bai cataplasm on intact and defected skin. Another 36 were randomly divided into 6 groups to observe the acute toxicity from Shuang-bai cataplasm on intact and defected skin. Also 30 guinea pigs were divided into 3 groups to observe skin allergy to Shuang-bai cataplasm. The results showed that the average weight of the group of intact-skin rabbits was 2.026±0.10 kg and 2.427±0.023 kg after medication; the average weight of the group of defected-skin rabbits was 2.170±0.05 kg and 2.540±0.15 kg after medication; Shuang-bai cataplasm produced no irritation on intact or defected rabbit skin, no acute toxicity in rabbits and no allergy on the skin of guinea pigs. The skin allergy rate on guinea pigs of the medication group was 0 at each time quantum. Therefore, it can be concluded that this preparation produces no extreme skin irritation for rabbits, guinea pigs or human beings, and it can be safely put into practice.

  2. Effects of Huang Bai (Phellodendri Cortex) and Three Other Herbs on GnRH and GH Levels in GT1–7 and GH3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Haeng; Kwak, Sung Chul; Kim, Dong Kwan; Park, Sang Woug; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Young-Sik; Lee, Donghun; Lee, Ju Won; Lee, Chang Gon; Lee, Hae Kyung; Cho, Sung-Min; Shin, Yu Jeong; Lee, Jin Yong; Kim, Hocheol; Chang, Gyu Tae

    2016-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate the effects of Huang Bai, Zhi Mu, Mai Ya, and Xia Ku Cao on hormone using the GT1–7 and GH3 cells. The GT1–7 and GH3 cell lines were incubated with DW; DMSO; and 30, 100, or 300 μg/mL of one of the four extract solutions in serum-free media for 24 hours. The MTT assay was performed to determine the cytotoxicity of the four herbs. The GT1–7 and GH3 cells were incubated in DW, estradiol (GT1–7 only), or noncytotoxic herb solutions in serum-free medium for 24 hours. A quantitative RT-PCR and western blot were performed to measure the GnRH expression in GT1–7 cells and GH expression in GH3 cells. Huang Bai, Zhi Mu, Xia Ku Cao, and Mai Ya inhibited the GnRH mRNA expression in GT1–7 cells, whereas Huang Bai enhanced GH mRNA expression in GH3 cells. Additionally, Xia Ku Cao inhibited GnRH protein expression in GT1–7 cells and Huang Bai promoted GH protein expression in GH3 cells. The findings suggest that Huang Bai can delay puberty by inhibiting GnRH synthesis in the hypothalamus while also accelerating growth by promoting GH synthesis and secretion in the pituitary. PMID:26925153

  3. Adjustment of directly measured adipose tissue volume in infants

    PubMed Central

    Gale, C; Santhakumaran, S; Wells, J C K; Modi, N

    2014-01-01

    Background: Direct measurement of adipose tissue (AT) using magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used to characterise infant body composition. Optimal techniques for adjusting direct measures of infant AT remain to be determined. Objectives: To explore the relationships between body size and direct measures of total and regional AT, the relationship between AT depots representing the metabolic load of adiposity and to determine optimal methods of adjusting adiposity in early life. Design: Analysis of regional AT volume (ATV) measured using magnetic resonance imaging in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies. Subjects: Healthy term infants; 244 in the first month (1–31 days), 72 in early infancy (42–91 days). Methods: The statistical validity of commonly used indices adjusting adiposity for body size was examined. Valid indices, defined as mathematical independence of the index from its denominator, to adjust ATV for body size and metabolic load of adiposity were determined using log-log regression analysis. Results: Indices commonly used to adjust ATV are significantly correlated with body size. Most regional AT depots are optimally adjusted using the index ATV/(height)3 in the first month and ATV/(height)2 in early infancy. Using these indices, height accounts for<2% of the variation in the index for almost all AT depots. Internal abdominal (IA) ATV was optimally adjusted for subcutaneous abdominal (SCA) ATV by calculating IA/SCA0.6. Conclusions: Statistically optimal indices for adjusting directly measured ATV for body size are ATV/height3 in the neonatal period and ATV/height2 in early infancy. The ratio IA/SCA ATV remains significantly correlated with SCA in both the neonatal period and early infancy; the index IA/SCA0.6 is statistically optimal at both of these ages. PMID:24662695

  4. Adiposity and spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Wells, Kathryn M; Austin, Timothy L

    2015-01-01

    The drastic changes in body composition following spinal cord injury (SCI) have been shown to play a significant role in cardiovascular and metabolic health. The pattern of storage and distribution of different types of adipose tissue may impact metabolic health variables similar to carbohydrate, lipid and bone metabolism. The use of magnetic resonance imaging provides insights on the interplay among different regional adipose tissue compartments and their role in developing chronic diseases. Regional adipose tissue can be either distributed centrally or peripherally into subcutaneous and ectopic sites. The primary ectopic adipose tissue sites are visceral, intramuscular and bone marrow. Dysfunction in the central nervous system following SCI impacts the pattern of distribution of adiposity especially between tetraplegia and paraplegia. The current editorial is focused primarily on introducing different types of adipose tissue and establishing scientific basis to develop appropriate dietary, rehabilitation or pharmaceutical interventions to manage the negative consequences of increasing adiposity after SCI. We have also summarized the clinical implications and future recommendations relevant to study adiposity after SCI. PMID:26396933

  5. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter and Visceral Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Henry S.; Gasevic, Danijela; Liang, Zhe; Frediani, Jennifer K.; Torres, William E.; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Lin, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background In the context of increasing obesity prevalence, the relationship between large visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is unclear. In a clinical sample of severely obese women (mean body mass index [BMI], 46 kg/m2) with fasting normoglycemia (n=40) or dysglycemia (impaired fasting glucose+diabetes; n=20), we sought to determine the usefulness of anthropometric correlates of VAT and associations with dysglycemia. Methods VAT volume was estimated using multi-slice computer tomography; anthropometric surrogates included sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), waist circumference (WC) and BMI. Insulin sensitivity (Si), and beta-cell dysfunction, measured by insulin secretion (AIRg) and the disposition index (DI), were determined by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Results Compared to fasting normoglycemic women, individuals with dysglycemia had greater VAT (P<0.001) and SAD (P=0.04), but BMI, total adiposity and Si were similar. VAT was inversely associated with AIRg and DI after controlling for ancestry, Si, and total adiposity (standardized beta, −0.32 and −0.34, both P<0.05). In addition, SAD (beta=0.41, P=0.02) was found to be a better estimate of VAT volume than WC (beta=0.32, P=0.08) after controlling for covariates. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that VAT volume, followed by SAD, outperformed WC and BMI in identifying dysglycemic participants. Conclusions Increasing VAT is associated with beta-cell dysfunction and dysglycemia in very obese women. In the presence of severe obesity, SAD is a simple surrogate of VAT, and an indicator of glucose dysregulation. PMID:23408092

  6. The effects of facial adiposity on attractiveness and perceived leadership ability.

    PubMed

    Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Facial attractiveness has a positive influence on electoral success both in experimental paradigms and in the real world. One parameter that influences facial attractiveness and social judgements is facial adiposity (a facial correlate to body mass index, BMI). Overweight people have high facial adiposity and are perceived to be less attractive and lower in leadership ability. Here, we used an interactive design in order to assess whether the most attractive level of facial adiposity is also perceived as most leader-like. We found that participants reduced facial adiposity more to maximize attractiveness than to maximize perceived leadership ability. These results indicate that facial appearance impacts leadership judgements beyond the effects of attractiveness. We suggest that the disparity between optimal facial adiposity in attractiveness and leadership judgements stems from social trends that have produced thin ideals for attractiveness, while leadership judgements are associated with perception of physical dominance.

  7. The effects of facial adiposity on attractiveness and perceived leadership ability.

    PubMed

    Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Facial attractiveness has a positive influence on electoral success both in experimental paradigms and in the real world. One parameter that influences facial attractiveness and social judgements is facial adiposity (a facial correlate to body mass index, BMI). Overweight people have high facial adiposity and are perceived to be less attractive and lower in leadership ability. Here, we used an interactive design in order to assess whether the most attractive level of facial adiposity is also perceived as most leader-like. We found that participants reduced facial adiposity more to maximize attractiveness than to maximize perceived leadership ability. These results indicate that facial appearance impacts leadership judgements beyond the effects of attractiveness. We suggest that the disparity between optimal facial adiposity in attractiveness and leadership judgements stems from social trends that have produced thin ideals for attractiveness, while leadership judgements are associated with perception of physical dominance. PMID:23971489

  8. Group size of a permanent large group of agile mangabeys (Cercocebus agilis) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Devreese, Lieven; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Todd, Angelique

    2013-01-01

    White-eyelid mangabeys (genus Cercocebus) live in groups of highly variable size. Because of their semi-terrestrial behaviour and preference for dense forest habitats, re-liable data on group size are scarce. During a 5-month study, we collected 17 group counts on a habituated group of agile mangabeys (C. agilis) at Bai Hokou in the Central African Republic. We found a stable group size of approximately 135 individuals. This permanent large grouping pattern is known to occur among several populations of white-eyelid mangabeys and is congruent with extreme group sizes reported in mandrills at Lopé in Gabon.

  9. All-electron first principles calculations of the ground and some low-lying excited states of BaI.

    PubMed

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Papakondylis, Aristotle; Tsekouras, Athanasios A; Mavridis, Aristides

    2007-10-01

    The electronic structure of the heavy diatomic molecule BaI has been examined for the first time by ab initio multiconfigurational configuration interaction (MRCI) and coupled cluster (RCCSD(T)) methods. The effects of special relativity have been taken into account through the second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess approximation. The construction of Omega(omega,omega) potential energy curves allows for the estimation of "experimental" dissociation energies (De) of the first few excited states by exploiting the accurately known De experimental value of the X2Sigma+ ground state. All states examined are of ionic character with a Mulliken charge transfer of 0.5 e- from Ba to I, and this is reflected to large dipole moments ranging from 6 to 11 D. Despite the inherent difficulties of a heavy system like BaI, our results are encouraging. With the exception of bond distances that on the average are calculated 0.05 A longer than the experimental ones, common spectroscopic parameters are in fair agreement with experiment, whereas De values are on the average 10 kcal/mol smaller. PMID:17850123

  10. Low density lipoprotein receptor gene Ava II polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several common genetic polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene have associated with modifications of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, but the results are not consistent in different populations. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 1024 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 792 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A- and A+ alleles was 65.5% and 34.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 80.7% and 19.3% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of A-A-, A-A+ and A+A+ genotypes was 42.6%, 45.9% and 11.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 64.9%, 31.6% and 3.5% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. There was also significant difference in the genotypic frequencies between males and females in Bai Ku Yao (P <0.05), and in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C (>3.20 mmol/L) subgroups in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each) and between males and females in Han (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of LDL-C in males and TC and HDL-C in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for all) in Bai Ku Yao, whereas the levels of HDL-C in males and HDL-C and ApoA1 in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001) in Han. The subjects with A+A+ genotype had

  11. Obesity and prostate cancer: gene expression signature of human periprostatic adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Periprostatic (PP) adipose tissue surrounds the prostate, an organ with a high predisposition to become malignant. Frequently, growing prostatic tumor cells extend beyond the prostatic organ towards this fat depot. This study aimed to determine the genome-wide expression of genes in PP adipose tissue in obesity/overweight (OB/OW) and prostate cancer patients. Methods Differentially expressed genes in human PP adipose tissue were identified using microarrays. Analyses were conducted according to the donors' body mass index characteristics (OB/OW versus lean) and prostate disease (extra prostatic cancer versus organ confined prostate cancer versus benign prostatic hyperplasia). Selected genes with altered expression were validated by real-time PCR. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to investigate gene ontology, canonical pathways and functional networks. Results In the PP adipose tissue of OB/OW subjects, we found altered expression of genes encoding molecules involved in adipogenic/anti-lipolytic, proliferative/anti-apoptotic, and mild immunoinflammatory processes (for example, FADS1, down-regulated, and LEP and ANGPT1, both up-regulated). Conversely, in the PP adipose tissue of subjects with prostate cancer, altered genes were related to adipose tissue cellular activity (increased cell proliferation/differentiation, cell cycle activation and anti-apoptosis), whereas a downward impact on immunity and inflammation was also observed, mostly related to the complement (down-regulation of CFH). Interestingly, we found that the microRNA MIRLET7A2 was overexpressed in the PP adipose tissue of prostate cancer patients. Conclusions Obesity and excess adiposity modified the expression of PP adipose tissue genes to ultimately foster fat mass growth. In patients with prostate cancer the expression profile of PP adipose tissue accounted for hypercellularity and reduced immunosurveillance. Both findings may be liable to promote a favorable environment for

  12. Adipose triglyceride lipase expression in human adipose tissue and muscle. Role in insulin resistance and response to training and pioglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Yao-Borengasser, Aiwei; Varma, Vijayalakshmi; Coker, Robert H.; Ranganathan, Gouri; Phanavanh, Bounleut; Rasouli, Neda; Kern, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) catalyzes the first step in adipocyte and muscle triglyceride hydrolysis, and Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is an essential cofactor. We studied the expression of ATGL and CGI-58 in human adipose and muscle, and examined correlations with markers of muscle fatty acid oxidation. Materials/Methods Non diabetic volunteers were studied. Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were treated with pioglitazone or metformin for 10 weeks. Normal glucose tolerant subjects underwent a 12 week training program. We examined changes in ATGL and CGI-58 with obesity and insulin resistance, and effects of exercise and pioglitazone. Results ATGL mRNA expression showed no correlation with either body mass index (BMI) or insulin sensitivity (SI) in either adipose or muscle. However, adipose ATGL protein levels were inversely correlated with BMI (r=−0.64, p<0.02), and positively correlated with SI (r=0.67, p<0.02). In muscle, ATGL mRNA demonstrated a strong positive relationship with carnitine palmitoyltransferase I mRNA (r=0.82, p<0.0001), and the adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 mRNA (r=0.71, p<0.0001), and AdipoR2 mRNA (r=0.74, p<0.0001). Muscle CGI-58 mRNA was inversely correlated with intramyocellular triglyceride in both type 1 (r=−0.35, p<0.05) and type 2 (r=−0.40, p<0.05) fibers. Exercise training resulted in increased muscle ATGL and pioglitazone increased adipose ATGL by 31% (p<0.05). Pioglitazone also increased ATGL in adipocytes. Conclusions Adipose ATGL protein is decreased with insulin resistance and obesity, and muscle ATGL mRNA is associated with markers of fatty acid oxidation in muscle, as is CGI-58. The regulation of ATGL and CGI-58 have important implications for the control of lipotoxicity. PMID:21129760

  13. Positive Association Between Adipose Tissue and Bone Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Berg, R M; Wallaschofski, H; Nauck, M; Rettig, R; Markus, M R P; Laqua, R; Friedrich, N; Hannemann, A

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is often considered to have a protective effect against osteoporosis. On the other hand, several recent studies suggest that adipose tissue may have detrimental effects on bone quality. We therefore aimed to investigate the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) or abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and bone stiffness. The study involved 2685 German adults aged 20-79 years, who participated in either the second follow-up of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2) or the baseline examination of the SHIP-Trend cohort. VAT and abdominal SAT were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging. Bone stiffness was assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the heel (Achilles InSight, GE Healthcare). The individual risk for osteoporotic fractures was determined based on the QUS-derived stiffness index and classified in low, medium, and high risk. Linear regression models, adjusted for sex, age, physical activity, smoking status, risky alcohol consumption, diabetes, and height (in models with VAT or abdominal SAT as exposure), revealed positive associations between BMI, WC, VAT or abdominal SAT, and the QUS variables broadband-ultrasound attenuation or stiffness index. Moreover, BMI was positively associated with speed of sound. Our study shows that all anthropometric measures including BMI and, WC as well as abdominal fat volume are positively associated with bone stiffness in the general population. As potential predictors of bone stiffness, VAT and abdominal SAT are not superior to easily available measures like BMI or WC.

  14. The adipose organ: morphological perspectives of adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Cinti, S

    2001-08-01

    Anatomically, an organ is defined as a series of tissues which jointly perform one or more interconnected functions. The adipose organ qualifies for this definition as it is made up of two tissue types, the white and brown adipose tissues, which collaborate in partitioning the energy contained in lipids between thermogenesis and the other metabolic functions. In rats and mice the adipose organ consists of several subcutaneous and visceral depots. Some areas of these depots are brown and correspond to brown adipose tissue, while many are white and correspond to white adipose tissue. The number of brown adipocytes found in white areas varies with age, strain of animal and environmental conditions. Brown and white adipocyte precursors are morphologically dissimilar. Together with a rich vascular supply, brown areas receive abundant noradrenergic parenchymal innervation. The gross anatomy and histology of the organ vary considerably in different physiological (cold acclimation, warm acclimation, fasting) and pathological conditions such as obesity; many important genes, such as leptin and uncoupling protein-1, are also expressed very differently in the two cell types. These basic mechanisms should be taken into account when addressing the physiopathology of obesity and its treatment. PMID:11681806

  15. Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Obregon, Maria-Jesus

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases). The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. “Brite” or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs) that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2, and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that lead to activation of UCP1 in WAT

  16. Human omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibit specific lipidomic signatures.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Pamplona, Reinald; Ricart, Wifredo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Despite their differential effects on human metabolic pathophysiology, the differences in omental and subcutaneous lipidomes are largely unknown. To explore this field, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used for lipidome analyses of adipose tissue samples (visceral and subcutaneous) selected from a group of obese subjects (n=38). Transcriptomics and in vitro studies in adipocytes were used to confirm the pathways affected by location. The analyses revealed the existence of obesity-related specific lipidome signatures in each of these locations, attributed to selective enrichment of specific triglycerides, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids, because these were not observed in adipose tissues from nonobese individuals. The changes were compatible with subcutaneous enrichment in pathways involved in adipogenesis, triacylglyceride synthesis, and lipid droplet formation, as well as increased α-oxidation. Marked differences between omental and subcutaneous depots in obese individuals were seen in the association of lipid species with metabolic traits (body mass index and insulin sensitivity). Targeted studies also revealed increased cholesterol (Δ56%) and cholesterol epoxide (Δ34%) concentrations in omental adipose tissue. In view of the effects of cholesterol epoxide, which induced enhanced expression of adipocyte differentiation and α-oxidation genes in human omental adipocytes, a novel role for cholesterol epoxide as a signaling molecule for differentiation is proposed. In summary, in obesity, adipose tissue exhibits a location-specific differential lipid profile that may contribute to explaining part of its distinct pathogenic role.

  17. Secretory function of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kuryszko, J; Sławuta, P; Sapikowski, G

    2016-01-01

    There are two kinds of adipose tissue in mammals: white adipose tissue - WAT and brown adipose tissue - BAT. The main function of WAT is accumulation of triacylglycerols whereas the function of BAT is heat generation. At present, WAT is also considered to be an endocrine gland that produces bioactive adipokines, which take part in glucose and lipid metabolism. Considering its endocrine function, the adipose tissue is not a homogeneous gland but a group of a few glands which act differently. Studies on the secretory function of WAT began in 1994 after discovery of leptin known as the satiation hormone, which regulates body energy homeostasis and maintainence of body mass. Apart from leptin, the following belong to adipokines: adiponectin, resistin, apelin, visfatin and cytokines: TNF and IL 6. Adiponectin is a polypeptide hormone of antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic activity. It plays a key role in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Resistin exerts a counter effect compared to adiponectin and its physiological role is to maintain fasting glycaemia. Visfatin stimulates insulin secretion and increases insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake by muscle cells and adipocytes. Apelin probably increases the insulin sensitivity of tissues. TNF evokes insulin resistance by blocking insulin receptors and inhibits insulin secretion. Approximately 30% of circulating IL 6 comes from adipose tissue. It causes insulin resistance by decreasing the expression of insulin receptors, decreases adipogenesis and adiponectin and visfatin secretion, and stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis. In 2004, Bays introduced the notion of adiposopathy, defined as dysfunction of the adipose tissue, whose main feature is insulin and leptin resistance as well as the production of inflammatory cytokines: TNF and IL 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein. This means that excess of adipose tissue, especially visceral adipose tissue, leads to the development of a chronic subclinical

  18. The effects of hydralazine on lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue in humans.

    PubMed

    Boon, Niels; Goossens, Gijs H; Blaak, Ellen E; Saris, Wim H M

    2007-12-01

    Recent evidence from animal research and in vitro experiments indicates that changes in dietary calcium intake could cause changes in lipolysis through alterations of the intracellular calcium concentration in adipocytes. The objective of the study was to examine whether the calcium antagonist hydralazine affects blood flow and lipolysis in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in vivo in humans. Three different concentrations of hydralazine (12.2, 24.4, and 48.8 micromol/L) were locally administered in adipose tissue using the microdialysis technique to assess effects on lipolysis and blood flow in subcutaneous adipose tissue in the abdominal region. Subjects from the general community were studied ambulatorily at a university hospital. Eight healthy men (age, 33.1 +/- 3.3 years; body mass index, 24.2 +/- 0.2 kg/m(2)) were recruited by local announcement. Subcutaneous adipose tissue in the abdominal region was perfused with increasing concentrations of hydralazine. The main outcome measures were adipose tissue lipolysis and blood flow. Hydralazine had no effect on ethanol outflow-inflow ratios, but significantly increased interstitial glycerol concentration at the highest concentration (P < .05). The present results indicate that hydralazine increases lipolysis in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in healthy lean subjects, but hydralazine had no significant effects on local blood flow in adipose tissue.

  19. Force Protection Joint Experiment (FPJE) Battlefield Anti-Intrusion System (BAIS) sensors data analysis and filtering metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barngrover, C. M.; Laird, R. T.; Kramer, T. A.; Cruickshanks, J. R.; Cutler, S. H.

    2009-04-01

    The FPJE was an experiment to consider the best way to develop and evaluate a system of systems approach to Force Protection. It was sponsored by Physical Security Equipment Action Group (PSEAG) and Joint Program Manager - Guardian (JPM-G), and was managed by the Product Manager - Force Protection Systems (PM-FPS). The experiment was an effort to utilize existing technical solutions from all branches of the military in order to provide more efficient and effective force protection. The FPJE consisted of four separate Integration Assessments (IA), which were intended as opportunities to assess the status of integration, automation and fusion efforts, and the effectiveness of the current configuration and "system" components. The underlying goal of the FPJE was to increase integration, automation, and fusion of the many different sensors and their data to provide enhanced situational awareness and a common operational picture. One such sensor system is the Battlefield Anti-Intrusion System (BAIS), which is a system of seismic and acoustic unmanned ground sensors. These sensors were originally designed for employment by infantry soldiers at the platoon level to provide early warning of personnel and vehicle intrusion in austere environments. However, when employed around airfields and high traffic areas, the sensitivity of these sensors can cause an excessive number of detections. During the second FPJE-IA all of the BAIS detections and the locations of all Opposing Forces were logged and analyzed to determine the accuracy rate of the sensors. This analysis revealed that with minimal filtering of detections, the number of false positives and false negatives could be reduced substantially to manageable levels while using the sensors within extreme operational acoustic and seismic noise conditions that are beyond the design requirements.

  20. New obesity indices and adipokines in normotensive patients and patients with hypertension: comparative pilot analysis.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Mariusz; Stepien, Anna; Banach, Maciej; Wlazel, Rafal N; Paradowski, Marek; Rizzo, Manfredi; Toth, Peter P; Rysz, Jacek

    2014-04-01

    We compared the obesity parameters and selected adipokines-leptin, adiponectin, and resistin-in obese patients with hypertension and normotensive patients. A total of 67 nondiabetic obese outpatients were divided into 2 groups: A-hypertensive and B-normotensive. Serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and insulin were measured. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured to calculate waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), weight-to-height ratio, visceral adiposity index, and body adiposity index (BAI). Among patients with hypertension, significant positive correlations were observed between leptin and body mass index and BAI (r = .31 and r = .63, respectively). In normotensive patients, leptin positively correlated with BAI (r = .73, P < .01) and negatively with WHR (r = -.55, P < .0001); adiponectin negatively correlated with WHR (r = .38, P < .01) and BAI (r = .52; P < .0001), and resistin negatively correlated with WHR (r = -.36, P < .05). In conclusion, visceral obesity and leptin are associated with hypertension in obese patients.

  1. Triacylglycerol metabolism in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Duncan, Robin E; Jaworski, Kathy; Sarkadi-Nagy, Eszter; Sul, Hei Sook

    2009-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) in adipose tissue serves as the major energy storage form in higher eukaryotes. Obesity, resulting from excess white adipose tissue, has increased dramatically in recent years resulting in a serious public health problem. Understanding of adipocyte-specific TAG synthesis and hydrolysis is critical to the development of strategies to treat and prevent obesity and its closely associated diseases, for example, Type 2 diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis. In this review, we present an overview of the major enzymes in TAG synthesis and lipolysis, including the recent discovery of a novel adipocyte TAG hydrolase. PMID:19194515

  2. Alternative measures to BMI: Exploring income-related inequalities in adiposity in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Davillas, Apostolos; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-10-01

    Socio-economic inequalities in adiposity are of particular interest themselves but also because they may be associated with inequalities in overall health status. Using cross-sectional representative data from Great Britain (1/2010-3/2012) for 13,138 adults (5652 males and 7486 females) over age 20, we aimed to explore the presence of income-related inequalities in alternative adiposity measures by gender and to identify the underlying factors contributing to these inequalities. For this reason, we employed concentration indexes and regression-based decomposition techniques. To control for non-homogeneity in body composition, we employed a variety of adiposity measures including body fat (absolute and percentage) and central adiposity (waist circumference) in addition to the conventional body mass index (BMI). The body fat measures allowed us to distinguish between the fat- and lean-mass components of BMI. We found that the absence of income-related obesity inequalities for males in the existing literature may be attributed to their focus on BMI-based measures. Pro-rich inequalities were evident for the fat-mass and central adiposity measures for males, while this was not the case for BMI. Irrespective of the adiposity measure applied, pro-rich inequalities were evident for females. The decomposition analysis showed that these inequalities were mainly attributable to subjective financial well-being measures (perceptions of financial strain and material deprivation) and education, with the relative contribution of the former being more evident in females. Our findings have important implications for the measurement of socio-economic inequalities in adiposity and indicate that central adiposity and body composition measures should be included health policy agendas. Psycho-social mechanisms, linked to subjective financial well-being, and education -rather than income itself-are more relevant for tackling inequalities.

  3. Alternative measures to BMI: Exploring income-related inequalities in adiposity in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Davillas, Apostolos; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-10-01

    Socio-economic inequalities in adiposity are of particular interest themselves but also because they may be associated with inequalities in overall health status. Using cross-sectional representative data from Great Britain (1/2010-3/2012) for 13,138 adults (5652 males and 7486 females) over age 20, we aimed to explore the presence of income-related inequalities in alternative adiposity measures by gender and to identify the underlying factors contributing to these inequalities. For this reason, we employed concentration indexes and regression-based decomposition techniques. To control for non-homogeneity in body composition, we employed a variety of adiposity measures including body fat (absolute and percentage) and central adiposity (waist circumference) in addition to the conventional body mass index (BMI). The body fat measures allowed us to distinguish between the fat- and lean-mass components of BMI. We found that the absence of income-related obesity inequalities for males in the existing literature may be attributed to their focus on BMI-based measures. Pro-rich inequalities were evident for the fat-mass and central adiposity measures for males, while this was not the case for BMI. Irrespective of the adiposity measure applied, pro-rich inequalities were evident for females. The decomposition analysis showed that these inequalities were mainly attributable to subjective financial well-being measures (perceptions of financial strain and material deprivation) and education, with the relative contribution of the former being more evident in females. Our findings have important implications for the measurement of socio-economic inequalities in adiposity and indicate that central adiposity and body composition measures should be included health policy agendas. Psycho-social mechanisms, linked to subjective financial well-being, and education -rather than income itself-are more relevant for tackling inequalities. PMID:27580342

  4. Prenatal Stress due to a Natural Disaster Predicts Adiposity in Childhood: The Iowa Flood Study

    PubMed Central

    Dancause, Kelsey N.; Laplante, David P.; Hart, Kimberly J.; O'Hara, Michael W.; Brunet, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal stress can affect lifelong physical growth, including increased obesity risk. However, human studies remain limited. Natural disasters provide models of independent stressors unrelated to confounding maternal characteristics. We assessed degree of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during severe flooding. At ages 2.5 and 4 years we assessed body mass index (BMI), subscapular plus triceps skinfolds (SS + TR, an index of total adiposity), and SS : TR ratio (an index of central adiposity) in their children (n = 106). Hierarchical regressions controlled first for several potential confounds. Controlling for these, flood exposure during early gestation predicted greater BMI increase from age 2.5 to 4, as well as total adiposity at 2.5. Greater maternal hardship and distress due to the floods, as well as other nonflood life events during pregnancy, independently predicted greater increase in total adiposity between 2.5 and 4 years. These results support the hypothesis that prenatal stress increases adiposity beginning in childhood and suggest that early gestation is a sensitive period. Results further highlight the additive effects of maternal objective and subjective stress, life events, and depression, emphasizing the importance of continued studies on multiple, detailed measures of maternal mental health and experience in pregnancy and child growth. PMID:25874124

  5. Prenatal stress due to a natural disaster predicts adiposity in childhood: the Iowa Flood Study.

    PubMed

    Dancause, Kelsey N; Laplante, David P; Hart, Kimberly J; O'Hara, Michael W; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Brunet, Alain; King, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal stress can affect lifelong physical growth, including increased obesity risk. However, human studies remain limited. Natural disasters provide models of independent stressors unrelated to confounding maternal characteristics. We assessed degree of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during severe flooding. At ages 2.5 and 4 years we assessed body mass index (BMI), subscapular plus triceps skinfolds (SS + TR, an index of total adiposity), and SS : TR ratio (an index of central adiposity) in their children (n = 106). Hierarchical regressions controlled first for several potential confounds. Controlling for these, flood exposure during early gestation predicted greater BMI increase from age 2.5 to 4, as well as total adiposity at 2.5. Greater maternal hardship and distress due to the floods, as well as other nonflood life events during pregnancy, independently predicted greater increase in total adiposity between 2.5 and 4 years. These results support the hypothesis that prenatal stress increases adiposity beginning in childhood and suggest that early gestation is a sensitive period. Results further highlight the additive effects of maternal objective and subjective stress, life events, and depression, emphasizing the importance of continued studies on multiple, detailed measures of maternal mental health and experience in pregnancy and child growth.

  6. Indexing Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  7. Adipose tissues as endocrine target organs.

    PubMed

    Lanthier, Nicolas; Leclercq, Isabelle A

    2014-08-01

    In the context of obesity, white adipocyte hypertrophy and adipose tissue macrophage infiltration result in the production of pro-inflammatory adipocytokines inducing insulin resistance locally but also in distant organs and contributing to low grade inflammatory status associated with the metabolic syndrome. Visceral adipose tissue is believed to play a prominent role. Brown and beige adipose tissues are capable of energy dissipation, but also of cytokine production and their role in dysmetabolic syndrome is emerging. This review focuses on metabolic and inflammatory changes in these adipose depots and contribution to metabolic syndrome. Also we will review surgical and pharmacological procedures to target adiposity as therapeutic interventions to treat obesity-associated disorders.

  8. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    PubMed Central

    Beijer, Emiel; Schoenmakers, Janna; Vijgen, Guy; Kessels, Fons; Dingemans, Anne-Marie; Schrauwen, Patrick; Wouters, Miel; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter; Teule, Jaap; Brans, Boudewijn

    2012-01-01

    Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT). Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and so-called brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activation, but its quantitative impact on energy expenditure and weight loss is controversial. Prospective clinical studies can address the potential role of BAT in cancer cachexia using 18F-fluoro- deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning, with careful consideration of co-factors such as diet, exposure to the cold, physical activity and body mass index, that all seem to act on BAT recruitment and activity. PMID:25992201

  9. Human mediastinal adipose tissue displays certain characteristics of brown fat

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, L; Gertow, J; Werngren, O; Folkersen, L; Petrovic, N; Nedergaard, J; Franco-Cereceda, A; Eriksson, P; Fisher, R M

    2013-01-01

    Background: The amount of intra-thoracic fat, of which mediastinal adipose tissue comprises the major depot, is related to various cardiometabolic risk factors. Autopsy and imaging studies indicate that the mediastinal depot in adult humans could contain brown adipose tissue (BAT). To gain a better understanding of this intra-thoracic fat depot, we examined possible BAT characteristics of human mediastinal in comparison with subcutaneous adipose tissue. Materials and methods: Adipose tissue biopsies from thoracic subcutaneous and mediastinal depots were obtained during open-heart surgery from 33 subjects (26 male, 63.7±13.8 years, body mass index 29.3±5.1 kg m−2). Microarray analysis was performed on 10 patients and genes of interest confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in samples from another group of 23 patients. Adipocyte size was determined and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) protein expression investigated with immunohistochemistry. Results: The microarray data showed that a number of BAT-specific genes had significantly higher expression in the mediastinal depot than in the subcutaneous depot. Higher expression of UCP1 (24-fold, P<0.001) and PPARGC1A (1.7-fold, P=0.0047), and lower expression of SHOX2 (0.12-fold, P<0.001) and HOXC8 (0.14-fold, P<0.001) in the mediastinal depot was confirmed by qPCR. Gene set enrichment analysis identified two gene sets related to mitochondria, which were significantly more highly expressed in the mediastinal than in the subcutaneous depot (P<0.01). No significant changes in UCP1 gene expression were observed in the subcutaneous or mediastinal depots following lowering of body temperature during surgery. UCP1 messenger RNA levels in the mediastinal depot were lower than those in murine BAT and white adipose tissue. In some mediastinal adipose tissue biopsies, a small number of multilocular adipocytes that stained positively for UCP1 were observed. Adipocytes were significantly smaller in the mediastinal than the

  10. Generalization of adiposity genetic loci to US Hispanic women

    PubMed Central

    Graff, M; Fernández-Rhodes, L; Liu, S; Carlson, C; Wassertheil-Smoller, S; Neuhouser, M; Reiner, A; Kooperberg, C; Rampersaud, E; Manson, J E; Kuller, L H; Howard, B V; Ochs-Balcom, H M; Johnson, K C; Vitolins, M Z; Sucheston, L; Monda, K; North, K E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a public health concern. Yet the identification of adiposity-related genetic variants among United States (US) Hispanics, which is the largest US minority group, remains largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To interrogate an a priori list of 47 (32 overall body mass and 15 central adiposity) index single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously studied in individuals of European descent among 3494 US Hispanic women in the Women's Health Initiative SNP Health Association Resource (WHI SHARe). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of measured body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were inverse normally transformed after adjusting for age, smoking, center and global ancestry. WC and WHR models were also adjusted for BMI. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 array. In the absence of an a priori selected SNP, a proxy was selected (r2⩾0.8 in CEU). RESULTS: Six BMI loci (TMEM18, NUDT3/HMGA1, FAIM2, FTO, MC4R and KCTD15) and two WC/WHR loci (VEGFA and ITPR2-SSPN) were nominally significant (P<0.05) at the index or proxy SNP in the corresponding BMI and WC/WHR models. To account for distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns in Hispanics and further assess generalization of genetic effects at each locus, we interrogated the evidence for association at the 47 surrounding loci within 1 Mb region of the index or proxy SNP. Three additional BMI loci (FANCL, TFAP2B and ETV5) and five WC/WHR loci (DNM3-PIGC, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86 and MSRA) displayed Bonferroni-corrected significant associations with BMI and WC/WHR. Conditional analyses of each index SNP (or its proxy) and the most significant SNP within the 1 Mb region supported the possible presence of index-independent signals at each of these eight loci as well as at KCTD15. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for the generalization of nine BMI and seven central adiposity loci in Hispanic women. This study expands the current knowledge of common adiposity

  11. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness in Patients With Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Relationship Thereof With Visceral Adipose Tissue Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Arpaci, Dilek; Gurkan Tocoglu, Aysel; Yilmaz, Sabiye; Korkmaz, Sumeyye; Ergenc, Hasan; Gunduz, Huseyin; Keser, Nurgul; Tamer, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is associated with cardiovascular metabolic syndromes, especially dislipidemia and abdominal obesity. Visceral abdominal adipose tissue (VAAT) and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) have the same ontogenic origin and produce many proinflammatory and proatherogenic cytokines. We evaluated EAT and VAAT thickness in patients with SH. Methods Forty-one patients with SH and 35 controls were included in the study. Demographical and anthropometric features of both patients and controls were recorded. Thyroid and metabolic parameters were measured. EAT was measured using 2D-transthoracic echocardiography. Results The age and gender distributions were similar in the two groups (P = 0.998 and P = 0.121, respectively). Body mass index (BMI), fat mass, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), the WC/HC ratio, and the thicknesses of VAAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue were higher in the case group than the control group (all P values < 0.01). However, both groups had similar EAT thickness (P = 0.532), which was positively correlated with BMI, fat mass, WC, HC, VAAT thickness, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness, and serum triglyceride (TG) level (all P values < 0.01). We found no correlation between EAT thickness and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level, free thyroxine (FT4) level, or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) level, and anti-TPO level (all P values > 0.05). We found no difference between the two groups in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level (P = 0.780), but the levels of LDL-C and TG differed significantly (P = 0.002 and P = 0.026, respectively). The serum TSH level was higher and the FT4 level was lower in the case than the control group (both P values <0.01). Conclusion Increased abdominal adipose tissue thickness in patients with SH is associated with atherosclerosis. To detemine the risk of atherosclerosis in such patients, EAT measurements are valuable; such assessment is simple to

  12. [Adipose tissue inflammation and atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Shwarts, V

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ secreting more than 30 various adipokines which regulate wide spectrum of metabolic and immune processes. Obesity is associated with development of adipose tissue inflammation. This inflammation is characterized by infiltration with macrophages, alterations of adipokine secretion, development of insulin resistance. All these factors promote atherosclerosis. Inflammation of perivascular adipose tissue is especially important. Adipokines damage vascular endothelium via paracrine pathway. Cytokines released by macrophages as well as changes of adipokine secretion lead to endothelial dysfunction - the first stage of atherogenesis. Besides specific action curative factors used in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus also produce anti-inflammatory effect and thus diminish risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, rate of their development, and alleviate manifestations of atherosclerosis. Inflammation of adipose tissue is a connecting link between obesity and atherosclerosis. This review contains an outline of roles of various major adipokines in development of atherosclerosis as well as synopsis of anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects of glytazones , metformin, rimonabant, statins, and of lowering of body weight.

  13. Adipose tissue, diet and aging.

    PubMed

    Zamboni, Mauro; Rossi, Andrea P; Fantin, Francesco; Zamboni, Giulia; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Zoico, Elena; Mazzali, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Age related increase in body fat mass, visceral adipose tissue (AT), and ectopic fat deposition are strongly related to worse health conditions in the elderly. Moreover, with aging higher inflammation in adipose tissue may be observed and may contribute to inflammaging. Aging may significantly affect AT function by modifying the profile of adipokines produced by adipose cells, reducing preadipocytes number and their function and increasing AT macrophages infiltration. The initiating events of the inflammatory cascade promoting a greater AT inflammatory profile are not completely understood. Nutrients may determine changes in the amount of body fat, in its distribution as well as in AT function with some nutrients showing a pro-inflammatory effect on AT. Evidences are sparse and quite controversial with only a few studies performed in older subjects. Different dietary patterns are the result of the complex interaction of foods and nutrients, thus more studies are needed to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and changes in adipose tissue structure, distribution and function in the elderly.

  14. Hypothalamic control of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Stefanidis, A; Wiedmann, N M; Adler, E S; Oldfield, B J

    2014-10-01

    A detailed appreciation of the control of adipose tissue whether it be white, brown or brite/beige has never been more important to the development of a framework on which to build therapeutic strategies to combat obesity. This is because 1) the rate of fatty acid release into the circulation from lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) is integrally important to the development of obesity, 2) brown adipose tissue (BAT) has now moved back to center stage with the realization that it is present in adult humans and, in its activated form, is inversely proportional to levels of obesity and 3) the identification and characterization of "brown-like" or brite/beige fat is likely to be one of the most exciting developments in adipose tissue biology in the last decade. Central to all of these developments is the role of the CNS in the control of different fat cell functions and central to CNS control is the integrative capacity of the hypothalamus. In this chapter we will attempt to detail key issues relevant to the structure and function of hypothalamic and downstream control of WAT and BAT and highlight the importance of developing an understanding of the neural input to brite/beige fat cells as a precursor to its recruitment as therapeutic target.

  15. Adipose tissue macrophages: amicus adipem?

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Justin I.; Ganeshan, Kirthana; Chawla, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Chronic overnutrition drives complex adaptations within both professional metabolic and bystander tissues that, despite intense investigation, are still poorly understood. Xu et al. (2013) now describe the unexpected ability of adipose tissue macrophages to buffer lipids released from obese adipocytes in a manner independent of inflammatory macrophage activation. PMID:24315364

  16. Quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Esben; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    In metabolically healthy humans, adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to insulin. Similar to muscle and liver, adipose tissue lipolysis is insulin resistant in adults with central obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perhaps uniquely, however, insulin resistance in adipose tissue may directly contribute to development of insulin resistance in muscle and liver because of the increased delivery of free fatty acids to those tissues. It has been hypothesized that insulin adipose tissue resistance may precede other metabolic defects in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, precise and reproducible quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, in vivo, in humans, is an important measure. Unfortunately, no consensus exists on how to determine adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. We review the methods available to quantitate adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and will discuss their strengths and weaknesses.

  17. Assessment of brown adipose tissue function

    PubMed Central

    Virtue, Sam; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this review we discuss practical considerations for the assessment of brown adipose tissue in rodent models, focusing on mice. The central aim of the review is to provide a critical appraisal of the utility of specialized techniques for assessing brown adipose tissue function in vivo. We cover several of the most common specialized methods for analysing brown adipose tissue function in vivo, including assessment of maximal thermogenic capacity by indirect calorimetry and the measurement of sympathetic tone to brown adipose tissue. While these techniques are powerful, they are not readily available to all laboratories; therefore we also cover several simple measurements that, particularly in combination, can be used to determine if a mouse model is likely to have alterations in brown adipose tissue function. Such techniques include: pair feeding, analysis of brown adipose tissue lipid content and mRNA and protein markers of brown adipose tissue activation. PMID:23760815

  18. Amelioration of insulin resistance by rosiglitazone is associated with increased adipose cell size in obese type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, Bjorn; Smith, Ulf; Mullen, Shawn; Cushman, Samuel W; Sherman, Arthur S; Yang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Early studies reported that the size of adipose cells positively correlates with insulin resistance, but recent evidence suggests that the relationship between adipose cell size and insulin resistance is more complex. We previously reported that among BMI-matched moderately obese subjects who were either insulin sensitive or resistant insulin resistance correlated with the proportion of small adipose cells, rather than the size of the large adipose cells, whereas the size of large adipose cells was found to be a predictor of insulin resistance in the first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. The relationship between adipose cellularity and insulin resistance thus appears to depend on the metabolic state of the individual. We did a longitudinal study with T2D patients treated with the insulin-sensitizer rosiglitazone to test the hypothesis that improved insulin sensitivity is associated with increased adipocyte size. Eleven T2D patients were recruited and treated with rosiglitazone for 90 days. Blood samples and needle biopsies of abdominal subcutaneous fat were taken at six time points and analyzed for cell size distributions. Rosiglitazone treatment ameliorated insulin resistance as evidenced by significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose and increased index of insulin sensitivity, QUICKI. In association with this, we found significantly increased size of the large adipose cells and, with a weaker effect, increased proportion of small adipose cells. We conclude rosiglitazone treatment both enlarges existing large adipose cells and recruits new small adipose cells in T2D patients, improving fat storage capacity in adipose tissue and thus systemic insulin sensitivity.

  19. Adiposity and the Development of Premenstrual Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Susan E.; Willett, Walter C.; Johnson, Susan R.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Moderate to severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects 8%–20% of premenopausal women and causes substantial levels of impairment, but few modifiable risk factors for PMS have been identified. Adiposity may impact risk through the complex interaction of hormonal and neurochemical factors, but it is not known if adiposity increases a woman's risk of developing PMS. We have addressed these issues in a prospective study nested within the Nurses' Health Study 2. Methods Participants were a subset of women aged 27–44 and free from PMS at baseline, including 1057 women who developed PMS over 10 years of follow-up and 1968 controls. Body mass index (BMI), weight change and weight cycling were assessed biennially via questionnaire. Results We observed a strong linear relationship between BMI at baseline and risk of incident PMS, with each 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI associated with a significant 3% increase in PMS risk (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.05). After adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, and other factors, women with BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2 at baseline had significantly higher risks of PMS than women with BMI <20 kg/m2 (ptrend = 0.003). A large weight change between age 18 and the year 1991 was significantly associated with PMS risk, whereas weight cycling during this period was not. BMI was positively associated with specific symptoms, including swelling of extremities, backache, and abdominal cramping (all p < 0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that maintaining a healthy body mass may be important for preventing the development of PMS. Additional studies are needed to assess whether losing weight would benefit overweight and obese women who currently experience PMS. PMID:20874240

  20. Prognostic Impact of Changes in Adipose Tissue Areas after Colectomy in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Choe, Eun Kyung; Park, Kyu Joo; Ryoo, Seung Bum; Moon, Sang Hui; Oh, Heung Kwon; Han, Eon Chul

    2016-10-01

    There have been few studies assessing the changes in the body components of patients after colectomy in colorectal cancer (CRC). The purpose of this study was to verify the trends in the adipose tissue areas of CRC patients before and after surgery and to determine their clinical relevance. Computed tomography (CT)-assessed subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) areas were recorded before and after curative resection in stage I to III CRC patients. Changes in the adipose tissue were assessed by calculating the difference in the adipose tissue area between preoperative CT and the most recent postoperative CT, which is disease-free state. Regarding obesity before surgery, there were no prognostic effect of body mass index (BMI), VAT and SAT, and 47.3% of patients had increases in VAT after colectomy. By multivariate analysis, adjusting sex, age, stage, differentiation, VAT change was the only obesity related factor to predict the prognosis, that patients who had increase in VAT after colectomy had better overall survival (HR, 0.557; 95% CI, 0.317-0.880) and disease-free survival (HR, 0.602; 95% CI, 0.391-0.927). BMI and SAT change had no significant association. In subgroup analysis of stage III CRC patients, VAT change had significance for prognosis only in patients who had adjuvant chemotherapy but not in those who did not receive postoperative chemotherapy. Increase in visceral adipose tissue after surgery is a favorable predictor of prognosis for CRC patients. PMID:27550485

  1. [Calcium intake and adiposity in adolescents aged 12-16 years in Guadalajara, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernández, Gabriela; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Bárbara; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio

    2013-06-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the association between calcium (Ca) intake and adiposity in adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 125 adolescents 12 to 16 years. Ca intake was evaluated by 24-hour recall dietary surveys and food frequency consumption. Adiposity was measured by anthropometric methods and bioelectrical impedance (BIA). The association between Ca intake and adiposity was identified by simple correlation and multivariate models adjusted to energy consumption, age, sex and menarche. Mean age of adolescents was 13.5 +/- 0.8 years. A negative correlation was identified between Ca intake and anthropometric indicators weight, skinfolds, body mass index, fat mass and percentage of fat (the latter two by BIA and only in women). Multivariate analysis, including energy consumption showed no association between Ca intake and adiposity. In conclusion, Ca consumption does not associate with adiposity in adolescents; multivariate models showed that energy intake and menarche are the variables that show a higher association with adiposity at this stage of life.

  2. Central Adiposity is Negatively Associated with Hippocampal-Dependent Relational Memory among Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naiman A.; Baym, Carol L.; Monti, Jim M.; Raine, Lauren B.; Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Moore, R. Davis; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between adiposity and hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory forms among prepubertal children. Study design Prepubertal children (7–9-year-olds, n = 126), classified as non-overweight (<85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 73]) or overweight/obese (≥85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 53]), completed relational (hippocampal-dependent) and item (hippocampal-independent) memory tasks, and performance was assessed with both direct (behavioral accuracy) and indirect (preferential disproportionate viewing [PDV]) measures. Adiposity (%whole body fat mass, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and total abdominal adipose tissue) was assessed using DXA. Backward regressions identified significant (P <0.05) predictive models of memory performance. Covariates included age, sex, pubertal timing, socioeconomic status, IQ, oxygen consumption (VO2max), and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Results Among overweight/obese children, total abdominal adipose tissue was a significant negative predictor of relational memory behavioral accuracy, and pubertal timing together with socioeconomic status jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. In contrast, among non-overweight children, male sex predicted item memory behavioral accuracy, and a model consisting of socioeconomic status and BMI z-score jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. Conclusions Regional, and not whole body, fat deposition was selectively and negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight/obese prepubertal children. PMID:25454939

  3. The Roles of Adipokines, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance in Modest Obesity and Early Metabolic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yea Eun; Kim, Ji Min; Joung, Kyong Hye; Lee, Ju Hee; You, Bo Ram; Choi, Min Jeong; Ryu, Min Jeong; Ko, Young Bok; Lee, Min A; Lee, Junguee; Ku, Bon Jeong; Shong, Minho; Lee, Ki Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    The roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in obesity-associated insulin resistance have been explored in both animal and human studies. However, our current understanding of obesity-associated insulin resistance relies on studies of artificial metabolic extremes. The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in human patients with modest obesity and early metabolic dysfunction. We obtained omental adipose tissue and fasting blood samples from 51 females undergoing gynecologic surgery. We investigated serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines as well as the mRNA expression of proinflammatory and macrophage phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue using ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR. We measured adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage infiltration using immunohistochemical analysis. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR and body mass index. The levels of expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue were also higher in the obese group (body mass index ≥ 25). The expression of mRNA MCP-1 in visceral adipose tissue was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.428, p = 0.037) but not with HOMA-IR, whereas TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue was correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.462, p = 0.035) but not with body mass index. There was no obvious change in macrophage phenotype or macrophage infiltration in patients with modest obesity or early metabolic dysfunction. Expression of mRNA CD163/CD68 was significantly related to mitochondrial-associated genes and serum inflammatory cytokine levels of resistin and leptin. These results suggest that changes in the production of inflammatory biomolecules precede increased immune cell infiltration and induction of a macrophage phenotype switch in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, serum resistin and leptin have specific

  4. The Roles of Adipokines, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance in Modest Obesity and Early Metabolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Min; Joung, Kyong Hye; Lee, Ju Hee; You, Bo Ram; Choi, Min Jeong; Ryu, Min Jeong; Ko, Young Bok; Lee, Min A.; Lee, Junguee; Ku, Bon Jeong; Shong, Minho; Lee, Ki Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    The roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in obesity-associated insulin resistance have been explored in both animal and human studies. However, our current understanding of obesity-associated insulin resistance relies on studies of artificial metabolic extremes. The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in human patients with modest obesity and early metabolic dysfunction. We obtained omental adipose tissue and fasting blood samples from 51 females undergoing gynecologic surgery. We investigated serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines as well as the mRNA expression of proinflammatory and macrophage phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue using ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR. We measured adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage infiltration using immunohistochemical analysis. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR and body mass index. The levels of expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue were also higher in the obese group (body mass index ≥ 25). The expression of mRNA MCP-1 in visceral adipose tissue was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.428, p = 0.037) but not with HOMA-IR, whereas TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue was correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.462, p = 0.035) but not with body mass index. There was no obvious change in macrophage phenotype or macrophage infiltration in patients with modest obesity or early metabolic dysfunction. Expression of mRNA CD163/CD68 was significantly related to mitochondrial-associated genes and serum inflammatory cytokine levels of resistin and leptin. These results suggest that changes in the production of inflammatory biomolecules precede increased immune cell infiltration and induction of a macrophage phenotype switch in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, serum resistin and leptin have specific

  5. PPARs and Adipose Cell Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Casteilla, Louis; Cousin, Béatrice; Carmona, Mamen

    2007-01-01

    Due to the importance of fat tissues in both energy balance and in the associated disorders arising when such balance is not maintained, adipocyte differentiation has been extensively investigated in order to control and inhibit the enlargement of white adipose tissue. The ability of a cell to undergo adipocyte differentiation is one particular feature of all mesenchymal cells. Up until now, the peroxysome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subtypes appear to be the keys and essential players capable of inducing and controlling adipocyte differentiation. In addition, it is now accepted that adipose cells present a broad plasticity that allows them to differentiate towards various mesodermal phenotypes. The role of PPARs in such plasticity is reviewed here, although no definite conclusion can yet be drawn. Many questions thus remain open concerning the definition of preadipocytes and the relative importance of PPARs in comparison to other master factors involved in the other mesodermal phenotypes. PMID:17710234

  6. Adipose tissue immunity and cancer.

    PubMed

    Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Frühbeck, Gema

    2013-10-02

    Inflammation and altered immune response are important components of obesity and contribute greatly to the promotion of obesity-related metabolic complications, especially cancer development. Adipose tissue expansion is associated with increased infiltration of various types of immune cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Thus, adipocytes and infiltrating immune cells secrete pro-inflammatory adipokines and cytokines providing a microenvironment favorable for tumor growth. Accumulation of B and T cells in adipose tissue precedes macrophage infiltration causing a chronic low-grade inflammation. Phenotypic switching toward M1 macrophages and Th1 T cells constitutes an important mechanism described in the obese state correlating with increased tumor growth risk. Other possible synergic mechanisms causing a dysfunctional adipose tissue include fatty acid-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and hypoxia. Recent investigations have started to unravel the intricacy of the cross-talk between tumor cell/immune cell/adipocyte. In this sense, future therapies should take into account the combination of anti-inflammatory approaches that target the tumor microenvironment with more sophisticated and selective anti-tumoral drugs.

