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Sample records for adiposity index bai

  1. Body Adiposity Index Utilization in a Spanish Mediterranean Population: Comparison with the Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    López, Angel A.; Cespedes, Mey L.; Vicente, Teofila; Tomas, Matias; Bennasar-Veny, Miguel; Tauler, Pedro; Aguilo, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    Background Body fat content and fat distribution or adiposity are indicators of health risk. Several techniques have been developed and used for assessing and/or determining body fat or adiposity. Recently, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI), which is based on the measurements of hip circumference and height, has been suggested as a new index of adiposity. The aim of the study was to compare BAI and BMI measurements in a Caucasian population from a European Mediterranean area and to assess the usefulness of the BAI in men and women separately. Research Methodology/Principal Findings A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in a Caucasian population. All participants in the study (1,726 women and 1,474 men, mean age 39.2 years, SD 10.8) were from Mallorca (Spain). Anthropometric data, including percentage of body fat mass obtained by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis, were determined. Body Mass Index (BMI) and BAI were calculated. BAI and BMI showed a good correlation (r = 0.64, p<0.001). A strong correlation was also found between BAI and the % fat determined using BIA (r = 0.74, p<0.001), which is even stronger than the one between BMI and % fat (r = 0.54, p<0.001). However, the ROC curve analysis showed a higher accuracy for BMI than for the BAI regarding the discriminatory capacity. Conclusion The BAI could be a good tool to measure adiposity due, at least in part, to the advantages over other more complex mechanical or electrical systems. Probably, the most important advantage of BAI over BMI is that weight is not needed. However, in general it seems that the BAI does not overcome the limitations of BMI. PMID:22496915

  2. Validation study of the body adiposity index as a predictor of percent body fat in older individuals: findings from the BLSA.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cooper, Jamie A

    2014-09-01

    A new body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5)) - 18) has been developed and validated in adult populations. We aimed to assess the validity of BAI in an older population. We compared the concordance correlation coefficient between BAI, body mass index (BMI), and percent body fat (fat%; by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in an older population (n = 954) participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. BAI was more strongly correlated with fat% than BMI (r of .7 vs .6 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) and exhibited a smaller mean difference from fat% (-5.2 vs -7.6 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) indicating better agreement. In men, however, BMI was in better agreement with fat% (r of .6 vs .7 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) with a smaller mean difference from fat% (-3.0 vs -2.2 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01). Finally, BAI did not accurately predict fat% in people with a fat% below 15%. BAI provides valid estimation of body adiposity in an older adult population; however, BMI may be a better index for older men. Finally, BAI is not accurate in people with extremely low or high body fat percentages. PMID:24158764

  3. Body Adiposity Index: Its Relevance and Validity in Assessing Body Fatness of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpi; Kapoor, Satwanti

    2014-01-01

    Background. One of the limitations of body mass index is its accuracy to assess body fatness. To address this limitation, a new index, body adiposity index, has been developed. However its validity needs to ascertained. Objective. Our aim was to investigate sex-specific relationship between BAI, BMI, and percent body fat in an endogamous population of Delhi, India. Method. Data was collected from 578 adults on bodyweight, height, skinfold thicknesses, hip circumference, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Pearson's correlations were calculated for BAI and BMI with PBF. Differences in the correlation coefficients were examined using Fisher's z tests. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to compare the predictive validity and to determine optimal cut-off values. Odds ratios were calculated to assess the risk of having hypertension using the proposed cut-off points. Results. The correlations of PBF with BMI (men: r = 0.83; women: r = 0.71) were stronger than those with BAI (men: r = 0.66; women: r = 0.58). In men, the sensitivity and specificity of BAI to predict hypertension were higher than other anthropometric markers but lower than BMI. In women, the sensitivity of BAI was higher than BMI and WC. Conclusions. BAI can be used as an additional marker for screening population; however its validity needs to be demonstrated on other populations too. PMID:24587942

  4. Body Shape, Adiposity Index, and Mortality in Postmenopausal Women: Findings from the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Cynthia A.; Garcia, David O.; Wertheim, Betsy C.; Hingle, Melanie D.; Bea, Jennifer W.; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Rohan, Thomas; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Thompson, Patricia A.; Lewis, Cora E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Studies evaluating the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality demonstrate a U-shaped association. To expand, this study evaluated the relationship between adiposity indices, a body shape index (ABSI) and body adiposity index (BAI), and mortality in 77,505 postmenopausal women. Methods A prospective cohort analysis was conducted in the Women’s Health Initiative to ascertain the independent relationships between adiposity indices and mortality in order to inform on the clinical usefulness of alternate measures of mortality risk. ABSI (waist circumference (cm)/[BMI2/3 × height (cm)1/2]), BAI (hip circumference (cm)/[height (m)1.5] − 18), weight, BMI, and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated in relation to mortality risk using adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results ABSI showed a linear association with mortality (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.28–1.47 for quintile 5 vs. 1) while BMI and BAI had U-shaped relationships with HR of 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20–1.40 for obesity II/III BMI and 1.06, 95% CI, 0.99–1.13 for BAI. Higher WC (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.13–1.29 for quintile 5 vs. 1) showed relationships similar to BMI. Conclusions ABSI appears to be a clinically useful measure for estimating mortality risk, perhaps more so than BAI and BMI in postmenopausal women. PMID:26991923

  5. Visceral Adiposity Index: An Indicator of Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) has recently proven to be an indicator of adipose distribution and function that indirectly expresses cardiometabolic risk. In addition, VAI has been proposed as a useful tool for early detection of a condition of cardiometabolic risk before it develops into an overt metabolic syndrome. The application of the VAI in particular populations of patients (women with polycystic ovary syndrome, patients with acromegaly, patients with NAFLD/NASH, patients with HCV hepatitis, patients with type 2 diabetes, and general population) has produced interesting results, which have led to the hypothesis that the VAI could be considered a marker of adipose tissue dysfunction. Unfortunately, in some cases, on the same patient population, there is conflicting evidence. We think that this could be mainly due to a lack of knowledge of the application limits of the index, on the part of various authors, and to having applied the VAI in non-Caucasian populations. Future prospective studies could certainly better define the possible usefulness of the VAI as a predictor of cardiometabolic risk. PMID:24829577

  6. Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) Is Predictive of an Altered Adipokine Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Marco C.; Pizzolanti, Giuseppe; Torregrossa, Vittoria; Misiano, Gabriella; Milano, Salvatore; Giordano, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Aims Although there is still no clear definition of “adipose tissue dysfunction” or ATD, the identification of a clinical marker of altered fat distribution and function may provide the needed tools for early identification of a condition of cardiometabolic risk. Our aim was to evaluate the correlations among various anthropometric indices [BMI, Waist Circumference (WC), Hip Circumference (HC), Waist/Hip ratio (WHR), Body Adiposity Index (BAI) and Visceral adiposity Index (VAI)] and several adipocytokines [Visfatin, Resistin, Leptin, Soluble leptin receptors (sOB-R), Adiponectin, Ghrelin, Adipsin, PAI-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) TNF-α, hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-18] in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2). Materials and Methods Ninety-one DM2 patients (age: 65.25±6.38 years; 42 men and 49 women) in stable treatment for the last six months with metformin in monotherapy (1.5–2 g/day) were cross-sectionally studied. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were evaluated. Serum adipocytokine levels were assayed with Luminex based kits. Results At the Pearson’s correlation, among all the indices investigated, VAI showed a significant correlation with almost all adipocytokines analyzed [Visfatin, Resistin and hsCRP (all p<0.001); Adiponectin, sOb-R, IL-6, IL-18, HGF (all p<0.010); Ghrelin and VEGF (both p<0.05)]. Through a two-step cluster analysis, 55 patients were identified with the most altered adipocytokine profile (patients with ATD). At a ROC analysis, VAI showed the highest C-statistic [0.767 (95% CI 0.66–0.84)] of all the indices. Conclusions Our study suggests that the VAI, among the most common indexes of adiposity assessment, shows the best correlation with the best known adipocytokines and cardiometabolic risk serum markers. Although to date we are still far from clearly identifying an ATD, the VAI would be an easy tool for clearly mirroring a condition of cardiometabolic risk, in the absence of an

  7. Monitoring of temperature-mediated adipose tissue phase transitions by refractive-index measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, I. Yu.; Popov, A. P.; Bykov, A. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring of temperature-mediated adipose tissue phase transitions were studied in vitro using an Abbe refractometer. The 1-2-mm thick porcine fat tissues slices were used in the experiments. The observed change in the tissue was associated with several phase transitions of lipid components of the adipose tissue. It was found that overall heating of a sample from the room to higher temperature led to more pronounced and tissue changes in refractive index if other experimental conditions were kept constant. We observed an abrupt change in the refractive index in the temperature range of 37-60 °C.

  8. The Validity of Body Adiposity Indices in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Egyptian Women

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Kamal, Sanaa; Reyad, Hanaa; Yousef, Walaa; Hassan, Naglaa; Helwa, Iman; Kholoussi, Shams

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the associations between the body adiposity indices and risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components in Egyptian women and to evaluate their predictive power. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis performed on 180 Egyptian women aged between 25-35 years. They were 90 women with MS diagnosed by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and 90 healthy age matched controls. Body adiposity index (BAI), body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated and serum samples were analyzed for metabolic parameters. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) was used to determine the discriminatory capacity of BAI, WHR WHtR and BMI for MS. RESULTS: Area under the curve (AUC) was highest for BIA, followed by WHR, WHtR and then BMI. All adiposity indices were significantly correlated with metabolic components and BAI had the highest correlation coefficients compared to other indices. CONCLUSION: BAI is a practical predictor for MS and has satisfactory diagnostic accuracy for diagnosing MS among Egyptian women and can be used in addition to WHR, WHtR and BMI for identifying MS in the field studies. PMID:27275324

  9. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J.; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies.

  10. Changing guards: time to move beyond body mass index for population monitoring of excess adiposity.

    PubMed

    Tanamas, S K; Lean, M E J; Combet, E; Vlassopoulos, A; Zimmet, P Z; Peeters, A

    2016-07-01

    With the obesity epidemic, and the effects of aging populations, human phenotypes have changed over two generations, possibly more dramatically than in other species previously. As obesity is an important and growing hazard for population health, we recommend a systematic evaluation of the optimal measure(s) for population-level excess body fat. Ideal measure(s) for monitoring body composition and obesity should be simple, as accurate and sensitive as possible, and provide good categorization of related health risks. Combinations of anthropometric markers or predictive equations may facilitate better use of anthropometric data than single measures to estimate body composition for populations. Here, we provide new evidence that increasing proportions of aging populations are at high health-risk according to waist circumference, but not body mass index (BMI), so continued use of BMI as the principal population-level measure substantially underestimates the health-burden from excess adiposity. PMID:26527773

  11. Time variation of adipose tissue refractive index under photodynamic treatment: in vitro study using OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Trunina, Natalia A.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2012-03-01

    Time variation of the adipose tissue refractive index under photodynamic treatment was studied using OCT. Fat tissue slices 200-500 μm thick were used in in vitro experiments. To stain the fat tissue we used water-ethanol solutions of indocyanine green (ICG) and brilliant green (BG) with the concentration 1 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml, respectively. The CW laser diode (VD-VII DPSS, 808 nm) and the dental diode irradiator Ultra Lume Led 5 (442 and 597 nm) were used for irradiation of tissue slices. The irradiation time was 5 min for the laser and 15 min for the diode lamp. The experiments were carried out at room temperature. It was discovered the immersion optical clearing of fat tissue slices due to fat cell lipolysis under photodynamic treatment. Released cell content works as an immersion agent, thus the relative refractive index of tissue scatterers decreasing with the time elapsed after the treatment. These data support the hypothesis that photodynamic treatment induces fat cell lipolysis for some period after treatment.

  12. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Melissa A; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies. PMID:24634735

  13. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Melissa A; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-02-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies. PMID:24634735

  14. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index-adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, S B; Peterson, C M; Thomas, D M; Heo, M; Schuna, J M

    2016-03-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. PMID:26663309

  15. Abdominal Adipose Tissue was Associated with Glomerular Hyperfiltration among Non- Diabetic and Normotensive Adults with a Normal Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeonghwan; Kim, Hye Jin; Cho, Belong; Park, Jin Ho; Choi, Ho Chun; Lee, Cheol Min; Oh, Seung Won; Kwon, Hyuktae; Heo, Nam Ju

    2015-01-01

    Glomerular hyperfiltration is recognized as an early marker of progressive kidney dysfunction in the obese population. This study aimed to identify the relationship between glomerular hyperfiltration and body fat distribution measured by computed tomography (CT) in healthy Korean adults. The study population included individuals aged 20-64 years who went a routine health check-up including an abdominal CT scan. We selected 4,378 individuals without diabetes and hypertension. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD-EPI equation, and glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as the highest quintile of glomerular filtration rate. Abdominal adipose tissue areas were measured at the level of the umbilicus using a 16-detector CT scanner, and the cross-sectional area was calculated using Rapidia 2.8 CT software. The prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration increased significantly according to the subcutaneous adipose tissue area in men (OR = 1.74 (1.16-2.61), P for trend 0.016, for the comparisons of lowest vs. highest quartile) and visceral adipose tissue area in women (OR = 2.34 (1.46-3.75), P for trend < 0.001) in multivariate analysis. After stratification by body mass index (normal < 23 kg/m2, overweight ≥ 23 kg/m2), male subjects with greater subcutaneous adipose tissue, even those in the normal BMI group, had a higher prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration (OR = 2.11 (1.17-3.80), P for trend = 0.009). Among women, the significance of visceral adipose tissue area on glomerular hyperfiltration resulted from the normal BMI group (OR = 2.14 (1.31-3.49), P for trend = 0.002). After menopause, the odds ratio of the association of glomerular hyperfiltration with subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue increased (OR = 2.96 (1.21-7.25), P for trend = 0.013). Subcutaneous adipose tissue areas and visceral adipose tissue areas are positively associated with glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy Korean adult men and women, respectively. In post-menopausal women

  16. The Visceral Adiposity Index: Relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors in obese and overweight postmenopausal women--a MONET group study.

    PubMed

    Elisha, Belinda; Messier, Virginie; Karelis, Antony; Coderre, Lise; Bernard, Sophie; Prud'homme, Denis; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2013-08-01

    A recent study suggested visceral adipose index (VAI) as an indicator of adipose tissue distribution and function associated with cardiometabolic risk. We aim to examine the association between VAI and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), insulin sensitivity, and a large panel of associated cardiometabolic risk factors, and to determine if changes in VAI after weight loss intervention will reflect changes in VAT. We performed a secondary analysis using the data of 99 overweight and postmenopausal women that completed a 6-month weight loss program (Montreal Ottawa New Emerging Team Study). VAI was calculated according to the equation by Amato et al. (2010; Diabetes Care, 33(4):920-922). At baseline, VAI was associated with VAT (r = 0.284, p < 0.01) but not with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) while body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were significantly related to both. BMI and WC demonstrated significantly stronger predictive value of VAT accumulation (area under the curve = 0.84 and 0.86, respectively) than VAI (area under the curve = 0.61; p < 0.01). However, VAT, BMI, WC, and VAI were similarly related to fasting insulin and glucose disposal rates. After a 6-month weight loss program, VAI decreased significantly and similarly in both intervention groups (p < 0.01). In addition, the percentage of change in VAI showed the significantly weakest correlation (r = 0.25) with the percentage of change in VAT than BMI (r = 0.56; p < 0.01 for r comparisons) and was not a significant predictor of interindividual percentage of change in VAT while BMI accounted for 33.7%. VAI is a weak indicator of VAT function and did not predict changes in VAT after weight loss. Furthermore, this index was not superior to BMI or WC. However, VAI is a good indicator of metabolic syndrome. PMID:23855278

  17. Nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and visceral adiposity index among different body size phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Du, T; Zhang, J; Yuan, G; Zhang, M; Zhou, X; Liu, Z; Sun, X; Yu, X

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Increased cardiovascular disease and mortality risk in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals remain highly controversial. Several studies suggested risk while others do not. The traditional cardiovascular risk factors may be insufficient to demonstrate the complete range of metabolic abnormalities in MHO individuals. Hence, we aimed to compare the prevalence of elevated lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein B, and uric acid (UA) levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and visceral adiposity index (VAI) scores, and low apolipoprotein A1 levels among 6 body size phenotypes (normal weight with and without metabolic abnormalities, overweight with and without metabolic abnormalities, and obese with or without metabolic abnormalities). Methods and Results We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7765 Chinese adults using data from the nationwide China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009. MHO persons had intermediate prevalence of elevated apolipoprotein B and UA levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and VAI scores, and low apolipoprotein A1 levels between metabolically healthy normal-weight (MHNW) and metabolically abnormal obese individuals (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Elevated apolipoprotein B and UA concentrations, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and VAI scores were all strongly associated with the MHO phenotype (all P < 0.01). Conclusions Prevalence of elevated apolipoprotein B and UA levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and VAI scores, and low levels of apolipoprotein A1 was higher among MHO persons than among MHNW individuals. The elevated levels of the nontraditional risk factors and VAI scores in MHO persons could contribute to the increased cardiovascular disease risk observed in long-term studies. PMID:25159728

  18. The effect of ponderal index at birth on the relationships between common LEP and LEPR polymorphisms and adiposity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Labayen, Idoia; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Moreno, Luis A; Ortega, Francisco B; Beghin, Laurent; DeHenauw, Stefaan; Benito, Pedro J; Diaz, Ligia E; Ferrari, Marika; Moschonis, George; Kafatos, Anthony; Molnar, Dénes; Widhalm, Kurt; Dallongeville, Jean; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the effect of ponderal index (PI) at birth on the relationships between eight common polymorphisms of the leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes and adiposity in adolescents. A total of 823 European adolescents (45.4% girls) aged 14.8 ± 1.4 years were genotyped for the LEP (rs2167270, rs12706832, rs10244329, rs2071045, and rs3828942) and LEPR (rs1137100, rs1137101, and rs8179183) polymorphisms. The PI was calculated from parental reports of birth weight and length. Fat mass index (FMI) was calculated. Analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders. An "adiposity-risk-allele score" based on genotypes at the three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with adolescents' FMI in adolescents within the lower tertile of PI was calculated. The LEP rs10244329 and rs3828942 polymorphisms were associated with higher FMI only in adolescents within the lower PI tertile (+0.55 kg/m(2) per minor T allele, P = 0.040, and +0.58 kg/m(2) per major G allele, P = 0.028, respectively). The LEPR rs8179183 polymorphism was significantly associated with higher FMI in adolescents within the lower PI tertile (+0.87 kg/m(2) per minor C allele, P = 0.006). After correction for multiple comparisons, only the association between the LEPR rs8179183 and FMI persisted. However, each additional risk allele conferred 0.53 kg/m(2) greater FMI in adolescents within the lower tertile of PI (P = 0.008). In conclusion, our results suggest that those adolescents born with lower PI could be more vulnerable to the influence of the LEP rs10244329 and rs3828942 polymorphisms and LEPR rs8179183 polymorphism on total adiposity content. Due to the relatively small sample size, these findings should be replicated in further larger population samples. PMID:21512510

  19. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age--Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Horan, Mary K; McGowan, Ciara A; Gibney, Eileen R; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age. PMID:26742066

  20. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age—Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Horan, Mary K.; McGowan, Ciara A.; Gibney, Eileen R.; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age. PMID:26742066

  1. Gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue differs in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and controls matched pair-wise for age, body weight, and body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Mannerås-Holm, Louise; Benrick, Anna; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction may be a central factor in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue in PCOS and its relation to metabolic and endocrine features of the syndrome have been fragmentarily investigated. The aim was to assess in subcutaneous adipose tissue the expression of genes potentially associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and to explore their relation to features of the syndrome. Twenty-one women with PCOS (body mass index [BMI] 18.2–33.4 kg/m2) and 21 controls (BMI 19.2–31.7 kg/m2) were matched pair-wise for age, body weight, and BMI. Tissue biopsies were obtained to measure mRNA expression of 44 genes (TaqMan Low Density Array). Differential expression levels were correlated with BMI, glucose infusion rate (GIR), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and sex steroids. In PCOS, expression of adiponectin receptor 2 (ADIPOR2), LPL, and twist-related protein 1 (TWIST1) was decreased, while expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and heme oxygenase (decycling 1) (HMOX1) was increased. TWIST1 and HMOX1, both novel adipokines, correlated with BMI and GIR. After BMI adjustment, LPL and ADIPOR2 expression correlated with plasma estradiol, and CCL2 expression correlated with GIR, in all women. We conclude that adipose tissue mRNA expression differed in PCOS women and controls and that two novel adipokines, TWIST1 and HMOX1, together with adiponectin, LPL, and CCL2, and their downstream pathways merit further investigation. PMID:25068085

  2. The mRNA expression of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor in human adipose tissue is positively correlated with body mass index.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hien Fuh; Chin, Kin Fah; Chan, Kok-Gan; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2015-06-01

    suPLAUR is the transcript variant that encodes the soluble form of the urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor (suPLAUR). This soluble protein has been shown to enhance leukocyte migration and adhesion, and its circulatory level is increased in inflammatory states. In this pilot study, we used RNA-Seq to examine the splicing pattern of PLAUR in omental adipose tissues from obese and lean individuals. Of the three transcript variants of the PLAUR gene, only the proportion of suPLAUR (transcript variant 2) increases in obesity. After removing the effects of gender and age, the expression of suPLAUR is positively correlated with body mass index. This observation was validated using RT-qPCR with an independent cohort of samples. Additionally, in our RNA-Seq differential expression analysis, we also observed, in obese adipose tissues, an up-regulation of genes encoding other proteins involved in the process of chemotaxis and leukocyte adhesion; of particular interest is the integrin beta 2 (ITGB2) that is known to interact with suPLAUR in leukocyte adhesion. These findings suggest an important role for suPLAUR in the recruitment of immune cells to obese adipose tissue, in the pathogenesis of obesity. PMID:26284904

  3. Adiposity is associated with DNA methylation profile in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Agha, Golareh; Houseman, E Andres; Kelsey, Karl T; Eaton, Charles B; Buka, Stephen L; Loucks, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adiposity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, suggesting an important role for adipose tissue in the development of these conditions. The epigenetic underpinnings of adiposity are not well understood, and studies of DNA methylation in relation to adiposity have rarely focused on target adipose tissue. Objectives were to evaluate whether genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in subcutaneous adipose tissue and peripheral blood leukocytes are associated with measures of adiposity, including central fat mass, body fat distribution and body mass index. Methods: Participants were 106 men and women (mean age 47 years) from the New England Family Study. DNA methylation was evaluated using the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip. Adiposity phenotypes included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-assessed android fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio and trunk:limb fat ratio, as well as body mass index. Results: Adipose tissue genome-wide DNA methylation profiles were associated with all four adiposity phenotypes, after adjusting for race, sex and current smoking (omnibus p-values <0.001). After further adjustment for adipose cell-mixture effects, associations with android fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio, and trunk:limb fat ratio remained. In gene-specific analyses, adiposity phenotypes were associated with adipose tissue DNA methylation in several genes that are biologically relevant to the development of adiposity, such as AOC3, LIPE, SOD3, AQP7 and CETP. Blood DNA methylation profiles were not associated with adiposity, before or after adjustment for blood leukocyte cell mixture effects. Conclusion: Findings show that DNA methylation patterns in adipose tissue are associated with adiposity. PMID:25541553

  4. Usefulness of measuring both body mass index and waist circumference for the estimation of visceral adiposity and related cardiometabolic risk profile (from the INSPIRE ME IAA study).

    PubMed

    Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica; Borel, Anne-Laure; Aschner, Pablo; Barter, Phil; Van Gaal, Luc; Tan, Chee Eng; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ross, Robert; Brulle-Wohlhueter, Claire; Alméras, Natalie; Haffner, Steven M; Balkau, Beverley; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Despite its well-documented relation with visceral adiposity (VAT) and cardiometabolic risk (CMR), whether waist circumference (WC) should be measured in addition to body mass index (BMI) remains debated. This study tested the relevance of adding WC to BMI for the estimation of VAT and CMR. In the International Study of Prediction of Intra-abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship with Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-abdominal Adiposity, 297 physicians recruited 4,504 patients (29 countries). Both BMI and WC were measured, whereas VAT and liver fat were assessed by computed tomography. A composite CMR score was calculated. From the 4,109 patients included in the present analyses (20 ≤ BMI < 40 kg/m(2), 47% women), about 30% displayed discordant values for WC and BMI quintiles, despite a strong correlation between the 2 anthropometric variables (r = 0.87 and r = 0.84 for men and women, respectively, p <0.001). Within each single BMI unit, VAT and WC showed substantial variability between subjects (mean difference between 90th and 10th percentiles: 175 cm(2)/16 cm and 137 cm(2)/18 cm for VAT/WC in men and women, respectively). Within each BMI category, increasing gender-specific WC tertiles were associated with significantly higher VAT, liver fat, and with a more adverse CMR profile. In conclusion, this large international cardiometabolic study highlights the frequent discordance between BMI and WC, driven by the substantial variability in VAT for a given BMI. Within each BMI category, WC was cross-sectionally associated with VAT, liver fat, and CMR factors. Thus, WC allows a further refinement of the CMR related to any given BMI. PMID:25499404

  5. Association of Dietary Proportions of Macronutrients with Visceral Adiposity Index: Non-Substitution and Iso-Energetic Substitution Models in a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Nazanin; Ehsani, Behnaz; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hojjat, Parvane; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate associations between dietary macronutrient proportions and prospective visceral adiposity index changes (ΔVAI). The study included 1254 adults (18–74 years), from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), who were followed for three years. Dietary intakes were assessed twice using food frequency questionnaires. Associations of dietary macronutrient with ΔVAI and risk of visceral adiposity dysfunction (VAD) after three years were investigated. The percentage of energy intake from protein in the total population, and from fat in women, were associated with higher increases in VAI. A 5% higher energy intake from protein substituted for carbohydrate, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was associated with higher ΔVAI. Higher energy intake from animal protein substituted for PUFAs was positively associated with ΔVAI. Substituting protein and PUFAs with MUFAs were related to higher ΔVAI. The associations were similar in men and women, but reached significance mostly among women. Risk of VAD was increased when 1% of energy from protein was replaced with MUFAs. Substituting protein for carbohydrate and fat, and fat for carbohydrate, resulted in increased risk of VAD in women. Higher dietary proportions of protein and animal-derived MUFA may be positively associated with ΔVAI and risk of VAD. PMID:26516906

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PPARD +294T > C (rs2016520) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 609 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 573 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the PPARD +294T > C polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.001 for all). The frequency of T and C alleles was 77.50% and 22.50% in Bai Ku Yao, and 72.43% and 27.57% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequency of TT, TC and CC genotypes was 60.59%, 33.83% and 5.53% in Bai Ku Yao, and 52.18%, 40.50% and 7.32% in Han (P < 0.05); respectively. The subjects with CC genotype in Bai Ku Yao had higher serum LDL-C and ApoB levels and lower the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the subjects with TT and TC genotypes in females but not in males. The C allele carriers in Han had higher serum TC levels in males (P < 0.01) and ApoB levels in females (P < 0.05) than the C allele noncarriers. Serum TC and ApoB levels were correlated with genotypes in Han (P < 0.05 for each) but not in Bai Ku Yao. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups. Conclusions These results suggest that the association of PPARD +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is

  7. Polymorphism of rs1044925 in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) gene and serum lipid profiles is not well known in different ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was carried out to clarify the association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 626 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 624 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A and C alleles was 79.0% and 21.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 87.3% and 12.7% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of AA, AC and CC genotypes was 63.2%, 31.4% and 5.2% in Bai Ku Yao, and 75.6%, 23.2% and 1.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were different between the AA and AC/CC genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). The C allele carriers had lower serum TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels as compared with the C allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were correlated with genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that the polymorphism of rs1044925 in the ACAT-1 gene is mainly associated with female serum TC, LDL-C and

  8. Development and Validation of the Biophilic Attitudes Inventory (BAI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letourneau, Lawrence E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the viability of an instrument called the Biophilic Attitudes Inventory (BAI), a pen-and-paper instrument intended to measure attitudes toward nature that, according to naturalist Edward O. Wilson, are rooted in an innate predisposition that humans possess to connect with other forms of life. Utilizing confirmatory factor…

  9. Association of LIPC -250G>A polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association between -250G>A polymorphism in the promoter region of the hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) and plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is contradictory in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. This study was designed to detect the association of LIPC -250G>A (rs2070895) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 778 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 648 participants of Han Chinese aged 15-80 were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LIPC -250G>A was performed by polymerse chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequencies of GG, GA and AA genotypes were 50.0%, 43.3% and 6.7% in Bai Ku Yao, and 35.7%, 50.6% and 13.7% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequencies of G and A alleles were 71.7% and 28.3% in Bai Ku Yao, and 61.0% and 39.0% in Han (P < 0.01). The levels of HDL-C and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Bai Ku Yao were lower in GG genotype than in GA or AA genotype (P < 0.05-0.01). The levels of TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoB in Han were lower in GG genotype than in GA or AA genotype (P < 0.05-0.01). The levels of HDL-C and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Bai Ku Yao, and the levels of HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoB in Han were correlated with genotype and/or allele (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with age, sex, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, blood pressure, body weight, and body mass index in both ethnic groups. Conclusions The differences in the serum lipid profiles between the two ethnic groups might partly result from

  10. The association of physical activity and cholesterol concentrations across different combinations of central adiposity and body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Addoh, Ovuokerie

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate if those who are physically active,compared to physically inactive, have better cholesterol profiles across different combinations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Methods: Data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 16 095). Cholesterol parameters included total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TC/HDL-C ratio, triglycerides and at herogenic index(Log10 [triglycerides/HDL-C]). Physical activity (PA) was assessed via self-report, with BMI and WC objectively measured. Cholesterol concentrations of 6 combinations of BMI and WC were evaluated among active and inactive participants. Multivariable linear regression analysis was utilized. Results: Findings were not consistent across sex. There was little evidence to suggest an association of PA on TC across varying BMI and WC combinations. For example, among those who had an obese BMI and high WC, inactive participants did not have different TC level when compared to active participants (β = -1.2; 95% CI: -3.9-1.5, P = 0.38). There was evidence to suggest a favorable association of PA on HDL-C, triglycerides and at herogenic index across varying BMI and WC combinations. For example, among those who had an obese BMI and high WC, inactive (vs. active) participants had a lower HDL-C (βadjusted = -1.6, P < 0.01). When considering either gender, there was sufficient evidence to suggest a favorable association of PA on at least one of the evaluated cholesterol parameters for each of the BMI/WC combinations with the exception of normal BMI and high WC. Conclusion: Except for those having normal weight central obesity, PA is favorably associated with cholesterol parameters across various combinations of BMI and WC. PMID:27579256

  11. Increased Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Independent of Body Adiposity in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Controls in falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Acquah, Samuel; Boampong, Johnson Nyarko; Eghan Jnr, Benjamin Ackon

    2016-01-01

    Information on the extent to which oxidative stress and inflammation occur in the presence of falciparum malaria and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the same individual is limited. This study sought to investigate the extent of inflammation and oxidative stress in adult uncomplicated malaria by measuring fasting levels of lipid peroxides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and total antioxidant power (TAP) before and during falciparum malaria, in 100 respondents with type 2 diabetes and 100 age-matched controls in the Cape Coast metropolis of Ghana. Also, body adiposity index, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio were computed. Before and during falciparum malaria, diabetes patients exhibited higher (P < 0.05) levels of CRP and peroxides than controls but TAP and BAI were comparable (P > 0.05) between the two groups. Baseline CRP correlated positively (r = 0.341, P = 0.002) with peroxide only in the diabetic group. During malaria, TAP level in both study groups declined (P < 0.05) by 80% of their baseline levels. CRP correlated negatively (r = −0.352, P = 0.011) with TAP in the control but not the diabetic group. Uncomplicated falciparum malaria elevated inflammation and peroxidation but decreased antioxidant power independent of adiposity. This finding may have implication on cardiovascular health. PMID:27298824

  12. Influence of high-normal serum TSH levels on major cardiovascular risk factors and Visceral Adiposity Index in euthyroid type 2 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Giandalia, A; Russo, G T; Romeo, E L; Alibrandi, A; Villari, P; Mirto, A A; Armentano, G; Benvenga, S; Cucinotta, D

    2014-09-01

    Although several observations indicate that serum TSH levels in the high normal range are related to cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors in the general population, similar data are limited in diabetic subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential associations between TSH serum levels within the normal range and major metabolic and non-metabolic CVD risk factors in a cohort of euthyroid type 2 diabetic subjects. Thyroid hormones, TSH levels, anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose control, and blood pressure were measured in 490 euthyroid type 2 diabetic subjects, consecutively attending two outpatient diabetic units in Southern Italy. In all subjects, we also calculated the Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI), an obesity-related index associated with CVD risk. Diabetic women showed higher mean serum TSH levels and lower FT4 concentration than diabetic men, while FT3 levels were comparable in the two genders. Stratifying the study population according to quartiles of TSH levels, subjects in the highest TSH quartile were more likely to be female and younger, with higher values of BMI and waist circumference (P = 0.05 both), higher triglycerides (P = 0.002) and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.01), higher VAI values (P = 0.02), and lower FT4 levels (P = 0.05), when compared to those in the lowest quartile. At multivariate analysis, a younger age, female gender, triglycerides levels, and waist circumference were independently associated with higher TSH levels. In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic subjects with no evidence of thyroid disease, higher TSH concentrations within the normal range were more frequent in women and in younger subjects, and they were associated with visceral obesity and higher triglycerides concentrations, two well-known CVD risk factors. PMID:24385267

  13. Relationship between the Bertin index to estimate visceral adipose tissue from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and cardiometabolic risk factors before and after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Karelis, Antony D; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Pompilus, Roseline; Messier, Virginie; Strychar, Irene; Brochu, Martin; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylene

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between visceral adipose tissue (VAT), estimated with the Bertin index obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), with cardiometabolic risk factors before and after a weight loss program and compare it with VAT measured with computed tomography (CT) scan. The study population for this analysis included 92 nondiabetic overweight and obese sedentary postmenopausal women (age: 58.1 ± 4.7 years, BMI: 31.8 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) participating in a weight loss intervention that consisted of a caloric restricted diet with and without resistance training (RT). We measured (i) VAT using CT scan, (ii) body composition (using DXA) from which the Bertin index was calculated, (iii) cardiometabolic risk factors such as insulin sensitivity (using the hyperinsulinenic-euglycemic clamp technique), peak oxygen consumption, blood pressure, plasma lipids, C-reactive protein as well as fasting glucose and insulin. VAT levels for both methods significantly decreased after the weight loss intervention. Furthermore, no differences in VAT levels between both methods were observed before (88.0 ± 25.5 vs. 83.8 ± 22.0 cm(2)) and after (76.8 ± 27.8 vs. 73.6 ± 23.2 cm(2)) the weight loss intervention. In addition, the percent change in VAT levels after the weight loss intervention was similar between both methods (-13.0 ± 16.5 vs. -12.5 ± 12.6%). Moreover, similar relationships were observed between both measures of VAT with cardiometabolic risk factors before and after the weight loss intervention. Finally, results from the logistic regression analysis consistently showed that fat mass and lean body mass were independent predictors of pre- and post-VAT levels for both methods in our cohort. In conclusion, estimated visceral fat levels using the Bertin index may be able to trace variations of VAT after weight loss. This index also shows comparable relationships with cardiometabolic risk factors when compared to VAT

  14. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Bai and Han ethnic groups in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Li, H-L; Dong, L; Li, Q; Zhang, L; Chen, J; Zou, F-C; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-03-01

    Eating raw pork and/or liver is a custom of the Bai ethnic group in China. Most people living in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, southwestern China are of Bai ethnicity. Little is known of the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Bai and Han ethnic populations in this region. In the present survey, a total of 555 and 595 blood samples were obtained from Bai and Han ethnic groups in Dali urban and rural areas, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to examine T. gondii IgG antibodies. Total positive rate of anti-T. gondii IgG in Bai and Han groups in this region was 21·6% (248/1150). The total seroprevalence of T. gondii was significantly higher in the Bai ethnic group (32·3%, 179/555) than in the Han ethnic group (11·6%, 69/595) (P < 0·01). The results of statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between cat feeding/non-cat feeding groups in the Bai ethnic group, the most important risk factor was consumption of raw pork and/or liver for the Bai group, but feeding a cat may be the main route of T. gondii infection for the Han group. Therefore, it is essential to implement integrated strategies to prevent and control T. gondii infection in this unique region of the world. PMID:24933039

  15. G-protein coupled receptor BAI3 promotes myoblast fusion in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hamoud, Noumeira; Tran, Viviane; Croteau, Louis-Philippe; Kania, Artur; Côté, Jean-François

    2014-03-11

    Muscle fibers form as a result of myoblast fusion, yet the cell surface receptors regulating this process are unknown in vertebrates. In Drosophila, myoblast fusion involves the activation of the Rac pathway by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Myoblast City and its scaffolding protein ELMO, downstream of cell-surface cell-adhesion receptors. We previously showed that the mammalian ortholog of Myoblast City, DOCK1, functions in an evolutionarily conserved manner to promote myoblast fusion in mice. In search for regulators of myoblast fusion, we identified the G-protein coupled receptor brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor (BAI3) as a cell surface protein that interacts with ELMO. In cultured cells, BAI3 or ELMO1/2 loss of function severely impaired myoblast fusion without affecting differentiation and cannot be rescued by reexpression of BAI3 mutants deficient in ELMO binding. The related BAI protein family member, BAI1, is functionally distinct from BAI3, because it cannot rescue the myoblast fusion defects caused by the loss of BAI3 function. Finally, embryonic muscle precursor expression of a BAI3 mutant unable to bind ELMO was sufficient to block myoblast fusion in vivo. Collectively, our findings provide a role for BAI3 in the relay of extracellular fusion signals to their intracellular effectors, identifying it as an essential transmembrane protein for embryonic vertebrate myoblast fusion. PMID:24567399

  16. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The aim of the present study was to eveluate the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 780 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 686 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 77.4% and 22.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 60.9% and 39.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 58.7%, 37.3% and 4.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 32.6%, 56.4% and 11.0% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC and LDL-C in both ethnic groups were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01). The T allele carriers had higher serum TC and LDL-C levels than the T allele noncarriers. The levels of ApoB in Han were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum ApoB levels as compared with the T allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, TG and LDL-C in Bai Ku Yao were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001), whereas the levels of LDL-C in Han were associated with genotypes (P < 0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in the both ethnic

  17. Visceral adiposity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Heno F; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Egan, Brent M

    2016-01-01

    The association of anthropometric (waist circumference) and hemodynamic (blood pressure) changes with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism has been motivation for a lot of discussions in the last 30 years. Nowadays, blood pressure, body mass index/abdominal circumference, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are considered in the definition of Metabolic syndrome, referred as Visceral adiposity syndrome (VAS) in the present review. However, more than 250 years ago an association between visceral and mediastinal obesity with hypertension, gout, and obstructive apnea had already been recognized. Expansion of visceral adipose tissue secondary to chronic over-consumption of calories stimulates the recruitment of macrophages, which assume an inflammatory phenotype and produce cytokines that directly interfere with insulin signaling, resulting in insulin resistance. In turn, insulin resistance (IR) manifests itself in various tissues, contributing to the overall phenotype of VAS. For example, in white adipose tissue, IR results in lipolysis, increased free fatty acids release and worsening of inflammation, since fatty acids can bind to Toll-like receptors. In the liver, IR results in increased hepatic glucose production, contributing to hyperglycemia; in the vascular endothelium and kidney, IR results in vasoconstriction, sodium retention and, consequently, arterial hypertension. Other players have been recognized in the development of VAS, such as genetic predisposition, epigenetic factors associated with exposure to an unfavourable intrauterine environment and the gut microbiota. More recently, experimental and clinical studies have shown the autonomic nervous system participates in modulating visceral adipose tissue. The sympathetic nervous system is related to adipose tissue function and differentiation through beta1, beta2, beta3, alpha1, and alpha2 adrenergic receptors. The relation is bidirectional: sympathetic denervation of

  18. Adiposity, Obesity, and Arterial Aging

    PubMed Central

    Shipley, Martin J.; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Tabak, Adam G.; McEniery, Carmel M.; Wilkinson, Ian B.; Marmot, Michael G.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-01-01

    We sought to determine whether adiposity in later midlife is an independent predictor of accelerated stiffening of the aorta. Whitehall II study participants (3789 men; 1383 women) underwent carotid-femoral applanation tonometry at the mean age of 66 and again 4 years later. General adiposity by body mass index, central adiposity by waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and fat mass percent by body impedance were assessed 5 years before and at baseline. In linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and mean arterial pressure, all adiposity measures were associated with aortic stiffening measured as increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) between baseline and follow-up. The associations were similar in the metabolically healthy and unhealthy, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria excluding waist circumference. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels accounted for part of the longitudinal association between adiposity and PWV change. Adjusting for chronic disease, antihypertensive medication and risk factors, standardized effects of general and central adiposity and fat mass percent on PWV increase (m/s) were similar (0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.05–0.24, P=0.003; 0.17, 0.08–0.27, P<0.001; 0.14, 0.05–0.22, P=0.002, respectively). Previous adiposity was associated with aortic stiffening independent of change in adiposity, glycaemia, and lipid levels across PWV assessments. We estimated that the body mass index–linked PWV increase will account for 12% of the projected increase in cardiovascular risk because of high body mass index. General and central adiposity in later midlife were strong independent predictors of aortic stiffening. Our findings suggest that adiposity is an important and potentially modifiable determinant of arterial aging. PMID:26056335

  19. Language Contact as Bilingual Contrast among Bai Language Users in Jianchuan County, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefright, Brook Emerson

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores Bai language use in Jianchuan County, China. On the basis of interviews with 42 language users, transcripts of spontaneous conversation and elicited narratives, excerpts from Bai texts in an alphabetic orthography and Chinese characters, and six months of participant observation, I demonstrate how language users'…

  20. Psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) in general population.

    PubMed

    Magán, Inés; Sanz, Jesús; García-Vera, María Paz

    2008-11-01

    This is the first study that provides normative, reliability, factor validity and discriminant validity data of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; Beck, Epstein, Brown, & Steer, 1988) in the Spanish general population, Sanz and Navarro's (2003) Spanish version of the BAI was administered to 249 adults. Factor analyses suggested that the BAI taps a general anxiety dimension comprising two related factors (somatic and affective-cognitive symptoms), but these factors hardly explained any additional variance and, therefore, little information is lost in considering only full-scale scores. Internal consistency estimate for the BAI was high (alpha = .93). The BAI was correlated .63 with the BDI-II and .32 with the Trait-Anger scale of the STAXI 2, but a factor analysis of their items revealed three factors, suggesting that the correlations between the instruments may be better accounted for by relationships between anxiety, depression, and anger, than by problems of discriminant validity. The mean BAI total score and the distribution of BAI scores were similar to those found in other countries. BAI norm scores for the community sample were provided from the total sample and from the male and female subsamples, as females scored higher than males. The utility of these scores for assessing clinical significance of treatment outcomes for anxiety is discussed. PMID:18988448

  1. Species classification and bioactive ingredients accumulation of BaiJiangCao based on characteristic inorganic elements analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wen-Lan, Li; Xue, Zhang; Xin-Xin, Yang; Shuai, Wang; Lin, Zhao; Huan-Jun, Zhao; Yong-Rui, Bao; Chen-Feng, Ji; Ning, Chen; Zheng, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch and Patrinia villosa (Thunb.) Juss., two species herbs with the same Chinese name “BaiJiangCao”, are important ancient herbal medicines widely used for more than 2000 years. The clinical application of two species herb is confused due to the difficult identification. Objective: The objective was to authenticate the species of BaiJiangCao and analyze the accumulation of bioactive ingredients based on characteristic inorganic elements analysis. Materials and Methods: Content of 32 inorganic elements in BaiJiangCao from different habitats were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the characteristic inorganic elements were picked to distinguish the species of the herb by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Contents of two bioactive ingredients, luteoloside, and oleanolic acid, in the samples, were also analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography method. Relationship between accumulation of bioactive ingredients and content of macroelements in BaiJiangCao was established by statistics. Results: A 4 macroelements (Na, Mg, K, Fe) in 32 determined inorganic elements were picked for characteristic inorganic elements. Content of Na, Mg, K and Fe showed positive correlations with that of luteoloside, content of Na, Mg showed positive correlations with that of oleanolic acid, but content of K and Fe showed negative correlations with that of oleanolic acid. Conclusion: It is for the first time to utilize the characteristic inorganic elements as an index to classify the herb species by the method of ICP-MS and multivariate analysis. And it is also the first report to investigate the influence of inorganic elements in herb on the accumulation of bioactive components which could affect the pharmacological efficacy of the herb medicine. And this method could also be utilized in research of corresponding aspects. PMID:26600721

  2. Association of MYLIP rs3757354 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    .05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with age, sex, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, blood pressure, and body mass index in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusions The present study suggests that the MYLIP rs3757354 SNP is associated with serum TC, HDL-C and ApoAI levels in the Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. But the association is different between the two ethnic groups. PMID:23107276

  3. Xuan Bai Cheng Qi formula as an adjuvant treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of the syndrome type phlegm-heat obstructing the lungs: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat AECOPD as adjunctive therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the TCM formula Xuan Bai Cheng Qi as an adjuvant therapy for AECOPD patients with the syndrome type of phlegm-heat obstructing the lungs. Methods A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. A total of 244 patients were divided into the intervention group (n = 122, treated with conventional medicine and Xuan Bai Cheng Qi) and the control group (n = 122, treated with conventional medicine and placebo). Total symptom scores (cough, phlegm, wheezing, chest congestion) before treatment and at 3, 5, 7, 10 days post-treatment were recorded. Lung function, arterial blood gas, serum inflammatory cytokines, oxidation/anti-oxidation index were observed before treatment and at the end of the 10-day treatment. Results A total of 242 patients completed the study. The full analysis set (FAS) population was 244 and the per-protocol analysis set (PPS) population was 229. After the 10-day treatment, symptom scores of the Xuan Bai Cheng Qi group were significantly lower over time compared with the control group (FAS: mean difference -1.84, 95% CI -2.66 to -1.03, P < .001; PPS: mean difference -1.87, 95% CI -2.71 to -1.03, P < .001). FEV1, FVC, and FEV1%pred were significantly higher over time in the Xuan Bai Cheng Qi group compared with those in the control group (day 10, FAS and PPS: P < .05). PaO2 and PaCO2 were significantly improved in the Xuan Bai Cheng Qi group (day 10, FAS and PPS: P < .05). Xuan Bai Cheng Qi was also found to ameliorate cytokine levels and oxidation/antioxidant index compared with placebo. There were no differences in safety variables and adverse events between the two groups. Conclusions Xuan Bai Cheng Qi formula appears to be a

  4. Classification of different degrees of adiposity in sedentary rats

    PubMed Central

    Leopoldo, A.S.; Lima-Leopoldo, A.P.; Nascimento, A.F.; Luvizotto, R.A.M.; Sugizaki, M.M.; Campos, D.H.S.; da Silva, D.C.T.; Padovani, C.R.; Cicogna, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    In experimental studies, several parameters, such as body weight, body mass index, adiposity index, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, have commonly been used to demonstrate increased adiposity and investigate the mechanisms underlying obesity and sedentary lifestyles. However, these investigations have not classified the degree of adiposity nor defined adiposity categories for rats, such as normal, overweight, and obese. The aim of the study was to characterize the degree of adiposity in rats fed a high-fat diet using cluster analysis and to create adiposity intervals in an experimental model of obesity. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were fed a normal (n=41) or a high-fat (n=43) diet for 15 weeks. Obesity was defined based on the adiposity index; and the degree of adiposity was evaluated using cluster analysis. Cluster analysis allowed the rats to be classified into two groups (overweight and obese). The obese group displayed significantly higher total body fat and a higher adiposity index compared with those of the overweight group. No differences in systolic blood pressure or nonesterified fatty acid, glucose, total cholesterol, or triglyceride levels were observed between the obese and overweight groups. The adiposity index of the obese group was positively correlated with final body weight, total body fat, and leptin levels. Despite the classification of sedentary rats into overweight and obese groups, it was not possible to identify differences in the comorbidities between the two groups. PMID:26909787

  5. Biological effects of eukaryotic recombinant plasmid pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 transfection on T24 cells and HUVECs

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Da-Wei; Hu, Hai-Long; Sun, Yan; Tang, Yang; Lei, Ming-De; Liu, Li-Wei; Han, Rui-Fa; Wu, Chang-Li

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the biological effect on T24 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) of transfection with brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor-1 (BAI-1). The recombinant plasmid pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 was transfected into human superficial bladder tumor cells (T24) and HUVECs, in parallel with the vector control. mRNA and protein expression levels of BAI-1 were then detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting, respectively. Cell apoptosis of T24 cells and HUVECs prior and subsequent to transfection with BAI-1 was analyzed by flow cytometric analysis. Proliferation of T24 cells and HUVECs prior and subsequent to transfection of BAI-1 was assessed by the MTT method. T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver-M61-BA1-1 were classed as the experimental group; T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with p-Receiver-M61 were the control group. qPCR and western blotting methods confirmed that there was positive expression of BAI-1 in T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver-M61-BAI-1, however BAI-1 was not expressed in T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver-M61. The results of the MTT assay demonstrated that absorbance was markedly reduced in HUVECs at 12, 48 and 72 h subsequent to transfection with pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 when compared with that of the control group and in T24 cells transfected with p-Receiver-M61-BAI-1. Furthermore, flow cytometry results also indicated that the apoptotic rate of HUVECs transfected with p-Receiver-M61-BAI-1 was significantly increased compared with that of the control group and T24 cells transfected with p-Receiver-M61-BAI-1. BAI-1 was observed to markedly inhibit the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells in vitro, however, no direct inhibition by BAI-1 was observed in T24 cells. In conclusion, BAI-1 is suggested to be a potential novel therapautic target for the inhibition of tumor neovascularization. PMID:27356780

  6. BAI1 is an engulfment receptor for apoptotic cells upstream of the ELMO/Dock180/Rac module.

    PubMed

    Park, Daeho; Tosello-Trampont, Annie-Carole; Elliott, Michael R; Lu, Mingjian; Haney, Lisa B; Ma, Zhong; Klibanov, Alexander L; Mandell, James W; Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2007-11-15

    Engulfment and subsequent degradation of apoptotic cells is an essential step that occurs throughout life in all multicellular organisms. ELMO/Dock180/Rac proteins are a conserved signalling module for promoting the internalization of apoptotic cell corpses; ELMO and Dock180 function together as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTPase Rac, and thereby regulate the phagocyte actin cytoskeleton during engulfment. However, the receptor(s) upstream of the ELMO/Dock180/Rac module are still unknown. Here we identify brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) as a receptor upstream of ELMO and as a receptor that can bind phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells. BAI1 is a seven-transmembrane protein belonging to the adhesion-type G-protein-coupled receptor family, with an extended extracellular region and no known ligands. We show that BAI1 functions as an engulfment receptor in both the recognition and subsequent internalization of apoptotic cells. Through multiple lines of investigation, we identify phosphatidylserine, a key 'eat-me' signal exposed on apoptotic cells, as a ligand for BAI1. The thrombospondin type 1 repeats within the extracellular region of BAI1 mediate direct binding to phosphatidylserine. As with intracellular signalling, BAI1 forms a trimeric complex with ELMO and Dock180, and functional studies suggest that BAI1 cooperates with ELMO/Dock180/Rac to promote maximal engulfment of apoptotic cells. Last, decreased BAI1 expression or interference with BAI1 function inhibits the engulfment of apoptotic targets ex vivo and in vivo. Thus, BAI1 is a phosphatidylserine recognition receptor that can directly recruit a Rac-GEF complex to mediate the uptake of apoptotic cells. PMID:17960134

  7. Genetic variant of V825I in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    .05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusion The present study suggests that the V825I polymorphism in the ABCA1 gene is associated with male serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels in the Han, and serum TC levels in the Bai Ku Yao populations. The difference in the association of V825I polymorphism and serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different ABCA1 gene-enviromental interactions. PMID:21247457

  8. The adhesion-GPCR BAI3, a gene linked to psychiatric disorders, regulates dendrite morphogenesis in neurons.

    PubMed

    Lanoue, V; Usardi, A; Sigoillot, S M; Talleur, M; Iyer, K; Mariani, J; Isope, P; Vodjdani, G; Heintz, N; Selimi, F

    2013-08-01

    Adhesion-G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a poorly studied subgroup of the GPCRs, which have diverse biological roles and are major targets for therapeutic intervention. Among them, the Brain Angiogenesis Inhibitor (BAI) family has been linked to several psychiatric disorders, but despite their very high neuronal expression, the function of these receptors in the central nervous system has barely been analyzed. Our results, obtained using expression knockdown and overexpression experiments, reveal that the BAI3 receptor controls dendritic arborization growth and branching in cultured neurons. This role is confirmed in Purkinje cells in vivo using specific expression of a deficient BAI3 protein in transgenic mice, as well as lentivirus driven knockdown of BAI3 expression. Regulation of dendrite morphogenesis by BAI3 involves activation of the RhoGTPase Rac1 and the binding to a functional ELMO1, a critical Rac1 regulator. Thus, activation of the BAI3 signaling pathway could lead to direct reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton through RhoGTPase signaling in neurons. Given the direct link between RhoGTPase/actin signaling pathways, neuronal morphogenesis and psychiatric disorders, our mechanistic data show the importance of further studying the role of the BAI adhesion-GPCRs to understand the pathophysiology of such brain diseases. PMID:23628982

  9. The adhesion-GPCR BAI3, a gene linked to psychiatric disorders, regulates dendrite morphogenesis in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, V; Usardi, A; Sigoillot, S M; Talleur, M; Iyer, K; Mariani, J; Isope, P; Vodjdani, G; Heintz, N; Selimi, F

    2013-01-01

    Adhesion-G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a poorly studied subgroup of the GPCRs, which have diverse biological roles and are major targets for therapeutic intervention. Among them, the Brain Angiogenesis Inhibitor (BAI) family has been linked to several psychiatric disorders, but despite their very high neuronal expression, the function of these receptors in the central nervous system has barely been analyzed. Our results, obtained using expression knockdown and overexpression experiments, reveal that the BAI3 receptor controls dendritic arborization growth and branching in cultured neurons. This role is confirmed in Purkinje cells in vivo using specific expression of a deficient BAI3 protein in transgenic mice, as well as lentivirus driven knockdown of BAI3 expression. Regulation of dendrite morphogenesis by BAI3 involves activation of the RhoGTPase Rac1 and the binding to a functional ELMO1, a critical Rac1 regulator. Thus, activation of the BAI3 signaling pathway could lead to direct reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton through RhoGTPase signaling in neurons. Given the direct link between RhoGTPase/actin signaling pathways, neuronal morphogenesis and psychiatric disorders, our mechanistic data show the importance of further studying the role of the BAI adhesion-GPCRs to understand the pathophysiology of such brain diseases. PMID:23628982

  10. Association between Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Height Ratio and Adiposity in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Martin-Calvo, Nerea; Moreno-Galarraga, Laura; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is defined as an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been suggested as the gold standard to define obesity, but because its use is complex and expensive, anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) or the waist-to-height ratio (WtHr) have been used as alternatives. The aim of this study was to review the published literature and investigate the correlation of BMI and WtHr with body fat (BF) measured by DEXA in pediatric populations. References were sought in PubMed/Medline and Embase datasets. Five original articles, published between 2013 and 2015, were finally included in this review. Their sample size ranged from 83 to 5355, and the age of participants ranged from 4.9 to 19 years old. The most frequently reported association measurements were the coefficients of determination (R²), followed by correlation coefficients and least-squares regression coefficients. BF measured by DEXA was strongly correlated with both BMI (R² ranging from 0.32 to 0.91) and WtHr (R² ranging from 0.49 to 0.73). Thus, either BMI or WtHr may be useful to define obesity when more sophisticated techniques are not available. Our systematic review of the available literature found that neither index demonstrated superiority in assessing obesity in children. PMID:27556485

  11. Association between Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Height Ratio and Adiposity in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Calvo, Nerea; Moreno-Galarraga, Laura; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is defined as an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been suggested as the gold standard to define obesity, but because its use is complex and expensive, anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) or the waist-to-height ratio (WtHr) have been used as alternatives. The aim of this study was to review the published literature and investigate the correlation of BMI and WtHr with body fat (BF) measured by DEXA in pediatric populations. References were sought in PubMed/Medline and Embase datasets. Five original articles, published between 2013 and 2015, were finally included in this review. Their sample size ranged from 83 to 5355, and the age of participants ranged from 4.9 to 19 years old. The most frequently reported association measurements were the coefficients of determination (R2), followed by correlation coefficients and least-squares regression coefficients. BF measured by DEXA was strongly correlated with both BMI (R2 ranging from 0.32 to 0.91) and WtHr (R2 ranging from 0.49 to 0.73). Thus, either BMI or WtHr may be useful to define obesity when more sophisticated techniques are not available. Our systematic review of the available literature found that neither index demonstrated superiority in assessing obesity in children. PMID:27556485

  12. Do assortative preferences contribute to assortative mating for adiposity?

    PubMed

    Fisher, Claire I; Fincher, Corey L; Hahn, Amanda C; Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-11-01

    Assortative mating for adiposity, whereby levels of adiposity in romantic partners tend to be positively correlated, has implications for population health due to the combined effects of partners' levels of adiposity on fertility and/or offspring health. Although assortative preferences for cues of adiposity, whereby leaner people are inherently more attracted to leaner individuals, have been proposed as a factor in assortative mating for adiposity, there have been no direct tests of this issue. Because of this, and because of recent work suggesting that facial cues of adiposity convey information about others' health that may be particularly important for mate preferences, we tested the contribution of assortative preferences for facial cues of adiposity to assortative mating for adiposity (assessed from body mass index, BMI) in a sample of romantic couples. Romantic partners' BMIs were positively correlated and this correlation was not due to the effects of age or relationship duration. However, although men and women with leaner partners showed stronger preferences for cues of low levels of adiposity, controlling for these preferences did not weaken the correlation between partners' BMIs. Indeed, own BMI and preferences were uncorrelated. These results suggest that assortative preferences for facial cues of adiposity contribute little (if at all) to assortative mating for adiposity. PMID:24168811

  13. Assessment of fecal bacteria with bile acid 7 alpha-dehydroxylating activity for the presence of bai-like genes.

    PubMed Central

    Doerner, K C; Takamine, F; LaVoie, C P; Mallonee, D H; Hylemon, P B

    1997-01-01

    Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708 has several bile acid-inducible (bai) genes which encode enzymes in the bile acid 7 alpha-dehydroxylation (7 alpha DeOH) pathway. Twelve 7 alpha DeOH-positive intestinal bacterial strains were assayed for 7 alpha DeOH activity, and 13 strains were tested for hybridization with bai genes. Cholic acid 7 alpha DeOH activity varied greatly (> 100-fold) among these strains. Southern blot experiments showed that DNA prepared from 7 of 13 strains hybridized with at least one of the bai genes from Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708. PMID:9055436

  14. Scintillation properties of Eu2+-doped KBa2I5 and K2BaI4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stand, L.; Zhuravleva, M.; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Johnson, J.; Lindsey, Adam; Melcher, Charles L.