  7. Characterization and comparison of adipose tissue-derived cells from human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Mito; Matsubara, Yoshinori; Lin, Konghua; Sugimachi, Keizou; Furue, Masutaka

    2009-10-01

    Different fat depots contribute differently to disease and function. These differences may be due to the regional variation in cell types and inherent properties of fat cell progenitors. To address the differences of cell types in the adipose tissue from different depots, the phenotypes of freshly isolated adipose tissue-derived cells (ATDCs) from subcutaneous (SC) and omental (OM) adipose tissues were compared using flow cytometry. Our results showed that CD31(-)CD34(+)CD45(-)CD90(-)CD105(-)CD146(+) population, containing vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes, was specifically defined in the SC adipose tissue while no such population was observed in OM adipose tissue. On the other hand, CD31(-)CD34(+)CD45(-)CD90(-)CD105(-)CD146(-) population, which is an undefined cell population, were found solely in OM adipose tissue. Overall, the SC adipose tissue contained more ATDCs than OM adipose tissue, while OM adipose tissue contained more blood-derived cells. Regarding to the inherent properties of fat cell progenitors from the two depots, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) from SC had higher capacity to differentiate into both adipogenic and osteogenic lineages than those from OM, regardless of that the proliferation rates of ADSCs from both depots were similar. The higher differentiation capacity of ADSCs from SC adipose tissue suggests that SC tissue is more suitable cell source for regenerative medicine than OM adipose tissue.

  8. Adipose tissue: cell heterogeneity and functional diversity.

    PubMed

    Esteve Ràfols, Montserrat

    2014-02-01

    There are two types of adipose tissue in the body whose function appears to be clearly differentiated. White adipose tissue stores energy reserves as fat, whereas the metabolic function of brown adipose tissue is lipid oxidation to produce heat. A good balance between them is important to maintain energy homeostasis. The concept of white adipose tissue has radically changed in the past decades, and is now considered as an endocrine organ that secretes many factors with autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions. In addition, we can no longer consider white adipose tissue as a single tissue, because it shows different metabolic profiles in its different locations, with also different implications. Although the characteristic cell of adipose tissue is the adipocyte, this is not the only cell type present in adipose tissue, neither the most abundant. Other cell types in adipose tissue described include stem cells, preadipocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. The balance between these different cell types and their expression profile is closely related to maintenance of energy homeostasis. Increases in adipocyte size, number and type of lymphocytes, and infiltrated macrophages are closely related to the metabolic syndrome diseases. The study of regulation of proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes and stem cells, and understanding of the interrelationship between the different cell types will provide new targets for action against these diseases. PMID:23834768

  9. Human adipose stem cells: current clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Gir, Phanette; Oni, Georgette; Brown, Spencer A; Mojallal, Ali; Rohrich, Rod J

    2012-06-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells are multipotent cells that can easily be extracted from adipose tissue, are capable of expansion in vitro, and have the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages, which have the potential for use in regenerative medicine. However, several issues need to be studied to determine safe human use. For example, there are questions related to isolation and purification of adipose-derived stem cells, their effect on tumor growth, and the enforcement of U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations. Numerous studies have been published, with the interest in the potential for regenerative medicine continually growing. Several clinical trials using human adipose stem cell therapy are currently being performed around the world, and there has been a rapid evolution and expansion of their number. The purpose of this article was to review the current published basic science evidence and ongoing clinical trials involving the use of adipose-derived stem cells in plastic surgery and in regenerative medicine in general. The results of the studies and clinical trials using adipose-derived stem cells reported in this review seem to be promising not only in plastic surgery but also in a wide variety of other specialties. Nevertheless, those reported showed disparity in the way adipose-derived stem cells were used. Further basic science experimental studies with standardized protocols and larger randomized trials need to be performed to ensure safety and efficacy of adipose-derived stem cells use in accordance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines.

  10. Adipose tissue: cell heterogeneity and functional diversity.

    PubMed

    Esteve Ràfols, Montserrat

    2014-02-01

    There are two types of adipose tissue in the body whose function appears to be clearly differentiated. White adipose tissue stores energy reserves as fat, whereas the metabolic function of brown adipose tissue is lipid oxidation to produce heat. A good balance between them is important to maintain energy homeostasis. The concept of white adipose tissue has radically changed in the past decades, and is now considered as an endocrine organ that secretes many factors with autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions. In addition, we can no longer consider white adipose tissue as a single tissue, because it shows different metabolic profiles in its different locations, with also different implications. Although the characteristic cell of adipose tissue is the adipocyte, this is not the only cell type present in adipose tissue, neither the most abundant. Other cell types in adipose tissue described include stem cells, preadipocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. The balance between these different cell types and their expression profile is closely related to maintenance of energy homeostasis. Increases in adipocyte size, number and type of lymphocytes, and infiltrated macrophages are closely related to the metabolic syndrome diseases. The study of regulation of proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes and stem cells, and understanding of the interrelationship between the different cell types will provide new targets for action against these diseases.

  11. Sex differences in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Fuente-Martín, Esther; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Ros, Purificación; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and its associated secondary complications are active areas of investigation in search of effective treatments. As a result of this intensified research numerous differences between males and females at all levels of metabolic control have come to the forefront. These differences include not only the amount and distribution of adipose tissue, but also differences in its metabolic capacity and functions between the sexes. Here, we review some of the recent advances in our understanding of these dimorphisms and emphasize the fact that these differences between males and females must be taken into consideration in hopes of obtaining successful treatments for both sexes. PMID:23991358

  12. The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 gene E670G polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a key role in regulating plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. However, the association of E670G (rs505151) polymorphism in the PCSK9 gene and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 649 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 646 participants of Han were randomly selected from our previous samples. Genotypes of the PCSK9 E670G polymorphism were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of G allele was 2.00% in Bai Ku Yao and 4.80% in Han (P < 0.01). There was significant difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between Bai Ku Yao and Han (P < 0.01); between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C subgroups (> 3.20 mmol/L, P < 0.01) in Bai Ku Yao; and between normal HDL-C (≥ 0.91 mmol/L) and low HDL-C (< 0.91 mmol/L, P < 0.05), between normal ApoAI (≥ 1.00 g/L) and low ApoAI (< 1.00 g/L, P < 0.05), or between normal ApoAI/ApoB ratio (≥ 1.00) and low ApoAI/ApoB ratio (< 1.00, P < 0.01) subgroups in Han. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C levels and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the G allele noncarriers in males (P < 0.05 for each), whereas the G allele carriers had lower serum ApoB levels and higher the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers in females (P < 0.05 for all). Serum HDL-C and Apo

  13. Adipose and mammary epithelial tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenting; Nelson, Celeste M

    2013-01-01

    Breast reconstruction is a type of surgery for women who have had a mastectomy, and involves using autologous tissue or prosthetic material to construct a natural-looking breast. Adipose tissue is the major contributor to the volume of the breast, whereas epithelial cells comprise the functional unit of the mammary gland. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can differentiate into both adipocytes and epithelial cells and can be acquired from autologous sources. ASCs are therefore an attractive candidate for clinical applications to repair or regenerate the breast. Here we review the current state of adipose tissue engineering methods, including the biomaterials used for adipose tissue engineering and the application of these techniques for mammary epithelial tissue engineering. Adipose tissue engineering combined with microfabrication approaches to engineer the epithelium represents a promising avenue to replicate the native structure of the breast.

  14. Imaging white adipose tissue with confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Santibañez, Gabriel; Cho, Kae Won; Lumeng, Carey N

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is composed of a variety of cell types that include mature adipocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, adipocyte progenitors, and a range of inflammatory leukocytes. These cells work in concert to promote nutrient storage in adipose tissue depots and vary widely based on location. In addition, overnutrition and obesity impart significant changes in the architecture of adipose tissue that are strongly associated with metabolic dysfunction. Recent studies have called attention to the importance of adipose tissue microenvironments in regulating adipocyte function and therefore require techniques that preserve cellular interactions and permit detailed analysis of three-dimensional structures in fat. This chapter summarizes our experience with the use of laser scanning confocal microscopy for imaging adipose tissue in rodents.

  15. Mitochondria and endocrine function of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Medina-Gómez, Gema

    2012-12-01

    Excess of adipose tissue is accompanied by an increase in the risk of developing insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other complications. Nevertheless, total or partial absence of fat or its accumulation in other tissues (lipotoxicity) is also associated to these complications. White adipose tissue (WAT) was traditionally considered a metabolically active storage tissue for lipids while brown adipose tissue (BAT) was considered as a thermogenic adipose tissue with higher oxidative capacity. Nowadays, WAT is also considered an endocrine organ that contributes to energy homeostasis. Experimental evidence tends to link the malfunction of adipose mitochondria with the development of obesity and T2D. This review discusses the importance of mitochondrial function in adipocyte biology and the increased evidences of mitochondria dysfunction in these epidemics. New strategies targeting adipocyte mitochondria from WAT and BAT are also discussed as therapies against obesity and its complications in the near future. PMID:23168280

  16. Adipose and mammary epithelial tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenting; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2013-01-01

    Breast reconstruction is a type of surgery for women who have had a mastectomy, and involves using autologous tissue or prosthetic material to construct a natural-looking breast. Adipose tissue is the major contributor to the volume of the breast, whereas epithelial cells comprise the functional unit of the mammary gland. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can differentiate into both adipocytes and epithelial cells and can be acquired from autologous sources. ASCs are therefore an attractive candidate for clinical applications to repair or regenerate the breast. Here we review the current state of adipose tissue engineering methods, including the biomaterials used for adipose tissue engineering and the application of these techniques for mammary epithelial tissue engineering. Adipose tissue engineering combined with microfabrication approaches to engineer the epithelium represents a promising avenue to replicate the native structure of the breast. PMID:23628872

  17. Associations of overall and abdominal adiposity with area and volumetric mammographic measures among postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Woolcott, Christy G; Cook, Linda S; Courneya, Kerry S; Boyd, Norman F; Yaffe, Martin J; Terry, Tim; Brant, Rollin; McTiernan, Anne; Bryant, Heather E; Magliocco, Anthony M; Friedenreich, Christine M

    2011-07-15

    Whereas mammographic density and adiposity are positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, they are inversely associated with one another. To examine the association between these two risk factors, a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of a year-long aerobic exercise intervention was done. Participants were 302 postmenopausal women aged 50-74 years. Dense fibroglandular and nondense fatty tissue were measured from mammograms using computer-assisted thresholding software for area measurements and a technique relying on the calibration of mammography machines with a tissue-equivalent phantom for volumetric measurements. Adiposity was measured by anthropometry (body mass index, waist circumference), whole-body dual x-ray absorptiometry scans (body fat) and computed tomography scans (abdominal adiposity). Correlations were estimated between and within women, the latter representing the association between the 1-year change in adiposity and mammographic measures. Adiposity was correlated with nondense area and volume (0.50 ≤ r ≤ 0.66 between women; 0.18 ≤ r ≤ 0.46 within women). Between women, adiposity was correlated with dense area and volume (-0.12 ≤ r ≤ -0.30) and with percent dense area and volume (-0.28 ≤ r ≤ -0.48). Because measurements made with scans explained at most only 3% more of the variation in absolute or percent density beyond that explained by anthropometric measurements, anthropometric measurements are likely sufficient for adjustment of the association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk. Adiposity is associated with breast fatty tissue and possibly weakly inversely associated with fibroglandular tissue. PMID:20848591

  18. Abdominal wall fat index in neonates: correlation with birth size.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Silva, E; Didier, R; Bandeira, M; Bandeira, F

    2010-06-01

    Low birth weight is associated with obesity in later life and a more central fat distribution has a positive correlation with cardiovascular disease. However, the correlation between visceral adiposity in newborns and birth size is unknown. We measured the visceral adiposity in 118 newborns using the abdominal wall fat index (AFI), ratio between the maximum thickness of preperitoneal and the minimum thickness of subcutaneous fat evaluated by ultrasound. There was a weak negative correlation between AFI and birth weight (r = -0.197; P = 0.033) but not with birth length (r = -0.118; P = 0.201), body mass index (r = -0.138; P = 0.176) and abdominal circumference (r = 0.063; P = 0.497). In conclusion, we suggest that AFI is a useful parameter for evaluating the fat distribution in newborns and that visceral adiposity has a weak negative correlation with birth weight.

  19. Differential Role of Adipose Tissues in Obesity and Related Metabolic and Vascular Complications

    PubMed Central

    Beneit, Nuria; Díaz-Castroverde, Sabela

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the contribution of white, brown, and perivascular adipose tissues to the pathophysiology of obesity and its associated metabolic and vascular complications. Weight gain in obesity generates excess of fat, usually visceral fat, and activates the inflammatory response in the adipocytes and then in other tissues such as liver. Therefore, low systemic inflammation responsible for insulin resistance contributes to atherosclerotic process. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between body mass index and brown adipose tissue activity has been described. For these reasons, in recent years, in order to combat obesity and its related complications, as a complement to conventional treatments, a new insight is focusing on the role of the thermogenic function of brown and perivascular adipose tissues as a promising therapy in humans. These lines of knowledge are focused on the design of new drugs, or other approaches, in order to increase the mass and/or activity of brown adipose tissue or the browning process of beige cells from white adipose tissue. These new treatments may contribute not only to reduce obesity but also to prevent highly prevalent complications such as type 2 diabetes and other vascular alterations, such as hypertension or atherosclerosis. PMID:27766104

  20. Adipose tissue plasticity from WAT to BAT and in between.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Mottillo, Emilio P; Granneman, James G

    2014-03-01

    Adipose tissue plays an essential role in regulating energy balance through its metabolic, cellular and endocrine functions. Adipose tissue has been historically classified into anabolic white adipose tissue and catabolic brown adipose tissue. An explosion of new data, however, points to the remarkable heterogeneity among the cells types that can become adipocytes, as well as the inherent metabolic plasticity of mature cells. These data indicate that targeting cellular and metabolic plasticity of adipose tissue might provide new avenues for treatment of obesity-related diseases. This review will discuss the developmental origins of adipose tissue, the cellular complexity of adipose tissues, and the identification of progenitors that contribute to adipogenesis throughout development. We will touch upon the pathological remodeling of adipose tissue and discuss how our understanding of adipose tissue remodeling can uncover new therapeutic targets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Modulation of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease.

  1. Brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, angiogenesis: pathophysiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Honek, Jennifer; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Iwamoto, Hideki; Seki, Takahiro; Cao, Yihai

    2014-07-01

    The number of obese and overweight individuals is globally rising, and obesity-associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are among the most common causes of death. While white adipose tissue is the key player in the storage of energy, active brown adipose tissue expends energy due to its thermogenic capacity. Expanding and activating brown adipose tissue using pharmacological approaches therefore might offer an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention to counteract obesity and its consequences for metabolic health.

  2. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    McGown, Christine; Birerdinc, Aybike; Younossi, Zobair M

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is one of the most important health challenges faced by developed countries and is increasingly affecting adolescents and children. Obesity is also a considerable risk factor for the development of numerous other chronic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The epidemic proportions of obesity and its numerous comorbidities are bringing into focus the highly complex and metabolically active adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is increasingly being considered as a functional endocrine organ. This article discusses the endocrine effects of adipose tissue during obesity and the systemic impact of this signaling.

  3. Brown adipose tissue and bone

    PubMed Central

    Lidell, M E; Enerbäck, S

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is capable of transforming chemically stored energy, in the form of triglycerides, into heat. Recent studies have shown that metabolically active BAT is present in a large proportion of adult humans, where its activity correlates with a favorable metabolic status. Hence, the tissue is now regarded as an interesting target for therapies against obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes, the hypothesis being that an induction of BAT would be beneficial for these disease states. Apart from the association between BAT activity and a healthier metabolic status, later studies have also shown a positive correlation between BAT volume and both bone cross-sectional area and bone mineral density, suggesting that BAT might stimulate bone anabolism. The aim of this review is to give the reader a brief overview of the BAT research field and to summarize and discuss recent findings regarding BAT being a potential player in bone metabolism. PMID:27152171

  4. Normal weight adiposity in a Swedish population: how well is cardiovascular risk associated with excess body fat captured by BMI?

    PubMed Central

    Strandhagen, Elisabeth; Mehlig, Kirsten; Subramoney, Sreevidya; Lissner, Lauren; Björck, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective The aim of this study was to examine how well body mass index (BMI) reflects cardiovascular risk associated with excess adiposity in a Swedish population by examining the association between body fat, BMI and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A total of 3,010 adults participated. Normal weight adiposity was defined as the combination of BMI < 25 kg/m2 and percentage body fat ≥35% for women and ≥25% for men. Associations with blood pressure, blood lipids, apolipoproteins and C‐reactive protein were analysed in age‐adjusted regression models. Results The majority of the individuals with overweight and obesity were correctly classified to adiposity, while a wide range of body fat was observed among the normal weight subjects. In total, 9% of the participants were categorised as normal weight with adiposity. Compared with the normal weight leanness group, participants with normal weight adiposity had higher levels of serum triglycerides, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, C‐reactive protein, apolipoptotein B and the apolipoprotein B/A‐I ratio. In normal weight men, adiposity was also associated with higher blood pressure and lower high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions Higher percentage of body fat was associated with less favourable risk factor profile even in subjects who were normal weight. Thus, it might be relevant to screen for metabolic risk factors in the upper end of the normal weight category.

  5. Immunological contributions to adipose tissue homeostasis.

    PubMed

    DiSpirito, Joanna R; Mathis, Diane

    2015-09-01

    Adipose tissue is composed of many functionally and developmentally distinct cell types, the metabolic core of which is the adipocyte. The classification of "adipocyte" encompasses three primary types - white, brown, and beige - with distinct origins, anatomic distributions, and homeostatic functions. The ability of adipocytes to store and release lipids, respond to insulin, and perform their endocrine functions (via secretion of adipokines) is heavily influenced by the immune system. Various cell populations of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system can resist or exacerbate the development of the chronic, low-grade inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Here, we discuss these interactions, with a focus on their consequences for adipocyte and adipose tissue function in the setting of chronic overnutrition. In addition, we will review the effects of diet composition on adipose tissue inflammation and recent evidence suggesting that diet-driven disruption of the gut microbiota can trigger pathologic inflammation of adipose tissue.

  6. Diversity of lipid mediators in human adipose tissue depots

    PubMed Central

    Clària, Joan; Nguyen, Binh T.; Madenci, Arin L.; Ozaki, C. Keith

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a heterogeneous organ with remarkable variations in fat cell metabolism depending on the anatomical location. However, the pattern and distribution of bioactive lipid mediators between different fat depots and their relationships in complex diseases have not been investigated. Using LC-MS/MS-based metabolo-lipidomics, here we report that human subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissues possess a range of specialized proresolving mediators (SPM) including resolvin (Rv) D1, RvD2, protectin (PD) 1, lipoxin (LX) A4, and the monohydroxy biosynthetic pathway markers of RvD1 and PD1 (17-HDHA), RvE1 (18-HEPE), and maresin 1 (14-HDHA). The “classic” eicosanoids prostaglandin (PG) E2, PGD2, PGF2α, leukotriene (LT) B4, 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), 12-HETE, and 15-HETE were also identified in SC fat. SC fat from patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) exhibited a marked deficit in PD1 and 17-HDHA levels. Compared with SC, perivascular adipose tissue displayed higher SPM levels, suggesting an enhanced resolution capacity in this fat depot. In addition, augmented levels of eicosanoids and SPM were observed in SC fat surrounding foot wounds. Notably, the profile of SC PGF2α differed significantly when patients were grouped by body mass index (BMI). In the case of peri-wound SC fat, BMI negatively correlated with PGE2. In this tissue, proresolving mediators RvD2 and LXA4 were identified in lower levels than the proinflammatory LTB4. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a diverse distribution of bioactive lipid mediators depending on the localization of human fat depots and uncover a specific SPM pattern closely associated with PVD. PMID:23364264

  7. INDEXING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  8. Adipose Clocks: Burning the Midnight Oil.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Emma; Lamia, Katja A

    2015-10-01

    Circadian clocks optimize the timing of physiological processes in synchrony with daily recurring and therefore predictable changes in the environment. Until the late 1990s, circadian clocks were thought to exist only in the central nervous systems of animals; elegant studies in cultured fibroblasts and using genetically encoded reporters in Drosophila melanogaster and in mice showed that clocks are ubiquitous and cell autonomous. These findings inspired investigations of the advantages construed by enabling each organ to independently adjust its function to the time of day. Studies of rhythmic gene expression in several organs suggested that peripheral organ clocks might play an important role in optimizing metabolic physiology by synchronizing tissue-intrinsic metabolic processes to cycles of nutrient availability and energy requirements. The effects of clock disruption in liver, pancreas, muscle, and adipose tissues support that hypothesis. Adipose tissues coordinate energy storage and utilization and modulate behavior and the physiology of other organs by secreting hormones known as "adipokines." Due to behavior- and environment-driven diurnal variations in supply and demand for chemical and thermal energy, adipose tissues might represent an important peripheral location for coordinating circadian energy balance (intake, storage, and utilization) over the whole organism. Given the complexity of adipose cell types and depots, the sensitivity of adipose tissue biology to age and diet composition, and the plethora of known and yet-to-be-discovered adipokines and lipokines, we have just begun to scratch the surface of understanding the role of circadian clocks in adipose tissues.

  9. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beige” adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  10. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  11. Poor sleep quality potentiates stress-induced cytokine reactivity in postmenopausal women with high visceral abdominal adiposity.

    PubMed

    Prather, Aric A; Puterman, Eli; Epel, Elissa S; Dhabhar, Firdaus S

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a key behavioral risk factor for chronic medical conditions observed at high rates among overweight and obese individuals. Systemic inflammation, including that induced by stress, may serve as a common biological mechanism linking sleep, adiposity, and disease risk. To investigate these relationships, 48 postmenopausal women (mean age=61.8) completed a standardized laboratory stress task during which time blood was collected at baseline and 30, 50 and 90+ min after stressor onset to assess circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-6/IL-10 ratio. Self-reported global sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) while adiposity was estimated by body mass index. Sagittal diameter was obtained in clinic to estimate visceral abdominal adiposity. Multi-level growth curve models revealed that poorer self-reported sleep quality was associated with greater stress-induced increases in IL-6/IL-10 ratio. In terms of adiposity, higher sagittal diameter, but not BMI, was associated with greater IL-6 reactivity (p's<0.05). Further, associations between sleep quality and cytokine reactivity varied as a function of sagittal diameter. Among poor sleepers (1 SD above mean of PSQI score), stress-induced increases in IL-6 and IL-6/IL-10 ratio were significantly steeper in those with high visceral adiposity (1 SD above the mean of sagittal diameter) compared to those with low visceral adiposity (1 SD below the mean of sagittal diameter). In sum, poorer sleep quality and greater visceral adiposity, separately and especially in combination, are associated with greater stress-related increases in systemic inflammation. This research may help elucidate the complex link between sleep, obesity and inflammatory disease risk. PMID:24060585

  12. The effect of adipose cell size on the measurement of GLUT 4 in white adipose tissue of obese mice.

    PubMed

    Fabres-Machado, U; Saito, M

    1995-03-01

    Glucose transporter (GLUT 4) was assessed in subcellular membrane fractions of white adipose tissue (WAT) from obese insulin-resistant aurothioglucose (AuTG)- or monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated mice. Obesity was demonstrated by increased body weight and/or Lee index, as well as by the heavier WAT and brown adipose tissue in relation to similar weights of gastrocnemius and heart. In vivo insulin-resistance in obese animals was suggested by moderate hyperglycemia and severe hyperinsulinemia. Morphological analyses of adipose cells showed a > 10-fold increase in cell volume of obese mice. Subcellular fractionation indicated a reduced (P < 0.01) protein membrane content in the fat-free extract (FFE) from obese mice. However, the specific activity of 5'nucleotidase, a plasma membrane (PM) marker, in FFE and PM did not differ among groups. In addition, the total PM enzyme activity per unit of cell surface area was also unchanged. The GLUT 4 content, assessed by Western blotting and expressed per microgram membrane protein, was reduced by approximately 50% (P < 0.01) in all membrane fractions from obese animals. However, the total FFE GLUT 4 content per cell was increased (P < 0.01), from 23.5 +/- 1.8 in controls to 62.4 +/- 7.6 and 47.4 +/- 5.9 cpm cell-1 10(-3) in AuTG and MSG, respectively, but the total PM GLUT 4 content per unit of cell surface area was highly reduced (P < 0.01), from 165.1 +/- 16.7 in controls to 53.8 +/- 10.9 and 32.0 +/- 5.3 cpm microns-2 10(-9) in AuTG and MSG, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Effects of Sit Up Exercise Training on Adipose Cell Size and Adiposity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Frank I.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This article reports on an experiment that evaluated the effects of a 27-day sit up exercise training program on adipose cell size and adiposity. Fat biopsies were taken by needle aspiration from male subjects before and after a progressive training regimen. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  14. Empagliflozin reduces body weight and indices of adipose distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Neeland, Ian J; McGuire, Darren K; Chilton, Robert; Crowe, Susanne; Lund, Søren S; Woerle, Hans J; Broedl, Uli C; Johansen, Odd Erik

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To determine the effects of empagliflozin on adiposity indices among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Changes in weight, waist circumference, estimated total body fat, index of central obesity and visceral adiposity index were assessed using analysis of covariance and testing of treatment by strata for age, sex and baseline waist circumference in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus randomized to blinded treatment with empagliflozin versus placebo in clinical trials of 12 weeks (cohort 1) or 24 weeks (cohort 2) duration. Results: This study comprised 3300 patients (cohort 1, N = 823; cohort 2, N = 2477). Empagliflozin reduced weight, waist circumference and adiposity indices versus placebo in both cohorts. Adjusted mean (95% confidence interval) change from baseline in empagliflozin versus placebo was −1.7 kg (−2.1 to −1.4 kg) and −1.9 kg (−2.1 to −1.7 kg) for body weight (p < 0.001); −1.3 cm (−1.8 to −0.7 cm) and −1.3 cm (−1.7 to −1.0 cm) for waist circumference (p < 0.001); −0.2% (−0.7% to 0.3%; p = 0.45) and −0.3% (−0.7% to 0.0%; p = 0.08) for estimated total body fat; −0.007 (−0.011 to −0.004) and −0.008 (−0.010 to −0.006) for index of central obesity (p < 0.001); and −0.3 (−0.5 to 0.0; p = 0.07) and −0.4 (−0.7 to −0.1; p = 0.003) for visceral adiposity index in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. Adipose reductions were seen across most age, sex and waist circumference subgroups. Conclusion: Empagliflozin significantly reduced weight and adiposity indices with the potential to improve cardiometabolic risk among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26873905

  15. Contributions of maternal and paternal adiposity and smoking to adult offspring adiposity and cardiovascular risk: the Midspan Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, T S; Hart, C L; Haig, C; Logue, J; Upton, M N; Watt, G C M; Lean, M E J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Obesity has some genetic basis but requires interaction with environmental factors for phenotypic expression. We examined contributions of gender-specific parental adiposity and smoking to adiposity and related cardiovascular risk in adult offspring. Design Cross-sectional general population survey. Setting Scotland. Participants 1456 of the 1477 first generation families in the Midspan Family Study: 2912 parents (aged 45–64 years surveyed between 1972 and 1976) who had 1025 sons and 1283 daughters, aged 30–59 years surveyed in 1996. Main measures Offspring body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), cardiometabolic risk (lipids, blood pressure and glucose) and cardiovascular disease as outcome measures, and parental BMI and smoking as determinants. All analyses adjusted for age, socioeconomic status and family clustering and offspring birth weight. Results Regression coefficients for BMI associations between father–son (0.30) and mother–daughter (0.33) were greater than father–daughter (0.23) or mother–son (0.22). Regression coefficient for the non-genetic, shared-environment or assortative-mating relationship between BMIs of fathers and mothers was 0.19. Heritability estimates for BMI were greatest among women with mothers who had BMI either <25 or ≥30 kg/m2. Compared with offspring without obese parents, offspring with two obese parents had adjusted OR of 10.25 (95% CI 6.56 to 13.93) for having WC ≥102 cm for men, ≥88 cm women, 2.46 (95% CI 1.33 to 4.57) for metabolic syndrome and 3.03 (95% CI 1.55 to 5.91) for angina and/or myocardial infarct (p<0.001). Neither parental adiposity nor smoking history determined adjusted offspring individual cardiometabolic risk factors, diabetes or stroke. Maternal, but not paternal, smoking had significant effects on WC in sons (OR=1.50; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.01) and daughters (OR=1.42; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.84) and metabolic syndrome OR=1.68; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.40) in sons. Conclusions There are

  16. Intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissues: Bad vs. good adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hausman, Gary J; Basu, Urmila; Du, Min; Fernyhough-Culver, Melinda; Dodson, Michael V

    2014-01-01

    Human studies of the influence of aging and other factors on intermuscular fat (INTMF) were reviewed. Intermuscular fat increased with weight loss, weight gain, or with no weight change with age in humans. An increase in INTMF represents a similar threat to type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance as does visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Studies of INTMF in animals covered topics such as quantitative deposition and genetic relationships with other fat depots. The relationship between leanness and higher proportions of INTMF fat in pigs was not observed in human studies and was not corroborated by other pig studies. In humans, changes in muscle mass, strength and quality are associated with INTMF accretion with aging. Gene expression profiling and intrinsic methylation differences in pigs demonstrated that INTMF and VAT are primarily associated with inflammatory and immune processes. It seems that in the pig and humans, INTMF and VAT share a similar pattern of distribution and a similar association of components dictating insulin sensitivity. Studies on intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in meat animals were reviewed. Gene expression analysis and genetic analysis have identified candidate genes involved in IM adipocyte development. Intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in human muscle is only seen during aging and some pathological circumstance. Several genetic links between human and meat animal adipogenesis have been identified. In pigs, the Lipin1 and Lipin 2 gene have strong genetic effects on IM accumulation. Lipin1 deficiency results in immature adipocyte development in human lipodystrophy. In humans, overexpression of Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) facilitates intramyocellular lipid accretion whereas in pigs PLIN2 gene expression is associated with IM deposition. Lipins and perilipins may influence intramuscular lipid regardless of species. PMID:26317048

  17. Intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissues: Bad vs. good adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Gary J; Basu, Urmila; Du, Min; Fernyhough-Culver, Melinda; Dodson, Michael V

    2014-01-01

    Human studies of the influence of aging and other factors on intermuscular fat (INTMF) were reviewed. Intermuscular fat increased with weight loss, weight gain, or with no weight change with age in humans. An increase in INTMF represents a similar threat to type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance as does visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Studies of INTMF in animals covered topics such as quantitative deposition and genetic relationships with other fat depots. The relationship between leanness and higher proportions of INTMF fat in pigs was not observed in human studies and was not corroborated by other pig studies. In humans, changes in muscle mass, strength and quality are associated with INTMF accretion with aging. Gene expression profiling and intrinsic methylation differences in pigs demonstrated that INTMF and VAT are primarily associated with inflammatory and immune processes. It seems that in the pig and humans, INTMF and VAT share a similar pattern of distribution and a similar association of components dictating insulin sensitivity. Studies on intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in meat animals were reviewed. Gene expression analysis and genetic analysis have identified candidate genes involved in IM adipocyte development. Intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in human muscle is only seen during aging and some pathological circumstance. Several genetic links between human and meat animal adipogenesis have been identified. In pigs, the Lipin1 and Lipin 2 gene have strong genetic effects on IM accumulation. Lipin1 deficiency results in immature adipocyte development in human lipodystrophy. In humans, overexpression of Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) facilitates intramyocellular lipid accretion whereas in pigs PLIN2 gene expression is associated with IM deposition. Lipins and perilipins may influence intramuscular lipid regardless of species.

  18. [An exploration of the training of medical talents in China for Ryukyu islands based on the Liu qiu bai wen (One Hundred Question of Ryukyu)].

    PubMed

    He, Lanping

    2014-09-01

    Ryukyu sent more than 20 batches of returned students to China for studying during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, many of whom were studying medicine. Liu qiu bai wen (One Hundred Question of Ryukyu) was the record of discussion between Cao Cunxin, a famous doctor of the Qing Dynasty, and the oversea disciples of Lü Fengyi from Ryukyu. However, it was not only a medical book, but also served as an important witness on overseas dissemination of TCM, and the fresh case of Chinese training medical talented persons for Ryukyu. Training Ryukyu medical students in the Qing Dynasty was good for the expansion of Chinese medicine in the Ryukyu, and promoted the development and social progress of the Ryukyu medicine and health, made a significant contribution to maintain the friendly relationship between the two countries. PMID:25579213

  19. Tenomodulin promotes human adipocyte differentiation and beneficial visceral adipose tissue expansion.

    PubMed

    Senol-Cosar, Ozlem; Flach, Rachel J Roth; DiStefano, Marina; Chawla, Anil; Nicoloro, Sarah; Straubhaar, Juerg; Hardy, Olga T; Noh, Hye Lim; Kim, Jason K; Wabitsch, Martin; Scherer, Philipp E; Czech, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Proper regulation of energy storage in adipose tissue is crucial for maintaining insulin sensitivity and molecules contributing to this process have not been fully revealed. Here we show that type II transmembrane protein tenomodulin (TNMD) is upregulated in adipose tissue of insulin-resistant versus insulin-sensitive individuals, who were matched for body mass index (BMI). TNMD expression increases in human preadipocytes during differentiation, whereas silencing TNMD blocks adipogenesis. Upon high-fat diet feeding, transgenic mice overexpressing Tnmd develop increased epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) mass, and preadipocytes derived from Tnmd transgenic mice display greater proliferation, consistent with elevated adipogenesis. In Tnmd transgenic mice, lipogenic genes are upregulated in eWAT, as is Ucp1 in brown fat, while liver triglyceride accumulation is attenuated. Despite expanded eWAT, transgenic animals display improved systemic insulin sensitivity, decreased collagen deposition and inflammation in eWAT, and increased insulin stimulation of Akt phosphorylation. Our data suggest that TNMD acts as a protective factor in visceral adipose tissue to alleviate insulin resistance in obesity. PMID:26880110

  20. Adiposity and Physical Activity Are Not Related to Academic Achievement in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Monique M.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Newton, Robert; Sothern, Melinda; Webber, Larry S.; Davis, Allison B.; Williamson, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hypotheses that in elementary school students: 1) adiposity and academic achievement are negatively correlated and 2) physical activity and academic achievement are positively correlated. Method Participants were 1963 children in fourth through sixth grades. Adiposity was assessed by calculating body mass index (BMI) percentile and percent body fat and academic achievement with statewide standardized tests in four content areas. Socioeconomic status and age were control variables. A subset of participants (n = 261) wore an accelerometer for three days to provide objective measurement of physical activity. Additionally, the association between weight status and academic achievement was examined by comparing children who could be classified as “extremely obese” and the rest of the sample, as well as comparing children who could be classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese. Extreme obesity was defined as >= 1.2 times the 95th percentile. Results Results indicated that there were no significant associations between adiposity or physical activity and achievement in students. No academic achievement differences were found between children with BMI percentiles within the extreme obesity range and those who did not fall within the extreme obesity classification. Additionally, no academic achievement differences were found for children with BMI percentiles within the normal weight, overweight, or obese ranges. Conclusion These results do not support the hypotheses that increased adiposity is associated with decreased academic achievement or that greater physical activity is related to improved achievement. However, these results are limited by methodological weaknesses, especially the use of cross-sectional data. PMID:22617499

  1. Tenomodulin promotes human adipocyte differentiation and beneficial visceral adipose tissue expansion

    PubMed Central

    Senol-Cosar, Ozlem; Flach, Rachel J. Roth; DiStefano, Marina; Chawla, Anil; Nicoloro, Sarah; Straubhaar, Juerg; Hardy, Olga T.; Noh, Hye Lim; Kim, Jason K.; Wabitsch, Martin; Scherer, Philipp E.; Czech, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Proper regulation of energy storage in adipose tissue is crucial for maintaining insulin sensitivity and molecules contributing to this process have not been fully revealed. Here we show that type II transmembrane protein tenomodulin (TNMD) is upregulated in adipose tissue of insulin-resistant versus insulin-sensitive individuals, who were matched for body mass index (BMI). TNMD expression increases in human preadipocytes during differentiation, whereas silencing TNMD blocks adipogenesis. Upon high-fat diet feeding, transgenic mice overexpressing Tnmd develop increased epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) mass, and preadipocytes derived from Tnmd transgenic mice display greater proliferation, consistent with elevated adipogenesis. In Tnmd transgenic mice, lipogenic genes are upregulated in eWAT, as is Ucp1 in brown fat, while liver triglyceride accumulation is attenuated. Despite expanded eWAT, transgenic animals display improved systemic insulin sensitivity, decreased collagen deposition and inflammation in eWAT, and increased insulin stimulation of Akt phosphorylation. Our data suggest that TNMD acts as a protective factor in visceral adipose tissue to alleviate insulin resistance in obesity. PMID:26880110

  2. Ceramide metabolism is affected by obesity and diabetes in human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Błachnio-Zabielska, A U; Pułka, M; Baranowski, M; Nikołajuk, A; Zabielski, P; Górska, M; Górski, J

    2012-02-01

    Ceramide is involved in development of insulin resistance. However, there are no data on ceramide metabolism in human adipose tissue. The aim of our study was to examine sphingolipid metabolism in fat tissue from obese nondiabetic (n = 11), obese diabetic (n = 11), and lean nondiabetic (n = 8) subjects. The content of ceramide (Cer), dihydroceramide (dhCer), sphingosine (SPH), sphinganine (SPA), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P; pmol/mg of protein), the expression (mRNA) and activity of key enzymes responsible for Cer metabolism: serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), neutral and acidic sphingomyelinase (nSMase and aSMase, respectively), and neutral and acidic ceramidase (nCDase and aCDase, respectively) were examined in human adipose tissue. The contents of SPA and Cer were significantly lower whereas the content of dhCer was higher in both obese groups than the respective values in the lean subjects. The expression of examined enzymes was elevated in both obese groups. The SPT and CDases activity increased whereas aSMase activity deceased in both obese groups. We have found correlation between adipose tissue Cer content and plasma adiponectin concentration (r = 0.69, P < 0.001) and negative correlation between total Cer content and HOMA-IR index (homeostasis model of insulin resistance) (r = -0.67, P < 0.001). We have found that both obesity and diabetes affected pathways of sphingolipid metabolism in the adipose tissue.

  3. Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of age (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of age (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535

  4. The impact of adiposity on adipose tissue-resident lymphocyte activation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Travers, R L; Motta, A C; Betts, J A; Bouloumié, A; Thompson, D

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: The presence of T lymphocytes in human adipose tissue has only recently been demonstrated and relatively little is known of their potential relevance in the development of obesity-related diseases. We aimed to further characterise these cells and in particular to investigate how they interact with modestly increased levels of adiposity typical of common overweight and obesity. Subjects/methods: Subcutaneous adipose tissue and fasting blood samples were obtained from healthy males aged 35–55 years with waist circumferences in lean (<94 cm), overweight (94–102 cm) and obese (>102 cm) categories. Adipose tissue-resident CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes together with macrophages were identified by gene expression and flow cytometry. T lymphocytes were further characterised by their expression of activation markers CD25 and CD69. Adipose tissue inflammation was investigated using gene expression analysis and tissue culture. Results: Participants reflected a range of adiposity from lean to class I obesity. Expression of CD4 (T-helper cells) and CD68 (macrophage), as well as FOXP3 RNA transcripts, was elevated in subcutaneous adipose tissue with increased levels of adiposity (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P=0.018, respectively). Flow cytometry revealed significant correlations between waist circumference and levels of CD25 and CD69 expression per cell on activated adipose tissue-resident CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes (P-values ranging from 0.053 to <0.001). No such relationships were found with blood T lymphocytes. This increased T lymphocyte activation was related to increased expression and secretion of various pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines from subcutaneous whole adipose tissue explants. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that even modest levels of overweight/obesity elicit modifications in adipose tissue immune function. Our results underscore the importance of T lymphocytes during adipose tissue expansion, and the presence of

  5. Studies on Lipolysis in Human Adipose Cells *

    PubMed Central

    Galton, David J.; Bray, George A.

    1967-01-01

    Epinephrine stimulated lipolysis and the uptake of oxygen by subcutaneous adipose cells of man. When glucose-14C was present in the medium, its utilization was not increased by epinephrine, although lipolysis was accelerated. Insulin did not reduce the production of fatty acids that had been stimulated by epinephrine. The combination of human growth hormone and cortisol stimulated the production of fatty acids by isolated human adipose cells to a lesser extent than epinephrine. When human growth hormone or cortisol was used singly, or when bovine growth hormone was added in combination with cortisol, no effect on fatty acid production was observed. Furthermore, an acetone-dried preparation of human pituitary glands, which was shown to stimulate lipolysis in rat adipose cells, had no effect on fatty acid formation in human adipose cells. This suggested that the human pituitary gland contained no more potent lipolytic agents than growth hormone and was supported by the lack of response of human adipose cells to purified corticotropin. PMID:6021210

  6. Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are reduced in human obesity. Specifically designed human intervention studies in the field, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. In summary, studies support a role of specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives in the prevention of excess adiposity, and suggest that carotenoid requirements may be dependent on body composition. PMID:27485231

  7. Brown adipose tissue growth and development.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  8. Proline oxidase–adipose triglyceride lipase pathway restrains adipose cell death and tissue inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lettieri Barbato, D; Aquilano, K; Baldelli, S; Cannata, S M; Bernardini, S; Rotilio, G; Ciriolo, M R

    2014-01-01

    The nutrient-sensing lipolytic enzyme adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) has a key role in adipose tissue function, and alterations in its activity have been implicated in many age-related metabolic disorders. In adipose tissue reduced blood vessel density is related to hypoxia state, cell death and inflammation. Here we demonstrate that adipocytes of poorly vascularized enlarged visceral adipose tissue (i.e. adipose tissue of old mice) suffer from limited nutrient delivery. In particular, nutrient starvation elicits increased activity of mitochondrial proline oxidase/dehydrogenase (POX/PRODH) that is causal in triggering a ROS-dependent induction of ATGL. We demonstrate that ATGL promotes the expression of genes related to mitochondrial oxidative metabolism (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α), thus setting a metabolic switch towards fat utilization that supplies energy to starved adipocytes and prevents cell death, as well as adipose tissue inflammation. Taken together, these results identify ATGL as a stress resistance mediator in adipocytes, restraining visceral adipose tissue dysfunction typical of age-related metabolic disorders. PMID:24096872

  9. Isolation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Porcine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Hui-Yu; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Cheng, Ying-Hung; Mersmann, Harry J; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-03-31

    Obesity is an unconstrained worldwide epidemic. Unraveling molecular controls in adipose tissue development holds promise to treat obesity or diabetes. Although numerous immortalized adipogenic cell lines have been established, adipose-derived stem cells from the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous white adipose tissues provide a reliable cellular system ex vivo much closer to adipose development in vivo. Pig adipose-derived stem cells (pADSC) are isolated from 7- to 9-day old piglets. The dorsal white fat depot of porcine subcutaneous adipose tissues is sliced, minced and collagenase digested. These pADSC exhibit strong potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Moreover, the pADSC also possess multipotency, assessed by selective stem cell markers, to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell types including adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. These pADSC can be used for clarification of molecular switches in regulating classical adipocyte differentiation or in direction to other mesenchymal cell types of mesodermal origin. Furthermore, extended lineages into cells of ectodermal and endodermal origin have recently been achieved. Therefore, pADSC derived in this protocol provide an abundant and assessable source of adult mesenchymal stem cells with full multipotency for studying adipose development and application to tissue engineering of regenerative medicine.

  10. Isolation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Porcine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Hui-Yu; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Cheng, Ying-Hung; Mersmann, Harry J.; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an unconstrained worldwide epidemic. Unraveling molecular controls in adipose tissue development holds promise to treat obesity or diabetes. Although numerous immortalized adipogenic cell lines have been established, adipose-derived stem cells from the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous white adipose tissues provide a reliable cellular system ex vivo much closer to adipose development in vivo. Pig adipose-derived stem cells (pADSC) are isolated from 7- to 9-day old piglets. The dorsal white fat depot of porcine subcutaneous adipose tissues is sliced, minced and collagenase digested. These pADSC exhibit strong potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Moreover, the pADSC also possess multipotency, assessed by selective stem cell markers, to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell types including adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. These pADSC can be used for clarification of molecular switches in regulating classical adipocyte differentiation or in direction to other mesenchymal cell types of mesodermal origin. Furthermore, extended lineages into cells of ectodermal and endodermal origin have recently been achieved. Therefore, pADSC derived in this protocol provide an abundant and assessable source of adult mesenchymal stem cells with full multipotency for studying adipose development and application to tissue engineering of regenerative medicine. PMID:27077225

  11. Retinol binding protein 4 is associated with adiposity-related co-morbidity risk factors in children

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Rushika; Espinal, Yomery; Fennoy, Ilene; Accacha, Siham; Boucher-Berry, Claudia; Carey, Dennis E.; Close, Sharron; DeSantis, Deborah; Gupta, Rishi; Hassoun, Abeer A.; Iazzetti, Loretta; Jacques, Fabean J.; Jean, Amy M.; Michel, Lesly; Pavlovich, Katherine; Rapaport, Robert; Rosenfeld, Warren; Shamoon, Elisabeth; Shelov, Steven; Speiser, Phyllis W.; Ten, Svetlana; Rosenbaum, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective In adults, elevated levels of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) have been associated with biochemical markers of adiposity-related co-morbidities including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and abdominal obesity. This study examined the relationship between RBP4 and risk factors for co-morbidities of adiposity in a population of ethnically diverse children in early- to mid-adolescence in the public school system of New York City. Materials/methods We analyzed anthropometric (body mass index, % body fat, waist circumference), metabolic (lipids, glucose), and inflammatory (TNF-α, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, adiponectin) markers for adiposity-related co-morbidities and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in 106 school children (65 males, 41 females) 11–15 years of age (mean ± SD = 13.0 ± 0.1 years) who were enrolled in the Reduce Obesity and Diabetes (ROAD) project. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. Insulin secretory capacity was measured as acute insulin response and glucose disposal index. Results Serum RBP4 was significantly correlated directly with ALT, triglycerides, and triglyceride z-score, and inversely correlated with adiponectin. Correlations with ALT and adiponectin remained significant when corrected for % body fat, age, and gender. There were significant ethnic differences in the relationship of RBP4 to ALT, glucose disposal index and adiponectin. Conclusions In early- to mid-adolescents, circulating concentrations of RBP4 are correlated with multiple risk factors for adiposity-related co-morbidities. The observation that many associations persisted when corrected for % body fat, suggests that RBP4 can be viewed as an independent marker of adiposity-related co-morbidity risk in children. PMID:22308842

  12. Enzymatic intracrine regulation of white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    DiSilvestro, David; Petrosino, Jennifer; Aldoori, Ayat; Melgar-Bermudez, Emiliano; Wells, Alexandra; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal fat formation has become a permanent risk factor for metabolic syndrome and various cancers in one-third of the world's population of obese and even lean patients. Formation of abdominal fat involves additional mechanisms beyond an imbalance in energy intake and expenditure, which explains systemic obesity. In this review, we briefly summarized autonomous regulatory circuits that locally produce hormones from inactive precursors or nutrients for intra-/auto-/paracrine signaling in white adipose depots. Enzymatic pathways activating steroid and thyroid hormones in adipose depots were compared with enzymatic production of retinoic acid from vitamin A. We discussed the role of intracrine circuits in fat-depot functions and strategies to reduce abdominal adiposity through thermogenic adipocytes with interrupted generation of retinoic acid. PMID:25390015

  13. [Use of adipose tissue in regenerative medicine].

    PubMed

    Casteilla, L; Planat-Benard, V; Bourin, P; Laharrague, P; Cousin, B

    2011-04-01

    Adipose tissue is abundant and well known for its involvement in obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Its uses in regenerative medicine recently attracted many investigators, as large amounts of this tissue can be easily obtained using liposuction and it contains several populations of immature cells. The largest pool of such cells corresponds to immature stromal cells, called adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs). These cells are purified after proteolytic digestion of adipose tissue and selection by an adherent step. ADSCs display many common features with mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, including paracrine activity, but with some specific features, among which a greater angiogenic potential. This potential is now investigating at clinical level to treat critical ischemic hindlimb by autologous cells. Other potentials are also investigated and the treatment of fistula associated or not with Crohn's disease is reaching now phase III level.

  14. The development and endocrine functions of adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White adipose tissue is a mesenchymal tissue that begins developing in the fetus. Classically known for storing the body’s fuel reserves, adipose tissue is now recognized as an endocrine organ. As such, the secretions from adipose tissue are known to affect several systems such as the vascular and...

  15. Studies of human adipose tissue. Adipose cell size and number in nonobese and obese patients.

    PubMed

    Salans, L B; Cushman, S W; Weismann, R E

    1973-04-01

    The cellular character of the adipose tissue of 21 nonobese and 78 obese patients has been examined. Adipose cell size (lipid per cell) was determined in three different subcutaneous and deep fat depots in each patient and the total number of adipose cells in the body estimated by division of total body fat by various combinations of the adipose cell sizes at six different sites. Cell number has also been estimated on the basis of various assumed distribution of total fat between the subcutaneous and deep fat depots. Obese patients, as a group, have larger adipose cells than do nonobese patients; cell size, however, varies considerably among the fat depots of individuals of either group. The variation in cell size exists not only between, but also within subcutaneous and deep sites. Estimates of total adipose cell number for a given individual based upon cell size can, therefore, vary by as much as 85%. On the basis of these studies it is suggested that the total adipose number of an individual is best and most practically estimated, at this time, by division of total body fat by the mean of the adipose cell sizes of at least three subcutaneous sites. IRRESPECTIVE OF THE METHOD BY WHICH TOTAL ADIPOSE CELL NUMBER IS ESTIMATED, TWO PATTERNS OF OBESITY EMERGE WITH RESPECT TO THE CELLULAR CHARACTER OF THE ADIPOSE TISSUE MASS OF THESE PATIENTS: hyperplastic, with increased adipose cell number and normal or increased size, and hypertrophic, with increased cell size alone. These two cellular patterns of obesity are independent of a variety of assumed distributions of fat among the subcutaneous and deep depots. When these different cellular patterns are examined in terms of various aspects of body size, body composition, and the degree, duration, and age of onset of obesity, only the latter uniquely distinguishes the hyperplastic from the hypertrophic: hyperplastic obesity is characterized by an early age of onset, hypertrophic, by a late age of onset. These studies

  16. Developmental programming, adiposity, and reproduction in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Symonds, M E; Dellschaft, N; Pope, M; Birtwistle, M; Alagal, R; Keisler, D; Budge, H

    2016-07-01

    Although sheep have been widely adopted as an animal model for examining the timing of nutritional interventions through pregnancy on the short- and long-term outcomes, only modest programming effects have been seen. This is due in part to the mismatch in numbers of twins and singletons between study groups as well as unequal numbers of males and females. Placental growth differs between singleton and twin pregnancies which can result in different body composition in the offspring. One tissue that is especially affected is adipose tissue which in the sheep fetus is primarily located around the kidneys and heart plus the sternal/neck region. Its main role is the rapid generation of heat due to activation of the brown adipose tissue-specific uncoupling protein 1 at birth. The fetal adipose tissue response to suboptimal maternal food intake at defined stages of development differs between the perirenal abdominal and pericardial depots, with the latter being more sensitive. Fetal adipose tissue growth may be mediated in part by changes in leptin status of the mother which are paralleled in the fetus. Then, over the first month of life plasma leptin is higher in females than males despite similar adiposity, when fat is the fastest growing tissue with the sternal/neck depot retaining uncoupling protein 1, whereas other depots do not. Future studies should take into account the respective effects of fetal number and sex to provide more detailed insights into the mechanisms by which adipose and related tissues can be programmed in utero. PMID:27173959

  17. Blood pressure in relation to general and central adiposity among 500 000 adult Chinese men and women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhengming; Smith, Margaret; Du, Huaidong; Guo, Yu; Clarke, Robert; Bian, Zheng; Collins, Rory; Chen, Junshi; Qian, Yijian; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Xiaofang; Tian, Xiaocao; Wang, Xiaohuan; Peto, Richard; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Background: Greater adiposity is associated with higher blood pressure. Substantial uncertainty remains, however, about which measures of adiposity most strongly predict blood pressure and whether these associations differ materially between populations. Methods: We examined cross-sectional data on 500 000 adults recruited from 10 diverse localities across China during 2004–08. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the effects on systolic blood pressure (SBP) of general adiposity [e.g. body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, height-adjusted weight] vs central adiposity [e.g. waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-hip ratio (WHR)], before and after adjustment for each other. The main analyses excluded those reported taking any antihypertensive medication, and were adjusted for age, region and education. Results: The overall mean [standard deviation (SD)] BMI was 23.6 (3.3) kg/m2 and mean WC was 80.0 (9.5) cm. The differences in SBP (men/women, mmHg) per 1SD higher general adiposity (height-adjusted weight: 6.6/5.6; BMI: 5.5/4.9; body fat percentage: 5.5/5.0) were greater than for central adiposity (WC: 5.0/4.3; HC: 4.8/4.1; WHR: 3.7/3.2), with a 10 kg/m2 greater BMI being associated on average with 16 (men/women: 17/14) mmHg higher SBP. The associations of blood pressure with measures of general adiposity were not materially altered by adjusting for WC and HC, but those for central adiposity were significantly attenuated after adjusting for BMI (WC: 1.1/0.7; HC: 0.3/−0.2; WHR: 0.6/0.6). Conclusion: In adult Chinese, blood pressure is more strongly associated with general adiposity than with central adiposity, and the associations with BMI were about 50% stronger than those observed in Western populations. PMID:25747585

  18. Biogeographic Ancestry Is Associated with Higher Total Body Adiposity among African-American Females: The Boston Area Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Goonesekera, Sunali D.; Fang, Shona C.; Piccolo, Rebecca S.; Florez, Jose C.; McKinlay, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately higher among African-Americans and Hispanics as compared to whites. We investigated the role of biogeographic ancestry (BGA) on adiposity and changes in adiposity in the Boston Area Community Health Survey. Methods We evaluated associations between BGA, assessed via Ancestry Informative Markers, and adiposity (body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) and changes in adiposity over 7 years for BMI and WHR and 2.5 years for PBF, per 10% greater proportion of BGA using multivariable linear regression. We also examined effect-modification by demographic and socio-behavioral variables. Results We observed positive associations between West-African ancestry and cross-sectional BMI (percent difference=0.62%; 95% CI: 0.04%, 1.20%), and PBF (β=0.35; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.58). We also observed significant effect-modification of the association between West-African ancestry and BMI by gender (p-interaction: <0.002) with a substantially greater association in women. We observed no main associations between Native-American ancestry and adiposity but observed significant effect-modification of the association with BMI by diet (p-interaction: <0.003) with inverse associations among participants with higher Healthy Eating Scores. No associations were observed between BGA and changes in adiposity over time. Conclusion Findings support that West-African ancestry may contribute to high prevalence of total body adiposity among African-Americans, particularly African-American women. PMID:25875902

  19. Impact of Adiposity on Incident Hypertension Is Modified by Insulin Resistance in Adults: Longitudinal Observation From the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Huijie; Li, Shengxu; Li, Ying; Liu, Yaozhong; Fernandez, Camilo; Harville, Emily; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Adiposity and insulin resistance are closely associated with hypertension. This study aims to investigate whether the association between adiposity and hypertension is modified by insulin resistance. The cohort consisted of 1624 middle-aged normotensive black and white adults aged 18 to 43 years at baseline who followed for 16 years on average. Overweight/obesity at baseline was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥25, and insulin resistance was measured using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Prevalence of incident hypertension was compared between the insulin-sensitive adiposity and insulin-resistant adiposity groups. The prevalence of incident hypertension was higher in the insulin-resistant adiposity than in the insulin-sensitive adiposity group (32.1% versus 22.1%, P<0.001). In multivariable logistic analyses, adjusted for baseline age, race, sex, follow-up years, and smoking, baseline insulin-resistant obesity was associated with incident hypertension (odds ratio, 1.9; P=0.008). Odds ratios did not differ between blacks and whites (P=0.238). Of note, the odds ratios of BMI associated with hypertension significantly increased with increasing quartiles of baseline homeostasis model assessment (odds ratio, 1.3, 1.1, 1.5, and 2.5 in quartiles I, II, III, and IV, respectively; P=0.006 for trend). Slopes of increasing follow-up blood pressure with baseline BMI, measured as regression coefficients (β), were significantly greater in insulin-resistant than in insulin-sensitive individuals (β=0.74 versus β=0.35 for systolic blood pressure, P=0.004 for difference; β=0.51 versus β=0.23 for diastolic blood pressure, P=0.001 for difference). These findings suggest that insulin resistance has a synergistic effect on the obesity-hypertension association in young adults, indicating that the role of adiposity in the development of hypertension is modified by insulin resistance.

  20. Association of total and computed tomographic measures of regional adiposity with incident cancer risk: a prospective population-based study of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Rachel A.; Bureyko, Taylor F.; Miljkovic, Iva; Cauley, Jane A.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Hue, Trisha F.; Klepin, Heidi D.; Cummings, Steven R.; Newman, Anne B.; Harris, Tamara B.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of many types of cancer. Less is known regarding associations between adipose depots and cancer risk. We aimed to explore relationships between adipose depots, risk of cancer and obesity-related cancer (per NCI definition) in participants initially aged 70–79 without prevalent cancer (1,179 men, 1,340 women), and followed for incident cancer for 13 years. Measures included body mass index (BMI), total adipose tissue from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography measures: visceral adipose tissue (VAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), thigh intermuscular adipose tissue and thigh muscle attenuation (Hounsfield Unit, HU), low HU indicates fatty infiltration. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for demographics, lifestyle variables and medical conditions. During follow-up 617 participants developed cancer of which 224 were obesity-related cancers. Total adipose tissue and VAT were positively associated with cancer risk among women (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.30 per SD increase, HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02–1.30 per SD increase). There were no associations with cancer risk among men. Total adipose tissue was positively associated with obesity-related cancer risk among women (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03–1.46 per SD increase). VAT was positively associated with obesity-related cancer risk among men (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.06–1.60 per SD increase) and remained associated even with adjustment for BMI (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.08–1.82 per SD increase). These findings provide insight into relationships between specific adipose depots and cancer risk and suggest differential relationships among men and women. PMID:24869972

  1. Heritability of phenotypes associated with glucose homeostasis and adiposity in a rural area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pena, Geórgia G; Dutra, Míriam Santos; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation between glucose homeostasis and adiposity traits in a population in a rural community in Brazil. The Jequitinhonha Community Family Study cohort consists of subjects aged ≥18 years residing in rural areas in Brazil. The data on the following traits were assembled for 280 individuals (51.7% women): body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist and mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps skinfold, conicity index, insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Extended pedigrees were constructed up to the third generation of individuals using the data management software PEDSYS. The heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance component method. The age- and sex-adjusted heritability values estimated for insulin (h(2) = 52%), glucose (h(2) = 51%), HDLc (h(2) = 58%), and waist circumference (WC; h(2) = 49%) were high. Significantly adjusted genetic correlations were observed between insulin paired with each of the following phenotypes; (BMI; ρg = 0.48), WC (ρg = 0.47) and HDLc (ρg = -0.47). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was genetically correlated with BMI (ρg = 0.53) and HDLc (ρg = -0.58). The adjusted genetic correlations between traits were consistently higher compared with the environmental correlations. In conclusion, glucose metabolism and adiposity traits are highly heritable and share common genetic effects with body adiposity traits. PMID:24359477

  2. Heritability of phenotypes associated with glucose homeostasis and adiposity in a rural area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pena, Geórgia G; Dutra, Míriam Santos; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation between glucose homeostasis and adiposity traits in a population in a rural community in Brazil. The Jequitinhonha Community Family Study cohort consists of subjects aged ≥18 years residing in rural areas in Brazil. The data on the following traits were assembled for 280 individuals (51.7% women): body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist and mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps skinfold, conicity index, insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Extended pedigrees were constructed up to the third generation of individuals using the data management software PEDSYS. The heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance component method. The age- and sex-adjusted heritability values estimated for insulin (h(2) = 52%), glucose (h(2) = 51%), HDLc (h(2) = 58%), and waist circumference (WC; h(2) = 49%) were high. Significantly adjusted genetic correlations were observed between insulin paired with each of the following phenotypes; (BMI; ρg = 0.48), WC (ρg = 0.47) and HDLc (ρg = -0.47). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was genetically correlated with BMI (ρg = 0.53) and HDLc (ρg = -0.58). The adjusted genetic correlations between traits were consistently higher compared with the environmental correlations. In conclusion, glucose metabolism and adiposity traits are highly heritable and share common genetic effects with body adiposity traits.

  3. Adiposity and stroke among older adults of low socioeconomic status: the Chicago Stroke Study.

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, L; Ostfeld, A M; Rosner, G L

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that overall and truncal adiposity increase the risk of stroke independent of their association with cardiovascular disease risk factors and other preexisting illnesses. METHODS. Analyses were conducted of longitudinal data from a poor, biracial cohort of noninstitutionalized adults 65 to 74 years of age who participated in the Chicago Stroke Study from 1965 to 1970. RESULTS. Ponderal index (cm/kg1/3) and chest skinfold were significantly associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol and triglycerides, plasma glucose, and smoking. Ponderal index was also associated with diabetes and risk of stroke. After potential confounders were controlled, the following variables showed significant independent associations with risk of stroke: Black race, female gender, and age 70+; hypertensive heart disease; and diabetes. Neither adiposity variable was associated with risk of stroke in the presence of these powerful predictors. CONCLUSIONS. Control of hypertension and diabetes continues to be important among older adults. Since excess adiposity seems to influence risk of stroke through its association with these disorders and other cardiovascular disease risk factors, control of weight and fat remains an important concern as well. PMID:8279605

  4. The role of adipose cell size and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in the carbohydrate intolerance of human obesity.

    PubMed

    Salans, L B; Knittle, J L; Hirsch, J

    1968-01-01

    Glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity of isolated human adipose tissue was studied as a function of adipose cell size and number. Glucose metabolism by these tissues was closely related to the number of cells in the fragment, irrespective of cell size. Adipose cells of obese individuals metabolized glucose to carbon dioxide and triglyceride at rates similar to adipose cells of nonobese subjects. In contrast, insulin responsiveness of adipose tissue was dependent upon adipose cell size. The larger its adipose cells the less insulin sensitive was the tissue. Thus, adipose tissue of obese subjects, with enlarged cells, showed a diminished response to insulin. After weight loss and reduction in adipose cell size, insulin sensitivity of the adipose tissue of obese patients was restored to normal. When adipose tissue of obese individuals showed impaired responsiveness to insulin, their plasma insulin levels, after oral glucose, were elevated. Weight loss and reduction in adipose cell size restored plasma insulin concentration to normal, concomitant with the return of normal tissue insulin sensitivity.

  5. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index–adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, S. B.; Peterson, C. M.; Thomas, D. M.; Heo, M.; Schuna, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. PMID:26663309

  6. The different surrogate measures of adiposity in relation to semen quality and serum reproductive hormone levels among Estonian fertile men.

    PubMed

    Ehala-Aleksejev, K; Punab, M

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relations of basic semen parameters and reproductive hormones with different surrogate measures of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Standard semen analysis was performed and serum levels of reproductive hormones were measured in 260 male partners of pregnant women at a university hospital andrology centres in Estonia. Quartile analysis revealed that all adiposity markers were negatively related to sex hormone-binding globulin and total testosterone levels. After adjustment for covariates a high BF%, WC and WHtR were negatively associated with total sperm count. The BF% was also negatively related to semen volume. These significant changes occurred from a BF% ≥ 23.4%, WC > 98 cm and WHtR > 0.54. Next to these changes the BMI was not related to sperm parameters. This study shows that semen quality is affected by central adiposity and confirms earlier findings that adiposity markedly changes serum sex hormone levels. Further studies are required to find out what is the best body composition marker showing most clearly the relationships between adiposity, semen characteristics and sex hormone levels.

  7. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rocio I; Low Wang, Cecilia C; Wolfe, Pamela; Havranek, Edward P; Long, Carlin S; Bessesen, Daniel H

    2015-12-22

    Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA) compared to non-Latino whites (NLW). Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.). We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue), insulin sensitivity (IVGTT), and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003), and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R² = 0.42, p < 0.01). Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  8. A pilot study of sampling subcutaneous adipose tissue to examine biomarkers of cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kristin L; Makar, Karen W; Kratz, Mario; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; McTiernan, Anne; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2009-01-01

    Examination of adipose tissue biology may provide important insight into mechanistic links for the observed association between higher body fat and risk of several types of cancer, in particular colorectal and breast cancer. We tested two different methods of obtaining adipose tissue from healthy individuals. Ten overweight or obese (body mass index, 25-40 kg/m(2)), postmenopausal women were recruited. Two subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue samples were obtained per individual (i.e., right and left lower abdominal regions) using two distinct methods (method A: 14-gauge needle with incision, versus method B: 16-gauge needle without incision). Gene expression was examined at the mRNA level for leptin, adiponectin, aromatase, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in flash-frozen tissue, and at the protein level for leptin, adiponectin, IL-6, and TNF-alpha following short-term culture. Participants preferred biopsy method A and few participants reported any of the usual minor side effects. Gene expression was detectable for leptin, adiponectin, and aromatase, but was below detectable limits for IL-6 and TNF-alpha. For detectable genes, relative gene expression in adipose tissue obtained by methods A and B was similar for adiponectin (r = 0.64, P = 0.06) and leptin (r = 0.80, P = 0.01), but not for aromatase (r = 0.37,P = 0.34). Protein levels in tissue culture supernatant exhibited good intra-assay agreement [coefficient of variation (CV), 1-10%], with less agreement for intraindividual agreement (CV, 17-29%) and reproducibility, following one freeze-thaw cycle (CV, >14%). Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies from healthy, overweight individuals provide adequate amounts for RNA extraction, gene expression, and other assays of relevance to cancer prevention research. PMID:19139016

  9. Obesity-induced DNA released from adipocytes stimulates chronic adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Sachiko; Fukuda, Daiju; Higashikuni, Yasutomi; Tanaka, Kimie; Hirata, Yoichiro; Murata, Chie; Kim-Kaneyama, Joo-ri; Sato, Fukiko; Bando, Masahiro; Yagi, Shusuke; Soeki, Takeshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Imoto, Issei; Sakaue, Hiroshi; Shimabukuro, Michio; Sata, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Obesity stimulates chronic inflammation in adipose tissue, which is associated with insulin resistance, although the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here we showed that obesity-related adipocyte degeneration causes release of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), which promotes macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), originally known as a sensor of exogenous DNA fragments. Fat-fed obese wild-type mice showed increased release of cfDNA, as determined by the concentrations of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in plasma. cfDNA released from degenerated adipocytes promoted monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in wild-type macrophages, but not in TLR9-deficient (Tlr9−/−) macrophages. Fat-fed Tlr9−/− mice demonstrated reduced macrophage accumulation and inflammation in adipose tissue and better insulin sensitivity compared with wild-type mice, whereas bone marrow reconstitution with wild-type bone marrow restored the attenuation of insulin resistance observed in fat-fed Tlr9−/− mice. Administration of a TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotide to fat-fed wild-type mice reduced the accumulation of macrophages in adipose tissue and improved insulin resistance. Furthermore, in humans, plasma ssDNA level was significantly higher in patients with computed tomography–determined visceral obesity and was associated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), which is the index of insulin resistance. Our study may provide a novel mechanism for the development of sterile inflammation in adipose tissue and a potential therapeutic target for insulin resistance. PMID:27051864

  10. Adiposity and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children With and Without Antipsychotic Drug Treatment

    PubMed Central

    de las Fuentes, Lisa; Riek, Amy E.; Bernal-Mizrachi, Carlos; Lenze, Eric J.; Miller, J. Phillip; Schweiger, Julia A.; Yingling, Michael D.; Huang, Vincent J.; Dixon, David J.; Hennekens, Charles H.; Newcomer, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pediatric obesity is common, particularly in children treated with antipsychotic medications. Antipsychotic exposure can increase cardiometabolic risk by increasing adiposity, and possibly via other adiposity-independent pathways. Objective: The objectives were to characterize relationships of adiposity with intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in children with and without antipsychotic drug treatment, and to explore whether vitamin D alters any effects in these relationships. Design: This was a cross-sectional case-control study. Setting: The setting was an academic medical center. Patients or Other participants: Participants were 44 children (ages, 6–19 y): 25 cases treated with antipsychotic and other psychotropic drug therapies and 19 untreated controls, frequency-matched on age, gender, and body mass index. Main Outcome Measures: Main outcome measures were dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry percentage body fat (DEXA %fat), IHTG measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and CIMT measured by ultrasonography. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipids, C-reactive protein, and liver enzymes were also evaluated. Results: There were no significant differences between cases and controls on measures of IHTG, CIMT, or DEXA %fat. In combined crude and adjusted analyses, DEXA %fat predicted IHTG (R2 = 0.30) but not CIMT. Low levels of vitamin D were associated with larger effects of DEXA %fat on IHTG. Conclusion: In treated and untreated children alike, adiposity is a significant predictor of liver fat content. This relationship was altered by low vitamin D level. These results suggest a modifiable pathway to hepatic steatosis. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis that children with high adiposity and low vitamin D have particularly increased risks for the development of fatty liver. PMID:26186300

  11. Frequency of Massive Cardiac Adiposity (Floating Heart) at Necropsy and Comparison of Clinical and Morphologic Variables With Cases With Nonmassive Cardiac Adiposity at a Single Texas Hospital, 2013 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Roberts, William C; Won, Vera S; Vasudevan, Anupama; Ko, Jong Mi; Guileyardo, Joseph M

    2016-03-15

    Body weight continues to increase worldwide primarily because of the increase in body fat. This study analyzes the frequency of massive adiposity at autopsy determined by the ability of the heart to float in a container of 10% formaldehyde (because adipose tissue is lighter than myocardium) and compares certain findings in the patients with floating to those with nonfloating hearts. The hearts studied at necropsy during a 2-year period (2013 to 2014) at Baylor University Medical Center were carefully "cleaned" and weighed by the same person and tested as to their ability to float in a container of formaldehyde, an indication of severe cardiac adiposity. Of the 146 hearts studied, 76 (52%) floated in a container of formaldehyde and 70 (48%) did not. Comparison of the 76 patients with floating hearts with the 70 with nonfloating hearts showed significant differences in ages (62 ± 13 vs 58 ± 14 years). No significant differences between the 2 groups were found in gender, body mass index, frequency of systemic hypertension or diabetes mellitus, either acute or healed myocardial infarction, or whether death was due to a coronary or a noncoronary condition. A weak correlation was found between body mass index and heart weight in both men and women and in both floating and nonfloating hearts. The massive quantity of cardiac adipose tissue (floating heart) appears to have increased enormously in recent decades in the United States.

  12. Lipids, adiposity and tendinopathy: is there a mechanistic link? Critical review

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Alex; Zwerver, Johannes; Grewal, Navi; de Sa, Agnetha; Alktebi, Thuraya; Granville, David J; Hart, David A

    2015-01-01

    Being overweight or obese is associated with an elevated risk of tendon pathology. However, for sportspeople the epidemiological data linking weight or adiposity on one hand, and risk of tendon pathology on the other, are less consistent. Indeed, the mechanistic links between diet, adiposity and tendon pathology remain largely unexamined. Recent studies have begun to examine the effects of dietary interventions on outcomes such as tendon biomechanics or pain. Oxidised low-density lipoprotein has been shown to (A) accumulate in the tendon tissues of mice that eat a fatty diet and (B) induce a pathological phenotype in human tendon cells. This paper addresses the current debate: is excessive body mass index (causing increased load and strain on tendon tissue) per se the underlying mechanism? Or do local or systemic influences of fat on tendons predispose to tendon pathology? This narrative review argues that excessive blood lipids may be an important avenue for clinical investigations. PMID:25488953

  13. Basal and stimulated hyperinsulinemia in obesity: relationship to adipose-cell size.

    PubMed

    Julius, U; Leonhardt, W; Schneider, H; Schollberg, K; Hanefeld, M; Schulze, J; Haller, H

    1979-04-01

    In 17 non-selected, non-hyperlipoproteinemic subjects without overt diabetes both adipose tissue biopsy and an oral glucose tolerance test (50 g) were performed. All persons were weight-stable at the time of investigation. A significant correlation between fasting insulin concentration and mean adipocyte volume was observed, whereas no correlation existed between ideal body weight index and fasting insulin level. Persons with larger adipocytes had elevated basal insulin levels as well as higher and longer lasting increments following the glucose challenge. They also exhibited significantly higher mean glucose levels during the OGTT. When these patients were matched for glucose tolerance with the subgroup having smaller mean adipocyte volumes, the difference in insulin levels was still demonstrable. This study underlines the importance of adipose-cell enlargement regulating basal and stimulated insulin output.

  14. Resistin induces lipolysis and suppresses adiponectin secretion in cultured human visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Neng; Zhou, Lingmei; Zhang, Zixiang; Xu, Jiaying; Wan, Zhongxiao; Qin, Liqiang

    2014-11-01

    Resistin is an adipokine secreted from adipose tissue, which is likely involved in the development of obesity and insulin resistance via its interaction with other organs, as well as affecting adipose tissue function. The impact of resistin treatment on lipolysis and adiponectin secretion in human visceral adipose tissue is currently unknown. Mesenteric adipose tissue samples were obtained from 14 male subjects [age 54±6 yr, body mass index (BMI) 23.59±0.44 kg/m(2)] undergoing abdominal surgeries. Adipose tissues were cultured and treated with resistin (100 ng/mL, 24h) in the absence or presence of different signaling inhibitors: H89 (1 μM), PD98059 (25 μM) and SB201290 (20 μM) for glycerol and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) measurement. Adiponectin level from media at 24 h was also measured via ELISA. Adipose tissue minces after resistin incubation (100 ng/mL, 24 h) were also collected for further Western blotting analysis. Resistin resulted in significant induction of glycerol (3.62±0.57 vs. 5.30±1.11 mmol/L/g tissue, p<0.05) and NEFA (5.99±1.06 vs. 8.48±1.57 mmol/L/g tissue, p<0.05) release at 24 h. H89 and PD98059 partially inhibited resistin induced glycerol and NEFA release, while SB201290 has no such effect. Resistin induced the phosphorylation of p-HSL at serine 563, PKA at ~62 kDa and ERK1/2 as measured by Western blotting. Resistin led to significant reduction of the secretion of adiponectin (38.16±10.43 vs. 21.81±4.21 ng/mL/g tissue, p<0.05). Our current findings implicate that resistin might play a significant role in obesity related pathologies in various tissues via its effect on adipose tissue function.

  15. The role of adipose protein derived hydrogels in adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Uriel, Shiri; Huang, Jung-Ju; Moya, Monica L; Francis, Megan E; Wang, Rui; Chang, Shu-Ying; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Brey, Eric M

    2008-09-01

    Biomaterials that induce adipogenesis may ultimately serve as alternatives to traditional tissue reconstruction and regeneration techniques. In addition, these materials can provide environments for studying factors that regulate adipogenesis. The present study investigates the potential of adipose-derived matrices to induce adipogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Solutions containing basement membrane proteins and growth factors were extracted from subcutaneous adipose tissue. These extracts could be induced to form gels by either incubating the solutions at 37 degrees C or adjusting the pH to 4.0. The adipose extracts promoted rapid preadipocyte aggregation and formation of lipid-loaded colonies in vitro. Differentiation on adipose-derived gels was greater than tissue culture dishes and the tumor-derived product Matrigel (p < 0.05). Significant adipose formation was observed when adipose-derived gels were implanted around a rat epigastric pedicle bundle. Adipose levels in these gels were significantly greater than Matrigel (p < 0.05). The duration of adipose formation depended on the mechanism for gelling the solutions, with acid gelled matrices having greater adipose levels at 6 weeks than temperature gelled matrices. These adipose-derived hydrogels promote rapid adipogenesis in vitro and in vivo. They may lead to new materials for adipose tissue engineering, and provide an environment for studying cell-matrix interactions in adipogenesis.

  16. Adipose Natural Killer Cells Regulate Adipose Tissue Macrophages to Promote Insulin Resistance in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Cheol; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Pae, Munkyong; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Eberlé, Delphine; Shimada, Takeshi; Kamei, Nozomu; Park, Hee-Sook; Sasorith, Souphatta; Woo, Ju Rang; You, Jia; Mosher, William; Brady, Hugh J M; Shoelson, Steven E; Lee, Jongsoon

    2016-04-12

    Obesity-induced inflammation mediated by immune cells in adipose tissue appears to participate in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. We show that natural killer (NK) cells in adipose tissue play an important role. High-fat diet (HFD) increases NK cell numbers and the production of proinflammatory cytokines, notably TNFα, in epididymal, but not subcutaneous, fat depots. When NK cells were depleted either with neutralizing antibodies or genetic ablation in E4bp4(+/-) mice, obesity-induced insulin resistance improved in parallel with decreases in both adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) numbers, and ATM and adipose tissue inflammation. Conversely, expansion of NK cells following IL-15 administration or reconstitution of NK cells into E4bp4(-/-) mice increased both ATM numbers and adipose tissue inflammation and exacerbated HFD-induced insulin resistance. These results indicate that adipose NK cells control ATMs as an upstream regulator potentially by producing proinflammatory mediators, including TNFα, and thereby contribute to the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance.

  17. Proteomic characterization of adipose tissue constituents, a necessary step for understanding adipose tissue complexity.

    PubMed

    Peinado, Juan R; Pardo, María; de la Rosa, Olga; Malagón, Maria M

    2012-02-01

    The original concept of adipose tissue as an inert storage depot for the excess of energy has evolved over the last years and it is now considered as one of the most important organs regulating body homeostasis. This conceptual change has been supported by the demonstration that adipose tissue serves as a major endocrine organ, producing a wide variety of bioactive molecules, collectively termed adipokines, with endocrine, paracrine and autocrine activities. Adipose tissue is indeed a complex organ wherein mature adipocytes coexist with the various cell types comprising the stromal-vascular fraction (SVF), including preadipocytes, adipose-derived stem cells, perivascular cells, and blood cells. It is known that not only mature adipocytes but also the components of SVF produce adipokines. Furthermore, adipokine production, proliferative and metabolic activities and response to regulatory signals (i.e. insulin, catecholamines) differ between the different fat depots, which have been proposed to underlie their distinct association to specific diseases. Herein, we discuss the recent proteomic studies on adipose tissue focused on the analysis of the separate cellular components and their secretory products, with the aim of identifying the basic features and the contribution of each component to different adipose tissue-associated pathologies.

  18. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material

    PubMed Central

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth.; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  19. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material.

    PubMed

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-11-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  20. [White adipose tissue dysfunction observed in obesity].

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Ewa; Zieliński, Andrzej

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a disease with continuingly increasing prevalence. It occurs worldwide independently of age group, material status or country of origin. At these times the most common reasons for obesity are bad eating habits and dramatic reduction of physical activity, which cause the energy imbalance of organism. Fundamental alteration observed in obese subjects is white adipose tissue overgrowth, which is linked to increased incidence of obesity-related comorbidities, such as: cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes or digestive tract diseases. What is more, obesity is also a risk factor for some cancers. Special risk for diseases linked to excessive weight is associated with overgrowth of visceral type of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue, which is the main energy storehouse in body and acts also as an endocrine organ, undergoes both the morphological and the functional changes in obesity, having a negative impact on whole body function. In this article we summarize the most important alterations in morphology and function of white adipose tissue, observed in obese subjects.

  1. Injectable Biomaterials for Adipose Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Young, D. Adam; Christman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineering has recently gained significant attention from materials scientists as a result of the exponential growth of soft tissue filler procedures being performed within the clinic. While several injectable materials are currently being marketed for filling subcutaneous voids, they often face limited longevity due to rapid resorption. Their inability to encourage natural adipose formation or ingrowth necessitates repeated injections for a prolonged effect, and thus classifies them as temporary fillers. As a result, a significant need for injectable materials that not only act as fillers, but also promote in vivo adipogenesis is beginning to be realized. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of commercially available soft tissue fillers. It will then summarize the current state of research using injectable synthetic materials, biopolymers, and extracellular matrix-derived materials for adipose tissue engineering. Furthermore, the successful attributes observed across each of these materials will be outlined along with a discussion of the current difficulties and future directions for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:22456805

  2. Does bariatric surgery improve adipose tissue function?

    PubMed

    Frikke-Schmidt, H; O'Rourke, R W; Lumeng, C N; Sandoval, D A; Seeley, R J

    2016-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Not only do these types of surgeries produce significant weight loss but also they improve insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolic function. The aim of this review is to explore how altered physiology of adipose tissue may contribute to the potent metabolic effects of some of these procedures. This includes specific effects on various fat depots, the function of individual adipocytes and the interaction between adipose tissue and other key metabolic tissues. Besides a dramatic loss of fat mass, bariatric surgery shifts the distribution of fat from visceral to the subcutaneous compartment favoring metabolic improvement. The sensitivity towards lipolysis controlled by insulin and catecholamines is improved, adipokine secretion is altered and local adipose inflammation as well as systemic inflammatory markers decreases. Some of these changes have been shown to be weight loss independent, and novel hypothesis for these effects includes include changes in bile acid metabolism, gut microbiota and central regulation of metabolism. In conclusion bariatric surgery is capable of improving aspects of adipose tissue function and do so in some cases in ways that are not entirely explained by the potent effect of surgery. © 2016 World Obesity.

  3. Correlates of adiposity among Latino preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood obesity is at record high levels in the US and disproportionately affects Latino children; however, studies examining Latino preschool children's obesity-related risk factors are sparse. This study determined correlates of Latino preschoolers' (ages 3-5 years) adiposity to inform future ob...

  4. [White adipose tissue dysfunction observed in obesity].

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Ewa; Zieliński, Andrzej

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a disease with continuingly increasing prevalence. It occurs worldwide independently of age group, material status or country of origin. At these times the most common reasons for obesity are bad eating habits and dramatic reduction of physical activity, which cause the energy imbalance of organism. Fundamental alteration observed in obese subjects is white adipose tissue overgrowth, which is linked to increased incidence of obesity-related comorbidities, such as: cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes or digestive tract diseases. What is more, obesity is also a risk factor for some cancers. Special risk for diseases linked to excessive weight is associated with overgrowth of visceral type of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue, which is the main energy storehouse in body and acts also as an endocrine organ, undergoes both the morphological and the functional changes in obesity, having a negative impact on whole body function. In this article we summarize the most important alterations in morphology and function of white adipose tissue, observed in obese subjects. PMID:27234867

  5. Sex dimorphism and depot differences in adipose tissue function.

    PubMed

    White, Ursula A; Tchoukalova, Yourka D

    2014-03-01

    Obesity, characterized by excessive adiposity, is a risk factor for many metabolic pathologies, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Numerous studies have shown that adipose tissue distribution may be a greater predictor of metabolic health. Upper-body fat (visceral and subcutaneous abdominal) is commonly associated with the unfavorable complications of obesity, while lower-body fat (gluteal-femoral) may be protective. Current research investigations are focused on analyzing the metabolic properties of adipose tissue, in order to better understand the mechanisms that regulate fat distribution in both men and women. This review will highlight the adipose tissue depot- and sex-dependent differences in white adipose tissue function, including adipogenesis, adipose tissue developmental patterning, the storage and release of fatty acids, and secretory function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Modulation of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease.

  6. The Comparison of Adipose Stem Cell and Placental Stem Cell in Secretion Characteristics and in Facial Antiaging

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Guo, Shilei; Wei, Cui; Li, Honglan; Chen, Lei; Yin, Chang; Zhang, Chuansen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mesenchymal stem cells are the most commonly used seed cells in biomedical research and tissue engineering. Their secretory proteins have also been proven to play an important role in tissue healing. Methods. We isolated adipose stem cells and placental stem cells and performed analysis examining characteristics. The secretory proteins were extracted from conditioned medium and analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF. The antiaging effect of conditioned mediums was evaluated by the results of facial skin application. Results. Adipose stem cells and placental stem cells were found to be very similar in their surface markers and multipotency. The specific proteins secreted from adipose stem cells were more adept at cell adhesion, migration, wound healing, and tissue remodeling, while the proteins secreted by placental stem cells were more adept at angiogenesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, cell survival, immunomodulation, and collagen degradation. While these two types of conditioned medium could improve the facial index, the improvement of Melanin index after injection of the adipose stem cell conditioned medium was much more significant. Conclusion. The results suggest that the secreted proteins are ideal cell-free substances for regeneration medicine, especially in the antiaging field. PMID:27057176

  7. The Comparison of Adipose Stem Cell and Placental Stem Cell in Secretion Characteristics and in Facial Antiaging.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Guo, Shilei; Wei, Cui; Li, Honglan; Chen, Lei; Yin, Chang; Zhang, Chuansen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mesenchymal stem cells are the most commonly used seed cells in biomedical research and tissue engineering. Their secretory proteins have also been proven to play an important role in tissue healing. Methods. We isolated adipose stem cells and placental stem cells and performed analysis examining characteristics. The secretory proteins were extracted from conditioned medium and analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF. The antiaging effect of conditioned mediums was evaluated by the results of facial skin application. Results. Adipose stem cells and placental stem cells were found to be very similar in their surface markers and multipotency. The specific proteins secreted from adipose stem cells were more adept at cell adhesion, migration, wound healing, and tissue remodeling, while the proteins secreted by placental stem cells were more adept at angiogenesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, cell survival, immunomodulation, and collagen degradation. While these two types of conditioned medium could improve the facial index, the improvement of Melanin index after injection of the adipose stem cell conditioned medium was much more significant. Conclusion. The results suggest that the secreted proteins are ideal cell-free substances for regeneration medicine, especially in the antiaging field. PMID:27057176

  8. Association between adiposity and systemic atherosclerosis: a protocol of a cross-sectional autopsy study

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Aline; Suemoto, Claudia Kimie; Farias, Daniela Souza; Campos, Fernanda Marinho; da Silva, Karen Cristina Souza; Cuelho, Anderson; Leite, Renata Elaine Paraízo; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata Eloah de Lucena; Grinberg, Lea Tenenholz; Farfel, José Marcelo; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adiposity has been associated with atherosclerosis in clinical studies. However, few autopsy studies have investigated this association, and they had only examined the coronary artery disease. Moreover, most studies had small sample sizes and were limited to middle-aged or young adults. Our aim is to investigate the association between adiposity and systemic atherosclerosis in an autopsy study. Methods and analysis A sample of 240 deceased with 30 years or more will be evaluated. The sample size was calculated using the lowest correlation coefficient found in previous studies (r=0.109), assuming a power of 90% and α=0.05. We will collect information about sociodemographics, frequency of previous contact of the deceased's next of kin and cardiovascular risk factors. We will measure neck, waist and hip circumferences, weight, height and abdominal subcutaneous tissue thickness, and then we will calculate the body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio and body shape index. We will also weigh the pericardial and abdominal visceral fat, the heart, and we will measure the left ventricular wall thickness. We will evaluate the presence of myocardial infarction, the degree of atherosclerosis in the aorta, carotid, coronary and cerebral arteries and plaque composition in carotid, coronary and cerebral arteries. For each individual, we will fix arterial and adipose tissue samples in 10% formalin and freeze another adipose tissue sample at −80°C for future studies. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted by the Ethics Committee of University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Brazil. Results will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. PMID:27621828

  9. Association between adiposity and systemic atherosclerosis: a protocol of a cross-sectional autopsy study

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Aline; Suemoto, Claudia Kimie; Farias, Daniela Souza; Campos, Fernanda Marinho; da Silva, Karen Cristina Souza; Cuelho, Anderson; Leite, Renata Elaine Paraízo; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata Eloah de Lucena; Grinberg, Lea Tenenholz; Farfel, José Marcelo; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adiposity has been associated with atherosclerosis in clinical studies. However, few autopsy studies have investigated this association, and they had only examined the coronary artery disease. Moreover, most studies had small sample sizes and were limited to middle-aged or young adults. Our aim is to investigate the association between adiposity and systemic atherosclerosis in an autopsy study. Methods and analysis A sample of 240 deceased with 30 years or more will be evaluated. The sample size was calculated using the lowest correlation coefficient found in previous studies (r=0.109), assuming a power of 90% and α=0.05. We will collect information about sociodemographics, frequency of previous contact of the deceased's next of kin and cardiovascular risk factors. We will measure neck, waist and hip circumferences, weight, height and abdominal subcutaneous tissue thickness, and then we will calculate the body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio and body shape index. We will also weigh the pericardial and abdominal visceral fat, the heart, and we will measure the left ventricular wall thickness. We will evaluate the presence of myocardial infarction, the degree of atherosclerosis in the aorta, carotid, coronary and cerebral arteries and plaque composition in carotid, coronary and cerebral arteries. For each individual, we will fix arterial and adipose tissue samples in 10% formalin and freeze another adipose tissue sample at −80°C for future studies. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted by the Ethics Committee of University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Brazil. Results will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal.

  10. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    Galic, Sandra; Oakhill, Jon S; Steinberg, Gregory R

    2010-03-25

    Obesity is characterized by increased storage of fatty acids in an expanded adipose tissue mass and is closely associated with the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle and the liver. In addition to being the largest source of fuel in the body, adipose tissue and resident macrophages are also the source of a number of secreted proteins. Cloning of the obese gene and the identification of its product, leptin, was one of the first discoveries of an adipocyte-derived signaling molecule and established an important role for adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Since then, leptin has been found to have a profound role in the regulation of whole-body metabolism by stimulating energy expenditure, inhibiting food intake and restoring euglycemia, however, in most cases of obesity leptin resistance limits its biological efficacy. In contrast to leptin, adiponectin secretion is often diminished in obesity. Adiponectin acts to increase insulin sensitivity, fatty acid oxidation, as well as energy expenditure and reduces the production of glucose by the liver. Resistin and retinol binding protein-4 are less well described. Their expression levels are positively correlated with adiposity and they are both implicated in the development of insulin resistance. More recently it has been acknowledged that macrophages are an important part of the secretory function of adipose tissue and the main source of inflammatory cyokines, such as TNFalpha and IL-6. An increase in circulating levels of these macrophage-derived factors in obesity leads to a chronic low-grade inflammatory state that has been linked to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. These proteins commonly known as adipokines are central to the dynamic control of energy metabolism, communicating the nutrient status of the organism with the tissues responsible for controlling both energy intake and expenditure as well as insulin sensitivity. PMID:19723556

  11. Premature adiposity rebound in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J J; Kelly, A; Ness, P; Dorosty, A R; Wallace, W H; Gibson, B E; Emmett, P M

    2001-06-01

    The adiposity rebound (AR), when body mass index begins to increase after its nadir in childhood, is a critical period for the regulation of energy balance and adult obesity risk. The aim of the present study was to test whether children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) experience premature AR. This might, in part, explain their tendency to develop obesity. Timing of AR was assessed by visual inspection of body mass index plots in 68 patients treated for ALL in first remission. This sample comprised all eligible patients treated in Scotland between 1991 and 1998, age 30 months or less at the time of diagnosis. Timing of AR in patients was compared against a cohort of 889 healthy British children studied during the 1990s using the same method. AR occurred significantly earlier in the patients treated for ALL (chi(2) test, P < 0.001). The AR had occurred in 43% (29 of 68) of the patients and 4% (40 of 889) of the comparison group by age 37 months. At 49 months AR had occurred in 81% (55 of 68) of the patients and 21% (190 of 889) of the comparison group. Treatment of ALL is associated with a significantly advanced AR. This might, in part, explain the extremely high prevalence of obesity in long-term survivors. Clinical management should focus on minimizing excess weight gain during therapy to reduce long-term obesity risk.

  12. Effects of adiposity on postural control and cognition.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hao; O'Connor, Daniel P; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S; Gorniak, Stacey L

    2016-01-01

    In the U.S., it is estimated that over one-third of adults are obese (Body Mass Index (BMI)>30kg/m(2)). Previous studies suggest that obesity may be associated with deficits in cognitive performance and postural control. Increased BMI may challenge cognitive and postural performance in a variety of populations; however, most relevant studies have classified participants based on BMI values, which cannot be used to accurately assess the effects of adiposity on cognitive performance and postural control. The objective of the current study was to examine motor and cognitive responses for overweight and obese adults compared to normal weight individuals by using both BMI and adiposity measures. Ten normal weight (BMI=18-24.9kg/m(2)), ten overweight (BMI=25-29.9kg/m(2)), and ten obese (BMI=30-40kg/m(2)) adults were evaluated (age: 24±4 years). Participants were classified into three groups based on BMI values at the onset of the study, prior to body composition analysis. Participants performed (1) working memory task while maintaining upright stance, and (2) a battery of sensorimotor evaluations. Working memory reaction times, response accuracy, center-of-pressure (COP) path length, velocity, migration area, time to boundary values in anterior-posterior direction, and ankle-hip strategy-scores were calculated to evaluate cognitive-motor performance. No significant deficits in working memory performance were observed. Overall, measures of motor function deteriorated as BMI and body fat percentage increased. The relationship between deteriorating postural performance indices and body fat percentage were greater than those found between BMI and postural performance indices.

  13. Human adipose tissue expresses intrinsic circadian rhythm in insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Benso, Maria P; Rivero-Gutierrez, Belen; Lopez-Minguez, Jesus; Anzola, Andrea; Diez-Noguera, Antoni; Madrid, Juan A; Lujan, Juan A; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Scheer, Frank A J L; Garaulet, Marta

    2016-09-01

    In humans, insulin sensitivity varies according to time of day, with decreased values in the evening and at night. Mechanisms responsible for the diurnal variation in insulin sensitivity are unclear. We investigated whether human adipose tissue (AT) expresses intrinsic circadian rhythms in insulin sensitivity that could contribute to this phenomenon. Subcutaneous and visceral AT biopsies were obtained from extremely obese participants (body mass index, 41.8 ± 6.3 kg/m(2); 46 ± 11 y) during gastric-bypass surgery. To assess the rhythm in insulin signaling, AKT phosphorylation was determined every 4 h over 24 h in vitro in response to different insulin concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 100 nM). Data revealed that subcutaneous AT exhibited robust circadian rhythms in insulin signaling (P < 0.00001). Insulin sensitivity reached its maximum (acrophase) around noon, being 54% higher than during midnight (P = 0.009). The amplitude of the rhythm was positively correlated with in vivo sleep duration (r = 0.53; P = 0.023) and negatively correlated with in vivo bedtime (r = -0.54; P = 0.020). No circadian rhythms were detected in visceral AT (P = 0.643). Here, we demonstrate the relevance of the time of the day for how sensitive AT is to the effects of insulin. Subcutaneous AT shows an endogenous circadian rhythm in insulin sensitivity that could provide an underlying mechanism for the daily rhythm in systemic insulin sensitivity.-Carrasco-Benso, M. P., Rivero-Gutierrez, B., Lopez-Minguez, J., Anzola, A., Diez-Noguera, A., Madrid, J. A., Lujan, J. A., Martínez-Augustin, O., Scheer, F. A. J. L., Garaulet, M. Human adipose tissue expresses intrinsic circadian rhythm in insulin sensitivity.

  14. Longitudinal changes in objectively measured sedentary behaviour and their relationship with adiposity in children and adolescents: systematic review and evidence appraisal.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, C; Reilly, J J; Huang, W Y

    2014-10-01

    This review aimed to determine longitudinal changes in objectively measured overall sedentary behaviour, and to examine their associations with adiposity in children and adolescents. A search for longitudinal studies was performed using several electronic databases. Of 161 potentially eligible papers, 10 for change in sedentary behaviour and 3 for longitudinal associations with change in adiposity were included. Weighted mean increase in daily sedentary behaviour per year was 5.7% for boys and 5.8% for girls. Only one paper included preschool children, and it showed a decrease in sedentary behaviour. Nine studies were from Western countries. Null associations were reported between sedentary behaviour and adiposity in two studies, the other found that increases in sedentary behaviour were associated with increases in adiposity, but only in those with body mass index above the 50th percentile. There was consistent evidence that sedentary behaviour increases with age in school-age children and adolescents, by approximately 30 min extra daily sedentary behaviour per year. There was little evidence on the influence of changes in sedentary behaviour on changes in adiposity. There is a need for more longitudinal research, for more evidence from outside the Western world, and for more studies that examine 'dose-response' associations between changes in sedentary behaviour and changes in adiposity.

  15. Obesity-associated proinflammatory cytokines increase calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) protein expression in primary human adipocytes and LS14 human adipose cell line.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Mariana; Fuentes, Cecilia; Mattar, Pamela; Tobar, Nicolas; Hugo, Eric; Ben-Jonathan, Nira; Rojas, Cecilia; Martínez, Jorge

    2010-08-15

    Obesity-associated health complications are thought to be in part due to the low-grade proinflammatory state that characterizes this disease. The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), which is expressed in human adipose cells, plays an important role in diseases involving inflammation. To assess the relevance of this protein in adipose pathophysiology, we evaluated its expression in adipocytes under obesity-related proinflammatory conditions. As in primary adipose cells, we established that LS14, a recently described human adipose cell line, expresses the CaSR. Differentiated LS14 and primary adipose cells were exposed overnight to cytokines typically involved in obesity-related inflammation (interleukin (IL)1beta, IL6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha). The cytokines increased CaSR abundance in differentiated adipocytes. We incubated LS14 cells with medium previously conditioned (CM) by adipose tissue from subjects with a wide range of body mass index (BMI). Cells exposed to CM from subjects of higher BMI underwent a greater increase in CaSR protein, likely resulting from the greater proinflammatory cytokines secreted from obese tissue. Our observations that proinflammatory factors increase CaSR levels in adipocytes, and the reported ability of CaSR to elevate cytokine levels, open new aspects in the study of obesity inflammatory state pathophysiology, providing a potential novel therapeutic prevention and treatment target.

  16. Gene-centric meta-analyses for central adiposity traits in up to 57 412 individuals of European descent confirm known loci and reveal several novel associations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are surrogate measures of central adiposity that are associated with adverse cardiovascular events, type 2 diabetes and cancer independent of body mass index (BMI). WC and WHR are highly heritable with multiple susceptibility loci identified to d...

  17. Is the adiposity-associated FTO gene variant related to all-cause mortality independent of adiposity? Meta-analysis of data from 169,551 Caucasian adults

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, S. S.; Zhao, J. H.; Chasman, D. I.; Fischer, K.; Qi, Q.; Smith, A. V.; Thinggaard, M.; Jarczok, M. N.; Nalls, M. A.; Trompet, S.; Timpson, N. J.; Schmidt, B.; Jackson, A. U.; Lyytikäinen, L. P.; Verweij, N.; Mueller-Nurasyid, M.; Vikström, M.; Marques-Vidal, P.; Wong, A.; Meidtner, K.; Middelberg, R. P.; Strawbridge, R. J.; Christiansen, L.; Kyvik, K. O.; Hamsten, A.; Jääskeläinen, T.; Tjønneland, A.; Eriksson, J. G.; Whitfield, J. B.; Boeing, H.; Hardy, R.; Vollenweider, P.; Leander, K.; Peters, A.; van der Harst, P.; Kumari, M.; Lehtimäki, T.; Meirhaeghe, A.; Tuomilehto, J.; Jöckel, K.-H.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Sattar, N.; Baumeister, S. E.; Smith, G. Davey; Casas, J. P.; Houston, D. K.; März, W.; Christensen, K.; Gudnason, V.; Hu, F. B.; Metspalu, A.; Ridker, P. M.; Wareham, N. J.; Loos, R. J. F.; Tiemeier, H.; Sonestedt, E.; Sørensen, T. I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the FTO gene showed a much stronger association with all-cause mortality than expected from its association with body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (FMI) and waist circumference (WC). This finding implies that the SNP has strong pleiotropic effects on adiposity and adiposity-independent pathological pathways that leads to increased mortality. To investigate this further, we conducted a meta-analysis of similar data from 34 longitudinal studies including 169,551 adult Caucasians among whom 27,100 died during follow-up. Linear regression showed that the minor allele of the FTO SNP was associated with greater BMI (n = 169,551; 0.32 kg m−2; 95% CI 0.28–0.32, P < 1 × 10−32), WC (n = 152,631; 0.76 cm; 0.68–0.84, P < 1 × 10−32) and FMI (n = 48,192; 0.17 kg m−2; 0.13–0.22, P = 1.0 × 10−13). Cox proportional hazard regression analyses for mortality showed that the hazards ratio (HR) for the minor allele of the FTO SNPs was 1.02 (1.00–1.04, P = 0.097), but the apparent excess risk was eliminated after adjustment for BMI and WC (HR: 1.00; 0.98–1.03, P = 0.662) and for FMI (HR: 1.00; 0.96–1.04, P = 0.932). In conclusion, this study does not support that the FTO SNP is associated with all-cause mortality independently of the adiposity phenotypes. PMID:25752329

  18. Relationships between Rodent White Adipose Fat Pads and Human White Adipose Fat Depots

    PubMed Central

    Chusyd, Daniella E.; Wang, Donghai; Huffman, Derek M.; Nagy, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue (WAT) development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of WAT. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent WAT as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat. PMID:27148535

  19. NPY antagonism reduces adiposity and attenuates age-related imbalance of adipose tissue metabolism.

    PubMed

    Park, Seongjoon; Fujishita, Chika; Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Kim, Sang Eun; Chiba, Takuya; Mori, Ryoichi; Shimokawa, Isao

    2014-12-01

    An orexigenic hormone, neuropeptide Y (NPY), plays a role not only in the hypothalamic regulation of appetite, but also in the peripheral regulation of lipid metabolism. However, the intracellular mechanisms triggered by NPY to regulate lipid metabolism are poorly understood. Here we report that NPY deficiency reduces white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and ameliorates the age-related imbalance of adipose tissue metabolism in mice. Gene expression involved in adipogenesis/lipogenesis was found to decrease, whereas proteins involved in lipolysis increased in gonadal WAT (gWAT) of NPY-knockout mice. These changes were associated with an activated SIRT1- and PPARγ-mediated pathway. Moreover, the age-related decrease of de novo lipogenesis in gWAT and thermogenesis in inguinal WAT was inhibited by NPY deficiency. Further analysis using 3T3-L1 cells showed that NPY inhibited lipolysis through the Y1 receptor and enhanced lipogenesis following a reduction in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and SIRT1 protein expression. Therefore, NPY appears to act as a key regulator of adipose tissue metabolism via the CREB-SIRT1 signaling pathway. Taken together, NPY deficiency reduces adiposity and ameliorates the age-related imbalance of adipose tissue metabolism, suggesting that antagonism of NPY may be a promising target for drug development to prevent age-related metabolic diseases.