    2015-09-25

    We report two new ternary metal halide scintillators, KBa2I5 and K2BaI4, activated with divalent europium. Single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed that KBa2I5 has a monoclinic structure (P21/c) and that K2BaI4 has a rhombohedral structure (R3c). Differential scanning calorimetry showed singular melting and crystallization points, making these compounds viable candidates for melt growth. We grew 13 mm diameter single crystals of KBa2I5:Eu2+ and K2BaI4:Eu2+ in evacuated quartz ampoules via the vertical Bridgman technique. The optimal Eu2+ concentration was 4% for KBa2I5 and 7% for K2BaI4. The X-ray excited emissions at 444 nm for KBa2I5:Eu 4% and 448 nm for K2BaI4:Eumore » 7% arise from the 5d-4f radiative transition in Eu2+. KBa2I5:Eu 4% has a light yield of 90,000 photons/MeV, with an energy resolution of 2.4% and K2BaI4:Eu 7% has a light yield of 63,000 ph/MeV, with an energy resolution of 2.9% at 662 keV. Both crystals have an excellent proportional response to a wide range of gamma-ray energies.« less

  15. Parent-offspring body mass index associations in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study: a family-based approach to studying the role of the intrauterine environment in childhood adiposity.

    PubMed

    Fleten, Caroline; Nystad, Wenche; Stigum, Hein; Skjaerven, Rolv; Lawlor, Debbie A; Davey Smith, George; Naess, Oyvind

    2012-07-15

    In the present study, the authors investigated the role of the intrauterine environment in childhood adiposity by comparing the maternal-offspring body mass index (BMI) association with the paternal-offspring BMI association when the offspring were 3 years of age, using parental prepregnancy BMI (measured as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). The parent-offspring trios (n = 29,216) were recruited during pregnancy from 2001 to 2008 into the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by The Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data from self-administered questionnaires were used in linear regression analyses. Crude analyses showed similar parental-offspring BMI associations; the mean difference in offspring BMI was 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.16) per each 1-standard-deviation increase in maternal BMI and 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.17) per each 1-standard-deviation increase in paternal BMI. After all adjustments, the mean difference in offspring BMI per each 1-standard-deviation increment of maternal BMI was 0.12, and the mean difference in offspring BMI per each 1-standard-deviation increment of paternal BMI was 0.13. There was no strong support for heterogeneity between the associations (P > 0.6). In conclusion, results from the present large population-based study showed similar parental-offspring BMI associations when the offspring were 3 years of age, which indicates that the maternal-offspring association may be explained by shared familial (environmental and genetic) risk factors rather than by the intrauterine environment. PMID:22771730

  16. Parent-Offspring Body Mass Index Associations in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study: A Family-based Approach to Studying the Role of the Intrauterine Environment in Childhood Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Fleten, Caroline; Nystad, Wenche; Stigum, Hein; Skjærven, Rolv; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Davey Smith, George; Næss, Øyvind

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated the role of the intrauterine environment in childhood adiposity by comparing the maternal-offspring body mass index (BMI) association with the paternal-offspring BMI association when the offspring were 3 years of age, using parental prepregnancy BMI (measured as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). The parent-offspring trios (n = 29,216) were recruited during pregnancy from 2001 to 2008 into the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by The Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data from self-administered questionnaires were used in linear regression analyses. Crude analyses showed similar parental-offspring BMI associations; the mean difference in offspring BMI was 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.16) per each 1-standard-deviation increase in maternal BMI and 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.17) per each 1-standard-deviation increase in paternal BMI. After all adjustments, the mean difference in offspring BMI per each 1-standard-deviation increment of maternal BMI was 0.12, and the mean difference in offspring BMI per each 1-standard-deviation increment of paternal BMI was 0.13. There was no strong support for heterogeneity between the associations (P > 0.6). In conclusion, results from the present large population-based study showed similar parental-offspring BMI associations when the offspring were 3 years of age, which indicates that the maternal-offspring association may be explained by shared familial (environmental and genetic) risk factors rather than by the intrauterine environment. PMID:22771730

  17. Emerging Roles of BAI Adhesion-GPCRs in Synapse Development and Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Duman, Joseph G; Tu, Yen-Kuei; Tolias, Kimberley F

    2016-01-01

    Synapses mediate communication between neurons and enable the brain to change in response to experience, which is essential for learning and memory. The sites of most excitatory synapses in the brain, dendritic spines, undergo rapid remodeling that is important for neural circuit formation and synaptic plasticity. Abnormalities in synapse and spine formation and plasticity are associated with a broad range of brain disorders, including intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and schizophrenia. Thus, elucidating the mechanisms that regulate these neuronal processes is critical for understanding brain function and disease. The brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor (BAI) subfamily of adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors (adhesion-GPCRs) has recently emerged as central regulators of synapse development and plasticity. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding the roles of BAIs at synapses, highlighting their regulation, downstream signaling, and physiological functions, while noting the roles of other adhesion-GPCRs at synapses. We will also discuss the relevance of BAIs in various neurological and psychiatric disorders and consider their potential importance as pharmacological targets in the treatment of these diseases. PMID:26881134

  18. Emerging Roles of BAI Adhesion-GPCRs in Synapse Development and Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Duman, Joseph G.; Tu, Yen-Kuei; Tolias, Kimberley F.

    2016-01-01

    Synapses mediate communication between neurons and enable the brain to change in response to experience, which is essential for learning and memory. The sites of most excitatory synapses in the brain, dendritic spines, undergo rapid remodeling that is important for neural circuit formation and synaptic plasticity. Abnormalities in synapse and spine formation and plasticity are associated with a broad range of brain disorders, including intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and schizophrenia. Thus, elucidating the mechanisms that regulate these neuronal processes is critical for understanding brain function and disease. The brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor (BAI) subfamily of adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors (adhesion-GPCRs) has recently emerged as central regulators of synapse development and plasticity. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding the roles of BAIs at synapses, highlighting their regulation, downstream signaling, and physiological functions, while noting the roles of other adhesion-GPCRs at synapses. We will also discuss the relevance of BAIs in various neurological and psychiatric disorders and consider their potential importance as pharmacological targets in the treatment of these diseases. PMID:26881134

  19. Adipose tissue fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Buechler, Christa; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity causes a major interest in white adipose tissue biology. Adipose tissue cells are surrounded by extracellular matrix proteins whose composition and remodeling is of crucial importance for cell function. The expansion of adipose tissue in obesity is linked to an inappropriate supply with oxygen and hypoxia development. Subsequent activation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and initiates adipose tissue fibrosis. Thereby adipose tissue growth is limited and excess triglycerides are stored in ectopic tissues. Stressed adipocytes and hypoxia contribute to immune cell immigration and activation which further aggravates adipose tissue fibrosis. There is substantial evidence that adipose tissue fibrosis is linked to metabolic dysfunction, both in rodent models and in the clinical setting. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma agonists and adiponectin both reduce adipose tissue fibrosis, inflammation and insulin resistance. Current knowledge suggests that antifibrotic drugs, increasing adipose tissue oxygen supply or HIF-1 antagonists will improve adipose tissue function and thereby ameliorate metabolic diseases. PMID:25987952

  20. Habituation to a stressor predicts adolescents' adiposity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Objectives: Stress is associated with gains in adiposity. One factor that determines how much stress is experienced is how quickly an adolescent reduces responding (habituates) across repeated stressors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of body mass index pe...

  1. Bai-Hu-Jia-Ren-Shen-Tang Decoction Reduces Fatty Liver by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui-Kang; Hung, Tzu-Min; Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lee, I-Jung; Chang, Chia-Chuan; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Huang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and associated conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are currently a worldwide health problem. In Asian traditional medicine, Bai-Hu-Jia-Ren-Shen-Tang (BHJRST) is widely used in diabetes patients to reduce thirst. However, whether it has a therapeutic effect on T2DM or NAFLD is not known. The aim of this study was to examine whether BHJRST had a lipid-lowering effect using a HuS-E/2 cell model of fatty liver induced by palmitate and in a db/db mouse model of dyslipidemia. Incubation of HuS-E/2 cells with palmitate markedly increased lipid accumulation and expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), which is involved in lipolysis. BHJRST significantly decreased lipid accumulation and increased ATGL levels and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its primary downstream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which are involved in fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, after twice daily oral administration for six weeks, BHJRST significantly reduced hepatic fat accumulation in db/db mice, as demonstrated by increased hepatic AMPK and ACC phosphorylation, reduced serum triglyceride levels, and reduced hepatic total lipid content. The results show that BHJRST has a lipid-lowering effect in the liver that is mediated by activation of the AMPK signaling pathway. PMID:26508982

  2. Structure and functional characterization of a bile acid 7α dehydratase BaiE in secondary bile acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Shiva; Chiu, Hsien-Po; Jones, David H; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Miller, Mitchell D; Xu, Qingping; Farr, Carol L; Ridlon, Jason M; Wells, James E; Elsliger, Marc-André; Wilson, Ian A; Hylemon, Phillip B; Lesley, Scott A

    2016-03-01

    Conversion of the primary bile acids cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) to the secondary bile acids deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA) is performed by a few species of intestinal bacteria in the genus Clostridium through a multistep biochemical pathway that removes a 7α-hydroxyl group. The rate-determining enzyme in this pathway is bile acid 7α-dehydratase (baiE). In this study, crystal structures of apo-BaiE and its putative product-bound [3-oxo-Δ(4,6) -lithocholyl-Coenzyme A (CoA)] complex are reported. BaiE is a trimer with a twisted α + β barrel fold with similarity to the Nuclear Transport Factor 2 (NTF2) superfamily. Tyr30, Asp35, and His83 form a catalytic triad that is conserved across this family. Site-directed mutagenesis of BaiE from Clostridium scindens VPI 12708 confirm that these residues are essential for catalysis and also the importance of other conserved residues, Tyr54 and Arg146, which are involved in substrate binding and affect catalytic turnover. Steady-state kinetic studies reveal that the BaiE homologs are able to turn over 3-oxo-Δ(4) -bile acid and CoA-conjugated 3-oxo-Δ(4) -bile acid substrates with comparable efficiency questioning the role of CoA-conjugation in the bile acid metabolism pathway. PMID:26650892

  3. The adhesion GPCR BAI1 mediates macrophage ROS production and microbicidal activity against Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Emily A.; Lee, Chang Sup; Owen, Katherine A.; D’Souza, Ryan S.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.; Casanova, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The detection of microbes and initiation of an innate immune response occur through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are critical for the production of inflammatory cytokines and activation of the cellular microbicidal machinery. In particular, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase complex is a critical component of the macrophage bactericidal machinery. We previously characterized brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1), a member of the adhesion family of G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein)–coupled receptors (GPCRs), as a PRR that mediates the selective phagocytic uptake of Gram-negative bacteria by macrophages. We showed that BAI1 promoted phagosomal ROS production through activation of the Rho family guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rac1, thereby stimulating NADPH oxidase activity. Primary BAI1-deficient macrophages exhibited attenuated Rac GTPase activity and reduced ROS production in response to several Gram-negative bacteria, resulting in impaired microbicidal activity. Furthermore, in a peritoneal infection model, BAI1-deficient mice exhibited increased susceptibility to death by bacterial challenge because of impaired bacterial clearance. Together, these findings suggest that BAI1 mediates the clearance of Gram-negative bacteria by stimulating both phagocytosis and NADPH oxidase activation, thereby coupling bacterial detection to the cellular microbicidal machinery. PMID:26838550

  4. Comparative profiling of gene expression in Camellia sinensis L. cultivar AnJiBaiCha leaves during periodic albinism.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ling; Xiong, Li-Gui; Deng, Ting-Ting; Wu, Yang; Li, Juan; Liu, Shuo-Qian; Huang, Jian-An; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2015-04-25

    The AnJiBaiCha albino mutant tea cultivar has a reversible albino phenotype at low temperatures. Albino AnJiBaiCha leaves contain high levels of amino acids, which are important components affecting the quality of tea as a beverage. To examine the molecular mechanism of albinism and amino acid enrichment in AnJiBaiCha, we used the amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique to isolate genes that are differentially expressed during periodic albinism in AnJiBaiCha. A total of 127 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were successfully sequenced; among those, 60 TDFs showed high similarity to sequences with known functions, but 67 TDFs were not similar to any known genes. The identified transcripts include transcription factors, ubiquitination-related genes, chloroplast biogenesis genes, signal transduction genes, stress-related genes, cell cycle genes, and carbohydrate and energy metabolism genes. To validate the cDNA-AFLP results, quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the differential expression of six of the identified genes. The cDNA-AFLP and quantitative real-time PCR results correlated well, indicating that the cDNA-AFLP results are reliable. This study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms by which periodic albinism and amino acid accumulation take place in AnJiBaiCha. PMID:25576956

  5. Long-Term Monitoring of Dzanga Bai Forest Elephants: Forest Clearing Use Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Turkalo, Andrea K.; Wrege, Peter H.; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Individual identification of the relatively cryptic forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) at forest clearings currently provides the highest quality monitoring data on this ecologically important but increasingly threatened species. Here we present baseline data from the first 20 years of an individually based study of this species, conducted at the Dzanga Clearing, Central African Republic. A total of 3,128 elephants were identified over the 20-year study (1,244 adults; 675 females, 569 males). It took approximately four years for the majority of elephants visiting the clearing to be identified, but new elephants entered the clearing every year of the study. The study population was relatively stable, varying from 1,668 to 1,864 individuals (including juveniles and infants), with increasingly fewer males than females over time. The age-class distribution for females remained qualitatively unchanged between 1995 and 2010, while the proportion of adult males decreased from 20% to 10%, likely reflecting increased mortality. Visitation patterns by individuals were highly variable, with some elephants visiting monthly while others were ephemeral users with visits separated by multiple years. The number of individuals in the clearing at any time varied between 40 and 100 individuals, and there was little evidence of a seasonal pattern in this variation. The number of elephants entering the clearing together (defined here as a social group) averaged 1.49 (range 1–12) for males and 2.67 (range 1–14) for females. This collation of 20 years of intensive forest elephant monitoring provides the first detailed, long term look at the ecology of bai visitation for this species, offering insight to the ecological significance and motivation for bai use, social behavior, and threats to forest elephants. We discuss likely drivers (rainfall, compression, illegal killing, etc.) influencing bai visitation rates. This study provides the baseline for future demographic and behavioral

  6. BAI, a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor induces apoptosis in A549 cells through activation of caspases and inactivation of Akt.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin; Lee, Jinho; Jang, Byeong-Churl; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Park, Jong-Wook

    2013-02-01

    Previously, we have synthesized a novel cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, 2-[1,1'biphenyl]-4-yl-N-[5-(1,1-dioxo-1λ(6) -isothiazolidin-2-yl)-1H-indazol-3-yl]acetamide (BAI) and reported its anti-cancer activity in head and neck cancer cells. In this study, we further evaluated the effect of BAI on growth of various human cancer cell lines, including A549 (nonsmall cell lung cancer), HCT116 (colon), and Caki (kidney). Profoundly, results of XTT and clonogenic assays demonstrated that BAI at nanomolar concentrations (20-60 nM) inhibited growth of A549, HCT116, and Caki cells, suggesting the anti-cancer potency. We show that BAI induced a dose-dependent apoptotic cell death in these human cancer cells, as measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Interestingly, further biochemical analysis showed that treatment with BAI at 20 nM induced apoptosis in A549 cells in association with activation of caspases, cleavage of phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1), and inhibition of Akt in A549 cells. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition study revealed that pretreatment with z-VAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor strongly blocked the BAI-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Transfection analysis with Akt cDNA encoding constitutively active Akt further addressed the significance of Akt inhibition in the BAI-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Notably, disruption of the PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002, a PI3K/Akt inhibitor potentiated apoptosis in A549 cells by BAI at a subcytotoxic concentration. These findings collectively suggest that BAI potently inhibits growth of A549, HCT116, and Caki cells, and that the BAI-induced apoptosis in A549 cells is associated with activation of caspases, and inhibition of Akt. PMID:22887215

  7. The brain–artefact interface (BAI): a challenge for archaeology and cultural neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience provides a new approach for understanding the impact of culture on the human brain (and vice versa) opening thus new avenues for cross-disciplinary collaboration with archaeology and anthropology. Finding new meaningful and productive unit of analysis is essential for such collaboration. But what can archaeological preoccupation with material culture and long-term change contribute to this end? In this article, I introduce and discuss the notion of the brain–artefact interface (BAI) as a useful conceptual bridge between neuroplastisty and the extended mind. I argue that a key challenge for archaeology and cultural neuroscience lies in the cross-disciplinary understanding of the processes by which our plastic enculturated brains become constituted within the wider extended networks of non-biological artefacts and cultural practices that delineate the real spatial and temporal boundaries of the human cognitive map. PMID:20123661

  8. Brain angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) is a pattern recognition receptor that mediates macrophage binding and engulfment of Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Das, Soumita; Owen, Katherine A; Ly, Kim T; Park, Daeho; Black, Steven G; Wilson, Jeffrey M; Sifri, Costi D; Ravichandran, Kodi S; Ernst, Peter B; Casanova, James E

    2011-02-01

    Bacterial recognition by host cells is essential for initiation of infection and the host response. Bacteria interact with host cells via multiple pattern recognition receptors that recognize microbial products or pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In response to this interaction, host cell signaling cascades are activated that lead to inflammatory responses and/or phagocytic clearance of attached bacteria. Brain angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) is a receptor that recognizes apoptotic cells through its conserved type I thrombospondin repeats and triggers their engulfment through an ELMO1/Dock/Rac1 signaling module. Because thrombospondin repeats in other proteins have been shown to bind bacterial surface components, we hypothesized that BAI1 may also mediate the recognition and clearance of pathogenic bacteria. We found that preincubation of bacteria with recombinant soluble BAI1 ectodomain or knockdown of endogenous BAI1 in primary macrophages significantly reduced binding and internalization of the Gram-negative pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Conversely, overexpression of BAI1 enhanced attachment and engulfment of Salmonella in macrophages and in heterologous nonphagocytic cells. Bacterial uptake is triggered by the BAI1-mediated activation of Rac through an ELMO/Dock-dependent mechanism, and inhibition of the BAI1/ELMO1 interaction prevents both Rac activation and bacterial uptake. Moreover, inhibition of ELMO1 or Rac function significantly impairs the proinflammatory response to infection. Finally, we show that BAI1 interacts with a variety of Gram-negative, but not Gram-positive, bacteria through recognition of their surface lipopolysaccharide. Together these findings identify BAI1 as a pattern recognition receptor that mediates nonopsonic phagocytosis of Gram-negative bacteria by macrophages and directly affects the host response to infection. PMID:21245295

  9. Incense and ritual plant use in Southwest China: A case study among the Bai in Shaxi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ritual and religious uses of plant-derived smoke are widespread throughout the world. Our research focuses on Southwest China, where the use of incense is very common. This study aims to document and analyze contemporary ritual plant uses by the Bai people of Shaxi Township (Jianchuan County, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province), including their related ethnobotanical knowledge, practices, and beliefs. Methods The present study builds on previous ethnobotanical research in Shaxi, which started in 2005. Interviews focusing on ritual plant use and associated beliefs were carried out with a total of 44 Bai informants in September 2009 and May and June 2010. The results are supplemented with information on the local religion collected from June to December 2010. All documented species were vouchered, and are deposited at the herbaria of Kunming Institute of Botany (KUN) and the University of Zurich (Z/ZT). Results A total of 17 species have been documented for use in incense. They are always used in mixtures and are either burned in the form of powders in a censer or as joss sticks. The smell of the smoke is the main criterion for the selection of the incense plants. Incense is burned for communication with spiritual entities at graves, temples, and cooking stoves, as well as for personal well-being. Cupressus funebris Endl., Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall., and Ligustrum sempervirens (Franch.) Lingelsh. are the most important incense species. Others serve as substitutes or are used to stretch incense powders. Conclusions In Shaxi the use of incense mixtures at the household and community level is regularly practiced for communication with ancestors, ghosts, and deities and in some cases to strengthen self-awareness. Some of the documented species are widely used in central Asia and Europe, hinting at the well documented knowledge exchange that occurred in Shaxi, which was a major hub along the influential Southern Silk Road. PMID:22165897

  10. Tongue Adiposity and Strength in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Susan G.; Lintzenich, Catherine Rees; Leng, Xiaoyan; Stuart, Andrew; Feng, Xin; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To identify treatable risk factors for aspiration in older adults—particularly those associated with sarcopenia – we examined tongue composition. We hypothesized that 1) isometric and swallowing posterior tongue strength would positively correlate with posterior tongue adiposity, and 2) healthy older adults who aspirate would have greater tongue adiposity than healthy older adults who did not aspirate. Study Design Prospective Methods Participants were 40 healthy adults, comprised of 20 aspirators (Mean age = 78 years) and 20 non-aspirators (Mean age = 81 years), as identified via flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Measures of maximal isometric posterior tongue strength and posterior swallowing tongue strength were acquired via tongue manometry. An index of posterior tongue adiposity was acquired via computed tomography for a 1 cm region of interest. Result(s) Posterior tongue adiposity was correlated with posterior tongue isometric (r = .32, p = 0.05) but not swallowing pressures (p > 0.05) as examined with separate partial correlation analyses. Tongue adiposity did not significantly differ as a function of age, gender, or aspiration status (p > 0.05). Conclusion(s) Lower posterior isometric tongue strength was associated with greater posterior tongue adiposity. However, aspiration in healthy older adults was not affected by posterior tongue adiposity. This finding offers insight into the roles of tongue composition and strength in healthy older adults. PMID:22522371

  11. Mechanosensation in an adipose fin.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Brett R; Stewart, Thomas A; Hale, Melina E

    2016-03-16

    Adipose fins are found on approximately 20% of ray-finned fish species. The apparently rudimentary anatomy of adipose fins inspired a longstanding hypothesis that these fins are vestigial and lack function. However, adipose fins have evolved repeatedly within Teleostei, suggesting adaptive function. Recently, adipose fins were proposed to function as mechanosensors, detecting fluid flow anterior to the caudal fin. Here we test the hypothesis that adipose fins are mechanosensitive in the catfish Corydoras aeneus. Neural activity, recorded from nerves that innervate the fin, was shown to encode information on both movement and position of the fin membrane, including the magnitude of fin membrane displacement. Thus, the adipose fin of C. aeneus is mechanosensitive and has the capacity to function as a 'precaudal flow sensor'. These data force re-evaluation of adipose fin clipping, a common strategy for tagging fishes, and inform hypotheses of how function evolves in novel vertebrate appendages. PMID:26984621

  12. Bay-annulated indigo (BAI) as an excellent electron accepting building block for high performance organic semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Yi; He, Bo; Pun, Andrew

    2015-11-24

    A novel electron acceptor based on bay-annulated indigo (BAI) was synthesized and used for the preparation of a series of high performance donor-acceptor small molecules and polymers. The resulting materials possess low-lying LUMO energy level and small HOMO-LUMO gaps, while their films exhibited high crystallinity upon thermal treatment, commensurate with high field effect mobilities and ambipolar transfer characteristics.

  13. Bay-annulated indigo (BAI) as an excellent electron accepting building block for high performance organic semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Yi; He, Bo; Pun, Andrew

    2016-04-19

    A novel electron acceptor based on bay-annulated indigo (BAI) was synthesized and used for the preparation of a series of high performance donor-acceptor small molecules and polymers. The resulting materials possess low-lying LUMO energy level and small HOMO-LUMO gaps, while their films exhibited high crystallinity upon thermal treatment, commensurate with high field effect mobilities and ambipolar transfer characteristics.

  14. Structural and Functional Characterization of BaiA, An Enzyme Involved in Secondary Bile Acid Synthesis in Human Gut Microbe

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmik, Shiva; Jones, David H.; Chiu, Hsien-Po; Park, In-Hee; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Farr, Carol L.; Tien, Henry J.; Agarwalla, Sanjay; Lesley, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant influence of secondary bile acids on human health and disease, limited structural and biochemical information is available for the key gut microbial enzymes catalyzing its synthesis. Herein, we report apo- and co-factor bound crystal structures of BaiA2, a short chain dehydrogenase/reductase from Clostridium scindens VPI 12708 that represent the first protein structure of this pathway. The structures elucidated the basis of co-factor specificity and mechanism of proton relay. A conformational restriction involving Glu42 located in the co-factor binding site seems crucial in determining co-factor specificity. Limited flexibility of Glu42 results in imminent steric and electrostatic hindrance with 2′-phosphate group of NADP(H). Consistent with crystal structures, steady-state kinetic characterization performed with both BaiA2 and BaiA1, a close homolog with 92% sequence identity, revealed specificity constant (kcat/KM) of NADP+ at least an order of magnitude lower than NAD+. Substitution of Glu42 with Ala improved specificity towards NADP+ by 10- fold compared to wild type. The co-factor bound structure uncovered a novel nicotinamide-hydroxyl ion (NAD+-OH−) adduct contraposing previously reported adducts. The OH− of the adduct in BaiA2 is distal to C4 atom of nicotinamide and proximal to 2′-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. Moreover, it is located at intermediary distances between terminal functional groups of active site residues Tyr157 (2.7 Å) and Lys161 (4.5 Å). Based on these observations we propose an involvement of NAD+-OH− adduct in proton relay instead of hydride transfer as noted for previous adducts. PMID:23836456

  15. [Marine environmental assessment approaches based on biomarker index: a review].

    PubMed

    Meng, Fan-Ping; Yang, Fei-Fei; Cheng, Feng-Lian

    2012-04-01

    Biomarkers are applied worldwide in marine environmental assessment due to their "early warning" function to chemical pollutants. Several integrative index approaches such as multi-marker pollution index (MPI), integrated biomarker response (IBR), bioeffect assessment index (BAI), biomarker response index (BRI), and health assessment index (HIS), have been developed based on biomarkers. By transforming the complex alterations of biomarkers into a single class or value, these approaches have been so far the useful tools for assessing the environmental quality. This review summarized the establishment of evaluation indicator system, the calculation of integrative index, the grading of pollution status, and the practical applications of each approach, and discussed the existing problems in marine environmental assessment based on biomarker index. Some improving suggestions were also proposed. PMID:22803485

  16. Independent stem cell lineages regulate adipose organogenesis and adipose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuwei; Berry, Daniel C.; Tang, Wei; Graff, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Adipose tissues have striking plasticity, highlighted by childhood and adult obesity. Using adipose lineage analyses, smooth muscle actin (SMA)-mural cell fate mapping, and conditional PPARγ deletion to block adipocyte differentiation, we find two phases of adipocyte generation that emanate from two independent adipose progenitor compartments, Developmental and Adult. These two compartments are sequentially required for organ formation and maintenance. Although both Developmental and Adult progenitors are specified during the developmental period and express PPARγ, they have distinct micro-anatomical, functional, morphogenetic and molecular profiles. Further, the two compartments derive from different lineages, while adult adipose progenitors fate map from an SMA+ mural lineage, Developmental progenitors do not. Remarkably, the Adult progenitor compartment appears to be specified earlier than the Developmental cells, and then enters the already developmentally formed adipose depots. Thus, two distinct cell compartments control adipose organ development and organ homeostasis, which may provide discrete therapeutic target for childhood and adult obesity. PMID:25437556

  17. [Spectral analysis of pottery-painting pigments from the Monarch Bai Tomb of Zhongli State].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Zhang; Zhang, Ju-Zhong; Zuo, Jian; Kan, Xu-Hang; Zhou, Qun

    2010-04-01

    Based on the analysis of Raman spectroscopy and XRD methods, the structures of different pigments on the painted pottery from the Monarch Bai Tomb of Zhongli State in the middle and late Spring and Autumn period at Shungdun Village, Bengbu City, Anhui Province were analyzed. The result shows that all the pigments, including red, yellow and black pigments, have been well preserved, and these three pigments were identified as cinnabar, goethite and carbon black respectively. Both Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis show that the crystal composition of red pigments, cinnabar, is very pure without quartz crystal, the associated crystal of natural cinnabar, and at the same time the crystal size of cinnabar is possibly at the nanometer scale. It suggests that this red pigments perhaps were a synthetic material or processed and purified by our ancestors. The discovery of goethite shows that this mineral has been used as pigments as early as in the Spring and Autumn period. This is the earliest example that goethite was used as yellow pigments. PMID:20545178

  18. Perivascular Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Maille, Nicole; Clas, Darren; Osol, George

    2015-01-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) contributes to vasoregulation. The role of this adipose tissue bed in pregnancy has not been examined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PVAT in pregnant rats decreases resistance artery tone. Mesenteric arteries from nonpregnant (NP) and late pregnant (LP) rats were exposed to phenylephrine (PHE) or KCl in the presence (+) versus absence (−) of PVAT. The LP PVAT(+) vessels showed a 44% decrease in sensitivity to PHE in the presence of PVAT. There was no attenuation of the contractile response to KCl when PVAT was present. The LP arteries perfused with LP or NP PVAT underwent vasodilation; unexpectedly, NP vessels in the presence of PVAT from LP rats sustained a 48% vasoconstriction. The PVAT attenuates vasoconstriction by a mechanism that involves hyperpolarization. The vasoconstriction observed when nonpregnant vessels were exposed to pregnant PVAT suggests pregnant vessels adapt to the vasoconstricting influence of pregnant PVAT. PMID:25527422

  19. Fibrosis and Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kai; Tordjman, Joan; Clément, Karine; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis is increasingly appreciated as a major player in adipose tissue dysfunction. In rapidly expanding adipose tissue, pervasive hypoxia leads to an induction of HIF1α that in turn leads to a potent pro-fibrotic transcriptional program. The pathophysiological impact of adipose tissue fibrosis is likely to play an equally important role on systemic metabolic alterations as fibrotic conditions play in the liver, heart and kidney. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the genesis, modulation and systemic impact of excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in adipose tissue of both rodents and humans and the ensuing impact on metabolic dysfunction. PMID:23954640

  20. Adipose tissue chromium and vanadium disbalance in high-fat fed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Kwan, Olga V; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the current study is to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content and adipose tissue dysfunction in a model of diet-induced obesity. A total of 26 female Wistar rats were fed either standard or high-fat diet (31.6% of fat from total caloric content) for 3 months. High-fat-feeding resulted in 21 and 33% decrease in adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content, respectively. No change was seen in hair chromium or vanadium levels. Statistical analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of adipose tissue Cr and V with animal morphometric parameters and adipocyte size. Significant inverse dependence was observed between adipose tissue Cr and V and serum leptin and proinflammatory cytokines' levels. At the same time, adipose tissue Cr and V levels were characterized by positive correlation between serum adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratio. Adipose tissue Cr and V were inversely correlated (p<0.05) with insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) levels. Cr and V concentrations were not correlated with serum glucose in either high-fat fed or control rats; however, both serum glucose and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in high-fat fed, compared to control, rats. The results allow to hypothesize that impairment of adipose tissue Cr and V content plays a certain role in the development of adipose tissue endocrine dysfunction in obesity. PMID:25194956

  1. Adiposity, obesity, and arterial aging: longitudinal study of aortic stiffness in the Whitehall II cohort.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin J; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Tabak, Adam G; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Marmot, Michael G; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-08-01

    We sought to determine whether adiposity in later midlife is an independent predictor of accelerated stiffening of the aorta. Whitehall II study participants (3789 men; 1383 women) underwent carotid-femoral applanation tonometry at the mean age of 66 and again 4 years later. General adiposity by body mass index, central adiposity by waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and fat mass percent by body impedance were assessed 5 years before and at baseline. In linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and mean arterial pressure, all adiposity measures were associated with aortic stiffening measured as increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) between baseline and follow-up. The associations were similar in the metabolically healthy and unhealthy, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria excluding waist circumference. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels accounted for part of the longitudinal association between adiposity and PWV change. Adjusting for chronic disease, antihypertensive medication and risk factors, standardized effects of general and central adiposity and fat mass percent on PWV increase (m/s) were similar (0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.24, P=0.003; 0.17, 0.08-0.27, P<0.001; 0.14, 0.05-0.22, P=0.002, respectively). Previous adiposity was associated with aortic stiffening independent of change in adiposity, glycaemia, and lipid levels across PWV assessments. We estimated that the body mass index-linked PWV increase will account for 12% of the projected increase in cardiovascular risk because of high body mass index. General and central adiposity in later midlife were strong independent predictors of aortic stiffening. Our findings suggest that adiposity is an important and potentially modifiable determinant of arterial aging. PMID:26056335

  2. Fascia Origin of Adipose Cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Xueying; Lyu, Ying; Wang, Weiyi; Zhang, Yanfei; Li, Danhua; Wei, Suning; Du, Congkuo; Geng, Bin; Sztalryd, Carole; Xu, Guoheng

    2016-05-01

    Adipocytes might arise from vascular stromal cells, pericytes and endothelia within adipose tissue or from bone marrow cells resident in nonadipose tissue. Here, we identified adipose precursor cells resident in fascia, an uninterrupted sheet of connective tissue that extends throughout the body. The cells and fragments of superficial fascia from the rat hindlimb were highly capable of spontaneous and induced adipogenic differentiation but not myogenic and osteogenic differentiation. Fascial preadipocytes expressed multiple markers of adipogenic progenitors, similar to subcutaneous adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) but discriminative from visceral ASCs. Such preadipocytes resided in fascial vasculature and were physiologically active in vivo. In growing rats, adipocytes dynamically arose from the adventitia to form a thin adipose layer in the fascia. Later, some adipocytes appeared to overlay on top of other adipocytes, an early sign for the formation of three-dimensional adipose tissue in fascia. The primitive adipose lobules extended invariably along blood vessels toward the distal fascia areas. At the lobule front, nascent capillaries wrapped and passed ahead of mature adipocytes to form the distal neovasculature niche, which might replenish the pool of preadipocytes and supply nutrients and hormones necessary for continuous adipogenesis. Our findings suggest a novel model for the origin of adipocytes from the fascia, which explains both neogenesis and expansion of adipose tissue. Fascial preadipocytes generate adipose cells to form primitive adipose lobules in superficial fascia, a subcutaneous nonadipose tissue. With continuous adipogenesis, these primitive adipose lobules newly formed in superficial fascia may be the rudiment of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Stem Cells 2016;34:1407-1419. PMID:26867029

  3. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  4. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Tharp, Kevin M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  5. Genotypic differences in effects of cadmium exposure on plant growth and contents of cadmium and elements in 14 cultivars of bai cai.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhu-Jun; Sun, Guang-Wen; Fang, Xue-Zhi; Qian, Qiong-Qiu; Yang, Xiao-E

    2004-05-01

    Fourteen cultivars of bai cai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) were grown in the nutrient solutions containing 0-0.5 microg mL(-1) of cadmium (Cd) to investigate genotypic differences in the effects of Cd exposure on the plant growth and uptake and distribution of Cd in bai cai plants. The Cd exposure significantly reduced the dry and fresh weights of roots and shoots, the dry weight ratio of shoot/root (S/R), total biomass, and chlorophyll content (SPAD value). Cd concentrations in bai cai ranged from 13.3 to 74.9 microg g(-1) DW in shoots and from 163.1 to 574.7 microg g(-1) DW in roots under Cd exposure, respectively. The considerable genotypic differences of Cd concentrations and accumulations in both shoots and roots were observed among 14 bai cai cultivars. Moreover, Cd mainly accumulated in the roots. Cd also caused the changes of uptake and distribution of nutrients in bai cai and under the influence of cadmium, the concentration of potassium (K) decreased in shoot and increased in root. However, the concentrations of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), manganese (Mn), boron (B), and iron (Fe) increased in shoots and decreased in roots. In addition, Cd exposure resulted in an increase in calcium (Ca), sulphur (S), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in both shoots and roots but had no significant effects on the whole uptake of the examined mineral nutrients except for S. PMID:15473646

  6. Effects of Huang Bai (Phellodendri Cortex) and Three Other Herbs on GnRH and GH Levels in GT1–7 and GH3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Haeng; Kwak, Sung Chul; Kim, Dong Kwan; Park, Sang Woug; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Young-Sik; Lee, Donghun; Lee, Ju Won; Lee, Chang Gon; Lee, Hae Kyung; Cho, Sung-Min; Shin, Yu Jeong; Lee, Jin Yong; Kim, Hocheol; Chang, Gyu Tae

    2016-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate the effects of Huang Bai, Zhi Mu, Mai Ya, and Xia Ku Cao on hormone using the GT1–7 and GH3 cells. The GT1–7 and GH3 cell lines were incubated with DW; DMSO; and 30, 100, or 300 μg/mL of one of the four extract solutions in serum-free media for 24 hours. The MTT assay was performed to determine the cytotoxicity of the four herbs. The GT1–7 and GH3 cells were incubated in DW, estradiol (GT1–7 only), or noncytotoxic herb solutions in serum-free medium for 24 hours. A quantitative RT-PCR and western blot were performed to measure the GnRH expression in GT1–7 cells and GH expression in GH3 cells. Huang Bai, Zhi Mu, Xia Ku Cao, and Mai Ya inhibited the GnRH mRNA expression in GT1–7 cells, whereas Huang Bai enhanced GH mRNA expression in GH3 cells. Additionally, Xia Ku Cao inhibited GnRH protein expression in GT1–7 cells and Huang Bai promoted GH protein expression in GH3 cells. The findings suggest that Huang Bai can delay puberty by inhibiting GnRH synthesis in the hypothalamus while also accelerating growth by promoting GH synthesis and secretion in the pituitary. PMID:26925153

  7. Adiposity and spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Wells, Kathryn M; Austin, Timothy L

    2015-01-01

    The drastic changes in body composition following spinal cord injury (SCI) have been shown to play a significant role in cardiovascular and metabolic health. The pattern of storage and distribution of different types of adipose tissue may impact metabolic health variables similar to carbohydrate, lipid and bone metabolism. The use of magnetic resonance imaging provides insights on the interplay among different regional adipose tissue compartments and their role in developing chronic diseases. Regional adipose tissue can be either distributed centrally or peripherally into subcutaneous and ectopic sites. The primary ectopic adipose tissue sites are visceral, intramuscular and bone marrow. Dysfunction in the central nervous system following SCI impacts the pattern of distribution of adiposity especially between tetraplegia and paraplegia. The current editorial is focused primarily on introducing different types of adipose tissue and establishing scientific basis to develop appropriate dietary, rehabilitation or pharmaceutical interventions to manage the negative consequences of increasing adiposity after SCI. We have also summarized the clinical implications and future recommendations relevant to study adiposity after SCI. PMID:26396933

  8. The effects of facial adiposity on attractiveness and perceived leadership ability.

    PubMed

    Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Facial attractiveness has a positive influence on electoral success both in experimental paradigms and in the real world. One parameter that influences facial attractiveness and social judgements is facial adiposity (a facial correlate to body mass index, BMI). Overweight people have high facial adiposity and are perceived to be less attractive and lower in leadership ability. Here, we used an interactive design in order to assess whether the most attractive level of facial adiposity is also perceived as most leader-like. We found that participants reduced facial adiposity more to maximize attractiveness than to maximize perceived leadership ability. These results indicate that facial appearance impacts leadership judgements beyond the effects of attractiveness. We suggest that the disparity between optimal facial adiposity in attractiveness and leadership judgements stems from social trends that have produced thin ideals for attractiveness, while leadership judgements are associated with perception of physical dominance. PMID:23971489

  9. Differential Patterns of Serum Concentration and Adipose Tissue Expression of Chemerin in Obesity: Adipose Depot Specificity and Gender Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Alfadda, Assim A; Sallam, Reem M; Chishti, Muhammad Azhar; Moustafa, Amr S; Fatma, Sumbul; Alomaim, Waleed S; Al-Naami, Mohammed Y; Bassas, Abdulelah F; Chrousos, George P; Jo, Hyunsun

    2012-01-01

    Chemerin, a recognized chemoattractant, is expressed in adipose tissue and plays a role in adipocytes differentiation and metabolism. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences in human chemerin expression have not been well characterized. Therefore, these differences were assessed in the present study. The body mass index (BMI) and the circulating levels of chemerin and other inflammatory, adiposity and insulin resistance markers were assessed in female and male adults of varying degree of obesity. Chemerin mRNA expression was also measured in paired subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples obtained from a subset of the study subjects. Serum chemerin concentrations correlated positively with BMI and serum leptin levels and negatively with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. No correlation was found between serum chemerin concentrations and fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, C-reactive protein or adiponectin. Similarly, no relation was observed with the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences were observed in chemerin mRNA expression levels, with expression significantly higher in women than men and in subcutaneous than visceral adipose tissue. Interestingly, we found a significant negative correlation between circulating chemerin levels and chemerin mRNA expression in subcutaneous fat. Among the subjects studied, circulating chemerin levels were associated with obesity markers but not with markers of insulin resistance. At the tissue level, fat depot-specific differential regulation of chemerin mRNA expression might contribute to the distinctive roles of subcutaneous vs. visceral adipose tissue in human obesity. PMID:22544171

  10. Role of Bai-Shao towards the antidepressant effect of Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San using metabonomics integrated with chemical fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xing; Jia, Hongmei; Zhou, Chao; Zhang, Hongwu; Yu, Meng; Yang, Junshan; Zou, Zhongmei

    2015-12-01

    Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San (CSGS) is a classical traditional Chinese medicine formula for the treatment of depression. As one of the single herbs in CSGS, Bai-Shao displayed antidepressant effect. In order to explore the role of Bai-Shao towards the antidepressant effect of CSGS, the metabolic regulation and chemical profiles of CSGS with and without Bai-Shao (QBS) were investigated using metabonomics integrated with chemical fingerprinting. At first, partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis was applied to characterize the potential biomarkers associated with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression. Among 46 differential metabolites found in the ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) and (1)H NMR-based urinary metabonomics, 20 were significantly correlated with the preferred sucrose consumption observed in behavior experiments and were considered as biomarkers to evaluate the antidepressant effect of CSGS. Based on differential regulation on CUMS-induced metabolic disturbances with CSGS and QBS treatments, we concluded that Bai-Shao made crucial contribution to CSGS in the improvement of the metabolic deviations of six biomarkers (i.e., glutamate, acetoacetic acid, creatinine, xanthurenic acid, kynurenic acid, and N-acetylserotonin) disturbed in CUMS-induced depression. While the chemical constituents of Bai-Shao contributed to CSGS were paeoniflorin, albiflorin, isomaltopaeoniflorin, and benzoylpaeoniflorin based on the multivariate analysis of the UPLC-Q-TOF/MS chemical profiles from CSGS and QBS extracts. These findings suggested that Bai-Shao played an indispensable role in the antidepressant effect of CSGS. PMID:26540435

  11. Adipose tissue extract promotes adipose tissue regeneration in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zijing; Yuan, Yi; Gao, Jianhua; Lu, Feng

    2016-05-01

    An adipose tissue engineering chamber model of spontaneous adipose tissue generation from an existing fat flap has been described. However, the chamber does not completely fill with adipose tissue in this model. Here, the effect of adipose tissue extract (ATE) on adipose tissue regeneration was investigated. In vitro, the adipogenic and angiogenic capacities of ATE were evaluated using Oil Red O and tube formation assays on adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs), respectively. In vivo, saline or ATE was injected into the adipose tissue engineering chamber 1 week after its implantation. At different time points post-injection, the contents were morphometrically, histologically, and immunohistochemically evaluated, and the expression of growth factors and adipogenic genes was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time PCR. With the exception of the baseline control group, in which fat flaps were not inserted into a chamber, the total volume of fat flap tissue increased significantly in all groups, especially in the ATE group. Better morphology and structure, a thinner capsule, and more vessels were observed in the ATE group than in the control group. Expression of angiogenic growth factors and adipogenic markers were significantly higher in the ATE group. ATE therefore significantly promoted adipose tissue regeneration and reduced capsule formation in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model. These data suggest that ATE provides a more angiogenic and adipogenic microenvironment for adipose tissue formation by releasing various cytokines and growth factors that also inhibit capsule formation. PMID:26678825

  12. All-electron first principles calculations of the ground and some low-lying excited states of BaI.

    PubMed

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Papakondylis, Aristotle; Tsekouras, Athanasios A; Mavridis, Aristides

    2007-10-01

    The electronic structure of the heavy diatomic molecule BaI has been examined for the first time by ab initio multiconfigurational configuration interaction (MRCI) and coupled cluster (RCCSD(T)) methods. The effects of special relativity have been taken into account through the second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess approximation. The construction of Omega(omega,omega) potential energy curves allows for the estimation of "experimental" dissociation energies (De) of the first few excited states by exploiting the accurately known De experimental value of the X2Sigma+ ground state. All states examined are of ionic character with a Mulliken charge transfer of 0.5 e- from Ba to I, and this is reflected to large dipole moments ranging from 6 to 11 D. Despite the inherent difficulties of a heavy system like BaI, our results are encouraging. With the exception of bond distances that on the average are calculated 0.05 A longer than the experimental ones, common spectroscopic parameters are in fair agreement with experiment, whereas De values are on the average 10 kcal/mol smaller. PMID:17850123

  13. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dordevic, Aimee L.; Pendergast, Felicity J.; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K.; Larsen, Amy E.; Sinclair, Andrew J.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed. PMID:26140541

  14. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Dordevic, Aimee L; Pendergast, Felicity J; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K; Larsen, Amy E; Sinclair, Andrew J; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed. PMID:26140541

  15. Low density lipoprotein receptor gene Ava II polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several common genetic polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene have associated with modifications of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, but the results are not consistent in different populations. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 1024 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 792 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A- and A+ alleles was 65.5% and 34.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 80.7% and 19.3% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of A-A-, A-A+ and A+A+ genotypes was 42.6%, 45.9% and 11.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 64.9%, 31.6% and 3.5% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. There was also significant difference in the genotypic frequencies between males and females in Bai Ku Yao (P <0.05), and in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C (>3.20 mmol/L) subgroups in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each) and between males and females in Han (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of LDL-C in males and TC and HDL-C in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for all) in Bai Ku Yao, whereas the levels of HDL-C in males and HDL-C and ApoA1 in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001) in Han. The subjects with A+A+ genotype had

  16. Adiposity and sex hormones in girls.

    PubMed

    Baer, Heather J; Colditz, Graham A; Willett, Walter C; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2007-09-01