  20. Android Adiposity and Lack of Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity Are Associated With Insulin Resistance and Diabetes in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Snih, Soham; Serra-Rexach, José A.; Burant, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background. Physical inactivity and excess adiposity are thought to be interdependent “lifestyle” factors and thus, many older adults are at exaggerated risk for preventable diseases. The purposes of this study were to determine the degree of discordance between body mass index (BMI) and adiposity among adults older than 50 years, and to determine the extent to which direct measures of adiposity, and objectively measured sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) are associated with insulin resistance (IR) or diabetes. Methods. A population representative sample of 2,816 individuals, aged 50–85 years, was included from the combined 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. BMI, percent body fat (%BF) and android adiposity as determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, objectively measured SB and PA, established markers of cardiometabolic risk, IR, and type 2 diabetes were analyzed. Results. Approximately 50% of the men and 64% of the women who were normal weight according to BMI had excessive %BF. Adults with the least SB and greatest moderate and vigorous PA exhibited the healthiest cardiometabolic profiles, whereas adults with the greatest SB and lowest activity had highest risk. Greater android adiposity stores were robustly associated with IR or diabetes in all adults, independent of SB and activity. Among men, less moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with IR or diabetes; whereas among women, less lifestyle moderate activity was associated with IR or diabetes. Conclusions. Android adiposity and low moderate and vigorous PA are the strongest predictors of IR or diabetes among aging adults. PMID:25711528

  1. n3 PUFAs do not affect adipose tissue inflammation in overweight to moderately obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Mario; Kuzma, Jessica N; Hagman, Derek K; van Yserloo, Brian; Matthys, Colleen C; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have indicated that omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decrease adipose tissue inflammation in rodents and in morbidly obese humans. We investigated whether a diet rich in n3 PUFAs from both marine and plant sources reduces adipose tissue and systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese adults. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, parallel-design, placebo-controlled feeding trial. Healthy men and women with a body mass index between 28 and 33 kg/m(2) consumed a diet rich in n3 PUFAs (3.5% of energy intake; n = 11) from plant and marine sources or a control diet (0.5% of energy intake from n3 PUFAs; n = 13). These diets were consumed for 14 wk (ad libitum for 12 wk). All foods were provided for the entire study period. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and fasting plasma were collected after the first 2 wk with the control diet and again at the end of the 14-wk dietary period. The primary outcome of this ex post analysis was the adipose tissue gene expression of 13 key mediators of inflammation. Adipose tissue gene expression of inflammatory mediators did not differ between the 2 groups, after adjustment for weight change. Furthermore, none of the 5 plasma markers of systemic inflammation differed significantly as an effect of diet treatment. We conclude that a relatively high dose of n3 PUFAs from plant and marine sources did not significantly lower adipose tissue or systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese healthy men and women over 14 wk.

  2. A Comprehensive Analysis of Common and Rare Variants to Identify Adiposity Loci in Hispanic Americans: The IRAS Family Study (IRASFS).

    PubMed

    Gao, Chuan; Wang, Nan; Guo, Xiuqing; Ziegler, Julie T; Taylor, Kent D; Xiang, Anny H; Hai, Yang; Kridel, Steven J; Nadler, Jerry L; Kandeel, Fouad; Raffel, Leslie J; Chen, Yii-Der I; Norris, Jill M; Rotter, Jerome I; Watanabe, Richard M; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Bowden, Donald W; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Goodarzi, Mark O; Langefeld, Carl D; Palmer, Nicholette D

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is growing epidemic affecting 35% of adults in the United States. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci associated with obesity. However, the majority of studies have been completed in Caucasians focusing on total body measures of adiposity. Here we report the results from genome-wide and exome chip association studies focusing on total body measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF) and measures of fat deposition including waist circumference (WAIST), waist-hip ratio (WHR), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in Hispanic Americans (nmax = 1263) from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). Five SNPs from two novel loci attained genome-wide significance (P<5.00x10-8) in IRASFS. A missense SNP in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) was associated with WAIST (rs34218846, MAF = 6.8%, PDOM = 1.62x10-8). This protein is postulated to play an important role in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis as demonstrated in cell and knock-out animal models. Four correlated intronic SNPs in the Zinc finger, GRF-type containing 1 gene (ZGRF1; SNP rs1471880, MAF = 48.1%, PDOM = 1.00x10-8) were strongly associated with WHR. The exact biological function of ZGRF1 and the connection with adiposity remains unclear. SNPs with p-values less than 5.00x10-6 from IRASFS were selected for replication. Meta-analysis was computed across seven independent Hispanic-American cohorts (nmax = 4156) and the strongest signal was rs1471880 (PDOM = 8.38x10-6) in ZGRF1 with WAIST. In conclusion, a genome-wide and exome chip association study was conducted that identified two novel loci (IDH1 and ZGRF1) associated with adiposity. While replication efforts were inconclusive, when taken together with the known biology, IDH1 and ZGRF1 warrant further evaluation.

  3. Behavior of BaBr2, BaI2, and BaCl2 at high pressure as analogs to SiO2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, T. J.; Stackhouse, S.; Diamond, M. R.; Godwal, B. K.; Jeanloz, R.

    2015-12-01

    Motivated by the expectation that giant and supergiant planets likely contain rocky components in their cores, we study analogs of the archetypal rock constituent, SiO2. The crystal structures of SiO2 under ultra-high pressures, greater than feasible experimental conditions, are believed to be documented by the high pressure structural sequence of AX2 compounds. Experimental and theoretical work agree on a high pressure transition to the cotunnite (orthorhombic) phase, with first-principles theory predicting that SiO2 transforms to the cotunnite structure at 750 GPa. However, the existence of a postcotunnite (monoclinic) phase as the final high pressure polymorph, suggested by X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments on ambient pressure cotunnite-structured AX2 compounds (e.g. PbCl2, SnCl2), has been challenged by density-functional theory (DFT) computations. This disagreement could perhaps be due to sensitivity in diamond-anvil cell (DAC) experiments to pressure gradients; conversely, it could perhaps arise from limitations of DFT. This study further explores both the experimental and theoretical sides of this debate, with an aim to resolve this discrepancy. We present synchrotron XRD data on the AX2 compounds BaCl2, BaBr2, and BaI2, compressed up to 70 GPa at room temperature in a DAC. Here we compare our experimentally observed crystallography and equations of state with results from our DFT simulations.

  4. Effect of periphyton community structure on heavy metal accumulation in mystery snail (Cipangopaludina chinensis): a case study of the Bai River, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jingguo; Shan, Baoqing; Tang, Wenzhong

    2012-01-01

    The ratio of metal:P stoichiometry was used to identify the accumulation pathways of heavy metals (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) from periphyton to snails Cipangopaludina chinensis Gray (C. chinensis) in the Bai River watershed. The results showed that periphyton communities were mainly composed of two types of algae, filamentous green algae and unicellular diatoms. The proportion of unicellular diatoms in the periphyton community is a key factor that influences metal accumulation in C. chinensis. The V, Cr, Co, Ni, and Cd content of C. chinensis increased steadily as the corresponding metal content of periphyton increased, but Cu and Pb in the snail did not increase in the periphyton. Mechanisms of V, Cr, and Ni accumulation were found to be related to the proportion of diatoms, while Cd and Pb accumulation were dependent on the physiological characteristics of C. chinensis. The accumulation of Cu in C. chinensis was closely related to their grazing behavior. The metal: P stoichiometry revealed that Cr, Ni, and Cd can reduce the potential ecological risks associated with increased P inputs to the ecosystem. V and Co were considered to be relatively safe, regardless of the periphyton P content. Finally, Pb may not be prone to transfer to higher trophic levels, and may pose the lowest ecological risks of the studied heavy metals, but Cu can cause potential ecological risks when eutrophication has occurred.

  5. Effect of periphyton community structure on heavy metal accumulation in mystery snail (Cipangopaludina chinensis): a case study of the Bai River, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jingguo; Shan, Baoqing; Tang, Wenzhong

    2012-01-01

    The ratio of metal:P stoichiometry was used to identify the accumulation pathways of heavy metals (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) from periphyton to snails Cipangopaludina chinensis Gray (C. chinensis) in the Bai River watershed. The results showed that periphyton communities were mainly composed of two types of algae, filamentous green algae and unicellular diatoms. The proportion of unicellular diatoms in the periphyton community is a key factor that influences metal accumulation in C. chinensis. The V, Cr, Co, Ni, and Cd content of C. chinensis increased steadily as the corresponding metal content of periphyton increased, but Cu and Pb in the snail did not increase in the periphyton. Mechanisms of V, Cr, and Ni accumulation were found to be related to the proportion of diatoms, while Cd and Pb accumulation were dependent on the physiological characteristics of C. chinensis. The accumulation of Cu in C. chinensis was closely related to their grazing behavior. The metal: P stoichiometry revealed that Cr, Ni, and Cd can reduce the potential ecological risks associated with increased P inputs to the ecosystem. V and Co were considered to be relatively safe, regardless of the periphyton P content. Finally, Pb may not be prone to transfer to higher trophic levels, and may pose the lowest ecological risks of the studied heavy metals, but Cu can cause potential ecological risks when eutrophication has occurred. PMID:23520840

  6. Intrauterine Programming of Diabetes and Adiposity.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Ashutosh Singh; Tallapragada, Divya Sri Priyanka; Nongmaithem, Suraj Singh; Shrestha, Smeeta; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of diabetes and adiposity has increased at an alarming rate and together they contribute to the rise in morbidity and mortality worldwide. Genetic studies till date have succeeded in explaining only a proportion of heritability, while a major component remains unexplained. Early life determinants of future risk of these diseases are likely contributors to the missing heritability and thus have a significant potential in disease prevention. Epidemiological and animal studies show the importance of intrauterine and early postnatal environment in programming of the fetus to adverse metabolic outcomes and support the notion of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Emerging evidence highlights the role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating effects of environmental exposures, which in certain instances may exhibit intergenerational transmission even in the absence of exposure. In this article, we will discuss the complexity of diabetes and increased adiposity and mechanisms of programming of these adverse metabolic conditions.

  7. [New insights into adipose cell biology].

    PubMed

    Dugail, I

    2004-03-01

    During the last past Years, obesity had become a major public health problem, and new aspects of fat cells biology have been unraveled. First, since the discovery of leptin, adipocytes have been recognized as true endocrine cells secreting a variety of factors in a regulated manner. The role of these factors on the development of obesity-associated metabolic complications is becoming increasingly clear. Also, the process of fat cell differentiation has been uncovered, leading to the possibility of efficient targeting protein expression in adipose tIssue. Finally, lines of transgenic mice have been created, some of which are totally resistant to obesity. These models led to the identification of new potential adipose targets for the treatment of obesity.

  8. [Cancer cachexia and white adipose tissue browning].

    PubMed

    Zhang, S T; Yang, H M

    2016-08-01

    Cancer cachexia occurs in a majority of advanced cancer patients. These patients with impaired physical function are unable to tolerance cancer treatment well and have a significantly reduced survival rate. Currently, there is no effective clinical treatment available for cancer cachexia, therefore, it is necessary to clarify the molecular mechanisms of cancer cachexia, moreover, new therapeutic targets for cancer cachexia treatment are urgently needed. Very recent studies suggest that, during cancer cachexia, white adipose tissue undergo a 'browning' process, resulting in increased lipid mobilization and energy expenditure, which may be necessary for the occurrence of cancer cachexia. In this article, we summarize the definition and characteristics of cancer cachexia and adipose tissue 'browning', then, we discuss the new study directions presented in latest research. PMID:27531474

  9. Intrauterine Programming of Diabetes and Adiposity.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Ashutosh Singh; Tallapragada, Divya Sri Priyanka; Nongmaithem, Suraj Singh; Shrestha, Smeeta; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of diabetes and adiposity has increased at an alarming rate and together they contribute to the rise in morbidity and mortality worldwide. Genetic studies till date have succeeded in explaining only a proportion of heritability, while a major component remains unexplained. Early life determinants of future risk of these diseases are likely contributors to the missing heritability and thus have a significant potential in disease prevention. Epidemiological and animal studies show the importance of intrauterine and early postnatal environment in programming of the fetus to adverse metabolic outcomes and support the notion of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Emerging evidence highlights the role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating effects of environmental exposures, which in certain instances may exhibit intergenerational transmission even in the absence of exposure. In this article, we will discuss the complexity of diabetes and increased adiposity and mechanisms of programming of these adverse metabolic conditions. PMID:26349437

  10. Associations of age, adiposity, menopause, and alcohol intake with low-density lipoprotein subclasses.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Krauss, R M

    1997-06-01

    We used nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the associations of age, adiposity, menopause, and alcohol intake with LDL subclasses in 355 individuals. The absorbency of protein stain was used as an index of mass concentrations at intervals of 0.05 nm within seven LDL subclasses: LDL-IVB (22.0 to 23.2 nm), LDL-IVA (23.3 to 24.1 nm), LDL-IIIB (24.2 to 24.6 nm), LDL-IIIA (24.7 to 25.5 nm), LDL-II (25.5 to 26.4 nm), LDL-I (26.0 to 28.5 nm), and intermediate-size lipoproteins (ISL, 28.0 to 32.0 nm). Age and alcohol intake were obtained from questionnaires, and body mass index was computed from clinic measurements of weight and height. In adult men, body mass index correlated positively with LDL-III, and alcohol intake correlated positively with larger LDL-I. Age was positively correlated with LDL-IIIA and ISL in both men and women and with LDL-IIIB and LDL-II in women. Postmenopausal women had higher LDL-IIIA, LDL-II, and ISL than both premenopausal and premenarchal females. Adult males, > or = 18 years old, had higher levels of LDL-IIIA and LDL-II than younger males. Adjustment for fasting plasma triglyceride levels eliminated the significant associations between age and LDL-IIIA in both men and women and between age and LDL-II in women. Partial correlation analyses showed that reductions in the LDL peak diameter associated with increasing age, male sexual maturation, menopause, and adiposity are attributable to increases in the LDL-IIIA subclass. Thus, densitometric measurements of protein-stained gradient gels reveal specific relationships between LDL subclasses and age, adiposity, and alcohol intake beyond those identified by the LDL peak or average diameter.

  11. Measurements of body fat distribution: assessment of collinearity with body mass, adiposity and height in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and height, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. METHODS : A controlled cross-sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 with normal weight, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 with normal weight and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central (CS) and peripheral skinfolds (PS). The BF% was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. RESULTS : The increase in central fat, represented by WC, UC, WHtR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase in peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh circumference were proportional to the increase in BMI and BF%. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The height showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being fair or weak with waist measurements. CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, as it showed the highest capacity to predict adiposity in each group, and also showed fair or weak correlation with height. PMID:25623729

  12. Aquaglyceroporins: implications in adipose biology and obesity.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Ana; Moura, Teresa F; Soveral, Graça

    2015-02-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane water/glycerol channels that are involved in many physiological processes. Their primary function is to facilitate the bidirectional transfer of water and small solutes across biological membranes in response to osmotic gradients. Aquaglyceroporins, a subset of the AQP family, are the only mammalian proteins with the ability to permeate glycerol. For a long time, AQP7 has been the only aquaglyceroporin associated with the adipose tissue, which is the major source of circulating glycerol in response to the energy demand. AQP7 dysregulation was positively correlated with obesity onset and adipocyte glycerol permeation through AQP7 was appointed as a novel regulator of adipocyte metabolism and whole-body fat mass. Recently, AQP3, AQP9, AQP10 and AQP11 were additionally identified in human adipocytes and proposed as additional glycerol pathways in these cells. This review contextualizes the importance of aquaglyceroporins in adipose tissue biology and highlights aquaglyceroporins' unique structural features which are relevant for the design of effective therapeutic compounds. We also refer to the latest advances in the identification and characterization of novel aquaporin isoforms in adipose tissue. Finally, considerations on the actual progress of aquaporin research and its implications on obesity therapy are suggested. PMID:25359234

  13. Increased Adipose Protein Carbonylation in Human Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Frohnert, Brigitte I.; Sinaiko, Alan R.; Serrot, Federico J.; Foncea, Rocio E.; Moran, Antoinette; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Choudry, Umar; Bernlohr, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is associated with obesity but mechanisms controlling this relationship in humans are not fully understood. Studies in animal models suggest a linkage between adipose reactive oxygen species (ROS) and insulin resistance. ROS oxidize cellular lipids to produce a variety of lipid hydroperoxides that in turn generate reactive lipid aldehydes that covalently modify cellular proteins in a process termed carbonylation. Mammalian cells defend against reactive lipid aldehydes and protein carbonylation by glutathionylation using glutathione-S-transferase A4 (GSTA4) or carbonyl reduction/oxidation via reductases and/or dehydrogenases. Insulin resistance in mice is linked to ROS production and increased level of protein carbonylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased insulin-stimulated glucose transport, and altered adipokine secretion. To assess protein carbonylation and insulin resistance in humans, eight healthy participants underwent subcutaneous fat biopsy from the periumbilical region for protein analysis and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing to measure insulin sensitivity. Soluble proteins from adipose tissue were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the major carbonylated proteins identified as the adipocyte and epithelial fatty acid–binding proteins. The level of protein carbonylation was directly correlated with adiposity and serum free fatty acids (FFAs). These results suggest that in human obesity oxidative stress is linked to protein carbonylation and such events may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. PMID:21593812

  14. Regulation of adipose cell development in utero.

    PubMed

    Martin, R J; Hausman, G J; Hausman, D B

    1998-12-01

    The condition of obesity is impacted by increases in fat cell number, fat cell size, or a combination of the two. It is generally believed that fat cell number is dependent on the age of onset and the degree of obesity. This review provides an update on intrauterine growth of fetal adipose tissue, the earliest period of proliferation onset, and the factors that interact to enhance or suppress development. Fetal adipose tissue development is regulated by the complex interaction of maternal, endocrine, and paracrine influences that initiate specific changes in angiogenesis, adipogenesis, and metabolism. Developmental stages and metabolic processes influenced by specific hormones and paracrine factors have been identified through examination of the offspring of obese and diabetic pregnancies, hormonal manipulation during late pregnancy in animal models, and the use of cell culture. Collectively, the results of the studies cited herein delineate the basis for imprinting or conditioning of fetal preadipocytes at the paracrine/autocrine level and a role of thyroxine, glucocorticoids, and other hormones in fetal adipose tissue development and metabolism.

  15. Neck Circumference as a Predictor of Adiposity among Healthy and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nayera E.; Atef, Abeer; El-Masry, Sahar A.; Ibrahim, Amany; Shady, Mones M. Abu; Al-Tohamy, Muhammad; Kamel, Iman H.; Elashry, Galal Ismail Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity, particularly in the upper part of body, is a major health problem. Because body mass index (BMI) does not adequately describe regional adiposity, other indices of body fatness are being explored. OBJECTIVES: To determine if neck circumference is a valid measure of adiposity (fat distribution) among group of Egyptian children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a cross sectional study, included 50 obese subjects, aged 7 - 12 years recruited from Endocrine, obesity and Metabolism Pediatric Unit at Children Hospital, Cairo University and 50 healthy children, age and sex matched. All children were subjected to blood pressure assessment (systolic SBP and diastolic DBP), and anthropometric assessment (body weight, height, neck circumference (NC), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, and skin fold thicknesses at three sites: biceps, triceps and sub scapular. BMI [weight (kg)/height (m2)] was calculated. RESULTS: In healthy females, significant associations were detected between NC and SBP, DBP and all anthropometric measurements. However, in healthy males NC was not significantly associated with BMI, SBP and DBP. In the obese group; both sexes; insignificant association was found between NC and SBP, DBP, BMI and skinfold thickness. CONCLUSION: NC is related to fat distribution among normal healthy female children. However, this relation disappears with increasing adiposity. The results do not support the use of NC as a useful screening tool for childhood obesity. PMID:27275287

  16. Dioxins and dibenzofurans in adipose tissue of US Vietnam veterans and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, H.K.; Watanabe, K.K.; Breen, J.; Remmers, J.; Conomos, M.G.; Stanley, J.; Flicker, M. )

    1991-03-01

    The primary reason for concern about the adverse effects of exposure to Agent Orange is attributable to its toxic contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or dioxin. We studied adipose tissues from 36 Vietnam veterans, a similar group of 79 non-Vietnam veterans, and 80 civilians; the tissue specimens were selected from the 8,000 archived tissues collected from the non-institutionalized general population by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The geometric mean (+/- standard deviation) dioxin levels in adipose tissue for Vietnam veterans, non-Vietnam veterans, and civilian controls were 11.7 (+/- 1.7), 10.9 (+/- 1.7), and 12.4 (+/- 1.9) parts per trillion on a lipid weight basis, respectively. The mean levels for these groups were not significantly different from each other with or without adjustment for age of individuals, body mass index, and specimen collection year. In addition, none of the surrogate measures of Agent Orange exposure such as military branch, service within specific geographic region, military occupation, and troop location in relation to recorded Agent Orange spray was associated with the dioxin levels in adipose tissue of Vietnam veterans. Our results suggest that heavy exposure to Agent Orange or dioxin for most US troops was unlikely.

  17. Lower socioeconomic status, adiposity and negative health behaviours in youth: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Sarah; Manlhiot, Cedric; Tyrrell, Pascal N; Dobbin, Stafford; Gibson, Don; Chahal, Nita; Stearne, Karen; Fisher, Amanda; McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-01-01

    Objective Understanding obesity and its modifiable risk factors in youth is key to addressing the burden of cardiovascular disease later in life. Our aim was to examine the associations among adiposity, negative health behaviours and socioeconomic status in youth from the Niagara Region. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional observational study of 3467 grade 9 students during their mandatory health and physical education class to investigate the association between socioeconomic status (postal code), self-reported health behaviour and adiposity in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. Results Median household income was $63 696 and overall percentage below the after-tax low-income cut-off was 4.2%. Negative health behaviours (especially skipped meals, lower fruit and vegetable consumption, higher screen time) were associated with lower income neighbourhoods, however, the absolute effect was small. Those participants in the lowest income quintile had a significantly greater body mass index z-score than those in the highest (0.72±1.19 vs 0.53±1.12), but the overall trend across quintiles was not statistically significant. A similar trend was noted for waist-to-height ratio. The lowest income neighbourhoods according to after-tax low-income cut-off had small but statistically significant associations with higher adiposity compared with the middle or highest income neighbourhoods. Conclusions Obesity prevention efforts should target modifiable behaviours, with particular attention to adolescents from lower income families and neighbourhoods. PMID:25986642

  18. Association between Hair Cortisol Concentration and Adiposity Measures among Children and Parents from the “Healthy Start” Study

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Olsen, Nanna J.; Heitmann, Berit L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested a direct association between hair cortisol concentration (HCC) and Body Mass Index (BMI), as well as other adiposity measures. However, these studies have mostly been conducted among adult populations. Objective To examine the association between HCC and different measures of adiposity among a selected group of children predisposed to obesity and their parents. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 363 children and their parents (301 mothers and 231 fathers) participating in the “Healthy Start” study. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations between HCC and adiposity measures while taking into account possible confounding factors. Analyses were performed examining the association between HCC and BMI, fat mass and fat free mass index Z-scores, as well as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio among the children. Likewise, the association between HCC and BMI among the parents was explored. Finally, we examined the association between parental HCC and children’s adiposity measures. Results HCC was directly associated with a higher BMI among the fathers (0.49 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.09, 0.90, P = 0.02] per 100 pg/mg) and the mothers (0.93 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.24, 1.61, P = 0.01] per 100 pg/mg). We found no clear evidence of an association between HCC and adiposity measures among children. However, a high maternal HCC was associated with a high fat mass index and low fat free mass index z-score in the offspring (0.14 SD [95% CI: 0.02, 0.26, P = 0.02] and -0.17 SD [95% CI: -0.30, -0.05, P = 0.01] per 100 pg/mg, respectively). Conclusions Our study found no evidence of an association between HCC and measures of adiposity among children predisposed to obesity. However, HCC may be directly associated with BMI among men and women, and maternal HCC may be related to a higher fat mass and a lower fat free mass among their children. PMID:27662656

  19. Macrophage elastase suppresses white adipose tissue expansion with cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takao; Kelly, Neil J; Takahashi, Saeko; Leme, Adriana S; Houghton, A McGarry; Shapiro, Steven D

    2014-12-01

    Macrophage elastase (MMP12) is a key mediator of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, yet its role in other smoking related pathologies remains unclear. The weight suppressing effects of smoking are a major hindrance to cessation efforts, and MMP12 is known to suppress the vascularization on which adipose tissue growth depends by catalyzing the formation of antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. The goal of this study was to determine the role of MMP12 in adipose tissue growth and smoking-related suppression of weight gain. Whole body weights and white adipose depots from wild-type and Mmp12-deficient mice were collected during early postnatal development and after chronic CS exposure. Adipose tissue specimens were analyzed for angiogenic and adipocytic markers and for content of the antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. Cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with adipose tissue homogenate to examine its effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and secretion. MMP12 content and activity were increased in the adipose tissue of wild-type mice at 2 weeks of age, leading to elevated endostatin production, inhibition of VEGF secretion, and decreased adipose tissue vascularity. By 8 weeks of age, adipose MMP12 levels subsided, and the protein was no longer detectable. However, chronic CS exposure led to macrophage accumulation and restored adipose MMP12 activity, thereby suppressing adipose tissue mass and vascularity. Our results reveal a novel systemic role for MMP12 in postnatal adipose tissue expansion and smoking-associated weight loss by suppressing vascularity within the white adipose tissue depots.

  20. Macrophage Elastase Suppresses White Adipose Tissue Expansion with Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Takao; Kelly, Neil J.; Takahashi, Saeko; Leme, Adriana S.; McGarry Houghton, A.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage elastase (MMP12) is a key mediator of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, yet its role in other smoking related pathologies remains unclear. The weight suppressing effects of smoking are a major hindrance to cessation efforts, and MMP12 is known to suppress the vascularization on which adipose tissue growth depends by catalyzing the formation of antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. The goal of this study was to determine the role of MMP12 in adipose tissue growth and smoking-related suppression of weight gain. Whole body weights and white adipose depots from wild-type and Mmp12-deficient mice were collected during early postnatal development and after chronic CS exposure. Adipose tissue specimens were analyzed for angiogenic and adipocytic markers and for content of the antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. Cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with adipose tissue homogenate to examine its effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and secretion. MMP12 content and activity were increased in the adipose tissue of wild-type mice at 2 weeks of age, leading to elevated endostatin production, inhibition of VEGF secretion, and decreased adipose tissue vascularity. By 8 weeks of age, adipose MMP12 levels subsided, and the protein was no longer detectable. However, chronic CS exposure led to macrophage accumulation and restored adipose MMP12 activity, thereby suppressing adipose tissue mass and vascularity. Our results reveal a novel systemic role for MMP12 in postnatal adipose tissue expansion and smoking-associated weight loss by suppressing vascularity within the white adipose tissue depots. PMID:24914890

  1. The independent prospective associations of activity intensity and dietary energy density with adiposity in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    van Sluijs, Esther M F; Sharp, Stephen J; Ambrosini, Gina L; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-03-14

    There is limited evidence on the prospective association of time spent in activity intensity (sedentary (SED), moderate (MPA) or vigorous (VPA) physical activity) and dietary intake with adiposity indicators in young people. This study aimed to assess associations between (1) baseline objectively measured activity intensity, dietary energy density (DED) and 4-year change in adiposity and (2) 4-year change in activity intensity/DED and adiposity at follow-up. We conducted cohort analyses including 367 participants (10 years at baseline, 14 years at follow-up) with valid data for objectively measured activity (Actigraph), DED (4-d food diary), anthropometry (waist circumference (WC), %body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), weight status) and covariates. Linear and logistic regression models were fit, including adjustment for DED and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results showed that baseline DED was associated with change in WC (β for 1kJ/g difference: 0·71; 95% CI 0·26, 1·17), particularly in boys (1·26; 95% CI 0·41, 2·16 v. girls: 0·26; 95% CI -0·34, 0·87), but not with %BF, FMI or weight status. In contrast, baseline SED, MPA or VPA were not associated with any of the outcomes. Change in DED was negatively associated with FMI (β for 1kJ/g increase: -0·86; 95% CI -1·59, -0·12) and %BF (-0·86; 95% CI -1·25, -0·11) but not WC (-0·27; 95% CI -1·02, 0·48). Change in SED, MPA and VPA did not predict adiposity at follow-up. In conclusion, activity intensity was not prospectively associated with adiposity, whereas the directions of associations with DED were inconsistent. To inform public health efforts, future studies should continue to analyse longitudinal data to further understand the independent role of different energy-balance behaviours in changes in adiposity in early adolescence. PMID:26758859

  2. Adipose-derived stem cell differentiation as a basic tool for vascularized adipose tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Volz, Ann-Cathrin; Huber, Birgit; Kluger, Petra J

    2016-01-01

    The development of in vitro adipose tissue constructs is highly desired to cope with the increased demand for substitutes to replace damaged soft tissue after high graded burns, deformities or tumor removal. To achieve clinically relevant dimensions, vascularization of soft tissue constructs becomes inevitable but still poses a challenge. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) represent a promising cell source for the setup of vascularized fatty tissue constructs as they can be differentiated into adipocytes and endothelial cells in vitro and are thereby available in sufficiently high cell numbers. This review summarizes the currently known characteristics of ASCs and achievements in adipogenic and endothelial differentiation in vitro. Further, the interdependency of adipogenesis and angiogenesis based on the crosstalk of endothelial cells, stem cells and adipocytes is addressed at the molecular level. Finally, achievements and limitations of current co-culture conditions for the construction of vascularized adipose tissue are evaluated. PMID:26976717

  3. Differing statistical approaches affect the relation between egg consumption, adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Associations between food patterns and adiposity are poorly understood. Two statistical approaches were used to examine the potential association between egg consumption and adiposity. Two statistical approaches were used to examine the potential association between egg consumption and adiposity. Pa...

  4. Social disorder, physical activity and adiposity in Mexican adults: evidence from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Janssen, Ian

    2014-11-01

    This study analyzed the prospective relationship of community social disorder with sedentary behavior, sport participation, and adiposity in Mexican adults from the National Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS). The sample included 8307 adults (aged ≥20 years) from 145 communities. During a three-year follow-up, participants from communities with high social disorder had a 1.36cm larger increase in waist circumference than participants from communities with low social disorder. However, there were no differences in body mass index, television, or sport participation. These findings emphasize the need to promote healthy social environments in local communities.

  5. Social disorder, physical activity and adiposity in Mexican adults: evidence from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Janssen, Ian

    2014-11-01

    This study analyzed the prospective relationship of community social disorder with sedentary behavior, sport participation, and adiposity in Mexican adults from the National Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS). The sample included 8307 adults (aged ≥20 years) from 145 communities. During a three-year follow-up, participants from communities with high social disorder had a 1.36cm larger increase in waist circumference than participants from communities with low social disorder. However, there were no differences in body mass index, television, or sport participation. These findings emphasize the need to promote healthy social environments in local communities. PMID:25151499

  6. Abalation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we show ...

  7. Acute pulmonary function response to ozone in young adults as a function of body mass index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese mice. Adiposity has not been examined as a possible modulator of ozone response in humans. We therefore examined the relationship between body mass index and the acute spirometric response to ozone (O(3)) exposur...

  8. Adipose tissue and its role in organ crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Romacho, T; Elsen, M; Röhrborn, D; Eckel, J

    2014-04-01

    The discovery of adipokines has revealed adipose tissue as a central node in the interorgan crosstalk network, which mediates the regulation of multiple organs and tissues. Adipose tissue is a true endocrine organ that produces and secretes a wide range of mediators regulating adipose tissue function in an auto-/paracrine manner and important distant targets, such as the liver, skeletal muscle, the pancreas and the cardiovascular system. In metabolic disorders such as obesity, enlargement of adipocytes leads to adipose tissue dysfunction and a shift in the secretory profile with an increased release of pro-inflammatory adipokines. Adipose tissue dysfunction has a central role in the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Besides the well-acknowledged role of adipokines in metabolic diseases, and the increasing number of adipokines being discovered in the last years, the mechanisms underlying the release of many adipokines from adipose tissue remain largely unknown. To combat metabolic diseases, it is crucial to better understand how adipokines can modulate adipose tissue growth and function. Therefore, we will focus on adipokines with a prominent role in auto-/paracrine crosstalk within the adipose tissue such as RBP4, HO-1, WISP2, SFRPs and chemerin. To depict the endocrine crosstalk between adipose tissue with skeletal muscle, the cardiovascular system and the pancreas, we will report the main findings regarding the direct effects of adiponectin, leptin, DPP4 and visfatin on skeletal muscle insulin resistance, cardiovascular function and β-cell growth and function.

  9. Adipose tissue angiogenesis: impact on obesity and type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Corvera, Silvia; Gealekman, Olga

    2014-03-01

    The growth and function of tissues are critically dependent on their vascularization. Adipose tissue is capable of expanding many-fold during adulthood, therefore requiring the formation of new vasculature to supply growing and proliferating adipocytes. The expansion of the vasculature in adipose tissue occurs through angiogenesis, where new blood vessels develop from those pre-existing within the tissue. Inappropriate angiogenesis may underlie adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity, which in turn increases type-2 diabetes risk. In addition, genetic and developmental factors involved in vascular patterning may define the size and expandability of diverse adipose tissue depots, which are also associated with type-2 diabetes risk. Moreover, the adipose tissue vasculature appears to be the niche for pre-adipocyte precursors, and factors that affect angiogenesis may directly impact the generation of new adipocytes. Here we review recent advances on the basic mechanisms of angiogenesis, and on the role of angiogenesis in adipose tissue development and obesity. A substantial amount of data points to a deficit in adipose tissue angiogenesis as a contributing factor to insulin resistance and metabolic disease in obesity. These emerging findings support the concept of the adipose tissue vasculature as a source of new targets for metabolic disease therapies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Modulation of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease.

  10. Adipose tissue-derived cells: from physiology to regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Casteilla, L; Dani, C

    2006-11-01

    During the last past years, the importance and the role of adipose tissues have been greatly expanded. After finding that adipose tissues are metabolically very active, the discovery of leptin moved the status of adipose tissue towards an endocrine tissue able to interact with all major organs via secretion of adipokines. Some years ago, the presence of adipocyte precursors, termed preadipocytes, has been described in all adipose tissue depots from various species of different age. More recently, the discovery that different phenotypes can be obtained from stroma cells of adipose tissue has largely emphazised the concept of adipose tissue plasticity. Therefore, raising great hope in regenerative medicine as adipose tissue can be easily harvested in adults it could represent an abundant source of therapeutic cells. Thus, adipose tissue plays the dual role of Mr Obese Hyde as a main actor of obesity and of Dr Regenerative Jekyll as a source of therapeutic cells. Adipose tissue has not yet revealed all its mysteries although one facet could not be well understood without the other one. PMID:17110894

  11. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  12. Resveratrol attenuates visfatin and vaspin genes expression in adipose tissue of rats with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Soheila; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Saidijam, Massoud; Karimi, Jamshid; Azari, Reza Yadgar; Farimani, Azam Rezaei; Salehi, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Visfatin and vaspin are secreted by adipose tissue and play key roles in glucose homeostasis and subsequently are potential targets for diabetes treatment. Resveratrol (RVS) corrects insulin secretion and improves insulin sensitivity. We investigated the RVS effects on serum antioxidants, insulin and glucose levels, also visfatin and vaspin genes expression in adipose tissue of streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) induced type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats (n=32) using STZ (60 mg/kg body weight) and NA (120 mg/kg body weight); rats were divided into 4 groups (n=8). Eight untreated normal rats were used as control group; four diabetic rat groups (2–5) were treated with 0, 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight of RVS, respectively for 30 days. After treatment blood and adipose tissue were prepared from all animals. Serum glucose, insulin, HOMA index, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. Visfatin and vaspin genes expression in adipose tissue were evaluated using real-time PCR. Results: RVS reduced blood glucose significantly and increased insulin level, resulting in insulin sensitivity improvement. Furthermore RVS increased weight and TAC, while reducing serum MDA in the diabetic groups. Visfatin gene expression increased in the diabetic group, and RVS treatment reduced it. Vaspin gene expression was reduced in RVS receiving diabetic groups. Conclusion: The results indicated that RVS has potential hypoglycemic effect, probably by increasing insulin level and changing gene expression of visfatin and vaspin. Moreover RVS showed antioxidant effects through reduction in peroxidiation products and augmented antioxidant capacity. PMID:26221476

  13. Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Patterns and Changes in Anthropometry: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Schmidt, Erik Berg; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Overvad, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WCBMI), adjusting for confounders. Results 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men and women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women. Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. Conclusions Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss. Associations depended on characteristics of the rest of the pattern. PMID:21811635

  14. Mendelian randomisation analysis strongly implicates adiposity with risk of developing colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, David; Mitchell, Jonathan S; Law, Philip J; Palin, Kimmo; Tuupanen, Sari; Gylfe, Alexandra; Hänninen, Ulrika A; Cajuso, Tatiana; Tanskanen, Tomas; Kondelin, Johanna; Kaasinen, Eevi; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Kaprio, Jaakko; Eriksson, Johan G; Rissanen, Harri; Knekt, Paul; Pukkala, Eero; Jousilahti, Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Palotie, Aarno; Järvinen, Heikki; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Lepistö, Anna; Böhm, Jan; Meklin, Jukka-Pekka; Al-Tassan, Nada A; Palles, Claire; Martin, Lynn; Barclay, Ella; Farrington, Susan M; Timofeeva, Maria N; Meyer, Brian F; Wakil, Salma M; Campbell, Harry; Smith, Christopher G; Idziaszczyk, Shelley; Maughan, Timothy S; Kaplan, Richard; Kerr, Rachel; Kerr, David; Buchanan, Daniel D; Win, Aung K; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Taipale, Jussi; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Cheadle, Jeremy P; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Tomlinson, Ian P; Houlston, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have associated adiposity with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, such studies do not establish a causal relationship. To minimise bias from confounding we performed a Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis to examine the relationship between adiposity and CRC. Methods: We used SNPs associated with adult body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), childhood obesity and birth weight as instrumental variables in a MR analysis of 9254 CRC cases and 18 386 controls. Results: In the MR analysis, the odds ratios (ORs) of CRC risk per unit increase in BMI, WHR and childhood obesity were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02–1.49, P=0.033), 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08–2.34, P=0.019) and 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03–1.13, P=0.018), respectively. There was no evidence for association between birth weight and CRC (OR=1.22, 95% CI: 0.89–1.67, P=0.22). Combining these data with a concurrent MR-based analysis for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (totalling to 18 190 cases, 27 617 controls) provided increased support, ORs for BMI and WHR were 1.26 (95% CI: 1.10–1.44, P=7.7 × 10−4) and 1.40 (95% CI: 1.14–1.72, P=1.2 × 10−3), respectively. Conclusions: These data provide further evidence for a strong causal relationship between adiposity and the risk of developing CRC highlighting the urgent need for prevention and treatment of adiposity. PMID:27336604

  15. Overall and Central Adiposity and Breast Cancer Risk in the Sister Study

    PubMed Central

    White, Alexandra J.; Nichols, Hazel B.; Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Greater body mass index (BMI), a measure of overall adiposity, is associated with higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. The role of central adiposity, often measured by waist circumference, is less well understood especially among premenopausal women. We aimed to examine multiple measures of adiposity in relation to breast cancer in a prospective cohort study. Methods 50,884 Sister Study cohort participants ages 35–74 were enrolled from 2003–2009. Inclusion criteria for the cohort included having a sister previously diagnosed with breast cancer. Trained study personnel measured height, weight, waist and hip circumference during a home visit and study participants completed a detailed questionnaire. Using Cox regression, we estimated multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer risk associated with adiposity measurements, considering tumor subtype and menopausal status. Results In total, 2,009 breast cancers were diagnosed during follow-up (mean=5.4 years). Weight, BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip-ratio were positively associated with overall breast cancer risk and HRs were greater among postmenopausal women, those with hormonally responsive tumors and non-current postmenopausal hormone users. In models that adjusted for BMI, waist circumference associations persisted among both postmenopausal women (81–88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.16, 95%CI 1.01, 1.35; >88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.30, 95% CI 1.10, 1.54) and premenopausal women (81–88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.56, 95%CI 1.19, 2.04; >88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.30, 95% CI 0.91, 1.87). Conclusions Findings from this large, prospective study with examiner-measured body size indicate that waist circumference is independently and positively associated with both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:26193782

  16. The Association of Pediatric Psoriasis Severity with Excess and Central Adiposity: An International Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Paller, Amy S.; Mercy, Katherine; Kwasny, Mary J.; Choon, Siew Eng; Cordoro, Kelly M.; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Menter, Alan; Tom, Wynnis L.; Mahoney, Anne M.; Oostveen, Annet M.; Seyger, Marieke M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Investigate the relationship of excess and central adiposity with pediatric psoriasis severity. Design, Setting and Participants Multi-center, cross-sectional study of 409 psoriatic children. Psoriasis was classified as mild (worst Physician’s Global Assessment (PGA) <3 with body surface area (BSA) <10%) or severe (worst PGA >3 with BSA >10%). Children were enrolled from 9 countries July 2009-December 2011. Main Outcome Measures Excess adiposity (body mass index (BMI) percentile) and central adiposity (waist circumference (WC) percentile and waist-to-height ratio). Results Excess adiposity (BMI >85th percentile) occurred in 37.8% (n=155) of psoriatics vs. 20.5% (n=42) of controls, but did not differ by severity. The odds of obesity (BMI >95th percentile) overall in psoriatics vs. controls were OR=4.29, 95% CI=1.96-9.39, but were higher with severe (OR=4.92, CI=2.20-10.99) than mild (OR=3.60, CI=1.56-8.30) psoriasis, particularly in the U.S. (OR=7.60, CI=2.47-23.34, and OR=4.72, CI=1.43-15.56, respectively). WC >90th percentile occurred in 9.3% (n=19) of controls, 14.0% (n=27) of mild, and 21.2% (n=43) of severe psoriatics internationally, and especially in the U.S. (12.0% of controls, 20.8% of mild, and 31.1% of severe psoriatics). Waist-to-height ratio was significantly higher in psoriatic (0.48) vs. control (0.46) children, but unaffected by psoriasis severity. Children with severe psoriasis at their worst, but mild at enrollment, showed no difference in excess or central adiposity from children who remained severe at enrollment. Conclusion Globally, children with psoriasis have both excess adiposity and increased central adiposity, regardless of severity. The increased metabolic risks associated with excess and central adiposity warrant early monitoring and lifestyle modification. PMID:23560297

  17. Irbesartan increased PPAR{gamma} activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Moritani, Tomozo; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. {yields} DNA-binding for PPAR{gamma} was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. {yields} Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPAR{gamma} agonistic action of an AT{sub 1} receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPAR{gamma} in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPAR{gamma} in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPAR{gamma} and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  18. Selective suppression of adipose tissue apoE expression impacts systemic metabolic phenotype and adipose tissue inflammation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi H; Reardon, Catherine A; Getz, Godfrey S; Maeda, Nobuyo; Mazzone, Theodore

    2015-02-01

    apoE is a multi-functional protein expressed in several cell types and in several organs. It is highly expressed in adipose tissue, where it is important for modulating adipocyte lipid flux and gene expression in isolated adipocytes. In order to investigate a potential systemic role for apoE that is produced in adipose tissue, mice were generated with selective suppression of adipose tissue apoE expression and normal circulating apoE levels. These mice had less adipose tissue with smaller adipocytes containing fewer lipids, but no change in adipocyte number compared with control mice. Adipocyte TG synthesis in the presence of apoE-containing VLDL was markedly impaired. Adipocyte caveolin and leptin gene expression were reduced, but adiponectin, PGC-1, and CPT-1 gene expression were increased. Mice with selective suppression of adipose tissue apoE had lower fasting lipid, insulin, and glucose levels, and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were consistent with increased insulin sensitivity. Lipid storage in muscle, heart, and liver was significantly reduced. Adipose tissue macrophage inflammatory activation was markedly diminished with suppression of adipose tissue apoE expression. Our results establish a novel effect of adipose tissue apoE expression, distinct from circulating apoE, on systemic substrate metabolism and adipose tissue inflammatory state.

  19. Regeneration of Cartilage in Human Knee Osteoarthritis with Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Autologous Extracellular Matrix.

    PubMed

    Pak, Jaewoo; Lee, Jung Hun; Park, Kwang Seung; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    This clinical case series demonstrates that percutaneous injections of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and homogenized extracellular matrix (ECM) in the form of adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF), along with hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) activated by calcium chloride, could regenerate cartilage-like tissue in human knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Autologous lipoaspirates were obtained from adipose tissue of the abdominal origin. Afterward, the lipoaspirates were minced to homogenize the ECM. These homogenized lipoaspirates were then mixed with collagenase and incubated. The resulting mixture of ADSCs and ECM in the form of SVF was injected, along with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, into knees of three Korean patients with OA. The same affected knees were reinjected weekly with additional PRP activated by calcium chloride for 3 weeks. Pretreatment and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, functional rating index, range of motion (ROM), and pain score data were then analyzed. All patients' MRI data showed cartilage-like tissue regeneration. Along with MRI evidence, the measured physical therapy outcomes in terms of ROM, subjective pain, and functional status were all improved. This study demonstrates that percutaneous injection of ADSCs with ECM contained in autologous adipose SVF, in conjunction with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, is a safe and potentially effective minimally invasive therapy for OA of human knees. PMID:27588219

  20. Regeneration of Cartilage in Human Knee Osteoarthritis with Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Autologous Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Jaewoo; Lee, Jung Hun; Park, Kwang Seung; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This clinical case series demonstrates that percutaneous injections of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and homogenized extracellular matrix (ECM) in the form of adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF), along with hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) activated by calcium chloride, could regenerate cartilage-like tissue in human knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Autologous lipoaspirates were obtained from adipose tissue of the abdominal origin. Afterward, the lipoaspirates were minced to homogenize the ECM. These homogenized lipoaspirates were then mixed with collagenase and incubated. The resulting mixture of ADSCs and ECM in the form of SVF was injected, along with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, into knees of three Korean patients with OA. The same affected knees were reinjected weekly with additional PRP activated by calcium chloride for 3 weeks. Pretreatment and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, functional rating index, range of motion (ROM), and pain score data were then analyzed. All patients' MRI data showed cartilage-like tissue regeneration. Along with MRI evidence, the measured physical therapy outcomes in terms of ROM, subjective pain, and functional status were all improved. This study demonstrates that percutaneous injection of ADSCs with ECM contained in autologous adipose SVF, in conjunction with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, is a safe and potentially effective minimally invasive therapy for OA of human knees. PMID:27588219

  1. Soluble LR11/SorLA represses thermogenesis in adipose tissue and correlates with BMI in humans

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Andrew J.; Jiang, Meizi; Peirce, Vivian; Relat, Joana; Virtue, Sam; Ebinuma, Hiroyuki; Fukamachi, Isamu; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Mao; Murano, Takeyoshi; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Jin, Wenlong; Jin, Zhehu; Campbell, Mark; Schneider, Wolfgang J.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Bujo, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an important component of energy expenditure in mammals. Recent studies have confirmed its presence and metabolic role in humans. Defining the physiological regulation of BAT is therefore of great importance for developing strategies to treat metabolic diseases. Here we show that the soluble form of the low-density lipoprotein receptor relative, LR11/SorLA (sLR11), suppresses thermogenesis in adipose tissue in a cell-autonomous manner. Mice lacking LR11 are protected from diet-induced obesity associated with an increased browning of white adipose tissue and hypermetabolism. Treatment of adipocytes with sLR11 inhibits thermogenesis via the bone morphogenetic protein/TGFβ signalling pathway and reduces Smad phosphorylation. In addition, sLR11 levels in humans are shown to positively correlate with body mass index and adiposity. Given the need for tight regulation of a tissue with a high capacity for energy wastage, we propose that LR11 plays an energy conserving role that is exaggerated in states of obesity. PMID:26584636

  2. The expression of ob gene is not acutely regulated by insulin and fasting in human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Vidal, H; Auboeuf, D; De Vos, P; Staels, B; Riou, J P; Auwerx, J; Laville, M

    1996-07-15

    The regulation of ob gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue was investigated using a reverse transcription-competitive PCR method to quantify the mRNA level of leptin. Leptin mRNA level was highly correlated with the body mass index of 26 subjects (12 lean, 7 non-insulin-dependent diabetic, and 7 obese patients). The effect of fasting on ob gene expression was investigated in 10 subjects maintained on a hypocaloric diet (1045 KJ/d) for 5 d. While their metabolic parameters significantly changed (decrease in insulinemia, glycemia, and resting metabolic rate and increase in plasma ketone bodies), the caloric restriction did not modify the leptin mRNA level in the adipose tissue. To verify whether insulin regulates ob gene expression, six lean subjects underwent a 3-h euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (846 +/- 138 pmol/liter) clamp. Leptin and Glut 4 mRNA levels were quantified in adipose tissue biopsies taken before and at the end of the clamp. Insulin infusion produced a significant threefold increase in Glut 4 mRNA while leptin mRNA was not affected. It is concluded that ob gene expression is not acutely regulated by insulin or by metabolic factors related to fasting in human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. PMID:8755631

  3. Timing of adiposity rebound: a step toward preventing obesity.

    PubMed

    Boonpleng, Wannaporn; Park, Chang Gi; Gallo, Agatha M

    2012-01-01

    Adiposity rebound (AR) is used as an indicator to predict obesity in adults. Previous studies about AR in the U.S. were based on local data; therefore, the generalizability of study results is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify the timing of AR for U.S. children using a national survey data set, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Combined data of NHANES 1999-2008 were used to estimate the national level of this critical period for U.S. children developing obesity. Data of 8813 children 2 to 10 years of age were analyzed. Mean body mass index was estimated using the survey sample analysis method. Visual inspection method was employed to examine the timing of AR. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in AR were identified at an early age. AR occurred earlier in girls and in Non-Hispanic African-American children than in Non-Hispanic Caucasian children. Differences in timing for AR by gender and race/ethnicity should be considered in planning early and timely intervention efforts to prevent childhood obesity.

  4. Ovariectomy in mature mice does not increase food intake, but increases adiposity and adipose tissue inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Menopause, characterized by reduced estrogen (E2), is associated with increased adiposity and metabolic pathology. Molecular mechanisms underlying this association between low E2 status and metabolic disease are not fully elucidated. When mice are fed a high fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity and diab...

  5. Adipose Tissue Residing Progenitors (Adipocyte Lineage Progenitors and Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSC)

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Ryan; Rodeheffer, Matthew S.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Horowitz, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of brown, white and beige adipocytes have been a subject of intense scientific interest in recent years due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States and around the world. This interest has led to the identification and characterization of specific tissue resident progenitor cells that give rise to each adipocyte population in vivo. However, much still remains to be discovered about each progenitor population in terms of their “niche” within each tissue and how they are regulated at the cellular and molecular level during healthy and diseased states. While our knowledge of brown, white and beige adipose tissue is rapidly increasing, little is still known about marrow adipose tissue and its progenitor despite recent studies demonstrating possible roles for marrow adipose tissue in regulating the hematopoietic space and systemic metabolism at large. This chapter focuses on our current knowledge of brown, white, beige and marrow adipose tissue with a specific focus on the formation of each tissue from tissue resident progenitor cells. PMID:26526875

  6. Behavioral responses of one western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic, to tourists, researchers and trackers.

    PubMed

    Klailova, Michelle; Hodgkinson, Chloe; Lee, Phyllis C

    2010-09-01

    Gorilla tourism, widely perceived as a lucrative industry, is propelled by strong market demand with programs in five countries and for three of four gorilla subspecies. Human presence may negatively affect wild gorillas, potentially lowering immunity and increasing the likelihood of acquiring human-borne disease. Yet, behavioral impacts of humans on wild gorilla behavior remain largely unexplored, particularly for western lowland gorillas. We evaluate the impact of tourist presence, human observer numbers (tourists, trackers, and researchers), and human observer distance on the behavior of one habituated gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Behavioral data were collected for more than 12 months from January 2007. Of silverback aggressive events, 39% (N=229) were human directed, but 65% were low-level soft barks. Adult females, and one in particular, were responsible for the highest number of aggressive events toward humans. Humans maintained closer proximity to the silverback when tourists were present, although tourist numbers had no significant impact on overall group activity budgets or rates of human-directed aggression. However, as research team size increased, group feeding rates decreased. Close observer-silverback distance correlated with a decrease in his feeding rates and an increase in human monitoring. He directed less aggression toward observers at distances >10 m, although observers spent 48.5% of time between 6 and 10 m of the silverback. We discuss gorilla personality as a factor in human-directed aggression. We explore whether the current 7 m distance limit governing gorilla tourism, based on disease transmission risks, is sufficient considering the potential behavioral stressor of close human presence. We recommend increasing minimum observation distance to >10 m where possible, decreasing observer group sizes, particularly after a visit consisting of maximum numbers and restricting tourist access to 1 visit/day. PMID:20806337

  7. Behavioral responses of one western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic, to tourists, researchers and trackers.

    PubMed

    Klailova, Michelle; Hodgkinson, Chloe; Lee, Phyllis C

    2010-09-01

    Gorilla tourism, widely perceived as a lucrative industry, is propelled by strong market demand with programs in five countries and for three of four gorilla subspecies. Human presence may negatively affect wild gorillas, potentially lowering immunity and increasing the likelihood of acquiring human-borne disease. Yet, behavioral impacts of humans on wild gorilla behavior remain largely unexplored, particularly for western lowland gorillas. We evaluate the impact of tourist presence, human observer numbers (tourists, trackers, and researchers), and human observer distance on the behavior of one habituated gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Behavioral data were collected for more than 12 months from January 2007. Of silverback aggressive events, 39% (N=229) were human directed, but 65% were low-level soft barks. Adult females, and one in particular, were responsible for the highest number of aggressive events toward humans. Humans maintained closer proximity to the silverback when tourists were present, although tourist numbers had no significant impact on overall group activity budgets or rates of human-directed aggression. However, as research team size increased, group feeding rates decreased. Close observer-silverback distance correlated with a decrease in his feeding rates and an increase in human monitoring. He directed less aggression toward observers at distances >10 m, although observers spent 48.5% of time between 6 and 10 m of the silverback. We discuss gorilla personality as a factor in human-directed aggression. We explore whether the current 7 m distance limit governing gorilla tourism, based on disease transmission risks, is sufficient considering the potential behavioral stressor of close human presence. We recommend increasing minimum observation distance to >10 m where possible, decreasing observer group sizes, particularly after a visit consisting of maximum numbers and restricting tourist access to 1 visit/day.

  8. Stalk-dependent and Stalk-independent Signaling by the Adhesion G Protein-coupled Receptors GPR56 (ADGRG1) and BAI1 (ADGRB1).

    PubMed

    Kishore, Ayush; Purcell, Ryan H; Nassiri-Toosi, Zahra; Hall, Randy A

    2016-02-12

    The adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) are a large yet poorly understood family of seven-transmembrane proteins. A defining characteristic of the aGPCR family is the conserved GAIN domain, which has autoproteolytic activity and can cleave the receptors near the first transmembrane domain. Several aGPCRs, including ADGRB1 (BAI1 or B1) and ADGRG1 (GPR56 or G1), have been found to exhibit significantly increased constitutive activity when truncated to mimic GAIN domain cleavage (ΔNT). Recent reports have suggested that the new N-terminal stalk, which is revealed by GAIN domain cleavage, can directly activate aGPCRs as a tethered agonist. We tested this hypothesis in studies on two distinct aGPCRs, B1 and G1, by engineering mutant receptors lacking the entire NT including the stalk (B1- and G1-SL, with "SL" indicating "stalkless"). These receptors were evaluated in a battery of signaling assays and compared with full-length wild-type and cleavage-mimicking (ΔNT) forms of the two receptors. We found that B1-SL, in multiple assays, exhibited robust signaling activity, suggesting that the membrane-proximal stalk region is not necessary for its activation. For G1, however, the results were mixed, with the SL mutant exhibiting robust activity in several signaling assays (including TGFα shedding, activation of NFAT luciferase, and β-arrestin recruitment) but reduced activity relative to ΔNT in a distinct assay (activation of SRF luciferase). These data support a model in which the activation of certain pathways downstream of aGPCRs is stalk-dependent, whereas signaling to other pathways is stalk-independent.

  9. [Journal selection and indexing for Index Medicus and Chinese periodicals indexed in Index Medicus].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing-Hui; Ling, Chang-Quan; Bai, Yu-Jin; Yin, Hui-Xia

    2005-01-01

    Index Medicus/MEDLINE/PubMed published by U. S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) is the most important and commonly used biomedical literature retrieval system in the world. According to the"List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus (2004)", 4,098 journals are indexed for Index Medicus, including 70 journals from mainland China and Hong Kong and 9 journals from Taiwan. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine established in May, 2003 is indexed in Index Medicus in 2004. This article outlines the critical elements of journal selection for Index Medicus/MEDLINE and the journal selection process for indexing at NLM, and introduces some measures for the Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine being indexed in Index Medicus/MEDLINE.

  10. Hepatic oleate regulates adipose tissue lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Burhans, Maggie S; Flowers, Matthew T; Harrington, Kristin R; Bond, Laura M; Guo, Chang-An; Anderson, Rozalyn M; Ntambi, James M

    2015-02-01

    Hepatic steatosis is associated with detrimental metabolic phenotypes including enhanced risk for diabetes. Stearoyl-CoA desaturases (SCDs) catalyze the synthesis of MUFAs. In mice, genetic ablation of SCDs reduces hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and protects against diet-induced hepatic steatosis and adiposity. To understand the mechanism by which hepatic MUFA production influences adipose tissue stores, we created two liver-specific transgenic mouse models in the SCD1 knockout that express either human SCD5 or mouse SCD3, that synthesize oleate and palmitoleate, respectively. We demonstrate that hepatic de novo synthesized oleate, but not palmitoleate, stimulate hepatic lipid accumulation and adiposity, reversing the protective effect of the global SCD1 knockout under lipogenic conditions. Unexpectedly, the accumulation of hepatic lipid occurred without induction of the hepatic DNL program. Changes in hepatic lipid composition were reflected in plasma and in adipose tissue. Importantly, endogenously synthesized hepatic oleate was associated with suppressed DNL and fatty acid oxidation in white adipose tissue. Regression analysis revealed a strong correlation between adipose tissue lipid fuel utilization and hepatic and adipose tissue lipid storage. These data suggest an extrahepatic mechanism where endogenous hepatic oleate regulates lipid homeostasis in adipose tissues.

  11. Altered autophagy in human adipose tissues in obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: Autophagy is a housekeeping mechanism, involved in metabolic regulation and stress response, shown recently to regulate lipid droplets biogenesis/breakdown and adipose tissue phenotype. Objective: We hypothesized that in human obesity autophagy may be altered in adipose tissue in a fat d...

  12. Involvement of mast cells in adipose tissue fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Shizuka; Ohyane, Chie; Kim, Young-Il; Lin, Shan; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kim, Chu-Sook; Kang, Jihey; Yu, Rina; Kawada, Teruo

    2014-02-01

    Recently, fibrosis is observed in obese adipose tissue; however, the pathogenesis remains to be clarified. Obese adipose tissue is characterized by chronic inflammation with massive accumulation of immune cells including mast cells. The objective of the present study was to clarify the relationship between fibrosis and mast cells in obese adipose tissue, as well as to determine the origin of infiltrating mast cells. We observed the enhancement of mast cell accumulation and fibrosis in adipose tissue of severely obese diabetic db/db mice. Furthermore, adipose tissue-conditioned medium (ATCM) from severely obese diabetic db/db mice significantly enhanced collagen 5 mRNA expression in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, and this enhancement was suppressed by the addition of an anti-mast cell protease 6 (MCP-6) antibody. An in vitro study showed that only collagen V among various types of collagen inhibited preadipocyte differentiation. Moreover, we found that ATCM from the nonobese but not obese stages of db/db mice significantly enhanced the migration of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). These findings suggest that immature mast cells that infiltrate into adipose tissue at the nonobese stage gradually mature with the progression of obesity and diabetes and that MCP-6 secreted from mature mast cells induces collagen V expression in obese adipose tissue, which may contribute to the process of adipose tissue fibrosis. Induction of collagen V by MCP-6 might accelerate insulin resistance via the suppression of preadipocyte differentiation.

  13. Adipose Tissue: Sanctuary for HIV/SIV Persistence and Replication.

    PubMed

    Pallikkuth, Suresh; Mohan, Mahesh

    2015-12-01

    This commentary highlights new findings from a recent study identifying adipose tissue as a potential HIV reservoir and a major site of inflammation during chronic human/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infection. A concise discussion about upcoming challenges and new research avenues for reducing chronic adipose inflammation during HIV/SIV infection is presented.

  14. Cell supermarket: Adipose tissue as a source of stem cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose tissue is derived from numerous sources, and in recent years has been shown to provide numerous cells from what seemingly was a population of homogeneous adipocytes. Considering the types of cells that adipose tissue-derived cells may form, these cells may be useful in a variety of clinical ...

  15. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: To Be or Not To Be a Typical Adipose Tissue?

    PubMed

    Hardouin, Pierre; Rharass, Tareck; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone-fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues - subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT - is differently associated with bone mineral density (BMD) variations. However, compared with the other fat depots, BMAT displays striking features that makes it a substantial actor in bone alterations. BMAT quantity is well associated with BMD loss in aging, menopause, and other metabolic conditions, such as anorexia nervosa. Consequently, BMAT is sensed as a relevant marker of a compromised bone integrity. However, analyses of BMAT development in metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes) are scarce and should be, thus, more systematically addressed to better apprehend the bone modifications in that pathophysiological contexts. Moreover, bone marrow (BM) adipogenesis occurs throughout the whole life at different rates. Following an ordered spatiotemporal expansion, BMAT has turned to be a heterogeneous fat depot whose adipocytes diverge in their phenotype and their response to stimuli according to their location in bone and BM. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies point to a detrimental role of BM adipocytes (BMAs) throughout the release of paracrine factors that modulate osteoblast and/or osteoclast formation and function. However, the anatomical dissemination and the difficulties to access BMAs still hamper our understanding of the relative contribution of BMAT secretions compared with those of peripheral adipose tissues. A further characterization of the phenotype and the functional regulation of BMAs are ever more required. Based on currently available data and comparison with other fat tissues

  16. Tissue engineering chamber promotes adipose tissue regeneration in adipose tissue engineering models through induced aseptic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhangsong; Dong, Ziqing; Chang, Qiang; Zhan, Weiqing; Zeng, Zhaowei; Zhang, Shengchang; Lu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering chamber (TEC) makes it possible to generate significant amounts of mature, vascularized, stable, and transferable adipose tissue. However, little is known about the role of the chamber in tissue engineering. Therefore, to investigate the role of inflammatory response and the change in mechanotransduction started by TEC after implantation, we placed a unique TEC model on the surface of the groin fat pads in rats to study the expression of cytokines and tissue development in the TEC. The number of infiltrating cells was counted, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression levels in the chamber at multiple time points postimplantation were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tissue samples were collected at various time points and labeled for specific cell populations. The result showed that new adipose tissue formed in the chamber at day 60. Also, the expression of MCP-1 and VEGF in the chamber decreased slightly from an early stage as well as the number of the infiltrating cells. A large number of CD34+/perilipin- perivascular cells could be detected at day 30. Also, the CD34+/perilipin+ adipose precursor cell numbers increased sharply by day 45 and then decreased by day 60. CD34-/perilipin+ mature adipocytes were hard to detect in the chamber content at day 30, but their number increased and then peaked at day 60. Ki67-positive cells could be found near blood vessels and their number decreased sharply over time. Masson's trichrome showed that collagen was the dominant component of the chamber content at early stage and was replaced by newly formed small adipocytes over time. Our findings suggested that the TEC implantation could promote the proliferation of adipose precursor cells derived from local adipose tissue, increase angiogenesis, and finally lead to spontaneous adipogenesis by inducing aseptic inflammation and changing local mechanotransduction.

  17. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: To Be or Not To Be a Typical Adipose Tissue?

    PubMed

    Hardouin, Pierre; Rharass, Tareck; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone-fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues - subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT - is differently associated with bone mineral density (BMD) variations. However, compared with the other fat depots, BMAT displays striking features that makes it a substantial actor in bone alterations. BMAT quantity is well associated with BMD loss in aging, menopause, and other metabolic conditions, such as anorexia nervosa. Consequently, BMAT is sensed as a relevant marker of a compromised bone integrity. However, analyses of BMAT development in metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes) are scarce and should be, thus, more systematically addressed to better apprehend the bone modifications in that pathophysiological contexts. Moreover, bone marrow (BM) adipogenesis occurs throughout the whole life at different rates. Following an ordered spatiotemporal expansion, BMAT has turned to be a heterogeneous fat depot whose adipocytes diverge in their phenotype and their response to stimuli according to their location in bone and BM. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies point to a detrimental role of BM adipocytes (BMAs) throughout the release of paracrine factors that modulate osteoblast and/or osteoclast formation and function. However, the anatomical dissemination and the difficulties to access BMAs still hamper our understanding of the relative contribution of BMAT secretions compared with those of peripheral adipose tissues. A further characterization of the phenotype and the functional regulation of BMAs are ever more required. Based on currently available data and comparison with other fat tissues

  18. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: To Be or Not To Be a Typical Adipose Tissue?

    PubMed Central

    Hardouin, Pierre; Rharass, Tareck; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone–fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues – subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT – is differently associated with bone mineral density (BMD) variations. However, compared with the other fat depots, BMAT displays striking features that makes it a substantial actor in bone alterations. BMAT quantity is well associated with BMD loss in aging, menopause, and other metabolic conditions, such as anorexia nervosa. Consequently, BMAT is sensed as a relevant marker of a compromised bone integrity. However, analyses of BMAT development in metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes) are scarce and should be, thus, more systematically addressed to better apprehend the bone modifications in that pathophysiological contexts. Moreover, bone marrow (BM) adipogenesis occurs throughout the whole life at different rates. Following an ordered spatiotemporal expansion, BMAT has turned to be a heterogeneous fat depot whose adipocytes diverge in their phenotype and their response to stimuli according to their location in bone and BM. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies point to a detrimental role of BM adipocytes (BMAs) throughout the release of paracrine factors that modulate osteoblast and/or osteoclast formation and function. However, the anatomical dissemination and the difficulties to access BMAs still hamper our understanding of the relative contribution of BMAT secretions compared with those of peripheral adipose tissues. A further characterization of the phenotype and the functional regulation of BMAs are ever more required. Based on currently available data and comparison with other fat

  19. Phenotypical heterogeneity linked to adipose tissue dysfunction in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Barchetta, Ilaria; Angelico, Francesco; Del Ben, Maria; Di Martino, Michele; Cimini, Flavia Agata; Bertoccini, Laura; Polimeni, Licia; Catalano, Carlo; Fraioli, Antonio; Del Vescovo, Riccardo; Morini, Sergio; Baroni, Marco Giorgio; Cavallo, Maria Gisella

    2016-10-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation leads to increased free fatty acid (FFA) efflux and ectopic fat deposition, but whether AT dysfunction drives selective fat accumulation in specific sites remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between AT dysfunction, hepatic/pancreatic fat fraction (HFF, PFF) and the associated metabolic phenotype in patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Sixty-five consecutive T2D patients were recruited at the Diabetes Centre of Sapienza University, Rome, Italy. The study population underwent clinical examination and blood sampling for routine biochemistry and calculation of insulin secretion [homoeostasis model assessment of insulin secretion (HOMA-β%)] and insulin-resistance [homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and adipose tissue insulin resistance (ADIPO-IR)] indexes. Subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) AT area, HFF and PFF were determined by magnetic resonance. Some 55.4% of T2D patients had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); they were significantly younger and more insulin-resistant than non-NAFLD subjects. ADIPO-IR was the main determinant of HFF independently of age, sex, HOMA-IR, VAT, SAT and predicted severe NAFLD with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC)=0.796 (95% confidence interval: 0.65-0.94, P=0.001). PFF was independently associated with increased total adiposity but did not correlate with AT dysfunction, insulin resistance and secretion or NAFLD. The ADIPO-IR index was capable of predicting NAFLD independently of all confounders, whereas it did not seem to be related to intrapancreatic fat deposition; unlike HFF, higher PFF was not associated with relevant alterations in the metabolic profile. In conclusion, the presence and severity of AT dysfunction may drive ectopic fat accumulation towards specific targets, such as VAT and liver, therefore evaluation of AT dysfunction may contribute to the identification of different

  20. Regulation of systemic energy homeostasis by serotonin in adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang-Myung; Namkung, Jun; Go, Younghoon; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Kyuho; Kim, Hyeongseok; Park, Bo-Yoon; Lee, Ho Won; Jeon, Yong Hyun; Song, Junghan; Shong, Minho; Yadav, Vijay K; Karsenty, Gerard; Kajimura, Shingo; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Sangkyu; Kim, Hail

    2015-01-01

    Central serotonin (5-HT) is an anorexigenic neurotransmitter in the brain. However, accumulating evidence suggests peripheral 5-HT may affect organismal energy homeostasis. Here we show 5-HT regulates white and brown adipose tissue function. Pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT synthesis leads to inhibition of lipogenesis in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT), induction of browning in inguinal WAT and activation of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mice with inducible Tph1 KO in adipose tissues exhibit a similar phenotype as mice in which 5-HT synthesis is inhibited pharmacologically, suggesting 5-HT has localized effects on adipose tissues. In addition, Htr3a KO mice exhibit increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain when fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with an Htr2a antagonist reduces lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These data suggest important roles for adipocyte-derived 5-HT in controlling energy homeostasis. PMID:25864946

  1. Regulation of systemic energy homeostasis by serotonin in adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang-Myung; Namkung, Jun; Go, Younghoon; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Kyuho; Kim, Hyeongseok; Park, Bo-Yoon; Lee, Ho Won; Jeon, Yong Hyun; Song, Junghan; Shong, Minho; Yadav, Vijay K; Karsenty, Gerard; Kajimura, Shingo; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Sangkyu; Kim, Hail

    2015-04-13

    Central serotonin (5-HT) is an anorexigenic neurotransmitter in the brain. However, accumulating evidence suggests peripheral 5-HT may affect organismal energy homeostasis. Here we show 5-HT regulates white and brown adipose tissue function. Pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT synthesis leads to inhibition of lipogenesis in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT), induction of browning in inguinal WAT and activation of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mice with inducible Tph1 KO in adipose tissues exhibit a similar phenotype as mice in which 5-HT synthesis is inhibited pharmacologically, suggesting 5-HT has localized effects on adipose tissues. In addition, Htr3a KO mice exhibit increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain when fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with an Htr2a antagonist reduces lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These data suggest important roles for adipocyte-derived 5-HT in controlling energy homeostasis.

  2. Adipokines and the Endocrine Role of Adipose Tissues.

    PubMed

    Giralt, Marta; Cereijo, Rubén; Villarroya, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed a shift in the consideration of white adipose tissue as a mere repository of fat to be used when food becomes scarce to a true endocrine tissue releasing regulatory signals, the so-called adipokines, to the whole body. The control of eating behavior, the peripheral insulin sensitivity, and even the development of the female reproductive system are among the physiological events controlled by adipokines. Recently, the role of brown adipose tissue in human physiology has been recognized. The metabolic role of brown adipose tissue is opposite to white fat; instead of storing fat, brown adipose tissue is a site of energy expenditure via adaptive thermogenesis. There is growing evidence that brown adipose tissue may have its own pattern of secreted hormonal factors, the so-called brown adipokines, having distinctive biological actions on the overall physiological adaptations to enhance energy expenditure.

  3. Adipose-derived stem cells: current findings and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Morikuni; Orbay, Hakan; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    Adipose tissue is an abundant source of mesenchymal stem cells, which have shown promise in the field of regenerative medicine. Furthermore, these cells can be readily harvested in large numbers with low donor-site morbidity. During the past decade, numerous studies have provided preclinical data on the safety and efficacy of adipose-derived stem cells, supporting the use of these cells in future clinical applications. Various clinical trials have shown the regenerative capability of adipose-derived stem cells in subspecialties of medical fields such as plastic surgery, orthopedic surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery, and cardiac surgery. In addition, a great deal of knowledge concerning the harvesting, characterization, and culture of adipose-derived stem cells has been reported. This review will summarize data from in vitro studies, pre-clinical animal models, and recent clinical trials concerning the use of adipose-derived stem cells in regenerative medicine.

  4. Adipose cell-adrenal interactions: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ronconi, Vanessa; Turchi, Federica; Bujalska, Iwona J; Giacchetti, Gilberta; Boscaro, Marco

    2008-04-01

    The central role of adipose tissue in the development of cardiovascular and metabolic pathology has been highlighted by the discovery of mediators (adipokines) secreted by adipose tissue and their involvement in the regulation of various biological processes. In light of recent experimental data, cross-talk between adipose tissue and the adrenal gland, particularly via the mineralocorticoid aldosterone, has been proposed. Aldosterone can induce adipogenesis, and human white adipose tissue is reported to release as-yet-uncharacterized factors that stimulate adrenocortical steroidogenesis and aldosterone production. These data could provide new insights into the pathophysiology of obesity-related disorders, including hypertension and aldosterone excess, with further studies necessary for confirming and better defining such adipose-adrenal interactions.

  5. Role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Rahul; Pouliopoulos, Jim; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Kovoor, Pramesh

    2016-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue is present in normal healthy individuals. It is a unique fat depot that, under physiologic conditions, plays a cardioprotective role. However, excess epicardial adipose tissue has been shown to be associated with prevalence and severity of atrial fibrillation. In arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and myotonic dystrophy, fibrofatty infiltration of the myocardium is associated with ventricular arrhythmias. In the ovine model of ischemic cardiomyopathy, the presence of intramyocardial adipose or lipomatous metaplasia has been associated with increased propensity to ventricular tachycardia. These observations suggest a role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias. In this article, we review the role of cardiac adipose tissue in various cardiac arrhythmias and discuss the possible pathophysiologic mechanisms.

  6. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    Proposed is a measure of indexing consistency based on the concept of "fuzzy sets." By this procedure a higher consistency value is assigned if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on…

  7. Comparative Index Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasheed, Muhammad Abdur

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study that compared indexing terms suggested by authors of articles in "The American Journal of the Medical Science" and indexing terms assigned to the same articles in MEDLARS. Case studies are used to examine the differences between author and indexer indexing. (CLB)

  8. Quaker Resources Online Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beke-Harrigan, Heidi

    The Quaker Resources Online Index is a World Wide Web-based index, including author, title, subject, and meeting indexes, that provides access to Quaker materials available on the Web. Given the current failings and shortcomings of search engines and automated key word searches, this index brings together information from a variety of sources and…

  9. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  10. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    2001-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  11. Hypertrophy and/or Hyperplasia: Dynamics of Adipose Tissue Growth.

    PubMed

    Jo, Junghyo; Gavrilova, Oksana; Pack, Stephanie; Jou, William; Mullen, Shawn; Sumner, Anne E; Cushman, Samuel W; Periwal, Vipul

    2009-03-01

    Adipose tissue grows by two mechanisms: hyperplasia (cell number increase) and hypertrophy (cell size increase). Genetics and diet affect the relative contributions of these two mechanisms to the growth of adipose tissue in obesity. In this study, the size distributions of epididymal adipose cells from two mouse strains, obesity-resistant FVB/N and obesity-prone C57BL/6, were measured after 2, 4, and 12 weeks under regular and high-fat feeding conditions. The total cell number in the epididymal fat pad was estimated from the fat pad mass and the normalized cell-size distribution. The cell number and volume-weighted mean cell size increase as a function of fat pad mass. To address adipose tissue growth precisely, we developed a mathematical model describing the evolution of the adipose cell-size distributions as a function of the increasing fat pad mass, instead of the increasing chronological time. Our model describes the recruitment of new adipose cells and their subsequent development in different strains, and with different diet regimens, with common mechanisms, but with diet- and genetics-dependent model parameters. Compared to the FVB/N strain, the C57BL/6 strain has greater recruitment of small adipose cells. Hyperplasia is enhanced by high-fat diet in a strain-dependent way, suggesting a synergistic interaction between genetics and diet. Moreover, high-fat feeding increases the rate of adipose cell size growth, independent of strain, reflecting the increase in calories requiring storage. Additionally, high-fat diet leads to a dramatic spreading of the size distribution of adipose cells in both strains; this implies an increase in size fluctuations of adipose cells through lipid turnover.

  12. Adiposity is Associated with Endothelial Activation in Healthy 2- to 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Cecilia; Tracy, Russell P.; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Basch, Charles E.; Shea, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Adiposity is associated with C-reactive protein level in healthy 2–3 year old children and with other markers of endothelial activation adults, but data are lacking in very young children. Data from 491 healthy Hispanic children were analyzed. Mean age was 2.7 years (S.D. 0.5, range 2 to 3 years); mean body mass index (BMI) was 17.2 kg/m2 (S.D. 1.9) among boys and 17.1 kg/m2 (S.D. 2.1) among girls. E-selectin level was associated with BMI (R =0.11; p < 0.02), ponderal index (p < 0.02), waist circumference (p = 0.02), fasting insulin (p < 0.02), and insulin resistance (p ≤ 0.05); these associations remained significant after adjustment for age, sex and fasting glucose. sVCAM was also associated with BMI (R = 0.12; P<0.05). These observations indicate that adiposity is associated with inflammation and endothelial activation in very early childhood. PMID:20020578

  13. The sexually dimorphic role of adipose and adipocyte estrogen receptors in modulating adipose tissue expansion, inflammation, and fibrosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our data demonstrate that estrogens, estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), and estrogen receptor-ßeta (ERßeta) regulate adipose tissue distribution, inflammation, fibrosis, and glucose homeostasis, by determining that alphaERKO mice have increased adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis prior to obesi...

  14. Physical activity and genetic predisposition to obesity in a multiethnic longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Reddon, Hudson; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; Engert, James C.; Mohan, Viswanathan; Bosch, Jackie; Desai, Dipika; Bailey, Swneke D.; Diaz, Rafael; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S.; Meyre, David

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) has been shown to reduce the impact of FTO variation and obesity genetic risk scores (GRS) on BMI. We examined this interaction using a quantitative measure of PA and two adiposity indexes in a longitudinal multi-ethnic study. We analyzed the impact of PA on the association between 14 obesity predisposing variants (analyzed independently and as a GRS) and baseline/follow-up obesity measures in the multi-ethnic prospective cohort EpiDREAM (17423 participants from six ethnic groups). PA was analyzed using basic (low-moderate-high) and quantitative measures (metabolic equivalents (METS)), while BMI and the body adiposity index (BAI) were used to measure obesity. Increased PA was associated with decreased BMI/BAI at baseline/follow-up. FTO rs1421085, CDKAL1 rs2206734, TNNl3K rs1514176, GIPR rs11671664 and the GRS were associated with obesity measures at baseline and/or follow-up. Risk alleles of three SNPs displayed nominal associations with increased (NTRK2 rs1211166, BDNF rs1401635) or decreased (NPC1 rs1805081) basic PA score independently of BMI/BAI. Both basic and quantitative PA measures attenuated the association between FTO rs1421085 risk allele and BMI/BAI at baseline and follow-up. Our results show that physical activity can blunt the genetic effect of FTO rs1421085 on adiposity by 36–75% in a longitudinal multi-ethnic cohort. PMID:26727462

  15. Mechanisms Linking Excess Adiposity and Carcinogenesis Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Hernández, Ana I.; Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Frühbeck, Gema

    2014-01-01

    Obesity constitutes one of the most important metabolic diseases being associated to insulin resistance development and increased cardiovascular risk. Association between obesity and cancer has also been well established for several tumor types, such as breast cancer in post-menopausal women, colorectal, and prostate cancer. Cancer is the first death cause in developed countries and the second one in developing countries, with high incidence rates around the world. Furthermore, it has been estimated that 15–20% of all cancer deaths may be attributable to obesity. Tumor growth is regulated by interactions between tumor cells and their tissue microenvironment. In this sense, obesity may lead to cancer development through dysfunctional adipose tissue and altered signaling pathways. In this review, three main pathways relating obesity and cancer development are examined: (i) inflammatory changes leading to macrophage polarization and altered adipokine profile; (ii) insulin resistance development; and (iii) adipose tissue hypoxia. Since obesity and cancer present a high prevalence, the association between these conditions is of great public health significance and studies showing mechanisms by which obesity lead to cancer development and progression are needed to improve prevention and management of these diseases. PMID:24829560

  16. Mechanisms linking excess adiposity and carcinogenesis promotion.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, Ana I; Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Frühbeck, Gema

    2014-01-01

    Obesity constitutes one of the most important metabolic diseases being associated to insulin resistance development and increased cardiovascular risk. Association between obesity and cancer has also been well established for several tumor types, such as breast cancer in post-menopausal women, colorectal, and prostate cancer. Cancer is the first death cause in developed countries and the second one in developing countries, with high incidence rates around the world. Furthermore, it has been estimated that 15-20% of all cancer deaths may be attributable to obesity. Tumor growth is regulated by interactions between tumor cells and their tissue microenvironment. In this sense, obesity may lead to cancer development through dysfunctional adipose tissue and altered signaling pathways. In this review, three main pathways relating obesity and cancer development are examined: (i) inflammatory changes leading to macrophage polarization and altered adipokine profile; (ii) insulin resistance development; and (iii) adipose tissue hypoxia. Since obesity and cancer present a high prevalence, the association between these conditions is of great public health significance and studies showing mechanisms by which obesity lead to cancer development and progression are needed to improve prevention and management of these diseases.

  17. Laser-induced lipolysis on adipose cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solarte, Efrain; Gutierrez, O.; Neira, Rodrigo; Arroyave, J.; Isaza, Carolina; Ramirez, Hugo; Rebolledo, Aldo F.; Criollo, Willian; Ortiz, C.

    2004-10-01

    Recently, a new liposuction technique, using a low-level laser (LLL) device and Ultrawet solution prior to the procedure, demonstrated the movement of fat from the inside to the outside of the adipocyte (Neira et al., 2002). To determine the mechanisms involved, we have performed Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy studies; Light transmittance measurements on adipocyte dilutions; and a study of laser light propagation in adipose tissue. This studies show: 1. Cellular membrane alterations. 2. LLL is capable to reach the deep adipose tissue layer, and 3. The tumescence solution enhances the light propagation by clearing the tissue. MRI studies demonstrated the appearance of fat on laser treated abdominal tissue. Besides, adipocytes were cultivated and irradiated to observe the effects on isolated cells. These last studies show: 1. 635 nm-laser alone is capable of mobilizing cholesterol from the cell membrane; this action is enhanced by the presence of adrenaline and lidocaine. 2. Intracellular fat is released from adipocytes by co joint action of adrenaline, aminophyline and 635 nm-laser. Results are consistent with a laser induced cellular process, which causes fat release from the adipocytes into the intercellular space, besides the modification of the cellular membranes.

  18. Rare adipose disorders (RADs) masquerading as obesity

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    Rare adipose disorders (RADs) including multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL), lipedema and Dercum's disease (DD) may be misdiagnosed as obesity. Lifestyle changes, such as reduced caloric intake and increased physical activity are standard care for obesity. Although lifestyle changes and bariatric surgery work effectively for the obesity component of RADs, these treatments do not routinely reduce the abnormal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of RADs. RAD SAT likely results from the growth of a brown stem cell population with secondary lymphatic dysfunction in MSL, or by primary vascular and lymphatic dysfunction in lipedema and DD. People with RADs do not lose SAT from caloric limitation and increased energy expenditure alone. In order to improve recognition of RADs apart from obesity, the diagnostic criteria, histology and pathophysiology of RADs are presented and contrasted to familial partial lipodystrophies, acquired partial lipodystrophies and obesity with which they may be confused. Treatment recommendations focus on evidence-based data and include lymphatic decongestive therapy, medications and supplements that support loss of RAD SAT. Associated RAD conditions including depression, anxiety and pain will improve as healthcare providers learn to identify and adopt alternative treatment regimens for the abnormal SAT component of RADs. Effective dietary and exercise regimens are needed in RAD populations to improve quality of life and construct advanced treatment regimens for future generations. PMID:22301856

  19. Adiposity significantly modifies genetic risk for dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Cole, Christopher B; Nikpay, Majid; Lau, Paulina; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Davies, Robert W; Wells, George A; Dent, Robert; McPherson, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci robustly associated with plasma lipids, which also contribute to extreme lipid phenotypes. However, these common genetic variants explain <12% of variation in lipid traits. Adiposity is also an important determinant of plasma lipoproteins, particularly plasma TGs and HDL cholesterol (HDLc) concentrations. Thus, interactions between genes and clinical phenotypes may contribute to this unexplained heritability. We have applied a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) for both plasma TGs and HDLc in two large cohorts at the extremes of BMI. Both BMI and GRS were strongly associated with these lipid traits. A significant interaction between obese/lean status and GRS was noted for each of TG (P(Interaction) = 2.87 × 10(-4)) and HDLc (P(Interaction) = 1.05 × 10(-3)). These interactions were largely driven by SNPs tagging APOA5, glucokinase receptor (GCKR), and LPL for TG, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), GalNAc-transferase (GALNT2), endothelial lipase (LIPG), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) for HDLc. In contrast, the GRSLDL cholesterol × adiposity interaction was not significant. Sexual dimorphism was evident for the GRSHDL on HDLc in obese (P(Interaction) = 0.016) but not lean subjects. SNP by BMI interactions may provide biological insight into specific genetic associations and missing heritability. PMID:25225679

  20. Adipose Tissue Promotes a Serum Cytokine Profile Related to Lower Insulin Sensitivity after Chronic Central Leptin Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Canelles, Sandra; Perianes-Cachero, Arancha; Arilla-Ferreiro, Eduardo; Argente, Jesús; Barrios, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is an inflammatory state characterized by an augment in circulating inflammatory factors. Leptin may modulate the synthesis of these factors by white adipose tissue decreasing insulin sensitivity. We have examined the effect of chronic central administration of leptin on circulating levels of cytokines and the possible relationship with cytokine expression and protein content as well as with leptin and insulin signaling in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlation between circulating levels of cytokines and peripheral insulin resistance. We studied 18 male Wistar rats divided into controls (C), those treated icv for 14 days with a daily dose of 12 μg of leptin (L) and a pair-fed group (PF) that received the same food amount consumed by the leptin group. Serum leptin and insulin were measured by ELISA, mRNA levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by real time PCR and serum and adipose tissue levels of these cytokines by multiplexed bead immunoassay. Serum leptin, IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and HOMA-IR were increased in L and TNF-α was decreased in PF and L. Serum leptin and IL-2 levels correlate positively with HOMA-IR index and negatively with serum glucose levels during an ip insulin tolerance test. In L, an increase in mRNA levels of IL-2 was found in both adipose depots and IFN-γ only in visceral tissue. Activation of leptin signaling was increased and insulin signaling decreased in subcutaneous fat of L. In conclusion, leptin mediates the production of inflammatory cytokines by adipose tissue independent of its effects on food intake, decreasing insulin sensitivity. PMID:23056516

  1. The effects of prenatal oxidative stress levels on infant adiposity development during the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Loy, S L; Sirajudeen, K N S; Hamid Jan, J M

    2014-04-01

    Although numerous studies have been conducted to examine the causal factors of childhood obesity, the implications of intrauterine oxidative stress on early postnatal adiposity development remain to be elucidated. The Universiti Sains Malaysia Birth Cohort Study aimed to investigate the effects of prenatal oxidative stress levels on the development of infant adiposity during the first year of life. This study was conducted on the healthy pregnant women aged 19-40 years, from April 2010 to December 2012 in Kelantan, Malaysia. Maternal blood samples were drawn in the second trimester to analyse for oxidative stress markers. Infant anthropometric measurements were taken at birth, 2, 6 and 12 months of age. A total of 153 pregnant women and full-term infants were included in the analysis. Statistical test was conducted by using multiple linear regression. Through the infant first year of life, as maternal DNA damage level in the second trimester increased, infant weights at birth (β=-0.122, P<0.001), 2 months (β=-0.120, P=0013), 6 months (β=-0.209, P=0.003) and 12 months of age (β=-0.241, P=0.006) decreased after adjusting for confounders. Similar results were noted when infant body mass index-for-age Z-scores and triceps skinfold-for-age Z-scores were used as the adiposity indicators. In conclusion, the present study shows a consistent inverse association between maternal DNA damage and infant adiposity during the first year of life. These infants with reduced growth and adiposity in early postnatal life may have a high tendency to experience catch-up growth during childhood, which could be strongly associated with later obesity. PMID:24847700

  2. Height, adiposity and body fat distribution and breast density in young women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, but determinants of breast density in young women remain largely unknown. Methods Associations of height, adiposity and body fat distribution with percentage dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 174 healthy women, 25 to 29 years old. Adiposity and body fat distribution were measured by anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), while %DBV and ADBV were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Associations were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models. All tests of statistical significance are two-sided. Results Height was significantly positively associated with %DBV but not ADBV; for each standard deviation (SD) increase in height, %DBV increased by 18.7% in adjusted models. In contrast, all measures of adiposity and body fat distribution were significantly inversely associated with %DBV; a SD increase in body mass index (BMI), percentage fat mass, waist circumference and the android:gynoid fat mass ratio (A:G ratio) was each associated significantly with a 44.4 to 47.0% decrease in %DBV after adjustment for childhood BMI and other covariates. Although associations were weaker than for %DBV, all measures of adiposity and body fat distribution also were significantly inversely associated with ADBV before adjustment for childhood BMI. After adjustment for childhood BMI, however, only the DXA measures of percentage fat mass and A:G ratio remained significant; a SD increase in each was associated with a 13.8 to 19.6% decrease in ADBV. In mutually adjusted analysis, the percentage fat mass and the A:G ratio remained significantly inversely associated with %DBV, but only the A:G ratio was significantly associated with ADBV; a SD increase in the A:G ratio was associated with an 18.5% decrease in ADBV. Conclusion Total adiposity and body fat distribution are independently inversely associated with

  3. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross

  4. Brown Adipose Tissue and Browning Agents: Irisin and FGF21 in the Development of Obesity in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pyrżak, B; Demkow, U; Kucharska, A M

    2015-01-01

    In the pediatric population, especially in early infancy, the activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the highest. Further in life BAT is more active in individuals with a lower body mass index and one can expect that BAT is protective against childhood obesity. The development of BAT throughout the whole life can be regulated by genetic, endocrine, and environmental factors. Three distinct adipose depots have been identified: white, brown, and beige adipocytes. The process by which BAT can become beige is still unclear and is an area of intensive research. The "browning agents" increase energy expenditure through the production of heat. Numerous factors known as "browning agents" have currently been described. In humans, recent studies justify a notion of a role of novel myokines: irisin and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in the metabolism and development of obesity. This review describes a possible role of irisin and FGF21 in the pathogenesis of obesity in children.

  5. Spatial structural integrity is important for adipose regeneration after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yi; Zhang, Shu; Gao, Jianhua; Lu, Feng

    2015-10-01

    Advances in structural fat transplantation technology have significantly improved the survival rate and stability of grafts. This study investigated the importance of the spatial structural integrity of adipose tissue for adipose regeneration after fat transplantation. We sought to enhance understanding of structural fat transplantation and optimize procedures used for the clinical acquisition, purification, and transplantation of adipose tissue. In an inactivated structuration adipose tissue model established by freezing at -20 °C for 3 days, nearly all cells were dead but the structure was intact. We transplanted this adipose tissue model (group A) or non-treated adipose tissue (group B) into GFP-expressing mice. Group B showed a higher graft survival percentage and less fibrosis than group A. The macrophage infiltration (F4/80) peak period was longer in group A than in group B. The change in vessel density (CD31) was similar in the two groups: it peaked at 4 weeks after transplantation and decreased thereafter. In both groups, the number of Ki67+ cells showed a similar trend. In comparison to group B, group A had more Ki67+ cells at 4-8 weeks after transplantation, but fewer of these cells at 12 weeks after transplantation. The intact spatial structure of adipose tissue, which is supported by adipocytes and extracellular matrix, provides a niche for adipogenesis and angiogenesis after fat transplantation.

  6. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle blood flow during mental stress

    SciTech Connect

    Linde, B.; Hjemdahl, P.; Freyschuss, U.; Juhlin-Dannfelt, A.

    1989-01-01

    Mental stress (a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)) increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilation in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation.

  7. Our Fat Future: Translating Adipose Stem Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nordberg, Rachel C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human adipose stem cells (hASCs) have the potential to treat patients with a variety of clinical conditions. Recent advancements in translational research, regulatory policy, and industry have positioned hASCs on the threshold of clinical translation. We discuss the progress and challenges of bringing adipose stem cell therapy into mainstream clinical use. Significance This article details the advances made in recent years that have helped move human adipose stem cell therapy toward mainstream clinical use from a translational research, regulatory policy, and industrial standpoint. Four recurrent themes in translational technology as they pertain to human adipose stem cells are discussed: automated closed-system operations, biosensors and real-time monitoring, biomimetics, and rapid manufacturing. In light of recent FDA guidance documents, regulatory concerns about adipose stem cell therapy are discussed. Finally, an update is provided on the current state of clinical trials and the emerging industry that uses human adipose stem cells. This article is expected to stimulate future studies in translational adipose stem cell research. PMID:26185256

  8. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  9. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Acute Adipose Tissue Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Sung; Rongisch, Robert; Hager, Stephan; Grieb, Gerrit; Nourbakhsh, Mahtab; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Bucala, Richard; Bernhagen, Juergen; Pallua, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine and has been implicated in inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about the regulation of MIF in adipose tissue and its impact on wound healing. The aim of this study was to investigate MIF expression in inflamed adipose and determine its role in inflammatory cell recruitment and wound healing. Adipose tissue was harvested from subcutaneous adipose tissue layers of 24 healthy subjects and from adipose tissue adjacent to acutely inflamed wounds of 21 patients undergoing wound debridement. MIF protein and mRNA expression were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR. Cell-specific MIF expression was visualized by immunohistochemistry. The functional role of MIF in cell recruitment was investigated by a chemotaxis assay and by flow cytometry of labeled macrophages that were injected into Mif-/-and wildtype mice. Wound healing was evaluated by an in vitro scratch assay on human fibroblast monolayers. MIF protein levels of native adipose tissue and supernatants from acutely inflamed wounds were significantly elevated when compared to healthy controls. MIF mRNA expression was increased in acutely inflamed adipose tissue indicating the activation of MIF gene transcription in response to adipose tissue inflammation. MIF is expressed in mature adipocytes and in infiltrated macrophages. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell migration was significantly increased towards supernatants derived from inflamed adipose tissue. This effect was partially abrogated by MIF-neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, when compared to wildtype mice, Mif-/-mice showed reduced infiltration of labeled macrophages into LPS-stimulated epididymal fat pads in vivo. Finally, MIF antibodies partially neutralized the detrimental effect of MIF on fibroblast wound healing. Our results indicate that increased MIF expression and rapid activation of the MIF gene in fat tissue adjacent to acute wound healing disorders may play a role in cell

  10. Influence of adiposity and physical activity on arterial stiffness in healthy children: the lifestyle of our kids study.

    PubMed

    Sakuragi, Satoru; Abhayaratna, Katrina; Gravenmaker, Karen J; O'Reilly, Christine; Srikusalanukul, Wichat; Budge, Marc M; Telford, Richard D; Abhayaratna, Walter P

    2009-04-01

    Childhood obesity is increasingly prevalent in the community and is related to adverse cardiovascular outcomes during adulthood. In this study of healthy children, we evaluated the influence of adiposity and physical activity on carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), an index of arterial stiffness and a marker of cardiovascular risk in adults. In 573 community-based children (mean age: 10.1+/-0.3 years; 51% boys), we measured body mass index and waist circumference. Percentage body fat was quantitated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity levels were assessed using a 20-m shuttle run and 7-day pedometer count, respectively. PWV was estimated by applanation tonometry. In univariate analysis, PWV was positively correlated with body mass index (r=0.34), waist circumference (r=0.32), and percentage body fat (r=0.32; P<0.001 for all) and negatively correlated with CRF (r=-0.23; P<0.001) and pedometer count (r=-0.08; P=0.046). In separate multivariable linear regression models, body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat were independently and positively associated with PWV (P<0.01 for all) after adjusting for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and CRF (P<0.01 for all). The influence of CRF on PWV was attenuated after adjusting for adiposity. In conclusion, increased body mass and adiposity and decreased CRF are associated with arterial stiffening in healthy prepubescent children.

  11. Total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, N.; Harsas, W.; Marolt, R.S.; Morton, M.; Pollack, J.K.

    1988-12-01

    As far as the authors could ascertain only 4 well-documented analytical studies have been carried out in Australia determining the total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue. The latest of these studies was published over 16 years ago. Therefore it is timely and important to re-examine the total DDT and dieldrin concentration within the adipose tissue of the Australian population. The present investigation has analyzed 290 samples of human adipose tissue obtained from Westmead Hospital situated in an outer suburb of Sydney, New South Wales for their content of total DDT and dieldrin.

  12. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  13. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  14. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value.

  15. Laser light propagation in adipose tissue and laser effects on adipose cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solarte, Efraín; Rebolledo, Aldo; Gutierrez, Oscar; Criollo, William; Neira, Rodrigo; Arroyave, José; Ramírez, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    Recently Neira et al. have presented a new liposuction technique that demonstrated the movement of fat from inside to outside of the cell, using a low-level laser device during a liposuction procedure with Ultrawet solution. The clinical observations, allowed this new surgical development, started a set of physical, histological and pharmacological studies aimed to determine the mechanisms involved in the observed fat mobilization concomitant to external laser application in liposuction procedures. Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy, studies show that the cellular arrangement of normal adipose tissue changes when laser light from a diode laser: 10 mW, 635 nm is applied. Laser exposures longer than 6 minutes cause the total destruction of the adipocyte panicles. Detailed observation of the adipose cells show that by short irradiation times (less than four minutes) the cell membrane exhibits dark zones, that collapse by longer laser exposures. Optical measurements show that effective penetration length depends on the laser intensity. Moreover, the light scattering is enhanced by diffraction and subsequent interference effects, and the tumescent solution produces a clearing of the tissue optical medium. Finally, isolate adipose cell observation show that fat release from adipocytes is a concomitant effect between the tumescent solution (adrenaline) and laser light, revealing a synergism which conduces to the aperture, and maybe the disruption, of the cell membrane. All these studies were consistent with a laser induced cellular process, which causes fat release from inside the adipocytes into the intercellular space, besides a strong modification of the cellular membranes.

  16. Refractive index of air. 2. Group index.

    PubMed

    Ciddor, P E; Hill, R J

    1999-03-20

    In a previous paper [Appl. Opt. 35, 1566 (1996)] one of us presented new equations for evaluation of the phase refractive index of air over a range of wavelengths and atmospheric parameters. That paper also gave an incorrect, although sufficiently accurate, procedure for calculating the group refractive index. Here we describe the results of a more rigorous derivation of the group index that takes proper account of the Lorentz-Lorenz formula, and we demonstrate that deviations from the Lorentz-Lorenz formula are insignificant to within a foreseeable precision of dispersion measurements for atmospheric conditions. We also derive and evaluate a simplification of the resultant equation that is useful for exploratory calculations. We clarify the limits of validity of the standard equation for the group refractive index and correct some minor errors in the previous paper.

  17. Improving Keyword Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsgaard, John N.; Evans, John Edward

    1981-01-01

    Examines some of the most frequently cited criticisms of keyword indexing, including (1) the absence of general subject headings, (2) limited entry points, and (3) irrelevant indexing. Six references are cited. (FM)

  18. Body mass index

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass index To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health care provider ...

  19. Audio Indexing for Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahnlom, Harold F.; Pedrick, Lillian

    1978-01-01

    This article describes Zimdex, an audio indexing system developed to solve the problem of indexing audio materials for individual instruction in the content area of the mathematics of life insurance. (Author)

  20. Body Mass Index Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  1. Adipose-derived stromal cells mediate in vivo adipogenesis, angiogenesis and inflammation in decellularized adipose tissue bioscaffolds.

    PubMed

    Han, Tim Tian Y; Toutounji, Sandra; Amsden, Brian G; Flynn, Lauren E

    2015-12-01

    Decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) has shown promise as an adipogenic bioscaffold for soft tissue augmentation and reconstruction. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of allogeneic adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) on in vivo fat regeneration in DAT bioscaffolds using an immunocompetent rat model. ASC seeding significantly enhanced angiogenesis and adipogenesis, with cell tracking studies indicating that the newly-forming tissues were host-derived. Incorporating ASCs also mediated the inflammatory response and promoted a more constructive macrophage phenotype. A fraction of the CD163(+) macrophages in the implants expressed adipogenic markers, with higher levels of this "adipocyte-like" phenotype in proximity to the developing adipose tissues. Our results indicate that the combination of ASCs and adipose extracellular matrix (ECM) provides an inductive microenvironment for adipose regeneration mediated by infiltrating host cell populations. The DAT scaffolds are a useful tissue-specific model system for investigating the mechanisms of in vivo adipogenesis that may help to develop a better understanding of this complex process in the context of both regeneration and disease. Overall, combining adipose-derived matrices with ASCs is a highly promising approach for the in situ regeneration of host-derived adipose tissue.

  2. Adipose-derived stromal cells mediate in vivo adipogenesis, angiogenesis and inflammation in decellularized adipose tissue bioscaffolds.

    PubMed

    Han, Tim Tian Y; Toutounji, Sandra; Amsden, Brian G; Flynn, Lauren E

    2015-12-01

    Decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) has shown promise as an adipogenic bioscaffold for soft tissue augmentation and reconstruction. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of allogeneic adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) on in vivo fat regeneration in DAT bioscaffolds using an immunocompetent rat model. ASC seeding significantly enhanced angiogenesis and adipogenesis, with cell tracking studies indicating that the newly-forming tissues were host-derived. Incorporating ASCs also mediated the inflammatory response and promoted a more constructive macrophage phenotype. A fraction of the CD163(+) macrophages in the implants expressed adipogenic markers, with higher levels of this "adipocyte-like" phenotype in proximity to the developing adipose tissues. Our results indicate that the combination of ASCs and adipose extracellular matrix (ECM) provides an inductive microenvironment for adipose regeneration mediated by infiltrating host cell populations. The DAT scaffolds are a useful tissue-specific model system for investigating the mechanisms of in vivo adipogenesis that may help to develop a better understanding of this complex process in the context of both regeneration and disease. Overall, combining adipose-derived matrices with ASCs is a highly promising approach for the in situ regeneration of host-derived adipose tissue. PMID:26360790

  3. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) deficiencies affect expression of lipolytic activities in mouse adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Morak, Maria; Schmidinger, Hannes; Riesenhuber, Gernot; Rechberger, Gerald N; Kollroser, Manfred; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Kronenberg, Florian; Hermetter, Albin

    2012-12-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are key enzymes involved in intracellular degradation of triacylglycerols. It was the aim of this study to elucidate how the deficiency in one of these proteins affects the residual lipolytic proteome in adipose tissue. For this purpose, we compared the lipase patterns of brown and white adipose tissue from ATGL (-/-) and HSL (-/-) mice using differential activity-based gel electrophoresis. This method is based on activity-recognition probes possessing the same substrate analogous structure but carrying different fluorophores for specific detection of the enzyme patterns of two different tissues in one electrophoresis gel. We found that ATGL-deficiency in brown adipose tissue had a profound effect on the expression levels of other lipolytic and esterolytic enzymes in this tissue, whereas HSL-deficiency hardly showed any effect in brown adipose tissue. Neither ATGL- nor HSL-deficiency greatly influenced the lipase patterns in white adipose tissue. Enzyme activities of mouse tissues on acylglycerol substrates were analyzed as well, showing that ATGL-and HSL-deficiencies can be compensated for at least in part by other enzymes. The proteins that responded to ATGL-deficiency in brown adipose tissue were overexpressed and their activities on acylglycerols were analyzed. Among these enzymes, Es1, Es10, and Es31-like represent lipase candidates as they catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain acylglycerols.