    Greater body fatness during childhood is associated with reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer, but few studies have addressed the relation of adiposity with sex hormones in girls. We prospectively examined associations between adiposity and circulating levels of sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) among 286 girls in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children. Participants were 8 to 10 years old at baseline and were followed for an average of 7 years. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and at subsequent annual visits, and blood samples were collected every 2 years. Concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) during follow-up were higher among girls with greater body mass index (BMI) at baseline. The mean for the lowest BMI quartile was 63.0 microg/dL compared with 78.8 microg/dL for the highest quartile, and each kg/m(2) increment in baseline BMI was associated with a 4.3% increase (95% confidence interval, 1.6-7.0%) in DHEAS levels during follow-up (P(trend) = 0.002). Concentrations of SHBG during follow-up were lower among girls with greater BMI at baseline. The mean for the lowest BMI quartile was 94.8 nmol compared with 57.5 nmol for the highest quartile, and each kg/m(2) increment in baseline BMI was associated with an 8.8% decrease (95% confidence interval, 7.0-10.6%) in SHBG levels during follow-up (P(trend) < 0.0001). Estrogen and progesterone concentrations were similar across BMI quartiles. These findings suggest that adiposity may alter DHEAS and SHBG levels in girls. Whether and how these differences affect breast development and carcinogenesis requires further research. PMID:17855709

  17. Positive Association Between Adipose Tissue and Bone Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Berg, R M; Wallaschofski, H; Nauck, M; Rettig, R; Markus, M R P; Laqua, R; Friedrich, N; Hannemann, A

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is often considered to have a protective effect against osteoporosis. On the other hand, several recent studies suggest that adipose tissue may have detrimental effects on bone quality. We therefore aimed to investigate the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) or abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and bone stiffness. The study involved 2685 German adults aged 20-79 years, who participated in either the second follow-up of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2) or the baseline examination of the SHIP-Trend cohort. VAT and abdominal SAT were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging. Bone stiffness was assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the heel (Achilles InSight, GE Healthcare). The individual risk for osteoporotic fractures was determined based on the QUS-derived stiffness index and classified in low, medium, and high risk. Linear regression models, adjusted for sex, age, physical activity, smoking status, risky alcohol consumption, diabetes, and height (in models with VAT or abdominal SAT as exposure), revealed positive associations between BMI, WC, VAT or abdominal SAT, and the QUS variables broadband-ultrasound attenuation or stiffness index. Moreover, BMI was positively associated with speed of sound. Our study shows that all anthropometric measures including BMI and, WC as well as abdominal fat volume are positively associated with bone stiffness in the general population. As potential predictors of bone stiffness, VAT and abdominal SAT are not superior to easily available measures like BMI or WC. PMID:25929703

  18. Obesity and prostate cancer: gene expression signature of human periprostatic adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Periprostatic (PP) adipose tissue surrounds the prostate, an organ with a high predisposition to become malignant. Frequently, growing prostatic tumor cells extend beyond the prostatic organ towards this fat depot. This study aimed to determine the genome-wide expression of genes in PP adipose tissue in obesity/overweight (OB/OW) and prostate cancer patients. Methods Differentially expressed genes in human PP adipose tissue were identified using microarrays. Analyses were conducted according to the donors' body mass index characteristics (OB/OW versus lean) and prostate disease (extra prostatic cancer versus organ confined prostate cancer versus benign prostatic hyperplasia). Selected genes with altered expression were validated by real-time PCR. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to investigate gene ontology, canonical pathways and functional networks. Results In the PP adipose tissue of OB/OW subjects, we found altered expression of genes encoding molecules involved in adipogenic/anti-lipolytic, proliferative/anti-apoptotic, and mild immunoinflammatory processes (for example, FADS1, down-regulated, and LEP and ANGPT1, both up-regulated). Conversely, in the PP adipose tissue of subjects with prostate cancer, altered genes were related to adipose tissue cellular activity (increased cell proliferation/differentiation, cell cycle activation and anti-apoptosis), whereas a downward impact on immunity and inflammation was also observed, mostly related to the complement (down-regulation of CFH). Interestingly, we found that the microRNA MIRLET7A2 was overexpressed in the PP adipose tissue of prostate cancer patients. Conclusions Obesity and excess adiposity modified the expression of PP adipose tissue genes to ultimately foster fat mass growth. In patients with prostate cancer the expression profile of PP adipose tissue accounted for hypercellularity and reduced immunosurveillance. Both findings may be liable to promote a favorable environment for

  19. Adipose triglyceride lipase expression in human adipose tissue and muscle. Role in insulin resistance and response to training and pioglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Yao-Borengasser, Aiwei; Varma, Vijayalakshmi; Coker, Robert H.; Ranganathan, Gouri; Phanavanh, Bounleut; Rasouli, Neda; Kern, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) catalyzes the first step in adipocyte and muscle triglyceride hydrolysis, and Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is an essential cofactor. We studied the expression of ATGL and CGI-58 in human adipose and muscle, and examined correlations with markers of muscle fatty acid oxidation. Materials/Methods Non diabetic volunteers were studied. Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were treated with pioglitazone or metformin for 10 weeks. Normal glucose tolerant subjects underwent a 12 week training program. We examined changes in ATGL and CGI-58 with obesity and insulin resistance, and effects of exercise and pioglitazone. Results ATGL mRNA expression showed no correlation with either body mass index (BMI) or insulin sensitivity (SI) in either adipose or muscle. However, adipose ATGL protein levels were inversely correlated with BMI (r=−0.64, p<0.02), and positively correlated with SI (r=0.67, p<0.02). In muscle, ATGL mRNA demonstrated a strong positive relationship with carnitine palmitoyltransferase I mRNA (r=0.82, p<0.0001), and the adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 mRNA (r=0.71, p<0.0001), and AdipoR2 mRNA (r=0.74, p<0.0001). Muscle CGI-58 mRNA was inversely correlated with intramyocellular triglyceride in both type 1 (r=−0.35, p<0.05) and type 2 (r=−0.40, p<0.05) fibers. Exercise training resulted in increased muscle ATGL and pioglitazone increased adipose ATGL by 31% (p<0.05). Pioglitazone also increased ATGL in adipocytes. Conclusions Adipose ATGL protein is decreased with insulin resistance and obesity, and muscle ATGL mRNA is associated with markers of fatty acid oxidation in muscle, as is CGI-58. The regulation of ATGL and CGI-58 have important implications for the control of lipotoxicity. PMID:21129760

  20. The adipose organ: morphological perspectives of adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Cinti, S

    2001-08-01

    Anatomically, an organ is defined as a series of tissues which jointly perform one or more interconnected functions. The adipose organ qualifies for this definition as it is made up of two tissue types, the white and brown adipose tissues, which collaborate in partitioning the energy contained in lipids between thermogenesis and the other metabolic functions. In rats and mice the adipose organ consists of several subcutaneous and visceral depots. Some areas of these depots are brown and correspond to brown adipose tissue, while many are white and correspond to white adipose tissue. The number of brown adipocytes found in white areas varies with age, strain of animal and environmental conditions. Brown and white adipocyte precursors are morphologically dissimilar. Together with a rich vascular supply, brown areas receive abundant noradrenergic parenchymal innervation. The gross anatomy and histology of the organ vary considerably in different physiological (cold acclimation, warm acclimation, fasting) and pathological conditions such as obesity; many important genes, such as leptin and uncoupling protein-1, are also expressed very differently in the two cell types. These basic mechanisms should be taken into account when addressing the physiopathology of obesity and its treatment. PMID:11681806

  1. Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Obregon, Maria-Jesus

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases). The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. “Brite” or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs) that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2, and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that lead to activation of UCP1 in WAT

  2. Human periprostatic white adipose tissue is rich in stromal progenitor cells and a potential source of prostate tumor stroma.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ricardo; Monteiro, Cátia; Silvestre, Ricardo; Castela, Angela; Coutinho, Helena; Fraga, Avelino; Príncipe, Paulo; Lobato, Carlos; Costa, Carla; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Lopes, José Manuel; Lopes, Carlos; Medeiros, Rui

    2012-10-01

    A body of growing evidence now implicates white adipose tissue as a relevant source of stromal progenitor cells recruited to the tumor microenvironment to form supportive tumor stroma. While the role of periprostatic (PP) adipose tissue in prostate cancer progression has been barely appreciated, we sought to determine the progenitor cell population in PP adipose tissue and the association with prostate cancer. We isolated and characterized CD31(-)CD34(+)CD45(-)CD146(-) progenitor cells (adipose-derived stem cells [ASC]) in paired samples of PP and preperitoneal visceral adipose tissue from prostate tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of prostate cancer and nodular prostatic hyperplasia patients. ASC were quantified by flow cytometry and confirmed through target gene expression. Here we show a significantly higher amount of ASC in PP than in visceral adipose tissue, independent of body mass index and prostatic disease. In the prostate, ASC are increased in cancer compared with prostatic nodular hyperplasia patients. Concordantly, adipsin gene (CFD) expression, which is known to be up-regulated in adipose stem cells, was overexpressed in PP adipose tissue, in the prostate of cancer patients and in prostate CD31(-)CD34(+)CD45(-)CD146(-) sorted cells. ASC were found at higher levels in the blood of prostate cancer patients simultaneously overweight/obese. Present findings indicate that PP adipose tissue is a reservoir of progenitor cells with the potential to migrate towards prostate tumors, although its clinical significance merits further evaluation. PMID:23038706

  3. Force Protection Joint Experiment (FPJE) Battlefield Anti-Intrusion System (BAIS) sensors data analysis and filtering metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barngrover, C. M.; Laird, R. T.; Kramer, T. A.; Cruickshanks, J. R.; Cutler, S. H.

    2009-04-01

    The FPJE was an experiment to consider the best way to develop and evaluate a system of systems approach to Force Protection. It was sponsored by Physical Security Equipment Action Group (PSEAG) and Joint Program Manager - Guardian (JPM-G), and was managed by the Product Manager - Force Protection Systems (PM-FPS). The experiment was an effort to utilize existing technical solutions from all branches of the military in order to provide more efficient and effective force protection. The FPJE consisted of four separate Integration Assessments (IA), which were intended as opportunities to assess the status of integration, automation and fusion efforts, and the effectiveness of the current configuration and "system" components. The underlying goal of the FPJE was to increase integration, automation, and fusion of the many different sensors and their data to provide enhanced situational awareness and a common operational picture. One such sensor system is the Battlefield Anti-Intrusion System (BAIS), which is a system of seismic and acoustic unmanned ground sensors. These sensors were originally designed for employment by infantry soldiers at the platoon level to provide early warning of personnel and vehicle intrusion in austere environments. However, when employed around airfields and high traffic areas, the sensitivity of these sensors can cause an excessive number of detections. During the second FPJE-IA all of the BAIS detections and the locations of all Opposing Forces were logged and analyzed to determine the accuracy rate of the sensors. This analysis revealed that with minimal filtering of detections, the number of false positives and false negatives could be reduced substantially to manageable levels while using the sensors within extreme operational acoustic and seismic noise conditions that are beyond the design requirements.

  4. Stearic acid content of abdominal adipose tissues in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Caron-Jobin, M; Mauvoisin, D; Michaud, A; Veilleux, A; Noël, S; Fortier, M P; Julien, P; Tchernof, A; Mounier, C

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue stearic acid (18:0) content and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1)-mediated production of oleic acid (18:1) have been suggested to be altered in obesity. The objective of our study was to examine abdominal adipose tissue fatty acid content and SCD1 mRNA/protein level in women. Subjects and methods: Fatty acid content was determined by capillary gas chromatography in SC and omental (OM) fat tissues from two subgroups of 10 women with either small or large OM adipocytes. Samples from 10 additional women were used to measure SCD1 mRNA and protein expression, total extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein as well as insulin receptor (IR) expression levels. Results: OM fat 18:0 content was significantly lower in women with large OM adipocytes compared with women who had similar adiposity, but small OM adipocytes (2.37±0.45 vs 2.75±0.30 mg per 100 g adipose tissue, respectively, P⩽0.05). OM fat 18:0 content was negatively related to the visceral adipose tissue area (r=−0.44, P=0.05) and serum triglyceride levels (r=−0.56, P<0.05), while SC fat 18:0 content was negatively correlated with total body fat mass (BFM) (r=−0.48, P<0.05) and fasting insulin concentration (r=−0.73, P<0.005). SC adipose tissue desaturation index (18:1/18:0), SCD1 expression and protein levels were positively correlated with BFM. Moreover, obese women were characterized by a reduced OM/SC ratio of SCD1 mRNA and protein levels. A similar pattern was observed for ERK1/2 and IR expression. Conclusion: The presence of large adipocytes and increased adipose mass in a given fat compartment is related to reduced 18:0 content and increased desaturation index in women, independently of dietary fat intake. The depot-specific difference in ERK1/2 expression and activation, as well as in SCD1 and IR expression in obese women is consistent with the hypothesis that they may predominantly develop SC fat, which

  5. Secretory function of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kuryszko, J; Sławuta, P; Sapikowski, G

    2016-01-01

    There are two kinds of adipose tissue in mammals: white adipose tissue - WAT and brown adipose tissue - BAT. The main function of WAT is accumulation of triacylglycerols whereas the function of BAT is heat generation. At present, WAT is also considered to be an endocrine gland that produces bioactive adipokines, which take part in glucose and lipid metabolism. Considering its endocrine function, the adipose tissue is not a homogeneous gland but a group of a few glands which act differently. Studies on the secretory function of WAT began in 1994 after discovery of leptin known as the satiation hormone, which regulates body energy homeostasis and maintainence of body mass. Apart from leptin, the following belong to adipokines: adiponectin, resistin, apelin, visfatin and cytokines: TNF and IL 6. Adiponectin is a polypeptide hormone of antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic activity. It plays a key role in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Resistin exerts a counter effect compared to adiponectin and its physiological role is to maintain fasting glycaemia. Visfatin stimulates insulin secretion and increases insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake by muscle cells and adipocytes. Apelin probably increases the insulin sensitivity of tissues. TNF evokes insulin resistance by blocking insulin receptors and inhibits insulin secretion. Approximately 30% of circulating IL 6 comes from adipose tissue. It causes insulin resistance by decreasing the expression of insulin receptors, decreases adipogenesis and adiponectin and visfatin secretion, and stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis. In 2004, Bays introduced the notion of adiposopathy, defined as dysfunction of the adipose tissue, whose main feature is insulin and leptin resistance as well as the production of inflammatory cytokines: TNF and IL 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein. This means that excess of adipose tissue, especially visceral adipose tissue, leads to the development of a chronic subclinical

  6. Engineering of vascularized adipose constructs.

    PubMed

    Wiggenhauser, Paul S; Müller, Daniel F; Melchels, Ferry P W; Egaña, José T; Storck, Katharina; Mayer, Helena; Leuthner, Peter; Skodacek, Daniel; Hopfner, Ursula; Machens, Hans G; Staudenmaier, Rainer; Schantz, Jan T

    2012-03-01

    Adipose tissue engineering offers a promising alternative to the current surgical techniques for the treatment of soft tissue defects. It is a challenge to find the appropriate scaffold that not only represents a suitable environment for cells but also allows fabrication of customized tissue constructs, particularly in breast surgery. We investigated two different scaffolds for their potential use in adipose tissue regeneration. Sponge-like polyurethane scaffolds were prepared by mold casting with methylal as foaming agent, whereas polycaprolactone scaffolds with highly regular stacked-fiber architecture were fabricated with fused deposition modeling. Both scaffold types were seeded with human adipose tissue-derived precursor cells, cultured and implanted in nude mice using a femoral arteriovenous flow-through vessel loop for angiogenesis. In vitro, cells attached to both scaffolds and differentiated into adipocytes. In vivo, angiogenesis and adipose tissue formation were observed throughout both constructs after 2 and 4 weeks, with angiogenesis being comparable in seeded and unseeded constructs. Fibrous tissue formation and adipogenesis were more pronounced on polyurethane foam scaffolds than on polycaprolactone prototyped scaffolds. In conclusion, both scaffold designs can be effectively used for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:21850493

  7. Minireview: adiposity, inflammation, and atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Christopher J; Law, Ronald E; Hsueh, Willa A

    2003-06-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that secretes a number of factors that are increasingly recognized to contribute to systemic and vascular inflammation. Several of these factors, collectively referred to as adipokines, have now been shown regulate, directly or indirectly, a number of the processes that contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, including hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and vascular remodeling. Several adipokines are preferentially expressed in visceral adipose tissue, and the secretion of proinflammatory adipokines is elevated with increasing adiposity. Not surprisingly, approaches that reduce adipose tissue depots, including surgical fat removal, exercise, and reduced caloric intake, improve proinflammatory adipokine levels and reduce the severity of their resultant pathologies. Systemic adipokine levels can also be favorably altered by treatment with several of the existing drug classes used to treat insulin resistance, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Greater understanding of adipokine regulation, however, should result in the design of improved treatment strategies to control disease states associated with increase adiposity, an important outcome in view of the growing worldwide epidemic of obesity. PMID:12746274

  8. Adiposity and human regional body temperature123

    PubMed Central

    Savastano, David M; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Brady, Sheila M; Reynolds, James C

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human obesity is associated with increased heat production; however, subcutaneous adipose tissue provides an insulating layer that impedes heat loss. To maintain normothermia, therefore, obese individuals must increase their heat dissipation. Objective: The objective was to test the hypothesis that temperature in a heat-dissipating region of the hand is elevated in obese adults. Design: Obese [body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥ 30] and normal-weight (NW; body mass index = 18–25) adults were studied under thermoneutral conditions at rest. Core body temperature was measured by using ingested telemetric capsules. The temperatures of the third fingernail bed of the right hand and of abdominal skin from an area 1.5 cm inferior to the umbilicus were determined by using infrared thermography. Abdominal skin temperatures were also measured via adhesive thermistors that were placed over a prominent skin-surface blood vessel and over an adjacent nonvessel location. The groups were compared by analysis of covariance with age, sex, race, and room temperature as covariates. Results: Core temperature did not differ significantly between the 23 obese and 13 NW participants (P = 0.74). However, infrared thermography–measured fingernail-bed temperature was significantly higher in obese subjects than in NW subjects (33.9 ± 0.7°C compared with 28.6 ± 0.9°C; P < 0.001). Conversely, infrared thermography–measured abdominal skin temperature was significantly lower in obese subjects than in NW subjects (31.8 ± 0.2°C compared with 32.8 ± 0.3°C; P = 0.02). Nonvessel abdominal skin temperatures measured by thermistors were also lower in obese subjects (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Greater subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese adults may provide a significant insulating layer that blunts abdominal heat transfer. Augmented heat release from the hands may offset heat retention in areas of the body with greater adiposity, thereby helping to maintain normothermia in

  9. Overeating styles and adiposity among multiethnic youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reasons for inconsistent associations between overeating styles and adiposity among youth may include differences in effects by age, gender, or ethnicity; failure to control for social desirability of response; or adiposity measurement limitations. This study examined the relationship between overea...

  10. Biological effects of eukaryotic recombinant plasmid pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 transfection on T24 cells and HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Da-Wei; Hu, Hai-Long; Sun, Yan; Tang, Yang; Lei, Ming-De; Liu, Li-Wei; Han, Rui-Fa; Wu, Chang-Li

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the biological effect on T24 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) of transfection with brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor-1 (BAI-1). The recombinant plasmid pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 was transfected into human superficial bladder tumor cells (T24) and HUVECs, in parallel with the vector control. mRNA and protein expression levels of BAI‑1 were then detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting, respectively. Cell apoptosis of T24 cells and HUVECs prior and subsequent to transfection with BAI‑1 was analyzed by flow cytometric analysis. Proliferation of T24 cells and HUVECs prior and subsequent to transfection of BAI-1 was assessed by the MTT method. T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver‑M61‑BA1‑1 were classed as the experimental group; T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with p‑Receiver‑M61 were the control group. qPCR and western blotting methods confirmed that there was positive expression of BAI‑1 in T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver‑M61‑BAI‑1, however BAI‑1 was not expressed in T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver‑M61. The results of the MTT assay demonstrated that absorbance was markedly reduced in HUVECs at 12, 48 and 72 h subsequent to transfection with pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 when compared with that of the control group and in T24 cells transfected with p‑Receiver-M61-BAI-1. Furthermore, flow cytometry results also indicated that the apoptotic rate of HUVECs transfected with p‑Receiver‑M61‑BAI‑1 was significantly increased compared with that of the control group and T24 cells transfected with p‑Receiver‑M61‑BAI‑1. BAI‑1 was observed to markedly inhibit the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells in vitro, however, no direct inhibition by BAI‑1 was observed in T24 cells. In conclusion, BAI-1 is suggested to be a potential novel therapautic target for the inhibition of

  11. Triacylglycerol metabolism in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Duncan, Robin E; Jaworski, Kathy; Sarkadi-Nagy, Eszter; Sul, Hei Sook

    2009-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) in adipose tissue serves as the major energy storage form in higher eukaryotes. Obesity, resulting from excess white adipose tissue, has increased dramatically in recent years resulting in a serious public health problem. Understanding of adipocyte-specific TAG synthesis and hydrolysis is critical to the development of strategies to treat and prevent obesity and its closely associated diseases, for example, Type 2 diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis. In this review, we present an overview of the major enzymes in TAG synthesis and lipolysis, including the recent discovery of a novel adipocyte TAG hydrolase. PMID:19194515

  12. Alternative measures to BMI: Exploring income-related inequalities in adiposity in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Davillas, Apostolos; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-10-01

    Socio-economic inequalities in adiposity are of particular interest themselves but also because they may be associated with inequalities in overall health status. Using cross-sectional representative data from Great Britain (1/2010-3/2012) for 13,138 adults (5652 males and 7486 females) over age 20, we aimed to explore the presence of income-related inequalities in alternative adiposity measures by gender and to identify the underlying factors contributing to these inequalities. For this reason, we employed concentration indexes and regression-based decomposition techniques. To control for non-homogeneity in body composition, we employed a variety of adiposity measures including body fat (absolute and percentage) and central adiposity (waist circumference) in addition to the conventional body mass index (BMI). The body fat measures allowed us to distinguish between the fat- and lean-mass components of BMI. We found that the absence of income-related obesity inequalities for males in the existing literature may be attributed to their focus on BMI-based measures. Pro-rich inequalities were evident for the fat-mass and central adiposity measures for males, while this was not the case for BMI. Irrespective of the adiposity measure applied, pro-rich inequalities were evident for females. The decomposition analysis showed that these inequalities were mainly attributable to subjective financial well-being measures (perceptions of financial strain and material deprivation) and education, with the relative contribution of the former being more evident in females. Our findings have important implications for the measurement of socio-economic inequalities in adiposity and indicate that central adiposity and body composition measures should be included health policy agendas. Psycho-social mechanisms, linked to subjective financial well-being, and education -rather than income itself-are more relevant for tackling inequalities. PMID:27580342

  13. Testing the fetal overnutrition hypothesis; the relationship of maternal and paternal adiposity to adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in Indian children

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Karat, Samuel C; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Objective We aimed to test the fetal overnutrition hypothesis by comparing the associations of maternal and paternal adiposity (sum of skinfolds) with adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in children. Design Children from a prospective birth cohort had anthropometry, fat percentage (bio-impedance), plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations and blood pressure measured at 9·5 years of age. Detailed anthropometric measurements were recorded for mothers (at 30 ± 2 weeks’ gestation) and fathers (5 years following the index pregnancy). Setting Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India. Subjects Children (n 504), born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Results Twenty-eight per cent of mothers and 38 % of fathers were overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25·0 kg/m2), but only 4 % of the children were overweight/obese (WHO age- and sex-specific BMI ≥ 18·2 kg/m2). The children’s adiposity (BMI, sum of skinfolds, fat percentage and waist circumference), fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance increased with increasing maternal and paternal sum of skinfolds adjusted for the child’s sex, age and socio-economic status. Maternal and paternal effects were similar. The associations with fasting insulin and insulin resistance were attenuated after adjusting for the child’s current adiposity. Conclusions In this population, both maternal and paternal adiposity equally predict adiposity and insulin resistance in the children. This suggests that shared family environment and lifestyle, or genetic/epigenetic factors, influence child adiposity. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that there is an intrauterine overnutrition effect of maternal adiposity in non-diabetic pregnancies, although we cannot rule out such an effect in cases of extreme maternal obesity, which is rare in our population. PMID:22895107

  14. Botulinum toxin injections to reduce adiposity: possibility, or fat chance?

    PubMed

    Lim, Erle C H; Seet, Raymond C S

    2006-01-01

    Obese individuals often suffer from negative self-image. Many, even those with a normal body mass index, resort to pharmacotherapy (lipase inhibitors or appetite suppressants), mesotherapy and surgery (gastric volume reduction, liposuction or apronectomy) in a bid to remove excess adipose tissue. These treatments are associated with inherent morbidity and even mortality, and hence should not be undertaken lightly. The observation that denervation of adipose tissue results in lipoatrophy leads us to postulate that chemodenervation using botulinum toxin may achieve the same result, i.e. fat loss, and we explore the methods by which selective fat loss may be achieved. We concede that removal of subcutaneous fat does not, however, reduce the risks associated with the metabolic syndrome, as visceral (intra-abdominal) fat is not reduced by the removal of subcutaneous fat. PMID:16716533

  15. Generalization of adiposity genetic loci to US Hispanic women

    PubMed Central

    Graff, M; Fernández-Rhodes, L; Liu, S; Carlson, C; Wassertheil-Smoller, S; Neuhouser, M; Reiner, A; Kooperberg, C; Rampersaud, E; Manson, J E; Kuller, L H; Howard, B V; Ochs-Balcom, H M; Johnson, K C; Vitolins, M Z; Sucheston, L; Monda, K; North, K E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a public health concern. Yet the identification of adiposity-related genetic variants among United States (US) Hispanics, which is the largest US minority group, remains largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To interrogate an a priori list of 47 (32 overall body mass and 15 central adiposity) index single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously studied in individuals of European descent among 3494 US Hispanic women in the Women's Health Initiative SNP Health Association Resource (WHI SHARe). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of measured body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were inverse normally transformed after adjusting for age, smoking, center and global ancestry. WC and WHR models were also adjusted for BMI. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 array. In the absence of an a priori selected SNP, a proxy was selected (r2⩾0.8 in CEU). RESULTS: Six BMI loci (TMEM18, NUDT3/HMGA1, FAIM2, FTO, MC4R and KCTD15) and two WC/WHR loci (VEGFA and ITPR2-SSPN) were nominally significant (P<0.05) at the index or proxy SNP in the corresponding BMI and WC/WHR models. To account for distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns in Hispanics and further assess generalization of genetic effects at each locus, we interrogated the evidence for association at the 47 surrounding loci within 1 Mb region of the index or proxy SNP. Three additional BMI loci (FANCL, TFAP2B and ETV5) and five WC/WHR loci (DNM3-PIGC, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86 and MSRA) displayed Bonferroni-corrected significant associations with BMI and WC/WHR. Conditional analyses of each index SNP (or its proxy) and the most significant SNP within the 1 Mb region supported the possible presence of index-independent signals at each of these eight loci as well as at KCTD15. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for the generalization of nine BMI and seven central adiposity loci in Hispanic women. This study expands the current knowledge of common adiposity

  16. Adipose tissue in muscle: a novel depot similar in size to visceral adipose tissue1-3

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Dympna; Kuznia, Patrick; Heshka, Stanley; Albu, Jeanine; Heymsfield, Steven B; Goodpaster, Bret; Visser, Marjolein; Harris, Tamara B

    2006-01-01

    Background The manner in which fat depot volumes and distributions, particularly the adipose tissue (AT) between the muscles, vary by race is unknown. Objective The objective was to quantify a previously unstudied and novel intermuscular AT (IMAT) depot and subcutaneous AT, visceral AT (VAT), and total-body skeletal muscle mass in healthy sedentary African American (AA), Asian, and white adults by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. IMAT is the AT between muscles and within the boundary of the muscle fascia. Design Analyses were conducted on 227 women [AA (n = 79): body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), 29.0 ± 5.5; age, 45.7 ± 16.9 y; Asian (n = 38): BMI, 21.7 ± 2.9; age, 47.2 ± 19.9 y; whites (n = 110): BMI, 24.9 ± 5.4; age, 43.7 ± 16.2 y]) and 111 men [AA (n = 39): BMI, 25.6 ± 3.2; age, 45.5 ± 18.8 y; Asian (n = 13): BMI, 24.9 ± 2.5; age, 45.6 ± 25.0 y; white (n = 59): BMI, 25.8 ± 3.8; age 44.5 ± 16.3 y]. Results IMAT depots were not significantly different in size between race groups at low levels of adiposity; however, with increasing adiposity, AAs had a significantly greater increment in the proportion of total AT (TAT) than did the whites and Asians (58, 46, and 44 g IMAT/kg TAT, respectively; P = 0.001). VAT depots were not significantly different in size at low levels of adiposity but, with increasing adiposity, VAT accumulation was greater than IMAT accumulation in the Asians and whites; no significant differences were observed in AAs. Conclusion Race differences in AT distribution extend to IMAT, a depot that may influence race-ethnicity differences in dysglycemia. PMID:15817870

  17. Exercise regulation of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kristin I; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training results in adaptations to numerous organ systems and offers protection against metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes, and recent reports suggest that adipose tissue may play a role in these beneficial effects of exercise on overall health. Multiple studies have investigated the effects of exercise training on both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the induction of beige adipocytes. Studies from both rodents and humans show that there are exercise training-induced changes in WAT including decreased cell size and lipid content, and increased mitochondrial activity. In rodents, exercise training causes an increased beiging of WAT. Whether exercise training causes a beiging of human scWAT, as well as which factors contribute to the exercise-induced beiging of WAT are areas of current investigation. Studies investigating the effects of exercise training on BAT mass and function have yielded conflicting data, and hence, is another area of intensive investigation. This review will focus on studies aimed at elucidating the mechanisms regulating exercise training induced-adaptations to adipose tissue. PMID:27386159

  18. Assessment of brown adipose tissue function

    PubMed Central

    Virtue, Sam; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this review we discuss practical considerations for the assessment of brown adipose tissue in rodent models, focusing on mice. The central aim of the review is to provide a critical appraisal of the utility of specialized techniques for assessing brown adipose tissue function in vivo. We cover several of the most common specialized methods for analysing brown adipose tissue function in vivo, including assessment of maximal thermogenic capacity by indirect calorimetry and the measurement of sympathetic tone to brown adipose tissue. While these techniques are powerful, they are not readily available to all laboratories; therefore we also cover several simple measurements that, particularly in combination, can be used to determine if a mouse model is likely to have alterations in brown adipose tissue function. Such techniques include: pair feeding, analysis of brown adipose tissue lipid content and mRNA and protein markers of brown adipose tissue activation. PMID:23760815

  19. Quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Esben; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    In metabolically healthy humans, adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to insulin. Similar to muscle and liver, adipose tissue lipolysis is insulin resistant in adults with central obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perhaps uniquely, however, insulin resistance in adipose tissue may directly contribute to development of insulin resistance in muscle and liver because of the increased delivery of free fatty acids to those tissues. It has been hypothesized that insulin adipose tissue resistance may precede other metabolic defects in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, precise and reproducible quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, in vivo, in humans, is an important measure. Unfortunately, no consensus exists on how to determine adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. We review the methods available to quantitate adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and will discuss their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:27073214

  20. Association of the LIPG 584C > T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Endothelial lipase (EL) is a major determinant of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism, but the association of endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) polymorphism and serum HDL-C levels is scarce and conflicting in diverse populations. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. This study was designed to detect the association of LIPG 584C > T (rs2000813) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 645 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 638 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LIPG 584C > T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05 - 0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 73.5% and 26.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 67.9% and 32.1% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 50.4%, 46.2% and 3.4% in Bai Ku Yao, and 41.4%, 53.1% and 5.5% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. Serum HDL-C levels in both ethnic groups were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). Serum TC levels in both ethnic groups were also different between the CC and CT/TT genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). The T allele carriers had higher serum HDL-C and TC levels than the T allele noncarriers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the levels of HDL-C and ApoB were correlated with genotypes in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each), whereas the levels of TC and HDL-C were associated with genotypes in Han Chinese (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in the both ethnic

  1. Association of Adiposity and Mental Health Functioning across the Lifespan: Findings from Understanding Society (The UK Household Longitudinal Study)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence on the adiposity-mental health associations is mixed, with studies finding positive, negative or no associations, and less is known about how these associations may vary by age. Objective To examine the association of adiposity -body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage body fat (BF%)- with mental health functioning across the adult lifespan. Methods Data from 11,257 participants (aged 18+) of Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study (waves 2 and 3, 5/2010-7/2013) were employed. Regressions of mental health functioning, assessed by the Mental Component Summary (MCS-12) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), on adiposity measures (continuous or dichotomous indicators) were estimated adjusted for covariates. Polynomial age-adiposity interactions were estimated. Results Higher adiposity was associated with poorer mental health functioning. This emerged in the 30s, increased up to mid-40s (all central adiposity and obesity-BF% measures) or early 50s (all BMI measures) and then decreased with age. Underlying physical health generally accounted for these associations except for central adiposity, where associations remained statistically significant from the mid-30s to50s. Cardiovascular, followed by arthritis and endocrine, conditions played the greatest role in attenuating the associations under investigation. Conclusions We found strong age-specific patterns in the adiposity-mental health functioning association that varied across adiposity measures. Underlying physical health had the dominant role in attenuating these associations. Policy makers and health professionals should target increased adiposity, mainly central adiposity, as it is a risk factor for poor mental health functioning in those aged between mid-30s to 50 years. PMID:26849046

  2. Indexing Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  3. Central Adiposity is Negatively Associated with Hippocampal-Dependent Relational Memory among Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naiman A.; Baym, Carol L.; Monti, Jim M.; Raine, Lauren B.; Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Moore, R. Davis; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between adiposity and hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory forms among prepubertal children. Study design Prepubertal children (7–9-year-olds, n = 126), classified as non-overweight (<85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 73]) or overweight/obese (≥85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 53]), completed relational (hippocampal-dependent) and item (hippocampal-independent) memory tasks, and performance was assessed with both direct (behavioral accuracy) and indirect (preferential disproportionate viewing [PDV]) measures. Adiposity (%whole body fat mass, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and total abdominal adipose tissue) was assessed using DXA. Backward regressions identified significant (P <0.05) predictive models of memory performance. Covariates included age, sex, pubertal timing, socioeconomic status, IQ, oxygen consumption (VO2max), and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Results Among overweight/obese children, total abdominal adipose tissue was a significant negative predictor of relational memory behavioral accuracy, and pubertal timing together with socioeconomic status jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. In contrast, among non-overweight children, male sex predicted item memory behavioral accuracy, and a model consisting of socioeconomic status and BMI z-score jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. Conclusions Regional, and not whole body, fat deposition was selectively and negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight/obese prepubertal children. PMID:25454939

  4. Prognostic Impact of Changes in Adipose Tissue Areas after Colectomy in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Choe, Eun Kyung; Park, Kyu Joo; Ryoo, Seung Bum; Moon, Sang Hui; Oh, Heung Kwon; Han, Eon Chul

    2016-10-01

    There have been few studies assessing the changes in the body components of patients after colectomy in colorectal cancer (CRC). The purpose of this study was to verify the trends in the adipose tissue areas of CRC patients before and after surgery and to determine their clinical relevance. Computed tomography (CT)-assessed subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) areas were recorded before and after curative resection in stage I to III CRC patients. Changes in the adipose tissue were assessed by calculating the difference in the adipose tissue area between preoperative CT and the most recent postoperative CT, which is disease-free state. Regarding obesity before surgery, there were no prognostic effect of body mass index (BMI), VAT and SAT, and 47.3% of patients had increases in VAT after colectomy. By multivariate analysis, adjusting sex, age, stage, differentiation, VAT change was the only obesity related factor to predict the prognosis, that patients who had increase in VAT after colectomy had better overall survival (HR, 0.557; 95% CI, 0.317-0.880) and disease-free survival (HR, 0.602; 95% CI, 0.391-0.927). BMI and SAT change had no significant association. In subgroup analysis of stage III CRC patients, VAT change had significance for prognosis only in patients who had adjuvant chemotherapy but not in those who did not receive postoperative chemotherapy. Increase in visceral adipose tissue after surgery is a favorable predictor of prognosis for CRC patients. PMID:27550485

  5. The Roles of Adipokines, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance in Modest Obesity and Early Metabolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Min; Joung, Kyong Hye; Lee, Ju Hee; You, Bo Ram; Choi, Min Jeong; Ryu, Min Jeong; Ko, Young Bok; Lee, Min A.; Lee, Junguee; Ku, Bon Jeong; Shong, Minho; Lee, Ki Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    The roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in obesity-associated insulin resistance have been explored in both animal and human studies. However, our current understanding of obesity-associated insulin resistance relies on studies of artificial metabolic extremes. The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in human patients with modest obesity and early metabolic dysfunction. We obtained omental adipose tissue and fasting blood samples from 51 females undergoing gynecologic surgery. We investigated serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines as well as the mRNA expression of proinflammatory and macrophage phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue using ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR. We measured adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage infiltration using immunohistochemical analysis. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR and body mass index. The levels of expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue were also higher in the obese group (body mass index ≥ 25). The expression of mRNA MCP-1 in visceral adipose tissue was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.428, p = 0.037) but not with HOMA-IR, whereas TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue was correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.462, p = 0.035) but not with body mass index. There was no obvious change in macrophage phenotype or macrophage infiltration in patients with modest obesity or early metabolic dysfunction. Expression of mRNA CD163/CD68 was significantly related to mitochondrial-associated genes and serum inflammatory cytokine levels of resistin and leptin. These results suggest that changes in the production of inflammatory biomolecules precede increased immune cell infiltration and induction of a macrophage phenotype switch in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, serum resistin and leptin have specific

  6. Age of Achievement of Gross Motor Milestones in Infancy and Adiposity at Age 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Neelon, Sara E. Benjamin; Oken, Emily; Taveras, Elsie M.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Early life physical activity may help prevent obesity but is difficult to measure. The purpose of this study was to examine associations of age of achievement of gross motor milestones in infancy with adiposity at age 3 years. Seven forty one mother/infant dyads participated in a longitudinal study in Massachusetts. Exposures were age of attainment of 4 gross motor milestones—rolling over, sitting up, crawling, and walking. Outcomes were 3-year sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness (SS + TR) for overall adiposity, their ratio (SS:TR) for central adiposity, and body mass index (BMI) z-score. We used linear regression models adjusted for confounders to examine motor milestone achievement and later adiposity. Rolling over (0.04, 95% CI: 0.008, 0.07) and sitting up (0.02, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.05) at ≥6 months were associated with increased SS:TR compared with attainment before 6 months. Walking at ≥15 months was associated with 0.98 mm higher SS + TR (95% CI: 0.05, 1.91) compared with walking before 12 months. Age at crawling was not associated with the outcomes. None of the milestones were associated with BMI z-score. Age of motor milestone achievement was only a modest predictor of adiposity. Later rolling over and sitting up were associated with greater central adiposity, and later age at walking was associated with greater overall adiposity at age 3 years. Although we controlled for birth weight and 6-month weight-for-length in our models, more detailed assessment of early adiposity prior to achievement of motor milestones is needed to help determine causality. PMID:21643834

  7. Altered adipose tissue metabolism in offspring of dietary obese rat dams.

    PubMed

    Benkalfat, Nassira Batoul; Merzouk, Hafida; Bouanane, Samira; Merzouk, Sid-Ahmed; Bellenger, Jérôme; Gresti, Joseph; Tessier, Christian; Narce, Michel

    2011-07-01

    To investigate further the mechanisms of developmental programming, we analysed the effects of maternal overnutrition and of postnatal high-fat feeding on adipose tissue metabolism in the offspring. Postnatal changes in serum adiponectin, leptin and TAG [triacylglycerol (triglyceride)] levels, adipose tissue TAGs, fatty acids and enzyme activities were determined in offspring of cafeteria-diet-fed dams during gestation and lactation, weaned on to standard chow or on to cafeteria diet. Obese rats showed higher adiposity (+35% to 85%) as well as a significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin and TAG levels (P<0.01) and adipose tissue LPL (lipoprotein lipase) and GPDH (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) activities (P<0.01), compared with control pups at weaning (day 21) and at adulthood (day 90). Adipose HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) activity was increased only at day 90 (P<0.05), and FAS (fatty acid synthase) activity remained unchanged. The proportions of SFAs (saturated fatty acids) and MUFAs (mono-unsaturated fatty acids) and the Δ(9)-desaturation index were significantly increased (P<0.05), whereas PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) were decreased (P<0.01) in serum and adipose TAGs of obese pups compared with controls. The cafeteria diet at weaning induced more severe abnormalities in obese rats. In conclusion, maternal overnutrition induced permanent changes in adipose tissue metabolism of the offspring. These pre-existing alterations in offspring were worsened under a high-fat diet from weaning to adulthood. Consequently, adipose adipokines and enzymes could provide a potential therapeutic target, and new investigations in this field could constitute strategies to improve the impact of early-life overnutrition. PMID:21288203

  8. The adipose organ at a glance.

    PubMed

    Cinti, Saverio

    2012-09-01

    The main parenchymal cells of the adipose organ are adipocytes. White adipocytes store energy, whereas brown adipocytes dissipate energy for thermogenesis. These two cell types with opposing functions can both originate from endothelial cells, and co-exist in the multiple fat depots of the adipose organ - a feature that I propose is crucial for this organ's plasticity. This poster review provides an overview of the adipose organ, describing its anatomy, cytology, physiological function and histopathology in obesity. It also highlights the remarkable plasticity of the adipose organ, explaining theories of adipocyte transdifferentiation during chronic cold exposure, physical exercise or lactation, as well as in obesity. White-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiation is of particular medical relevance, because animal data indicate that higher amounts of brown adipose tissue are positively associated with resistance to obesity and its co-morbidities, and that 'browning' of the adipose organ curbs these disorders. PMID:22915020

  9. Adipose tissue immunity and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Frühbeck, Gema

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation and altered immune response are important components of obesity and contribute greatly to the promotion of obesity-related metabolic complications, especially cancer development. Adipose tissue expansion is associated with increased infiltration of various types of immune cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Thus, adipocytes and infiltrating immune cells secrete pro-inflammatory adipokines and cytokines providing a microenvironment favorable for tumor growth. Accumulation of B and T cells in adipose tissue precedes macrophage infiltration causing a chronic low-grade inflammation. Phenotypic switching toward M1 macrophages and Th1 T cells constitutes an important mechanism described in the obese state correlating with increased tumor growth risk. Other possible synergic mechanisms causing a dysfunctional adipose tissue include fatty acid-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and hypoxia. Recent investigations have started to unravel the intricacy of the cross-talk between tumor cell/immune cell/adipocyte. In this sense, future therapies should take into account the combination of anti-inflammatory approaches that target the tumor microenvironment with more sophisticated and selective anti-tumoral drugs. PMID:24106481

  10. Commonality versus specificity among adiposity traits in normal-weight and moderately overweight adults

    PubMed Central

    Raja, GK; Sarzynski, MA; Katzmarzyk, PT; Johnson, WD; Tchoukalova, Y; Smith, SR; Bouchard, C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many adiposity traits have been related to health complications and premature death. These adiposity traits are intercorrelated but their underlying structure has not been extensively investigated. We report on the degree of commonality and specificity among multiple adiposity traits in normal-weight and moderately overweight adult males and females (mean body mass index (BMI) = 22.9 kg m−2, s.d. = 2.4). METHODS A total of 75 healthy participants were assessed for a panel of adiposity traits including leg, arm, trunk, total fat masses and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) derived from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), hepatic and muscle lipids from proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, fat cell volume from an abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy (n = 36) and conventional anthropometry (BMI and waist girth). Spearman’s correlations were calculated and were subjected to factor analysis. RESULTS Arm, leg, trunk and total fat masses correlated positively (r = 0.78–0.95) with each other. VAT correlated weakly with fat mass indicators (r = 0.24–0.31). Intrahepatic lipids (IHL) correlated weakly with all fat mass traits (r = 0.09–0.34), whereas correlations between DXA depots and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were inconsequential. The four DXA fat mass measures, VAT, IHL and IMCL depots segregated as four independent factors that accounted for 96% of the overall adiposity variance. BMI and waist girth were moderately correlated with the arm, leg, trunk and total fat and weakly with VAT, IHL and IMCL. CONCLUSION Adiposity traits share a substantial degree of commonality, but there is considerable specificity across the adiposity variance space. For instance, VAT, IHL and IMCL are typically poorly correlated with each other and are poorly to weakly associated with the other adiposity traits. The same is true for BMI and waist girth, commonly used anthropometric indicators of adiposity. These results do not support the view that it will be

  11. Mest and Sfrp5 are biomarkers for healthy adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Jura, Magdalena; Jarosławska, Julia; Chu, Dinh Toi; Kozak, Leslie P

    2016-05-01

    Obesity depends on a close interplay between genetic and environmental factors. However, it is unknown how these factors interact to cause changes in the obese condition during the progression of obesity from the neonatal to the aged individual. We have utilized Mest and Sfrp5 genes, two genes highly correlated with adipose tissue expansion in diet-induced obesity, to characterize the obese condition during development of 2 genetic models of obesity. A model for the early onset of obesity was presented by leptin-deficient mice (ob/ob), whereas late onset of obesity was induced with high-fat diet (HFD) consumption in C57BL/6J mice with inherent risk of obesity (DIO). We correlated obese and diabetic phenotypes with Mest and Sfrp5 gene expression profiles in subcutaneous fat during pre-weaning, pre-adulthood and adulthood. A rapid development of obesity began in ob/ob mice immediately after weaning at 21 days of age, whereas the obesity of DIO mice was not evident until after 2 months of age. Even after 5 months of HFD treatment, the adiposity index of DIO mice was lower than in ob/ob mice at 2 months of age. In both obesity models, the expression of Mest and Sfrp5 genes increased in parallel with fat mass expansion; however, gene expression proceeded to decrease when the adiposity reached a plateau. The reduction in the expression of genes of caveolae structure and glucose metabolism were also suppressed in the aging adipose tissue. The analysis of fat mass and adipocyte size suggests that reduction in Mest and Sfrp5 is more sensitive to the age of the fat than its morphology. The balance of factors controlling fat deposition can be evaluated in part by the differential expression profiles of Mest and Sfrp5 genes with functions linked to fat deposition as long as there is an active accumulation of fat mass. PMID:26001362

  12. Ethnic Differences in Effects of Maternal Pre-Pregnancy and Pregnancy Adiposity on Offspring Size and Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xinyi; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Tint, Mya Thway; Soh, Shu E.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Yeo, George Seow-Heong; Kwek, Kenneth; Chan, Jerry Kok-Yen; Gluckman, Peter D.; Chong, Yap Seng; Yap, Fabian; Holbrook, Joanna D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Maternal adiposity and overnutrition, both before and during pregnancy, plays a key role in the subsequent development of obesity and metabolic outcomes in offspring. Objective: We explored the hypothesis that maternal adiposity (pre-pregnancy and at 26–28 weeks' gestation) and mid-pregnancy gestational weight gain (GWG) are independently associated with offspring size and adiposity in early childhood, and determined whether these effects are ethnicity dependent. Design: In a prospective mother-offspring cohort study (N = 976, 56% Chinese, 26% Malay, and 18% Indian), we assessed the associations of offspring size (weight, length) and adiposity (subscapular and triceps skinfolds), measured at birth and age 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo, with maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (ppBMI), mid-pregnancy GWG, and mid-pregnancy four-site skinfold thicknesses (triceps, biceps, subscapular, suprailiac). Results: ppBMI and mid-pregnancy GWG were independently associated with postnatal weight up to 2 y and skinfold thickness at birth. Weight and subscapular and triceps skinfolds at birth increased by 2.56% (95% confidence interval, 1.68–3.45%), 3.85% (2.16–5.57%), and 2.14% (0.54–3.75%), respectively for every SD increase in ppBMI. Similarly, a one-SD increase in GWG increased weight and subscapular and triceps skinfolds at birth by 2.44% (1.66–3.23%), 3.28% (1.75–4.84%), and 3.23% (1.65–4.84%), respectively. ppBMI and mid-pregnancy suprailiac skinfold independently predicted postnatal skinfold adiposity up to 2 years of age, whereas only GWG predicted postnatal length. The associations of GWG with postnatal weight and length were present only among Chinese and Indians, but not Malays (P < .05 for interaction). Conclusions: ppBMI and GWG are independent modifiable factors for child size and adiposity up to 2 years of age. The associations are ethnic-dependent, and underscore the importance of ethnic specific studies before generalizing the applicability of

  13. The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 gene E670G polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a key role in regulating plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. However, the association of E670G (rs505151) polymorphism in the PCSK9 gene and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 649 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 646 participants of Han were randomly selected from our previous samples. Genotypes of the PCSK9 E670G polymorphism were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of G allele was 2.00% in Bai Ku Yao and 4.80% in Han (P < 0.01). There was significant difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between Bai Ku Yao and Han (P < 0.01); between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C subgroups (> 3.20 mmol/L, P < 0.01) in Bai Ku Yao; and between normal HDL-C (≥ 0.91 mmol/L) and low HDL-C (< 0.91 mmol/L, P < 0.05), between normal ApoAI (≥ 1.00 g/L) and low ApoAI (< 1.00 g/L, P < 0.05), or between normal ApoAI/ApoB ratio (≥ 1.00) and low ApoAI/ApoB ratio (< 1.00, P < 0.01) subgroups in Han. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C levels and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the G allele noncarriers in males (P < 0.05 for each), whereas the G allele carriers had lower serum ApoB levels and higher the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers in females (P < 0.05 for all). Serum HDL-C and Apo

  14. Adipose tissue: cell heterogeneity and functional diversity.

    PubMed

    Esteve Ràfols, Montserrat

    2014-02-01

    There are two types of adipose tissue in the body whose function appears to be clearly differentiated. White adipose tissue stores energy reserves as fat, whereas the metabolic function of brown adipose tissue is lipid oxidation to produce heat. A good balance between them is important to maintain energy homeostasis. The concept of white adipose tissue has radically changed in the past decades, and is now considered as an endocrine organ that secretes many factors with autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions. In addition, we can no longer consider white adipose tissue as a single tissue, because it shows different metabolic profiles in its different locations, with also different implications. Although the characteristic cell of adipose tissue is the adipocyte, this is not the only cell type present in adipose tissue, neither the most abundant. Other cell types in adipose tissue described include stem cells, preadipocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. The balance between these different cell types and their expression profile is closely related to maintenance of energy homeostasis. Increases in adipocyte size, number and type of lymphocytes, and infiltrated macrophages are closely related to the metabolic syndrome diseases. The study of regulation of proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes and stem cells, and understanding of the interrelationship between the different cell types will provide new targets for action against these diseases. PMID:23834768

  15. Sex differences in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Fuente-Martín, Esther; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Ros, Purificación; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and its associated secondary complications are active areas of investigation in search of effective treatments. As a result of this intensified research numerous differences between males and females at all levels of metabolic control have come to the forefront. These differences include not only the amount and distribution of adipose tissue, but also differences in its metabolic capacity and functions between the sexes. Here, we review some of the recent advances in our understanding of these dimorphisms and emphasize the fact that these differences between males and females must be taken into consideration in hopes of obtaining successful treatments for both sexes. PMID:23991358

  16. Adiposity, Cardiometabolic Risk, and Vitamin D Status: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Susan; Massaro, Joseph M.; Fox, Caroline S.; Larson, Martin G.; Keyes, Michelle J.; McCabe, Elizabeth L.; Robins, Sander J.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Hoffmann, Udo; Jacques, Paul F.; Booth, Sarah L.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wolf, Myles; Wang, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Because vitamin D deficiency is associated with a variety of chronic diseases, understanding the characteristics that promote vitamin D deficiency in otherwise healthy adults could have important clinical implications. Few studies relating vitamin D deficiency to obesity have included direct measures of adiposity. Furthermore, the degree to which vitamin D is associated with metabolic traits after adjusting for adiposity measures is unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We investigated the relations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations with indexes of cardiometabolic risk in 3,890 nondiabetic individuals; 1,882 had subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes measured by multidetector computed tomography (CT). RESULTS In multivariable-adjusted regression models, 25(OH)D was inversely associated with winter season, waist circumference, and serum insulin (P < 0.005 for all). In models further adjusted for CT measures, 25(OH)D was inversely related to SAT (−1.1 ng/ml per SD increment in SAT, P = 0.016) and VAT (−2.3 ng/ml per SD, P < 0.0001). The association of 25(OH)D with insulin resistance measures became nonsignificant after adjustment for VAT. Higher adiposity volumes were correlated with lower 25(OH)D across different categories of BMI, including in lean individuals (BMI <25 kg/m2). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25[OH]D <20 ng/ml) was threefold higher in those with high SAT and high VAT than in those with low SAT and low VAT (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Vitamin D status is strongly associated with variation in subcutaneous and especially visceral adiposity. The mechanisms by which adiposity promotes vitamin D deficiency warrant further study. PMID:19833894

  17. Physical Activity and Adiposity Markers at Older Ages: Accelerometer Vs Questionnaire Data

    PubMed Central

    Sabia, Séverine; Cogranne, Pol; van Hees, Vincent T.; Bell, Joshua A.; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical activity is critically important for successful aging, but its effect on adiposity markers at older ages is unclear as much of the evidence comes from self-reported data on physical activity. We assessed the associations of questionnaire-assessed and accelerometer-assessed physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults. Design/Setting/Participants This was a cross-sectional study on 3940 participants (age range 60-83 years) of the Whitehall II study who completed a 20-item physical activity questionnaire and wore a wrist-mounted accelerometer for 9 days in 2012 and 2013. Measurements Total physical activity was estimated using metabolic equivalent hours/week for the questionnaire and mean acceleration for the accelerometer. Time spent in moderate-and-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was also assessed by questionnaire and accelerometer. Adiposity assessment included body mass index, waist circumference, and fat mass index. Fat mass index was calculated as fat mass/height² (kg/m²), with fat mass estimated using bioimpedance. Results Greater total physical activity was associated with lower adiposity for all adiposity markers in a dose-response manner. In men, the strength of this association was 2.4 to 2.8 times stronger with the accelerometer than with questionnaire data. In women, it was 1.9 to 2.3 times stronger. For MVPA, questionnaire data in men suggested no further benefit for adiposity markers past 1 hour/week of activity. This was not the case for accelerometer-assessed MVPA where, for example, compared with men undertaking <1 hour/week of accelerometer-assessed MVPA, waist circumference was 3.06 (95% confidence interval 2.06–4.06) cm lower in those performing MVPA 1–2.5 hours/week, 4.69 (3.47–5.91) cm lower in those undertaking 2.5–4 hours/week, and 7.11 (5.93–8.29) cm lower in those performing ≥4 hours/week. Conclusions The association of physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults was

  18. Fat and lean BMI reference curves in children and adolescents and their utility in identifying excess adiposity compared with BMI and percentage body fat1234

    PubMed Central

    Weber, David R; Moore, Reneé H; Leonard, Mary B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) are widely used to assess adiposity. These indexes fail to account for independent contributions of fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) to body weight, which vary according to age, sex, pubertal status, and population ancestry in the pediatric population. Objective: The objective was to develop pediatric reference curves for fat mass index (FMI) and lean body mass index (LBMI) and evaluate the effects of population ancestry and LBM on measures of excess adiposity (BMI, %BF, and FMI). Design: Sex-specific FMI and LBMI reference curves relative to age for children and adolescents aged 8–20 y were generated from cross-sectional body-composition data measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry from NHANES. Results: The mean LBMI z score was higher in blacks (males: 0.26; females: 0.45) than in whites (males: −0.07; females: −0.09) and Mexican Americans (males: 0.05; females: −0.09). The positive predictive value of overweight by BMI to identify excess adiposity defined by FMI was lower in blacks (males: 35.9%; females: 30.3%) than in whites (males: 65.4%; females: 52.2%) and Mexican Americans (males: 73.3%; females: 68.3%). Participants classified as having excess adiposity by FMI but normal adiposity by %BF had significantly higher BMI, LBMI, and height z scores than did those classified as having excess adiposity by %BF but normal adiposity by FMI. Conclusions: Relative to FMI, the prevalence of excess adiposity is overestimated by BMI in blacks and underestimated by %BF in individuals with high LBM. The use of FMI and LBMI improves on the use of %BF and BMI by allowing for the independent assessment of FM and LBM. PMID:23697708

  19. Brown adipose tissue and bone

    PubMed Central

    Lidell, M E; Enerbäck, S

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is capable of transforming chemically stored energy, in the form of triglycerides, into heat. Recent studies have shown that metabolically active BAT is present in a large proportion of adult humans, where its activity correlates with a favorable metabolic status. Hence, the tissue is now regarded as an interesting target for therapies against obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes, the hypothesis being that an induction of BAT would be beneficial for these disease states. Apart from the association between BAT activity and a healthier metabolic status, later studies have also shown a positive correlation between BAT volume and both bone cross-sectional area and bone mineral density, suggesting that BAT might stimulate bone anabolism. The aim of this review is to give the reader a brief overview of the BAT research field and to summarize and discuss recent findings regarding BAT being a potential player in bone metabolism. PMID:27152171

  20. Echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue is related to anthropometric and clinical parameters of metabolic syndrome: a new indicator of cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Iacobellis, Gianluca; Ribaudo, Maria Cristina; Assael, Filippo; Vecci, Elio; Tiberti, Claudio; Zappaterreno, Alessandra; Di Mario, Umberto; Leonetti, Frida

    2003-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is related to multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) plays a key role in metabolic syndrome. Easy detection of VAT could be an important tool to increase knowledge of metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to study the relationship of echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue to anthropometric and clinical parameters of metabolic syndrome. We selected 72 consecutive subjects, 46.5 +/- 17.4 yr of age, with a body mass index between 22 and 47 kg/m(2). Each subject underwent transthoracic echocardiogram to measure epicardial fat thickness on right ventricle and magnetic resonance imaging to calculate visceral adipose tissue. Anthropometric, metabolic, and cardiac parameters were also evaluated. Echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue showed a very good correlation with magnetic resonance imaging abdominal VAT and epicardial fat measurement (Bland-Altman plot and linear regression). Multiple regression analysis showed that waist circumference (r(2) = 0.428; P = 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (r(2) = 0. 387; P = 0.02), and fasting insulin (r(2) = 0.387; P = 0.03) were the strongest independent variables correlated with epicardial adipose tissue. Echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue could be applied as an easy and reliable imaging indicator of VAT and cardiovascular risk. PMID:14602744

  1. Biochemistry of adipose tissue: an endocrine organ

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Marisa; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert tissue that stores fat. This tissue is capable of expanding to accommodate increased lipids through hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and by initiating differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Adipose tissue metabolism exerts an impact on whole-body metabolism. As an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones. These are active in a range of processes, such as control of nutritional intake (leptin, angiotensin), control of sensitivity to insulin and inflammatory process mediators (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, among others) and pathways (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and acylation stimulating protein (ASP) for example). This paper reviews some of the biochemical and metabolic aspects of adipose tissue and its relationship to inflammatory disease and insulin resistance. PMID:23671428

  2. Animal Models for Adipose Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Uthamanthil, Rajesh; Beahm, Elisabeth; Frye, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Abstract There is a critical need for adequate reconstruction of soft tissue defects resulting from tumor resection, trauma, and congenital abnormalities. To be sure, adipose tissue engineering strategies offer promising solutions. However, before clinical translation can occur, efficacy must be proven in animal studies. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of animal models currently employed for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:18544014

  3. Cross-sectional and prospective associations between moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time with adiposity in children

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Adilson; Minderico, Cláudia; Martins, Sandra; Palmeira, António; Ekelund, Ulf; Sardinha, Luís B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) have both been suggested as potential risk factors for adiposity in children. However, there is paucity of data examining the temporal associations between these variables. Objective This study aimed to analyze the cross-sectional and prospective associations between PA, SED and body composition in children. Methods 510 children (age at baseline 10.1±0.8, age at follow up 11.8±0.9) from 6 Portuguese schools from the Oeiras Municipality participated in this study. PA and SED were measured by accelerometry and trunk fat mass (TFM) and body fat mass (BFM) were measured by Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fat mass index (FMI) was calculated as BFM divided by height squared. Several regression models adjusted for age, sex, maturity status, follow-up duration, baseline levels of the outcome variable, and SED or MVPA were performed. Results Moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) (min/d) was cross-sectionally inversely associated with adiposity indexes (FMI, TFM, BFM). Adiposity indexes were inversely associated with time in MVPA. In prospective analyses, MVPA was associated with a lower levels of FMI (β=−0.37, 95% CI: −0.49 to −0.26, p<0.001), TFM (β=−0.20, 95% CI: −0.29 to −0.10, p<0.001), and BFM (β=−0.37, 95% CI: −0.49 to −0.26, p<0.001). When the model was adjusted for age, sex, maturity status and for baseline levels of the outcome variables MVPA remained a significant predictor of lower adiposity indexes (FMI: β=−0.09, 95% CI: −0.16 to −0.01, p<0.05; TFM: β=−0.08, 95% CI: −0.15 to −0.01, p<0.05; BFM: β=−0.07, 95% CI: −0.15 to 0.00, p<0.05). Adiposity was not associated with MVPA when modeled as the exposure in prospective analyses. SED was not related with adiposity indexes, except for the relationship with FMI. Conclusions In cross-sectional and prospective analyses, MVPA is associated with lower adiposity independent of covariates and SED. Results suggest that

  4. Poor sleep quality potentiates stress-induced cytokine reactivity in postmenopausal women with high visceral abdominal adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Prather, Aric A.; Puterman, Eli; Epel, Elissa S.; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a key behavioral risk factor for chronic medical conditions observed at high rates among overweight and obese individuals. Systemic inflammation, including that induced by stress, may serve as a common biological mechanism linking sleep, adiposity, and disease risk. To investigate these relationships, 48 postmenopausal women (mean age=61.8) completed a standardized laboratory stress task during which time blood was collected at baseline and 30+, 50+ and 90+ minutes after stressor onset to assess circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-6/IL-10 ratio. Self-reported global sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) while adiposity was estimated by body mass index. Sagittal diameter was obtained in clinic to estimate visceral abdominal adiposity. Multi-level growth curve models revealed that poorer self-reported sleep quality was associated with greater stress-induced increases in IL-6/IL-10 ratio. In terms of adiposity, higher sagittal diameter, but not BMI, was associated with greater IL-6 reactivity (p’s<0.05). Further, associations between sleep quality and cytokine reactivity varied as a function of sagittal diameter. Among poor sleepers (1 SD above mean of PSQI score), stress-induced increases in IL-6 and IL-6/IL-10 ratio were significantly steeper in those with high visceral adiposity (1 SD above the mean of sagittal diameter) compared to those with low visceral adiposity (1 SD below the mean of sagittal diameter). In sum, poorer sleep quality and greater visceral adiposity, separately and especially in combination, are associated with greater stress-related increases in systemic inflammation. This research may help elucidate the complex link between sleep, obesity and inflammatory disease risk. PMID:24060585

  5. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beige” adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  6. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  7. Combined effect of folate and adiposity on homocysteine in children at three years of age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Bo Hyun; Ha, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Ju; Park, Eun Ae; Park, Hyesook

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Cardiovascular diseases is a major cause of death and is responsible for 23.8% of deaths in Korea. Clinical symptoms manifest in adulthood, but susceptibility begins in utero. Elevated homocysteine levels and adiposity might be linked to a greater risk in children as well as adults. We hypothesized that those who have simultaneous risk for folate and adiposity would be affected with elevated homocysteine levels at 3 years of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS From the ongoing birth cohort at Ewha Womans University Mok-Dong Hospital, we compared adiposity parameters, serum homocysteine, and folate levels in 238 children (118 boys and 120 girls) at three years of age. The relationship between birth outcome, current weight and body mass index (BMI), postnatal growth, and homocysteine level were assessed using correlation and general linear model. Additionally, we assessed the combined effect between blood folate status and adiposity on current homocysteine levels. RESULTS Birth characteristics were not correlated with homocysteine. Current weight, BMI, upper-arm circumference, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, and hip circumference were positively correlated with homocysteine at three years of age (P < 0.05). Folate level was negatively correlated with homocysteine at three years of age (P < 0.0001). A relative high anthropometric measure which is compatible with adiposity and low folate level was associated with high homocysteine levels. CONCLUSION We found a combined effect of adiposity and folate levels with homocysteine levels at three years of age. This implicates the beneficial role of folate supplementation in the high-risk population at an early age. PMID:26865919

  8. Does short sleep duration favor abdominal adiposity in children?

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether the increased body mass index (BMI) characterizing short-duration sleeping children is related to an increased predisposition to abdominal adiposity. A total of 422 children (211 boys and 211 girls) involved in the "Québec en Forme" Project were tested for body weight, height, waist circumference, and sleep duration. As there was no gender interaction with the other factors, a partial regression of waist circumference on hours of sleep was performed for both genders combined, adjusting for age, sex, BMI, parental obesity, parental education, total annual family income, frequency of taking breakfast, watching television, playing videogames, computer use, and frequency of practicing sports activities outside of school. Sleep duration had an independent effect on waist circumference, with the correlation between these variables remaining significant after adjustment for BMI and the several other covariates (r=- 0.17, p<0.001). In conclusion, these results suggest that short sleep duration favors abdominal adiposity in children. This finding is of particular concern since abdominal obesity is an important feature of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:17999284

  9. Empagliflozin reduces body weight and indices of adipose distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Neeland, Ian J; McGuire, Darren K; Chilton, Robert; Crowe, Susanne; Lund, Søren S; Woerle, Hans J; Broedl, Uli C; Johansen, Odd Erik

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To determine the effects of empagliflozin on adiposity indices among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Changes in weight, waist circumference, estimated total body fat, index of central obesity and visceral adiposity index were assessed using analysis of covariance and testing of treatment by strata for age, sex and baseline waist circumference in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus randomized to blinded treatment with empagliflozin versus placebo in clinical trials of 12 weeks (cohort 1) or 24 weeks (cohort 2) duration. Results: This study comprised 3300 patients (cohort 1, N = 823; cohort 2, N = 2477). Empagliflozin reduced weight, waist circumference and adiposity indices versus placebo in both cohorts. Adjusted mean (95% confidence interval) change from baseline in empagliflozin versus placebo was −1.7 kg (−2.1 to −1.4 kg) and −1.9 kg (−2.1 to −1.7 kg) for body weight (p < 0.001); −1.3 cm (−1.8 to −0.7 cm) and −1.3 cm (−1.7 to −1.0 cm) for waist circumference (p < 0.001); −0.2% (−0.7% to 0.3%; p = 0.45) and −0.3% (−0.7% to 0.0%; p = 0.08) for estimated total body fat; −0.007 (−0.011 to −0.004) and −0.008 (−0.010 to −0.006) for index of central obesity (p < 0.001); and −0.3 (−0.5 to 0.0; p = 0.07) and −0.4 (−0.7 to −0.1; p = 0.003) for visceral adiposity index in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. Adipose reductions were seen across most age, sex and waist circumference subgroups. Conclusion: Empagliflozin significantly reduced weight and adiposity indices with the potential to improve cardiometabolic risk among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26873905

  10. Effects of Sit Up Exercise Training on Adipose Cell Size and Adiposity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Frank I.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This article reports on an experiment that evaluated the effects of a 27-day sit up exercise training program on adipose cell size and adiposity. Fat biopsies were taken by needle aspiration from male subjects before and after a progressive training regimen. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  11. INDEXING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  12. Direct effects of leptin on brown and white adipose tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Siegrist-Kaiser, C A; Pauli, V; Juge-Aubry, C E; Boss, O; Pernin, A; Chin, W W; Cusin, I; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F; Burger, A G; Zapf, J; Meier, C A

    1997-01-01

    Leptin is thought to exert its actions on energy homeostasis through the long form of the leptin receptor (OB-Rb), which is present in the hypothalamus and in certain peripheral organs, including adipose tissue. In this study, we examined whether leptin has direct effects on the function of brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT, respectively) at the metabolic and molecular levels. The chronic peripheral intravenous administration of leptin in vivo for 4 d resulted in a 1.6-fold increase in the in vivo glucose utilization index of BAT, whereas no significant change was found after intracerebroventricular administration compared with pair-fed control rats, compatible with a direct effect of leptin on BAT. The effect of leptin on WAT fat pads from lean Zucker Fa/ fa rats was assessed ex vivo, where a 9- and 16-fold increase in the rate of lipolysis was observed after 2 h of exposure to 0.1 and 10 nM leptin, respectively. In contrast, no increase in lipolysis was observed in the fat pads from obese fa/fa rats, which harbor an inactivating mutation in the OB-Rb. At the level of gene expression, leptin treatment for 24 h increased malic enzyme and lipoprotein lipase RNA 1.8+/-0.17 and 1.9+/-0.14-fold, respectively, while aP2 mRNA levels were unaltered in primary cultures of brown adipocytes from lean Fa/fa rats. Importantly, however, no significant effect of leptin was observed on these genes in brown adipocytes from obese fa/fa animals. The presence of OB-Rb receptors in adipose tissue was substantiated by the detection of its transcripts by RT-PCR, and leptin treatment in vivo and in vitro activated the specific STATs implicated in the signaling pathway of the OB-Rb. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that leptin has direct effects on BAT and WAT, resulting in the activation of the Jak/STAT pathway and the increased expression of certain target genes, which may partially account for the observed increase in glucose utilization and lipolysis in leptin

  13. [An exploration of the training of medical talents in China for Ryukyu islands based on the Liu qiu bai wen (One Hundred Question of Ryukyu)].

    PubMed

    He, Lanping

    2014-09-01

    Ryukyu sent more than 20 batches of returned students to China for studying during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, many of whom were studying medicine. Liu qiu bai wen (One Hundred Question of Ryukyu) was the record of discussion between Cao Cunxin, a famous doctor of the Qing Dynasty, and the oversea disciples of Lü Fengyi from Ryukyu. However, it was not only a medical book, but also served as an important witness on overseas dissemination of TCM, and the fresh case of Chinese training medical talented persons for Ryukyu. Training Ryukyu medical students in the Qing Dynasty was good for the expansion of Chinese medicine in the Ryukyu, and promoted the development and social progress of the Ryukyu medicine and health, made a significant contribution to maintain the friendly relationship between the two countries. PMID:25579213

  14. Prevalence, Awareness, Medication, Control, and Risk Factors Associated with Hypertension in Bai Ethnic Group in Rural China: The Yunnan Minority Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Minbin; Cha, Xueping; Li, Jun; Yuan, Yuansheng; Wei, Tao; Zhong, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and their associated factors among Bai ethnic population in the rural China. Methods A population-based survey was conducted in 2010 with a randomly cluster sampling in rural communities in Dali, southwest China. A total of 2133 adults aged 50 or above were interviewed, and their blood pressure, height, weight and waist circumference were measured. Hypertension was defined as a mean SBP≥140 mmHg and/or DBP≥90 mmHg, and/or current use of antihypertensive medications. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 42.1% (899/2133), and the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence was 40.0%. Among the hypertensive participants, 28.4% (255/899)were aware of their condition, while 24.6% (221/899) took antihypertensive medications, with only 7.5% (67/899) of those achieving blood pressure control (<140/90 mmHg). Risk factors for hypertension were older age, smoking, alcohol drinking, family history of HBP, overweight, and obesity, while protective factors included being lean, and having finished senior high school or above. Conclusions Hypertension prevalence is high among the population of Bai ethnic group in China, while the associated risk factors of hypertension include overweight/obesity, cigarette smoking, history of hypertension, and older age. The percentages of hypertensive participants aware of their hypertension and those taking antihypertensive medications were low with an incredibly low proportion of hypertensive patients who kept their hypertension under control. It is suggested that health education and hypertension screening programs be carried out in the area for the high blood pressure prevention and control. PMID:23951030

  15. Contributions of maternal and paternal adiposity and smoking to adult offspring adiposity and cardiovascular risk: the Midspan Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, T S; Hart, C L; Haig, C; Logue, J; Upton, M N; Watt, G C M; Lean, M E J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Obesity has some genetic basis but requires interaction with environmental factors for phenotypic expression. We examined contributions of gender-specific parental adiposity and smoking to adiposity and related cardiovascular risk in adult offspring. Design Cross-sectional general population survey. Setting Scotland. Participants 1456 of the 1477 first generation families in the Midspan Family Study: 2912 parents (aged 45–64 years surveyed between 1972 and 1976) who had 1025 sons and 1283 daughters, aged 30–59 years surveyed in 1996. Main measures Offspring body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), cardiometabolic risk (lipids, blood pressure and glucose) and cardiovascular disease as outcome measures, and parental BMI and smoking as determinants. All analyses adjusted for age, socioeconomic status and family clustering and offspring birth weight. Results Regression coefficients for BMI associations between father–son (0.30) and mother–daughter (0.33) were greater than father–daughter (0.23) or mother–son (0.22). Regression coefficient for the non-genetic, shared-environment or assortative-mating relationship between BMIs of fathers and mothers was 0.19. Heritability estimates for BMI were greatest among women with mothers who had BMI either <25 or ≥30 kg/m2. Compared with offspring without obese parents, offspring with two obese parents had adjusted OR of 10.25 (95% CI 6.56 to 13.93) for having WC ≥102 cm for men, ≥88 cm women, 2.46 (95% CI 1.33 to 4.57) for metabolic syndrome and 3.03 (95% CI 1.55 to 5.91) for angina and/or myocardial infarct (p<0.001). Neither parental adiposity nor smoking history determined adjusted offspring individual cardiometabolic risk factors, diabetes or stroke. Maternal, but not paternal, smoking had significant effects on WC in sons (OR=1.50; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.01) and daughters (OR=1.42; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.84) and metabolic syndrome OR=1.68; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.40) in sons. Conclusions There are

  16. The Role of Adiposity in Cardiometabolic Traits: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ploner, Alexander; Fischer, Krista; Horikoshi, Momoko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ladenvall, Claes; Kals, Mart; Kuningas, Maris; Draisma, Harmen H. M.; Ried, Janina S.; van Zuydam, Natalie R.; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Sonestedt, Emily; Benyamin, Beben; Nelson, Christopher P.; Rivera, Natalia V.; Kristiansson, Kati; Shen, Huei-yi; Havulinna, Aki S.; Dehghan, Abbas; Donnelly, Louise A.; Kaakinen, Marika; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Robertson, Neil; de Bruijn, Renée F. A. G.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Amin, Najaf; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Braund, Peter S.; Doney, Alexander S. F.; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Esko, Tõnu; Franco, Oscar H.; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Holm, Hilma; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Isaacs, Aaron; Isomaa, Bo; Karssen, Lennart C.; Kettunen, Johannes; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Laatikainen, Tiina; Laitinen, Jaana; Lindgren, Cecilia; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Läärä, Esa; Rayner, Nigel W.; Männistö, Satu; Pouta, Anneli; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ruokonen, Aimo; Savolainen, Markku J.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Small, Kerrin S.; Smit, Jan H.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Taanila, Anja; Tobin, Martin D.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Willems, Sara M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witteman, Jacqueline; Perola, Markus; Evans, Alun; Ferrières, Jean; Virtamo, Jarmo; Kee, Frank; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Arveiler, Dominique; Amouyel, Philippe; Ferrario, Marco M.; Brambilla, Paolo; Hall, Alistair S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Whitfield, John B.; Jula, Antti; Knekt, Paul; Oostra, Ben; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Davey Smith, George; Kaprio, Jaakko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Gieger, Christian; Peters, Annette; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Boomsma, Dorret I.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Tuomi, TiinaMaija; Power, Chris; Hammond, Christopher J.; Spector, Tim D.; Lind, Lars; Orho-Melander, Marju; Palmer, Colin Neil Alexander; Morris, Andrew D.; Groop, Leif; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Salomaa, Veikko; Vartiainen, Erkki; Hofman, Albert; Ripatti, Samuli; Metspalu, Andres; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Pedersen, Nancy L.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Ingelsson, Erik; Prokopenko, Inga

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between adiposity and cardiometabolic traits is well known from epidemiological studies. Whilst the causal relationship is clear for some of these traits, for others it is not. We aimed to determine whether adiposity is causally related to various cardiometabolic traits using the Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We used the adiposity-associated variant rs9939609 at the FTO locus as an instrumental variable (IV) for body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomization design. Thirty-six population-based studies of individuals of European descent contributed to the analyses. Age- and sex-adjusted regression models were fitted to test for association between (i) rs9939609 and BMI (n = 198,502), (ii) rs9939609 and 24 traits, and (iii) BMI and 24 traits. The causal effect of BMI on the outcome measures was quantified by IV estimators. The estimators were compared to the BMI–trait associations derived from the same individuals. In the IV analysis, we demonstrated novel evidence for a causal relationship between adiposity and incident heart failure (hazard ratio, 1.19 per BMI-unit increase; 95% CI, 1.03–1.39) and replicated earlier reports of a causal association with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, and hypertension (odds ratio for IV estimator, 1.1–1.4; all p<0.05). For quantitative traits, our results provide novel evidence for a causal effect of adiposity on the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase and confirm previous reports of a causal effect of adiposity on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, 2-h post-load glucose from the oral glucose tolerance test, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (all p<0.05). The estimated causal effects were in agreement with traditional observational measures in all instances except for type 2 diabetes, where the causal estimate was larger than the observational

  17. Intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissues: Bad vs. good adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hausman, Gary J; Basu, Urmila; Du, Min; Fernyhough-Culver, Melinda; Dodson, Michael V

    2014-01-01

    Human studies of the influence of aging and other factors on intermuscular fat (INTMF) were reviewed. Intermuscular fat increased with weight loss, weight gain, or with no weight change with age in humans. An increase in INTMF represents a similar threat to type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance as does visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Studies of INTMF in animals covered topics such as quantitative deposition and genetic relationships with other fat depots. The relationship between leanness and higher proportions of INTMF fat in pigs was not observed in human studies and was not corroborated by other pig studies. In humans, changes in muscle mass, strength and quality are associated with INTMF accretion with aging. Gene expression profiling and intrinsic methylation differences in pigs demonstrated that INTMF and VAT are primarily associated with inflammatory and immune processes. It seems that in the pig and humans, INTMF and VAT share a similar pattern of distribution and a similar association of components dictating insulin sensitivity. Studies on intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in meat animals were reviewed. Gene expression analysis and genetic analysis have identified candidate genes involved in IM adipocyte development. Intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in human muscle is only seen during aging and some pathological circumstance. Several genetic links between human and meat animal adipogenesis have been identified. In pigs, the Lipin1 and Lipin 2 gene have strong genetic effects on IM accumulation. Lipin1 deficiency results in immature adipocyte development in human lipodystrophy. In humans, overexpression of Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) facilitates intramyocellular lipid accretion whereas in pigs PLIN2 gene expression is associated with IM deposition. Lipins and perilipins may influence intramuscular lipid regardless of species. PMID:26317048

  18. Vibration Training Triggers Brown Adipocyte Relative Protein Expression in Rat White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chao; Zeng, Ruixia; Cao, Ge; Song, Zhibang; Zhang, Yibo; Liu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, vibration training is considered as a novel strategy of weight loss; however, its mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, normal or high-fat diet-induced rats were trained by whole body vibration for 8 weeks. We observed that the body weight and fat metabolism index, blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, and free fatty acid in obesity rats decreased significantly compared with nonvibration group (n = 6). Although intrascapular BAT weight did not change significantly, vibration enhanced ATP reduction and increased protein level of the key molecule of brown adipose tissue (BAT), PGC-1α, and UCP1 in BAT. Interestingly, the adipocytes in retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT) became smaller due to vibration exercise and had higher protein level of the key molecule of brown adipose tissue (BAT), PGC-1α, and UCP1 and inflammatory relative proteins, IL-6 and TNFα. Simultaneously, ATP content and PPARγ protein level in WAT became less in rats compared with nonvibration group. The results indicated that vibration training changed lipid metabolism in rats and promoted brown fat-like change in white adipose tissues through triggering BAT associated gene expression, inflammatory reflect, and reducing energy reserve. PMID:26125027

  19. Tenomodulin promotes human adipocyte differentiation and beneficial visceral adipose tissue expansion

    PubMed Central

    Senol-Cosar, Ozlem; Flach, Rachel J. Roth; DiStefano, Marina; Chawla, Anil; Nicoloro, Sarah; Straubhaar, Juerg; Hardy, Olga T.; Noh, Hye Lim; Kim, Jason K.; Wabitsch, Martin; Scherer, Philipp E.; Czech, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Proper regulation of energy storage in adipose tissue is crucial for maintaining insulin sensitivity and molecules contributing to this process have not been fully revealed. Here we show that type II transmembrane protein tenomodulin (TNMD) is upregulated in adipose tissue of insulin-resistant versus insulin-sensitive individuals, who were matched for body mass index (BMI). TNMD expression increases in human preadipocytes during differentiation, whereas silencing TNMD blocks adipogenesis. Upon high-fat diet feeding, transgenic mice overexpressing Tnmd develop increased epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) mass, and preadipocytes derived from Tnmd transgenic mice display greater proliferation, consistent with elevated adipogenesis. In Tnmd transgenic mice, lipogenic genes are upregulated in eWAT, as is Ucp1 in brown fat, while liver triglyceride accumulation is attenuated. Despite expanded eWAT, transgenic animals display improved systemic insulin sensitivity, decreased collagen deposition and inflammation in eWAT, and increased insulin stimulation of Akt phosphorylation. Our data suggest that TNMD acts as a protective factor in visceral adipose tissue to alleviate insulin resistance in obesity. PMID:26880110

  20. Tenomodulin promotes human adipocyte differentiation and beneficial visceral adipose tissue expansion.

    PubMed

    Senol-Cosar, Ozlem; Flach, Rachel J Roth; DiStefano, Marina; Chawla, Anil; Nicoloro, Sarah; Straubhaar, Juerg; Hardy, Olga T; Noh, Hye Lim; Kim, Jason K; Wabitsch, Martin; Scherer, Philipp E; Czech, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Proper regulation of energy storage in adipose tissue is crucial for maintaining insulin sensitivity and molecules contributing to this process have not been fully revealed. Here we show that type II transmembrane protein tenomodulin (TNMD) is upregulated in adipose tissue of insulin-resistant versus insulin-sensitive individuals, who were matched for body mass index (BMI). TNMD expression increases in human preadipocytes during differentiation, whereas silencing TNMD blocks adipogenesis. Upon high-fat diet feeding, transgenic mice overexpressing Tnmd develop increased epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) mass, and preadipocytes derived from Tnmd transgenic mice display greater proliferation, consistent with elevated adipogenesis. In Tnmd transgenic mice, lipogenic genes are upregulated in eWAT, as is Ucp1 in brown fat, while liver triglyceride accumulation is attenuated. Despite expanded eWAT, transgenic animals display improved systemic insulin sensitivity, decreased collagen deposition and inflammation in eWAT, and increased insulin stimulation of Akt phosphorylation. Our data suggest that TNMD acts as a protective factor in visceral adipose tissue to alleviate insulin resistance in obesity. PMID:26880110

  1. Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of age (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of age (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535

  2. Inflammation in depression: is adiposity a cause?

    PubMed Central

    C. Shelton, Richard; H. Miller, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that inflammation may play a significant role in the development of depression. Patients with depression exhibit increased inflammatory markers, and administration of cytokines and other inflammatory stimuli can induce depressive symptoms. Mechanisms by which cytokines access the brain and influence neurotransmitter systems relevant to depression have also been described, as have preliminary findings indicating that antagonizing inflammatory pathways may improve depressive symptoms. One primary source of inflammation in depression appears to be adiposity. Adipose tissue is a rich source of inflammatory factors including adipokines, chemokines, and cytokines, and a bidirectional relationship between adiposity and depression has been revealed. Adiposity is associated with the development of depression, and depression is associated with adiposity, reflecting a potentional vicious cycle between these two conditions which appears to center around inflammation. Treatments targeting this vicious cycle may be especially relevant for the treatment and prevention of depression as well as its multiple comorbid disorders such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer, all of which have also been associated with both depression and inflammation. PMID:21485745

  3. Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are reduced in human obesity. Specifically designed human intervention studies in the field, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. In summary, studies support a role of specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives in the prevention of excess adiposity, and suggest that carotenoid requirements may be dependent on body composition. PMID:27485231

  4. Brown Adipose Tissue Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Symonds, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle. PMID:24278771

  5. Isolation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Porcine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Hui-Yu; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Cheng, Ying-Hung; Mersmann, Harry J.; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an unconstrained worldwide epidemic. Unraveling molecular controls in adipose tissue development holds promise to treat obesity or diabetes. Although numerous immortalized adipogenic cell lines have been established, adipose-derived stem cells from the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous white adipose tissues provide a reliable cellular system ex vivo much closer to adipose development in vivo. Pig adipose-derived stem cells (pADSC) are isolated from 7- to 9-day old piglets. The dorsal white fat depot of porcine subcutaneous adipose tissues is sliced, minced and collagenase digested. These pADSC exhibit strong potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Moreover, the pADSC also possess multipotency, assessed by selective stem cell markers, to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell types including adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. These pADSC can be used for clarification of molecular switches in regulating classical adipocyte differentiation or in direction to other mesenchymal cell types of mesodermal origin. Furthermore, extended lineages into cells of ectodermal and endodermal origin have recently been achieved. Therefore, pADSC derived in this protocol provide an abundant and assessable source of adult mesenchymal stem cells with full multipotency for studying adipose development and application to tissue engineering of regenerative medicine. PMID:27077225

  6. Proline oxidase–adipose triglyceride lipase pathway restrains adipose cell death and tissue inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lettieri Barbato, D; Aquilano, K; Baldelli, S; Cannata, S M; Bernardini, S; Rotilio, G; Ciriolo, M R

    2014-01-01

    The nutrient-sensing lipolytic enzyme adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) has a key role in adipose tissue function, and alterations in its activity have been implicated in many age-related metabolic disorders. In adipose tissue reduced blood vessel density is related to hypoxia state, cell death and inflammation. Here we demonstrate that adipocytes of poorly vascularized enlarged visceral adipose tissue (i.e. adipose tissue of old mice) suffer from limited nutrient delivery. In particular, nutrient starvation elicits increased activity of mitochondrial proline oxidase/dehydrogenase (POX/PRODH) that is causal in triggering a ROS-dependent induction of ATGL. We demonstrate that ATGL promotes the expression of genes related to mitochondrial oxidative metabolism (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α), thus setting a metabolic switch towards fat utilization that supplies energy to starved adipocytes and prevents cell death, as well as adipose tissue inflammation. Taken together, these results identify ATGL as a stress resistance mediator in adipocytes, restraining visceral adipose tissue dysfunction typical of age-related metabolic disorders. PMID:24096872

  7. Enzymatic intracrine regulation of white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    DiSilvestro, David; Petrosino, Jennifer; Aldoori, Ayat; Melgar-Bermudez, Emiliano; Wells, Alexandra; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2014-07-01

    Abdominal fat formation has become a permanent risk factor for metabolic syndrome and various cancers in one-third of the world's population of obese and even lean patients. Formation of abdominal fat involves additional mechanisms beyond an imbalance in energy intake and expenditure, which explains systemic obesity. In this review, we briefly summarized autonomous regulatory circuits that locally produce hormones from inactive precursors or nutrients for intra-/auto-/paracrine signaling in white adipose depots. Enzymatic pathways activating steroid and thyroid hormones in adipose depots were compared with enzymatic production of retinoic acid from vitamin A. We discussed the role of intracrine circuits in fat-depot functions and strategies to reduce abdominal adiposity through thermogenic adipocytes with interrupted generation of retinoic acid. PMID:25390015

  8. Maintenance of white adipose tissue in man.

    PubMed

    Hyvönen, Mervi T; Spalding, Kirsty L

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is increasing in an epidemic manner in most countries and constitutes a public health problem by enhancing the risk for diseases such as diabetes, fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. Together these diseases form a cluster referred to as the metabolic syndrome. Despite the negative health consequences associated with excess adipose tissue, very little is known about the origin and maintenance of white adipose tissue in man. In this review we discuss what is known about the turnover of adult human adipocytes and their precursors, as well as adipose tissue heterogeneity, plasticity and developmental origins. The focus of this review is human tissue, however in many cases human data are missing and are inferred from animal studies. As such, reference to animal studies are made where human data is not available. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. PMID:25240584

  9. Enzymatic intracrine regulation of white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    DiSilvestro, David; Petrosino, Jennifer; Aldoori, Ayat; Melgar-Bermudez, Emiliano; Wells, Alexandra; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal fat formation has become a permanent risk factor for metabolic syndrome and various cancers in one-third of the world's population of obese and even lean patients. Formation of abdominal fat involves additional mechanisms beyond an imbalance in energy intake and expenditure, which explains systemic obesity. In this review, we briefly summarized autonomous regulatory circuits that locally produce hormones from inactive precursors or nutrients for intra-/auto-/paracrine signaling in white adipose depots. Enzymatic pathways activating steroid and thyroid hormones in adipose depots were compared with enzymatic production of retinoic acid from vitamin A. We discussed the role of intracrine circuits in fat-depot functions and strategies to reduce abdominal adiposity through thermogenic adipocytes with interrupted generation of retinoic acid. PMID:25390015

  10. The development and endocrine functions of adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White adipose tissue is a mesenchymal tissue that begins developing in the fetus. Classically known for storing the body’s fuel reserves, adipose tissue is now recognized as an endocrine organ. As such, the secretions from adipose tissue are known to affect several systems such as the vascular and...

  11. Branch Area Index of Solitary Trees: Understanding Its Significance in Regulating Ecosystem Services.

    PubMed

    Sjöman, J Deak; Hirons, A; Sjöman, H

    2016-01-01

    The chief aim of this study was to investigate how different species of solitary trees in temperate urban areas vary in their branch structure during winter by assessing branch area indices (BAIs). The BAI data showed significant differences ( < 0.0001) between species and genotypes. The lowest mean BAI in the dataset was for L., which had a BAI of 0.27. L. 'Fastigiata' represented the largest mean BAI of 2.09. The results from the BAI analysis further indicate that within the same species group differences occur between genotypes. For example, the five genotypes of L. range from a mean BAI of 1.77 for 'Globosum' to a mean BAI of 0.50 for 'Fassen Black'. A further aim was to apply the compiled BAI data in the computational modeling program of ENVI-met 3.1, which simulates the surface-air interaction and microclimates in complex urban settings. The simulations focused on mean radiant temperature and wind speed. Results illustrate how wind speed on the leeward side of the trees gradually decrease with an increasing BAI. With an increasing BAI, the Tmrt decreases to the leeward of the row of trees. The results are further discussed in the perspective of sustainable urban development (i.e., where, why, and how the species studied could be integrated in the urban fabric). This is of particular interest for the design of urban green space in densely built-up urban environments where space may be restricted. PMID:26828173

  12. Developmental programming, adiposity, and reproduction in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Symonds, M E; Dellschaft, N; Pope, M; Birtwistle, M; Alagal, R; Keisler, D; Budge, H

    2016-07-01

    Although sheep have been widely adopted as an animal model for examining the timing of nutritional interventions through pregnancy on the short- and long-term outcomes, only modest programming effects have been seen. This is due in part to the mismatch in numbers of twins and singletons between study groups as well as unequal numbers of males and females. Placental growth differs between singleton and twin pregnancies which can result in different body composition in the offspring. One tissue that is especially affected is adipose tissue which in the sheep fetus is primarily located around the kidneys and heart plus the sternal/neck region. Its main role is the rapid generation of heat due to activation of the brown adipose tissue-specific uncoupling protein 1 at birth. The fetal adipose tissue response to suboptimal maternal food intake at defined stages of development differs between the perirenal abdominal and pericardial depots, with the latter being more sensitive. Fetal adipose tissue growth may be mediated in part by changes in leptin status of the mother which are paralleled in the fetus. Then, over the first month of life plasma leptin is higher in females than males despite similar adiposity, when fat is the fastest growing tissue with the sternal/neck depot retaining uncoupling protein 1, whereas other depots do not. Future studies should take into account the respective effects of fetal number and sex to provide more detailed insights into the mechanisms by which adipose and related tissues can be programmed in utero. PMID:27173959

  13. Impact of Adiposity on Incident Hypertension Is Modified by Insulin Resistance in Adults: Longitudinal Observation From the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Huijie; Li, Shengxu; Li, Ying; Liu, Yaozhong; Fernandez, Camilo; Harville, Emily; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Adiposity and insulin resistance are closely associated with hypertension. This study aims to investigate whether the association between adiposity and hypertension is modified by insulin resistance. The cohort consisted of 1624 middle-aged normotensive black and white adults aged 18 to 43 years at baseline who followed for 16 years on average. Overweight/obesity at baseline was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥25, and insulin resistance was measured using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Prevalence of incident hypertension was compared between the insulin-sensitive adiposity and insulin-resistant adiposity groups. The prevalence of incident hypertension was higher in the insulin-resistant adiposity than in the insulin-sensitive adiposity group (32.1% versus 22.1%, P<0.001). In multivariable logistic analyses, adjusted for baseline age, race, sex, follow-up years, and smoking, baseline insulin-resistant obesity was associated with incident hypertension (odds ratio, 1.9; P=0.008). Odds ratios did not differ between blacks and whites (P=0.238). Of note, the odds ratios of BMI associated with hypertension significantly increased with increasing quartiles of baseline homeostasis model assessment (odds ratio, 1.3, 1.1, 1.5, and 2.5 in quartiles I, II, III, and IV, respectively; P=0.006 for trend). Slopes of increasing follow-up blood pressure with baseline BMI, measured as regression coefficients (β), were significantly greater in insulin-resistant than in insulin-sensitive individuals (β=0.74 versus β=0.35 for systolic blood pressure, P=0.004 for difference; β=0.51 versus β=0.23 for diastolic blood pressure, P=0.001 for difference). These findings suggest that insulin resistance has a synergistic effect on the obesity-hypertension association in young adults, indicating that the role of adiposity in the development of hypertension is modified by insulin resistance. PMID:26573703

  14. Biogeographic Ancestry Is Associated with Higher Total Body Adiposity among African-American Females: The Boston Area Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Goonesekera, Sunali D.; Fang, Shona C.; Piccolo, Rebecca S.; Florez, Jose C.; McKinlay, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately higher among African-Americans and Hispanics as compared to whites. We investigated the role of biogeographic ancestry (BGA) on adiposity and changes in adiposity in the Boston Area Community Health Survey. Methods We evaluated associations between BGA, assessed via Ancestry Informative Markers, and adiposity (body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) and changes in adiposity over 7 years for BMI and WHR and 2.5 years for PBF, per 10% greater proportion of BGA using multivariable linear regression. We also examined effect-modification by demographic and socio-behavioral variables. Results We observed positive associations between West-African ancestry and cross-sectional BMI (percent difference=0.62%; 95% CI: 0.04%, 1.20%), and PBF (β=0.35; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.58). We also observed significant effect-modification of the association between West-African ancestry and BMI by gender (p-interaction: <0.002) with a substantially greater association in women. We observed no main associations between Native-American ancestry and adiposity but observed significant effect-modification of the association with BMI by diet (p-interaction: <0.003) with inverse associations among participants with higher Healthy Eating Scores. No associations were observed between BGA and changes in adiposity over time. Conclusion Findings support that West-African ancestry may contribute to high prevalence of total body adiposity among African-Americans, particularly African-American women. PMID:25875902

  15. Heritability of phenotypes associated with glucose homeostasis and adiposity in a rural area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pena, Geórgia G; Dutra, Míriam Santos; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation between glucose homeostasis and adiposity traits in a population in a rural community in Brazil. The Jequitinhonha Community Family Study cohort consists of subjects aged ≥18 years residing in rural areas in Brazil. The data on the following traits were assembled for 280 individuals (51.7% women): body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist and mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps skinfold, conicity index, insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Extended pedigrees were constructed up to the third generation of individuals using the data management software PEDSYS. The heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance component method. The age- and sex-adjusted heritability values estimated for insulin (h(2) = 52%), glucose (h(2) = 51%), HDLc (h(2) = 58%), and waist circumference (WC; h(2) = 49%) were high. Significantly adjusted genetic correlations were observed between insulin paired with each of the following phenotypes; (BMI; ρg = 0.48), WC (ρg = 0.47) and HDLc (ρg = -0.47). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was genetically correlated with BMI (ρg = 0.53) and HDLc (ρg = -0.58). The adjusted genetic correlations between traits were consistently higher compared with the environmental correlations. In conclusion, glucose metabolism and adiposity traits are highly heritable and share common genetic effects with body adiposity traits. PMID:24359477

  16. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index–adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, S. B.; Peterson, C. M.; Thomas, D. M.; Heo, M.; Schuna, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. PMID:26663309

  17. Obesity-induced DNA released from adipocytes stimulates chronic adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Sachiko; Fukuda, Daiju; Higashikuni, Yasutomi; Tanaka, Kimie; Hirata, Yoichiro; Murata, Chie; Kim-Kaneyama, Joo-ri; Sato, Fukiko; Bando, Masahiro; Yagi, Shusuke; Soeki, Takeshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Imoto, Issei; Sakaue, Hiroshi; Shimabukuro, Michio; Sata, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Obesity stimulates chronic inflammation in adipose tissue, which is associated with insulin resistance, although the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here we showed that obesity-related adipocyte degeneration causes release of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), which promotes macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), originally known as a sensor of exogenous DNA fragments. Fat-fed obese wild-type mice showed increased release of cfDNA, as determined by the concentrations of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in plasma. cfDNA released from degenerated adipocytes promoted monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in wild-type macrophages, but not in TLR9-deficient (Tlr9−/−) macrophages. Fat-fed Tlr9−/− mice demonstrated reduced macrophage accumulation and inflammation in adipose tissue and better insulin sensitivity compared with wild-type mice, whereas bone marrow reconstitution with wild-type bone marrow restored the attenuation of insulin resistance observed in fat-fed Tlr9−/− mice. Administration of a TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotide to fat-fed wild-type mice reduced the accumulation of macrophages in adipose tissue and improved insulin resistance. Furthermore, in humans, plasma ssDNA level was significantly higher in patients with computed tomography–determined visceral obesity and was associated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), which is the index of insulin resistance. Our study may provide a novel mechanism for the development of sterile inflammation in adipose tissue and a potential therapeutic target for insulin resistance. PMID:27051864

  18. Development of automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensink, Sanne D.; Spliethoff, Jarich W.; Belder, Ruben; Klaase, Joost M.; Bezooijen, Roland; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2011-03-01

    This contribution describes a novel algorithm for the automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans of patients referred for colorectal resection. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes can accurately be measured with errors of 1.2 and 0.5%, respectively. Also the reproducibility of CT measurements is good; a disadvantage is the amount of radiation. In this study the diagnostic CT scans in the work - up of (colorectal) cancer were used. This implied no extra radiation. For the purpose of segmentation alone, a low dose protocol can be applied. Obesity is a well known risk factor for complications in and after surgery. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a widely accepted indicator of obesity, but it is not specific for risk assessment of colorectal surgery. We report on an automated method to quantify visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes as a basic step in a clinical research project concerning preoperative risk assessment. The outcomes are to be correlated with the surgery results. The hypothesis is that the balance between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue together with the presence of calcifications in the major bloodvessels, is a predictive indicator for post - operatieve complications such as anastomotic leak. We start with four different computer simulated humanoid abdominal volumes with tissue values in the appropriate Hounsfield range at different dose levels. With satisfactory numerical results for this test, we have applied the algorithm on over a 100 patient scans and have compared results with manual segmentations by an expert for a smaller pilot group. The results are within a 5% difference. Compared to other studies reported in the literature, reliable values are obtained for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas.

  19. Adiposity and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children With and Without Antipsychotic Drug Treatment

    PubMed Central

    de las Fuentes, Lisa; Riek, Amy E.; Bernal-Mizrachi, Carlos; Lenze, Eric J.; Miller, J. Phillip; Schweiger, Julia A.; Yingling, Michael D.; Huang, Vincent J.; Dixon, David J.; Hennekens, Charles H.; Newcomer, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pediatric obesity is common, particularly in children treated with antipsychotic medications. Antipsychotic exposure can increase cardiometabolic risk by increasing adiposity, and possibly via other adiposity-independent pathways. Objective: The objectives were to characterize relationships of adiposity with intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in children with and without antipsychotic drug treatment, and to explore whether vitamin D alters any effects in these relationships. Design: This was a cross-sectional case-control study. Setting: The setting was an academic medical center. Patients or Other participants: Participants were 44 children (ages, 6–19 y): 25 cases treated with antipsychotic and other psychotropic drug therapies and 19 untreated controls, frequency-matched on age, gender, and body mass index. Main Outcome Measures: Main outcome measures were dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry percentage body fat (DEXA %fat), IHTG measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and CIMT measured by ultrasonography. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipids, C-reactive protein, and liver enzymes were also evaluated. Results: There were no significant differences between cases and controls on measures of IHTG, CIMT, or DEXA %fat. In combined crude and adjusted analyses, DEXA %fat predicted IHTG (R2 = 0.30) but not CIMT. Low levels of vitamin D were associated with larger effects of DEXA %fat on IHTG. Conclusion: In treated and untreated children alike, adiposity is a significant predictor of liver fat content. This relationship was altered by low vitamin D level. These results suggest a modifiable pathway to hepatic steatosis. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis that children with high adiposity and low vitamin D have particularly increased risks for the development of fatty liver. PMID:26186300

  20. Lipids, adiposity and tendinopathy: is there a mechanistic link? Critical review.

    PubMed

    Scott, Alex; Zwerver, Johannes; Grewal, Navi; de Sa, Agnetha; Alktebi, Thuraya; Granville, David J; Hart, David A

    2015-08-01

    Being overweight or obese is associated with an elevated risk of tendon pathology. However, for sportspeople the epidemiological data linking weight or adiposity on one hand, and risk of tendon pathology on the other, are less consistent. Indeed, the mechanistic links between diet, adiposity and tendon pathology remain largely unexamined. Recent studies have begun to examine the effects of dietary interventions on outcomes such as tendon biomechanics or pain. Oxidised low-density lipoprotein has been shown to (A) accumulate in the tendon tissues of mice that eat a fatty diet and (B) induce a pathological phenotype in human tendon cells. This paper addresses the current debate: is excessive body mass index (causing increased load and strain on tendon tissue) per se the underlying mechanism? Or do local or systemic influences of fat on tendons predispose to tendon pathology? This narrative review argues that excessive blood lipids may be an important avenue for clinical investigations. PMID:25488953

  1. Lipids, adiposity and tendinopathy: is there a mechanistic link? Critical review

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Alex; Zwerver, Johannes; Grewal, Navi; de Sa, Agnetha; Alktebi, Thuraya; Granville, David J; Hart, David A

    2015-01-01

    Being overweight or obese is associated with an elevated risk of tendon pathology. However, for sportspeople the epidemiological data linking weight or adiposity on one hand, and risk of tendon pathology on the other, are less consistent. Indeed, the mechanistic links between diet, adiposity and tendon pathology remain largely unexamined. Recent studies have begun to examine the effects of dietary interventions on outcomes such as tendon biomechanics or pain. Oxidised low-density lipoprotein has been shown to (A) accumulate in the tendon tissues of mice that eat a fatty diet and (B) induce a pathological phenotype in human tendon cells. This paper addresses the current debate: is excessive body mass index (causing increased load and strain on tendon tissue) per se the underlying mechanism? Or do local or systemic influences of fat on tendons predispose to tendon pathology? This narrative review argues that excessive blood lipids may be an important avenue for clinical investigations. PMID:25488953

  2. Does bariatric surgery improve adipose tissue function?

    PubMed

    Frikke-Schmidt, H; O'Rourke, R W; Lumeng, C N; Sandoval, D A; Seeley, R J

    2016-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Not only do these types of surgeries produce significant weight loss but also they improve insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolic function. The aim of this review is to explore how altered physiology of adipose tissue may contribute to the potent metabolic effects of some of these procedures. This includes specific effects on various fat depots, the function of individual adipocytes and the interaction between adipose tissue and other key metabolic tissues. Besides a dramatic loss of fat mass, bariatric surgery shifts the distribution of fat from visceral to the subcutaneous compartment favoring metabolic improvement. The sensitivity towards lipolysis controlled by insulin and catecholamines is improved, adipokine secretion is altered and local adipose inflammation as well as systemic inflammatory markers decreases. Some of these changes have been shown to be weight loss independent, and novel hypothesis for these effects includes include changes in bile acid metabolism, gut microbiota and central regulation of metabolism. In conclusion bariatric surgery is capable of improving aspects of adipose tissue function and do so in some cases in ways that are not entirely explained by the potent effect of surgery. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:27272117

  3. Injectable Biomaterials for Adipose Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Young, D. Adam; Christman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineering has recently gained significant attention from materials scientists as a result of the exponential growth of soft tissue filler procedures being performed within the clinic. While several injectable materials are currently being marketed for filling subcutaneous voids, they often face limited longevity due to rapid resorption. Their inability to encourage natural adipose formation or ingrowth necessitates repeated injections for a prolonged effect, and thus classifies them as temporary fillers. As a result, a significant need for injectable materials that not only act as fillers, but also promote in vivo adipogenesis is beginning to be realized. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of commercially available soft tissue fillers. It will then summarize the current state of research using injectable synthetic materials, biopolymers, and extracellular matrix-derived materials for adipose tissue engineering. Furthermore, the successful attributes observed across each of these materials will be outlined along with a discussion of the current difficulties and future directions for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:22456805

  4. Correlates of adiposity among Latino preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood obesity is at record high levels in the US and disproportionately affects Latino children; however, studies examining Latino preschool children's obesity-related risk factors are sparse. This study determined correlates of Latino preschoolers' (ages 3-5 years) adiposity to inform future ob...