  4. Isoliquiritigenin Attenuates Adipose Tissue Inflammation in vitro and Adipose Tissue Fibrosis through Inhibition of Innate Immune Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yasuharu; Nagai, Yoshinori; Honda, Hiroe; Okamoto, Naoki; Yamamoto, Seiji; Hamashima, Takeru; Ishii, Yoko; Tanaka, Miyako; Suganami, Takayoshi; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Miyake, Kensuke; Takatsu, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Isoliquiritigenin (ILG) is a flavonoid derived from Glycyrrhiza uralensis and potently suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome activation resulting in the improvement of diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation. However, whether ILG affects other pathways besides the inflammasome in adipose tissue inflammation is unknown. We here show that ILG suppresses adipose tissue inflammation by affecting the paracrine loop containing saturated fatty acids and TNF-α by using a co-culture composed of adipocytes and macrophages. ILG suppressed inflammatory changes induced by the co-culture through inhibition of NF-κB activation. This effect was independent of either inhibition of inflammasome activation or activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Moreover, ILG suppressed TNF-α-induced activation of adipocytes, coincident with inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation. Additionally, TNF-α-mediated inhibition of Akt phosphorylation under insulin signaling was alleviated by ILG in adipocytes. ILG suppressed palmitic acid-induced activation of macrophages, with decreasing the level of phosphorylated Jnk expression. Intriguingly, ILG improved high fat diet-induced fibrosis in adipose tissue in vivo. Finally, ILG inhibited TLR4- or Mincle-stimulated expression of fibrosis-related genes in stromal vascular fraction from obese adipose tissue and macrophages in vitro. Thus, ILG can suppress adipose tissue inflammation by both inflammasome-dependent and -independent manners and attenuate adipose tissue fibrosis by targeting innate immune sensors. PMID:26975571

  5. Rorα deficiency and decreased adiposity are associated with induction of thermogenic gene expression in subcutaneous white adipose and brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Lau, Patrick; Tuong, Zewen K; Wang, Shu-Ching; Fitzsimmons, Rebecca L; Goode, Joel M; Thomas, Gethin P; Cowin, Gary J; Pearen, Michael A; Mardon, Karine; Stow, Jennifer L; Muscat, George E O

    2015-01-15

    The Rar-related orphan receptor-α (Rorα) is a nuclear receptor that regulates adiposity and is a potential regulator of energy homeostasis. We have demonstrated that the Rorα-deficient staggerer (sg/sg) mice display a lean and obesity-resistant phenotype. Adaptive Ucp1-dependent thermogenesis in beige/brite and brown adipose tissue serves as a mechanism to increase energy expenditure and resist obesity. DEXA and MRI analysis demonstrated significantly decreased total fat mass and fat/lean mass tissue ratio in male chow-fed sg/sg mice relative to wt mice. In addition, we observed increased Ucp1 expression in brown adipose and subcutaneous white adipose tissue but not in visceral adipose tissue from Rorα-deficient mice. Moreover, this was associated with significant increases in the expression of the mRNAs encoding the thermogenic genes (i.e., markers of brown and beige adipose) Pparα, Errα, Dio2, Acot11/Bfit, Cpt1β, and Cidea in the subcutaneous adipose in the sg/sg relative to WT mice. These changes in thermogenic gene expression involved the significantly increased expression of the (cell-fate controlling) histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 1 (Ehmt1), which stabilizes the Prdm16 transcriptional complex. Moreover, primary brown adipocytes from sg/sg mice displayed a higher metabolic rate, and further analysis was consistent with increased uncoupling. Finally, core body temperature analysis and infrared thermography demonstrated that the sg/sg mice maintained greater thermal control and cold tolerance relative to the WT littermates. We suggest that enhanced Ucp1 and thermogenic gene expression/activity may be an important contributor to the lean, obesity-resistant phenotype in Rorα-deficient mice.

  6. Index to Volume 110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriott, R. A.

    2001-02-01

    The Subject Index references items under general headings; where a contribution covers two or more clearly defined subjects, each is separately referenced, but otherwise sub-headings within the same topic are not included. Book and other reviews are indexed as such, but their subjects are not further cross-indexed. The Author Index details all named contributions, including talks at Ordinary Meetings, but not questions from the floor.

  7. The role of GH in adipose tissue: lessons from adipose-specific GH receptor gene-disrupted mice.

    PubMed

    List, Edward O; Berryman, Darlene E; Funk, Kevin; Gosney, Elahu S; Jara, Adam; Kelder, Bruce; Wang, Xinyue; Kutz, Laura; Troike, Katie; Lozier, Nicholas; Mikula, Vincent; Lubbers, Ellen R; Zhang, Han; Vesel, Clare; Junnila, Riia K; Frank, Stuart J; Masternak, Michal M; Bartke, Andrzej; Kopchick, John J

    2013-03-01

    GH receptor (GHR) gene-disrupted mice (GHR-/-) have provided countless discoveries as to the numerous actions of GH. Many of these discoveries highlight the importance of GH in adipose tissue. For example GHR-/- mice are insulin sensitive yet obese with preferential enlargement of the sc adipose depot. GHR-/- mice also have elevated levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin, compared with controls leading some to suggest that GH may negatively regulate certain adipokines. To help clarify the role that GH exerts specifically on adipose tissue in vivo, we selectively disrupted GHR in adipose tissue to produce Fat GHR Knockout (FaGHRKO) mice. Surprisingly, FaGHRKOs shared only a few characteristics with global GHR-/- mice. Like the GHR-/- mice, FaGHRKO mice are obese with increased total body fat and increased adipocyte size. However, FaGHRKO mice have increases in all adipose depots with no improvements in measures of glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, resistin and adiponectin levels in FaGHRKO mice are similar to controls (or slightly decreased) unlike the increased levels found in GHR-/- mice, suggesting that GH does not regulate these adipokines directly in adipose tissue in vivo. Other features of FaGHRKO mice include decreased levels of adipsin, a near-normal GH/IGF-1 axis, and minimal changes to a large assortment of circulating factors that were measured such as IGF-binding proteins. In conclusion, specific removal of GHR in adipose tissue is sufficient to increase adipose tissue and decrease circulating adipsin. However, removal of GHR in adipose tissue alone is not sufficient to increase levels of resistin or adiponectin and does not alter glucose metabolism. PMID:23349524

  8. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible.

  9. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible. PMID:26076904

  10. Automatic Versus Manual Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject indexing. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic indexing was found equivalent to manual indexing. (Author/KP)

  11. Machine-Aided Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charles R.

    Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntatic analysis technique for indexing text. A new indexing subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) are discussed. (ED 069 290 is a related document) (Author)

  12. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  13. Brown Adipose Tissue in Cetacean Blubber

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Ohtsuki, Hirofumi; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Amou, Kento; Sato, Ryo; Doi, Satoru; Kobayashi, Sara; Matsuda, Ayaka; Sugiyama, Makoto; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsuishi, Takashi; Terasawa, Fumio; Shindo, Junji; Endo, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall’s and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool waters during

  14. Brown adipose tissue in cetacean blubber.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Ohtsuki, Hirofumi; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Amou, Kento; Sato, Ryo; Doi, Satoru; Kobayashi, Sara; Matsuda, Ayaka; Sugiyama, Makoto; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsuishi, Takashi; Terasawa, Fumio; Shindo, Junji; Endo, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall's and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool waters during

  15. Brown adipose tissue in cetacean blubber.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Ohtsuki, Hirofumi; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Amou, Kento; Sato, Ryo; Doi, Satoru; Kobayashi, Sara; Matsuda, Ayaka; Sugiyama, Makoto; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsuishi, Takashi; Terasawa, Fumio; Shindo, Junji; Endo, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall's and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool waters during

  16. Role of inflammatory factors and adipose tissue in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Part I: Rheumatoid adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Kontny, Ewa; Zaniewicz-Kaniewska, Katarzyna; Prohorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Saied, Fadhil; Maśliński, Włodzimierz

    2013-06-01

    For many years, it was thought that synovial cells and chondrocytes are the only sources of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors found in the synovial fluid in patients suffering from osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Currently, it is more and more frequently indicated that adipose tissue plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of these diseases as well as that a range of pathological processes that take place in the adipose tissue, synovial membrane and cartilage are interconnected. The adipose tissue is considered a specialized form of the connective tissue containing various types of cells which produce numerous biologically active factors. The latest studies reveal that, similarly to the synovial membrane, articular adipose tissue may take part in the local inflammatory response and affect the metabolism of the cartilage and subchondral osseous tissue. In in vitro conditions, the explants of this tissue obtained from patients suffering from osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis produce similar pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines to the explants of the synovial membrane. At this stage already, knowledge translates into imaging diagnostics. In radiological images, the shadowing of the periarticular soft tissues may not only reflect synovial membrane pathologies or joint effusion, but may also suggest inflammatory edema of the adipose tissue. On ultrasound examinations, abnormal presentation of the adipose tissue, i.e. increased echogenicity and hyperemia, may indicate its inflammation. Such images have frequently been obtained during ultrasound scanning and have been interpreted as inflammation, edema, hypertrophy or fibrosis of the adipose tissue. At present, when the knowledge concerning pathogenic mechanisms is taken into account, abnormal echogenicity and hyperemia of the adipose tissue may be considered as a proof of its inflammation. In the authors' own practice, the inflammation of the adipose tissue usually accompanies synovitis

  17. Menopause is a Determinant of Breast Adipose Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, Neil M.; Morris, Patrick G.; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Gucalp, Ayca; Giri, Dilip; Harbus, Michael D.; Falcone, Domenick J.; Krasne, Margaret D.; Vahdat, Linda T.; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Morrow, Monica; Hudis, Clifford A.; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is recognized as a risk factor for the development of several malignancies. Local white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, defined by the presence of dead or dying adipocytes encircled by macrophages which form crown-like structures (CLS), occurs in the breasts (CLS-B) of most overweight and obese women. Previously, we showed that the presence of CLS-B is associated with elevated tissue levels of proinflammatory mediators and aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis. The associated increased levels of aromatase in the breast provide a plausible mechanistic link between WAT inflammation and estrogen-dependent breast cancers. Thus, breast WAT inflammation could be relevant for explaining the high incidence of estrogen-dependent tumors with aging despite diminished circulating estrogen levels after menopause. To explore this possibility, we determined whether menopause in addition to body mass index (BMI) is associated with breast WAT inflammation among 237 prospectively enrolled women. The presence of CLS-B and its severity (CLS-B/cm2) as indicators of WAT inflammation correlated with menopausal status (P=0.008 and P<0.001) and BMI (P<0.001 for both). In multivariable analyses adjusted for BMI, the postmenopausal state was independently associated with the presence (P=0.03) and severity of breast WAT inflammation (P=0.01). Mean adipocyte size increased in association with CLS-B (P<0.001). Our findings demonstrate that breast WAT inflammation, which is associated with elevated aromatase levels, is increased in association with the postmenopausal state independent of BMI. Breast WAT inflammation, a process that can potentially be targeted, may help to explain the high incidence of estrogen-dependent tumors in postmenopausal women. PMID:25720743

  18. Morphological and inflammatory changes in visceral adipose tissue during obesity.

    PubMed

    Revelo, Xavier S; Luck, Helen; Winer, Shawn; Winer, Daniel A

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a major health burden worldwide and is a major factor in the development of insulin resistance and metabolic complications such as type II diabetes. Chronic nutrient excess leads to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) expansion and dysfunction in an active process that involves the adipocytes, their supporting matrix, and immune cell infiltrates. These changes contribute to adipose tissue hypoxia, adipocyte cell stress, and ultimately cell death. Accumulation of lymphocytes, macrophages, and other immune cells around dying adipocytes forms the so-called "crown-like structure", a histological hallmark of VAT in obesity. Cross talk between immune cells in adipose tissue dictates the overall inflammatory response, ultimately leading to the production of pro-inflammatory mediators which directly induce insulin resistance in VAT. In this review, we summarize recent studies demonstrating the dramatic changes that occur in visceral adipose tissue during obesity leading to low-grade chronic inflammation and metabolic disease.

  19. Non-invasive Assessments of Adipose Tissue Metabolism In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Borowsky, Francis E; Quinn, Kyle P; Bernstein, David L; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kaplan, David L

    2016-03-01

    Adipose tissue engineering is a diverse area of research where the developed tissues can be used to study normal adipose tissue functions, create disease models in vitro, and replace soft tissue defects in vivo. Increasing attention has been focused on the highly specialized metabolic pathways that regulate energy storage and release in adipose tissues which affect local and systemic outcomes. Non-invasive, dynamic measurement systems are useful to track these metabolic pathways in the same tissue model over time to evaluate long term cell growth, differentiation, and development within tissue engineering constructs. This approach reduces costs and time in comparison to more traditional destructive methods such as biochemical and immunochemistry assays and proteomics assessments. Towards this goal, this review will focus on important metabolic functions of adipose tissues and strategies to evaluate them with non-invasive in vitro methods. Current non-invasive methods, such as measuring key metabolic markers and endogenous contrast imaging will be explored.

  20. Relation between leukocyte count, adiposity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in pubertal adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tenório, Thiago Ricardo dos Santos; Farah, Breno Quintella; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Botero, João Paulo; Brito, Daniel Calado; de Moura, Patrícia Muniz Mendes Freire; do Prado, Wagner Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the total and differential leukocyte count in obese and normal-weight adolescents, and to verify their possible relations with cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity indicators. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted with 139 adolescents (107 obese and 32 normal weight) aged between 13 and 18 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by direct gas analysis during an incremental treadmill test. Total leukocytes and subsets were estimated by flow cytometry. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The t-test for independent samples was used for comparison between groups. The relation between leukocytes, cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity indicators was verified by Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regression (adjusted for age and body mass index) tests. Results Obese adolescents had higher leukocyte (8.12±2.36u/L x 103; p=0.001), neutrophil (4.33±1.86u/L x 103; p=0.002), and monocyte (0.70±0.22u/L x 103; p=0.002) counts compared to the levels of normal weight subjects. After the necessary adjustments, cardiorespiratory fitness had a negative association with leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes in boys. Conclusion Obese adolescents had higher total and differential leucocyte count when compared to normal weight individuals. We also observed a weak positive association between adiposity and total leukocyte, monocyte, and neutrophil counts, and in boys, a negative association between cardiorespiratory fitness and total count of leukocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils. PMID:25628191

  1. The association between food patterns and adiposity among Canadian children at risk of overweight.

    PubMed

    Shang, Lei; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Tremblay, Angelo; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2014-02-01

    Identifying food patterns related to obesity can provide information for health promotion in nutrition. Food patterns and their relation with obesity among Canadian children have not been reported to date. Our aim was to identify and describe food patterns associated with obesity in children at risk of overweight. Caucasian children (n = 630) with at least 1 obese biological parent recruited into the Quebec Adiposity and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort were studied in cross-sectional analyses. Measures of adiposity (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fat mass percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), screen time, physical activity (accelerometer over 7 days), and dietary intake (three 24-h food recalls) were collected. Factor analysis was used to identify food patterns. The relationships between food patterns and overweight were investigated in logistic and multiple linear regression models. Three food patterns were retained for analysis: traditional food (red meats, main dishes-soups, high-fat dairy products, tomato products, dressings, etc.); healthy food (low-fat dairy products, whole grains, legumes-nuts-seeds, fruits, vegetables); and fast food (sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes, fried chicken, hamburgers-hot dogs-pizza, salty snacks). Higher scores on the fast food pattern were associated with overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile), and other measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference, body fat mass percentage) after adjustment for age, sex, physical activity, screen time, sleep time, family income, and mother's obesity (p < 0.05). Controlling for energy intake did not change these relationships. Our results provide further evidence of a link between fast food intake and obesity in children. PMID:24476475

  2. Smoking, Central Adiposity, and Poor Glycemic Control Increase Risk of Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Nondahl, David M.; Dalton, Dayna S.; Fischer, Mary E.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nieto, F. Javier; Schubert, Carla R.; Tweed, Ted S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine associations between smoking, adiposity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and the 15-yr incidence of hearing impairment (HI). Design The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is a longitudinal population-based cohort study (1993–95 to 2009–2010). Setting Beaver Dam, WI. Participants Participants in the Beaver Dam Eye Study (1988–90; residents of Beaver Dam, WI ages 43–84 years in 1987–88) were eligible for the EHLS. There were 1925 participants with normal hearing at baseline. Measurements 15-year cumulative incidence of HI (pure-tone average (PTA) of hearing thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz > 25 decibels Hearing Level (dB HL) in either ear). Cigarette smoking, exercise, and other factors were ascertained by questionnaire. Blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured. Results Follow-up examinations (≥1) were obtained from 87.2% (n=1678; mean baseline age 61 years). The 15-year cumulative incidence of HI was 56.8%. Adjusting for age and sex, current smoking (Hazard Ratio (HR) =1.31, p=0.048), education (<16 yrs; HR=1.35, p=0.01), waist circumference (HR=1.08 per 10 cm, p=0.017), and poorly controlled diabetes (HR=2.03, p=0.048) were associated with increased risk of HI. Former smokers and people with better controlled diabetes were not at increased risk. Conclusion Smoking, central adiposity and poorly controlled diabetes predicted incident HI. These well-known CVD risk factors, suggest vascular changes may contribute to HI in aging. Interventions targeting reductions in smoking and adiposity, and improved glycemic control in people with diabetes, may help to prevent or delay the onset of HI. PMID:25953199

  3. Prospective associations between sedentary time, sleep duration and adiposity in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Collings, Paul J.; Wijndaele, Katrien; Corder, Kirsten; Westgate, Kate; Ridgway, Charlotte L.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Atkin, Andrew J.; Bamber, Diane; Goodyer, Ian; Brage, Soren; Ekelund, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate whether objectively measured sedentary time and sleep duration are associated with changes in adiposity from mid- to late adolescence. Methods Students (n = 504, 42% boys) were recruited from schools in Cambridgeshire, UK. At baseline (mean age 15.0 ± 0.3 years), sedentary time was objectively measured by ≥3 days of combined heart rate and movement sensing. Concurrently, sleep duration was measured by combined sensing in conjunction with self-reported bed times. Fat mass index (FMI; kg/m2) was estimated at baseline and follow-up (17.5 ± 0.3 years) by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance. FMI change (ΔFMI) was calculated by subtracting the baseline from follow-up values. Linear regression models adjusted for basic demographics, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and depressive symptoms were used to investigate associations of sedentary time and sleep duration (mutually adjusted for one another) with ΔFMI. Results FMI increased by 0.5 and 0.6 kg/m2 in boys and girls, respectively, but there was no association between sedentary time and ΔFMI in either gender (p ≥ 0.087), and no association between sleep duration and ΔFMI in girls (p ≥ 0.61). In boys, each additional hour of baseline sleep significantly reduced the ΔFMI by 0.13 kg/m2 (p = 0.049), but there was little evidence for this association after adjusting for MVPA and depressive symptoms (p = 0.15). Conclusions Sedentary time may not determine changes in adiposity from mid- to late adolescence, nor may sleep duration in girls. However, sleep length may be inversely associated with adiposity gain in boys, depending on whether the relationship is confounded or mediated by MVPA and depression. PMID:25959093

  4. Relationship between adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in prevalent hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kaysen, George A.; Kotanko, Peter; Zhu, Fansan; Sarkar, Shubho R; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Kuhlmann, Martin K.; Dwyer, Tjien; Usvyat, Len; Havel, Peter; Levin, Nathan W.

    2009-01-01

    Increased Body Mass Index (BMI) is associated with reduced all cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in hemodialysis patients (HD), while CV risk increases with BMI in the general population. In the general population obesity is associated with inflammation, decreased HDL, increased LDL and triglycerides (TGs), all risk factors for CV disease. LDL does not predict CV risk in HD, whereas increased C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), low HDL or apo AI and increased fasting triglycerides (TG) do predict risk. Renal failure is associated with dyslipidemia and inflammation in normal weight patients. We hypothesized that effects of obesity may be obscured by virtue of renal failure in HD. We explored the relationship between adipose tissue pools and distribution, i.e., subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (measured by MRI) and measures of inflammation (CRP, IL-6, ceruloplasmin and α 1 acid glycoprotein) HDL and LDL cholesterol, total TGs, apo A I, apo B, apo C II (an activator of lipoprotein lipase (LPL)) and CIII (an inhibitor of LPL) and the adipokines, leptin and adiponectin in 48 patients with prevalent HD. Total TG concentrations were positively correlated with VAT controlled for age, sex and weight. Both apo C II and apo C III correlated only with VAT. Adiponectin was inversely correlated with VAT and leptin was positively associated with SAT. CRP and α 1 acid glycoprotein were weakly associated with SAT while ceruloplasmin was strongly associated with VAT by multiple regression analysis. In contrast, apo B, LDL, apo A I and HDL, and IL-6 were not correlated with any measure of body composition potentially mitigating the effects of obesity in HD PMID:19596588

  5. Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue–Derived Stem Cell Utility Is Independent of Anatomical Harvest Site

    PubMed Central

    Choudhery, Mahmood S.; Badowski, Michael; Muise, Angela; Pierce, John; Harris, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract One of the challenges for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is to obtain suitably large cell numbers for therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can easily be expanded in vitro to obtain large numbers of cells, but this approach may induce cellular senescence. The characteristics of cells are dependent on variables like age, body mass index (BMI), and disease conditions, however, and in the case of adipose tissue–derived stem cells (ASCs), anatomical harvest site is also an important variable that can affect the regenerative potential of isolated cells. We therefore had kept the parameters (age, BMI, disease conditions) constant in this study to specifically assess influence of anatomical sites of individual donors on utility of ASCs. Adipose tissue was obtained from multiple anatomical sites in individual donors, and viability and nucleated cell yield were determined. MSC frequency was enumerated using colony forming unit assay and cells were characterized by flow cytometry. Growth characteristics were determined by long-term population doubling analysis of each sample. Finally, MSCs were induced to undergo adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation. To validate the findings, these results were compared with similar single harvest sites from multiple individual patients. The results of the current study indicated that MSCs obtained from multiple harvest sites in a single donor have similar morphology and phenotype. All adipose depots in a single donor exhibited similar MSC yield, viability, frequency, and growth characteristics. Equivalent differentiation capacity into osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes was also observed. On the basis of results, we conclude that it is acceptable to combine MSCs obtained from various anatomical locations in a single donor to obtain suitably large cell numbers required for therapy, avoiding in vitro senescence and lengthy and expensive in vitro culturing and expansion steps. PMID:26309790

  6. The adipose tissue in farm animals: a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2014-03-01

    Adipose tissue is not only a tissue where energy is stored but is also involved in regulating several body functions such as appetite and energy expenditure via its endocrine activity. Moreover, it thereby modulates complex processes like reproduction, inflammation and immune response. The products secreted from adipose tissue comprise hormones and cytokines that are collectively termed as adipocytokines or "adipokines"; the discovery and characterization of new proteins secreted by adipose tissue is still ongoing and their number is thus increasing. Adipokines act in both endocrine manner as well as locally, as autocrine or paracrine effectors. Proteomics has emerged as a valuable technique to characterize both cellular and secreted proteomes from adipose tissues, including those of main cellular fractions, i.e. the adipocytes or the stromal vascular fraction containing mainly adipocyte precursors and immune cells. The scientific interest in adipose tissue is largely based on the worldwide increasing prevalence of obesity in humans; in contrast, obesity is hardly an issue for farmed animals that are fed according to their well-defined needs. Adipose tissue is nevertheless of major importance in these animals, as the adipose percentage of the bodyweight is a major determinant for the efficiency of transferring nutrients from feed into food products and thus for the economic value from meat producing animals. In dairy animals, the importance of adipose tissue is based on its function as stromal structure for the mammary gland and on its role in participating in and regulating of energy metabolism and other functions. Moreover, as pig has recently become an important model organism to study human diseases, the knowledge of adipose tissue metabolism in pig is relevant for the study of obesity and metabolic disorders. We herein provide a general overview of adipose tissue functions and its importance in farm animals. This review will summarize recent achievements in

  7. [EVALUATION OF THE BODY ADIPOSITY INDEX IN PREDICTING PERCENTAGE BODY FAT AMONG COLOMBIAN ADULTS].

    PubMed

    González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-07-01

    Objetivo: el índice de adiposidad corporal (IAC) es un sencillo y nuevo método de predicción del porcentaje de grasa corporal (%GC) a través de una simple ecuación que incluye la circunferencia de cadera y la estatura. Hasta la fecha, pocos estudios han evaluado el IAC en la determinación el exceso de grasa en la población colombiana. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la utilidad del IAC como predictor del %GC en adultos de Colombia. Métodos: estudio transversal en 204 hombres del sector educativo de Bogotá, Colombia. Se estimó el IAC con la ecuación de Bergman et al. [(circunferencia de cadera, en cm)/((estatura, en m)1,5 )-18)]. El %GC se determinó a través de bioimpedancia eléctrica tetrapolar (BIA) como la medida de referencia de la adiposidad. Se utilizó el análisis de Bland-Altman para evaluar el grado de acuerdo entre ambos métodos, IAC y BIA, y se evaluaron las relaciones con otras medidas antropométricas mediante el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Resultados: en la población general, el IAC sobreestima el %GC (diferencia de medias: 12,5% [IC95% = -4,04% a -21.02%]), en especial en sujetos con niveles bajos de adiposidad (diferencia de medias: 10,2 ± 3,3). Tras ajustar por edad, el IAC muestra correlaciones significativas con el IMC (r = 0,480), la relación cintura-estatura (r = 0,557) y el %GC por BIA (r = 0,777), p.

  8. SUITABILITY OF VISCERAL ADIPOSITY INDEX AS A MARKER FOR CARDIOMETABOLIC RISKS IN JORDANIAN ADULTS.

    PubMed

    Numan Ahmad, Mousa; Halim Haddad, Fares

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: el índice de adiposidad visceral (VAI) ha sido propuesto recientemente como predictor de riesgo cardiometabólico, pero su utilidad no ha sido confirmada. Objetivos: evaluar la asociación entre VAI y los índices de adiposidad y riesgo cardiometabólico convencionales y examinar la capacidad predictiva del riesgo VAI en comparación con otros índices de adiposidad. Métodos: en este estudio se incluyeron un total de 1.622 adultos de Jordania, 686 hombres y 936 mujeres, de edad entre 20 y 80 años. Fueron examinados el VAI, el índice de masa corporal (BMI), la circunferencia de la cintura (WC), la relación cintura-cadera (WHR) y la relación cintura-estatura (WHtR) y se determinaron el colesterol de lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL-C), los triglicéridos (TG), la glucosa sérica en ayunas (FSG), y la presión arterial sistólica (SBP) y diastólica (DBP). Se evaluaron las asociaciones, la distribución por edad y género y las diferencias. El receptor de funcionamiento característico (ROC) y el área bajo la curva (AUC) se utilizaron para comparar la capacidad de predicción del riesgo. Resultados: el VAI de las mujeres (6,82 ± 6,43) fue mayor que el de los hombres (4,15 ± 4,62). El VAI severidad aumenta con la edad en una tendencia dosis-respuesta (p < 0,001) en ambos sexos. Las mujeres tuvieron mayor prevalencia que los hombres de alto riesgo de VAI y todos los índices de adiposidad y cardiometabólicos. VAI marcadamente asociado con TG, HDL-C, FSG, SBP y DBP o WHR, WC, WHtR y el BMI en orden respectivo de la potencia de correlación para los índices de riesgo cardiometabólico o adiposidad. En hombres y mujeres, respectivamente, el AUC era más grande para VAI (0,79 vs. 0,77), seguido por WHR (0,73 vs. 0,75), aseo (0,69 vs. 0,74), WHtR (0,65 vs. 0,71) y el BMI (0,53 vs. 0,51). Conclusiones: los hallazgos sugieren que el VAI potencialmente se asocia con riesgos cardiometabólicos y demuestra que es superior a otros índices de adiposidad en la predicción de tales riesgos.

  9. Household food insecurity status and Hispanic immigrant children’s body mass index and adiposity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the high prevalence rates of food insecurity and obesity among children of Hispanic immigrants, there has been a dearth of research on the direct relationship between food insecurity and obesity among this population. Further, prior research examining the association between food insecurity ...

  10. Profiling of chicken adipose tissue gene expression by genome array

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Bao; Li, Hui; Wang, Qi-Gui; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Wang, Shou-Zhi; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Xiu-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Background Excessive accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue is a major problem in the present-day broiler industry. However, few studies have analyzed the expression of adipose tissue genes that are involved in pathways and mechanisms leading to adiposity in chickens. Gene expression profiling of chicken adipose tissue could provide key information about the ontogenesis of fatness and clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity. In this study, Chicken Genome Arrays were used to construct an adipose tissue gene expression profile of 7-week-old broilers, and to screen adipose tissue genes that are differentially expressed in lean and fat lines divergently selected over eight generations for high and low abdominal fat weight. Results The gene expression profiles detected 13,234–16,858 probe sets in chicken adipose tissue at 7 weeks, and genes involved in lipid metabolism and immunity such as fatty acid binding protein (FABP), thyroid hormone-responsive protein (Spot14), lipoprotein lipase(LPL), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7(IGFBP7) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC), were highly expressed. In contrast, some genes related to lipogenesis, such as leptin receptor, sterol regulatory element binding proteins1 (SREBP1), apolipoprotein B(ApoB) and insulin-like growth factor 2(IGF2), were not detected. Moreover, 230 genes that were differentially expressed between the two lines were screened out; these were mainly involved in lipid metabolism, signal transduction, energy metabolism, tumorigenesis and immunity. Subsequently, real-time RT-PCR was performed to validate fifteen differentially expressed genes screened out by the microarray approach and high consistency was observed between the two methods. Conclusion Our results establish the groundwork for further studies of the basic genetic control of growth and development of chicken adipose tissue, and will be beneficial in clarifying the molecular mechanism of obesity in chickens. PMID

  11. n-3 PUFA: bioavailability and modulation of adipose tissue function.

    PubMed

    Kopecky, Jan; Rossmeisl, Martin; Flachs, Pavel; Kuda, Ondrej; Brauner, Petr; Jilkova, Zuzana; Stankova, Barbora; Tvrzicka, Eva; Bryhn, Morten

    2009-11-01

    Adipose tissue has a key role in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS), which includes obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and other disorders. Systemic insulin resistance represents a major factor contributing to the development of MS in obesity. The resistance is precipitated by impaired adipose tissue glucose and lipid metabolism, linked to a low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue and secretion of pro-inflammatory adipokines. Development of MS could be delayed by lifestyle modifications, while both dietary and pharmacological interventions are required for the successful therapy of MS. The n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA, EPA and DHA, which are abundant in marine fish, act as hypolipidaemic factors, reduce cardiac events and decrease the progression of atherosclerosis. Thus, n-3 LC PUFA represent healthy constituents of diets for patients with MS. In rodents n-3 LC PUFA prevent the development of obesity and impaired glucose tolerance. The effects of n-3 LC PUFA are mediated transcriptionally by AMP-activated protein kinase and by other mechanisms. n-3 LC PUFA activate a metabolic switch toward lipid catabolism and suppression of lipogenesis, i.e. in the liver, adipose tissue and small intestine. This metabolic switch improves dyslipidaemia and reduces ectopic deposition of lipids, resulting in improved insulin signalling. Despite a relatively low accumulation of n-3 LC PUFA in adipose tissue lipids, adipose tissue is specifically linked to the beneficial effects of n-3 LC PUFA, as indicated by (1) the prevention of adipose tissue hyperplasia and hypertrophy, (2) the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis in adipocytes, (3) the induction of adiponectin and (4) the amelioration of adipose tissue inflammation by n-3 LC PUFA. PMID:19698199

  12. SFRP2 Is Associated with Increased Adiposity and VEGF Expression

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Rachel K.; Bujalska, Iwona J.; Hassan-Smith, Zaki K.; Hazlehurst, Jonathan M.; Foucault, Danielle R.; Stewart, Paul M.; Tomlinson, Jeremy W.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to assess depot-specific expression and secretion of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) by adipose tissue and its effect on adipocyte biology. We measured serum sFRP2 concentrations in 106 patients in vivo to explore its relationship to fat mass, glycaemia and insulin resistance. Methods Expression of sFRP2 in mouse and human tissues was assessed using polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Western blot confirmed secretion of sFRP2 by adipose tissue into cell culture medium. Effects of recombinant sFRP2 on lipogenesis and preadipocyte proliferation were measured. Preadipocyte expression of the angiogenic genes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells 3 (NFATC3) was measured after recombinant sFRP2 exposure. Complementary clinical studies correlating human serum sFRP2 with age, gender, adiposity and insulin secretion were also performed. Results sFRP2 messenger RNA (mRNA) was expressed in mouse and human adipose tissue. In humans, sFRP2 mRNA expression was 4.2-fold higher in omental than subcutaneous adipose. Omental adipose tissue secreted 63% more sFRP2 protein than subcutaneous. Treatment with recombinant sFRP2 did not impact on lipogenesis or preadipocyte proliferation but was associated with increased VEGF mRNA expression. In human subjects, circulating insulin levels positively correlated with serum sFRP2, and levels were higher in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance (34.2ng/ml) compared to controls (29.5ng/ml). A positive correlation between sFRP2 and BMI was also observed. Conclusions Circulating sFRP2 is associated with adipose tissue mass and has a potential role to drive adipose angiogenesis through enhanced VEGF expression. PMID:27685706

  13. Cell Supermarket: Adipose Tissue as a Source of Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, M.V.; Wei, S.; Duarte, M.; Du, M.; Jiang, Z.; Hausman, G.J.; Bergen, W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is derived from numerous sources, and in recent years this tissue has been shown to provide numerous cells from what seemingly was a population of homogeneous adipocytes. Considering the types of cells that adipose tissue-derived cells may form, these cells may be useful in a variety of clinical and scientific applications. The focus of this paper is to reflect on this area of research and to provide a list of potential (future) research areas. PMID:25031654

  14. White Adipose Tissue Resilience to Insulin Deprivation and Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Hadji, Lilas; Berger, Emmanuelle; Soula, Hédi; Vidal, Hubert; Géloën, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adipocyte size and body fat distribution are strongly linked to the metabolic complications of obesity. The aim of the present study was to test the plasticity of white adipose tissue in response to insulin deprivation and replacement. We have characterized the changes of adipose cell size repartition and gene expressions in type 1 diabetes Sprague-Dawley rats and type 1 diabetic supplemented with insulin. Methods Using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, we induced rapid changes in rat adipose tissue weights to study the changes in the distribution of adipose cell sizes in retroperitoneal (rWAT), epididymal (eWAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissues (scWAT). Adipose tissue weights of type 1 diabetic rats were then rapidly restored by insulin supplementation. Cell size distributions were analyzed using multisizer IV (Beckman Coulter). Cell size changes were correlated to transcriptional regulation of genes coding for proteins involved in lipid and glucose metabolisms and adipocytokines. Results The initial body weight of the rats was 465±5.2 g. Insulin privation was stopped when rats lost 100 g which induced reductions in fat mass of 68% for rWAT, 42% for eWAT and 59% for scWAT corresponding to decreased mode cell diameters by 31.1%, 20%, 25.3%, respectively. The most affected size distribution by insulin deprivation was observed in rWAT. The bimodal distribution of adipose cell sizes disappeared in response to insulin deprivation in rWAT and scWAT. The most important observation is that cell size distribution returned close to control values in response to insulin treatment. mRNAs coding for adiponectin, leptin and apelin were more stimulated in scWAT compared to other depots in diabetic plus insulin group. Conclusion Fat depots have specific responses to insulin deprivation and supplementation. The results show that insulin is a major determinant of bimodal cell repartition in adipose tissues. PMID:25170835

  15. Role of adipose tissue in haemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Faber, D R; de Groot, Ph G; Visseren, F L J

    2009-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. The increased risk for cardiovascular diseases could partly be caused by a prothrombotic state that exists because of abdominal obesity. Adipose tissue induces thrombocyte activation by the production of adipose tissue-derived hormones, often called adipokines, of which some such as leptin and adiponectin have been shown to directly interfere with platelet function. Increased adipose tissue mass induces IR and systemic low-grade inflammation, also affecting platelet function. It has been demonstrated that adipose tissue directly impairs fibrinolysis by the production of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and possibly thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor. Adipose tissue may contribute to enhanced coagulation by direct tissue factor production, but hypercoagulability is likely to be primarily caused by affecting hepatic synthesis of the coagulation factors fibrinogen, factor VII, factor VIII and tissue factor, by releasing free fatty acids and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6) into the portal circulation and by inducing hepatic IR. Adipose tissue dysfunction could thus play a causal role in the prothrombotic state observed in obesity, by directly and indirectly affecting haemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis. PMID:19460118

  16. From neutrophils to macrophages: differences in regional adipose tissue depots.

    PubMed

    Dam, V; Sikder, T; Santosa, S

    2016-01-01

    Currently, we do not fully understand the underlying mechanisms of how regional adiposity promotes metabolic dysregulation. As adipose tissue expands, there is an increase in chronic systemic low-grade inflammation due to greater infiltration of immune cells and production of cytokines. This chronic inflammation is thought to play a major role in the development of metabolic complications and disease such as insulin resistance and diabetes. We know that different adipose tissue depots contribute differently to the risk of metabolic disease. People who have an upper body fat distribution around the abdomen are at greater risk of disease than those who tend to store fat in their lower body around the hips and thighs. Thus, it is conceivable that adipose tissue depots contribute differently to the inflammatory milieu as a result of varied infiltration of immune cell types. In this review, we describe the role and function of major resident immune cells in the development of adipose tissue inflammation and discuss their regional differences in the context of metabolic disease risk. We find that although initial studies have found regional differences, a more comprehensive understanding of how immune cells interrupt adipose tissue homeostasis is needed.

  17. Hypoxia and adipose tissue function and dysfunction in obesity.

    PubMed

    Trayhurn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The rise in the incidence of obesity has led to a major interest in the biology of white adipose tissue. The tissue is a major endocrine and signaling organ, with adipocytes, the characteristic cell type, secreting a multiplicity of protein factors, the adipokines. Increases in the secretion of a number of adipokines occur in obesity, underpinning inflammation in white adipose tissue and the development of obesity-associated diseases. There is substantial evidence, particularly from animal studies, that hypoxia develops in adipose tissue as the tissue mass expands, and the reduction in Po(2) is considered to underlie the inflammatory response. Exposure of white adipocytes to hypoxic conditions in culture induces changes in the expression of >1,000 genes. The secretion of a number of inflammation-related adipokines is upregulated by hypoxia, and there is a switch from oxidative metabolism to anaerobic glycolysis. Glucose utilization is increased in hypoxic adipocytes with corresponding increases in lactate production. Importantly, hypoxia induces insulin resistance in fat cells and leads to the development of adipose tissue fibrosis. Many of the responses of adipocytes to hypoxia are initiated at Po(2) levels above the normal physiological range for adipose tissue. The other cell types within the tissue also respond to hypoxia, with the differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes being inhibited and preadipocytes being transformed into leptin-secreting cells. Overall, hypoxia has pervasive effects on the function of adipocytes and appears to be a key factor in adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity.

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in adipose tissue augments lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Bogdanovic, Elena; Kraus, Nicole; Patsouris, David; Diao, Li; Wang, Vivian; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle important for protein synthesis and folding, lipid synthesis and Ca(2+) homoeostasis. Consequently, ER stress or dysfunction affects numerous cellular processes and has been implicated as a contributing factor in several pathophysiological conditions. Tunicamycin induces ER stress in various cell types in vitro as well as in vivo. In mice, a hallmark of tunicamycin administration is the development of fatty livers within 24-48 hrs accompanied by hepatic ER stress. We hypothesized that tunicamycin would induce ER stress in adipose tissue that would lead to increased lipolysis and subsequently to fatty infiltration of the liver and hepatomegaly. Our results show that intraperitoneal administration of tunicamycin rapidly induced an ER stress response in adipose tissue that correlated with increased circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) and glycerol along with decreased adipose tissue mass and lipid droplet size. Furthermore, we found that in addition to fatty infiltration of the liver as well as hepatomegaly, lipid accumulation was also present in the heart, skeletal muscle and kidney. To corroborate our findings to a clinical setting, we examined adipose tissue from burned patients where increases in lipolysis and the development of fatty livers have been well documented. We found that burned patients displayed significant ER stress within adipose tissue and that ER stress augments lipolysis in cultured human adipocytes. Our results indicate a possible role for ER stress induced lipolysis in adipose tissue as an underlying mechanism contributing to increases in circulating FFAs and fatty infiltration into other organs.

  19. Exercise and Adipose Tissue Macrophages: New Frontiers in Obesity Research?

    PubMed

    Goh, Jorming; Goh, Kian Peng; Abbasi, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem in the twenty-first century. Mutations in genes that regulate substrate metabolism, subsequent dysfunction in their protein products, and other factors, such as increased adipose tissue inflammation, are some underlying etiologies of this disease. Increased inflammation in the adipose tissue microenvironment is partly mediated by the presence of cells from the innate and adaptive immune system. A subset of the innate immune population in adipose tissue include macrophages, termed adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), which are central players in adipose tissue inflammation. Being extremely plastic, their responses to diverse molecular signals in the microenvironment dictate their identity and functional properties, where they become either pro-inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2). Endurance exercise training exerts global anti-inflammatory responses in multiple organs, including skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. The purpose of this review is to discuss the different mechanisms that drive ATM-mediated inflammation in obesity and present current evidence of how exercise training, specifically endurance exercise training, modulates the polarization of ATMs from an M1 to an M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype. PMID:27379017

  20. Gene Expression Signature in Adipose Tissue of Acromegaly Patients.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Irit; Tran, Quynh T; Barkan, Ariel L; Saltiel, Alan R; Chandler, William F; Bridges, Dave

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of chronic excess growth hormone on adipose tissue, we performed RNA sequencing in adipose tissue biopsies from patients with acromegaly (n = 7) or non-functioning pituitary adenomas (n = 11). The patients underwent clinical and metabolic profiling including assessment of HOMA-IR. Explants of adipose tissue were assayed ex vivo for lipolysis and ceramide levels. Patients with acromegaly had higher glucose, higher insulin levels and higher HOMA-IR score. We observed several previously reported transcriptional changes (IGF1, IGFBP3, CISH, SOCS2) that are known to be induced by GH/IGF-1 in liver but are also induced in adipose tissue. We also identified several novel transcriptional changes, some of which may be important for GH/IGF responses (PTPN3 and PTPN4) and the effects of acromegaly on growth and proliferation. Several differentially expressed transcripts may be important in GH/IGF-1-induced metabolic changes. Specifically, induction of LPL, ABHD5, and NRIP1 can contribute to enhanced lipolysis and may explain the elevated adipose tissue lipolysis in acromegalic patients. Higher expression of TCF7L2 and the fatty acid desaturases FADS1, FADS2 and SCD could contribute to insulin resistance. Ceramides were not different between the two groups. In summary, we have identified the acromegaly gene expression signature in human adipose tissue. The significance of altered expression of specific transcripts will enhance our understanding of the metabolic and proliferative changes associated with acromegaly.

  1. Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging

    PubMed Central

    Buras, Eric D.; Yu, Kaijiang; Wang, Ruitao; Smith, C. Wayne; Wu, Huaizhu; Sheikh-Hamad, David; Sun, Yuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Aging is commonly associated with low-grade adipose inflammation, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone which is known to increase obesity and insulin resistance. We previously reported that the expression of the ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), increases in adipose tissues during aging, and old Ghsr−/− mice exhibit a lean and insulin-sensitive phenotype. Macrophages are major mediators of adipose tissue inflammation, which consist of pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes. Here, we show that in aged mice, GHS-R ablation promotes macrophage phenotypical shift toward anti-inflammatory M2. Old Ghsr−/− mice have reduced macrophage infiltration, M1/M2 ratio, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in white and brown adipose tissues. We also found that peritoneal macrophages of old Ghsr−/− mice produce higher norepinephrine, which is in line with increased alternatively-activated M2 macrophages. Our data further reveal that GHS-R has cell-autonomous effects in macrophages, and GHS-R antagonist suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that ghrelin signaling has an important role in macrophage polarization and adipose tissue inflammation during aging. GHS-R antagonists may serve as a novel and effective therapeutic option for age-associated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:26837433

  2. Gene Expression Signature in Adipose Tissue of Acromegaly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Irit; Tran, Quynh T.; Barkan, Ariel L.; Saltiel, Alan R.; Chandler, William F.; Bridges, Dave

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of chronic excess growth hormone on adipose tissue, we performed RNA sequencing in adipose tissue biopsies from patients with acromegaly (n = 7) or non-functioning pituitary adenomas (n = 11). The patients underwent clinical and metabolic profiling including assessment of HOMA-IR. Explants of adipose tissue were assayed ex vivo for lipolysis and ceramide levels. Patients with acromegaly had higher glucose, higher insulin levels and higher HOMA-IR score. We observed several previously reported transcriptional changes (IGF1, IGFBP3, CISH, SOCS2) that are known to be induced by GH/IGF-1 in liver but are also induced in adipose tissue. We also identified several novel transcriptional changes, some of which may be important for GH/IGF responses (PTPN3 and PTPN4) and the effects of acromegaly on growth and proliferation. Several differentially expressed transcripts may be important in GH/IGF-1-induced metabolic changes. Specifically, induction of LPL, ABHD5, and NRIP1 can contribute to enhanced lipolysis and may explain the elevated adipose tissue lipolysis in acromegalic patients. Higher expression of TCF7L2 and the fatty acid desaturases FADS1, FADS2 and SCD could contribute to insulin resistance. Ceramides were not different between the two groups. In summary, we have identified the acromegaly gene expression signature in human adipose tissue. The significance of altered expression of specific transcripts will enhance our understanding of the metabolic and proliferative changes associated with acromegaly. PMID:26087292

  3. Molecular Heterogeneities of Adipose Depots - Potential Effects on Adipose-Muscle Cross-Talk in Humans, Mice and Farm Animals

    PubMed Central

    Komolka, Katrin; Albrecht, Elke; Wimmers, Klaus; Michal, Jennifer J.; Maak, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is considered as a major endocrine organ that secretes numerous proteins called adipokines. The heterogeneous nature of adipose tissue in different parts of the body suggests respective heterogeneity of proteomes and secretomes. This review consolidates knowledge from recent studies targeting the diversity of different adipose depots affecting the pattern of secreted adipokines and discusses potential consequences for the cross-talk between adipose and skeletal muscle in humans, rodent models and farm animals. Special attention is paid to muscle-associated fat depots like inter- and intramuscular fat that become focus of attention in the context of the rather new notion of skeletal muscle as a major endocrine organ. Understanding the complexity of communication between adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells will allow developing strategies for improvement of human health and for sustainable production of high quality meat. PMID:25057322

  4. Restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis: impact on lipid metabolism and adipose tissue and serum fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, Marco; Romanato, Giovanna; Manzato, Enzo; Ruffolo, Cesare; Marin, Raffaella; Basato, Silvia; Zambon, Sabina; Filosa, Teresa; Zanoni, Silvia; Pilon, Fabio; Polese, Lino; Sturniolo, Giacomo C; D'Amico, Davide F; Angriman, Imerio

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the changes of the metabolism of circulating and storage lipids in patients with ulcerative colitis after restorative proctocolectomy. Fifteen consecutive patients and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Disease activity, diet, inflammatory parameters, plasma lipoprotein concentrations, and fatty acids (FA) of serum phospholipids and of the subcutaneous adipose tissue were assessed at colectomy and at ileostomy closure. In ulcerative colitis patients, total cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid were lower than in healthy subjects (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). The median interval between colectomy and ileostomy closure was 6 (range 2-9) months. During that interval, the inflammatory parameters improved, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol increased (p < 0.01), and low-density (LDL) cholesterol decreased (p = 0.01). At ileostomy closure, serum arachidonic acid levels were increased (p = 0.04), whereas serum oleic acid level was decreased (p = 0.02). In this interval, no significant alteration, either in serum n-3 FA precursors or in the FA of subcutaneous adipose tissue, was observed. The increase of serum arachidonic acid after colectomy might suggest a lower utilization for inflammatory process. The reduction of LDL cholesterol is an index of malabsorption probably due to the accelerated transit and to the exclusion of the terminal ileum caused by the covering ileostomy. PMID:17955308

  5. Causal effects of socioeconomic status on central adiposity risks: Evidence using panel data from urban Mexico.

    PubMed

    Levasseur, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Associated with overweight, obesity and chronic diseases, the nutrition transition process reveals important socioeconomic issues in Mexico. Using panel data from the Mexican Family Life Survey, the purpose of the study is to estimate the causal effect of household socioeconomic status (SES) on nutritional outcomes among urban adults. We divide the analysis into two steps. First, using a mixed clustering procedure, we distinguish four socioeconomic classes based on income, educational and occupational dimensions: (i) a poor class; (ii) a lower-middle class; (iii) an upper-middle class; (iv) a rich class. Second, using an econometric framework adapted to our study (the Hausman-Taylor estimator), we measure the impact of belonging to these socioeconomic groups on individual anthropometric indicators, based on the body-mass index (BMI) and the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Our results make several contributions: (i) we show that a new middle class, rising out of poverty, is the most exposed to the risks of adiposity; (ii) as individuals from the upper class seem to be fatter than individuals from the upper-middle class, we can reject the assumption of an inverted U-shaped relationship between socioeconomic and anthropometric status as commonly suggested in emerging economies; (iii) the influence of SES on central adiposity appears to be particularly strong for men.

  6. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M W; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Vernon Smith, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V A; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Hua Zhao, Jing; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R B; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J C; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter E H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth J F; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2015-02-12

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25673412

  7. Brown adipose tissue triglyceride content is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity, independently of age and obesity.

    PubMed

    Raiko, J; Holstila, M; Virtanen, K A; Orava, J; Saunavaara, V; Niemi, T; Laine, J; Taittonen, M; Borra, R J H; Nuutila, P; Parkkola, R

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can non-invasively assess triglyceride content in both supraclavicular fat depots and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) to determine whether these measurements correlate to metabolic variables. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were studied using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and (15)O-H2O PET perfusion during cold exposure, and (1)H-MRS at ambient temperature. Image-guided biopsies were collected from nine volunteers. The supraclavicular triglyceride content determined by (1)H-MRS varied between 60 and 91% [mean ± standard deviation (s.d.) 77 ± 10%]. It correlated positively with body mass index, waist circumference, subcutaneous and visceral fat masses and 8-year diabetes risk based on the Framingham risk score and inversely with HDL cholesterol and insulin sensitivity (M-value; euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp). Subcutaneous WAT had a significantly higher triglyceride content, 76-95% (mean ± s.d. 87 ± 5%; p = 0.0002). In conclusion, the triglyceride content in supraclavicular fat deposits measured by (1)H-MRS may be an independent marker of whole-body insulin sensitivity, independent of brown adipose tissue metabolic activation. PMID:25586670

  8. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    PubMed Central

    Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M.W.; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian’an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex SF; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor VA; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John RB; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan JL; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco JC; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, DC; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter EH; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin NA; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth JF; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2014-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, we conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of waist and hip circumference-related traits in up to 224,459 individuals. We identified 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI) and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P<5×10−8). Twenty of the 49 WHRadjBMI loci showed significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which displayed a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation, and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25673412

  9. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M W; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Vernon Smith, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V A; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Hua Zhao, Jing; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R B; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J C; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter E H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth J F; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2015-02-12

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.

  10. Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity in early pregnancy together predict impaired glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy.