  5. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material.

    PubMed

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-11-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  6. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material

    PubMed Central

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth.; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  7. [White adipose tissue dysfunction observed in obesity].

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Ewa; Zieliński, Andrzej

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a disease with continuingly increasing prevalence. It occurs worldwide independently of age group, material status or country of origin. At these times the most common reasons for obesity are bad eating habits and dramatic reduction of physical activity, which cause the energy imbalance of organism. Fundamental alteration observed in obese subjects is white adipose tissue overgrowth, which is linked to increased incidence of obesity-related comorbidities, such as: cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes or digestive tract diseases. What is more, obesity is also a risk factor for some cancers. Special risk for diseases linked to excessive weight is associated with overgrowth of visceral type of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue, which is the main energy storehouse in body and acts also as an endocrine organ, undergoes both the morphological and the functional changes in obesity, having a negative impact on whole body function. In this article we summarize the most important alterations in morphology and function of white adipose tissue, observed in obese subjects. PMID:27234867

  8. Adipose Natural Killer Cells Regulate Adipose Tissue Macrophages to Promote Insulin Resistance in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Cheol; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Pae, Munkyong; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Eberlé, Delphine; Shimada, Takeshi; Kamei, Nozomu; Park, Hee-Sook; Sasorith, Souphatta; Woo, Ju Rang; You, Jia; Mosher, William; Brady, Hugh J M; Shoelson, Steven E; Lee, Jongsoon

    2016-04-12

    Obesity-induced inflammation mediated by immune cells in adipose tissue appears to participate in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. We show that natural killer (NK) cells in adipose tissue play an important role. High-fat diet (HFD) increases NK cell numbers and the production of proinflammatory cytokines, notably TNFα, in epididymal, but not subcutaneous, fat depots. When NK cells were depleted either with neutralizing antibodies or genetic ablation in E4bp4(+/-) mice, obesity-induced insulin resistance improved in parallel with decreases in both adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) numbers, and ATM and adipose tissue inflammation. Conversely, expansion of NK cells following IL-15 administration or reconstitution of NK cells into E4bp4(-/-) mice increased both ATM numbers and adipose tissue inflammation and exacerbated HFD-induced insulin resistance. These results indicate that adipose NK cells control ATMs as an upstream regulator potentially by producing proinflammatory mediators, including TNFα, and thereby contribute to the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance. PMID:27050305

  9. Associations of Different Adipose Tissue Depots with Insulin Resistance: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingzhi; Hu, Tian; Zhang, Shaoyan; Zhou, Li

    2015-01-01

    Fat distribution is strongly associated with insulin resistance, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, associations of different adipose tissue depots or/and obesity indices with insulin resistance have not been systematically evaluated. In this study we examined associations of different adipose tissue depots/obesity indices with insulin resistance, as measured by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in observational studies. A total of 40 studies with 56 populations and 29 adipose tissue depots/obesity indices were included in the meta-analysis. There were strong correlation between HOMA-IR and visceral fat mass (r = 0.570, 95% confidence interval(CI): 0.424~0.687), total fat mass (r = 0.492, 95%CI: 0.407~0.570), body mass index (r = 0.482, 95%CI: 0.445~0.518) and waist circumference (r = 0.466, 95%CI: 0.432~0.500), except lower extremity fat (r = 0.088, 95%CI: −0.116~0.285). Sample size, diabetic status, gender, mean of body mass index, and race contributed to heterogeneity of these associations. This study showed a positive correlation between insulin resistance and most adipose tissue depots/obesity indices, and the strongest association is for visceral fat mass. PMID:26686961

  10. The Comparison of Adipose Stem Cell and Placental Stem Cell in Secretion Characteristics and in Facial Antiaging.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Guo, Shilei; Wei, Cui; Li, Honglan; Chen, Lei; Yin, Chang; Zhang, Chuansen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mesenchymal stem cells are the most commonly used seed cells in biomedical research and tissue engineering. Their secretory proteins have also been proven to play an important role in tissue healing. Methods. We isolated adipose stem cells and placental stem cells and performed analysis examining characteristics. The secretory proteins were extracted from conditioned medium and analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF. The antiaging effect of conditioned mediums was evaluated by the results of facial skin application. Results. Adipose stem cells and placental stem cells were found to be very similar in their surface markers and multipotency. The specific proteins secreted from adipose stem cells were more adept at cell adhesion, migration, wound healing, and tissue remodeling, while the proteins secreted by placental stem cells were more adept at angiogenesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, cell survival, immunomodulation, and collagen degradation. While these two types of conditioned medium could improve the facial index, the improvement of Melanin index after injection of the adipose stem cell conditioned medium was much more significant. Conclusion. The results suggest that the secreted proteins are ideal cell-free substances for regeneration medicine, especially in the antiaging field. PMID:27057176

  11. The Comparison of Adipose Stem Cell and Placental Stem Cell in Secretion Characteristics and in Facial Antiaging

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Guo, Shilei; Wei, Cui; Li, Honglan; Chen, Lei; Yin, Chang; Zhang, Chuansen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mesenchymal stem cells are the most commonly used seed cells in biomedical research and tissue engineering. Their secretory proteins have also been proven to play an important role in tissue healing. Methods. We isolated adipose stem cells and placental stem cells and performed analysis examining characteristics. The secretory proteins were extracted from conditioned medium and analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF. The antiaging effect of conditioned mediums was evaluated by the results of facial skin application. Results. Adipose stem cells and placental stem cells were found to be very similar in their surface markers and multipotency. The specific proteins secreted from adipose stem cells were more adept at cell adhesion, migration, wound healing, and tissue remodeling, while the proteins secreted by placental stem cells were more adept at angiogenesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, cell survival, immunomodulation, and collagen degradation. While these two types of conditioned medium could improve the facial index, the improvement of Melanin index after injection of the adipose stem cell conditioned medium was much more significant. Conclusion. The results suggest that the secreted proteins are ideal cell-free substances for regeneration medicine, especially in the antiaging field. PMID:27057176

  12. Association between adiposity and systemic atherosclerosis: a protocol of a cross-sectional autopsy study

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Aline; Suemoto, Claudia Kimie; Farias, Daniela Souza; Campos, Fernanda Marinho; da Silva, Karen Cristina Souza; Cuelho, Anderson; Leite, Renata Elaine Paraízo; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata Eloah de Lucena; Grinberg, Lea Tenenholz; Farfel, José Marcelo; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adiposity has been associated with atherosclerosis in clinical studies. However, few autopsy studies have investigated this association, and they had only examined the coronary artery disease. Moreover, most studies had small sample sizes and were limited to middle-aged or young adults. Our aim is to investigate the association between adiposity and systemic atherosclerosis in an autopsy study. Methods and analysis A sample of 240 deceased with 30 years or more will be evaluated. The sample size was calculated using the lowest correlation coefficient found in previous studies (r=0.109), assuming a power of 90% and α=0.05. We will collect information about sociodemographics, frequency of previous contact of the deceased's next of kin and cardiovascular risk factors. We will measure neck, waist and hip circumferences, weight, height and abdominal subcutaneous tissue thickness, and then we will calculate the body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio and body shape index. We will also weigh the pericardial and abdominal visceral fat, the heart, and we will measure the left ventricular wall thickness. We will evaluate the presence of myocardial infarction, the degree of atherosclerosis in the aorta, carotid, coronary and cerebral arteries and plaque composition in carotid, coronary and cerebral arteries. For each individual, we will fix arterial and adipose tissue samples in 10% formalin and freeze another adipose tissue sample at −80°C for future studies. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted by the Ethics Committee of University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Brazil. Results will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. PMID:27621828

  13. Effect of Gender on the Total Abdominal Fat, Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Abdominal Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue among Indian Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Abdominal obesity is a better marker of adverse metabolic profile than generalized obesity in hypertensive subjects. Further, gender has effect on adiposity and its distribution. Aim Effect of gender on obesity and the distribution of fat in different sub-compartments of abdomen among Indian hypertensive subjects. Materials and Methods This observational study included 278 adult subjects (Males-149 & Females-129) with essential hypertension from a tertiary care centre in north India over one year. A detailed history taking and physical examination including anthropometry were performed in all patients. Total Abdominal Fat (TAF) and abdominal adipose tissue sub-compartments like Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue (IAAT) and Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue (SCAT) were measured using the predictive equations developed for Asian Indians. Results Female hypertensive subjects had higher Body Mass Index (BMI) with more overweight (BMI ≥ 23kg/m2), and obesity (BMI≥ 25 kg/m2). Additionally, they had higher prevalence of central obesity based on both Waist Circumference (WC) criteria (WC≥ 90 cm in males and WC≥ 80 cm in females) and TAF criteria {≥245.6 cm2 (males) and ≥203.46 cm2 (females)} than male patients. But there was no difference in the prevalence of central obesity based on Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) criteria (WHR ≥0.90 in males and WHR ≥ 0.85 in females) between two genders. High TAF & IAAT were present in more females although there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT between two genders. Conclusion Female hypertensive subjects were more obese with higher abnormal TAF & IAAT compared to male patients. However, there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT among them. PMID:27190876

  14. Adipogenic Potential of Adipose Stem Cell Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Han; Zimmerlin, Ludovic; Marra, Kacey G.; Donnenberg, Vera S.; Donnenberg, Albert D.; Rubin, J. Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Adipose stem cells represent a heterogenous population. Understanding the functional characteristics of subpopulations will be useful in developing adipose stem cell–based therapies for regenerative medicine applications. The aim of this study was to define distinct populations within the stromal vascular fraction based on surface marker expression, and to evaluate the ability of each cell type to differentiate to mature adipocytes. Methods Subcutaneous whole adipose tissue was obtained by abdominoplasty from human patients. The stromal vascular fraction was separated and four cell populations were isolated by flow cytometry and studied. Candidate perivascular cells (pericytes) were defined as CD146+/CD31−/CD34−. Two CD31+ endothelial populations were detected and differentiated by CD34 expression. These were tentatively designated as mature endothelial (CD 31+/CD34−), and immature endothelial (CD31+/CD34+). Both endothelial populations were heterogeneous with respect to CD146. The CD31−/CD34+ fraction (preadipocyte candidate) was also CD90+ but lacked CD146 expression. Results Proliferation was greatest in the CD31−/CD34+ group and slowest in the CD146+ group. Expression of adipogenic genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, and fatty acid binding protein 4, were significantly higher in the CD31−/CD34+ group compared with all other populations after in vitro adipogenic differentiation. This group also demonstrated the highest proportion of AdipoRed lipid staining. Conclusions The authors have isolated four distinct stromal populations from human adult adipose tissue and characterized their adipogenic potential. Of these four populations, the CD31/CD34+ group is the most prevalent and has the greatest potential for adipogenic differentiation. This cell type appears to hold the most promise for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:21572381

  15. Postnatal changes in fatty acids composition of brown adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Ogawa, K.; Kuroshima, A.

    1992-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is higher during the early postnatal period, decreasing towards a low adult level. The present study examined postnatal changes in the lipid composition of BAT. BAT from pre-weaning rats at 4 and 14 days old showed the following differences in lipid composition compared to that from adults of 12 weeks old. (i) Relative weight of interscapular BAT to body weight was markedly greater. (ii) BAT-triglyceride (TG) level was lower, while BAT-phospholipid (PL)level was higher. (iii) In TG fatty acids (FA) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PU; mol %), arachidonate index (AI), unsaturation index (UI) and PU/saturated FA (SA) were higher; rare FA such as eicosadienoate, bishomo- γ-linolenic acid and lignoceric acid in mol % were also higher. (iv) In PL-FA monounsaturated FA (MU) in mol % was lower; PU mol %, AI and UI were higher. These features in BAT of pre-weaning rats resembled those in the cold-acclimated adults, suggesting a close relationship of the PL-FA profile to high activity of BAT.

  16. Vitamin D Deficiency, Adiposity, and Cardiometabolic Risk in Urban Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Sacheck, Jennifer; Goodman, Elizabeth; Chui, Kenneth; Chomitz, Virginia; Must, Aviva; Economos, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and cardiometabolic risk factors independent of adiposity in urban schoolchildren. Study design We assessed the relationships among serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], adiposity measured by body mass index (BMI) z-score (BMIz), and 6 cardiometabolic risk factors (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein [CRP]) in a cross-sectional sample of 263 racially and ethnically diverse schoolchildren from the Boston area during late winter. Multivariate regression analyses adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and BMIz examined associations of 25(OH)D and cardiometabolic risk factors. Results Overall, 74.6% of the children were vitamin D deficient [25(OH)D <50 nmol/L; mean, 41.8 ± 13.7 nmol/L]; 45% were overweight or obese (20%and 25%, respectively; BMIz = 0.75 ± 1.1). The 25(OH)D level was not associated with BMIz, but was positively associated with the cardiometabolic risk factor CRP (β = 0.03; P < .05). BMIz was associated with elevated triglycerides (β = 0.13), CRP (β = 0.58), and interleukin-6 (β= 0.14) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = −0.09; all P < .01). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent during the late winter months in urban schoolchildren living in the northeastern United States. This widespread deficiency may contribute to the lack of associations between 25(OH)D and both BMIz and cardiometabolic risk factors. The association between 25(OH)D and CRP warrants further study. PMID:21784451

  17. Adipose tissue gene expression and metabolic health of obese adults.

    PubMed

    Das, S K; Ma, L; Sharma, N K

    2015-05-01

    Obese subjects with a similar body mass index (BMI) exhibit substantial heterogeneity in gluco- and cardiometabolic heath phenotypes. However, defining genes that underlie the heterogeneity of metabolic features among obese individuals and determining metabolically healthy and unhealthy phenotypes remain challenging. We conducted unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue transcripts from 30 obese men and women ⩾40 years old. Despite similar BMIs in all subjects, we found two distinct subgroups, one metabolically healthy (group 1) and one metabolically unhealthy (group 2). Subjects in group 2 showed significantly higher total cholesterol (P=0.005), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.006), 2-h insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (P=0.015) and lower insulin sensitivity (SI, P=0.029) compared with group 1. We identified significant upregulation of 141 genes (for example, MMP9 and SPP1) and downregulation of 17 genes (for example, NDRG4 and GINS3) in group 2 subjects. Intriguingly, these differentially expressed transcripts were enriched for genes involved in cardiovascular disease-related processes (P=2.81 × 10(-11)-3.74 × 10(-02)) and pathways involved in immune and inflammatory response (P=8.32 × 10(-5)-0.04). Two downregulated genes, NDRG4 and GINS3, have been located in a genomic interval associated with cardiac repolarization in published GWASs and zebra fish knockout models. Our study provides evidence that perturbations in the adipose tissue gene expression network are important in defining metabolic health in obese subjects. PMID:25520251

  18. Effects of adiposity on postural control and cognition.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hao; O'Connor, Daniel P; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S; Gorniak, Stacey L

    2016-01-01

    In the U.S., it is estimated that over one-third of adults are obese (Body Mass Index (BMI)>30kg/m(2)). Previous studies suggest that obesity may be associated with deficits in cognitive performance and postural control. Increased BMI may challenge cognitive and postural performance in a variety of populations; however, most relevant studies have classified participants based on BMI values, which cannot be used to accurately assess the effects of adiposity on cognitive performance and postural control. The objective of the current study was to examine motor and cognitive responses for overweight and obese adults compared to normal weight individuals by using both BMI and adiposity measures. Ten normal weight (BMI=18-24.9kg/m(2)), ten overweight (BMI=25-29.9kg/m(2)), and ten obese (BMI=30-40kg/m(2)) adults were evaluated (age: 24±4 years). Participants were classified into three groups based on BMI values at the onset of the study, prior to body composition analysis. Participants performed (1) working memory task while maintaining upright stance, and (2) a battery of sensorimotor evaluations. Working memory reaction times, response accuracy, center-of-pressure (COP) path length, velocity, migration area, time to boundary values in anterior-posterior direction, and ankle-hip strategy-scores were calculated to evaluate cognitive-motor performance. No significant deficits in working memory performance were observed. Overall, measures of motor function deteriorated as BMI and body fat percentage increased. The relationship between deteriorating postural performance indices and body fat percentage were greater than those found between BMI and postural performance indices. PMID:26669948

  19. BaiKhao (rice leaf) app: a mobile device-based application in analyzing the color level of the rice leaf for nitrogen estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intaravanne, Yuttana; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun

    2012-11-01

    As the color level of the rice leaf corresponds to the nitrogen status of rice in the field, farmers use a leaf color chart (LCC) to identify the color level of the rice leaf in order to estimate the amount of N fertilizer needed for the rice field. However, the ability of the farmers and degeneration of the LCC color affect the accuracy in reading the rice leaf color level. In this paper, we propose a mobile device-based rice leaf color analyzer called "BaiKhao" (means rice leaf in Thai). Our key idea is to simultaneously capture and process the two-dimensional (2-D) data scattered and reflected from the rice leaf and its surrounding reference, thus eliminating expensive external components and alleviating the environmental fluctuation but yet achieving a high accuracy. Our field tests using an Android-based mobile phone show that all important leaf color levels of 1, 2, 3, and 4 can be correctly identified. Additional key features include low cost and ease of implementation with highly efficient distribution through the internet.

  20. Behavior of BaBr2, BaI2, and BaCl2 at high pressure as analogs to SiO2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, T. J.; Stackhouse, S.; Diamond, M. R.; Godwal, B. K.; Jeanloz, R.

    2015-12-01

    Motivated by the expectation that giant and supergiant planets likely contain rocky components in their cores, we study analogs of the archetypal rock constituent, SiO2. The crystal structures of SiO2 under ultra-high pressures, greater than feasible experimental conditions, are believed to be documented by the high pressure structural sequence of AX2 compounds. Experimental and theoretical work agree on a high pressure transition to the cotunnite (orthorhombic) phase, with first-principles theory predicting that SiO2 transforms to the cotunnite structure at 750 GPa. However, the existence of a postcotunnite (monoclinic) phase as the final high pressure polymorph, suggested by X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments on ambient pressure cotunnite-structured AX2 compounds (e.g. PbCl2, SnCl2), has been challenged by density-functional theory (DFT) computations. This disagreement could perhaps be due to sensitivity in diamond-anvil cell (DAC) experiments to pressure gradients; conversely, it could perhaps arise from limitations of DFT. This study further explores both the experimental and theoretical sides of this debate, with an aim to resolve this discrepancy. We present synchrotron XRD data on the AX2 compounds BaCl2, BaBr2, and BaI2, compressed up to 70 GPa at room temperature in a DAC. Here we compare our experimentally observed crystallography and equations of state with results from our DFT simulations.

  1. Methods in Enzymology (MIE): Methods of Adipose Tissue Biology-

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Ryan; Church, Christopher; Gericke, Martin T.; Jeffery, Elise; Colman, Laura; Rodeheffer, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that specializes in lipid metabolism and is distributed throughout the body in distinct white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots. These tissues have opposing roles in lipid metabolism with WAT storing excessive caloric intake in the form of lipid, and BAT burning lipid through non-shivering thermogenesis. As accumulation of lipid in mature adipocytes of WAT leads to obesity and increased risk of comorbidity (Pi-Sunyer et al., 1998), detailed understanding of the mechanisms of BAT activation and WAT accumulation could produce therapeutic strategies for combatting metabolic pathologies. As morphological changes accompany alterations in adipose function, imaging of adipose tissue is one of the most important tools for understanding how adipose tissue mass fluctuates in response to various physiological contexts. Therefore, this chapter details several methods of processing and imaging adipose tissue, including brightfield colorimetric imaging of paraffin sectioned adipose tissue with a detailed protocol for automated adipocyte size analysis; fluorescent imaging of paraffin and frozen sectioned adipose tissue; and confocal fluorescent microscopy of whole mounted adipose tissue. We have also provided many example images showing results produced using each protocol, as well as commentary on the strengths and limitations of each approach. PMID:24480341

  2. Gene-centric meta-analyses for central adiposity traits in up to 57 412 individuals of European descent confirm known loci and reveal several novel associations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are surrogate measures of central adiposity that are associated with adverse cardiovascular events, type 2 diabetes and cancer independent of body mass index (BMI). WC and WHR are highly heritable with multiple susceptibility loci identified to d...

  3. Is the adiposity-associated FTO gene variant related to all-cause mortality independent of adiposity? Meta-analysis of data from 169,551 Caucasian adults

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, S. S.; Zhao, J. H.; Chasman, D. I.; Fischer, K.; Qi, Q.; Smith, A. V.; Thinggaard, M.; Jarczok, M. N.; Nalls, M. A.; Trompet, S.; Timpson, N. J.; Schmidt, B.; Jackson, A. U.; Lyytikäinen, L. P.; Verweij, N.; Mueller-Nurasyid, M.; Vikström, M.; Marques-Vidal, P.; Wong, A.; Meidtner, K.; Middelberg, R. P.; Strawbridge, R. J.; Christiansen, L.; Kyvik, K. O.; Hamsten, A.; Jääskeläinen, T.; Tjønneland, A.; Eriksson, J. G.; Whitfield, J. B.; Boeing, H.; Hardy, R.; Vollenweider, P.; Leander, K.; Peters, A.; van der Harst, P.; Kumari, M.; Lehtimäki, T.; Meirhaeghe, A.; Tuomilehto, J.; Jöckel, K.-H.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Sattar, N.; Baumeister, S. E.; Smith, G. Davey; Casas, J. P.; Houston, D. K.; März, W.; Christensen, K.; Gudnason, V.; Hu, F. B.; Metspalu, A.; Ridker, P. M.; Wareham, N. J.; Loos, R. J. F.; Tiemeier, H.; Sonestedt, E.; Sørensen, T. I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the FTO gene showed a much stronger association with all-cause mortality than expected from its association with body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (FMI) and waist circumference (WC). This finding implies that the SNP has strong pleiotropic effects on adiposity and adiposity-independent pathological pathways that leads to increased mortality. To investigate this further, we conducted a meta-analysis of similar data from 34 longitudinal studies including 169,551 adult Caucasians among whom 27,100 died during follow-up. Linear regression showed that the minor allele of the FTO SNP was associated with greater BMI (n = 169,551; 0.32 kg m−2; 95% CI 0.28–0.32, P < 1 × 10−32), WC (n = 152,631; 0.76 cm; 0.68–0.84, P < 1 × 10−32) and FMI (n = 48,192; 0.17 kg m−2; 0.13–0.22, P = 1.0 × 10−13). Cox proportional hazard regression analyses for mortality showed that the hazards ratio (HR) for the minor allele of the FTO SNPs was 1.02 (1.00–1.04, P = 0.097), but the apparent excess risk was eliminated after adjustment for BMI and WC (HR: 1.00; 0.98–1.03, P = 0.662) and for FMI (HR: 1.00; 0.96–1.04, P = 0.932). In conclusion, this study does not support that the FTO SNP is associated with all-cause mortality independently of the adiposity phenotypes. PMID:25752329

  4. Is the adiposity-associated FTO gene variant related to all-cause mortality independent of adiposity? Meta-analysis of data from 169,551 Caucasian adults.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, E; Ängquist, L H; Mirza, S S; Zhao, J H; Chasman, D I; Fischer, K; Qi, Q; Smith, A V; Thinggaard, M; Jarczok, M N; Nalls, M A; Trompet, S; Timpson, N J; Schmidt, B; Jackson, A U; Lyytikäinen, L P; Verweij, N; Mueller-Nurasyid, M; Vikström, M; Marques-Vidal, P; Wong, A; Meidtner, K; Middelberg, R P; Strawbridge, R J; Christiansen, L; Kyvik, K O; Hamsten, A; Jääskeläinen, T; Tjønneland, A; Eriksson, J G; Whitfield, J B; Boeing, H; Hardy, R; Vollenweider, P; Leander, K; Peters, A; van der Harst, P; Kumari, M; Lehtimäki, T; Meirhaeghe, A; Tuomilehto, J; Jöckel, K-H; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Sattar, N; Baumeister, S E; Davey Smith, G; Casas, J P; Houston, D K; März, W; Christensen, K; Gudnason, V; Hu, F B; Metspalu, A; Ridker, P M; Wareham, N J; Loos, R J F; Tiemeier, H; Sonestedt, E; Sørensen, T I A

    2015-04-01

    Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the FTO gene showed a much stronger association with all-cause mortality than expected from its association with body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (FMI) and waist circumference (WC). This finding implies that the SNP has strong pleiotropic effects on adiposity and adiposity-independent pathological pathways that leads to increased mortality. To investigate this further, we conducted a meta-analysis of similar data from 34 longitudinal studies including 169,551 adult Caucasians among whom 27,100 died during follow-up. Linear regression showed that the minor allele of the FTO SNP was associated with greater BMI (n = 169,551; 0.32 kg m(-2) ; 95% CI 0.28-0.32, P < 1 × 10(-32) ), WC (n = 152,631; 0.76 cm; 0.68-0.84, P < 1 × 10(-32) ) and FMI (n = 48,192; 0.17 kg m(-2) ; 0.13-0.22, P = 1.0 × 10(-13) ). Cox proportional hazard regression analyses for mortality showed that the hazards ratio (HR) for the minor allele of the FTO SNPs was 1.02 (1.00-1.04, P = 0.097), but the apparent excess risk was eliminated after adjustment for BMI and WC (HR: 1.00; 0.98-1.03, P = 0.662) and for FMI (HR: 1.00; 0.96-1.04, P = 0.932). In conclusion, this study does not support that the FTO SNP is associated with all-cause mortality independently of the adiposity phenotypes. PMID:25752329

  5. Epicardial adipose tissue in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and its relationship with left ventricular (LV) parameters assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and healthy controls. Background EAT is the true visceral fat deposited around the heart which generates various bioactive molecules. Previous studies found that EAT is related to left ventricular mass (LVM) in healthy subjects. Further studies showed a constant EAT to myocardial mass ratio in normal, ischemic and hypertrophied hearts. Methods CMR was performed in 66 patients with CHF due to ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM), or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 32 healthy controls. Ventricular volumes, dimensions and LV function were assessed. The amount of EAT was determined volumetrically and expressed as mass indexed to body surface area. Additionally, the EAT/LVM and the EAT/left ventricular remodelling index (LVRI) ratios were calculated. Results Patients with CHF had less indexed EAT mass than controls (22 ± 5 g/m2 versus 34 ± 4 g/m2, p < 0.0001). In the subgroup analysis there were no significant differences in indexed EAT mass between patients with ICM and DCM (21 ± 4 g/m2 versus 23 ± 6 g/m2, p = 0.14). Linear regression analysis showed that with increasing LV end-diastolic diameter (LV-EDD) (r = 0.42, p = 0.0004) and LV end-diastolic mass (LV-EDM) (r = 0.59, p < 0.0001), there was a significantly increased amount of EAT in patients with CHF. However, the ratio of EAT mass/LV-EDM was significantly reduced in patients with CHF compared to healthy controls (0.54 ± 0.1 versus 0.21 ± 0.1, p < 0.0001). In CHF patients higher indexed EAT/LVRI-ratios in CHF patients correlated best with a reduced LV-EF (r = 0.49, p < 0.0001). Conclusion Patients with CHF revealed significantly reduced amounts of EAT. An increase in LVM is significantly related to an increase in EAT in both patients with CHF and controls. However

  6. Android Adiposity and Lack of Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity Are Associated With Insulin Resistance and Diabetes in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Snih, Soham; Serra-Rexach, José A.; Burant, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background. Physical inactivity and excess adiposity are thought to be interdependent “lifestyle” factors and thus, many older adults are at exaggerated risk for preventable diseases. The purposes of this study were to determine the degree of discordance between body mass index (BMI) and adiposity among adults older than 50 years, and to determine the extent to which direct measures of adiposity, and objectively measured sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) are associated with insulin resistance (IR) or diabetes. Methods. A population representative sample of 2,816 individuals, aged 50–85 years, was included from the combined 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. BMI, percent body fat (%BF) and android adiposity as determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, objectively measured SB and PA, established markers of cardiometabolic risk, IR, and type 2 diabetes were analyzed. Results. Approximately 50% of the men and 64% of the women who were normal weight according to BMI had excessive %BF. Adults with the least SB and greatest moderate and vigorous PA exhibited the healthiest cardiometabolic profiles, whereas adults with the greatest SB and lowest activity had highest risk. Greater android adiposity stores were robustly associated with IR or diabetes in all adults, independent of SB and activity. Among men, less moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with IR or diabetes; whereas among women, less lifestyle moderate activity was associated with IR or diabetes. Conclusions. Android adiposity and low moderate and vigorous PA are the strongest predictors of IR or diabetes among aging adults. PMID:25711528

  7. n3 PUFAs Do Not Affect Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Overweight to Moderately Obese Men and Women123

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Mario; Kuzma, Jessica N.; Hagman, Derek K.; van Yserloo, Brian; Matthys, Colleen C.; Callahan, Holly S.; Weigle, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decrease adipose tissue inflammation in rodents and in morbidly obese humans. We investigated whether a diet rich in n3 PUFAs from both marine and plant sources reduces adipose tissue and systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese adults. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, parallel-design, placebo-controlled feeding trial. Healthy men and women with a body mass index between 28 and 33 kg/m2 consumed a diet rich in n3 PUFAs (3.5% of energy intake; n = 11) from plant and marine sources or a control diet (0.5% of energy intake from n3 PUFAs; n = 13). These diets were consumed for 14 wk (ad libitum for 12 wk). All foods were provided for the entire study period. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and fasting plasma were collected after the first 2 wk with the control diet and again at the end of the 14-wk dietary period. The primary outcome of this ex post analysis was the adipose tissue gene expression of 13 key mediators of inflammation. Adipose tissue gene expression of inflammatory mediators did not differ between the 2 groups, after adjustment for weight change. Furthermore, none of the 5 plasma markers of systemic inflammation differed significantly as an effect of diet treatment. We conclude that a relatively high dose of n3 PUFAs from plant and marine sources did not significantly lower adipose tissue or systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese healthy men and women over 14 wk. PMID:23761646

  8. Relationships between Rodent White Adipose Fat Pads and Human White Adipose Fat Depots

    PubMed Central

    Chusyd, Daniella E.; Wang, Donghai; Huffman, Derek M.; Nagy, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue (WAT) development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of WAT. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent WAT as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat. PMID:27148535

  9. Oestrogen signalling in white adipose progenitor cells inhibits differentiation into brown adipose and smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lapid, Kfir; Lim, Ajin; Clegg, Deborah J; Zeve, Daniel; Graff, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    Oestrogen, often via oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signalling, regulates metabolic physiology, highlighted by post-menopausal temperature dysregulation (hot flashes), glucose intolerance, increased appetite and reduced metabolic rate. Here we show that ERα signalling has a role in adipose lineage specification in mice. ERα regulates adipose progenitor identity and potency, promoting white adipogenic lineage commitment. White adipose progenitors lacking ERα reprogramme and enter into smooth muscle and brown adipogenic fates. Mechanistic studies highlight a TGFβ programme involved in progenitor reprogramming downstream of ERα signalling. The observed reprogramming has profound metabolic outcomes; both female and male adipose-lineage ERα-mutant mice are lean, have improved glucose sensitivity and are resistant to weight gain on a high-fat diet. Further, they are hypermetabolic, hyperphagic and hyperthermic, all consistent with a brown phenotype. Together, these findings indicate that ERα cell autonomously regulates adipose lineage commitment, brown fat and smooth muscle cell formation, and systemic metabolism, in a manner relevant to prevalent metabolic diseases. PMID:25330806

  10. Oestrogen signalling in white adipose progenitor cells inhibits differentiation into brown adipose and smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, Deborah J.; Zeve, Daniel; Graff, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Oestrogen, often via oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signalling, regulates metabolic physiology, highlighted by post-menopausal temperature dysregulation (hot flashes), glucose intolerance, increased appetite and reduced metabolic rate. Here we show that ERα signalling has a role in adipose lineage specification in mice. ERα regulates adipose progenitor identity and potency, promoting white adipogenic lineage commitment. White adipose progenitors lacking ERα reprogramme and enter into smooth muscle and brown adipogenic fates. Mechanistic studies highlight a TGFβ programme involved in progenitor reprogramming downstream of ERα signalling. The observed reprogramming has profound metabolic outcomes; both female and male adipose-lineage ERα-mutant mice are lean, have improved glucose sensitivity and are resistant to weight gain on a high-fat diet. Further, they are hypermetabolic, hyperphagic and hyperthermic, all consistent with a brown phenotype. Together, these findings indicate that ERα cell autonomously regulates adipose lineage commitment, brown fat and smooth muscle cell formation, and systemic metabolism, in a manner relevant to prevalent metabolic diseases. PMID:25330806

  11. [Cancer cachexia and white adipose tissue browning].

    PubMed

    Zhang, S T; Yang, H M

    2016-08-01

    Cancer cachexia occurs in a majority of advanced cancer patients. These patients with impaired physical function are unable to tolerance cancer treatment well and have a significantly reduced survival rate. Currently, there is no effective clinical treatment available for cancer cachexia, therefore, it is necessary to clarify the molecular mechanisms of cancer cachexia, moreover, new therapeutic targets for cancer cachexia treatment are urgently needed. Very recent studies suggest that, during cancer cachexia, white adipose tissue undergo a 'browning' process, resulting in increased lipid mobilization and energy expenditure, which may be necessary for the occurrence of cancer cachexia. In this article, we summarize the definition and characteristics of cancer cachexia and adipose tissue 'browning', then, we discuss the new study directions presented in latest research. PMID:27531474

  12. Marrow Adipose Tissue: Trimming the Fat.

    PubMed

    Scheller, Erica L; Cawthorn, William P; Burr, Aaron A; Horowitz, Mark C; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2016-06-01

    Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is a unique fat depot, located in the skeleton, that has the potential to contribute to both local and systemic metabolic processes. In this review we highlight several recent conceptual developments pertaining to the origin and function of MAT adipocytes; consider the relationship of MAT to beige, brown, and white adipose depots; explore MAT expansion and turnover in humans and rodents; and discuss future directions for MAT research in the context of endocrine function and metabolic disease. MAT has the potential to exert both local and systemic effects on metabolic homeostasis, skeletal remodeling, hematopoiesis, and the development of bone metastases. The diversity of these functions highlights the breadth of the potential impact of MAT on health and disease. PMID:27094502

  13. Prohibitin in Adipose and Immune Functions.

    PubMed

    Ande, Sudharsana R; Nguyen, K Hoa; Nyomba, B L Grégoire; Mishra, Suresh

    2016-08-01

    Prohibitin (PHB) was discovered in a quest to find genes with antiproliferative functions. However, the attribute of PHB that is responsible for its antiproliferative function remains elusive. Meanwhile, recent studies have established PHB as a pleiotropic protein with roles in metabolism, immunity, and senescence. PHB has cell compartment-specific functions, acting as a scaffolding protein in mitochondria, an adaptor molecule in membrane signaling, and a transcriptional coregulator in the nucleus. However, it remains unclear whether different functions and locations of PHB are interrelated or independent from each other, or if PHB works in a tissue-specific manner. Here, we discuss new findings on the role of PHB in adipose-immune interaction and an unexpected role in sex differences in adipose and immune functions. PMID:27312736

  14. Estimation of limb adiposity by bioimpedance spectroscopy in lymphoedema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, L. C.; Essex, T.; Gaw, R.; Czerniec, S.; Dylke, E.; Abell, B.; Kilbreath, S. L.

    2013-04-01

    Lymphoedema is a chronic debilitating condition that may occur in approximately 25% of women treated for breast cancer. As the condition progresses, accumulated lymph fluid becomes fibrotic with infiltration of adipose tissue. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is the preferred method for early detection of lymphoedema based on the measurement of impedance of extracellular fluid. The present study assessed whether these impedance measurements could also be used to estimate the adipose tissue content of the arm based on a model previously used to predict whole body composition. Estimates of arm adipose tissue in a cohort of women with lymphoedema were found to be highly correlated (r > 0.82) with measurements of adipose tissue obtained using the reference method of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Paired t-tests confirmed that there was no significant difference between the adipose tissue volumes obtained by the two methods. These results support the view that the method shows promise for the estimation of arm adiposity in lymphoedema.

  15. Measurements of body fat distribution: assessment of collinearity with body mass, adiposity and height in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and height, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. METHODS : A controlled cross-sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 with normal weight, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 with normal weight and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central (CS) and peripheral skinfolds (PS). The BF% was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. RESULTS : The increase in central fat, represented by WC, UC, WHtR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase in peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh circumference were proportional to the increase in BMI and BF%. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The height showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being fair or weak with waist measurements. CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, as it showed the highest capacity to predict adiposity in each group, and also showed fair or weak correlation with height. PMID:25623729

  16. Epicardial adipose tissue and atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Hatem, Stéphane N; Sanders, Prashanthan

    2014-05-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice. AF is often associated with profound functional and structural alterations of the atrial myocardium that compose its substrate. Recently, a relationship between the thickness of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and the incidence and severity of AF has been reported. Adipose tissue is a biologically active organ regulating the metabolism of neighbouring organs. It is also a major source of cytokines. In the heart, EAT is contiguous with the myocardium without fascia boundaries resulting in paracrine effects through the release of adipokines. Indeed, Activin A, which is produced in abundance by EAT during heart failure or diabetes, shows a marked fibrotic effect on the atrial myocardium. The infiltration of adipocytes into the atrial myocardium could also disorganize the depolarization wave front favouring micro re-entry circuits and local conduction block. Finally, EAT contains progenitor cells in abundance and therefore could be a source of myofibroblasts producing extracellular matrix. The study on the role played by adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of AF is just starting and is highly likely to uncover new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for AF. PMID:24648445

  17. Peptides from adipose tissue in mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wędrychowicz, Andrzej; Zając, Andrzej; Pilecki, Maciej; Kościelniak, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław J

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that is essential to regulation of metabolism in humans. A new approach to mental disorders led to research on involvement of adipokines in the etiology of mental disorders and mood states and their impact on the health status of psychiatric patients, as well as the effects of treatment for mental health disorders on plasma levels of adipokines. There is evidence that disturbances in adipokine secretion are important in the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and outcome of mental disorders. Admittedly leptin and adiponectin are involved in pathophysiology of depression. A lot of disturbances in secretion and plasma levels of adipokines are observed in eating disorders with a significant impact on the symptoms and course of a disease. It is still a question whether observed dysregulation of adipokines secretion are primary or secondary. Moreover findings in this area are somewhat inconsistent, owing to differences in patient age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking habits, level of physical activity, eating pathology, general health or medication. This was the rationale for our detailed investigation into the role of the endocrine functions of adipose tissue in mental disorders. It seems that we are continually at the beginning of understanding of the relation between adipose tissue and mental disorders. PMID:25540725

  18. Aquaglyceroporins: implications in adipose biology and obesity.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Ana; Moura, Teresa F; Soveral, Graça

    2015-02-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane water/glycerol channels that are involved in many physiological processes. Their primary function is to facilitate the bidirectional transfer of water and small solutes across biological membranes in response to osmotic gradients. Aquaglyceroporins, a subset of the AQP family, are the only mammalian proteins with the ability to permeate glycerol. For a long time, AQP7 has been the only aquaglyceroporin associated with the adipose tissue, which is the major source of circulating glycerol in response to the energy demand. AQP7 dysregulation was positively correlated with obesity onset and adipocyte glycerol permeation through AQP7 was appointed as a novel regulator of adipocyte metabolism and whole-body fat mass. Recently, AQP3, AQP9, AQP10 and AQP11 were additionally identified in human adipocytes and proposed as additional glycerol pathways in these cells. This review contextualizes the importance of aquaglyceroporins in adipose tissue biology and highlights aquaglyceroporins' unique structural features which are relevant for the design of effective therapeutic compounds. We also refer to the latest advances in the identification and characterization of novel aquaporin isoforms in adipose tissue. Finally, considerations on the actual progress of aquaporin research and its implications on obesity therapy are suggested. PMID:25359234

  19. Increased Adipose Protein Carbonylation in Human Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Frohnert, Brigitte I.; Sinaiko, Alan R.; Serrot, Federico J.; Foncea, Rocio E.; Moran, Antoinette; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Choudry, Umar; Bernlohr, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is associated with obesity but mechanisms controlling this relationship in humans are not fully understood. Studies in animal models suggest a linkage between adipose reactive oxygen species (ROS) and insulin resistance. ROS oxidize cellular lipids to produce a variety of lipid hydroperoxides that in turn generate reactive lipid aldehydes that covalently modify cellular proteins in a process termed carbonylation. Mammalian cells defend against reactive lipid aldehydes and protein carbonylation by glutathionylation using glutathione-S-transferase A4 (GSTA4) or carbonyl reduction/oxidation via reductases and/or dehydrogenases. Insulin resistance in mice is linked to ROS production and increased level of protein carbonylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased insulin-stimulated glucose transport, and altered adipokine secretion. To assess protein carbonylation and insulin resistance in humans, eight healthy participants underwent subcutaneous fat biopsy from the periumbilical region for protein analysis and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing to measure insulin sensitivity. Soluble proteins from adipose tissue were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the major carbonylated proteins identified as the adipocyte and epithelial fatty acid–binding proteins. The level of protein carbonylation was directly correlated with adiposity and serum free fatty acids (FFAs). These results suggest that in human obesity oxidative stress is linked to protein carbonylation and such events may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. PMID:21593812

  20. Examining the aetiopathogenesis of varicoceles: the relationship between retroperitoneal adipose tissue and testicular venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Umul, M; Değirmenci, B; Umul, A; Uçar, M; Yılmaz, Ö; Altok, M; Güneş, M; Orhan, H; Serel, T A

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of retroperitoneal adipose tissue on testicular venous drainage and tested the nutcracker phenomenon by clinical and imaging findings. A total of 95 patients were included. The patients were evaluated with a detailed medical history and physical examination for varicocele. Their weight, height and waist circumference were also recorded. Body mass index was calculated as weight (kg)/height squared (m(2) ). Pampiniform plexus diameters were measured by scrotal colour Doppler ultrasonography, and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was evaluated by noncontrast abdominal computed tomography. We determined an almost significant correlation between BMI and varicocele presence by physical examination (P = 0.06). However, there was a significant relationship between WC and varicocele identified by physical examination (P = 0.021). There was a positive and significant relationship between BMI and pampiniform plexus diameters. Furthermore, we detected a negative correlation between retroperitoneal adipose tissue measurements and CDU findings. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between WC, pampiniform plexus diameters and CT findings. It is concluded that increasing BMI and increasing WC may play a protective role in the development of varicocele. There is a need for further studies to verify the effect of obesity on varicocele formation. PMID:26085083

  1. Lower socioeconomic status, adiposity and negative health behaviours in youth: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Sarah; Manlhiot, Cedric; Tyrrell, Pascal N; Dobbin, Stafford; Gibson, Don; Chahal, Nita; Stearne, Karen; Fisher, Amanda; McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-01-01

    Objective Understanding obesity and its modifiable risk factors in youth is key to addressing the burden of cardiovascular disease later in life. Our aim was to examine the associations among adiposity, negative health behaviours and socioeconomic status in youth from the Niagara Region. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional observational study of 3467 grade 9 students during their mandatory health and physical education class to investigate the association between socioeconomic status (postal code), self-reported health behaviour and adiposity in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. Results Median household income was $63 696 and overall percentage below the after-tax low-income cut-off was 4.2%. Negative health behaviours (especially skipped meals, lower fruit and vegetable consumption, higher screen time) were associated with lower income neighbourhoods, however, the absolute effect was small. Those participants in the lowest income quintile had a significantly greater body mass index z-score than those in the highest (0.72±1.19 vs 0.53±1.12), but the overall trend across quintiles was not statistically significant. A similar trend was noted for waist-to-height ratio. The lowest income neighbourhoods according to after-tax low-income cut-off had small but statistically significant associations with higher adiposity compared with the middle or highest income neighbourhoods. Conclusions Obesity prevention efforts should target modifiable behaviours, with particular attention to adolescents from lower income families and neighbourhoods. PMID:25986642

  2. FTO Genotype and Aging: Pleiotropic Longitudinal Effects on Adiposity, Brain function, Impulsivity and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Yi-Fang; Tanaka, Toshiko; Beason-Held, Lori L.; An, Yang; Terracciano, Antonio; Sutin, Angelina R.; Kraut, Michael; Singleton, Andrew B.; Resnick, Susan M.; Thambisetty, Madhav

    2014-01-01

    While overweight and obesity are associated with poor health outcomes in the elderly, the biological bases of obesity-related behaviors during aging are poorly understood. Common variants in the FTO gene are associated with adiposity in children and younger adults as well as with adverse mental health in older individuals. However, it is unclear whether FTO influences longitudinal trajectories of adiposity and other intermediate phenotypes relevant to mental health during aging. We examined whether a commonly carried obesity risk variant in the FTO gene (rs1421085 single nucleotide polymorphism) influences adiposity and is associated with changes in brain function in participants within the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), one of the longest-running longitudinal aging studies in the United States. Our results show that obesity-related risk allele carriers of FTO gene show dose-dependent increments in body mass index during aging. Moreover, the obesity-related risk allele is associated with reduced medial prefrontal cortical function during aging. Consistent with reduced brain function in regions intrinsic to impulse control and taste responsiveness, risk allele carriers of FTO exhibit dose-dependent increments in both impulsivity and intake of fatty foods. We propose that a common neural mechanism may underlie obesity-associated impulsivity and increased consumption of high calorie foods during aging. PMID:24863145

  3. Genetic variation near IRS1 associates with reduced adiposity and an impaired metabolic profile.

    PubMed

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Zillikens, M Carola; Stančákova, Alena; Finucane, Francis M; Ried, Janina S; Langenberg, Claudia; Zhang, Weihua; Beckmann, Jacques S; Luan, Jian'an; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Zhou, Yanhua; Smith, Albert Vernon; Zhao, Jing-Hua; Amin, Najaf; Vedantam, Sailaja; Shin, So-Youn; Haritunians, Talin; Fu, Mao; Feitosa, Mary F; Kumari, Meena; Halldorsson, Bjarni V; Tikkanen, Emmi; Mangino, Massimo; Hayward, Caroline; Song, Ci; Arnold, Alice M; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Oostra, Ben A; Campbell, Harry; Cupples, L Adrienne; Davis, Kathryn E; Döring, Angela; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Estrada, Karol; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Garcia, Melissa; Gieger, Christian; Glazer, Nicole L; Guiducci, Candace; Hofman, Albert; Humphries, Steve E; Isomaa, Bo; Jacobs, Leonie C; Jula, Antti; Karasik, David; Karlsson, Magnus K; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Lauren J; Kivimäki, Mika; Klopp, Norman; Kühnel, Brigitte; Kuusisto, Johanna; Liu, Yongmei; Ljunggren, Osten; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert N; McKnight, Barbara; Mellström, Dan; Mitchell, Braxton D; Mooser, Vincent; Moreno, José Maria; Männistö, Satu; O'Connell, Jeffery R; Pascoe, Laura; Peltonen, Leena; Peral, Belén; Perola, Markus; Psaty, Bruce M; Salomaa, Veikko; Savage, David B; Semple, Robert K; Skaric-Juric, Tatjana; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Song, Kijoung S; Spector, Timothy D; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Talmud, Philippa J; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Wild, Sarah H; Wright, Alan F; Clegg, Deborah J; Schadt, Eric; Wilson, James F; Rudan, Igor; Ripatti, Samuli; Borecki, Ingrid B; Shuldiner, Alan R; Ingelsson, Erik; Jansson, John-Olov; Kaplan, Robert C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Groop, Leif; Kiel, Douglas P; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Walker, Mark; Barroso, Inês; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Chambers, John C; Kooner, Jaspal S; Soranzo, Nicole; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Stefansson, Kari; Wichmann, H-Erich; Ohlsson, Claes; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Wareham, Nicholas J; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Fox, Caroline S; Laakso, Markku; Loos, Ruth J F

    2011-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 32 loci influencing body mass index, but this measure does not distinguish lean from fat mass. To identify adiposity loci, we meta-analyzed associations between ∼2.5 million SNPs and body fat percentage from 36,626 individuals and followed up the 14 most significant (P < 10(-6)) independent loci in 39,576 individuals. We confirmed a previously established adiposity locus in FTO (P = 3 × 10(-26)) and identified two new loci associated with body fat percentage, one near IRS1 (P = 4 × 10(-11)) and one near SPRY2 (P = 3 × 10(-8)). Both loci contain genes with potential links to adipocyte physiology. Notably, the body-fat-decreasing allele near IRS1 is associated with decreased IRS1 expression and with an impaired metabolic profile, including an increased visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, risk of diabetes and coronary artery disease and decreased adiponectin levels. Our findings provide new insights into adiposity and insulin resistance. PMID:21706003

  4. Dioxins and dibenzofurans in adipose tissue of US Vietnam veterans and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, H.K.; Watanabe, K.K.; Breen, J.; Remmers, J.; Conomos, M.G.; Stanley, J.; Flicker, M. )

    1991-03-01

    The primary reason for concern about the adverse effects of exposure to Agent Orange is attributable to its toxic contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or dioxin. We studied adipose tissues from 36 Vietnam veterans, a similar group of 79 non-Vietnam veterans, and 80 civilians; the tissue specimens were selected from the 8,000 archived tissues collected from the non-institutionalized general population by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The geometric mean (+/- standard deviation) dioxin levels in adipose tissue for Vietnam veterans, non-Vietnam veterans, and civilian controls were 11.7 (+/- 1.7), 10.9 (+/- 1.7), and 12.4 (+/- 1.9) parts per trillion on a lipid weight basis, respectively. The mean levels for these groups were not significantly different from each other with or without adjustment for age of individuals, body mass index, and specimen collection year. In addition, none of the surrogate measures of Agent Orange exposure such as military branch, service within specific geographic region, military occupation, and troop location in relation to recorded Agent Orange spray was associated with the dioxin levels in adipose tissue of Vietnam veterans. Our results suggest that heavy exposure to Agent Orange or dioxin for most US troops was unlikely.

  5. Neck Circumference as a Predictor of Adiposity among Healthy and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nayera E.; Atef, Abeer; El-Masry, Sahar A.; Ibrahim, Amany; Shady, Mones M. Abu; Al-Tohamy, Muhammad; Kamel, Iman H.; Elashry, Galal Ismail Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity, particularly in the upper part of body, is a major health problem. Because body mass index (BMI) does not adequately describe regional adiposity, other indices of body fatness are being explored. OBJECTIVES: To determine if neck circumference is a valid measure of adiposity (fat distribution) among group of Egyptian children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a cross sectional study, included 50 obese subjects, aged 7 - 12 years recruited from Endocrine, obesity and Metabolism Pediatric Unit at Children Hospital, Cairo University and 50 healthy children, age and sex matched. All children were subjected to blood pressure assessment (systolic SBP and diastolic DBP), and anthropometric assessment (body weight, height, neck circumference (NC), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, and skin fold thicknesses at three sites: biceps, triceps and sub scapular. BMI [weight (kg)/height (m2)] was calculated. RESULTS: In healthy females, significant associations were detected between NC and SBP, DBP and all anthropometric measurements. However, in healthy males NC was not significantly associated with BMI, SBP and DBP. In the obese group; both sexes; insignificant association was found between NC and SBP, DBP, BMI and skinfold thickness. CONCLUSION: NC is related to fat distribution among normal healthy female children. However, this relation disappears with increasing adiposity. The results do not support the use of NC as a useful screening tool for childhood obesity.

  6. Macrophage Elastase Suppresses White Adipose Tissue Expansion with Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Takao; Kelly, Neil J.; Takahashi, Saeko; Leme, Adriana S.; McGarry Houghton, A.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage elastase (MMP12) is a key mediator of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, yet its role in other smoking related pathologies remains unclear. The weight suppressing effects of smoking are a major hindrance to cessation efforts, and MMP12 is known to suppress the vascularization on which adipose tissue growth depends by catalyzing the formation of antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. The goal of this study was to determine the role of MMP12 in adipose tissue growth and smoking-related suppression of weight gain. Whole body weights and white adipose depots from wild-type and Mmp12-deficient mice were collected during early postnatal development and after chronic CS exposure. Adipose tissue specimens were analyzed for angiogenic and adipocytic markers and for content of the antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. Cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with adipose tissue homogenate to examine its effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and secretion. MMP12 content and activity were increased in the adipose tissue of wild-type mice at 2 weeks of age, leading to elevated endostatin production, inhibition of VEGF secretion, and decreased adipose tissue vascularity. By 8 weeks of age, adipose MMP12 levels subsided, and the protein was no longer detectable. However, chronic CS exposure led to macrophage accumulation and restored adipose MMP12 activity, thereby suppressing adipose tissue mass and vascularity. Our results reveal a novel systemic role for MMP12 in postnatal adipose tissue expansion and smoking-associated weight loss by suppressing vascularity within the white adipose tissue depots. PMID:24914890

  7. The independent prospective associations of activity intensity and dietary energy density with adiposity in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    van Sluijs, Esther M F; Sharp, Stephen J; Ambrosini, Gina L; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-03-14

    There is limited evidence on the prospective association of time spent in activity intensity (sedentary (SED), moderate (MPA) or vigorous (VPA) physical activity) and dietary intake with adiposity indicators in young people. This study aimed to assess associations between (1) baseline objectively measured activity intensity, dietary energy density (DED) and 4-year change in adiposity and (2) 4-year change in activity intensity/DED and adiposity at follow-up. We conducted cohort analyses including 367 participants (10 years at baseline, 14 years at follow-up) with valid data for objectively measured activity (Actigraph), DED (4-d food diary), anthropometry (waist circumference (WC), %body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), weight status) and covariates. Linear and logistic regression models were fit, including adjustment for DED and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results showed that baseline DED was associated with change in WC (β for 1kJ/g difference: 0·71; 95% CI 0·26, 1·17), particularly in boys (1·26; 95% CI 0·41, 2·16 v. girls: 0·26; 95% CI -0·34, 0·87), but not with %BF, FMI or weight status. In contrast, baseline SED, MPA or VPA were not associated with any of the outcomes. Change in DED was negatively associated with FMI (β for 1kJ/g increase: -0·86; 95% CI -1·59, -0·12) and %BF (-0·86; 95% CI -1·25, -0·11) but not WC (-0·27; 95% CI -1·02, 0·48). Change in SED, MPA and VPA did not predict adiposity at follow-up. In conclusion, activity intensity was not prospectively associated with adiposity, whereas the directions of associations with DED were inconsistent. To inform public health efforts, future studies should continue to analyse longitudinal data to further understand the independent role of different energy-balance behaviours in changes in adiposity in early adolescence. PMID:26758859

  8. Adipose-derived stem cell differentiation as a basic tool for vascularized adipose tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Volz, Ann-Cathrin; Huber, Birgit; Kluger, Petra J

    2016-01-01

    The development of in vitro adipose tissue constructs is highly desired to cope with the increased demand for substitutes to replace damaged soft tissue after high graded burns, deformities or tumor removal. To achieve clinically relevant dimensions, vascularization of soft tissue constructs becomes inevitable but still poses a challenge. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) represent a promising cell source for the setup of vascularized fatty tissue constructs as they can be differentiated into adipocytes and endothelial cells in vitro and are thereby available in sufficiently high cell numbers. This review summarizes the currently known characteristics of ASCs and achievements in adipogenic and endothelial differentiation in vitro. Further, the interdependency of adipogenesis and angiogenesis based on the crosstalk of endothelial cells, stem cells and adipocytes is addressed at the molecular level. Finally, achievements and limitations of current co-culture conditions for the construction of vascularized adipose tissue are evaluated. PMID:26976717

  9. Social disorder, physical activity and adiposity in Mexican adults: evidence from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Janssen, Ian

    2014-11-01

    This study analyzed the prospective relationship of community social disorder with sedentary behavior, sport participation, and adiposity in Mexican adults from the National Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS). The sample included 8307 adults (aged ≥20 years) from 145 communities. During a three-year follow-up, participants from communities with high social disorder had a 1.36cm larger increase in waist circumference than participants from communities with low social disorder. However, there were no differences in body mass index, television, or sport participation. These findings emphasize the need to promote healthy social environments in local communities. PMID:25151499

  10. Abalation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we show ...

  11. Surgical injury induces local and distant adipose tissue browning.

    PubMed

    Longchamp, Alban; Tao, Ming; Bartelt, Alexander; Ding, Kui; Lynch, Lydia; Hine, Christopher; Corpataux, Jean-Marc; Kristal, Bruce S; Mitchell, James R; Ozaki, C Keith

    2016-01-01

    The adipose organ, which comprises brown, white and beige adipocytes, possesses remarkable plasticity in response to feeding and cold exposure. The development of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT), a process called browning, represents a promising route to treat metabolic disorders. While surgical procedures constantly traumatize adipose tissue, its impact on adipocyte phenotype remains to be established. Herein, we studied the effect of trauma on adipocyte phenotype one day after sham, incision control, or surgical injury to the left inguinal adipose compartment. Caloric restriction was used to control for surgery-associated body temperature changes and weight loss. We characterized the trauma-induced cellular and molecular changes in subcutaneous, visceral, interscapular, and perivascular adipose tissue using histology, immunohistochemistry, gene expression, and flow cytometry analysis. After one day, surgical trauma stimulated adipose tissue browning at the site of injury and, importantly, in the contralateral inguinal depot. Browning was not present after incision only, and was largely independent of surgery-associated body temperature and weight loss. Adipose trauma rapidly recruited monocytes to the injured site and promoted alternatively activated macrophages. Conversely, PDGF receptor-positive beige progenitors were reduced. In this study, we identify adipose trauma as an unexpected driver of selected local and remote adipose tissue browning, holding important implications for the biologic response to surgical injury. PMID:27386152

  12. Mendelian randomisation analysis strongly implicates adiposity with risk of developing colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, David; Mitchell, Jonathan S; Law, Philip J; Palin, Kimmo; Tuupanen, Sari; Gylfe, Alexandra; Hänninen, Ulrika A; Cajuso, Tatiana; Tanskanen, Tomas; Kondelin, Johanna; Kaasinen, Eevi; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Kaprio, Jaakko; Eriksson, Johan G; Rissanen, Harri; Knekt, Paul; Pukkala, Eero; Jousilahti, Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Palotie, Aarno; Järvinen, Heikki; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Lepistö, Anna; Böhm, Jan; Meklin, Jukka-Pekka; Al-Tassan, Nada A; Palles, Claire; Martin, Lynn; Barclay, Ella; Farrington, Susan M; Timofeeva, Maria N; Meyer, Brian F; Wakil, Salma M; Campbell, Harry; Smith, Christopher G; Idziaszczyk, Shelley; Maughan, Timothy S; Kaplan, Richard; Kerr, Rachel; Kerr, David; Buchanan, Daniel D; Win, Aung K; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Taipale, Jussi; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Cheadle, Jeremy P; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Tomlinson, Ian P; Houlston, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have associated adiposity with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, such studies do not establish a causal relationship. To minimise bias from confounding we performed a Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis to examine the relationship between adiposity and CRC. Methods: We used SNPs associated with adult body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), childhood obesity and birth weight as instrumental variables in a MR analysis of 9254 CRC cases and 18 386 controls. Results: In the MR analysis, the odds ratios (ORs) of CRC risk per unit increase in BMI, WHR and childhood obesity were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02–1.49, P=0.033), 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08–2.34, P=0.019) and 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03–1.13, P=0.018), respectively. There was no evidence for association between birth weight and CRC (OR=1.22, 95% CI: 0.89–1.67, P=0.22). Combining these data with a concurrent MR-based analysis for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (totalling to 18 190 cases, 27 617 controls) provided increased support, ORs for BMI and WHR were 1.26 (95% CI: 1.10–1.44, P=7.7 × 10−4) and 1.40 (95% CI: 1.14–1.72, P=1.2 × 10−3), respectively. Conclusions: These data provide further evidence for a strong causal relationship between adiposity and the risk of developing CRC highlighting the urgent need for prevention and treatment of adiposity. PMID:27336604

  13. Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Patterns and Changes in Anthropometry: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Schmidt, Erik Berg; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Overvad, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WCBMI), adjusting for confounders. Results 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men and women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women. Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. Conclusions Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss. Associations depended on characteristics of the rest of the pattern. PMID:21811635

  14. Maternal smoking in pregnancy association with childhood adiposity and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Peters, H.; Gama, A.; Carvalhal, M. I. M.; Nogueira, H. G. M.; Rosado‐Marques, V.; Padez, C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity defined by body mass index (BMI). We examined its association with a range of adiposity measures and cardiovascular indicators in children aged 3–10 years. Methods We used data from a cross‐sectional study of schoolchildren across mainland Portuguese districts (2009–2010). We applied quantile regressions to examine maternal smoking associations with adiposity (n = 17 286), blood pressure (BP) and resting pulse rate (RPR) (n ≈ 2500) measures across the age range, adjusting for prenatal and early life factors. Results Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with increases in offspring adiposity levels. The difference in median BMI between children of smokers and non‐smokers was 0.39 kg m−2 (95% confidence interval: 0.25, 0.53) in boys and 0.46 kg m−2 (0.31, 0.62) in girls; 0.55 cm (0.24, 0.87) and 0.82 cm (0.45, 1.19), respectively, in median waist circumference; and 0.94 mm (0.49, 1.40) and 1.47 mm (0.87, 2.07) in median sum of (triceps, subscapular, suprailiac) skin‐folds. The associations appeared to be stronger with increasing age. The differences in the 90th centile tended to be greater than those in median. There was no consistent association of maternal smoking with BP and RPR. Conclusions Children whose mother smoked during pregnancy had higher adiposity levels than children of non‐smokers, across several measures, particularly among older children. Although there was no consistent association with cardiovascular indicators, maternal smoking association with childhood obesity may have implications for cardiovascular risk factors over the life course. PMID:26178147

  15. A Prospective Study of Organochlorines in Adipose Tissue and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Sørensen, Mette; Gaudreau, Eric; LeBlanc, Alain; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Background: Exposure to organochlorines has been examined as a potential risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), with inconsistent results that may be related to limited statistical power or to imprecise exposure measurements. Objective: Our purpose was to examine associations between organochlorine concentrations in prediagnostic adipose tissue samples and the risk of NHL. Methods: We conducted a case–cohort study using a prospective Danish cohort of 57,053 persons enrolled between 1993 and 1997. Within the cohort we identified 256 persons diagnosed with NHL in the population-based nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and randomly selected 256 subcohort persons. We measured concentrations of 8 pesticides and 10 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in adipose tissue collected upon enrollment. Associations between the 18 organochlorines and NHL were analyzed in Cox regression models, adjusting for body mass index. Results: Incidence rate ratios and confidence intervals (CIs) for interquartile range increases in concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane (DDT), cis-nonachlor, and oxychlordane were 1.35 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.66), 1.13 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.36), and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.38), respectively, with monotonic dose–response trends for DDT and cis-nonachlor based on categorical models. The relative risk estimates were higher for men than for women. In contrast, no clear association was found between NHL and PCBs. Conclusion: We found a higher risk of NHL in association with higher adipose tissue levels of DDT, cis-nonachlor, and oxychlordane, but no association with PCBs. This is the first study of organochlorines and NHL using prediagnostic adipose tissue samples in the exposure assessment and provides new environmental health evidence that these organochlorines contribute to NHL risk. PMID:22328999

  16. Acute pulmonary function response to ozone in young adults as a function of body mass index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese mice. Adiposity has not been examined as a possible modulator of ozone response in humans. We therefore examined the relationship between body mass index and the acute spirometric response to ozone (O(3)) exposur...

  17. Relationship between body adiposity measures and risk of primary knee and hip replacement for osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Simpson, Julie Anne; Wluka, Anita E; Teichtahl, Andrew J; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G; Graves, Stephen; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Total joint replacement is considered a surrogate measure for symptomatic end-stage osteoarthritis. It is unknown whether the adipose mass and the distribution of adipose mass are associated with the risk of primary knee and hip replacement for osteoarthritis. The aim of the present investigation was to examine this in a cohort study. Methods A total of 39,023 healthy volunteers from Melbourne, Australia were recruited for a prospective cohort study during 1990 to 1994. Their body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio were obtained from direct anthropometric measurements. The fat mass and percentage fat were estimated from bioelectrical impedance analysis. Primary knee and hip replacements for osteoarthritis between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2005 were determined by data linkage to the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for primary joint replacement associated with each adiposity measure. Results Comparing the fourth quartile with the first, there was a threefold to fourfold increased risk of primary joint replacement associated with body weight (HR = 3.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.83 to 4.18), body mass index (HR = 3.44, 95% CI = 2.80 to 4.22), fat mass (HR = 3.51, 95% CI = 2.87 to 4.30), and percentage fat (HR = 2.99, 95% CI = 2.46 to 3.63). The waist circumference (HR = 2.77, 95% CI = 2.26 to 3.39) and waist-to-hip ratio (HR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.21 to 1.76) were less strongly associated with the risk. Except for the waist-to-hip ratio, which was not significantly associated with hip replacement risk, all adiposity measures were associated with the risk of both knee and hip joint replacement, and were significantly stronger risk factors for knee. Conclusions Risk of primary knee and hip joint replacement for osteoarthritis relates to both adipose mass and central adiposity. This relationship

  18. Computed tomography-defined abdominal adiposity is associated with acute kidney injury in critically ill trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Shashaty, Michael G. S.; Kalkan, Esra; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Reilly, John P.; Holena, Daniel N.; Cummins, Kathleen; Lanken, Paul N.; Feldman, Harold I.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Christie, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) after major trauma. Since BMI is non-specific, reflecting lean, fluid, and adipose mass, we evaluated the use of computed tomography (CT) to determine if abdominal adiposity underlies the BMI-AKI association. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Level I Trauma Center of a university hospital. Patients Patients older than 13 years with an Injury Severity Score ≥16 admitted to the trauma intensive care unit were followed for development of AKI over five days. Those with isolated severe head injury or on chronic dialysis were excluded. Interventions None Measurements and Main Results Clinical, anthropometric, and demographic variables were collected prospectively. CT images at the level of the L4-5 intervertebral disc space were extracted from the medical record and used by two operators to quantitate visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT, respectively) areas. AKI was defined by Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) creatinine and dialysis criteria. Of 400 subjects, 327 (81.8%) had CT scans suitable for analysis: 264/285 (92.6%) blunt trauma subjects, 63/115 (54.8%) penetrating trauma subjects. VAT and SAT areas were highly correlated between operators (ICC>0.999, p<0.001 for each) and within operator (ICC>0.999, p<0.001 for each). In multivariable analysis, the standardized risk of AKI was 15.1% (95% CI 10.6%,19.6%), 18.1% (14%,22.2%), and 23.1% (18.3%,27.9%) at the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of VAT area, respectively (p=0.001), with similar findings when using SAT area as the adiposity measure. Conclusions Quantitation of abdominal adiposity using CT scans obtained for clinical reasons is feasible and highly reliable in critically ill trauma patients. Abdominal adiposity is independently associated with AKI in this population, confirming that excess adipose tissue contributes to the BMI-AKI association. Further studies of the potential

  19. The Association of Pediatric Psoriasis Severity with Excess and Central Adiposity: An International Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Paller, Amy S.; Mercy, Katherine; Kwasny, Mary J.; Choon, Siew Eng; Cordoro, Kelly M.; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Menter, Alan; Tom, Wynnis L.; Mahoney, Anne M.; Oostveen, Annet M.; Seyger, Marieke M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Investigate the relationship of excess and central adiposity with pediatric psoriasis severity. Design, Setting and Participants Multi-center, cross-sectional study of 409 psoriatic children. Psoriasis was classified as mild (worst Physician’s Global Assessment (PGA) <3 with body surface area (BSA) <10%) or severe (worst PGA >3 with BSA >10%). Children were enrolled from 9 countries July 2009-December 2011. Main Outcome Measures Excess adiposity (body mass index (BMI) percentile) and central adiposity (waist circumference (WC) percentile and waist-to-height ratio). Results Excess adiposity (BMI >85th percentile) occurred in 37.8% (n=155) of psoriatics vs. 20.5% (n=42) of controls, but did not differ by severity. The odds of obesity (BMI >95th percentile) overall in psoriatics vs. controls were OR=4.29, 95% CI=1.96-9.39, but were higher with severe (OR=4.92, CI=2.20-10.99) than mild (OR=3.60, CI=1.56-8.30) psoriasis, particularly in the U.S. (OR=7.60, CI=2.47-23.34, and OR=4.72, CI=1.43-15.56, respectively). WC >90th percentile occurred in 9.3% (n=19) of controls, 14.0% (n=27) of mild, and 21.2% (n=43) of severe psoriatics internationally, and especially in the U.S. (12.0% of controls, 20.8% of mild, and 31.1% of severe psoriatics). Waist-to-height ratio was significantly higher in psoriatic (0.48) vs. control (0.46) children, but unaffected by psoriasis severity. Children with severe psoriasis at their worst, but mild at enrollment, showed no difference in excess or central adiposity from children who remained severe at enrollment. Conclusion Globally, children with psoriasis have both excess adiposity and increased central adiposity, regardless of severity. The increased metabolic risks associated with excess and central adiposity warrant early monitoring and lifestyle modification. PMID:23560297

  20. Irbesartan increased PPAR{gamma} activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Moritani, Tomozo; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. {yields} DNA-binding for PPAR{gamma} was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. {yields} Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPAR{gamma} agonistic action of an AT{sub 1} receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPAR{gamma} in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPAR{gamma} in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPAR{gamma} and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  1. Behavioral responses of one western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic, to tourists, researchers and trackers.

    PubMed

    Klailova, Michelle; Hodgkinson, Chloe; Lee, Phyllis C

    2010-09-01

    Gorilla tourism, widely perceived as a lucrative industry, is propelled by strong market demand with programs in five countries and for three of four gorilla subspecies. Human presence may negatively affect wild gorillas, potentially lowering immunity and increasing the likelihood of acquiring human-borne disease. Yet, behavioral impacts of humans on wild gorilla behavior remain largely unexplored, particularly for western lowland gorillas. We evaluate the impact of tourist presence, human observer numbers (tourists, trackers, and researchers), and human observer distance on the behavior of one habituated gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Behavioral data were collected for more than 12 months from January 2007. Of silverback aggressive events, 39% (N=229) were human directed, but 65% were low-level soft barks. Adult females, and one in particular, were responsible for the highest number of aggressive events toward humans. Humans maintained closer proximity to the silverback when tourists were present, although tourist numbers had no significant impact on overall group activity budgets or rates of human-directed aggression. However, as research team size increased, group feeding rates decreased. Close observer-silverback distance correlated with a decrease in his feeding rates and an increase in human monitoring. He directed less aggression toward observers at distances >10 m, although observers spent 48.5% of time between 6 and 10 m of the silverback. We discuss gorilla personality as a factor in human-directed aggression. We explore whether the current 7 m distance limit governing gorilla tourism, based on disease transmission risks, is sufficient considering the potential behavioral stressor of close human presence. We recommend increasing minimum observation distance to >10 m where possible, decreasing observer group sizes, particularly after a visit consisting of maximum numbers and restricting tourist access to 1 visit/day. PMID:20806337

  2. Regeneration of Cartilage in Human Knee Osteoarthritis with Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Autologous Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Jaewoo; Lee, Jung Hun; Park, Kwang Seung; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This clinical case series demonstrates that percutaneous injections of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and homogenized extracellular matrix (ECM) in the form of adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF), along with hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) activated by calcium chloride, could regenerate cartilage-like tissue in human knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Autologous lipoaspirates were obtained from adipose tissue of the abdominal origin. Afterward, the lipoaspirates were minced to homogenize the ECM. These homogenized lipoaspirates were then mixed with collagenase and incubated. The resulting mixture of ADSCs and ECM in the form of SVF was injected, along with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, into knees of three Korean patients with OA. The same affected knees were reinjected weekly with additional PRP activated by calcium chloride for 3 weeks. Pretreatment and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, functional rating index, range of motion (ROM), and pain score data were then analyzed. All patients' MRI data showed cartilage-like tissue regeneration. Along with MRI evidence, the measured physical therapy outcomes in terms of ROM, subjective pain, and functional status were all improved. This study demonstrates that percutaneous injection of ADSCs with ECM contained in autologous adipose SVF, in conjunction with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, is a safe and potentially effective minimally invasive therapy for OA of human knees. PMID:27588219

  3. Regeneration of Cartilage in Human Knee Osteoarthritis with Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Autologous Extracellular Matrix.

    PubMed

    Pak, Jaewoo; Lee, Jung Hun; Park, Kwang Seung; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    This clinical case series demonstrates that percutaneous injections of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and homogenized extracellular matrix (ECM) in the form of adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF), along with hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) activated by calcium chloride, could regenerate cartilage-like tissue in human knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Autologous lipoaspirates were obtained from adipose tissue of the abdominal origin. Afterward, the lipoaspirates were minced to homogenize the ECM. These homogenized lipoaspirates were then mixed with collagenase and incubated. The resulting mixture of ADSCs and ECM in the form of SVF was injected, along with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, into knees of three Korean patients with OA. The same affected knees were reinjected weekly with additional PRP activated by calcium chloride for 3 weeks. Pretreatment and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, functional rating index, range of motion (ROM), and pain score data were then analyzed. All patients' MRI data showed cartilage-like tissue regeneration. Along with MRI evidence, the measured physical therapy outcomes in terms of ROM, subjective pain, and functional status were all improved. This study demonstrates that percutaneous injection of ADSCs with ECM contained in autologous adipose SVF, in conjunction with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, is a safe and potentially effective minimally invasive therapy for OA of human knees. PMID:27588219

  4. Circulating and visceral adipose miR-100 is down-regulated in patients with obesity and Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pek, Sharon Li Ting; Sum, Chee Fang; Lin, Michelle Xueqin; Cheng, Anton Kui Sing; Wong, Michael Tack Keong; Lim, Su Chi; Tavintharan, Subramaniam

    2016-05-15

    Obesity is a major public health problem conferring substantial excess risk for Type 2 diabetes (T2D). The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in obesity and adipose tissue is not clearly defined. We hypothesize that circulating miRNA expression profiles vary according to differences in body mass index (BMI) and T2D and circulating miRNAs may reflect adipose tissue expression. Compared to healthy, lean individuals, circulating miR-100 was significantly lower in obese normoglycemic subjects and subjects with T2D. In visceral adipose tissue, expression of miR-100 was lower from obese subjects with T2D compared to obese subjects without T2D. miR-100 expression was significantly lower after adipogenic induction in human visceral, subcutaneous adipocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. miR-100 reduced expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Insulin Growth Factor Receptor (IGFR) directly. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 was accelerated by inhibition of miR-100 and reduced by miR-100 mimic transfection. Our data provide the first evidence of an association of circulating miR-100 with obesity and diabetes. Additionally, our in-vitro findings, and the miR-100 expression patterns in site-specific adipose tissue suggest miR-100 to modulate IGFR, mTOR and mediate adipogenesis. PMID:26973292

  5. Soluble LR11/SorLA represses thermogenesis in adipose tissue and correlates with BMI in humans.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Andrew J; Jiang, Meizi; Peirce, Vivian; Relat, Joana; Virtue, Sam; Ebinuma, Hiroyuki; Fukamachi, Isamu; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Mao; Murano, Takeyoshi; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Jin, Wenlong; Jin, Zhehu; Campbell, Mark; Schneider, Wolfgang J; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Bujo, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an important component of energy expenditure in mammals. Recent studies have confirmed its presence and metabolic role in humans. Defining the physiological regulation of BAT is therefore of great importance for developing strategies to treat metabolic diseases. Here we show that the soluble form of the low-density lipoprotein receptor relative, LR11/SorLA (sLR11), suppresses thermogenesis in adipose tissue in a cell-autonomous manner. Mice lacking LR11 are protected from diet-induced obesity associated with an increased browning of white adipose tissue and hypermetabolism. Treatment of adipocytes with sLR11 inhibits thermogenesis via the bone morphogenetic protein/TGFβ signalling pathway and reduces Smad phosphorylation. In addition, sLR11 levels in humans are shown to positively correlate with body mass index and adiposity. Given the need for tight regulation of a tissue with a high capacity for energy wastage, we propose that LR11 plays an energy conserving role that is exaggerated in states of obesity. PMID:26584636

  6. Soluble LR11/SorLA represses thermogenesis in adipose tissue and correlates with BMI in humans

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Andrew J.; Jiang, Meizi; Peirce, Vivian; Relat, Joana; Virtue, Sam; Ebinuma, Hiroyuki; Fukamachi, Isamu; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Mao; Murano, Takeyoshi; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Jin, Wenlong; Jin, Zhehu; Campbell, Mark; Schneider, Wolfgang J.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Bujo, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an important component of energy expenditure in mammals. Recent studies have confirmed its presence and metabolic role in humans. Defining the physiological regulation of BAT is therefore of great importance for developing strategies to treat metabolic diseases. Here we show that the soluble form of the low-density lipoprotein receptor relative, LR11/SorLA (sLR11), suppresses thermogenesis in adipose tissue in a cell-autonomous manner. Mice lacking LR11 are protected from diet-induced obesity associated with an increased browning of white adipose tissue and hypermetabolism. Treatment of adipocytes with sLR11 inhibits thermogenesis via the bone morphogenetic protein/TGFβ signalling pathway and reduces Smad phosphorylation. In addition, sLR11 levels in humans are shown to positively correlate with body mass index and adiposity. Given the need for tight regulation of a tissue with a high capacity for energy wastage, we propose that LR11 plays an energy conserving role that is exaggerated in states of obesity. PMID:26584636

  7. The expression of ob gene is not acutely regulated by insulin and fasting in human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Vidal, H; Auboeuf, D; De Vos, P; Staels, B; Riou, J P; Auwerx, J; Laville, M

    1996-07-15

    The regulation of ob gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue was investigated using a reverse transcription-competitive PCR method to quantify the mRNA level of leptin. Leptin mRNA level was highly correlated with the body mass index of 26 subjects (12 lean, 7 non-insulin-dependent diabetic, and 7 obese patients). The effect of fasting on ob gene expression was investigated in 10 subjects maintained on a hypocaloric diet (1045 KJ/d) for 5 d. While their metabolic parameters significantly changed (decrease in insulinemia, glycemia, and resting metabolic rate and increase in plasma ketone bodies), the caloric restriction did not modify the leptin mRNA level in the adipose tissue. To verify whether insulin regulates ob gene expression, six lean subjects underwent a 3-h euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (846 +/- 138 pmol/liter) clamp. Leptin and Glut 4 mRNA levels were quantified in adipose tissue biopsies taken before and at the end of the clamp. Insulin infusion produced a significant threefold increase in Glut 4 mRNA while leptin mRNA was not affected. It is concluded that ob gene expression is not acutely regulated by insulin or by metabolic factors related to fasting in human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. PMID:8755631

  8. Patterns of body size and adiposity among UK children of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin: Child Heart And health Study in England (CHASE Study)

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, Claire M; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Chris G; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine adiposity patterns in UK South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European children using a range of adiposity markers. A cross-sectional survey in London, Birmingham and Leicester primary schools was conducted. Weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thickness values (biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac) were measured. Fat mass was derived from bioimpedance; optimally height-standardized indices were derived for all adiposity markers. Ethnic origin was based on parental self-report. Multilevel models were used to obtain adjusted means and ethnic differences adjusted for gender, age, month, observer and school (fitted as a random effect). A total of 5887 children aged 9–10 years participated (response rate 68%), including 1345 white Europeans, 1523 South Asians and 1570 black African–Caribbeans. Results Compared with white Europeans, South Asians had a higher sum of all skinfolds and fat mass percentage, and their body mass index (BMI) was lower. South Asians were slightly shorter but use of optimally height-standardized indices did not materially affect these comparisons. At any given fat mass, BMI was lower in South Asians than white Europeans. In similar comparisons, black African–Caribbeans had a lower sum of all skinfolds but a higher fat mass percentage, and their BMI was higher. Black African–Caribbeans were markedly taller. Use of optimally height-standardized indices yielded markedly different findings; sum of skinfolds index was markedly lower, whereas fat mass index and weight-for-height index were similar. At any given fat mass, BMI was similar in black African–Caribbeans and white Europeans. Conclusions UK South Asian children have higher adiposity levels and black African–Caribbeans have similar or lower adiposity levels when compared with white Europeans. However, these differences are not well represented by comparisons based on BMI, which systematically

  9. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  10. Ovariectomy in mature mice does not increase food intake, but increases adiposity and adipose tissue inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Menopause, characterized by reduced estrogen (E2), is associated with increased adiposity and metabolic pathology. Molecular mechanisms underlying this association between low E2 status and metabolic disease are not fully elucidated. When mice are fed a high fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity and diab...

  11. Differential responses of white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue to caloric restriction in rats.

    PubMed

    Okita, Naoyuki; Hayashida, Yusuke; Kojima, Yumiko; Fukushima, Mayumi; Yuguchi, Keiko; Mikami, Kentaro; Yamauchi, Akiko; Watanabe, Kyoko; Noguchi, Mituru; Nakamura, Megumi; Toda, Toshifusa; Higami, Yoshikazu

    2012-05-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) slows the aging process and extends longevity, but the exact underlying mechanisms remain debatable. It has recently been suggested that the beneficial action of CR may be mediated in part by adipose tissue remodeling. Mammals have two types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). In this study, proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF MS, and subsequent analyses were performed on both WAT and BAT from 9-month-old male rats fed ad libitum or subjected to CR for 6 months. Our findings suggest that CR activates mitochondrial energy metabolism and fatty acid biosynthesis in WAT. It is likely that in CR animals WAT functions as an energy transducer from glucose to energy-dense lipid. In contrast, in BAT CR either had no effect on, or down-regulated, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, but enhanced fatty acid biosynthesis. This suggests that in CR animals BAT may change its function from an energy consuming system to an energy reservoir system. Based on our findings, we conclude that WAT and BAT cooperate to use energy effectively via a differential response of mitochondrial function to CR. PMID:22414572

  12. Adipose Tissue Residing Progenitors (Adipocyte Lineage Progenitors and Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSC)

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Ryan; Rodeheffer, Matthew S.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Horowitz, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of brown, white and beige adipocytes have been a subject of intense scientific interest in recent years due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States and around the world. This interest has led to the identification and characterization of specific tissue resident progenitor cells that give rise to each adipocyte population in vivo. However, much still remains to be discovered about each progenitor population in terms of their “niche” within each tissue and how they are regulated at the cellular and molecular level during healthy and diseased states. While our knowledge of brown, white and beige adipose tissue is rapidly increasing, little is still known about marrow adipose tissue and its progenitor despite recent studies demonstrating possible roles for marrow adipose tissue in regulating the hematopoietic space and systemic metabolism at large. This chapter focuses on our current knowledge of brown, white, beige and marrow adipose tissue with a specific focus on the formation of each tissue from tissue resident progenitor cells. PMID:26526875

  13. Altered autophagy in human adipose tissues in obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: Autophagy is a housekeeping mechanism, involved in metabolic regulation and stress response, shown recently to regulate lipid droplets biogenesis/breakdown and adipose tissue phenotype. Objective: We hypothesized that in human obesity autophagy may be altered in adipose tissue in a fat d...

  14. Adipose tissue and the reproductive axis: biological aspects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The discovery of leptin clearly demonstrated a relationship between body fat and the neuroendocrine axis since leptin influences appetite and the reproductive axis. Since adipose tissue is a primary source of leptin, adipose tissue is no longer considered as simply a depot to store fat. Recent find...

  15. Ontogeny of adipokine expression in neonatal pig adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined ontogeny of development for a range of adipokines in neonatal adipose tissue. Pigs were selected across six litters for sampling at d1, d4, d7 or d21 of age. Subcutaneous (SQ) and perirenal (PR) adipose tissue were collected and extracted for total RNA. SQ was also collected f...

  16. Albumin induced cytokine expression in porcine adipose tissue explants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Albumin has historically been included in medium designed for use with adipose tissue when evaluating metabolism, gene expression or protein secretion. However, recent studies with mouse adipocytes (Ruan et al., J. Biol. Chem. 278:47585-47593, 2003) and human adipose tissue (Schlesinger et al., Ame...

  17. Identification of progesterone receptor in human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, S N; Welter, B H; Mantzke, K A; Price, T M

    1998-02-01

    Sex steroids are postulated to play a role in adipose tissue regulation and distribution, because the amount and location of adipose tissue changes during puberty and menopause. Because of the nature of adipose tissue, receptors for the female sex steroids have been difficult to demonstrate. To date, estrogen receptor messenger RNA and protein have been identified in human subcutaneous adipose tissue, but the presence of progesterone receptor (PR) has not been reported. In this study, we demonstrate PR message by Northern blot analysis in RNA isolated from the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of premenopausal women. These preliminary studies revealed that PR messenger RNA levels are higher in the stromal-vascular fraction as opposed to the adipocyte fraction. Western blot analysis demonstrates both PR protein isoforms (human PR-A and human PR-B) in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, total PR could be quantitated. These studies substantiate that sex steroid receptors are present in human adipose tissue, thereby providing a direct route for regulation of adipose tissue by female sex steroids. PMID:9467566

  18. Cell supermarket: Adipose tissue as a source of stem cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose tissue is derived from numerous sources, and in recent years has been shown to provide numerous cells from what seemingly was a population of homogeneous adipocytes. Considering the types of cells that adipose tissue-derived cells may form, these cells may be useful in a variety of clinical ...

  19. Adipose tissue as a medium for epidemiologic exposure assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Kohlmeier, L; Kohlmeier, M

    1995-01-01

    In the United States, adipose tissue is rarely used as a medium for assessment of prior exposures in epidemiologic studies. Adipose tissue aspirations are in general less invasive and carry less risk than phlebotomy. Tissue samples can be analyzed for a wide number of epidemiologically important exposures. Beyond reflecting long-term energy balance, this tissue offers a relatively stable depot of triglyceride and fat-soluble substances, such as fat-soluble vitamins, and pesticides. As a tissue it represents the greatest reservoir of carotenoids in the body. Halogenated hydrocarbons may be measured in concentrations of hundreds-fold greater than those in blood of the same individuals. The composition of adipose tissue also reflects the long-term dietary intakes of a number of essential fatty acids. The turnover times of all of these substances in adipose tissue remain under-researched. Sampling and storage of adipose tissue, homogeneity of sampling sites, turnover times, and the effects of diet, age, gender, race, hormones, and disease on adipose tissue composition are discussed in this review of current knowledge about adipose tissue stability. Experience in the use of adipose tissue sampling in epidemiologic studies in various countries has shown that it is simple to conduct, requires little training, carries little risk, and does not result in excessive participant refusal. PMID:7635122

  20. The Infrapatellar Adipose Body: A Histotopographic Study.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Sarasin, Gloria; Petrelli, Lucia; Guidolin, Diego; Rossato, Marco; Fontanella, Chiara Giulia; Natali, Arturo; De Caro, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    The infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) can be regarded as a peculiar form of fibro-adipose tissue localized close to the synovial membrane and articular cartilage. The aims of the present study were to analyze the microscopic anatomy of the IFP through histological and ultrastructural methods, comparing it with that of the subcutaneous tissue of the abdomen and of the knee. Ten specimens of IFP were sampled from bodies of the Donation Program of the University of Padua without a history of osteoarthritis. The IFP consisted of white adipose tissue, of lobular type, with lobules delimited by thin connective septa. The IFP lobule areas were smaller (p < 0.05) and the interlobular septa were thicker (p > 0.05) than those of subcutaneous tissues of the abdomen, whereas the IFP lobule areas were larger (p < 0.05) and the interlobular septa were thinner than those of the subcutaneous tissue of the knee (p < 0.05). The IFP adipocytes present a mean area of 3,708 ± 976 µm2 with a large intercellular space, whereas the mean area of the abdominal tissues was greater (6,082 ± 628 µm2; p < 0.05). At scanning electron microscopy the IFP adipocytes were covered by thick fibrillary sheaths, creating a basket around the adipocytes. The structural characteristics of the IFP (lobular aspect of the adipose tissue, thickness of the septa with scarce elastic fibers) could act as a plastic portion aimed at the absorption of pressure variation during knee articular activity. The extensive distribution of nerves suggests a possible role of the IFP as a mechanoreceptor, corresponding to a tridimensional connective mesh working in the proprioceptive regulation of the activity of the knee joint. PMID:26796341

  1. Associations between added sugar (solid vs. liquid) intakes, diet quality, and adiposity indicators in Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Wang, JiaWei; Shang, Lei; Light, Kelly; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Paradis, Gilles; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the influence of different forms of added sugar intake on diet quality or their association with obesity among youth. Dietary intake was assessed by three 24-h recalls in 613 Canadian children (aged 8-10 years). Added sugars (mean of 3-day intakes) were categorized according to source (solid or liquid). Dietary intake and the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (« HEI-C ») were compared across tertiles of solid and liquid added sugars separately as were adiposity indicators (body mass index (BMI), fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and waist circumference). Cross-sectional associations were examined in linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, and physical activity (7-day accelerometer). Added sugar contributed 12% of total energy intake (204 kcal) on average, of which 78% was from solid sources. Higher consumption of added sugars from either solid or liquid source was associated with higher total energy, lower intake of micronutrients, vegetables and fruit, and lower HEI-C score. Additionally liquid sources were associated with lower intake of dairy products. A 10-g higher consumption of added sugars from liquid sources was associated with 0.4 serving/day lower of vegetables and fruit, 0.4-kg/m(2) higher BMI, a 0.5-kg higher fat mass, and a 0.9-cm higher waist circumference whereas the associations of added sugars from solid sources and adiposity indicators tended to be negative. In conclusion, higher consumption of added sugar from either solid or liquid sources was associated with lower overall diet quality. Adiposity indicators were only positively associated with added sugars from liquid sources. PMID:26244601

  2. Phenotypical heterogeneity linked to adipose tissue dysfunction in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Barchetta, Ilaria; Angelico, Francesco; Del Ben, Maria; Di Martino, Michele; Cimini, Flavia Agata; Bertoccini, Laura; Polimeni, Licia; Catalano, Carlo; Fraioli, Antonio; Del Vescovo, Riccardo; Morini, Sergio; Baroni, Marco Giorgio; Cavallo, Maria Gisella

    2016-10-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation leads to increased free fatty acid (FFA) efflux and ectopic fat deposition, but whether AT dysfunction drives selective fat accumulation in specific sites remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between AT dysfunction, hepatic/pancreatic fat fraction (HFF, PFF) and the associated metabolic phenotype in patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Sixty-five consecutive T2D patients were recruited at the Diabetes Centre of Sapienza University, Rome, Italy. The study population underwent clinical examination and blood sampling for routine biochemistry and calculation of insulin secretion [homoeostasis model assessment of insulin secretion (HOMA-β%)] and insulin-resistance [homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and adipose tissue insulin resistance (ADIPO-IR)] indexes. Subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) AT area, HFF and PFF were determined by magnetic resonance. Some 55.4% of T2D patients had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); they were significantly younger and more insulin-resistant than non-NAFLD subjects. ADIPO-IR was the main determinant of HFF independently of age, sex, HOMA-IR, VAT, SAT and predicted severe NAFLD with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC)=0.796 (95% confidence interval: 0.65-0.94, P=0.001). PFF was independently associated with increased total adiposity but did not correlate with AT dysfunction, insulin resistance and secretion or NAFLD. The ADIPO-IR index was capable of predicting NAFLD independently of all confounders, whereas it did not seem to be related to intrapancreatic fat deposition; unlike HFF, higher PFF was not associated with relevant alterations in the metabolic profile. In conclusion, the presence and severity of AT dysfunction may drive ectopic fat accumulation towards specific targets, such as VAT and liver, therefore evaluation of AT dysfunction may contribute to the identification of different

  3. Tissue Engineering Chamber Promotes Adipose Tissue Regeneration in Adipose Tissue Engineering Models Through Induced Aseptic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhangsong; Dong, Ziqing; Chang, Qiang; Zhan, Weiqing; Zeng, Zhaowei; Zhang, Shengchang

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering chamber (TEC) makes it possible to generate significant amounts of mature, vascularized, stable, and transferable adipose tissue. However, little is known about the role of the chamber in tissue engineering. Therefore, to investigate the role of inflammatory response and the change in mechanotransduction started by TEC after implantation, we placed a unique TEC model on the surface of the groin fat pads in rats to study the expression of cytokines and tissue development in the TEC. The number of infiltrating cells was counted, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression levels in the chamber at multiple time points postimplantation were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tissue samples were collected at various time points and labeled for specific cell populations. The result showed that new adipose tissue formed in the chamber at day 60. Also, the expression of MCP-1 and VEGF in the chamber decreased slightly from an early stage as well as the number of the infiltrating cells. A large number of CD34+/perilipin− perivascular cells could be detected at day 30. Also, the CD34+/perilipin+ adipose precursor cell numbers increased sharply by day 45 and then decreased by day 60. CD34−/perilipin+ mature adipocytes were hard to detect in the chamber content at day 30, but their number increased and then peaked at day 60. Ki67-positive cells could be found near blood vessels and their number decreased sharply over time. Masson's trichrome showed that collagen was the dominant component of the chamber content at early stage and was replaced by newly formed small adipocytes over time. Our findings suggested that the TEC implantation could promote the proliferation of adipose precursor cells derived from local adipose tissue, increase angiogenesis, and finally lead to spontaneous adipogenesis by inducing aseptic inflammation and changing local mechanotransduction. PMID:24559078

  4. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: To Be or Not To Be a Typical Adipose Tissue?

    PubMed Central

    Hardouin, Pierre; Rharass, Tareck; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone–fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues – subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT – is differently associated with bone mineral density (BMD) variations. However, compared with the other fat depots, BMAT displays striking features that makes it a substantial actor in bone alterations. BMAT quantity is well associated with BMD loss in aging, menopause, and other metabolic conditions, such as anorexia nervosa. Consequently, BMAT is sensed as a relevant marker of a compromised bone integrity. However, analyses of BMAT development in metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes) are scarce and should be, thus, more systematically addressed to better apprehend the bone modifications in that pathophysiological contexts. Moreover, bone marrow (BM) adipogenesis occurs throughout the whole life at different rates. Following an ordered spatiotemporal expansion, BMAT has turned to be a heterogeneous fat depot whose adipocytes diverge in their phenotype and their response to stimuli according to their location in bone and BM. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies point to a detrimental role of BM adipocytes (BMAs) throughout the release of paracrine factors that modulate osteoblast and/or osteoclast formation and function. However, the anatomical dissemination and the difficulties to access BMAs still hamper our understanding of the relative contribution of BMAT secretions compared with those of peripheral adipose tissues. A further characterization of the phenotype and the functional regulation of BMAs are ever more required. Based on currently available data and comparison with other fat

  5. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: To Be or Not To Be a Typical Adipose Tissue?

    PubMed

    Hardouin, Pierre; Rharass, Tareck; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone-fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues - subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT - is differently associated with bone mineral density (BMD) variations. However, compared with the other fat depots, BMAT displays striking features that makes it a substantial actor in bone alterations. BMAT quantity is well associated with BMD loss in aging, menopause, and other metabolic conditions, such as anorexia nervosa. Consequently, BMAT is sensed as a relevant marker of a compromised bone integrity. However, analyses of BMAT development in metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes) are scarce and should be, thus, more systematically addressed to better apprehend the bone modifications in that pathophysiological contexts. Moreover, bone marrow (BM) adipogenesis occurs throughout the whole life at different rates. Following an ordered spatiotemporal expansion, BMAT has turned to be a heterogeneous fat depot whose adipocytes diverge in their phenotype and their response to stimuli according to their location in bone and BM. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies point to a detrimental role of BM adipocytes (BMAs) throughout the release of paracrine factors that modulate osteoblast and/or osteoclast formation and function. However, the anatomical dissemination and the difficulties to access BMAs still hamper our understanding of the relative contribution of BMAT secretions compared with those of peripheral adipose tissues. A further characterization of the phenotype and the functional regulation of BMAs are ever more required. Based on currently available data and comparison with other fat tissues

  6. Breastfeeding and Subsequent Maternal Visceral Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Candace K.; Schwarz, Eleanor B.; Conroy, Molly B.; Tepper, Ping G.; Janssen, Imke; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim C.

    2013-01-01

    Women gain visceral fat during pregnancy. Studies examining the impact of breastfeeding on maternal body composition are inconclusive. We examined the extent to which breastfeeding was associated with visceral adiposity in a sample of US women. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 351 women aged 45–58 years, who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease and had not used oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy in the 3 months prior to enrollment in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)-Heart Study (2001–2003). History of breastfeeding was self-reported. Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal adiposity. Among premenopausal/early-peri-menopausal mothers, those who never breastfed had 28% greater visceral adiposity (95% confidence interval (CI): 11–49, P = 0.001), 4.7% greater waist-hip ratio (95% CI: 1.9–7.4, P < 0.001), and 6.49 cm greater waist circumference (95% CI: 3.71–9.26, P < 0.001) than mothers who breastfed all of their children for ≥3 months in models adjusting for study site; age; parity; years since last birth; socioeconomic, lifestyle, and family history variables; early adult BMI; and current BMI. In comparison to women who were nulliparous, mothers who breastfed all of their children for ≥3 months had similar amounts of visceral fat (P > 0.05). In contrast, premenopausal/early-peri-menopausal mothers who had never breastfed had significantly greater visceral adiposity (42% (95% CI: 17–70), P < 0.001), waist circumference (6.15 cm (95% CI: 2.75–9.56), P < 0.001), and waist-hip ratio (3.7% (95% CI: 0.69–6.8), P = 0.02) than nulliparous women. No significant relationships were observed among late peri-menopausal/postmenopausal women. In conclusion, until menopause, mothers who did not breastfeed all of their children for ≥3 months exhibit significantly greater amounts of metabolically active visceral fat than mothers who had breastfed all of their children for ≥3 months. PMID:21720436

  7. Pulsed electric breakdown in adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Juergen F.; Scully, Noah; Paithankar, Dilip

    2011-08-01

    High voltage pulses of sub-microsecond duration can instigate electrical breakdown in adipose tissue, which is followed by a spark discharge. Breakdown voltages are generally lower than observed for purified lipids but higher than for air. Development of breakdown for the repetitive application of pulses resembles a gradual and stochastic process as reported for partial discharges in solid dielectrics. The inflicted tissue damage itself is confined to the gap between electrodes, providing a method to use spark discharges as a precise surgical technique.

  8. Regulation of systemic energy homeostasis by serotonin in adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang-Myung; Namkung, Jun; Go, Younghoon; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Kyuho; Kim, Hyeongseok; Park, Bo-Yoon; Lee, Ho Won; Jeon, Yong Hyun; Song, Junghan; Shong, Minho; Yadav, Vijay K; Karsenty, Gerard; Kajimura, Shingo; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Sangkyu; Kim, Hail

    2015-01-01

    Central serotonin (5-HT) is an anorexigenic neurotransmitter in the brain. However, accumulating evidence suggests peripheral 5-HT may affect organismal energy homeostasis. Here we show 5-HT regulates white and brown adipose tissue function. Pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT synthesis leads to inhibition of lipogenesis in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT), induction of browning in inguinal WAT and activation of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mice with inducible Tph1 KO in adipose tissues exhibit a similar phenotype as mice in which 5-HT synthesis is inhibited pharmacologically, suggesting 5-HT has localized effects on adipose tissues. In addition, Htr3a KO mice exhibit increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain when fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with an Htr2a antagonist reduces lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These data suggest important roles for adipocyte-derived 5-HT in controlling energy homeostasis. PMID:25864946

  9. Association Between Adiposity and Left Ventricular Mass in Children With Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Brady, Tammy M; Appel, Lawrence J; Holmes, Kathryn W; Fivush, Barbara; Miller, Edgar R

    2016-07-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is prevalent among hypertensive children; however, blood pressure (BP) does not predict its presence. The authors conducted a 1-year prospective cohort study to examine the hypothesis that obesity-related risk factors are associated with left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in hypertensive children, and the association between adiposity and LVMI is mediated by BP-dependent and -independent pathways. A total of 49 hypertensive children were enrolled: 51% were overweight/obese and 41% had LVH at baseline. Children overweight/obese at baseline and follow-up had a greater LVMI increase than those of healthy weight at each visit: mean change of 6.4 g/m(2.7) vs 0.95 g/m(2.7) . Baseline body mass index z score was independently associated with LVMI change (β=4.08, 1.54-6.61; P=.002). Only pulse pressure and serum aldosterone partially mediated this relationship. Hypertensive youth manifest multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors that worsen over time despite treatment. Of these, adiposity is most associated with LVH and increasing LVMI. PMID:26530452

  10. PERCEIVED WEIGHT DISCRIMINATION AMPLIFIES THE LINK BETWEEN CENTRAL ADIPOSITY AND NONDIABETIC GLYCEMIC CONTROL (HBA1C)

    PubMed Central

    Tsenkova, Vera K.; Carr, Deborah; Schoeller, Dale A.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2010-01-01

    Background While the preclinical development of type 2 diabetes is partly explained by obesity and central adiposity, psychosocial research has shown that chronic stressors such as discrimination have health consequences as well. Purpose We investigated the extent to which the well-established effects of obesity and central adiposity on nondiabetic glycemic control (indexed by HbA1c) were moderated by a targeted psychosocial stressor linked to weight: perceived weight discrimination. Methods Data came from the nondiabetic subsample (n=938) of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS II) survey. Results Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, and waist circumference were linked to significantly higher HbA1c (p < .001). Multivariate-adjusted models showed that weight discrimination exacerbated the effects of waist-to-hip ratio on HbA1c ( p < .05), such that people who had higher WHR and reported weight discrimination had the highest HbA1c levels. Conclusions Understanding how biological and psychosocial factors interact at nondiabetic levels to increase vulnerability could have important implications for public health and education strategies. Effective strategies may include targeting sources of discrimination, rather than solely targeting health behaviors and practices of overweight and obese persons. PMID:21136227

  11. The sexually dimorphic role of adipose and adipocyte estrogen receptors in modulating adipose tissue expansion, inflammation, and fibrosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our data demonstrate that estrogens, estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), and estrogen receptor-ßeta (ERßeta) regulate adipose tissue distribution, inflammation, fibrosis, and glucose homeostasis, by determining that alphaERKO mice have increased adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis prior to obesi...