    PubMed

    De Souza, L R; Berger, H; Retnakaran, R; Vlachou, P A; Maguire, J L; Nathens, A B; Connelly, P W; Ray, J G

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity individually reflect insulin resistance, but their combined effect on glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy is unknown. A cohort of 476 pregnant women prospectively underwent sonographic assessment of hepatic fat and visceral (VAT) and total (TAT) adipose tissue at 11-14 weeks' gestation. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation between the presence of maternal hepatic fat and/or the upper quartile (Q) of either VAT or TAT and the odds of developing the composite outcome of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks' gestation, based on a 75 g OGTT. Upon adjusting for maternal age, ethnicity, family history of DM and body mass index (BMI), the co-presence of hepatic fat and quartile 4 (Q4) of VAT (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.5, 95% CI: 2.3-18.5) or hepatic fat and Q4 of TAT (aOR 7.8 95% CI 2.8-21.7) were each associated with the composite outcome, relative to women with neither sonographic feature. First-trimester sonographic evidence of maternal hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity may independently predict the development of impaired glucose homeostasis and GDM in mid-pregnancy. PMID:27643724

  11. Relationships of maternal and paternal anthropometry with neonatal body size, proportions and adiposity in an Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan C K; Cole, Tim J; O'Callaghan, Michael; Stock, Jay T

    2015-04-01

    The patterns of association between maternal or paternal and neonatal phenotype may offer insight into how neonatal characteristics are shaped by evolutionary processes, such as conflicting parental interests in fetal investment and obstetric constraints. Paternal interests are theoretically served by maximizing fetal growth, and maternal interests by managing investment in current and future offspring, but whether paternal and maternal influences act on different components of overall size is unknown. We tested whether parents' prepregnancy height and body mass index (BMI) were related to neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, head circumference, absolute and proportional limb segment and trunk lengths, subcutaneous fat) among 1,041 Australian neonates using stepwise linear regression. Maternal and paternal height and maternal BMI were associated with birthweight. Paternal height related to offspring forearm and lower leg lengths, maternal height and BMI to neonatal head circumference, and maternal BMI to offspring adiposity. Principal components analysis identified three components of variability reflecting neonatal "head and trunk skeletal size," "adiposity," and "limb lengths." Regression analyses of the component scores supported the associations of head and trunk size or adiposity with maternal anthropometry, and limb lengths with paternal anthropometry. Our results suggest that while neonatal fatness reflects environmental conditions (maternal physiology), head circumference and limb and trunk lengths show differing associations with parental anthropometry. These patterns may reflect genetics, parental imprinting and environmental influences in a manner consistent with parental conflicts of interest. Paternal height may relate to neonatal limb length as a means of increasing fetal growth without exacerbating the risk of obstetric complications.

  12. Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity in early pregnancy together predict impaired glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, L R; Berger, H; Retnakaran, R; Vlachou, P A; Maguire, J L; Nathens, A B; Connelly, P W; Ray, J G

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity individually reflect insulin resistance, but their combined effect on glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy is unknown. A cohort of 476 pregnant women prospectively underwent sonographic assessment of hepatic fat and visceral (VAT) and total (TAT) adipose tissue at 11–14 weeks' gestation. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation between the presence of maternal hepatic fat and/or the upper quartile (Q) of either VAT or TAT and the odds of developing the composite outcome of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or gestational diabetes mellitus at 24–28 weeks' gestation, based on a 75 g OGTT. Upon adjusting for maternal age, ethnicity, family history of DM and body mass index (BMI), the co-presence of hepatic fat and quartile 4 (Q4) of VAT (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.5, 95% CI: 2.3–18.5) or hepatic fat and Q4 of TAT (aOR 7.8 95% CI 2.8–21.7) were each associated with the composite outcome, relative to women with neither sonographic feature. First-trimester sonographic evidence of maternal hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity may independently predict the development of impaired glucose homeostasis and GDM in mid-pregnancy. PMID:27643724

  13. BMP4-mediated brown fat-like changes in white adipose tissue alter glucose and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Shu-Wen; Tang, Yan; Li, Xi; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, You-You; Huang, Hai-Yan; Xue, Rui-Dan; Yu, Hao-Yong; Guo, Liang; Gao, Hui-Di; Liu, Yan; Sun, Xia; Li, Yi-Ming; Jia, Wei-Ping; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2013-02-26

    Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in adipocytes of white adipose tissue (WAT) produces "white adipocytes" with characteristics of brown fat and leads to a reduction of adiposity and its metabolic complications. Although BMP4 is known to induce commitment of pluripotent stem cells to the adipocyte lineage by producing cells that possess the characteristics of preadipocytes, its effects on the mature white adipocyte phenotype and function were unknown. Forced expression of a BMP4 transgene in white adipocytes of mice gives rise to reduced WAT mass and white adipocyte size along with an increased number of a white adipocyte cell types with brown adipocyte characteristics comparable to those of beige or brite adipocytes. These changes correlate closely with increased energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity, and protection against diet-induced obesity and diabetes. Conversely, BMP4-deficient mice exhibit enlarged white adipocyte morphology and impaired insulin sensitivity. We identify peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC1α) as the target of BMP signaling required for these brown fat-like changes in WAT. This effect of BMP4 on WAT appears to extend to human adipose tissue, because the level of expression of BMP4 in WAT correlates inversely with body mass index. These findings provide a genetic and metabolic basis for BMP4's role in altering insulin sensitivity by affecting WAT development.

  14. Fat mass- and obesity-associated gene Fto affects the dietary response in mouse white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Ronkainen, Justiina; Huusko, Tuija J; Soininen, Raija; Mondini, Eleonora; Cinti, Francesca; Mäkelä, Kari A; Kovalainen, Miia; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sebert, Sylvain; Savolainen, Markku J; Salonurmi, Tuire

    2015-03-18

    Common variants of human fat mass- and obesity-associated gene Fto have been linked with higher body mass index, but the biological explanation for the link has remained obscure. Recent findings suggest that these variants affect the homeobox protein IRX3. Here we report that FTO has a role in white adipose tissue which modifies its response to high-fat feeding. Wild type and Fto-deficient mice were exposed to standard or high-fat diet for 16 weeks after which metabolism, behavior and white adipose tissue morphology were analyzed together with adipokine levels and relative expression of genes regulating white adipose tissue adipogenesis and Irx3. Our results indicate that Fto deficiency increases the expression of genes related to adipogenesis preventing adipocytes from becoming hypertrophic after high-fat diet. In addition, we report a novel finding of increased Irx3 expression in Fto-deficient mice after high-fat feeding indicating a complex link between FTO, IRX3 and fat metabolism.

  15. Retention of sedentary obese visceral white adipose tissue phenotype with intermittent physical activity despite reduced adiposity.

    PubMed

    Wainright, Katherine S; Fleming, Nicholas J; Rowles, Joe L; Welly, Rebecca J; Zidon, Terese M; Park, Young-Min; Gaines, T'Keaya L; Scroggins, Rebecca J; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K; Hasty, Alyssa H; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Padilla, Jaume

    2015-09-01

    Regular physical activity is effective in reducing visceral white adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and oxidative stress, and these changes are commonly associated with reduced adiposity. However, the impact of multiple periods of physical activity, intercalated by periods of inactivity, i.e., intermittent physical activity, on markers of AT inflammation and oxidative stress is unknown. In the present study, 5-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into three groups (n = 10/group): sedentary, regular physical activity, and intermittent physical activity, for 24 wk. All animals were singly housed and fed a diet containing 45% kcal from fat. Regularly active mice had access to voluntary running wheels throughout the study period, whereas intermittently active mice had access to running wheels for 3-wk intervals (i.e., 3 wk on/3 wk off) throughout the study. At death, regular and intermittent physical activity was associated with similar reductions in visceral AT mass (approximately -24%, P < 0.05) relative to sedentary. However, regularly, but not intermittently, active mice exhibited decreased expression of visceral AT genes related to inflammation (e.g., monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), immune cell infiltration (e.g., CD68, CD11c, F4/80, CD11b/CD18), oxidative stress (e.g., p47 phagocyte oxidase), and endoplasmic reticulum stress (e.g., CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein; all P < 0.05). Furthermore, regular, but not intermittent, physical activity was associated with a trend toward improvement in glucose tolerance (P = 0.059). Collectively, these findings suggest that intermittent physical activity over a prolonged period of time may lead to a reduction in adiposity but with retention of a sedentary obese white AT and metabolic phenotype. PMID:26180183

  16. NEW CONCEPTS IN INDEXING.

    PubMed

    SHANK, R

    1965-07-01

    Recent trends in indexing emphasize mechanical, not intellectual, developments. Mechanized operations have produced indexes in depth (1) of information on limited areas of science or (2) utilizing limited parameters for analysis. These indexes may include only citations or both useful data and citations of source literature. Both keyword-in-context and citation indexing seem to be passing the test of the marketplace. Mechanical equipment has also been successfully used to manipulate EAM cards for production of index copy. Information centers are increasingly being used as control devices in narrowly defined subject areas. Authors meet growing pressures to participate in information control work by preparing abstracts of their own articles. Mechanized image systems persist, although large systems are scarce and the many small systems may bring only limited relief for information control and retrieval problems. Experimentation and limited development continue on theory and technique of automatic indexing and abstracting.

  17. A Comprehensive Analysis of Common and Rare Variants to Identify Adiposity Loci in Hispanic Americans: The IRAS Family Study (IRASFS)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chuan; Wang, Nan; Guo, Xiuqing; Ziegler, Julie T.; Taylor, Kent D.; Xiang, Anny H.; Hai, Yang; Kridel, Steven J.; Nadler, Jerry L.; Kandeel, Fouad; Raffel, Leslie J.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Norris, Jill M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Watanabe, Richard M.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Bowden, Donald W.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Palmer, Nicholette D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is growing epidemic affecting 35% of adults in the United States. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci associated with obesity. However, the majority of studies have been completed in Caucasians focusing on total body measures of adiposity. Here we report the results from genome-wide and exome chip association studies focusing on total body measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF) and measures of fat deposition including waist circumference (WAIST), waist-hip ratio (WHR), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in Hispanic Americans (nmax = 1263) from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). Five SNPs from two novel loci attained genome-wide significance (P<5.00x10-8) in IRASFS. A missense SNP in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) was associated with WAIST (rs34218846, MAF = 6.8%, PDOM = 1.62x10-8). This protein is postulated to play an important role in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis as demonstrated in cell and knock-out animal models. Four correlated intronic SNPs in the Zinc finger, GRF-type containing 1 gene (ZGRF1; SNP rs1471880, MAF = 48.1%, PDOM = 1.00x10-8) were strongly associated with WHR. The exact biological function of ZGRF1 and the connection with adiposity remains unclear. SNPs with p-values less than 5.00x10-6 from IRASFS were selected for replication. Meta-analysis was computed across seven independent Hispanic-American cohorts (nmax = 4156) and the strongest signal was rs1471880 (PDOM = 8.38x10-6) in ZGRF1 with WAIST. In conclusion, a genome-wide and exome chip association study was conducted that identified two novel loci (IDH1 and ZGRF1) associated with adiposity. While replication efforts were inconclusive, when taken together with the known biology, IDH1 and ZGRF1 warrant further evaluation. PMID:26599207

  18. Association of Anthropometric and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Measures of Adiposity with High Molecular Weight Adiponectin Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wei-Fang; Li, Yan; Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Huang, Qi-Fang; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Shuai; Cheng, Yi-Bang; Li, Fei-Ka; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between adiposity measures and plasma concentration of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin. Methods In a Chinese sample (n = 1081), we performed measurements of anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). We defined overweight and obesity as a body mass index between 24 and 27.4 kg/m² and ≥ 27.5 kg/m², respectively, and central obesity as a waist circumference ≥ 90 cm in men and ≥ 80 cm in women. Plasma HMW adiponectin concentration was measured by the ELISA method. Results Plasma HMW adiponectin concentration was significantly (P < 0.0001) higher in women (n = 677, 2.47 μg/mL) than men (n = 404, 1.58 μg/mL) and correlated with advancing age in men (r = 0.28) and women (r = 0.29). In adjusted analyses, it was lower in the presence of overweight (n = 159, 1.26 μg/mL in men and n = 227, 2.15μg/mL in women) and obesity (n = 60, 1.31 μg/mL and n = 82, 2.10 μg/mL, respectively) than normal weight subjects (n = 185, 2.07μg/mL and n = 368, 2.94 μg/mL, respectively) and in the presence of central obesity (n = 106, 1.28 μg/mL and n = 331, 2.12 μg/mL, respectively) than subjects with a normal waist circumference (n = 298, 1.74 μg/mL and n = 346, 2.74 μg/mL, respectively). In multiple regression analyses stratified for gender, adjusted for confounders and considered separately each of the adiposity measures, all adiposity measures were significantly (r -0.18 to -0.31, P < 0.001) associated with plasma HMW adiponectin concentration. However, in further stratified and adjusted regression analyses considered stepwise all adiposity measures, only waist-to-hip ratio was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with plasma HMW adiponectin concentration in men (r = -0.10) and women (r = -0.15). Conclusions Anthropometric measures of obesity, such as waist-to-hip ratio, but not BIA measures, are independently associated with plasma adiponectin concentration. PMID:27227680

  19. Parent-of-Origin Effects of the APOB Gene on Adiposity in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hochner, Hagit; Allard, Catherine; Granot-Hershkovitz, Einat; Chen, Jinbo; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Sazdovska, Sandra; Lumley, Thomas; McKnight, Barbara; Rice, Kenneth; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Meigs, James B.; Kwok, Pui; Hivert, Marie-France; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Gomez, Felicia; Wang, Ting; van Duijn, Cornelia; Amin, Najaf; Rotter, Jerome I.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Meiner, Vardiella; Manor, Orly; Dupuis, Josée; Friedlander, Yechiel; Siscovick, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Loci identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cardio-metabolic traits account for a small proportion of the traits' heritability. To date, most association studies have not considered parent-of-origin effects (POEs). Here we report investigation of POEs on adiposity and glycemic traits in young adults. The Jerusalem Perinatal Family Follow-Up Study (JPS), comprising 1250 young adults and their mothers was used for discovery. Focusing on 18 genes identified by previous GWAS as associated with cardio-metabolic traits, we used linear regression to examine the associations of maternally- and paternally-derived offspring minor alleles with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose and insulin. We replicated and meta-analyzed JPS findings in individuals of European ancestry aged ≤50 belonging to pedigrees from the Framingham Heart Study, Family Heart Study and Erasmus Rucphen Family study (total N≅4800). We considered p<2.7x10-4 statistically significant to account for multiple testing. We identified a common coding variant in the 4th exon of APOB (rs1367117) with a significant maternally-derived effect on BMI (β = 0.8; 95%CI:0.4,1.1; p = 3.1x10-5) and WC (β = 2.7; 95%CI:1.7,3.7; p = 2.1x10-7). The corresponding paternally-derived effects were non-significant (p>0.6). Suggestive maternally-derived associations of rs1367117 were observed with fasting glucose (β = 0.9; 95%CI:0.3,1.5; p = 4.0x10-3) and insulin (ln-transformed, β = 0.06; 95%CI:0.03,0.1; p = 7.4x10-4). Bioinformatic annotation for rs1367117 revealed a variety of regulatory functions in this region in liver and adipose tissues and a 50% methylation pattern in liver only, consistent with allelic-specific methylation, which may indicate tissue-specific POE. Our findings demonstrate a maternal-specific association between a common APOB variant and adiposity, an association that was not previously detected in GWAS. These results provide evidence for the role of

  20. Metabolic Signatures of Adiposity in Young Adults: Mendelian Randomization Analysis and Effects of Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Würtz, Peter; Wang, Qin; Kangas, Antti J.; Richmond, Rebecca C.; Skarp, Joni; Tiainen, Mika; Tynkkynen, Tuulia; Soininen, Pasi; Havulinna, Aki S.; Kaakinen, Marika; Viikari, Jorma S.; Savolainen, Markku J.; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Männistö, Satu; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Vanhala, Mauno; Elliott, Paul; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Raitakari, Olli T.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smith, George Davey; Ala-Korpela, Mika

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased adiposity is linked with higher risk for cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to determine to what extent elevated body mass index (BMI) within the normal weight range has causal effects on the detailed systemic metabolite profile in early adulthood. Methods and Findings We used Mendelian randomization to estimate causal effects of BMI on 82 metabolic measures in 12,664 adolescents and young adults from four population-based cohorts in Finland (mean age 26 y, range 16–39 y; 51% women; mean ± standard deviation BMI 24±4 kg/m2). Circulating metabolites were quantified by high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics and biochemical assays. In cross-sectional analyses, elevated BMI was adversely associated with cardiometabolic risk markers throughout the systemic metabolite profile, including lipoprotein subclasses, fatty acid composition, amino acids, inflammatory markers, and various hormones (p<0.0005 for 68 measures). Metabolite associations with BMI were generally stronger for men than for women (median 136%, interquartile range 125%–183%). A gene score for predisposition to elevated BMI, composed of 32 established genetic correlates, was used as the instrument to assess causality. Causal effects of elevated BMI closely matched observational estimates (correspondence 87%±3%; R2 = 0.89), suggesting causative influences of adiposity on the levels of numerous metabolites (p<0.0005 for 24 measures), including lipoprotein lipid subclasses and particle size, branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, and inflammation-related glycoprotein acetyls. Causal analyses of certain metabolites and potential sex differences warrant stronger statistical power. Metabolite changes associated with change in BMI during 6 y of follow-up were examined for 1,488 individuals. Change in BMI was accompanied by widespread metabolite changes, which had an association pattern similar to that of the cross-sectional observations, yet with greater metabolic

  1. New concepts in white adipose tissue physiology.

    PubMed

    Proença, A R G; Sertié, R A L; Oliveira, A C; Campaña, A B; Caminhotto, R O; Chimin, P; Lima, F B

    2014-02-01

    Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT.

  2. Hypothalamic PKA regulates leptin sensitivity and adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Linghai; McKnight, G. Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Mice lacking the RIIβ regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) display reduced adiposity and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Here we show that RIIβ knockout (KO) mice have enhanced sensitivity to leptin's effects on both feeding and energy metabolism. After administration of a low dose of leptin, the duration of hypothalamic JAK/STAT3 signalling is increased, resulting in enhanced POMC mRNA induction. Consistent with the extended JAK/STAT3 activation, we find that the negative feedback regulator of leptin receptor signalling, Socs3, is inhibited in the hypothalamus of RIIβ KO mice. During fasting, RIIβ–PKA is activated and this correlates with an increase in CREB phosphorylation. The increase in CREB phosphorylation is absent in the fasted RIIβ KO hypothalamus. Selective inhibition of PKA activity in AgRP neurons partially recapitulates the leanness and resistance to diet-induced obesity of RIIβ KO mice. Our findings suggest that RIIβ–PKA modulates the duration of leptin receptor signalling and therefore the magnitude of the catabolic response to leptin. PMID:26381935

  3. Hypothalamic control of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Labbé, Sebastien M.; Caron, Alexandre; Lanfray, Damien; Monge-Rofarello, Boris; Bartness, Timothy J.; Richard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known, in large part from animal studies, that the control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is insured by the central nervous system (CNS), which integrates several stimuli in order to control BAT activation through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). SNS-mediated BAT activity is governed by diverse neurons found in brain structures involved in homeostatic regulations and whose activity is modulated by various factors including oscillations of energy fluxes. The characterization of these neurons has always represented a challenging issue. The available literature suggests that the neuronal circuits controlling BAT thermogenesis are largely part of an autonomic circuitry involving the hypothalamus, brainstem and the SNS efferent neurons. In the present review, we recapitulate the latest progresses in regards to the hypothalamic regulation of BAT metabolism. We briefly addressed the role of the thermoregulatory pathway and its interactions with the energy balance systems in the control of thermogenesis. We also reviewed the involvement of the brain melanocortin and endocannabinoid systems as well as the emerging role of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) neurons in BAT thermogenesis. Finally, we examined the link existing between these systems and the homeostatic factors that modulate their activities. PMID:26578907

  4. Free Sugars and Total Fat Are Important Characteristics of a Dietary Pattern Associated with Adiposity across Childhood and Adolescence123

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosini, Gina L; Johns, David J; Emmett, Pauline M

    2016-01-01

    Background: The importance of dietary sugar compared with fat in the development of obesity is currently a topic of debate. Objective: We aimed to identify dietary patterns (DPs) characterized by high sugar content, high fat content, or both and their longitudinal associations with adiposity during childhood and adolescence. Methods: Participants were 6722 children from the ALSPAC (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) who were born in 1991–1992. DPs were characterized by percentage of total energy intake (%E) from free sugars, %E from total fat, and dietary energy density (DED) and fiber density by using reduced rank regression at 7, 10, and 13 y of age. Total body fat mass was measured at 11, 13, and 15 y of age. Regression analyses were used to adjust for dietary misreporting, physical activity, and maternal social class. Results: Two major DPs were identified: higher z scores for DP1 were associated with greater DED, greater %E from free sugars and total fat, and lower fiber density; higher z scores for DP2 were associated with greater %E from free sugars but lower %E from total fat and DED. A 1-SD increase in z score for DP1 was associated with a mean increase in the fat mass index z score of 0.04 SD units (95% CI: 0.01, 0.07; P = 0.017) and greater odds of excess adiposity (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.25; P = 0.038). DP2 was not associated with adiposity. Conclusions: An energy-dense DP high in %E from total fat and free sugars is associated with greater adiposity in childhood and adolescence. This appears to confirm the role of both fat and sugar and provides a basis for food-based dietary guidelines to prevent obesity in children. PMID:26962182

  5. Association of Adiposity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Exercise Practice with the Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Brazilian Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Maressa P.; Hallage, Tatiane; Gama, Mirnaluci Paulino Ribeiro; Goss, Fredric L.; Robertson, Robert; da Silva, Sergio G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Diabetes incidence in people with advanced age is increasing at an alarming rate, and for this reason the screening of high-risk individuals such as elderly women is critically important. Objective: To analyze the association of adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise practice with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in elderly Brazilian women. Methods: Participated of this cross sectional study 1,059 elderly women (mean 69.5 yr; SD 6.1), who self-reported family history of cardiovascular disease, smoking status, hypertension, and T2D diagnosed previously by a physician. The following independent variables were assessed: exercise practice, body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between each independent variable with T2D using adjusted-models. Results: T2D prevalence was 16%. General and central adiposity were directly associated with T2D, whereas cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely related with T2D. The joint effect of exercise practice and central adiposity showed that inactive women had higher odds ratio for T2D when compared with active ones, within the same WC group. Inactive women with WC ≥ 94.0 cm had an odds ratio of 5.8 (95%IC 1.3-25.3). Conclusions: A direct positive association was found between general and central adiposity, as well as an inverse relation between CRF and exercise practice with T2D. Elderly women who practice exercise regularly had lower odds for T2D. Health professionals should encourage individuals of all ages to engage on regular exercise practice, which could reduce body fatness and may be beneficial in reducing the prevalence of T2D in older ages. PMID:18071583

  6. Natural killer T cells in adipose tissue are activated in lean mice.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Taisuke; Toyoshima, Yujiro; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Kyuwa, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissues are closely connected with the immune system. It has been suggested that metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes, arteriosclerosis and liver steatosis can be attributed to adipose tissue inflammation characterized by macrophage infiltration. To understand a physiological and pathological role of natural killer T (NKT) cells on inflammation in adipose tissue, we characterized a subset of NKT cells in abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissues in C57BL/6J mice fed normal or high-fat diets. NKT cells comprised a larger portion of lymphocytes in adipose tissues compared with the spleen and peripheral blood, with epididymal adipose tissue having the highest number of NKT cells. Furthermore, some NKT cells in adipose tissues expressed higher levels of CD69 and intracellular interferon-γ, whereas the Vβ repertoires of NKT cells in adipose tissues were similar to other cells. In obese mice fed a high-fat diet, adipose tissue inflammation had little effect on the Vβ repertoire of NKT cells in epididymal adipose tissues. We speculate that the NKT cells in adipose tissues may form an equivalent subset in other tissues and that these subsets are likely to participate in adipose tissue inflammation. Additionally, the high expression level of CD69 and intracellular IFN-γ raises the possibility that NKT cells in adipose tissue may be stimulated by some physiological mechanism.

  7. The necroptosis-inducing kinase RIPK3 dampens adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Gautheron, Jérémie; Vucur, Mihael; Schneider, Anne T; Severi, Ilenia; Roderburg, Christoph; Roy, Sanchari; Bartneck, Matthias; Schrammen, Peter; Diaz, Mauricio Berriel; Ehling, Josef; Gremse, Felix; Heymann, Felix; Koppe, Christiane; Lammers, Twan; Kiessling, Fabian; Van Best, Niels; Pabst, Oliver; Courtois, Gilles; Linkermann, Andreas; Krautwald, Stefan; Neumann, Ulf P; Tacke, Frank; Trautwein, Christian; Green, Douglas R; Longerich, Thomas; Frey, Norbert; Luedde, Mark; Bluher, Matthias; Herzig, Stephan; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Luedde, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) mediates necroptosis, a form of programmed cell death that promotes inflammation in various pathological conditions, suggesting that it might be a privileged pharmacological target. However, its function in glucose homeostasis and obesity has been unknown. Here we show that RIPK3 is over expressed in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese mice fed with a choline-deficient high-fat diet. Genetic inactivation of Ripk3 promotes increased Caspase-8-dependent adipocyte apoptosis and WAT inflammation, associated with impaired insulin signalling in WAT as the basis for glucose intolerance. Similarly to mice, in visceral WAT of obese humans, RIPK3 is overexpressed and correlates with the body mass index and metabolic serum markers. Together, these findings provide evidence that RIPK3 in WAT maintains tissue homeostasis and suppresses inflammation and adipocyte apoptosis, suggesting that systemic targeting of necroptosis might be associated with the risk of promoting insulin resistance in obese patients. PMID:27323669

  8. Fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue in genetically heat-tolerant FOK rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Furuyama, F.; Kuroshima, A.

    The phospholipid fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was examined in inbred heat-tolerant FOK rats and compared with that in conventional Wistar rats not previously exposed to heat. The FOK rats showed higher unsaturation states, as indicated by higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a higher unsaturation index and polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio. This higher level of unsaturation was characterized by the higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It may be concluded that the increased docosahexaenoic acid level in BAT phospholipids brings about the hyperplasia of BAT, causing an enhancement of its in vivo thermogernic activity as well as the systemic non-shivering thermogenesis observed in heat-tolerant FOK rats.

  9. The necroptosis-inducing kinase RIPK3 dampens adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Gautheron, Jérémie; Vucur, Mihael; Schneider, Anne T.; Severi, Ilenia; Roderburg, Christoph; Roy, Sanchari; Bartneck, Matthias; Schrammen, Peter; Diaz, Mauricio Berriel; Ehling, Josef; Gremse, Felix; Heymann, Felix; Koppe, Christiane; Lammers, Twan; Kiessling, Fabian; Van Best, Niels; Pabst, Oliver; Courtois, Gilles; Linkermann, Andreas; Krautwald, Stefan; Neumann, Ulf P.; Tacke, Frank; Trautwein, Christian; Green, Douglas R.; Longerich, Thomas; Frey, Norbert; Luedde, Mark; Bluher, Matthias; Herzig, Stephan; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Luedde, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) mediates necroptosis, a form of programmed cell death that promotes inflammation in various pathological conditions, suggesting that it might be a privileged pharmacological target. However, its function in glucose homeostasis and obesity has been unknown. Here we show that RIPK3 is over expressed in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese mice fed with a choline-deficient high-fat diet. Genetic inactivation of Ripk3 promotes increased Caspase-8-dependent adipocyte apoptosis and WAT inflammation, associated with impaired insulin signalling in WAT as the basis for glucose intolerance. Similarly to mice, in visceral WAT of obese humans, RIPK3 is overexpressed and correlates with the body mass index and metabolic serum markers. Together, these findings provide evidence that RIPK3 in WAT maintains tissue homeostasis and suppresses inflammation and adipocyte apoptosis, suggesting that systemic targeting of necroptosis might be associated with the risk of promoting insulin resistance in obese patients. PMID:27323669

  10. Genome-wide association studies of human adiposity: Zooming in on synapses.

    PubMed

    Sandholt, Camilla H; Grarup, Niels; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben

    2015-12-15

    The decade anniversary for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is approaching, and this experimental approach has commenced a deeper understanding of the genetics underlying complex diseases. In obesity genetics the GIANT (Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits) consortium has played a crucial role, recently with two comprehensive meta-analyses, one focusing on general obesity, analyzing body-mass index (BMI) and the other on fat distribution, focusing on waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI. With the in silico methods applied in these two studies as the pivot, this review looks into some of the biological knowledge, beginning to emerge from the intricate genomic background behind the genetic determinants of human adiposity. These include synaptic dysfunction, where GWAS pinpoint potential new mechanisms in pathways already known to be linked with obesity.

  11. Personnel Management Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcione, Carol

    1984-01-01

    Concentrates on four specialized indexes that are devoted exclusively to personnel and human resources topics: "Personnel Literature,""Personnel Management Abstracts,""Human Resources Abstracts," and "Work Related Abstracts." A concluding section compares strengths and weaknesses of these publications to three broader indexes: "The Business…

  12. EMMSE Media Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.

    This index provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The index is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…

  13. Transfer Index: One Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinselman, James L.

    A transfer index of the proportion of students in California's community colleges transferring to the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) system for fall 1982, 1983, and 1984 is presented in this report. Introductory material provides one definition of an appropriate index of transfer rates, i.e., the ratio of…

  14. A Factor Simplicity Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2003-01-01

    Proposes an index for assessing the degree of factor simplicity in the context of principal components and exploratory factor analysis. The index does not depend on the scale of the factors, and its maximum and minimum are related only to the degree of simplicity in the loading matrix. (SLD)

  15. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…

  16. A Computer Calculated Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Francis J.

    The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…

  17. Gradient index retroreflector

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Clyde B.

    1988-01-01

    A retroreflector is formed of a graded index lens with a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded index lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.

  18. Exploring Volumetrically Indexed Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-01-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup "n" is equal to "n" times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to…

  19. DNA methylation mediates the impact of exposure to prenatal maternal stress on BMI and central adiposity in children at age 13½ years: Project Ice Storm.

    PubMed

    Cao-Lei, Lei; Dancause, Kelsey N; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Massart, Renaud; Szyf, Moshe; Liu, Aihua; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in animals and humans predicts obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. Epigenetic modification of gene function is considered one possible mechanism by which PNMS results in poor outcomes in offspring. Our goal was to determine the role of maternal objective exposure and subjective distress on child BMI and central adiposity at 13½ years of age, and to test the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the effect of PNMS on growth. Mothers were pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec ice storm. We assessed their objective exposure and subjective distress in June 1998. At age 13½ their children were weighed and measured (n = 66); a subsample provided blood samples for epigenetic studies (n = 31). Objective and subjective PNMS correlated with central adiposity (waist-to-height ratio); only objective PNMS predicted body mass index (BMI). Bootstrapping analyses showed that the methylation level of genes from established Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways showed significant mediation of the effect of objective PNMS on both central adiposity and BMI. However, the negative mediating effects indicate that, although greater objective PNMS predicts greater BMI and adiposity, this effect is dampened by the effects of objective PNMS on DNA methylation, suggesting a protective role of the selected genes from Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways. We provide data supporting that DNA methylation is a potential mechanism involved in the long-term adaptation and programming of the genome in response to early adverse environmental factors.

  20. Childhood social class and adult adiposity and blood-pressure trajectories 36–53 years: gender-specific results from a British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Bjørn Heine; Murray, Emily T; Guralnik, Jack; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, the authors investigate gender-specific effects of childhood socio-economic position (SEP) on adiposity and blood pressure at three time points in adulthood. Methods Mixed models were used to assess the association of childhood SEP with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at ages 36, 43 and 53 years in a British birth cohort. Results The adverse effect of lower childhood SEP on adiposity increased between ages 36 and 53 years in women (BMI: trend test: p=0.03) and remained stable in men, but the opposite was seen for SBP, where inequalities increased in men (p=0.01). Childhood SEP inequalities in DBP were stable with age in both men and women. Educational attainment mediated some but not all of the effects of childhood SEP on adiposity and SBP, and their rate of change; adult social class was a less important mediator. Conclusion Childhood SEP is important for adult adiposity and blood pressure across midlife, especially for BMI in women and for blood pressure in men. Thus, pathways to adult health differ for men and women, and public health policies aimed at reducing social inequalities need to start early in life and take account of gender. PMID:21098826

  1. Adiposity Is Associated with Gender-Specific Reductions in Left Ventricular Myocardial Perfusion during Dobutamine Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michael E.; Brinkley, Tina E.; Chughtai, Haroon; Morgan, Timothy M.; Hamilton, Craig A.; Jordan, Jennifer H.; Stacey, R. Brandon; Soots, Sandra; Hundley, W. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and visceral adiposity are increasingly recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Visceral fat may reduce myocardial perfusion by impairing vascular endothelial function. Women experience more anginal symptoms compared to men despite less severe coronary artery stenosis, as assessed by angiography. Women and men have different fat storage patterns which may account for the observed differences in cardiovascular disease. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the relationship between visceral adipose tissue distributions and myocardial perfusion in men and women. Methods Visceral and subcutaneous fat distributions and myocardial perfusion were measured in 69 men and women without coronary artery disease using magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Myocardial perfusion index was quantified after first-pass perfusion with gadolinium contrast at peak dose dobutamine stress. Results We observed inverse relationships between female gender (r = -0.35, p = 0.003), pericardial fat (r = -0.36, p = 0.03), intraperitoneal fat (r = -0.37, p = 0.001), and retroperitoneal fat (r = -0.36, p = 0.002) and myocardial perfusion index. Visceral fat depots were not associated with reduced myocardial perfusion at peak dose dobutamine in men. However, in women, BMI (r = -0.33, p = 0.04), pericardial fat (r = -0.53, p = 0.02), subcutaneous fat (r = -0.39, p = 0.01) and intraperitoneal fat (r = -0.30, p = 0.05) were associated with reduced myocardial perfusion during dobutamine stress. Conclusions Higher visceral fat volumes are associated with reduced left ventricular myocardial perfusion at peak dose dobutamine stress in women but not in men. These findings suggest that visceral fat may contribute to abnormal microcirculatory coronary artery perfusion syndromes, explaining why some women exhibit more anginal symptoms despite typically lower grade epicardial coronary artery stenoses than men. PMID:26751789

  2. Effects of hypergravity on adipose-derived stem cell morphology, mechanical property and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Tavakolinejad, Alireza; Rabbani, Mohsen; Janmaleki, Mohsen

    2015-08-21

    Alteration in specific inertial conditions can lead to changes in morphology, proliferation, mechanical properties and cytoskeleton of cells. In this report, the effects of hypergravity on morphology of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) are indicated. ADSCs were repeatedly exposed to discontinuous hypergravity conditions of 10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g by utilizing centrifuge (three times of 20 min exposure, with an interval of 40 min at 1 g). Cell morphology in terms of length, width and cell elongation index and cytoskeleton of actin filaments and microtubules were analyzed by image processing. Consistent changes observed in cell elongation index as morphological change. Moreover, cell proliferation was assessed and mechanical properties of cells in case of elastic modulus of cells were evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Increase in proliferation and decrease in elastic modulus of cells are further results of this study. Staining ADSC was done to show changes in cytoskeleton of the cells associated to hypergravity condition specifically in microfilament and microtubule components. After exposing to hypergravity, significant changes were observed in microfilaments and microtubule density as components of cytoskeleton. It was concluded that there could be a relationship between changes in morphology and MFs as the main component of the cells. - Highlights: • Hypergravity (10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g) affects on adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs). • ADSCs after exposure to the hypergravity are more slender. • The height of ADSCs increases in all test groups comparing their control group. • Hypergravity decreases ADSCs modulus of elasticity and cell actin fiber content. • Hypergravity enhances proliferation rate of ADSCs.

  3. Characterization of adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and their function in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Andreas; Friemel, Alexandra; Fornoff, Friderike; Adjan, Mouhib; Solbach, Christine; Yuan, Juping; Louwen, Frank

    2015-10-27

    Adipose-derived stem cells are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types and thus considered useful for regenerative medicine. However, this differentiation feature seems to be associated with tumor initiation and metastasis raising safety concerns, which requires further investigation. In this study, we isolated adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous as well as from visceral adipose tissues of the same donor and systematically compared their features. Although being characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells, subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells tend to be spindle form-like and are more able to home to cancer cells, whereas visceral adipose-derived stem cells incline to be "epithelial"-like and more competent to differentiate. Moreover, compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells, visceral adipose-derived stem cells are more capable of promoting proliferation, inducing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, enhancing migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by cell-cell contact and by secreting interleukins such as IL-6 and IL-8. Importantly, ASCs affect the low malignant breast cancer cells MCF-7 more than the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. Induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is mediated by the activation of multiple pathways especially the PI3K/AKT signaling in breast cancer cells. BCL6, an important player in B-cell lymphoma and breast cancer progression, is crucial for this transition. Finally, this transition fuels malignant properties of breast cancer cells and render them resistant to ATP competitive Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors BI 2535 and BI 6727.

  4. Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from subcutaneous, omental, and intrathoracic adipose tissue depots for regenerative applications.

    PubMed

    Russo, Valerio; Yu, Claire; Belliveau, Paul; Hamilton, Andrew; Flynn, Lauren E

    2014-02-01

    Adipose tissue is an abundant source of multipotent progenitor cells that have shown promise in regenerative medicine. In humans, fat is primarily distributed in the subcutaneous and visceral depots, which have varying biochemical and functional properties. In most studies to date, subcutaneous adipose tissue has been investigated as the adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) source. In this study, we sought to develop a broader understanding of the influence of specific adipose tissue depots on the isolated ASC populations through a systematic comparison of donor-matched abdominal subcutaneous fat and omentum, and donor-matched pericardial adipose tissue and thymic remnant samples. We found depot-dependent and donor-dependent variability in the yield, viability, immunophenotype, clonogenic potential, doubling time, and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacities of the ASC populations. More specifically, ASCs isolated from both intrathoracic depots had a longer average doubling time and a significantly higher proportion of CD34(+) cells at passage 2, as compared with cells isolated from subcutaneous fat or the omentum. Furthermore, ASCs from subcutaneous and pericardial adipose tissue demonstrated enhanced adipogenic differentiation capacity, whereas ASCs isolated from the omentum displayed the highest levels of osteogenic markers in culture. Through cell culture analysis under hypoxic (5% O(2)) conditions, oxygen tension was shown to be a key mediator of colony-forming unit-fibroblast number and osteogenesis for all depots. Overall, our results suggest that depot selection is an important factor to consider when applying ASCs in tissue-specific cell-based regenerative therapies, and also highlight pericardial adipose tissue as a potential new ASC source. PMID:24361924

  5. Control of adipose tissue lipolysis in ectotherm vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Migliorini, R H; Lima-Verde, J S; Machado, C R; Cardona, G M; Garofalo, M A; Kettelhut, I C

    1992-10-01

    Lipolytic activity of fish (Hoplias malabaricus), toad (Bufo paracnemis), and snake (Philodryas patagoniensis) adipose tissue was investigated in vivo and in vitro. Catecholamines or glucagon did not affect the release of free fatty acids (FFA) by incubated fish and toad adipose tissue. Catecholamines also failed to activate snake adipose tissue lipolysis, which even decreased in the presence of epinephrine. However, glucagon stimulated both the lipolytic activity of reptilian tissue in vitro and the mobilization of FFA to plasma when administered to snakes in vivo. The release of FFA from incubated fish, amphibian, and reptilian adipose tissue increased markedly in the presence of cAMP or xanthine derivatives, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase. Forskolin or fluoride, activators of specific components of the adenylate cyclase system, strongly stimulated toad adipose tissue lipolysis. The data suggest that adipocyte triacylglycerol lipase of ectotherm vertebrates is activated by a cAMP-mediated phosphorylation and that the organization of the membrane-bound adenylate cyclase system is similar to that of mammals.

  6. [Interests and potentials of adipose tissue in scleroderma].

    PubMed

    Daumas, A; Eraud, J; Hautier, A; Sabatier, F; Magalon, G; Granel, B

    2013-12-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a disorder involving the connective tissue, arterioles and microvessels. It is characterized by skin and visceral fibrosis and ischemic phenomena. Currently, therapy is limited and no antifibrotic treatment has proven its efficacy. Beyond some severe organ lesions (pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, scleroderma renal crisis), which only concern a minority of patients, the skin sclerosis of hands and face and the vasculopathy lead to physical and psychological disability in most patients. Thus, functional improvement of hand motion and face represents a priority for patient therapy. Due to its easy obtention by fat lipopaspirate and adipocytes survival, re injection of adipose tissue is a common therapy used in plastic surgery for its voluming effect. Identification and characterization of the adipose tissue-derived stroma vascular fraction, mainly including mesenchymal stem cells, have revolutionized the science showing that adipose tissue is a valuable source of multipotent stem cells, able to migrate to site of injury and to differentiate according to the receiver tissue's needs. Due to easy harvest by liposuction, its abundance in mesenchymal cells far higher that the bone marrow, and stroma vascular fraction's ability to differentiate and secrete growth angiogenic and antiapoptotic factors, the use of adipose tissue is becoming more attractive in regenerative medicine. We here present the interest of adipose tissue use in the treatment of the hands and face in scleroderma. PMID:24050783

  7. Hyperleptinemia, adiposity, and risk of metabolic syndrome in older adults.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Suruchi; Harris, Tamara B; Hue, Trisha; Miljkovic, Iva; Satterfield, Suzanne; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Mehta, Mira; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2013-01-01

    Background. Abdominal adiposity and serum leptin increase with age as does risk of metabolic syndrome. This study investigates the prospective association between leptin and metabolic syndrome risk in relation to adiposity and cytokines. Methods. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort of older adults aged 70 to 79 years. Baseline measurements included leptin, cytokines, BMI, total percent fat, and visceral and subcutaneous fat. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between leptin and metabolic syndrome (defined per NCEP ATP III) incidence after 6 years of follow-up among 1,120 men and women. Results. Leptin predicted metabolic syndrome in men (P for trend = 0.0002) and women (P for trend = 0.0001). In women, risk of metabolic syndrome increased with higher levels of leptin (compared with quintile 1, quintile 2 RR = 3.29, CI = 1.36, 7.95; quintile 3 RR = 3.25, CI = 1.33, 7.93; quintile 4 RR = 5.21, CI = 2.16, 12.56; and quintile 5 RR = 7.97, CI = 3.30, 19.24) after adjusting for potential confounders. Leptin remained independently associated with metabolic syndrome risk after additional adjustment for adiposity, cytokines, and CRP. Among men, this association was no longer significant after controlling for adiposity. Conclusion. Among older women, elevated concentrations of leptin may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome independent of adiposity and cytokines. PMID:24455217

  8. Adipose tissue-liver axis in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Dou, Xiao-Bing; Zhou, Zhan-Xiang; Song, Zhen-Yuan

    2016-02-15

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains an important health problem worldwide. The disease spectrum is featured by early steatosis, steatohepatitis (steatosis with inflammatory cells infiltration and necrosis), with some individuals ultimately progressing to fibrosis/cirrhosis. Although the disease progression is well characterized, no effective therapies are currently available for the treatment in humans. The mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of ALD are multifactorial and complex. Emerging evidence supports that adipose tissue dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of ALD. In the first part of this review, we discuss the mechanisms whereby chronic alcohol exposure contributed to adipose tissue dysfunction, including cell death, inflammation and insulin resistance. It has been long known that aberrant hepatic methionine metabolism is a major metabolic abnormality induced by chronic alcohol exposure and plays an etiological role in the pathogenesis of ALD. The recent studies in our group documented the similar metabolic effect of chronic alcohol drinking on methionine in adipose tissue. In the second part of this review, we also briefly discuss the recent research progress in the field with a focus on how abnormal methionine metabolism in adipose tissue contributes to adipose tissue dysfunction and liver damage. PMID:26909225

  9. Inflammation and adipose tissue macrophages in lipodystrophic mice.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Laura; Shapiro, Hagit; Nayer, Ali; Lee, Jongsoon; Shoelson, Steven E

    2010-01-01

    Lipodystrophy and obesity are opposites in terms of a deficiency versus excess of adipose tissue mass, yet these conditions are accompanied by similar metabolic consequences, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and increased risk for diabetes and atherosclerosis. Hepatic and myocellular steatosis likely contribute to metabolic dysregulation in both states. Inflammation and macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue also appear to participate in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced insulin resistance, but their contributions to lipodystrophy-induced insulin resistance have not been evaluated. We used aP2-nSREBP-1c transgenic (Tg) mice, an established model of lipodystrophy, to ask this question. Circulating cytokine elevations suggested systemic inflammation but even more dramatic was the number of infiltrating macrophages in all white and brown adipose tissue depots of the Tg mice; in contrast, there was no evidence of inflammatory infiltrates or responses in any other tissue including liver. Despite there being overt evidence of adipose tissue inflammation, antiinflammatory strategies including salicylate treatment and genetic suppression of myeloid NF-kappaB signaling that correct insulin resistance in obesity were ineffective in the lipodystrophic mice. We further showed that adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in lipodystrophy and obesity are very different in terms of activation state, gene expression patterns, and response to lipopolysaccharide. Although ATMs are even more abundant in lipodystrophy than in obesity, they have distinct phenotypes and likely roles in tissue remodeling, but do not appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.

  10. Inflammation and adipose tissue macrophages in lipodystrophic mice

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Laura; Shapiro, Hagit; Nayer, Ali; Lee, Jongsoon; Shoelson, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    Lipodystrophy and obesity are opposites in terms of a deficiency versus excess of adipose tissue mass, yet these conditions are accompanied by similar metabolic consequences, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and increased risk for diabetes and atherosclerosis. Hepatic and myocellular steatosis likely contribute to metabolic dysregulation in both states. Inflammation and macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue also appear to participate in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced insulin resistance, but their contributions to lipodystrophy-induced insulin resistance have not been evaluated. We used aP2-nSREBP-1c transgenic (Tg) mice, an established model of lipodystrophy, to ask this question. Circulating cytokine elevations suggested systemic inflammation but even more dramatic was the number of infiltrating macrophages in all white and brown adipose tissue depots of the Tg mice; in contrast, there was no evidence of inflammatory infiltrates or responses in any other tissue including liver. Despite there being overt evidence of adipose tissue inflammation, antiinflammatory strategies including salicylate treatment and genetic suppression of myeloid NF-κB signaling that correct insulin resistance in obesity were ineffective in the lipodystrophic mice. We further showed that adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in lipodystrophy and obesity are very different in terms of activation state, gene expression patterns, and response to lipopolysaccharide. Although ATMs are even more abundant in lipodystrophy than in obesity, they have distinct phenotypes and likely roles in tissue remodeling, but do not appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. PMID:20007767

  11. Sustainable three-dimensional tissue model of human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Evangelia; Marra, Kacey G; Kaplan, David L

    2013-10-01

    The need for physiologically relevant sustainable human adipose tissue models is crucial for understanding tissue development, disease progression, in vitro drug development and soft tissue regeneration. The coculture of adipocytes differentiated from human adipose-derived stem cells, with endothelial cells, on porous silk protein matrices for at least 6 months is reported, while maintaining adipose-like outcomes. Cultures were assessed for structure and morphology (Oil Red O content and CD31 expression), metabolic functions (leptin, glycerol production, gene expression for GLUT4, and PPARγ) and cell replication (DNA content). The cocultures maintained size and shape over this extended period in static cultures, while increasing in diameter by 12.5% in spinner flask culture. Spinner flask cultures yielded improved adipose tissue outcomes overall, based on structure and function, when compared to the static cultures. This work establishes a tissue model system that can be applied to the development of chronic metabolic dysfunction systems associated with human adipose tissue, such as obesity and diabetes, due to the long term sustainable functions demonstrated here.

  12. Viral mechanisms of adipose dysfunction: lessons from HIV-1 Vpr

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, N; Balasubramanyam, A

    2014-01-01

    HIV-associated lipodystrophy is a heterogeneous, evolving condition associated with fundamental defects in adipose tissue differentiation, turnover and function. Although many antiretroviral drugs can affect adipose tissues adversely, clinical evidence suggests that factors associated with the virus per se could play a role. We have focused on the possibility that an HIV accessory protein, viral protein R (Vpr) could dysregulate metabolically critical transcription factors to cause the adipose dysfunction. In a recent study published in Science Translational Medicine, we utilized 2 animal models to show that Vpr, produced in tissues that sequester HIV after antiretroviral therapy, can act in a paracrine or endocrine fashion to disrupt adipocyte differentiation and function by inhibiting PPARγ target gene expression and activating glucocorticoid target gene expression. The phenotypic consequences included many features typical of the human syndrome, including accelerated lipolysis, increased macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue, diminished size of white adipose depots and hepatic steatosis. In this commentary, we summarize the background, results, and implications of these studies, and raise important questions for future investigation. More broadly, these studies suggest that chronic viral infections may be a causative factor in the pathogenesis of some forms of lipid metabolic disease, insulin resistance, and diabetes. PMID:26167403

  13. Epicardial adipose tissue in endocrine and metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue has recently emerged as new risk factor and active player in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Albeit its physiological and pathological roles are not completely understood, a body of evidence indicates that epicardial adipose tissue is a fat depot with peculiar and unique features. Epicardial fat is able to synthesize, produce, and secrete bioactive molecules which are then transported into the adjacent myocardium through vasocrine and/or paracrine pathways. Based on these evidences, epicardial adipose tissue can be considered an endocrine organ. Epicardial fat is also thought to provide direct heating to the myocardium and protect the heart during unfavorable hemodynamic conditions, such as ischemia or hypoxia. Epicardial fat has been suggested to play an independent role in the development and progression of obesity- and diabetes-related cardiac abnormalities. Clinically, the thickness of epicardial fat can be easily and accurately measured. Epicardial fat thickness can serve as marker of visceral adiposity and visceral fat changes during weight loss interventions and treatments with drugs targeting the fat. The potential of modulating the epicardial fat with targeted pharmacological agents can open new avenues in the pharmacotherapy of endocrine and metabolic diseases. This review article will provide Endocrine's reader with a focus on epicardial adipose tissue in endocrinology. Novel, established, but also speculative findings on epicardial fat will be discussed from the unexplored perspective of both clinical and basic Endocrinologist.

  14. Hyperleptinemia, Adiposity, and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Tamara B.; Hue, Trisha; Miljkovic, Iva; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Mehta, Mira; Sahyoun, Nadine R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Abdominal adiposity and serum leptin increase with age as does risk of metabolic syndrome. This study investigates the prospective association between leptin and metabolic syndrome risk in relation to adiposity and cytokines. Methods. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort of older adults aged 70 to 79 years. Baseline measurements included leptin, cytokines, BMI, total percent fat, and visceral and subcutaneous fat. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between leptin and metabolic syndrome (defined per NCEP ATP III) incidence after 6 years of follow-up among 1,120 men and women. Results. Leptin predicted metabolic syndrome in men (P for trend = 0.0002) and women (P for trend = 0.0001). In women, risk of metabolic syndrome increased with higher levels of leptin (compared with quintile 1, quintile 2 RR = 3.29, CI = 1.36, 7.95; quintile 3 RR = 3.25, CI = 1.33, 7.93; quintile 4 RR = 5.21, CI = 2.16, 12.56; and quintile 5 RR = 7.97, CI = 3.30, 19.24) after adjusting for potential confounders. Leptin remained independently associated with metabolic syndrome risk after additional adjustment for adiposity, cytokines, and CRP. Among men, this association was no longer significant after controlling for adiposity. Conclusion. Among older women, elevated concentrations of leptin may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome independent of adiposity and cytokines. PMID:24455217

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness associates with metabolic risk independent of central adiposity.

    PubMed

    Silva, G; Aires, L; Martins, C; Mota, J; Oliveira, J; Ribeiro, J C

    2013-10-01

    This study sought to analyze the associations between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), waist circumference (WC) and metabolic risk in children and adolescents. Participants were 633 subjects (58.7% girls) ages 10-18 years. Metabolic risk score (MRS) was calculated from HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose and mean arterial pressure. MRS was dichotomized into low and high metabolic risk (HMRS). CRF was defined as the maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂max) estimated from the 20 m Shuttle Run Test. The first quartile of CRF was set as the low fitness group. The fourth quartile of WC was defined as high central adiposity. With adjustments for age, sex and WC, CRF was correlated with MRS (r=-0.095; p<0.05). WC was correlated with MRS (r=0.150; p<0.001) after adjustments for age, sex and CRF. Participants who had low fitness levels, presented higher levels of MRS (p<0.001) compared to those who were fit, even after adjustment for age, sex and WC. In comparison with subjects who were fit with normal central adiposity, an increased odds ratio (OR) for being at HMRS was found for participants who were of low fitness level with high central adiposity (OR=2.934; 95%CI= 1.690-5.092) and for those who were of low fitness with normal central adiposity (OR=2.234; 95%CI=1.116-4.279). Results suggest that CRF relates to MRS independently of central adiposity.