  12. Visceral adipose tissue area as an independent risk factor for elevated liver enzyme in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Goh Eun; Kim, Donghee; Kwark, Min Sun; Kim, Won; Yim, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan

    2015-03-01

    Chronic elevations in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are associated with body composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between elevated liver enzyme levels and the visceral tissue area in subjects with and without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).An observational cohort study was conducted with subjects undergoing general health examinations. To evaluate the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue area, a computed tomography scan was performed. NAFLD was diagnosed if a person demonstrated fatty liver on ultrasonography without a history of significant alcohol consumption or chronic liver disease. Abnormal liver enzyme levels were based on ALT elevations according to the updated Asian definition.Of the 5100 subjects, 3712 (72.8%) met the inclusion criteria, and NAFLD was found in 1185 subjects. Elevated ALT values were positively correlated with body mass index, waist circumference, and subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue area. These relationships were attenuated, although they remained significant in a dose-dependent manner, after adjusting for multiple liver injury risk factors. In addition, when body mass index and subcutaneous and visceral tissue areas were finally considered in combination, only visceral adipose tissue remained independently associated with elevated ALT levels in the ultrasonographically diagnosed NAFLD group (P for trend <0.001 for men and women).Elevated ALT levels were independently and dose-dependently associated with visceral fat accumulation in the healthy general population, especially in ultrasonographically diagnosed NAFLD patients. These results reemphasize the importance of visceral fat in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMID:25738475

  13. Mechanisms Linking Excess Adiposity and Carcinogenesis Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Hernández, Ana I.; Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Frühbeck, Gema

    2014-01-01

    Obesity constitutes one of the most important metabolic diseases being associated to insulin resistance development and increased cardiovascular risk. Association between obesity and cancer has also been well established for several tumor types, such as breast cancer in post-menopausal women, colorectal, and prostate cancer. Cancer is the first death cause in developed countries and the second one in developing countries, with high incidence rates around the world. Furthermore, it has been estimated that 15–20% of all cancer deaths may be attributable to obesity. Tumor growth is regulated by interactions between tumor cells and their tissue microenvironment. In this sense, obesity may lead to cancer development through dysfunctional adipose tissue and altered signaling pathways. In this review, three main pathways relating obesity and cancer development are examined: (i) inflammatory changes leading to macrophage polarization and altered adipokine profile; (ii) insulin resistance development; and (iii) adipose tissue hypoxia. Since obesity and cancer present a high prevalence, the association between these conditions is of great public health significance and studies showing mechanisms by which obesity lead to cancer development and progression are needed to improve prevention and management of these diseases. PMID:24829560

  14. Mechanisms linking excess adiposity and carcinogenesis promotion.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, Ana I; Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Frühbeck, Gema

    2014-01-01

    Obesity constitutes one of the most important metabolic diseases being associated to insulin resistance development and increased cardiovascular risk. Association between obesity and cancer has also been well established for several tumor types, such as breast cancer in post-menopausal women, colorectal, and prostate cancer. Cancer is the first death cause in developed countries and the second one in developing countries, with high incidence rates around the world. Furthermore, it has been estimated that 15-20% of all cancer deaths may be attributable to obesity. Tumor growth is regulated by interactions between tumor cells and their tissue microenvironment. In this sense, obesity may lead to cancer development through dysfunctional adipose tissue and altered signaling pathways. In this review, three main pathways relating obesity and cancer development are examined: (i) inflammatory changes leading to macrophage polarization and altered adipokine profile; (ii) insulin resistance development; and (iii) adipose tissue hypoxia. Since obesity and cancer present a high prevalence, the association between these conditions is of great public health significance and studies showing mechanisms by which obesity lead to cancer development and progression are needed to improve prevention and management of these diseases. PMID:24829560

  15. Rare adipose disorders (RADs) masquerading as obesity

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    Rare adipose disorders (RADs) including multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL), lipedema and Dercum's disease (DD) may be misdiagnosed as obesity. Lifestyle changes, such as reduced caloric intake and increased physical activity are standard care for obesity. Although lifestyle changes and bariatric surgery work effectively for the obesity component of RADs, these treatments do not routinely reduce the abnormal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of RADs. RAD SAT likely results from the growth of a brown stem cell population with secondary lymphatic dysfunction in MSL, or by primary vascular and lymphatic dysfunction in lipedema and DD. People with RADs do not lose SAT from caloric limitation and increased energy expenditure alone. In order to improve recognition of RADs apart from obesity, the diagnostic criteria, histology and pathophysiology of RADs are presented and contrasted to familial partial lipodystrophies, acquired partial lipodystrophies and obesity with which they may be confused. Treatment recommendations focus on evidence-based data and include lymphatic decongestive therapy, medications and supplements that support loss of RAD SAT. Associated RAD conditions including depression, anxiety and pain will improve as healthcare providers learn to identify and adopt alternative treatment regimens for the abnormal SAT component of RADs. Effective dietary and exercise regimens are needed in RAD populations to improve quality of life and construct advanced treatment regimens for future generations. PMID:22301856

  16. Adiposity significantly modifies genetic risk for dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Cole, Christopher B; Nikpay, Majid; Lau, Paulina; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Davies, Robert W; Wells, George A; Dent, Robert; McPherson, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci robustly associated with plasma lipids, which also contribute to extreme lipid phenotypes. However, these common genetic variants explain <12% of variation in lipid traits. Adiposity is also an important determinant of plasma lipoproteins, particularly plasma TGs and HDL cholesterol (HDLc) concentrations. Thus, interactions between genes and clinical phenotypes may contribute to this unexplained heritability. We have applied a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) for both plasma TGs and HDLc in two large cohorts at the extremes of BMI. Both BMI and GRS were strongly associated with these lipid traits. A significant interaction between obese/lean status and GRS was noted for each of TG (P(Interaction) = 2.87 × 10(-4)) and HDLc (P(Interaction) = 1.05 × 10(-3)). These interactions were largely driven by SNPs tagging APOA5, glucokinase receptor (GCKR), and LPL for TG, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), GalNAc-transferase (GALNT2), endothelial lipase (LIPG), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) for HDLc. In contrast, the GRSLDL cholesterol × adiposity interaction was not significant. Sexual dimorphism was evident for the GRSHDL on HDLc in obese (P(Interaction) = 0.016) but not lean subjects. SNP by BMI interactions may provide biological insight into specific genetic associations and missing heritability. PMID:25225679

  17. Rare adipose disorders (RADs) masquerading as obesity.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Karen L

    2012-02-01

    Rare adipose disorders (RADs) including multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL), lipedema and Dercum's disease (DD) may be misdiagnosed as obesity. Lifestyle changes, such as reduced caloric intake and increased physical activity are standard care for obesity. Although lifestyle changes and bariatric surgery work effectively for the obesity component of RADs, these treatments do not routinely reduce the abnormal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of RADs. RAD SAT likely results from the growth of a brown stem cell population with secondary lymphatic dysfunction in MSL, or by primary vascular and lymphatic dysfunction in lipedema and DD. People with RADs do not lose SAT from caloric limitation and increased energy expenditure alone. In order to improve recognition of RADs apart from obesity, the diagnostic criteria, histology and pathophysiology of RADs are presented and contrasted to familial partial lipodystrophies, acquired partial lipodystrophies and obesity with which they may be confused. Treatment recommendations focus on evidence-based data and include lymphatic decongestive therapy, medications and supplements that support loss of RAD SAT. Associated RAD conditions including depression, anxiety and pain will improve as healthcare providers learn to identify and adopt alternative treatment regimens for the abnormal SAT component of RADs. Effective dietary and exercise regimens are needed in RAD populations to improve quality of life and construct advanced treatment regimens for future generations. PMID:22301856

  18. Laser-induced lipolysis on adipose cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solarte, Efrain; Gutierrez, O.; Neira, Rodrigo; Arroyave, J.; Isaza, Carolina; Ramirez, Hugo; Rebolledo, Aldo F.; Criollo, Willian; Ortiz, C.

    2004-10-01

    Recently, a new liposuction technique, using a low-level laser (LLL) device and Ultrawet solution prior to the procedure, demonstrated the movement of fat from the inside to the outside of the adipocyte (Neira et al., 2002). To determine the mechanisms involved, we have performed Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy studies; Light transmittance measurements on adipocyte dilutions; and a study of laser light propagation in adipose tissue. This studies show: 1. Cellular membrane alterations. 2. LLL is capable to reach the deep adipose tissue layer, and 3. The tumescence solution enhances the light propagation by clearing the tissue. MRI studies demonstrated the appearance of fat on laser treated abdominal tissue. Besides, adipocytes were cultivated and irradiated to observe the effects on isolated cells. These last studies show: 1. 635 nm-laser alone is capable of mobilizing cholesterol from the cell membrane; this action is enhanced by the presence of adrenaline and lidocaine. 2. Intracellular fat is released from adipocytes by co joint action of adrenaline, aminophyline and 635 nm-laser. Results are consistent with a laser induced cellular process, which causes fat release from the adipocytes into the intercellular space, besides the modification of the cellular membranes.

  19. Endothelial dysfunction in adipose triglyceride lipase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Schrammel, Astrid; Mussbacher, Marion; Wölkart, Gerald; Stessel, Heike; Pail, Karoline; Winkler, Sarah; Schweiger, Martina; Haemmerle, Guenter; Al Zoughbi, Wael; Höfler, Gerald; Lametschwandtner, Alois; Zechner, Rudolf; Mayer, Bernd

    2014-06-01

    Systemic knockout of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the pivotal enzyme of triglyceride lipolysis, results in a murine phenotype that is characterized by progredient cardiac steatosis and severe heart failure. Since cardiac and vascular dysfunction have been closely related in numerous studies we investigated endothelium-dependent and -independent vessel function of ATGL knockout mice. Aortic relaxation studies and Langendorff perfusion experiments of isolated hearts showed that ATGL knockout mice suffer from pronounced micro- and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction. Experiments with agonists directly targeting vascular smooth muscle cells revealed the functional integrity of the smooth muscle cell layer. Loss of vascular reactivity was restored ~50% upon treatment of ATGL knockout mice with the PPARα agonist Wy14,643, indicating that this phenomenon is partly a consequence of impaired cardiac contractility. Biochemical analysis revealed that aortic endothelial NO synthase expression and activity were significantly reduced in ATGL deficiency. Enzyme activity was fully restored in ATGL mice treated with the PPARα agonist. Biochemical analysis of perivascular adipose tissue demonstrated that ATGL knockout mice suffer from perivascular inflammatory oxidative stress which occurs independent of cardiac dysfunction and might contribute to vascular defects. Our results reveal a hitherto unrecognized link between disturbed lipid metabolism, obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24657704

  20. Adipose Tissue Promotes a Serum Cytokine Profile Related to Lower Insulin Sensitivity after Chronic Central Leptin Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Canelles, Sandra; Perianes-Cachero, Arancha; Arilla-Ferreiro, Eduardo; Argente, Jesús; Barrios, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is an inflammatory state characterized by an augment in circulating inflammatory factors. Leptin may modulate the synthesis of these factors by white adipose tissue decreasing insulin sensitivity. We have examined the effect of chronic central administration of leptin on circulating levels of cytokines and the possible relationship with cytokine expression and protein content as well as with leptin and insulin signaling in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlation between circulating levels of cytokines and peripheral insulin resistance. We studied 18 male Wistar rats divided into controls (C), those treated icv for 14 days with a daily dose of 12 μg of leptin (L) and a pair-fed group (PF) that received the same food amount consumed by the leptin group. Serum leptin and insulin were measured by ELISA, mRNA levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by real time PCR and serum and adipose tissue levels of these cytokines by multiplexed bead immunoassay. Serum leptin, IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and HOMA-IR were increased in L and TNF-α was decreased in PF and L. Serum leptin and IL-2 levels correlate positively with HOMA-IR index and negatively with serum glucose levels during an ip insulin tolerance test. In L, an increase in mRNA levels of IL-2 was found in both adipose depots and IFN-γ only in visceral tissue. Activation of leptin signaling was increased and insulin signaling decreased in subcutaneous fat of L. In conclusion, leptin mediates the production of inflammatory cytokines by adipose tissue independent of its effects on food intake, decreasing insulin sensitivity. PMID:23056516

  1. The effects of prenatal oxidative stress levels on infant adiposity development during the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Loy, S L; Sirajudeen, K N S; Hamid Jan, J M

    2014-04-01

    Although numerous studies have been conducted to examine the causal factors of childhood obesity, the implications of intrauterine oxidative stress on early postnatal adiposity development remain to be elucidated. The Universiti Sains Malaysia Birth Cohort Study aimed to investigate the effects of prenatal oxidative stress levels on the development of infant adiposity during the first year of life. This study was conducted on the healthy pregnant women aged 19-40 years, from April 2010 to December 2012 in Kelantan, Malaysia. Maternal blood samples were drawn in the second trimester to analyse for oxidative stress markers. Infant anthropometric measurements were taken at birth, 2, 6 and 12 months of age. A total of 153 pregnant women and full-term infants were included in the analysis. Statistical test was conducted by using multiple linear regression. Through the infant first year of life, as maternal DNA damage level in the second trimester increased, infant weights at birth (β=-0.122, P<0.001), 2 months (β=-0.120, P=0013), 6 months (β=-0.209, P=0.003) and 12 months of age (β=-0.241, P=0.006) decreased after adjusting for confounders. Similar results were noted when infant body mass index-for-age Z-scores and triceps skinfold-for-age Z-scores were used as the adiposity indicators. In conclusion, the present study shows a consistent inverse association between maternal DNA damage and infant adiposity during the first year of life. These infants with reduced growth and adiposity in early postnatal life may have a high tendency to experience catch-up growth during childhood, which could be strongly associated with later obesity. PMID:24847700

  2. Lou/C obesity-resistant rat exhibits hyperactivity, hypermetabolism, alterations in white adipose tissue cellularity, and lipid tissue profiles.

    PubMed

    Soulage, Christophe; Zarrouki, Bader; Soares, Anisio Francesco; Lagarde, Michel; Geloen, Alain

    2008-02-01

    Lou/C obesity-resistant rat constitutes an original model to understand the phenomena of overweight and obesity. The aim of the present study was to identify metabolic causes for the outstanding leanness of Lou/C rat. To this end, the metabolic profiles (food intake, energy expenditure, and physical activity) and the cellular characteristics of white adipose tissue (lipogenesis, lipolysis, cellularity, and lipid composition) in 30-wk-old Lou/C rats were compared with age-matched Wistar rats. Lou/C rats exhibited a lower body weight (-45%), reduced adiposity (-80%), increased locomotor activity (+95%), and higher energy expenditure (+11%) than Wistar rats. Epididymal adipose tissue of Lou/C rat was twice lower than that of Wistar rat due to both a reduction in both adipocyte size (-25%) and number (three times). Basal lipolysis and sensitivity to noradrenaline were similar; however, the responsiveness to noradrenaline was lower in adipocytes from Lou/C compared with that from Wistar rats. Lipidomic analysis of plasma, adipose tissue, and liver revealed profound differences in lipid composition between the two strains. Of note, the desaturation indexes (ratio C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0) were lower in Lou/C, indicating a blunted activity of delta-9-desaturase such as stearoyl-coenzyme A-desaturase-1. Increased physical activity, increased energy expenditure, and white adipose tissue cellularity are in good agreement with previous observations suggesting that a higher sympathetic tone in Lou/C could contribute to its lifelong leanness. PMID:18006635

  3. The Associations between Various Ectopic Visceral Adiposity and Body Surface Electrocardiographic Alterations: Potential Differences between Local and Remote Systemic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Po-Ching; Chang, Shun-Chuan; Yun, Chun-Ho; Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Hou, Charles Jia-Yin; Liu, Chia-Yuan; Yang, Fei-Shih; Wu, Tung-Hsin; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Yeh, Hung-I

    2016-01-01

    Background The associations between pericardial adiposity and altered atrial conduction had been demonstrated. However, data comparing differential effects of various body sites visceral adiposity on atrial and ventricular electrocardiographic alterations remains largely unknown. Methods and Results We assessed both peri-cardial fat (PCF) and peri-aortic visceral adiposity (TAT) using dedicated computed tomography (CT) software (Aquarius 3D Workstation, TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA, USA), with anthropometrics including body mass index (BMI) and biochemical data obtained. We further related PCF and TAT data to standardized 12-leads electrocardiogram (ECG), including P and QRS wave morphologies. Among 3,087 study subjects (mean age, 49.6 years; 28% women), we observed a linear association among greater visceral adiposity burden, leftward deviation of P and QRS axes, longer PR interval and widened QRS duration (all p<0.001). These associations became attenuated after accounting for BMI and baseline clinical co-variates, with greater PCF remained independently associated with prolonged QRS duration (β = 0.91 [95% CI: 0.52, 1.31] per 1-SD increase in PCF, p<0.001). Finally, both PCF and TAT showed incremental value in identifying abnormally high PR interval (>200ms, likelihood-ratio: 33.17 to 41.4 & 39.03 for PCF and TAT) and widened QRS duration (>100ms, likelihood-ratio: 55.67 to 65.4 & 61.94 for PCF and TAT, all X2 p<0.05) when superimposed on age and BMI. Conclusion We show in our data greater visceral fat burden may have differential associations on several body surface electrocardiographic parameters. Compared to remote adiposity, those surrounding the heart tissue demonstrated greater influences on altered cardiac activation or conduction, indicating a possible local biological effect. PMID:27391045

  4. Development of a pediatric body mass index using longitudinal single-index models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingwei; Tu, Wanzhu

    2016-04-01

    As a measure of human adiposity, the body mass index, defined as weight/height(2), has been widely used in clinical investigations. For children undergoing pubertal development, whether this function of height and weight represents an optimal way of quantifying body mass for assessing of specific health outcomes has not been carefully studied. In this study, we propose an alternative pediatric body mass measure for prediction of blood pressure based on recorded height and weight data using single-index modeling techniques. Specifically, we present a general form of partially linear single-index mixed effect models for the determination of this new metric. A methodological contribution of this research is the development of an efficient algorithm for the fitting of a general class of partially linear single-index models in longitudinal data situations. The proposed model and related model fitting algorithm are easily implementable in most computational platforms. Simulation demonstrates superior performance of the new method, as compared to the standard body mass index measure. Using the proposed method, we explore an alternative body mass measure for the prediction of blood pressure in children. The method is potentially useful for the construction of other indices for specific investigations. PMID:23302518

  5. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross

  6. Adiposity as a cause of cardiovascular disease: a Mendelian randomization study

    PubMed Central

    Hägg, Sara; Fall, Tove; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen HM; Kals, Mart; de Vries, Paul S; Dehghan, Abbas; Willems, Sara M; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Havulinna, Aki S; de Bruijn, Renée FAG; Ikram, M Arfan; Kuningas, Maris; Stricker, Bruno H; Franco, Oscar H; Benyamin, Beben; Gieger, Christian; Hall, Alistair S; Huikari, Ville; Jula, Antti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kaakinen, Marika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kobl, Michael; Mangino, Massimo; Nelson, Christopher P; Palotie, Aarno; Samani, Nilesh J; Spector, Tim D; Strachan, David P; Tobin, Martin D; Whitfield, John B; Uitterlinden, André G; Salomaa, Veikko; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Magnusson, Patrik K; Esko, Tõnu; Hofman, Albert; de Geus, Eco JC; Lind, Lars; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Perola, Markus; Evans, Alun; Ferrières, Jean; Virtamo, Jarmo; Kee, Frank; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Arveiler, Dominique; Amouyel, Philippe; Gianfagna, Francesco; Brambilla, Paolo; Ripatti, Samuli; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Metspalu, Andres; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ingelsson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adiposity, as indicated by body mass index (BMI), has been associated with risk of cardiovascular diseases in epidemiological studies. We aimed to investigate if these associations are causal, using Mendelian randomization (MR) methods. Methods: The associations of BMI with cardiovascular outcomes [coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure and ischaemic stroke], and associations of a genetic score (32 BMI single nucleotide polymorphisms) with BMI and cardiovascular outcomes were examined in up to 22 193 individuals with 3062 incident cardiovascular events from nine prospective follow-up studies within the ENGAGE consortium. We used random-effects meta-analysis in an MR framework to provide causal estimates of the effect of adiposity on cardiovascular outcomes. Results: There was a strong association between BMI and incident CHD (HR = 1.20 per SD-increase of BMI, 95% CI, 1.12–1.28, P = 1.9·10−7), heart failure (HR = 1.47, 95% CI, 1.35–1.60, P = 9·10−19) and ischaemic stroke (HR = 1.15, 95% CI, 1.06–1.24, P = 0.0008) in observational analyses. The genetic score was robustly associated with BMI (β = 0.030 SD-increase of BMI per additional allele, 95% CI, 0.028–0.033, P = 3·10−107). Analyses indicated a causal effect of adiposity on development of heart failure (HR = 1.93 per SD-increase of BMI, 95% CI, 1.12–3.30, P = 0.017) and ischaemic stroke (HR = 1.83, 95% CI, 1.05–3.20, P = 0.034). Additional cross-sectional analyses using both ENGAGE and CARDIoGRAMplusC4D data showed a causal effect of adiposity on CHD. Conclusions: Using MR methods, we provide support for the hypothesis that adiposity causes CHD, heart failure and, previously not demonstrated, ischaemic stroke. PMID:26016847

  7. Height, adiposity and body fat distribution and breast density in young women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, but determinants of breast density in young women remain largely unknown. Methods Associations of height, adiposity and body fat distribution with percentage dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 174 healthy women, 25 to 29 years old. Adiposity and body fat distribution were measured by anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), while %DBV and ADBV were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Associations were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models. All tests of statistical significance are two-sided. Results Height was significantly positively associated with %DBV but not ADBV; for each standard deviation (SD) increase in height, %DBV increased by 18.7% in adjusted models. In contrast, all measures of adiposity and body fat distribution were significantly inversely associated with %DBV; a SD increase in body mass index (BMI), percentage fat mass, waist circumference and the android:gynoid fat mass ratio (A:G ratio) was each associated significantly with a 44.4 to 47.0% decrease in %DBV after adjustment for childhood BMI and other covariates. Although associations were weaker than for %DBV, all measures of adiposity and body fat distribution also were significantly inversely associated with ADBV before adjustment for childhood BMI. After adjustment for childhood BMI, however, only the DXA measures of percentage fat mass and A:G ratio remained significant; a SD increase in each was associated with a 13.8 to 19.6% decrease in ADBV. In mutually adjusted analysis, the percentage fat mass and the A:G ratio remained significantly inversely associated with %DBV, but only the A:G ratio was significantly associated with ADBV; a SD increase in the A:G ratio was associated with an 18.5% decrease in ADBV. Conclusion Total adiposity and body fat distribution are independently inversely associated with

  8. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  9. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    2001-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  10. KSC Construction Cost Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center cost Index aids in conceptual design cost estimates. Report discusses development of KSC Cost Index since January 1974. Index since January 1974. Index provides management, design engineers, and estimators an up-to-data reference for local labor and material process. Also provides mount and rate of change in these costs used to predict future construction costs.

  11. Physical activity and genetic predisposition to obesity in a multiethnic longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Reddon, Hudson; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; Engert, James C.; Mohan, Viswanathan; Bosch, Jackie; Desai, Dipika; Bailey, Swneke D.; Diaz, Rafael; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S.; Meyre, David

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) has been shown to reduce the impact of FTO variation and obesity genetic risk scores (GRS) on BMI. We examined this interaction using a quantitative measure of PA and two adiposity indexes in a longitudinal multi-ethnic study. We analyzed the impact of PA on the association between 14 obesity predisposing variants (analyzed independently and as a GRS) and baseline/follow-up obesity measures in the multi-ethnic prospective cohort EpiDREAM (17423 participants from six ethnic groups). PA was analyzed using basic (low-moderate-high) and quantitative measures (metabolic equivalents (METS)), while BMI and the body adiposity index (BAI) were used to measure obesity. Increased PA was associated with decreased BMI/BAI at baseline/follow-up. FTO rs1421085, CDKAL1 rs2206734, TNNl3K rs1514176, GIPR rs11671664 and the GRS were associated with obesity measures at baseline and/or follow-up. Risk alleles of three SNPs displayed nominal associations with increased (NTRK2 rs1211166, BDNF rs1401635) or decreased (NPC1 rs1805081) basic PA score independently of BMI/BAI. Both basic and quantitative PA measures attenuated the association between FTO rs1421085 risk allele and BMI/BAI at baseline and follow-up. Our results show that physical activity can blunt the genetic effect of FTO rs1421085 on adiposity by 36–75% in a longitudinal multi-ethnic cohort. PMID:26727462

  12. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle blood flow during mental stress

    SciTech Connect

    Linde, B.; Hjemdahl, P.; Freyschuss, U.; Juhlin-Dannfelt, A.

    1989-01-01

    Mental stress (a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)) increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilation in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation.

  13. Does Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis Play a Role in Metabolic Health?

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Craig; Børsheim, Elisabet; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2013-01-01

    The function ascribed to brown adipose tissue in humans has long been confined to thermoregulation in neonates, where this thermogenic capacity was thought lost with maturation. Recently, brown adipose tissue depots have been identified in adult humans. The significant oxidative capacity of brown adipocytes and the ability of their mitochondria to respire independently of ATP production, has led to renewed interest in the role that these adipocytes play in human energy metabolism. In our view, there is a need for robust physiological studies determining the relationship between molecular signatures of brown adipose tissue, adipose tissue mitochondrial function, and whole body energy metabolism, in order to elucidate the significance of thermogenic adipose tissue in humans. Until such information is available, the role of thermogenic adipose tissue in human metabolism and the potential that these adipocytes may prevent or treat obesity and metabolic diseases in humans will remain unknown. In this article, we summarize the recent literature pertaining to brown adipose tissue function with the aims of drawing the readers' attention to the lack of data concerning the role of brown adipocytes in human physiology, and to the potential limitations of current research strategies. PMID:23691283

  14. Our Fat Future: Translating Adipose Stem Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nordberg, Rachel C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human adipose stem cells (hASCs) have the potential to treat patients with a variety of clinical conditions. Recent advancements in translational research, regulatory policy, and industry have positioned hASCs on the threshold of clinical translation. We discuss the progress and challenges of bringing adipose stem cell therapy into mainstream clinical use. Significance This article details the advances made in recent years that have helped move human adipose stem cell therapy toward mainstream clinical use from a translational research, regulatory policy, and industrial standpoint. Four recurrent themes in translational technology as they pertain to human adipose stem cells are discussed: automated closed-system operations, biosensors and real-time monitoring, biomimetics, and rapid manufacturing. In light of recent FDA guidance documents, regulatory concerns about adipose stem cell therapy are discussed. Finally, an update is provided on the current state of clinical trials and the emerging industry that uses human adipose stem cells. This article is expected to stimulate future studies in translational adipose stem cell research. PMID:26185256

  15. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Acute Adipose Tissue Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Sung; Rongisch, Robert; Hager, Stephan; Grieb, Gerrit; Nourbakhsh, Mahtab; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Bucala, Richard; Bernhagen, Juergen; Pallua, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine and has been implicated in inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about the regulation of MIF in adipose tissue and its impact on wound healing. The aim of this study was to investigate MIF expression in inflamed adipose and determine its role in inflammatory cell recruitment and wound healing. Adipose tissue was harvested from subcutaneous adipose tissue layers of 24 healthy subjects and from adipose tissue adjacent to acutely inflamed wounds of 21 patients undergoing wound debridement. MIF protein and mRNA expression were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR. Cell-specific MIF expression was visualized by immunohistochemistry. The functional role of MIF in cell recruitment was investigated by a chemotaxis assay and by flow cytometry of labeled macrophages that were injected into Mif-/-and wildtype mice. Wound healing was evaluated by an in vitro scratch assay on human fibroblast monolayers. MIF protein levels of native adipose tissue and supernatants from acutely inflamed wounds were significantly elevated when compared to healthy controls. MIF mRNA expression was increased in acutely inflamed adipose tissue indicating the activation of MIF gene transcription in response to adipose tissue inflammation. MIF is expressed in mature adipocytes and in infiltrated macrophages. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell migration was significantly increased towards supernatants derived from inflamed adipose tissue. This effect was partially abrogated by MIF-neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, when compared to wildtype mice, Mif-/-mice showed reduced infiltration of labeled macrophages into LPS-stimulated epididymal fat pads in vivo. Finally, MIF antibodies partially neutralized the detrimental effect of MIF on fibroblast wound healing. Our results indicate that increased MIF expression and rapid activation of the MIF gene in fat tissue adjacent to acute wound healing disorders may play a role in cell

  16. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Acute Adipose Tissue Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong-Sung; Rongisch, Robert; Hager, Stephan; Grieb, Gerrit; Nourbakhsh, Mahtab; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Bucala, Richard; Bernhagen, Juergen; Pallua, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine and has been implicated in inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about the regulation of MIF in adipose tissue and its impact on wound healing. The aim of this study was to investigate MIF expression in inflamed adipose and determine its role in inflammatory cell recruitment and wound healing. Adipose tissue was harvested from subcutaneous adipose tissue layers of 24 healthy subjects and from adipose tissue adjacent to acutely inflamed wounds of 21 patients undergoing wound debridement. MIF protein and mRNA expression were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR. Cell-specific MIF expression was visualized by immunohistochemistry. The functional role of MIF in cell recruitment was investigated by a chemotaxis assay and by flow cytometry of labeled macrophages that were injected into Mif–/–and wildtype mice. Wound healing was evaluated by an in vitro scratch assay on human fibroblast monolayers. MIF protein levels of native adipose tissue and supernatants from acutely inflamed wounds were significantly elevated when compared to healthy controls. MIF mRNA expression was increased in acutely inflamed adipose tissue indicating the activation of MIF gene transcription in response to adipose tissue inflammation. MIF is expressed in mature adipocytes and in infiltrated macrophages. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell migration was significantly increased towards supernatants derived from inflamed adipose tissue. This effect was partially abrogated by MIF-neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, when compared to wildtype mice, Mif–/–mice showed reduced infiltration of labeled macrophages into LPS-stimulated epididymal fat pads in vivo. Finally, MIF antibodies partially neutralized the detrimental effect of MIF on fibroblast wound healing. Our results indicate that increased MIF expression and rapid activation of the MIF gene in fat tissue adjacent to acute wound healing disorders may play a role in cell

  17. Total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, N.; Harsas, W.; Marolt, R.S.; Morton, M.; Pollack, J.K.

    1988-12-01

    As far as the authors could ascertain only 4 well-documented analytical studies have been carried out in Australia determining the total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue. The latest of these studies was published over 16 years ago. Therefore it is timely and important to re-examine the total DDT and dieldrin concentration within the adipose tissue of the Australian population. The present investigation has analyzed 290 samples of human adipose tissue obtained from Westmead Hospital situated in an outer suburb of Sydney, New South Wales for their content of total DDT and dieldrin.

  18. Adipose-derived stem cells: Implications in tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Wakako; Rubin, J Peter; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are obtained from abundant adipose tissue, adherent on plastic culture flasks, can be expanded in vitro, and have the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Unlike bone marrow-derived MSCs, ASCs can be obtained from abundant adipose tissue by a minimally invasive procedure, which results in a high number of cells. Therefore, ASCs are promising for regenerating tissues and organs damaged by injury and diseases. This article reviews the implications of ASCs in tissue regeneration. PMID:25126381

  19. IMMUNOLOGICAL GOINGS-ON IN VISCERAL ADIPOSE TISSUE

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Chronic, low-grade inflammation of visceral adipose tissue, and systemically, is a critical link between recent strikingly parallel rises in the incidence of obesity and type-2 diabetes. Macrophages have been recognized for some time to be critical participants in obesity-induced inflammation of adipose-tissue. Of late, a score of other cell-types of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system have been suggested to play a positive or negative role in adipose-tissue infiltrates. This piece reviews the existing data on these new participants; discusses experimental uncertainties, inconsistencies and complexities; and puts forward a minimalist synthetic scheme. PMID:23747244

  20. Laser light propagation in adipose tissue and laser effects on adipose cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solarte, Efraín; Rebolledo, Aldo; Gutierrez, Oscar; Criollo, William; Neira, Rodrigo; Arroyave, José; Ramírez, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    Recently Neira et al. have presented a new liposuction technique that demonstrated the movement of fat from inside to outside of the cell, using a low-level laser device during a liposuction procedure with Ultrawet solution. The clinical observations, allowed this new surgical development, started a set of physical, histological and pharmacological studies aimed to determine the mechanisms involved in the observed fat mobilization concomitant to external laser application in liposuction procedures. Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy, studies show that the cellular arrangement of normal adipose tissue changes when laser light from a diode laser: 10 mW, 635 nm is applied. Laser exposures longer than 6 minutes cause the total destruction of the adipocyte panicles. Detailed observation of the adipose cells show that by short irradiation times (less than four minutes) the cell membrane exhibits dark zones, that collapse by longer laser exposures. Optical measurements show that effective penetration length depends on the laser intensity. Moreover, the light scattering is enhanced by diffraction and subsequent interference effects, and the tumescent solution produces a clearing of the tissue optical medium. Finally, isolate adipose cell observation show that fat release from adipocytes is a concomitant effect between the tumescent solution (adrenaline) and laser light, revealing a synergism which conduces to the aperture, and maybe the disruption, of the cell membrane. All these studies were consistent with a laser induced cellular process, which causes fat release from inside the adipocytes into the intercellular space, besides a strong modification of the cellular membranes.

  1. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  2. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  3. Xenotransplantation of human fetal adipose tissue: a model of in vivo adipose tissue expansion and adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Briana; Francois-Vaughan, Heather; Onikoyi, Omobola; Kostadinov, Stefan; De Paepe, Monique E.; Gruppuso, Philip A.; Sanders, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity during childhood and beyond may have its origins during fetal or early postnatal life. At present, there are no suitable in vivo experimental models to study factors that modulate or perturb human fetal white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion, remodeling, development, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, or epigenetics. We have developed such a model. It involves the xenotransplantation of midgestation human WAT into the renal subcapsular space of immunocompromised SCID-beige mice. After an initial latency period of approximately 2 weeks, the tissue begins expanding. The xenografts are healthy and show robust expansion and angiogenesis for at least 2 months following transplantation. Data and cell size and gene expression are consistent with active angiogenesis. The xenografts maintain the expression of genes associated with differentiated adipocyte function. In contrast to the fetal tissue, adult human WAT does not engraft. The long-term viability and phenotypic maintenance of fetal adipose tissue following xenotransplantation may be a function of its autonomous high rates of adipogenesis and angiogenesis. Through the manipulation of the host mice, this model system offers the opportunity to study the mechanisms by which nutrients and other environmental factors affect human adipose tissue development and biology. PMID:25193996

  4. Xenotransplantation of human fetal adipose tissue: a model of in vivo adipose tissue expansion and adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Briana; Francois-Vaughan, Heather; Onikoyi, Omobola; Kostadinov, Stefan; De Paepe, Monique E; Gruppuso, Philip A; Sanders, Jennifer A

    2014-12-01

    Obesity during childhood and beyond may have its origins during fetal or early postnatal life. At present, there are no suitable in vivo experimental models to study factors that modulate or perturb human fetal white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion, remodeling, development, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, or epigenetics. We have developed such a model. It involves the xenotransplantation of midgestation human WAT into the renal subcapsular space of immunocompromised SCID-beige mice. After an initial latency period of approximately 2 weeks, the tissue begins expanding. The xenografts are healthy and show robust expansion and angiogenesis for at least 2 months following transplantation. Data and cell size and gene expression are consistent with active angiogenesis. The xenografts maintain the expression of genes associated with differentiated adipocyte function. In contrast to the fetal tissue, adult human WAT does not engraft. The long-term viability and phenotypic maintenance of fetal adipose tissue following xenotransplantation may be a function of its autonomous high rates of adipogenesis and angiogenesis. Through the manipulation of the host mice, this model system offers the opportunity to study the mechanisms by which nutrients and other environmental factors affect human adipose tissue development and biology. PMID:25193996

  5. Adipose-derived stromal cells mediate in vivo adipogenesis, angiogenesis and inflammation in decellularized adipose tissue bioscaffolds.

    PubMed

    Han, Tim Tian Y; Toutounji, Sandra; Amsden, Brian G; Flynn, Lauren E

    2015-12-01

    Decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) has shown promise as an adipogenic bioscaffold for soft tissue augmentation and reconstruction. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of allogeneic adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) on in vivo fat regeneration in DAT bioscaffolds using an immunocompetent rat model. ASC seeding significantly enhanced angiogenesis and adipogenesis, with cell tracking studies indicating that the newly-forming tissues were host-derived. Incorporating ASCs also mediated the inflammatory response and promoted a more constructive macrophage phenotype. A fraction of the CD163(+) macrophages in the implants expressed adipogenic markers, with higher levels of this "adipocyte-like" phenotype in proximity to the developing adipose tissues. Our results indicate that the combination of ASCs and adipose extracellular matrix (ECM) provides an inductive microenvironment for adipose regeneration mediated by infiltrating host cell populations. The DAT scaffolds are a useful tissue-specific model system for investigating the mechanisms of in vivo adipogenesis that may help to develop a better understanding of this complex process in the context of both regeneration and disease. Overall, combining adipose-derived matrices with ASCs is a highly promising approach for the in situ regeneration of host-derived adipose tissue. PMID:26360790

  6. Isoliquiritigenin Attenuates Adipose Tissue Inflammation in vitro and Adipose Tissue Fibrosis through Inhibition of Innate Immune Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yasuharu; Nagai, Yoshinori; Honda, Hiroe; Okamoto, Naoki; Yamamoto, Seiji; Hamashima, Takeru; Ishii, Yoko; Tanaka, Miyako; Suganami, Takayoshi; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Miyake, Kensuke; Takatsu, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Isoliquiritigenin (ILG) is a flavonoid derived from Glycyrrhiza uralensis and potently suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome activation resulting in the improvement of diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation. However, whether ILG affects other pathways besides the inflammasome in adipose tissue inflammation is unknown. We here show that ILG suppresses adipose tissue inflammation by affecting the paracrine loop containing saturated fatty acids and TNF-α by using a co-culture composed of adipocytes and macrophages. ILG suppressed inflammatory changes induced by the co-culture through inhibition of NF-κB activation. This effect was independent of either inhibition of inflammasome activation or activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Moreover, ILG suppressed TNF-α-induced activation of adipocytes, coincident with inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation. Additionally, TNF-α-mediated inhibition of Akt phosphorylation under insulin signaling was alleviated by ILG in adipocytes. ILG suppressed palmitic acid-induced activation of macrophages, with decreasing the level of phosphorylated Jnk expression. Intriguingly, ILG improved high fat diet-induced fibrosis in adipose tissue in vivo. Finally, ILG inhibited TLR4- or Mincle-stimulated expression of fibrosis-related genes in stromal vascular fraction from obese adipose tissue and macrophages in vitro. Thus, ILG can suppress adipose tissue inflammation by both inflammasome-dependent and -independent manners and attenuate adipose tissue fibrosis by targeting innate immune sensors. PMID:26975571

  7. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible. PMID:26076904

  8. The role of GH in adipose tissue: lessons from adipose-specific GH receptor gene-disrupted mice.

    PubMed

    List, Edward O; Berryman, Darlene E; Funk, Kevin; Gosney, Elahu S; Jara, Adam; Kelder, Bruce; Wang, Xinyue; Kutz, Laura; Troike, Katie; Lozier, Nicholas; Mikula, Vincent; Lubbers, Ellen R; Zhang, Han; Vesel, Clare; Junnila, Riia K; Frank, Stuart J; Masternak, Michal M; Bartke, Andrzej; Kopchick, John J

    2013-03-01

    GH receptor (GHR) gene-disrupted mice (GHR-/-) have provided countless discoveries as to the numerous actions of GH. Many of these discoveries highlight the importance of GH in adipose tissue. For example GHR-/- mice are insulin sensitive yet obese with preferential enlargement of the sc adipose depot. GHR-/- mice also have elevated levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin, compared with controls leading some to suggest that GH may negatively regulate certain adipokines. To help clarify the role that GH exerts specifically on adipose tissue in vivo, we selectively disrupted GHR in adipose tissue to produce Fat GHR Knockout (FaGHRKO) mice. Surprisingly, FaGHRKOs shared only a few characteristics with global GHR-/- mice. Like the GHR-/- mice, FaGHRKO mice are obese with increased total body fat and increased adipocyte size. However, FaGHRKO mice have increases in all adipose depots with no improvements in measures of glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, resistin and adiponectin levels in FaGHRKO mice are similar to controls (or slightly decreased) unlike the increased levels found in GHR-/- mice, suggesting that GH does not regulate these adipokines directly in adipose tissue in vivo. Other features of FaGHRKO mice include decreased levels of adipsin, a near-normal GH/IGF-1 axis, and minimal changes to a large assortment of circulating factors that were measured such as IGF-binding proteins. In conclusion, specific removal of GHR in adipose tissue is sufficient to increase adipose tissue and decrease circulating adipsin. However, removal of GHR in adipose tissue alone is not sufficient to increase levels of resistin or adiponectin and does not alter glucose metabolism. PMID:23349524

  9. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  10. Perivascular adipose tissue, vascular reactivity and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Oriowo, Mabayoje A

    2015-01-01

    Most blood vessels are surrounded by a variable amount of adventitial adipose tissue, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which was originally thought to provide mechanical support for the vessel. It is now known that PVAT secretes a number of bioactive substances including vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor, interleukin-6, plasminogen activator substance, resistin and angiotensinogen. Several studies have shown that PVAT significantly modulated vascular smooth muscle contractions induced by a variety of agonists and electrical stimulation by releasing adipocyte-derived relaxing (ADRF) and contracting factors. The identity of ADRF is not yet known. However, several vasodilators have been suggested including adiponectin, angiotensin 1-7, hydrogen sulfide and methyl palmitate. The anticontractile effect of PVAT is mediated through the activation of potassium channels since it is abrogated by inhibiting potassium channels. Hypertension is characterized by a reduction in the size and amount of PVAT and this is associated with the attenuated anticontractile effect of PVAT in hypertension. However, since a reduction in size and amount of PVAT and the attenuated anticontractile effect of PVAT were already evident in prehypertensive rats with no evidence of impaired release of ADRF, there is the possibility that the anticontractile effect of PVAT was not directly related to an altered function of the adipocytes per se. Hypertension is characterized by low-grade inflammation and infiltration of macrophages. One of the adipokines secreted by macrophages is TNF-α. It has been shown that exogenously administered TNF-α enhanced agonist-induced contraction of a variety of vascular smooth muscle preparations and reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation. Other procontractile factors released by the PVAT include angiotensin II and superoxide. It is therefore possible that the loss could be due

  11. Brown Adipose Tissue in Cetacean Blubber

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Ohtsuki, Hirofumi; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Amou, Kento; Sato, Ryo; Doi, Satoru; Kobayashi, Sara; Matsuda, Ayaka; Sugiyama, Makoto; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsuishi, Takashi; Terasawa, Fumio; Shindo, Junji; Endo, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall’s and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool waters during

  12. Validation of Anthropometric Indices of Adiposity against Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging – A Study within the German European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Wald, Diana; Hüsing, Anika; Teucher, Birgit; Wendt, Andrea; Delorme, Stefan; Dinkel, Julien; Vigl, Matthaeus; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Feller, Silke; Hierholzer, Johannes; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Background In epidemiological studies, measures of body fat generally are obtained through anthropometric indices such as the body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and hip circumferences (HC). Such indices, however, can only provide estimates of a person’s true body fat content, overall or by adipose compartment, and may have limited accuracy, especially for the visceral adipose compartment (VAT). Objective To determine the extent to which different body adipose tissue compartments are adequately predicted by anthropometry, and to identify anthropometric measures alone, or in combination to predict overall adiposity and specific adipose tissue compartments, independently of age and body size (height). Methods In a sub-study of 1,192 participants of the German EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohorts, whole-body MRI was performed to determine adipose and muscle tissue compartments. Additional anthropometric measurements of BMI, WC and HC were taken. Results After adjusting for age and height, BMI, WC and HC were better predictors of total body volume (TBV), total adipose tissue (TAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) than for VAT, coronary adipose tissue (CAT) and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT). In both sexes, BMI was the best predictor for TBV (men: r = 0.72 [0.68–0.76], women: r = 0.80 [0.77–0.83]) and SMT (men: r = 0.52 [0.45–0.57], women: r = 0.48 [0.41–0.54]). WC was the best predictor variable for TAT (r = 0.48 [0.41–0.54]), VAT (r = 0.44 [0.37–0.50]) and CAT (r = 0.34 [0.26–0.41]) (men), and for VAT (r = 0.42 [0.35–0.49]) and CAT (r = 0.29 [0.22–0.37]) (women). BMI was the best predictor for TAT (r = 0.49 [0.43–0.55]) (women). HC was the best predictor for SAT (men (r = 0.39 [0.32–0.45]) and women (r = 0.52 [0.46–0.58])). Conclusions Especially the volumes of internal body fat compartments are poorly predicted by anthropometry. A possible implication

  13. Screen time and adiposity in adolescents in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lajous, Martín; Chavarro, Jorge; Peterson, Karen E; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo; Cruz-Valdéz, Aurelio; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of time spent viewing television, videos and videogames with measures of fat mass [body mass index (BMI)] and distribution [triceps and subscapular skin folds (TSF, SSF)]. Design Cross-sectional validated survey, self-administered to students to assess screen time (TV, videos and videogames) and lifestyle variables. Trained personnel obtained anthropometry. The association of screen time with fat mass and distribution, stratified by sex, was modeled with multivariable linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders and correlation of observations within schools. Subjects and setting 3519 males and 5613 females aged 11 to 18 years attending urban and rural schools in the State of Morelos, Mexico Results In males, ≥5 hr/day compared with < 2 hr/day of screen time, was significantly associated with a 0.13 (95%CI 0.04, 0.23) higher BMI z score, 0.73 mm (95% CI 0.24, 1.22) higher SSF and 1.08 mm (95% CI 0.36, 1.81) higher TSF. The positive association of screen time with SSF was strongest in males 11–12 yr. Sexual maturity appeared to modify the association in females; a positive between screen time and SSF was observed in those who had not undergone menarche (p-trend 0.04) but not among sexually mature females (p-trend 0.75). Conclusion Screen time is associated with fat mass and distribution among adolescent males in Mexico. Maturational tempo appears to affect the relationship of screen time with adiposity in boys and girls. Findings suggest obesity preventive interventions in the Mexican context should explore strategies to reduce screen time among youth in early adolescence. PMID:19232154

  14. Segmentation and quantification of adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Houchun Harry; Chen, Jun; Shen, Wei

    2016-04-01

    In this brief review, introductory concepts in animal and human adipose tissue segmentation using proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography are summarized in the context of obesity research. Adipose tissue segmentation and quantification using spin relaxation-based (e.g., T1-weighted, T2-weighted), relaxometry-based (e.g., T1-, T2-, T2*-mapping), chemical-shift selective, and chemical-shift encoded water-fat MRI pulse sequences are briefly discussed. The continuing interest to classify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots into smaller sub-depot compartments is mentioned. The use of a single slice, a stack of slices across a limited anatomical region, or a whole body protocol is considered. Common image post-processing steps and emerging atlas-based automated segmentation techniques are noted. Finally, the article identifies some directions of future research, including a discussion on the growing topic of brown adipose tissue and related segmentation considerations. PMID:26336839

  15. More insights into a human adipose tissue GPAT activity assay

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Chen, Liang; Oberschneider, Elisabeth; Harteneck, Debra; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adipose tissue fatty acid storage varies according to sex, adipose tissue depot and degree of fat gain. However, the mechanism(s) for these variations is not completely understood. We recently published findings based on the glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) enzyme activity assay we optimized for use with human adipose tissue. These findings include a decrease in total GPAT and GPAT1 as a function of adipocyte size in both omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue and a strong, positive correlations between ACS, GPAT, and DGAT activities for both sexes and depots and between these storage factors and palmitate storage rates into TAG. The aim of this commentary is to expand upon the data from our recent publication. We describe here additional details on the optimization of the GPAT enzyme activity assay, a correlation between DGAT and percentage palmitate in the diacylglycerol fraction, and sex differences in fatty acid storage factors and storage rates into TAG at high palmitate concentrations. PMID:27144101

  16. Metabolic syndrome pathophysiology: the role of adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several physiopathological explanations for the metabolic syndrome have been proposed involving insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and ectopic fat accumulation following adipose tissue saturation. However, current concepts create several paradoxes, including limited cardiovascular risk reducti...

  17. Anguli Parimana in Ayurveda and its association with adiposity and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shirodkar, Jyoti A.; Sayyad, Mehmood G.; Nanal, Vilas M.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown the association of disproportionate body size measurements with noncommunicable diseases like diabetes. This concept is described in Ayurveda (1500 BC), which uses Anguli Parimana (the breadth of one's own finger as 1 unit) to measure the body proportions. Excessive tallness or shortness (deviation from the reference value of Anguli Parimana) indicated deranged meda dhaatu (mainly adipose tissue). Deranged meda dhatu was associated with Prameha (diabetes). Objectives: To find association of Anguli Parimana with modern parameters of adiposity and diabetes. Materials and Methods: We studied 192 village residents representing the whole population (94 men and 98 women) to measure height, arm span, facial structures and limbs and expressed them in Anguli pariman (ratio of each measure as: Length or height of the body part [cm]/anguli, i.e. average finger breadth [cm]). The Anguli measurements were associated with body mass index, body fat percentage by DEXA, glucose and fasting insulin levels. Results: The volunteers were adults between 20 and 40 years age. Their mean fasting and 2 h plasma glucose concentrations were 91.6 mg% and 102.8 mg%, respectively. Of all, only 6 subjects had impaired glucose tolerance, while 3 were diabetic (WHO 1999). When compared with reference Anguli measurements mentioned by Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita, the participants had smaller height, facial structures, and lower limbs. Those, who had proportionately smaller facial, neck and limb structures, had higher obesity, adiposity, plasma glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment [HOMA]-R) indicating higher metabolic risk. In contrast, those who had proportionately larger forehead and face had higher beta cell function measured as HOMA-B indicating lower risk for diabetes (r = 0.20 both P < 0.05 all, adjusted for age and gender). Conclusion: Compared with ancient Indian Anguli reference, our subjects were proportionately

  18. Altered subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid synthesis in obese, insulin-resistant humans

    PubMed Central

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Chandalia, Manisha; Batbayar, Tumurbaatar; Saraf, Manish; Beysen, Carine; Murphy, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (AT) dynamics in obese subjects with a wide range of insulin sensitivity (IS) and the correlation between these two metabolic measures. Ten obese (BMI 30–40 kg/m2) nondiabetic subjects with (n = 6) and without (n = 4) the metabolic syndrome were studied following a 12-wk 2H2O labeling period. Subcutaneous abdominal AT biopsies were collected. Deuterium incorporation into triglyceride (TG)-glycerol and TG-palmitate were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the calculation of fractional TG synthesis (fTG) and fractional de novo lipogenesis (fDNL). Muscle IS and insulin-mediated nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) suppression (a measure for adipose IS) indexes were derived from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The ability of subcutaneous abdominal AT to synthesize lipids varied significantly in obese subjects (fTG range 7–28%, fDNL range 1.1–4.6%) with significantly lower values (>35% reduction) for both parameters in obese with the metabolic syndrome. fTG correlated positively with muscle IS (r = 0.64, P = 0.04) and inversely with NEFA suppression during the OGTT (r = −0.69, P = 0.03). These results demonstrate a large variability in subcutaneous abdominal AT lipid turnover in obesity. Moreover, a reduced capacity for subcutaneous abdominal AT fat storage is associated with muscle and adipose tissue insulin resistance as well as with the metabolic syndrome, thus identifying a form of obesity at heightened risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23982159

  19. The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal adiposity in postmenopausal, physically inactive South Asian women.