  16. Molecular pathways regulating the formation of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianfei; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Huiqin; Mao, Yushan; Wang, Anshi; Wang, Xin; Zou, Zuquan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is functionally composed of brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue. The unique thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue results from expression of uncoupling protein 1 in the mitochondrial inner membrane. On the basis of recent findings that adult humans have functionally active brown adipose tissue, it is now recognized as playing a much more important role in human metabolism than was previously thought. More importantly, brown-like adipocytes can be recruited in white adipose tissue upon environmental stimulation and pharmacologic treatment, and this change is associated with increased energy expenditure, contributing to a lean and healthy phenotype. Thus, the promotion of brown-like adipocyte development in white adipose tissue offers novel possibilities for the development of therapeutic strategies to combat obesity and related metabolic diseases. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the recruitment of brown-like adipocyte in white adipose tissue.

  17. Bisphenol A and Adiposity in an Inner-City Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hoepner, Lori A.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Widen, Elizabeth M.; Hassoun, Abeer; Oberfield, Sharon E.; Mueller, Noel T.; Diaz, Diurka; Calafat, Antonia M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early-life exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) may contribute to the development of obesity. Prospective evidence in humans on this topic is limited. Objectives: We examined prenatal and early-childhood BPA exposures in relation to childhood measures of adiposity in the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) New York City birth cohort. Methods: BPA concentrations were measured in prenatal (n = 375) and child ages 3 (n = 408) and 5 years (n = 518) spot urine samples. Childhood anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance outcomes included body mass index z-scores (BMIZ) at 5 and 7 years, and fat mass index (FMI), percent body fat (%BF), and waist circumference (WC) at 7 years. Associations were evaluated using multiple linear regression with continuous and tertile BPA concentrations. Results: Prenatal urinary BPA concentrations were positively associated with child age 7 FMI (β = 0.31 kg/m2; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.60, p = 0.04), %BF (β = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.03, 1.55, p = 0.04), and WC (β = 1.29 cm; 95% CI: 0.29, 2.30, p = 0.01), but not BMIZ, or change in BMIZ between ages 5 and 7 years (all p-values > 0.1). FMI results were sex-specific. Child urinary BPA concentrations were not associated with child anthropometric outcomes (all p-values > 0.05). Conclusions: Analyses of the CCCEH longitudinal birth cohort found associations between prenatal urinary BPA concentrations and FMI, %BF, and WC. Our results suggest that prenatal BPA exposure may contribute to developmental origins of adiposity. These findings are consistent with several prior studies, raising concern about the pervasiveness of BPA. Citation: Hoepner LA, Whyatt RM, Widen EM, Hassoun A, Oberfield SE, Mueller NT, Diaz D, Calafat AM, Perera FP, Rundle AG. 2016. Bisphenol A and adiposity in an inner-city birth cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:1644–1650; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP205 PMID:27187982

  18. Adiposity and Different Types of Screen Time

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Hu, Frank B.; Field, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Few prospective studies have examined separate forms of screen time in relation to adiposity. Our objective was to assess independent relations of television, electronic games (video/computer), and digital versatile disc (DVD)/videos and total screen time with change in adolescent BMI. METHODS: Using data from the 2004, 2006, and 2008 waves of the ongoing Growing up Today Study II, we assessed baseline and 2-year change in reported screen time in relation to concurrent change in BMI among 4287 girls and 3505 boys aged 9 to 16 years in 2004. Gender-specific models adjusted for previous BMI, age, race/ethnicity, growth/development, months between questionnaires, and physical activity. RESULTS: Among girls and boys, each hour per day increase in reported television viewing was associated with a 0.09 increase in BMI (Ps < .001), and each hour per day increase in total screen time was associated with a 0.07 increase among girls and 0.05 increase among boys (Ps < .001). Among girls only, greater baseline television, games, and total screen time and change in DVDs/videos were associated with gains in BMI (Ps < .05). BMI gains associated with change in television and total screen time were stronger among overweight girls than lean girls (Ps-heterogeneity < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Television, which remains the steadiest source of food advertising, was most consistently associated with BMI gains. Among girls, electronic games and DVDs/videos were also related to increased BMI, possibly due to influences of product placements and advergames on diet and/or distracted eating. Adolescents, especially overweight adolescents, may benefit from reduced time with multiple types of media. PMID:24276840

  19. In Vivo Dedifferentiation of Adult Adipose Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Feng; Dong, Ziqing; Chang, Qiang; Gao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adipocytes can dedifferentiate into fibroblast-like cells in vitro and thereby acquire proliferation and multipotent capacities to participate in the repair of various organs and tissues. Whether dedifferentiation occurs under physiological or pathological conditions in vivo is unknown. Methods A tissue expander was placed under the inguinal fat pads of rats and gradually expanded by injection of water. Samples were collected at various time points, and morphological, histological, cytological, ultrastructural, and gene expression analyses were conducted. In a separate experiment, purified green fluorescent protein+ adipocytes were transplanted into C57 mice and collected at various time points. The transplanted adipocytes were assessed by bioluminescence imaging and whole-mount staining. Results The expanded fat pad was obviously thinner than the untreated fat pad on the opposite side. It was also tougher in texture and with more blood vessels attached. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy indicated there were fewer monolocular adipocytes in the expanded fat pad and the morphology of these cells was altered, most notably their lipid content was discarded. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expanded fat pad contained an increased number of proliferative cells, which may have been derived from adipocytes. Following removal of the tissue expander, many small adipocytes were observed. Bioluminescence imaging suggested that some adipocytes survived when transplanted into an ischemic-hypoxic environment. Whole-mount staining revealed that surviving adipocytes underwent a process similar to adipocyte dedifferentiation in vitro. Monolocular adipocytes became multilocular adipocytes and then fibroblast-like cells. Conclusions Mature adipocytes may be able to dedifferentiate in vivo, and this may be an adipose tissue self-repair mechanism. The capacity of adipocytes to dedifferentiate into stem cell-like cells may also have a

  20. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time: cross-sectional and prospective associations with adiposity in the Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Lucy J; Sera, Francesco; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Law, Catherine; Ness, Andrew; Dezateux, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) in primary school-aged children are associated with adiposity at the start of secondary school, and whether these associations differ by sex or ethnic group. Design Nationally representative prospective cohort study. Setting Children born across the UK, between 2000 and 2002. Participants 6497 singleton children. Outcome measures Measures of adiposity (body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and fat free mass index (FFMI))—obtained at 7 and 11 years. Explanatory measures Total daily PA (mean counts per minute (cpm)); minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA); and ST. All assessed at 7 years using accelerometers. Results In cross-sectional analyses, total PA was inversely associated with FMI (3.7% (95% CI 2.7% to 4.7%) reduction per 150 cpm increase), as was MVPA (4.2% (CI 3.2% to 5.2%) reduction per 20 min/day increase). Associations were stronger in black and South Asian ethnic groups. Total PA and MVPA were not associated with FFMI. ST was positively associated with FMI (1.3% (CI 0.2% to 2.3%) increase per 50 min/day increase) and inversely associated with FFMI (0.5% (CI 0.2% to 0.7%) reduction per 50 min/day increase). Longitudinally, MVPA at age 7 years remained inversely associated with FMI at age 11 years (1.5% (CI 0.4% to 2.6%) reduction per 20 min/day increase). No association was found between total PA and ST and any of the later adiposity measures. Conclusions 7-year-old children who are more physically active are less likely to be obese at that age and at age 11 years. These associations were particularly evident in children from black or South Asian ethnicity at age 7 years and in boys at age 11 years. Measurements of fat mass provide valuable insights into ethnic differences in associations between adiposity and activity. PMID:27067891

  1. High-Fat Diet-Induced Adiposity, Adipose Inflammation, Hepatic Steatosis and Hyperinsulinemia in Outbred CD-1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Mingming; Ma, Yongjie; Liu, Dexi

    2015-01-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) has been applied to a variety of inbred mouse strains to induce obesity and obesity related metabolic complications. In this study, we determined HFD induced development of metabolic disorders on outbred female CD-1 mice in a time dependent manner. Compared to mice on regular chow, HFD-fed CD-1 mice gradually gained more fat mass and consequently exhibited accelerated body weight gain, which was associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and up-regulated expression of adipose inflammatory chemokines and cytokines such as Mcp-1 and Tnf-α. Increased fat accumulation in white adipose tissue subsequently led to ectopic fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, giving rise to whitening of brown adipose tissue without altering plasma level of triglyceride. Ectopic fat deposition was also observed in the liver, which was associated with elevated expression of key genes involved in hepatic lipid sequestration, including Ppar-γ2, Cd36 and Mgat1. Notably, adipose chronic inflammation and ectopic lipid deposition in the liver and brown fat were accompanied by glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, which was correlated with hyperinsulinemia and pancreatic islet hypertrophy. Collectively, these results demonstrate sequentially the events that HFD induces physiological changes leading to metabolic disorders in an outbred mouse model more closely resembling heterogeneity of the human population. PMID:25768847

  2. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 with hemin reduces obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation via adipose macrophage phenotype switching.

    PubMed

    Tu, Thai Hien; Joe, Yeonsoo; Choi, Hye-Seon; Chung, Hun Taeg; Yu, Rina

    2014-01-01

    Adipose macrophages with the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype protect against obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which elicits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, modulates macrophage phenotypes and thus is implicated in various inflammatory diseases. Here, we demonstrate that the HO-1 inducer, hemin, protects against obesity-induced adipose inflammation by inducing macrophages to switch to the M2 phenotype. HO-1 induction by hemin reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) from cocultured adipocytes and macrophages by inhibiting the activation of inflammatory signaling molecules (JNK and NF-κB) in both cell types. Hemin enhanced transcript levels of M2 macrophage marker genes (IL-4, Mrc1, and Clec10a) in the cocultures, while reducing transcripts of M1 macrophage markers (CD274 and TNF-α). The protective effects of hemin on adipose inflammation and macrophage phenotype switching were confirmed in mice fed a high-fat diet, and these were associated with PPARγ upregulation and STAT6 activation. These findings suggest that induction of HO-1 with hemin protects against obesity-induced adipose inflammation through M2 macrophage phenotype switching, which is induced by the PPARγ and STAT6 pathway. HO-1 inducers such as hemin may be useful for preventing obesity-induced adipose inflammation.

  3. Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaSR) activation elevates proinflammatory factor expression in human adipose cells and adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cifuentes, Mariana; Fuentes, Cecilia; Acevedo, Ingrid; Villalobos, Elisa; Hugo, Eric; Ben Jonathan, Nira; Reyes, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    We have previously established that human adipose cells and the human adipose cell line LS14 express the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) and that its expression is elevated upon exposure to inflammatory cytokines that are typically elevated in obese humans. Research in recent years has established that an important part of the adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of obesity derive from a dysfunction of the tissue, one of the mechanisms being a disordered secretion pattern leading to an excess of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Given the reported association of the CaSR to inflammatory processes in other tissues, we sought to evaluate its role elevating the adipose expression of inflammatory factors. We exposed adipose tissue and in-vitro cultured LS14 preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes to the calcimimetic cinacalcet and evaluated the expression or production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL6, IL1β and TNFα as well as the chemoattractant factor CCL2. CaSR activation elicited an elevation in the expression of the inflammatory factors, which was in part reverted by SN50, an inhibitor of the inflammatory mediator NFκB. Our observations suggest that CaSR activation elevates cytokine and chemokine production through a signaling pathway involving activation of NFκB nuclear translocation. These findings confirm the relevance of the CaSR in the pathophysiology of obesity-induced adipose tissue dysfunction, with an interesting potential for pharmacological manipulation in the fight against obesity- associated diseases. PMID:22449852

  4. An alternative splicing program promotes adipose tissue thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vernia, Santiago; Edwards, Yvonne Jk; Han, Myoung Sook; Cavanagh-Kyros, Julie; Barrett, Tamera; Kim, Jason K; Davis, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing expands the complexity of the transcriptome and controls isoform-specific gene expression. Whether alternative splicing contributes to metabolic regulation is largely unknown. Here we investigated the contribution of alternative splicing to the development of diet-induced obesity. We found that obesity-induced changes in adipocyte gene expression include alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Bioinformatics analysis associated part of this alternative splicing program with sequence specific NOVA splicing factors. This conclusion was confirmed by studies of mice with NOVA deficiency in adipocytes. Phenotypic analysis of the NOVA-deficient mice demonstrated increased adipose tissue thermogenesis and improved glycemia. We show that NOVA proteins mediate a splicing program that suppresses adipose tissue thermogenesis. Together, these data provide quantitative analysis of gene expression at exon-level resolution in obesity and identify a novel mechanism that contributes to the regulation of adipose tissue function and the maintenance of normal glycemia. PMID:27635635

  5. Recent Advances in Proteomic Studies of Adipose Tissues and Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Won Kon; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Han, Baek Soo; Lee, Sang Chul; Bae, Kwang-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that is associated with significantly increased levels of risk of a number of metabolic disorders. Despite these enhanced health risks, the worldwide prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past few decades. Obesity is caused by the accumulation of an abnormal amount of body fat in adipose tissue, which is composed mostly of adipocytes. Thus, a deeper understanding of the regulation mechanism of adipose tissue and/or adipocytes can provide a clue for overcoming obesity-related metabolic diseases. In this review, we describe recent advances in the study of adipose tissue and/or adipocytes, focusing on proteomic approaches. In addition, we suggest future research directions for proteomic studies which may lead to novel treatments of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:25734986

  6. Central Effects of Estradiol in the Regulation of Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, LM; Clegg, DJ

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, obesity and its associated health disorders and costs have increased. Accumulation of adipose tissue, or fat, in the intra-abdominal adipose depot is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular problems, type-2 diabetes mellitus, certain cancers, and other disorders like the metabolic syndrome. Males and females differ in terms of how and where their body fat is stored, in their hormonal secretions, and in their neural responses to signals regulating weight and body fat distribution. Men and post-menopausal women accumulate more fat in their intra-abdominal depots than pre-menopausal women, resulting in a greater risk of developing complications associated with obesity. The goal of this review is to discuss the current literature on sexual dimorphisms in body weight regulation, adipose tissue accrual and deposition. PMID:20035866

  7. Dorsomedial hypothalamic NPY modulation of adiposity and thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sheng

    2013-09-10

    In addition to controlling food intake, the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) plays an important role in thermoregulation. Within the DMH, a number of neuropeptides and receptors have been found and their roles in controlling energy balance are being investigated. We recently found that the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the DMH has specific actions on body adiposity and thermogenesis using a viral-mediated manipulation of NPY in the DMH. Knockdown of NPY in the DMH promotes the development of brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue and increases brown adipocyte activity. DMH NPY knockdown also causes increased thermogenesis and energy expenditure. Finally, DMH NPY knockdown prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity and improves glucose homeostasis. This review focuses on the role of DMH NPY in modulating body adiposity and thermogenesis.

  8. Browning of white adipose tissue: role of hypothalamic signaling.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sheng; Li, Lin

    2013-10-01

    Two types of fat, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), exist in mammals including adult humans. While WAT stores excess calories and an excessive accumulation of fat causes obesity, BAT dissipates energy to produce heat through nonshivering thermogenesis for protection against cold environments and provides the potential for the development of novel anti-obesity treatments. The hypothalamus plays a central role in the control of energy balance. Specifically, recent observations indicate the importance of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) in thermoregulation. We have found that the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the DMH has distinct actions in modulating adiposity and BAT thermogenesis. Knockdown of NPY in the DMH elevates the thermogenic activity of classic BAT and promotes the development of brown adipocytes in WAT, leading to increased thermogenesis. These findings identify a novel potential target for combating obesity.

  9. Developmental Programming of Fetal Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue Development

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xu; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Dodson, Michael V.; Du, Min

    2013-01-01

    All important developmental milestones are accomplished during the fetal stage, and nutrient fluctuation during this stage produces lasting effects on offspring health, so called fetal programming or developmental programming. The fetal stage is critical for skeletal muscle development, as well as adipose and connective tissue development. Maternal under-nutrition at this stage affects the proliferation of myogenic precursor cells and reduces the number of muscle fibers formed. Maternal over-nutrition results in impaired myogenesis and elevated adipogenesis. Because myocytes, adipocytes and fibrocytes are all derived from mesenchymal stem cells, molecular events which regulate the commitment of stem cells to different lineages directly impact fetal muscle and adipose tissue development. Recent studies indicate that microRNA is intensively involved in myogenic and adipogenic differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells, and epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation are expected to alter cell lineage commitment during fetal muscle and adipose tissue development. PMID:25031653

  10. Emerging role of Nrf2 in adipocytes and adipose biology.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kevin S; Chan, Jefferson Y

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of a balanced redox state within the cell is of critical importance to a wide variety of biological systems. Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) is a critical regulator of key aspects of the antioxidant defense pathway and has long been a subject of interest regarding conditions of chronic stress such as inflammation and cancer. Recent data have emerged demonstrating that oxidative stress and Nrf2 also play critical roles in the biology of adipose tissue. This review examines data identifying the roles of Nrf2 and oxidative stress in the biological process of adipose cell differentiation as well as the implications of Nrf2 modulation on obesity. Working to understand the complex interplay among Nrf2, oxidative stress, and adipose biology could lead to a variety of possible treatments for obesity and other related disorders.

  11. Physiological and pathological impact of exosomes of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yu, Mei; Tian, Weidong

    2016-02-01

    Exosomes are nanovesicles that have emerged as a new intercellular communication system for transporting proteins and RNAs; recent studies have shown that they play a role in many physiological and pathological processes such as immune regulation, cell differentiation, infection and cancer. By transferring proteins, mRNAs and microRNAs, exosomes act as information vehicles that alter the behavior of recipient cells. Compared to direct cell-cell contact or secreted factors, exosomes can affect recipient cells in more efficient ways. In whole adipose tissues, it has been shown that exosomes exist in supernatants of adipocytes and adipose stromal cells (ADSCs). Adipocyte exosomes are linked to lipid metabolism and obesity-related insulin resistance and exosomes secreted by ADSCs are involved in angiogenesis, immunomodulation and tumor development. This review introduces characteristics of exosomes in adipose tissue, summarizes their functions in different physiological and pathological processes and provides the further insight into potential application of exosomes to disease diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Development of the mouse dermal adipose layer occurs independently of subcutaneous adipose tissue and is marked by restricted early expression of FABP4.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowicz, Kamila; Gledhill, Karl; Ambler, Carrie A; Manning, Craig B; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2013-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is a key animal model for studies of adipose biology, metabolism and disease, yet the developmental changes that occur in tissues and cells that become the adipose layer in mouse skin have received little attention. Moreover, the terminology around this adipose body is often confusing, as frequently no distinction is made between adipose tissue within the skin, and so called subcutaneous fat. Here adipocyte development in mouse dorsal skin was investigated from before birth to the end of the first hair follicle growth cycle. Using Oil Red O staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and TUNEL staining we confirmed previous observations of a close spatio-temporal link between hair follicle development and the process of adipogenesis. However, unlike previous studies, we observed that the skin adipose layer was created from cells within the lower dermis. By day 16 of embryonic development (e16) the lower dermis was demarcated from the upper dermal layer, and commitment to adipogenesis in the lower dermis was signalled by expression of FABP4, a marker of adipocyte differentiation. In mature mice the skin adipose layer is separated from underlying subcutaneous adipose tissue by the panniculus carnosus. We observed that the skin adipose tissue did not combine or intermix with subcutaneous adipose tissue at any developmental time point. By transplanting skin isolated from e14.5 mice (prior to the start of adipogenesis), under the kidney capsule of adult mice, we showed that skin adipose tissue develops independently and without influence from subcutaneous depots. This study has reinforced the developmental link between hair follicles and skin adipocyte biology. We argue that because skin adipocytes develop from cells within the dermis and independently from subcutaneous adipose tissue, that it is accurately termed dermal adipose tissue and that, in laboratory mice at least, it represents a separate adipose depot.

  13. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  14. Visceral adipose tissue is prognostic for survival of diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated with frontline R-CHOP.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Yeop; Kim, Areumnuri; Byun, Byung Hyun; Moon, Hansol; Kim, Soyeun; Ko, Young-Jin; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Hyo-Rak; Kang, Hye-Jin; Na, Im Il; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung Sook; Yang, Sung-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    The potential role of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) as a prognostic factor in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with frontline rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) immunochemotherapy was explored. Total adipose tissue and VAT were measured by analyzing positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) images obtained during the initial staging of patients with DLBCL. The VAT ratio was calculated as follows: VAT ratio = VAT area/total adipose tissue area. Body mass index (BMI), sex, and International Prognostic Index (IPI) were also incorporated as co-variates in the final model of multivariate Cox regression analysis for survival. A total of 156 patients with DLBCL, who were treated with frontline R-CHOP, were enrolled in our study. The median patient age was 61 years, and 81 patients were male (51.9 %). The median cycle of R-CHOP was six. The IPI risk group was a strong prognostic factor for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (p < 0.001). Obese BMIs were an independent prognostic factor for PFS, but not for OS in multivariate analyses, compared to patients with normal BMIs (HR = 0.43, 95 % CI = 0.19-0.98, and p = 0.046 for PFS). A high VAT ratio (third tertile) was an independent adverse prognostic factor for PFS and OS in multivariate analyses (HR = 2.87 and 2.66, 95 % CI = 1.30-6.32 and 1.30-5.44, and p = 0.009 and 0.007 for PFS and OS, respectively). VAT ratio was an independent prognostic factor for patients with DLBCL treated with first-line R-CHOP; thus, additional large prospective studies are warranted. PMID:26658607

  15. Adipose Tissue Remodeling: Its Role in Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Choe, Sung Sik; Huh, Jin Young; Hwang, In Jae; Kim, Jong In; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-01-01

    The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secrete various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines) that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in peripheral tissues. In response to changes in the nutritional status, the adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling, including quantitative and qualitative alterations in adipose tissue-resident cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that adipose tissue remodeling in obesity is closely associated with adipose tissue function. Changes in the number and size of the adipocytes affect the microenvironment of expanded fat tissues, accompanied by alterations in adipokine secretion, adipocyte death, local hypoxia, and fatty acid fluxes. Concurrently, stromal vascular cells in the adipose tissue, including immune cells, are involved in numerous adaptive processes, such as dead adipocyte clearance, adipogenesis, and angiogenesis, all of which are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue remodeling. Chronic overnutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses, leading to systemic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance. This review will discuss current mechanistic understandings of adipose tissue remodeling processes in adaptive energy homeostasis and pathological remodeling of adipose tissue in connection with immune response.

  16. Flow cytometry on the stromal-vascular fraction of white adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose tissue contains cell types other than adipocytes that may contribute to complications linked to obesity. For example, macrophages have been shown to infiltrate adipose tissue in response to a high-fat diet. Isolation of the stromal-vascular fraction of adipose tissue allows one to use flow c...

  17. Association between subcutaneous white adipose tissue and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but the distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in adipose tissue is not known. Objectives: To determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons an...

  18. Adipose tissue development in extramuscular and intramuscular depots in meat animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cellular and metabolic aspects of developing intramuscular adipose tissue and other adipose tissue depots have been studied including examination of the expression of a number of genes. Depot dependent or depot “marker” genes such as stearoyl-CoA desaturase and leptin for subcutaneous adipose ti...

  19. Gene expression profiling in developing pig adipose tissue: non-secreted regulatory proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expression of many genes encoding secreted and non-secreted factors have been studied in human and rodent adipose tissue with cDNA microarrays, but few such studies in adipose tissue from growing pigs have been reported. Total RNA was collected at slaughter from outer subcutaneous adipose tissue...

  20. Adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome: too much, too little or neither.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Scott M

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Recent research suggests that excess adipose tissue plays an important role in development of the syndrome. On the other hand, persons with a deficiency of adipose tissue (e.g. lipodystrophy) also manifest the metabolic syndrome. In some animal models, expansion of adipose tissue pools mitigates adverse metabolic components (e.g. insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia). Hence, there are conflicting data as to whether adipose tissue worsens the metabolic syndrome or protects against it. This conflict may relate partly to locations of adipose tissue pools. For instance, lower body adipose tissue may be protective whereas upper body adipose tissue may promote the syndrome. One view holds that in either case, the accumulation of ectopic fat in muscle and liver is the driving factor underlying the syndrome. If so, there may be some link between adipose tissue fat and ectopic fat. But the mechanisms underlying this connection are not clear. A stronger association appears to exist between excessive caloric intake and ectopic fat accumulation. Adipose tissue may act as a buffer to reduce the impact of excess energy consumption by fat storage; but once a constant weight has been achieved, it is unclear whether adipose tissue influences levels of ectopic fat. Another mechanism whereby adipose tissue could worsen the metabolic syndrome is through release of adipokines. This is an intriguing mechanism, but the impact of adipokines on metabolic syndrome risk factors is uncertain. Thus, many potential connections between adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome remain to unravelled.

  1. Adipose Tissue Remodeling: Its Role in Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Sung Sik; Huh, Jin Young; Hwang, In Jae; Kim, Jong In; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-01-01

    The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secrete various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines) that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in peripheral tissues. In response to changes in the nutritional status, the adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling, including quantitative and qualitative alterations in adipose tissue-resident cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that adipose tissue remodeling in obesity is closely associated with adipose tissue function. Changes in the number and size of the adipocytes affect the microenvironment of expanded fat tissues, accompanied by alterations in adipokine secretion, adipocyte death, local hypoxia, and fatty acid fluxes. Concurrently, stromal vascular cells in the adipose tissue, including immune cells, are involved in numerous adaptive processes, such as dead adipocyte clearance, adipogenesis, and angiogenesis, all of which are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue remodeling. Chronic overnutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses, leading to systemic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance. This review will discuss current mechanistic understandings of adipose tissue remodeling processes in adaptive energy homeostasis and pathological remodeling of adipose tissue in connection with immune response. PMID:27148161

  2. A stringent validation of mouse adipose tissue identity markers.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jasper M A; Larsson, Ola; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2015-06-15

    The nature of brown adipose tissue in humans is presently debated: whether it is classical brown or of brite/beige nature. The dissimilar developmental origins and proposed distinct functions of the brown and brite/beige tissues make it essential to ascertain the identity of human depots with the perspective of recruiting and activating them for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. For identification of the tissues, a number of marker genes have been proposed, but the validity of the markers has not been well documented. We used established brown (interscapular), brite (inguinal), and white (epididymal) mouse adipose tissues and corresponding primary cell cultures as validators and examined the informative value of a series of suggested markers earlier used in the discussion considering the nature of human brown adipose tissue. Most of these markers unexpectedly turned out to be noninformative concerning tissue classification (Car4, Cited1, Ebf3, Eva1, Fbxo31, Fgf21, Lhx8, Hoxc8, and Hoxc9). Only Zic1 (brown), Cd137, Epsti1, Tbx1, Tmem26 (brite), and Tcf21 (white) proved to be informative in these three tissues. However, the expression of the brite markers was not maintained in cell culture. In a more extensive set of adipose depots, these validated markers provide new information about depot identity. Principal component analysis supported our single-gene conclusions. Furthermore, Zic1, Hoxc8, Hoxc9, and Tcf21 displayed anteroposterior expression patterns, indicating a relationship between anatomic localization and adipose tissue identity (and possibly function). Together, the observed expression patterns of these validated marker genes necessitates reconsideration of adipose depot identity in mice and humans.

  3. Human Adipose Stem Cells: From Bench to Bedside.

    PubMed

    De Francesco, Francesco; Ricci, Giulia; D'Andrea, Francesco; Nicoletti, Giovanni Francesco; Ferraro, Giuseppe Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Stem cell-based therapies for repair and regeneration of different tissues are becoming more important in the treatment of several diseases. Adult stem cells currently symbolize the most available source of cell progenitors for tissue engineering and repair and can be harvested using minimally invasive procedures. Moreover, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the most widely used stem cells in stem cell-based therapies, are multipotent progenitors, with capability to differentiate into cartilage, bone, connective, muscle, and adipose tissue. So far, bone marrow has been regarded as the main source of MSCs. To date, human adult adipose tissue may be the best suitable alternative source of MSCs. Adipose stem cells (ASCs) can be largely extracted from subcutaneous human adult adipose tissue. A large number of studies show that adipose tissue contains a biologically and clinically interesting heterogeneous cell population called stromal vascular fraction (SVF). The SVF may be employed directly or cultured for selection and expansion of an adherent population, so called adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). In recent years, literature based on data related to SVF cells and ASCs has augmented considerably: These studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of SVF cells and ASCs in vivo in animal models. On the basis of these observations, in several countries, various clinical trials involving SVF cells and ASCs have been permitted. This review aims at summarizing data regarding either ASCs cellular biology or ASCs-based clinical trials and at discussing the possible future clinical translation of ASCs and their potentiality in cell-based tissue engineering.

  4. Adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Morikuni; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Innovative developments in the multidisciplinary field of tissue engineering have yielded various implementation strategies and the possibility of functional tissue regeneration. Technologic advances in the combination of stem cells, biomaterials, and growth factors have created unique opportunities to fabricate tissues in vivo and in vitro. The therapeutic potential of human multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are harvested from bone marrow and adipose tissue, has generated increasing interest in a wide variety of biomedical disciplines. These cells can differentiate into a variety of tissue types, including bone, cartilage, fat, and nerve tissue. Adipose-derived stem cells have some advantages compared with other sources of stem cells, most notably that a large number of cells can be easily and quickly isolated from adipose tissue. In current clinical therapy for periodontal tissue regeneration, several methods have been developed and applied either alone or in combination, such as enamel matrix proteins, guided tissue regeneration, autologous/allogeneic/xenogeneic bone grafts, and growth factors. However, there are various limitations and shortcomings for periodontal tissue regeneration using current methods. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using MSCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because the various secreted growth factors from MSCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissue but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. Adipose-derived stem cells are especially effective for neovascularization compared with other MSC sources. In this review, the possibility and potential of adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine are introduced. Of particular interest, periodontal tissue regeneration with adipose-derived stem cells is discussed.

  5. Estrogen therapy attenuates adiposity markers in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Abeles, Eva das Graças; Cordeiro, Letícia Maria de Souza; Martins, Almir de Sousa; Pesquero, Jorge Luiz; Reis, Adelina Martha dos; Andrade, Silvia Passos; Botion, Leida Maria

    2012-08-01

    Ovarian hormones modulate the metabolism of adipose cells and present a protective effect against hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of estradiol on adiposity markers in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats treated with estradiol (5 μg/100 g/day), three weeks after ovariectomy, presented decreased blood pressure and insulin levels and increased hepatic glycogen content. Periuterine or mesenteric adipocytes from treated animals were smaller as compared to vehicle treated group, whereas no differences were observed in relation to the number of cells. Basal rates of glycerol release were higher only in periuterine adipocytes of treated rats. The increment of glycerol release over basal values in response to isoproterenol was 400% and 440%, 283% and 330% for vehicle and estradiol treated periuterine and mesenteric adipocytes, respectively. The estradiol treated group was more sensitive to insulin inhibition of isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis than the control animals. The lipoprotein lipase activity decreased after treatment, only in periuterine adipose tissue. Estradiol administration increased basal and insulin-stimulated rates of glucose transport in adipocytes of both sites, although the values obtained by periuterine were higher than those observed for mesenteric adipocytes. Both adipose tissues from treated animals exhibited a decreased expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, but an increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α in liver. These findings suggest that estrogen administration attenuates adiposity markers of spontaneously hypertensive rats as a result of the decreased expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in adipose tissue and increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α in liver.

  6. Metabolic characteristics of human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissueafter overnight fast

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Sandy M.

    2012-01-01

    Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue is one of the largest fat depots and contributes the major proportion of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Little is known about aspects of human adipose tissue metabolism in vivo other than lipolysis. Here we collated data from 331 experiments in 255 healthy volunteers over a 23-year period, in which subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism was studied by measurements of arterio-venous differences after an overnight fast. NEFA and glycerol were released in a ratio of 2.7:1, different (P < 0.001) from the value of 3.0 that would indicate no fatty acid re-esterification. Fatty acid re-esterification was 10.2 ± 1.4%. Extraction of triacylglycerol (TG) (fractional extraction 5.7 ± 0.4%) indicated intravascular lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase, and this contributed 21 ± 3% of the glycerol released. Glucose uptake (fractional extraction 2.6 ± 0.3%) was partitioned around 20–25% for provision of glycerol 3-phosphate and 30% into lactate production. There was release of lactate and pyruvate, with extraction of the ketone bodies 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, although these were small numerically compared with TG and glucose uptake. NEFA release (expressed per 100 g tissue) correlated inversely with measures of fat mass (e.g., with BMI, rs = −0.24, P < 0.001). We examined within-person variability. Systemic NEFA concentrations, NEFA release, fatty acid re-esterification, and adipose tissue blood flow were all more consistent within than between individuals. This picture of human adipose tissue metabolism in the fasted state should contribute to a greater understanding of adipose tissue physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:22167523

  7. Adipocyte insulin receptor activity maintains adipose tissue mass and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Max; Hudak, Carolyn S; Warren, Curtis R; Xia, Fang; Cowan, Chad A

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes follows a well-defined progressive pathogenesis, beginning with insulin resistance in metabolic tissues such as the adipose. Intracellular signaling downstream of insulin receptor activation regulates critical metabolic functions of adipose tissue, including glucose uptake, lipogenesis, lipolysis and adipokine secretion. Previous studies have used the aP2 promoter to drive Cre recombinase expression in adipose tissue. Insulin receptor (IR) knockout mice created using this aP2-Cre strategy (FIRKO mice) were protected from obesity and glucose intolerance. Later studies demonstrated the promiscuity of the aP2 promoter, casting doubts upon the tissue specificity of aP2-Cre models. It is our goal to use the increased precision of the Adipoq promoter to investigate adipocyte-specific IR function. Towards this end we generated an adipocyte-specific IR knockout (AIRKO) mouse using an Adipoq-driven Cre recombinase. Here we report AIRKO mice are less insulin sensitive throughout life, and less glucose tolerant than wild-type (WT) littermates at the age of 16 weeks. In contrast to WT littermates, the insulin sensitivity of AIRKO mice is unaffected by age or dietary regimen. At any age, AIRKO mice are comparably insulin resistant to old or obese WT mice and have a significantly reduced lifespan. Similar results were obtained when these phenotypes were re-examined in FIRKO mice. We also found that the AIRKO mouse is protected from high-fat diet-induced weight gain, corresponding with a 90% reduction in tissue weight of major adipose depots compared to WT littermates. Adipose tissue mass reduction is accompanied by hepatomegaly and increased hepatic steatosis. These data indicate that adipocyte IR function is crucial to systemic energy metabolism and has profound effects on adiposity, hepatic homeostasis and lifespan. PMID:27246738

  8. Correlations between the expression of the insulin sensitizing hormones, adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin, and the appetite regulatory hormone, neuropeptide Y and its receptors in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Nway, Nay Chi; Sitticharoon, Chantacha; Chatree, Saimai; Maikaew, Pailin

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin are adipokines involved in insulin sensitivity. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its receptors, Y1R, Y2R, and Y5R, are involved in appetite regulation. Here we examined the correlations between these two hormones groups in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. We demonstrated that in subcutaneous adipose tissue, the adiponectin, visfatin and omentin expression positively correlated with that of subcutaneous NPY. Subcutaneous adiponectin expression positively correlated with subcutaneous Y1R and Y5R. Subcutaneous visfatin expression positively correlated with subcutaneous Y1R, Y2R, and Y5R. Subcutaneous omentin expression positively correlated with subcutaneous Y5R. In visceral adipose tissue, adiponectin, visfatin and omentin expression positively correlated with visceral NPY. Visceral visfatin expression positively correlated with visceral Y1R, Y2R and Y5R. There was no correlation between the subcutaneous and visceral expression of these adipokines and receptors. BMI correlated better with visceral adipocyte characteristics including width, height, perimeter, and area than with those of subcutaneous adipocyte. Visceral, but not subcutaneous, adipocyte parameters positively correlated with insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), but negatively associated with Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI). These results suggest that adiponectin, omentin, and visfatin expression correlated with NPY expression in either type of adipose tissue, with no evidence of cross-linking between adipose tissue depots, suggesting that there might be (a) different regulation mechanism(s) between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues with regard to expressions of these two hormone groups. Further studies are required to identify factors that regulate the linkage between these hormones in each adipose tissue type.

  9. NASA 1981 photography index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An index of representative photographs is presented. Color transparencies and black and white glossies of major launches, Mariner spacecraft, Pioneer spacecraft, planets and other space phenomena, Skylab, space shuttle, Viking spacecraft, and Voyager spacecraft are included.

  10. Audio Indexing for Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahmlow, Harold F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Article describes a new development in indexing audiotapes called Zimdex. The system was developed in response to the problem of individualizing review materials for candidates studying the mathematics of life insurance. (Author/HB)

  11. Techniques for video indexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. Y. Roger; Meliksetian, Dikran S.; Liu, Larry J.; Chang, Martin C.

    1996-01-01

    A data model for long objects (such as video files) is introduced, to support general referencing structures, along with various system implementation strategies. Based on the data model, various indexing techniques for video are then introduced. A set of basic functionalities is described, including all the frame level control, indexing, and video clip editing. We show how the techniques can be used to automatically index video files based on closed captions with a typical video capture card, for both compressed and uncompressed video files. Applications are presented using those indexing techniques in security control and viewers' rating choice, general video search (from laser discs, CD ROMs, and regular disks), training videos, and video based user or system manuals.

  12. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, M.V.; Vierck, J.L.; Hausman, G.J.; Guan, L.L.; Fernyhough, M.E.; Poulos, S.P.; Mir, P.S.; Jiang, Z.

    2010-04-02

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  13. Vitamin D and adipose tissue—more than storage

    PubMed Central

    Mutt, Shivaprakash J.; Hyppönen, Elina; Saarnio, Juha; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The pandemic increase in obesity is inversely associated with vitamin D levels. While a higher BMI was causally related to lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), no evidence was obtained for a BMI lowering effect by higher 25(OH)D. Some of the physiological functions of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol) via its receptor within the adipose tissue have been investigated such as its effect on energy balance, adipogenesis, adipokine, and cytokine secretion. Adipose tissue inflammation has been recognized as the key component of metabolic disorders, e.g., in the metabolic syndrome. The adipose organ secretes more than 260 different proteins/peptides. However, the molecular basis of the interactions of 1,25(OH)2D3, vitamin D binding proteins (VDBPs) and nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) after sequestration in adipose tissue and their regulations are still unclear. 1,25(OH)2D3 and its inactive metabolites are known to inhibit the formation of adipocytes in mouse 3T3-L1 cell line. In humans, 1,25(OH)2D3 promotes preadipocyte differentiation under cell culture conditions. Further evidence of its important functions is given by VDR knock out (VDR−/−) and CYP27B1 knock out (CYP27B1 −/−) mouse models: Both VDR−/− and CYP27B1−/− models are highly resistant to the diet induced weight gain, while the specific overexpression of human VDR in adipose tissue leads to increased adipose tissue mass. The analysis of microarray datasets from human adipocytes treated with macrophage-secreted products up-regulated VDR and CYP27B1 genes indicating the capacity of adipocytes to even produce active 1,25(OH)2D3. Experimental studies demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D3 has an active role in adipose tissue by modulating inflammation, adipogenesis and adipocyte secretion. Yet, further in vivo studies are needed to address the effects and the effective dosages of vitamin D in human adipose tissue and its relevance in the associated diseases. PMID:25009502

  14. The browning of white adipose tissue: some burning issues.

    PubMed

    Nedergaard, Jan; Cannon, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Igniting thermogenesis within white adipose tissue (i.e., promoting expression and activity of the uncoupling protein UCP1) has attracted much interest. Numerous "browning agents" have now been described (gene ablations, transgenes, food components, drugs, environments, etc.). The implied action of browning agents is that they increase UCP1 through this heat production, leading to slimming. Here, we particularly point to the possibility that cause and effect may on occasion be the reverse: browning agents may disrupt, for example, the fur, leading to increased heat loss, increased thermogenic demand to counteract this heat loss, and thus, through sympathetic nervous system activation, to enhanced UCP1 expression in white (and brown) adipose tissues.

  15. Vitamin D and adipose tissue-more than storage.

    PubMed

    Mutt, Shivaprakash J; Hyppönen, Elina; Saarnio, Juha; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The pandemic increase in obesity is inversely associated with vitamin D levels. While a higher BMI was causally related to lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), no evidence was obtained for a BMI lowering effect by higher 25(OH)D. Some of the physiological functions of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol) via its receptor within the adipose tissue have been investigated such as its effect on energy balance, adipogenesis, adipokine, and cytokine secretion. Adipose tissue inflammation has been recognized as the key component of metabolic disorders, e.g., in the metabolic syndrome. The adipose organ secretes more than 260 different proteins/peptides. However, the molecular basis of the interactions of 1,25(OH)2D3, vitamin D binding proteins (VDBPs) and nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) after sequestration in adipose tissue and their regulations are still unclear. 1,25(OH)2D3 and its inactive metabolites are known to inhibit the formation of adipocytes in mouse 3T3-L1 cell line. In humans, 1,25(OH)2D3 promotes preadipocyte differentiation under cell culture conditions. Further evidence of its important functions is given by VDR knock out (VDR(-/-)) and CYP27B1 knock out (CYP27B1 (-/-)) mouse models: Both VDR(-/-) and CYP27B1(-/-) models are highly resistant to the diet induced weight gain, while the specific overexpression of human VDR in adipose tissue leads to increased adipose tissue mass. The analysis of microarray datasets from human adipocytes treated with macrophage-secreted products up-regulated VDR and CYP27B1 genes indicating the capacity of adipocytes to even produce active 1,25(OH)2D3. Experimental studies demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D3 has an active role in adipose tissue by modulating inflammation, adipogenesis and adipocyte secretion. Yet, further in vivo studies are needed to address the effects and the effective dosages of vitamin D in human adipose tissue and its relevance in the associated diseases. PMID:25009502

  16. JSC document index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

  17. Exploring volumetrically indexed cups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-03-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup n is equal to n times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to geometry, algebra and differential calculus. Students with an understanding of these topics should be able to complete the analysis and related exercises contained herein.

  18. New generic indexing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

  19. Cold-Induced Changes in Gene Expression in Brown Adipose Tissue, White Adipose Tissue and Liver

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Andrew M.; Karamitri, Angeliki; Kemp, Paul; Speakman, John R.; Graham, Neil S.; Lomax, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Cold exposure imposes a metabolic challenge to mammals that is met by a coordinated response in different tissues to prevent hypothermia. This study reports a transcriptomic analysis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), white adipose (WAT) and liver of mice in response to 24 h cold exposure at 8°C. Expression of 1895 genes were significantly (P<0.05) up- or down-regulated more than two fold by cold exposure in all tissues but only 5 of these genes were shared by all three tissues, and only 19, 14 and 134 genes were common between WAT and BAT, WAT and liver, and BAT and liver, respectively. We confirmed using qRT-PCR, the increased expression of a number of characteristic BAT genes during cold exposure. In both BAT and the liver, the most common direction of change in gene expression was suppression (496 genes in BAT and 590 genes in liver). Gene ontology analysis revealed for the first time significant (P<0.05) down regulation in response to cold, of genes involved in oxidoreductase activity, lipid metabolic processes and protease inhibitor activity, in both BAT and liver, but not WAT. The results reveal an unexpected importance of down regulation of cytochrome P450 gene expression and apolipoprotein, in both BAT and liver, but not WAT, in response to cold exposure. Pathway analysis suggests a model in which down regulation of the nuclear transcription factors HNF4α and PPARα in both BAT and liver may orchestrate the down regulation of genes involved in lipoprotein and steroid metabolism as well as Phase I enzymes belonging to the cytochrome P450 group in response to cold stress in mice. We propose that the response to cold stress involves decreased gene expression in a range of cellular processes in order to maximise pathways involved in heat production. PMID:23894377

  20. alpha-Linolenic acid content of adipose breast tissue: a host determinant of the risk of early metastasis in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Bougnoux, P.; Koscielny, S.; Chajès, V.; Descamps, P.; Couet, C.; Calais, G.

    1994-01-01

    The association between the levels of various fatty acids in adipose breast tissue and the emergence of visceral metastases was prospectively studied in a cohort of 121 patients with an initially localised breast cancer. Adipose breast tissue was obtained at the time of initial surgery, and its fatty acid content analysed by capillary gas chromatography. A low level of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) in adipose breast tissue was associated with positive axillary lymph node status and with the presence of vascular invasion, but not with tumour size or mitotic index. After an average 31 months of follow-up, 21 patients developed metastases. Large tumour size, high mitotic index, presence of vascular invasion and low level of 18:3n-3 were single factors significantly associated with an increased risk of metastasis. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to identify prognostic factors. Low 18:3n-3 level and large tumour size were the two factors predictive of metastases. These results suggest that host alpha-linolenic acid has a specific role in the metastatic process in vivo. Further understanding of the biology of this essential fatty acid of the n-3 series is needed in breast carcinoma. PMID:7914425

  1. Characteristic expression of extracellular matrix in subcutaneous adipose tissue development and adipogenesis; comparison with visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shinobu; Kiuchi, Satomi; Ouchi, Atsushi; Hase, Tadashi; Murase, Takatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a connective tissue specified for energy metabolism and endocrines, but functional differences between subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have not been fully elucidated. To reveal the physiological role of SAT, we characterized in vivo tissue development and in vitro adipocyte differentiation. In a DNA microarray analysis of SAT and VAT in Wistar rats, functional annotation clusters of extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes were found in SAT, and major ECM molecules expressed in adipose tissues were profiled. In a histological analysis and quantitative expression analysis, ECM expression patterns could be classified into two types: (i) a histogenesis-correlated type such as type IV and XV collagen, and laminin subunits, (ii) a high-SAT expression type such as type I, III, and V collagen and minor characteristic collagens. Type (i) was related to basal membrane and up-regulated in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells and in histogenesis at depot-specific timings. In contrast, type (ii) was related to fibrous forming and highly expressed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Exceptionally, fibronectin was abundant in developed adipose tissue, although it was highly expressed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The present study showed that adipose tissues site-specifically regulate molecular type and timing of ECM expression, and suggests that these characteristic ECM molecules provide a critical microenvironment, which may affect bioactivity of adipocyte itself and interacts with other tissues. It must be important to consider the depot-specific property for the treatment of obesity-related disorders, dermal dysfunction and for the tissue regeneration.

  2. Reduction in visceral adiposity is highly related to improvement in vascular endothelial dysfunction among obese women: an assessment of endothelial function by radial artery pulse wave analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Si-Hoon; Shim, Kyung-Won

    2005-08-31

    Because obesity is frequently complicated by other cardiovascular risk factors, the impact of a reduction in visceral adiposity on vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in obese patients is difficult to determine. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of a reduction in visceral adiposity on VED in obese women. Thirty-six premenopausal obese women (BMI >/= 25 kg/m2) without complications were enrolled in the study. VED was evaluated by determining the augmentation index (AIx) from radial artery pulse waves obtained by applanation tonometry. Changes in AIx in response to nitroglycerin- induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation (DeltaAIx-NTG) and in response to salbutamol administration (DeltaAIx-Salb) were determined before and after weight reduction. After a 12-week weight reduction program, the average weight loss was 7.96 +/- 3.47 kg, with losses of 21.88 +/- 20.39 cm2 in visceral fat areas (p < 0.001). Pulse wave analysis combined with provocative pharmacological testing demonstrated preserved endothelium-independent vasodilation in healthy premenopausal obese women (DeltaAIx-NTG: 31.36 +/- 9.80% before weight reduction vs. 28.25 +/- 11.21% after weight reduction, p > 0.1) and an improvement in endothelial-dependent vasodilation following weight reduction (DeltaAIx-Salb: 10.03 +/- 6.49% before weight reduction vs. 19.33 +/- 9.28% after reduction, p < 0.001). A reduction in visceral adipose tissue was found to be most significantly related to an increase in DeltaAIx-Salb (beta=-0.57, p < 0.001). A reduction in visceral adiposity was significantly related to an improvement in VED. This finding suggests that reduction of visceral adiposity may be as important as the control of other major risk factors in the prevention of atherosclerosis in obese women. PMID:16127776

  3. Efficacy of thigh volume ratios assessed via stereovision body imaging as a predictor of visceral adipose tissue measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M Reese; Yu, Wurong; Xu, Bugao

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The research examined the efficacy of regional volumes of thigh ratios assessed by stereovision body imaging (SBI) as a predictor of visceral adipose tissue measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Body measurements obtained via SBI also were utilized to explore disparities of body size and shape in men and women. Method 121 participants were measured for total/regional body volumes and ratios via SBI and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue areas by MRI. Results Thigh to torso and thigh to abdomen-hip volume ratios were the most reliable parameters to predict the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue depots compared to other body measurements. Thigh volume in relation to torso [odds ratios (OR) 0.44] and abdomen-hip (OR 0.41) volumes were negatively associated with increased risks of greater visceral adipose tissue depots, even after controlling for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Irrespective of BMI classification, men exhibited greater total body (80.95L vs. 72.41L), torso (39.26L vs. 34.13L), and abdomen-hip (29.01L vs. 25.85L) volumes than women. Women had higher thigh volumes (4.93L vs. 3.99L) and lower-body volume ratios [thigh to total body (0.07 vs. 0.05), thigh to torso (0.15 vs. 0.11), and thigh to abdomen-hip (0.20 vs. 0.15); p<0.05]. Conclusions The unique parameters of the volumes of thigh in relation to torso and abdomen-hip, by SBI were highly effective in predicting visceral adipose tissue deposition. The SBI provided an efficient method for determining body size and shape in men and women via total and regional body volumes and ratios. PMID:25645428

  4. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat. PMID:25715692

  5. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat.

  6. Exercise Regulation of Marrow Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Pagnotti, Gabriel M.; Styner, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Despite association with low bone density and skeletal fractures, marrow adipose tissue (MAT) remains poorly understood. The marrow adipocyte originates from the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) pool that also gives rise to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and myocytes, among other cell types. To date, the presence of MAT has been attributed to preferential biasing of MSC into the adipocyte rather than osteoblast lineage, thus negatively impacting bone formation. Here, we focus on understanding the physiology of MAT in the setting of exercise, dietary interventions, and pharmacologic agents that alter fat metabolism. The beneficial effect of exercise on musculoskeletal strength is known: exercise induces bone formation, encourages growth of skeletally supportive tissues, inhibits bone resorption, and alters skeletal architecture through direct and indirect effects on a multiplicity of cells involved in skeletal adaptation. MAT is less well studied due to the lack of reproducible quantification techniques. In recent work, osmium-based 3D quantification shows a robust response of MAT to both dietary and exercise intervention in that MAT is elevated in response to high-fat diet and can be suppressed following daily exercise. Exercise-induced bone formation correlates with suppression of MAT, such that exercise effects might be due to either calorie expenditure from this depot or from mechanical biasing of MSC lineage away from fat and toward bone, or a combination thereof. Following treatment with the anti-diabetes drug rosiglitazone – a PPARγ-agonist known to increase MAT and fracture risk – mice demonstrate a fivefold higher femur MAT volume compared to the controls. In addition to preventing MAT accumulation in control mice, exercise intervention significantly lowers MAT accumulation in rosiglitazone-treated mice. Importantly, exercise induction of trabecular bone volume is unhindered by rosiglitazone. Thus, despite rosiglitazone augmentation of MAT, exercise

  7. Exercise Regulation of Marrow Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Pagnotti, Gabriel M; Styner, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Despite association with low bone density and skeletal fractures, marrow adipose tissue (MAT) remains poorly understood. The marrow adipocyte originates from the mesenchyma