    PubMed

    Lesser, I A; Dick, T J M; Guenette, J A; Hoogbruin, A; Mackey, D C; Singer, J; Lear, S A

    2015-01-01

    In South Asians, a unique obesity phenotype of high abdominal fat is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with abdominal fat and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether CRF as assessed by VO2 peak, in post-menopausal South Asian women, was associated with body fat distribution and abdominal fat. Physically inactive post-menopausal South Asian women (n = 55) from the Greater Vancouver area were recruited and assessed from January to August 2014. At baseline, VO2 peak was measured with the Bruce Protocol, abdominal fat with CT imaging, and body composition with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. ANOVA was used to assess differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT) between tertiles of CRF. Bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses explored the association between VO2 peak with SAAT, VAT, TAAT and body composition. Models were further adjusted for body fat and body mass index (BMI). Compared to women in the lowest tertile of VO2 peak (13.8-21.8 mL/kg/min), women in the highest tertile (25.0-27.7 mL/kg/min) had significantly lower waist circumference, BMI, total body fat, body fat percentage, lean mass, SAAT, VAT and TAAT (p < 0.05). We found VO2 peak to be negatively associated with SAAT, VAT and TAAT, independent of age and body fatness but not independent of BMI. Further research is necessary to assess whether exercise and therefore improvements in CRF would alter SAAT, VAT and TAAT in post-menopausal South Asian women. PMID:26844150

  20. Smoking, Central Adiposity, and Poor Glycemic Control Increase Risk of Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Nondahl, David M.; Dalton, Dayna S.; Fischer, Mary E.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nieto, F. Javier; Schubert, Carla R.; Tweed, Ted S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine associations between smoking, adiposity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and the 15-yr incidence of hearing impairment (HI). Design The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is a longitudinal population-based cohort study (1993–95 to 2009–2010). Setting Beaver Dam, WI. Participants Participants in the Beaver Dam Eye Study (1988–90; residents of Beaver Dam, WI ages 43–84 years in 1987–88) were eligible for the EHLS. There were 1925 participants with normal hearing at baseline. Measurements 15-year cumulative incidence of HI (pure-tone average (PTA) of hearing thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz > 25 decibels Hearing Level (dB HL) in either ear). Cigarette smoking, exercise, and other factors were ascertained by questionnaire. Blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured. Results Follow-up examinations (≥1) were obtained from 87.2% (n=1678; mean baseline age 61 years). The 15-year cumulative incidence of HI was 56.8%. Adjusting for age and sex, current smoking (Hazard Ratio (HR) =1.31, p=0.048), education (<16 yrs; HR=1.35, p=0.01), waist circumference (HR=1.08 per 10 cm, p=0.017), and poorly controlled diabetes (HR=2.03, p=0.048) were associated with increased risk of HI. Former smokers and people with better controlled diabetes were not at increased risk. Conclusion Smoking, central adiposity and poorly controlled diabetes predicted incident HI. These well-known CVD risk factors, suggest vascular changes may contribute to HI in aging. Interventions targeting reductions in smoking and adiposity, and improved glycemic control in people with diabetes, may help to prevent or delay the onset of HI. PMID:25953199

  1. The association between food patterns and adiposity among Canadian children at risk of overweight.

    PubMed

    Shang, Lei; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Tremblay, Angelo; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2014-02-01

    Identifying food patterns related to obesity can provide information for health promotion in nutrition. Food patterns and their relation with obesity among Canadian children have not been reported to date. Our aim was to identify and describe food patterns associated with obesity in children at risk of overweight. Caucasian children (n = 630) with at least 1 obese biological parent recruited into the Quebec Adiposity and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort were studied in cross-sectional analyses. Measures of adiposity (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fat mass percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), screen time, physical activity (accelerometer over 7 days), and dietary intake (three 24-h food recalls) were collected. Factor analysis was used to identify food patterns. The relationships between food patterns and overweight were investigated in logistic and multiple linear regression models. Three food patterns were retained for analysis: traditional food (red meats, main dishes-soups, high-fat dairy products, tomato products, dressings, etc.); healthy food (low-fat dairy products, whole grains, legumes-nuts-seeds, fruits, vegetables); and fast food (sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes, fried chicken, hamburgers-hot dogs-pizza, salty snacks). Higher scores on the fast food pattern were associated with overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile), and other measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference, body fat mass percentage) after adjustment for age, sex, physical activity, screen time, sleep time, family income, and mother's obesity (p < 0.05). Controlling for energy intake did not change these relationships. Our results provide further evidence of a link between fast food intake and obesity in children. PMID:24476475

  2. Relationship between lipid and hematological profiles with adiposity in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Lisianny Camilla Cocri do Nascimento; da Silva, Humberto José Gomes; Lins, Tatiana Acioli; do Prado, Wagner Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Background An excess of weight including obesity have reached epidemic rates in all age groups, both in developed and developing countries. It is notable that overweight children and adolescents have a higher likelihood of becoming obese adults and to present health-related problems early in life. Objetives To verify associations of the lipid and hematological profiles with adiposity in obese adolescents beginning multidisciplinary weight loss therapy. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with 85 adolescents of both genders, aged 12-19 years (Tanner staging 3 or 4) and body mass index greater than the 95th percentile. The sum of the triceps, subscapular and calf skinfolds and the waist circumference were used to estimate adiposity. Blood samples were collected from all patients after overnight fasting to analyze blood lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides), blood sugar and the hematological profile (hemoglobin, platelets and red blood cells). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients were used for statistical analysis with significance set for p-values ≤ 0.05. Results There were statistical differences between genders for red blood cells (p-value = 0.000), hemoglobin (p-value = 0.000) and platelets (p-value = 0.002). Positive correlations were found for red blood cells (p-value = 0.031) and hemoglobin (p-value = 0.024) with waist circumference. There was a negative correlation between hemoglobin and the sum of skinfolds (p-value = 0.022). Conclusion The results demonstrate an association between the lipid and hematological profiles and body adiposity in obese adolescents thus reinforcing the importance of treating obese adolescents early to prevent health related problems in adult life. PMID:23904803

  3. Prospective associations between sedentary time, sleep duration and adiposity in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Collings, Paul J.; Wijndaele, Katrien; Corder, Kirsten; Westgate, Kate; Ridgway, Charlotte L.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Atkin, Andrew J.; Bamber, Diane; Goodyer, Ian; Brage, Soren; Ekelund, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate whether objectively measured sedentary time and sleep duration are associated with changes in adiposity from mid- to late adolescence. Methods Students (n = 504, 42% boys) were recruited from schools in Cambridgeshire, UK. At baseline (mean age 15.0 ± 0.3 years), sedentary time was objectively measured by ≥3 days of combined heart rate and movement sensing. Concurrently, sleep duration was measured by combined sensing in conjunction with self-reported bed times. Fat mass index (FMI; kg/m2) was estimated at baseline and follow-up (17.5 ± 0.3 years) by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance. FMI change (ΔFMI) was calculated by subtracting the baseline from follow-up values. Linear regression models adjusted for basic demographics, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and depressive symptoms were used to investigate associations of sedentary time and sleep duration (mutually adjusted for one another) with ΔFMI. Results FMI increased by 0.5 and 0.6 kg/m2 in boys and girls, respectively, but there was no association between sedentary time and ΔFMI in either gender (p ≥ 0.087), and no association between sleep duration and ΔFMI in girls (p ≥ 0.61). In boys, each additional hour of baseline sleep significantly reduced the ΔFMI by 0.13 kg/m2 (p = 0.049), but there was little evidence for this association after adjusting for MVPA and depressive symptoms (p = 0.15). Conclusions Sedentary time may not determine changes in adiposity from mid- to late adolescence, nor may sleep duration in girls. However, sleep length may be inversely associated with adiposity gain in boys, depending on whether the relationship is confounded or mediated by MVPA and depression. PMID:25959093

  4. Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue–Derived Stem Cell Utility Is Independent of Anatomical Harvest Site

    PubMed Central

    Choudhery, Mahmood S.; Badowski, Michael; Muise, Angela; Pierce, John; Harris, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract One of the challenges for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is to obtain suitably large cell numbers for therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can easily be expanded in vitro to obtain large numbers of cells, but this approach may induce cellular senescence. The characteristics of cells are dependent on variables like age, body mass index (BMI), and disease conditions, however, and in the case of adipose tissue–derived stem cells (ASCs), anatomical harvest site is also an important variable that can affect the regenerative potential of isolated cells. We therefore had kept the parameters (age, BMI, disease conditions) constant in this study to specifically assess influence of anatomical sites of individual donors on utility of ASCs. Adipose tissue was obtained from multiple anatomical sites in individual donors, and viability and nucleated cell yield were determined. MSC frequency was enumerated using colony forming unit assay and cells were characterized by flow cytometry. Growth characteristics were determined by long-term population doubling analysis of each sample. Finally, MSCs were induced to undergo adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation. To validate the findings, these results were compared with similar single harvest sites from multiple individual patients. The results of the current study indicated that MSCs obtained from multiple harvest sites in a single donor have similar morphology and phenotype. All adipose depots in a single donor exhibited similar MSC yield, viability, frequency, and growth characteristics. Equivalent differentiation capacity into osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes was also observed. On the basis of results, we conclude that it is acceptable to combine MSCs obtained from various anatomical locations in a single donor to obtain suitably large cell numbers required for therapy, avoiding in vitro senescence and lengthy and expensive in vitro culturing and expansion steps. PMID:26309790

  5. Body mass index

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass index To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health care provider ...

  6. Body Mass Index Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  7. n-3 PUFA: bioavailability and modulation of adipose tissue function.

    PubMed

    Kopecky, Jan; Rossmeisl, Martin; Flachs, Pavel; Kuda, Ondrej; Brauner, Petr; Jilkova, Zuzana; Stankova, Barbora; Tvrzicka, Eva; Bryhn, Morten

    2009-11-01

    Adipose tissue has a key role in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS), which includes obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and other disorders. Systemic insulin resistance represents a major factor contributing to the development of MS in obesity. The resistance is precipitated by impaired adipose tissue glucose and lipid metabolism, linked to a low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue and secretion of pro-inflammatory adipokines. Development of MS could be delayed by lifestyle modifications, while both dietary and pharmacological interventions are required for the successful therapy of MS. The n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA, EPA and DHA, which are abundant in marine fish, act as hypolipidaemic factors, reduce cardiac events and decrease the progression of atherosclerosis. Thus, n-3 LC PUFA represent healthy constituents of diets for patients with MS. In rodents n-3 LC PUFA prevent the development of obesity and impaired glucose tolerance. The effects of n-3 LC PUFA are mediated transcriptionally by AMP-activated protein kinase and by other mechanisms. n-3 LC PUFA activate a metabolic switch toward lipid catabolism and suppression of lipogenesis, i.e. in the liver, adipose tissue and small intestine. This metabolic switch improves dyslipidaemia and reduces ectopic deposition of lipids, resulting in improved insulin signalling. Despite a relatively low accumulation of n-3 LC PUFA in adipose tissue lipids, adipose tissue is specifically linked to the beneficial effects of n-3 LC PUFA, as indicated by (1) the prevention of adipose tissue hyperplasia and hypertrophy, (2) the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis in adipocytes, (3) the induction of adiponectin and (4) the amelioration of adipose tissue inflammation by n-3 LC PUFA. PMID:19698199

  8. Short Sleep Duration and Adiposity in Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yunxian; Lu, Brandon S.; Wang, Binyan; Wang, Hongjian; Yang, Jianhua; Li, Zhiping; Wang, Liuliu; Liu, Xue; Tang, Genfu; Xing, Houxun; Xu, Xiping; Zee, Phyllis C.; Wang, Xiaobin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between sleep duration and adiposity measurements in rural Chinese adolescents. Methods: This report is based on a cross-sectional analysis of 500 Chinese adolescent twins. Anthropometric measurements and direct adiposity measurements using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were taken for all subjects. Standard sleep questionnaires and a 7-day diary were administered to assess sleep duration. Results: Sleep duration decreased with increasing age during adolescence, reaching a nadir at approximately 15 years of age. While BMI and body fat increased through the entire range of adolescence for both genders, after the age of 12, females had much higher amounts of total and truncal fat than males. Graphic plots showed that among females, both long and short sleepers tended to have higher adiposity measures than medium duration sleepers. The association of short sleep duration with higher adiposity measures was significant even after adjustment for covariates. This association was stronger for total and truncal fat and waist circumference (P <0.05) than for BMI (P = 0.06). In contrast, consistent relationships between sleep duration and adiposity measures were not seen in males. Conclusion: Even in this relatively lean Chinese adolescent cohort, short sleep duration was significantly associated with higher adiposity measures and lower lean body mass in females. The results of this study indicate that the observed association between short sleep duration and higher BMI is most likely mediated by factors associated with total and central adiposity rather than lean body mass. Citation: Yu Y; Lu BS; Wang B; Wang H; Yang J. Short sleep duration and adiposity in chinese adolescents. SLEEP 2007;30(12):1688-1697. PMID:18246978

  9. Profiling of chicken adipose tissue gene expression by genome array

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Bao; Li, Hui; Wang, Qi-Gui; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Wang, Shou-Zhi; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Xiu-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Background Excessive accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue is a major problem in the present-day broiler industry. However, few studies have analyzed the expression of adipose tissue genes that are involved in pathways and mechanisms leading to adiposity in chickens. Gene expression profiling of chicken adipose tissue could provide key information about the ontogenesis of fatness and clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity. In this study, Chicken Genome Arrays were used to construct an adipose tissue gene expression profile of 7-week-old broilers, and to screen adipose tissue genes that are differentially expressed in lean and fat lines divergently selected over eight generations for high and low abdominal fat weight. Results The gene expression profiles detected 13,234–16,858 probe sets in chicken adipose tissue at 7 weeks, and genes involved in lipid metabolism and immunity such as fatty acid binding protein (FABP), thyroid hormone-responsive protein (Spot14), lipoprotein lipase(LPL), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7(IGFBP7) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC), were highly expressed. In contrast, some genes related to lipogenesis, such as leptin receptor, sterol regulatory element binding proteins1 (SREBP1), apolipoprotein B(ApoB) and insulin-like growth factor 2(IGF2), were not detected. Moreover, 230 genes that were differentially expressed between the two lines were screened out; these were mainly involved in lipid metabolism, signal transduction, energy metabolism, tumorigenesis and immunity. Subsequently, real-time RT-PCR was performed to validate fifteen differentially expressed genes screened out by the microarray approach and high consistency was observed between the two methods. Conclusion Our results establish the groundwork for further studies of the basic genetic control of growth and development of chicken adipose tissue, and will be beneficial in clarifying the molecular mechanism of obesity in chickens. PMID

  10. California Nitrogen Index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California N Index User Manual is designed to help you become accustomed to the software environment in which the N Index runs. This manual will use an example scenario to demonstrate how to use the N Index to assess nitrogen losses. The objective of this theoretical example is to guide you towa...

  11. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  12. Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging

    PubMed Central

    Buras, Eric D.; Yu, Kaijiang; Wang, Ruitao; Smith, C. Wayne; Wu, Huaizhu; Sheikh-Hamad, David; Sun, Yuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Aging is commonly associated with low-grade adipose inflammation, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone which is known to increase obesity and insulin resistance. We previously reported that the expression of the ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), increases in adipose tissues during aging, and old Ghsr−/− mice exhibit a lean and insulin-sensitive phenotype. Macrophages are major mediators of adipose tissue inflammation, which consist of pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes. Here, we show that in aged mice, GHS-R ablation promotes macrophage phenotypical shift toward anti-inflammatory M2. Old Ghsr−/− mice have reduced macrophage infiltration, M1/M2 ratio, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in white and brown adipose tissues. We also found that peritoneal macrophages of old Ghsr−/− mice produce higher norepinephrine, which is in line with increased alternatively-activated M2 macrophages. Our data further reveal that GHS-R has cell-autonomous effects in macrophages, and GHS-R antagonist suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that ghrelin signaling has an important role in macrophage polarization and adipose tissue inflammation during aging. GHS-R antagonists may serve as a novel and effective therapeutic option for age-associated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:26837433

  13. Role of adipose tissue in haemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Faber, D R; de Groot, Ph G; Visseren, F L J

    2009-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. The increased risk for cardiovascular diseases could partly be caused by a prothrombotic state that exists because of abdominal obesity. Adipose tissue induces thrombocyte activation by the production of adipose tissue-derived hormones, often called adipokines, of which some such as leptin and adiponectin have been shown to directly interfere with platelet function. Increased adipose tissue mass induces IR and systemic low-grade inflammation, also affecting platelet function. It has been demonstrated that adipose tissue directly impairs fibrinolysis by the production of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and possibly thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor. Adipose tissue may contribute to enhanced coagulation by direct tissue factor production, but hypercoagulability is likely to be primarily caused by affecting hepatic synthesis of the coagulation factors fibrinogen, factor VII, factor VIII and tissue factor, by releasing free fatty acids and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6) into the portal circulation and by inducing hepatic IR. Adipose tissue dysfunction could thus play a causal role in the prothrombotic state observed in obesity, by directly and indirectly affecting haemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis. PMID:19460118

  14. Gene Expression Signature in Adipose Tissue of Acromegaly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Irit; Tran, Quynh T.; Barkan, Ariel L.; Saltiel, Alan R.; Chandler, William F.; Bridges, Dave

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of chronic excess growth hormone on adipose tissue, we performed RNA sequencing in adipose tissue biopsies from patients with acromegaly (n = 7) or non-functioning pituitary adenomas (n = 11). The patients underwent clinical and metabolic profiling including assessment of HOMA-IR. Explants of adipose tissue were assayed ex vivo for lipolysis and ceramide levels. Patients with acromegaly had higher glucose, higher insulin levels and higher HOMA-IR score. We observed several previously reported transcriptional changes (IGF1, IGFBP3, CISH, SOCS2) that are known to be induced by GH/IGF-1 in liver but are also induced in adipose tissue. We also identified several novel transcriptional changes, some of which may be important for GH/IGF responses (PTPN3 and PTPN4) and the effects of acromegaly on growth and proliferation. Several differentially expressed transcripts may be important in GH/IGF-1-induced metabolic changes. Specifically, induction of LPL, ABHD5, and NRIP1 can contribute to enhanced lipolysis and may explain the elevated adipose tissue lipolysis in acromegalic patients. Higher expression of TCF7L2 and the fatty acid desaturases FADS1, FADS2 and SCD could contribute to insulin resistance. Ceramides were not different between the two groups. In summary, we have identified the acromegaly gene expression signature in human adipose tissue. The significance of altered expression of specific transcripts will enhance our understanding of the metabolic and proliferative changes associated with acromegaly. PMID:26087292

  15. Myogenic potential of adipose-tissue-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Di Rocco, Giuliana; Iachininoto, Maria Grazia; Tritarelli, Alessandra; Straino, Stefania; Zacheo, Antonella; Germani, Antonia; Crea, Filippo; Capogrossi, Maurizio C

    2006-07-15

    Adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells can be directed towards a myogenic phenotype in vitro by the addition of specific inductive media. However, the ability of these or other adipose-tissue-associated cells to respond to ;natural' myogenic cues such as a myogenic environment has never been investigated in detail. Here, we provide evidence that a restricted subpopulation of freshly harvested adipose-tissue-derived cells possesses an intrinsic myogenic potential and can spontaneously differentiate into skeletal muscle. Conversion of adipose-tissue-derived cells to a myogenic phenotype is enhanced by co-culture with primary myoblasts in the absence of cell contact and is maximal when the two cell types are co-cultured in the same plate. Conversely, in vitro expanded adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells require direct contact with muscle cells to generate skeletal myotubes. Finally, we show that uncultured adipose-tissue-associated cells have a high regenerative capacity in vivo since they can be incorporated into muscle fibers following ischemia and can restore significantly dystrophin expression in mdx mice. PMID:16825428

  16. Exercise and Adipose Tissue Macrophages: New Frontiers in Obesity Research?

    PubMed

    Goh, Jorming; Goh, Kian Peng; Abbasi, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem in the twenty-first century. Mutations in genes that regulate substrate metabolism, subsequent dysfunction in their protein products, and other factors, such as increased adipose tissue inflammation, are some underlying etiologies of this disease. Increased inflammation in the adipose tissue microenvironment is partly mediated by the presence of cells from the innate and adaptive immune system. A subset of the innate immune population in adipose tissue include macrophages, termed adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), which are central players in adipose tissue inflammation. Being extremely plastic, their responses to diverse molecular signals in the microenvironment dictate their identity and functional properties, where they become either pro-inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2). Endurance exercise training exerts global anti-inflammatory responses in multiple organs, including skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. The purpose of this review is to discuss the different mechanisms that drive ATM-mediated inflammation in obesity and present current evidence of how exercise training, specifically endurance exercise training, modulates the polarization of ATMs from an M1 to an M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype. PMID:27379017

  17. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, offspring DNA methylation and later offspring adiposity: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Gemma C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Richmond, Rebecca C; Fraser, Abigail; Simpkin, Andrew; Suderman, Matthew; Shihab, Hashem A; Lyttleton, Oliver; McArdle, Wendy; Ring, Susan M; Gaunt, Tom R; Davey Smith, George; Relton, Caroline L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that in utero exposure to undernutrition and overnutrition might affect adiposity in later life. Epigenetic modification is suggested as a plausible mediating mechanism. Methods: We used multivariable linear regression and a negative control design to examine offspring epigenome-wide DNA methylation in relation to maternal and offspring adiposity in 1018 participants. Results: Compared with neonatal offspring of normal weight mothers, 28 and 1621 CpG sites were differentially methylated in offspring of obese and underweight mothers, respectively [false discovert rate (FDR)-corrected P-value < 0.05), with no overlap in the sites that maternal obesity and underweight relate to. A positive association, where higher methylation is associated with a body mass index (BMI) outside the normal range, was seen at 78.6% of the sites associated with obesity and 87.9% of the sites associated with underweight. Associations of maternal obesity with offspring methylation were stronger than associations of paternal obesity, supporting an intrauterine mechanism. There were no consistent associations of gestational weight gain with offspring DNA methylation. In general, sites that were hypermethylated in association with maternal obesity or hypomethylated in association with maternal underweight tended to be positively associated with offspring adiposity, and sites hypomethylated in association with maternal obesity or hypermethylated in association with maternal underweight tended to be inversely associated with offspring adiposity. Conclusions: Our data suggest that both maternal obesity and, to a larger degree, underweight affect the neonatal epigenome via an intrauterine mechanism, but weight gain during pregnancy has little effect. We found some evidence that associations of maternal underweight with lower offspring adiposity and maternal obesity with greater offspring adiposity may be mediated via increased DNA methylation. PMID:25855720

  18. Adiposity indicators and dementia over 32 years in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, D R.; Bäckman, K; Waern, M; Östling, S; Guo, X; Zandi, P; Mielke, M M.; Bengtsson, C; Skoog, I

    2009-01-01

    Background: High midlife and late-life adiposity may increase risk for dementia. Late-life decrease in body mass index (BMI) or body weight within several years of a dementia diagnosis has also been reported. Differences in study designs and analyses may provide different pictures of this relationship. Methods: Thirty-two years of longitudinal body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) data, from the Prospective Population Study of Women in Sweden, were related to dementia. A representative sample of 1,462 nondemented women was followed from 1968 at ages 38-60 years, and subsequently in 1974, 1980, 1992, and 2000, using neuropsychiatric, anthropometric, clinical, and other measurements. Cox proportional hazards regression models estimated incident dementia risk by baseline factors. Logistic regression models including measures at each examination were related to dementia among surviving participants 32 years later. Results: While Cox models showed no association between baseline anthropometric factors and dementia risk, logistic models showed that a midlife WHR greater than 0.80 increased risk for dementia approximately twofold (odds ratio 2.22, 95% confidence interval 1.00-4.94, p = 0.049) among surviving participants. Evidence for reverse causality was observed for body weight, BMI, and waist circumference in years preceding dementia diagnosis. Conclusions: Among survivors to age 70, high midlife waist-to-hip ratio may increase odds of dementia. Traditional Cox models do not evidence this relationship. Changing anthropometric parameters in years preceding dementia onset indicate the dynamic nature of this seemingly simple relationship. There are midlife and late-life implications for dementia prevention, and analytical considerations related to identifying risk factors for dementia. GLOSSARY ADCVD = AD with cerebrovascular disease; BMI = body mass index; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; DSM-III-R = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of

  19. The Relationship Between Greater Prepubertal Adiposity, Subsequent Age of Maturation, and Bone Strength During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Glass, Natalie A; Torner, James C; Letuchy, Elena M; Burns, Trudy L; Janz, Kathleen F; Eichenberger Gilmore, Julie M; Schlechte, Janet A; Levy, Steven M

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether greater prepubertal adiposity was associated with subsequent timing of maturation and bone strength during adolescence in 135 girls and 123 boys participating in the Iowa Bone Development Study. Greater adiposity was defined using body mass index (BMI) data at age 8 years to classify participants as overweight (OW, ≥85th percentile for age and sex) or healthy weight (HW). Maturation was defined as the estimated age of peak height velocity (PHV) based on a series of cross-sectional estimates. Measurements were taken at ages 11, 13, 15, and 17 years for estimates of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bone compression (bone strength index), and torsion strength (polar strength-strain index) at the radius and tibia by pQCT, and femoral neck bending strength (section modulus) by hip structural analysis. Bone strength in OW versus HW were evaluated by fitting sex-specific linear mixed models that included centered age (visit age - grand mean age of cohort) as the time variable and adjusted for change in fat mass, and limb length in model 1. Analyses were repeated using biological age (visit age - age PHV) as the time variable for model 1 with additional adjustment for lean mass in model 2. BMI was negatively associated with age of maturation (p < 0.05). OW versus HW girls had significantly greater bone strength (p < 0.001) in model 1, whereas OW versus HW boys had significantly greater bone strength (p < 0.001) at the tibia and femoral neck but not radius (p > 0.05). Analyses were repeated using biological age, which yielded reduced parameter estimates for girls but similar results for boys (model 1.) Differences were no longer present after adjustment for lean mass (model 2) in girls (p > 0.05) whereas differences at the tibia were sustained in boys (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate sex- and site-specific differences in the associations between adiposity, maturation, and

  20. Molecular Heterogeneities of Adipose Depots - Potential Effects on Adipose-Muscle Cross-Talk in Humans, Mice and Farm Animals

    PubMed Central

    Komolka, Katrin; Albrecht, Elke; Wimmers, Klaus; Michal, Jennifer J.; Maak, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is considered as a major endocrine organ that secretes numerous proteins called adipokines. The heterogeneous nature of adipose tissue in different parts of the body suggests respective heterogeneity of proteomes and secretomes. This review consolidates knowledge from recent studies targeting the diversity of different adipose depots affecting the pattern of secreted adipokines and discusses potential consequences for the cross-talk between adipose and skeletal muscle in humans, rodent models and farm animals. Special attention is paid to muscle-associated fat depots like inter- and intramuscular fat that become focus of attention in the context of the rather new notion of skeletal muscle as a major endocrine organ. Understanding the complexity of communication between adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells will allow developing strategies for improvement of human health and for sustainable production of high quality meat. PMID:25057322

  1. Household food insecurity status and Hispanic immigrant children’s body mass index and adiposity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the high prevalence rates of food insecurity and obesity among children of Hispanic immigrants, there has been a dearth of research on the direct relationship between food insecurity and obesity among this population. Further, prior research examining the association between food insecurity ...

  2. Long-time alcohol intake modifies resistin secretion and expression of resistin gene in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Pravdová, E; Macho, L; Hlavácová, N; Ficková, M

    2007-09-01

    Elevated serum resistin is implicated in insulin resistance associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Alcohol consumption interferes with the nutritional status, metabolic and hormonal activity of the drinker. Impact of ethanol intake on resistin level and resistin metabolic effects is unknown. Effect of long-time (28 days) ad libitum moderate alcohol (6% ethanol solution) intake on serum resistin and resistin mRNA level in adipose tissue of rats (A) was compared to control (C) and pair-fed (PF) animals. PF rats were fed the same caloric amount as A rats on previous day. Alcohol consumption resulted in reduction of food and energy intake, decreased body mass gain, epididymal fat pads mass and smaller adipocytes (vs. C rats). Alcohol intake significantly increased serum resistin and glucose, insulinemia remained unchanged. Systemic insulin resistance was not proved by HOMA, QUICKI and McAuley indexes, but impaired insulin effect on glucose transport in isolated adipocytes was present. Elevated serum resistin was positively correlated with glycemia (r = 0.88, p < 0.01) and negatively with fat cell size (r = -0.73, p < 0.05). High resistin level as the consequence of long-time alcohol intake could contribute to smaller adipocytes, higher glycemia, attenuation of insulin-stimulated glucose transport in adipocytes. Diminished resistin gene expression in adipose tissue of A and PF rats was present. PMID:18063850

  3. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    PubMed Central

    Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M.W.; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian’an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex SF; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor VA; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John RB; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan JL; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco JC; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E

    2014-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, we conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of waist and hip circumference-related traits in up to 224,459 individuals. We identified 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI) and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P<5×10−8). Twenty of the 49 WHRadjBMI loci showed significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which displayed a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation, and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25673412

  4. Causal effects of socioeconomic status on central adiposity risks: Evidence using panel data from urban Mexico.

    PubMed

    Levasseur, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Associated with overweight, obesity and chronic diseases, the nutrition transition process reveals important socioeconomic issues in Mexico. Using panel data from the Mexican Family Life Survey, the purpose of the study is to estimate the causal effect of household socioeconomic status (SES) on nutritional outcomes among urban adults. We divide the analysis into two steps. First, using a mixed clustering procedure, we distinguish four socioeconomic classes based on income, educational and occupational dimensions: (i) a poor class; (ii) a lower-middle class; (iii) an upper-middle class; (iv) a rich class. Second, using an econometric framework adapted to our study (the Hausman-Taylor estimator), we measure the impact of belonging to these socioeconomic groups on individual anthropometric indicators, based on the body-mass index (BMI) and the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Our results make several contributions: (i) we show that a new middle class, rising out of poverty, is the most exposed to the risks of adiposity; (ii) as individuals from the upper class seem to be fatter than individuals from the upper-middle class, we can reject the assumption of an inverted U-shaped relationship between socioeconomic and anthropometric status as commonly suggested in emerging economies; (iii) the influence of SES on central adiposity appears to be particularly strong for men. PMID:26004210

  5. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M W; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Vernon Smith, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V A; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Hua Zhao, Jing; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R B; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J C; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter E H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth J F; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2015-02-12

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25673412

  6. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the morbidly obese using a laser Doppler velocimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, Gerald A.; Paton, Barry E.; Maksym, Geoff; Janigan, David; Perey, Bernard

    1992-08-01

    Using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (AF) was recorded in the upright and supine positions in the upper and lower abdomen in 22 morbidly obese patients before gastroplasty. Age was 42 +/- 3 (mean +/- SEM), weight 135 +/- 7 kg, and body mass index (BMI) 51 +/- 3. Adipose flow expressed as mV was: supine, upper abdomen 647 +/- 23, lower abdomen 604 +/- 24; upright, upper abdomen 621 +/- 27, lower abdomen 607 +/- 29. AF was significantly more in the upper than lower abdomen (supine position) and AF was significantly lower in the lower abdomen upright than the upper abdomen supine. Regression analysis of age indicates that blood flow decreases in the lower abdomen so that in the supine position the difference between upper and lower abdomen AF increases. Similar analysis of BMI did not indicate significant trends. These data indicate that with morbid obesity there is lower tissue blood flow to the lower abdomen. This may explain why such patients may develop areas of painful ischemic necrosis in the dependent region of their anterior abdominal pannus.

  7. Emodin protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity via regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase pathways in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lu, Hung-Jen; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2012-06-01

    Emodin is an active herbal component traditionally used in China for treating a variety of diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of emodin on the reducing lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed rats, and on the regulation of the expression of the genes involved in lipid metabolism to elucidate the mechanisms. After being fed a high-fat diet for two weeks, rats were dosed orally with emodin (20, 40, 80 mg/kg/day) or pioglitazone (20 mg/kg/day), once daily for eight weeks. Changes in body weight, feeding pattern, serum lipids, coronary artery risk index, and atherogenic index were investigated. Subcutaneous white adipose tissues were isolated for pathology histology and Western blot analyses. Changes of triglyceride accumulation in differentiated 3 T3-L1 adipocytes were also investigated. Emodin exhibited a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the intracellular accumulation of triglyceride in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes. Emodin (80 mg/kg/day) displayed similar characteristics to pioglitazone (20 mg/kg/day) in reducing body weight gain and plasma lipid levels as well as the coronary artery risk and atherogenic indices of high-fat diet-fed rats. Emodin also caused dose related reductions in epididymal white adipose tissue sizes in high-fat diet-fed rats. Emodin and pioglitazone enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and its primary downstream targeting enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, upregulated gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, and downregulated sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase protein levels in the epididymal white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed rats. Our findings suggest that emodin could attenuate lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue through AMP-activated protein kinase activation. PMID:22673833

  8. Relationships of maternal and paternal anthropometry with neonatal body size, proportions and adiposity in an Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan C K; Cole, Tim J; O'Callaghan, Michael; Stock, Jay T

    2015-04-01

    The patterns of association between maternal or paternal and neonatal phenotype may offer insight into how neonatal characteristics are shaped by evolutionary processes, such as conflicting parental interests in fetal investment and obstetric constraints. Paternal interests are theoretically served by maximizing fetal growth, and maternal interests by managing investment in current and future offspring, but whether paternal and maternal influences act on different components of overall size is unknown. We tested whether parents' prepregnancy height and body mass index (BMI) were related to neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, head circumference, absolute and proportional limb segment and trunk lengths, subcutaneous fat) among 1,041 Australian neonates using stepwise linear regression. Maternal and paternal height and maternal BMI were associated with birthweight. Paternal height related to offspring forearm and lower leg lengths, maternal height and BMI to neonatal head circumference, and maternal BMI to offspring adiposity. Principal components analysis identified three components of variability reflecting neonatal "head and trunk skeletal size," "adiposity," and "limb lengths." Regression analyses of the component scores supported the associations of head and trunk size or adiposity with maternal anthropometry, and limb lengths with paternal anthropometry. Our results suggest that while neonatal fatness reflects environmental conditions (maternal physiology), head circumference and limb and trunk lengths show differing associations with parental anthropometry. These patterns may reflect genetics, parental imprinting and environmental influences in a manner consistent with parental conflicts of interest. Paternal height may relate to neonatal limb length as a means of increasing fetal growth without exacerbating the risk of obstetric complications. PMID:25502164

  9. Retention of sedentary obese visceral white adipose tissue phenotype with intermittent physical activity despite reduced adiposity.

    PubMed

    Wainright, Katherine S; Fleming, Nicholas J; Rowles, Joe L; Welly, Rebecca J; Zidon, Terese M; Park, Young-Min; Gaines, T'Keaya L; Scroggins, Rebecca J; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K; Hasty, Alyssa H; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Padilla, Jaume

    2015-09-01

    Regular physical activity is effective in reducing visceral white adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and oxidative stress, and these changes are commonly associated with reduced adiposity. However, the impact of multiple periods of physical activity, intercalated by periods of inactivity, i.e., intermittent physical activity, on markers of AT inflammation and oxidative stress is unknown. In the present study, 5-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into three groups (n = 10/group): sedentary, regular physical activity, and intermittent physical activity, for 24 wk. All animals were singly housed and fed a diet containing 45% kcal from fat. Regularly active mice had access to voluntary running wheels throughout the study period, whereas intermittently active mice had access to running wheels for 3-wk intervals (i.e., 3 wk on/3 wk off) throughout the study. At death, regular and intermittent physical activity was associated with similar reductions in visceral AT mass (approximately -24%, P < 0.05) relative to sedentary. However, regularly, but not intermittently, active mice exhibited decreased expression of visceral AT genes related to inflammation (e.g., monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), immune cell infiltration (e.g., CD68, CD11c, F4/80, CD11b/CD18), oxidative stress (e.g., p47 phagocyte oxidase), and endoplasmic reticulum stress (e.g., CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein; all P < 0.05). Furthermore, regular, but not intermittent, physical activity was associated with a trend toward improvement in glucose tolerance (P = 0.059). Collectively, these findings suggest that intermittent physical activity over a prolonged period of time may lead to a reduction in adiposity but with retention of a sedentary obese white AT and metabolic phenotype. PMID:26180183

  10. Deep subcutaneous adipose tissue is more saturated than superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Lundbom, J; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, N; Taskinen, M-R

    2013-04-01

    Upper body abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) can be divided into deep SAT (DSAT) and superficial SAT (SSAT) depots. Studies on adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) composition have made no distinction between these two depots. The aim of this study is to determine whether DSAT and SSAT differ in FA composition. We studied the FA composition of DSAT and SSAT in 17 male and 13 female volunteers using non-invasive proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to differentiate between DSAT and SSAT. Adipose tissue spectra were analysed for lipid unsaturation, or double bond (DB) content, and polyunsaturation (PU), according to previously validated methods. The DSAT depot was more saturated than the SSAT depot, in both men (0.833 ± 0.012 vs 0.846 ± 0.009 DB, P<0.002) and women (0.826 ± 0.018 vs 0.850 ± 0.018 DB, P<0.002). In contrast, PU did not differ between DSAT and SSAT in either men (0.449 ± 0.043 vs 0.461 ± 0.044 PU, P=0.125) or women (0.411 ± 0.070 vs 0.442 ± 0.062 PU, P=0.234) and displayed a close correlation between the depots (R=0.908, P<0.001, n=30). The higher saturation in DSAT compared with SSAT can be attributed to a higher ratio of saturated to monounsaturated FAs. These results should be taken into account when determining the FA composition of SAT. PMID:22641063

  11. A Comprehensive Analysis of Common and Rare Variants to Identify Adiposity Loci in Hispanic Americans: The IRAS Family Study (IRASFS)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chuan; Wang, Nan; Guo, Xiuqing; Ziegler, Julie T.; Taylor, Kent D.; Xiang, Anny H.; Hai, Yang; Kridel, Steven J.; Nadler, Jerry L.; Kandeel, Fouad; Raffel, Leslie J.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Norris, Jill M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Watanabe, Richard M.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Bowden, Donald W.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Palmer, Nicholette D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is growing epidemic affecting 35% of adults in the United States. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci associated with obesity. However, the majority of studies have been completed in Caucasians focusing on total body measures of adiposity. Here we report the results from genome-wide and exome chip association studies focusing on total body measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF) and measures of fat deposition including waist circumference (WAIST), waist-hip ratio (WHR), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in Hispanic Americans (nmax = 1263) from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). Five SNPs from two novel loci attained genome-wide significance (P<5.00x10-8) in IRASFS. A missense SNP in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) was associated with WAIST (rs34218846, MAF = 6.8%, PDOM = 1.62x10-8). This protein is postulated to play an important role in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis as demonstrated in cell and knock-out animal models. Four correlated intronic SNPs in the Zinc finger, GRF-type containing 1 gene (ZGRF1; SNP rs1471880, MAF = 48.1%, PDOM = 1.00x10-8) were strongly associated with WHR. The exact biological function of ZGRF1 and the connection with adiposity remains unclear. SNPs with p-values less than 5.00x10-6 from IRASFS were selected for replication. Meta-analysis was computed across seven independent Hispanic-American cohorts (nmax = 4156) and the strongest signal was rs1471880 (PDOM = 8.38x10-6) in ZGRF1 with WAIST. In conclusion, a genome-wide and exome chip association study was conducted that identified two novel loci (IDH1 and ZGRF1) associated with adiposity. While replication efforts were inconclusive, when taken together with the known biology, IDH1 and ZGRF1 warrant further evaluation. PMID:26599207

  12. Metabolic Signatures of Adiposity in Young Adults: Mendelian Randomization Analysis and Effects of Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Würtz, Peter; Wang, Qin; Kangas, Antti J.; Richmond, Rebecca C.; Skarp, Joni; Tiainen, Mika; Tynkkynen, Tuulia; Soininen, Pasi; Havulinna, Aki S.; Kaakinen, Marika; Viikari, Jorma S.; Savolainen, Markku J.; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Männistö, Satu; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Vanhala, Mauno; Elliott, Paul; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Raitakari, Olli T.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smith, George Davey; Ala-Korpela, Mika

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased adiposity is linked with higher risk for cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to determine to what extent elevated body mass index (BMI) within the normal weight range has causal effects on the detailed systemic metabolite profile in early adulthood. Methods and Findings We used Mendelian randomization to estimate causal effects of BMI on 82 metabolic measures in 12,664 adolescents and young adults from four population-based cohorts in Finland (mean age 26 y, range 16–39 y; 51% women; mean ± standard deviation BMI 24±4 kg/m2). Circulating metabolites were quantified by high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics and biochemical assays. In cross-sectional analyses, elevated BMI was adversely associated with cardiometabolic risk markers throughout the systemic metabolite profile, including lipoprotein subclasses, fatty acid composition, amino acids, inflammatory markers, and various hormones (p<0.0005 for 68 measures). Metabolite associations with BMI were generally stronger for men than for women (median 136%, interquartile range 125%–183%). A gene score for predisposition to elevated BMI, composed of 32 established genetic correlates, was used as the instrument to assess causality. Causal effects of elevated BMI closely matched observational estimates (correspondence 87%±3%; R2 = 0.89), suggesting causative influences of adiposity on the levels of numerous metabolites (p<0.0005 for 24 measures), including lipoprotein lipid subclasses and particle size, branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, and inflammation-related glycoprotein acetyls. Causal analyses of certain metabolites and potential sex differences warrant stronger statistical power. Metabolite changes associated with change in BMI during 6 y of follow-up were examined for 1,488 individuals. Change in BMI was accompanied by widespread metabolite changes, which had an association pattern similar to that of the cross-sectional observations, yet with greater metabolic

  13. Parent-of-Origin Effects of the APOB Gene on Adiposity in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Hochner, Hagit; Allard, Catherine; Granot-Hershkovitz, Einat; Chen, Jinbo; Sitlani, Colleen M; Sazdovska, Sandra; Lumley, Thomas; McKnight, Barbara; Rice, Kenneth; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Meigs, James B; Kwok, Pui; Hivert, Marie-France; Borecki, Ingrid B; Gomez, Felicia; Wang, Ting; van Duijn, Cornelia; Amin, Najaf; Rotter, Jerome I; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Meiner, Vardiella; Manor, Orly; Dupuis, Josée; Friedlander, Yechiel; Siscovick, David S

    2015-10-01

    Loci identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cardio-metabolic traits account for a small proportion of the traits' heritability. To date, most association studies have not considered parent-of-origin effects (POEs). Here we report investigation of POEs on adiposity and glycemic traits in young adults. The Jerusalem Perinatal Family Follow-Up Study (JPS), comprising 1250 young adults and their mothers was used for discovery. Focusing on 18 genes identified by previous GWAS as associated with cardio-metabolic traits, we used linear regression to examine the associations of maternally- and paternally-derived offspring minor alleles with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose and insulin. We replicated and meta-analyzed JPS findings in individuals of European ancestry aged ≤50 belonging to pedigrees from the Framingham Heart Study, Family Heart Study and Erasmus Rucphen Family study (total N≅4800). We considered p<2.7x10-4 statistically significant to account for multiple testing. We identified a common coding variant in the 4th exon of APOB (rs1367117) with a significant maternally-derived effect on BMI (β = 0.8; 95%CI:0.4,1.1; p = 3.1x10-5) and WC (β = 2.7; 95%CI:1.7,3.7; p = 2.1x10-7). The corresponding paternally-derived effects were non-significant (p>0.6). Suggestive maternally-derived associations of rs1367117 were observed with fasting glucose (β = 0.9; 95%CI:0.3,1.5; p = 4.0x10-3) and insulin (ln-transformed, β = 0.06; 95%CI:0.03,0.1; p = 7.4x10-4). Bioinformatic annotation for rs1367117 revealed a variety of regulatory functions in this region in liver and adipose tissues and a 50% methylation pattern in liver only, consistent with allelic-specific methylation, which may indicate tissue-specific POE. Our findings demonstrate a maternal-specific association between a common APOB variant and adiposity, an association that was not previously detected in GWAS. These results provide evidence for the role of

  14. Association of Anthropometric and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Measures of Adiposity with High Molecular Weight Adiponectin Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wei-Fang; Li, Yan; Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Huang, Qi-Fang; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Shuai; Cheng, Yi-Bang; Li, Fei-Ka; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between adiposity measures and plasma concentration of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin. Methods In a Chinese sample (n = 1081), we performed measurements of anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). We defined overweight and obesity as a body mass index between 24 and 27.4 kg/m² and ≥ 27.5 kg/m², respectively, and central obesity as a waist circumference ≥ 90 cm in men and ≥ 80 cm in women. Plasma HMW adiponectin concentration was measured by the ELISA method. Results Plasma HMW adiponectin concentration was significantly (P < 0.0001) higher in women (n = 677, 2.47 μg/mL) than men (n = 404, 1.58 μg/mL) and correlated with advancing age in men (r = 0.28) and women (r = 0.29). In adjusted analyses, it was lower in the presence of overweight (n = 159, 1.26 μg/mL in men and n = 227, 2.15μg/mL in women) and obesity (n = 60, 1.31 μg/mL and n = 82, 2.10 μg/mL, respectively) than normal weight subjects (n = 185, 2.07μg/mL and n = 368, 2.94 μg/mL, respectively) and in the presence of central obesity (n = 106, 1.28 μg/mL and n = 331, 2.12 μg/mL, respectively) than subjects with a normal waist circumference (n = 298, 1.74 μg/mL and n = 346, 2.74 μg/mL, respectively). In multiple regression analyses stratified for gender, adjusted for confounders and considered separately each of the adiposity measures, all adiposity measures were significantly (r -0.18 to -0.31, P < 0.001) associated with plasma HMW adiponectin concentration. However, in further stratified and adjusted regression analyses considered stepwise all adiposity measures, only waist-to-hip ratio was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with plasma HMW adiponectin concentration in men (r = -0.10) and women (r = -0.15). Conclusions Anthropometric measures of obesity, such as waist-to-hip ratio, but not BIA measures, are independently associated with plasma adiponectin concentration. PMID:27227680

  15. Parent-of-Origin Effects of the APOB Gene on Adiposity in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hochner, Hagit; Allard, Catherine; Granot-Hershkovitz, Einat; Chen, Jinbo; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Sazdovska, Sandra; Lumley, Thomas; McKnight, Barbara; Rice, Kenneth; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Meigs, James B.; Kwok, Pui; Hivert, Marie-France; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Gomez, Felicia; Wang, Ting; van Duijn, Cornelia; Amin, Najaf; Rotter, Jerome I.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Meiner, Vardiella; Manor, Orly; Dupuis, Josée; Friedlander, Yechiel; Siscovick, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Loci identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cardio-metabolic traits account for a small proportion of the traits' heritability. To date, most association studies have not considered parent-of-origin effects (POEs). Here we report investigation of POEs on adiposity and glycemic traits in young adults. The Jerusalem Perinatal Family Follow-Up Study (JPS), comprising 1250 young adults and their mothers was used for discovery. Focusing on 18 genes identified by previous GWAS as associated with cardio-metabolic traits, we used linear regression to examine the associations of maternally- and paternally-derived offspring minor alleles with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose and insulin. We replicated and meta-analyzed JPS findings in individuals of European ancestry aged ≤50 belonging to pedigrees from the Framingham Heart Study, Family Heart Study and Erasmus Rucphen Family study (total N≅4800). We considered p<2.7x10-4 statistically significant to account for multiple testing. We identified a common coding variant in the 4th exon of APOB (rs1367117) with a significant maternally-derived effect on BMI (β = 0.8; 95%CI:0.4,1.1; p = 3.1x10-5) and WC (β = 2.7; 95%CI:1.7,3.7; p = 2.1x10-7). The corresponding paternally-derived effects were non-significant (p>0.6). Suggestive maternally-derived associations of rs1367117 were observed with fasting glucose (β = 0.9; 95%CI:0.3,1.5; p = 4.0x10-3) and insulin (ln-transformed, β = 0.06; 95%CI:0.03,0.1; p = 7.4x10-4). Bioinformatic annotation for rs1367117 revealed a variety of regulatory functions in this region in liver and adipose tissues and a 50% methylation pattern in liver only, consistent with allelic-specific methylation, which may indicate tissue-specific POE. Our findings demonstrate a maternal-specific association between a common APOB variant and adiposity, an association that was not previously detected in GWAS. These results provide evidence for the role of

  16. Visceral Adiposity and Left Ventricular Remodeling: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Siddique A.; Hundley, W. Gregory; Bluemke, David A.; Blankstein, Ron; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Lima, Joao A.C.; Allison, Matthew A.; Murthy, Venkatesh L.; Shah, Ravi V.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Visceral fat (VF) is a source of pro-inflammatory adipokines implicated in cardiac remodeling. We sought to determine the impact of visceral fat (VF) and subcutaneous fat (SQ) depots on left ventricular (LV) structure, function, and geometry in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Methods and Results We performed a post-hoc analysis on 1,151 participants from MESA with cardiac magnetic resonance quantification of LV mass and LV mass-to-volume ratio (LVMV, an index of concentricity) and computed tomographic-derived SQ and VF area. Multivariable regression models to estimate association between height-indexed SQ and VF area (per cm2/m) with height-indexed LV mass (per height2.7) and LVMV were constructed, adjusted for clinical, biochemical, and demographic covariates. We found that both VF and SQ area were associated with height-indexed LV mass (ρ =0.36 and 0.12, P<0.0001, respectively), while only VF area was associated with LVMV (ρ =0.28, P<0.0001). Individuals with above-median VF had lower LV ejection fraction, greater indexed LV volumes and mass, and higher LVMV (all P < 0.001). In multivariable models adjusted for weight, VF (but not SQ) area was associated with LV concentricity and LV mass index, across both sexes. Conclusion Visceral adiposity is independently associated with LV concentricity, a precursor to heart failure. Further study into the role of VF in LV remodeling as a potential therapeutic target is warranted. PMID:26033394

  17. Gene expression profiling in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Hausman, Gary J; Barb, C Rick; Fairchild, Brian D; Gamble, John; Lee-Rutherford, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for gene microarray analysis with Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays (Affymetrix) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of global gene expression in chicken adipose tissue were initiated since such studies in many animal species show that adipose tissue expresses and secretes many factors that can influence growth and physiology. Microarray results indicated 333 differentially expressed adipose tissue genes between 3 and 6 wk, 265 differentially expressed genes between 4 and 6 wk and 42 differentially expressed genes between 3 and 4 wk. Enrichment scores of Gene Ontology Biological Process categories indicated strong age upregulation of genes involved in the immune system response. In addition to microarray analysis, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to confirm the influence of age on the expression of adipose tissue CC chemokine ligands (CCL), toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor (LITAF), chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 8 (CCR8), and several other genes. Between 3 and 6 wk of age CCL5, CCL1, and CCR8 expression increased (P = 0.0001) with age. Furthermore, TLR2, CCL19, and LITAF expression increased between 4 and 6 wk of age (P = 0.001). This is the first demonstration of age related changes in CCL, LITAF, and TLR2 gene expression in chicken adipose tissue. Future studies are needed to elucidate the role of these adipose tissue genes in growth and the immune system. PMID:26317054

  18. Free Sugars and Total Fat Are Important Characteristics of a Dietary Pattern Associated with Adiposity across Childhood and Adolescence123

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosini, Gina L; Johns, David J; Emmett, Pauline M

    2016-01-01

    Background: The importance of dietary sugar compared with fat in the development of obesity is currently a topic of debate. Objective: We aimed to identify dietary patterns (DPs) characterized by high sugar content, high fat content, or both and their longitudinal associations with adiposity during childhood and adolescence. Methods: Participants were 6722 children from the ALSPAC (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) who were born in 1991–1992. DPs were characterized by percentage of total energy intake (%E) from free sugars, %E from total fat, and dietary energy density (DED) and fiber density by using reduced rank regression at 7, 10, and 13 y of age. Total body fat mass was measured at 11, 13, and 15 y of age. Regression analyses were used to adjust for dietary misreporting, physical activity, and maternal social class. Results: Two major DPs were identified: higher z scores for DP1 were associated with greater DED, greater %E from free sugars and total fat, and lower fiber density; higher z scores for DP2 were associated with greater %E from free sugars but lower %E from total fat and DED. A 1-SD increase in z score for DP1 was associated with a mean increase in the fat mass index z score of 0.04 SD units (95% CI: 0.01, 0.07; P = 0.017) and greater odds of excess adiposity (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.25; P = 0.038). DP2 was not associated with adiposity. Conclusions: An energy-dense DP high in %E from total fat and free sugars is associated with greater adiposity in childhood and adolescence. This appears to confirm the role of both fat and sugar and provides a basis for food-based dietary guidelines to prevent obesity in children. PMID:26962182

  19. Hypothalamic control of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Labbé, Sebastien M.; Caron, Alexandre; Lanfray, Damien; Monge-Rofarello, Boris; Bartness, Timothy J.; Richard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known, in large part from animal studies, that the control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is insured by the central nervous system (CNS), which integrates several stimuli in order to control BAT activation through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). SNS-mediated BAT activity is governed by diverse neurons found in brain structures involved in homeostatic regulations and whose activity is modulated by various factors including oscillations of energy fluxes. The characterization of these neurons has always represented a challenging issue. The available literature suggests that the neuronal circuits controlling BAT thermogenesis are largely part of an autonomic circuitry involving the hypothalamus, brainstem and the SNS efferent neurons. In the present review, we recapitulate the latest progresses in regards to the hypothalamic regulation of BAT metabolism. We briefly addressed the role of the thermoregulatory pathway and its interactions with the energy balance systems in the control of thermogenesis. We also reviewed the involvement of the brain melanocortin and endocannabinoid systems as well as the emerging role of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) neurons in BAT thermogenesis. Finally, we examined the link existing between these systems and the homeostatic factors that modulate their activities. PMID:26578907

  20. Salsalate activates brown adipose tissue in mice.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Andrea D; Nahon, Kimberly J; Kooijman, Sander; van den Berg, Susan M; Kanhai, Anish A; Kikuchi, Takuya; Heemskerk, Mattijs M; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Lombès, Marc; van den Hoek, Anita M; de Winther, Menno P J; Lutgens, Esther; Guigas, Bruno; Rensen, Patrick C N; Boon, Mariëtte R

    2015-05-01

    Salsalate improves glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes patients, but the mechanism is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in these beneficial metabolic effects of salsalate by treating mice with salsalate during and after development of high-fat diet-induced obesity. We found that salsalate attenuated and reversed high-fat diet-induced weight gain, in particular fat mass accumulation, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered plasma triglyceride levels. Mechanistically, salsalate selectively promoted the uptake of fatty acids from glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-labeled lipoprotein-like emulsion particles by brown adipose tissue (BAT), decreased the intracellular lipid content in BAT, and increased rectal temperature, all pointing to more active BAT. The treatment of differentiated T37i brown adipocytes with salsalate increased uncoupled respiration. Moreover, salsalate upregulated Ucp1 expression and enhanced glycerol release, a dual effect that was abolished by the inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In conclusion, salsalate activates BAT, presumably by directly activating brown adipocytes via the PKA pathway, suggesting a novel mechanism that may explain its beneficial metabolic effects in type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:25475439

  1. Hypothalamic PKA regulates leptin sensitivity and adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Linghai; McKnight, G. Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Mice lacking the RIIβ regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) display reduced adiposity and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Here we show that RIIβ knockout (KO) mice have enhanced sensitivity to leptin's effects on both feeding and energy metabolism. After administration of a low dose of leptin, the duration of hypothalamic JAK/STAT3 signalling is increased, resulting in enhanced POMC mRNA induction. Consistent with the extended JAK/STAT3 activation, we find that the negative feedback regulator of leptin receptor signalling, Socs3, is inhibited in the hypothalamus of RIIβ KO mice. During fasting, RIIβ–PKA is activated and this correlates with an increase in CREB phosphorylation. The increase in CREB phosphorylation is absent in the fasted RIIβ KO hypothalamus. Selective inhibition of PKA activity in AgRP neurons partially recapitulates the leanness and resistance to diet-induced obesity of RIIβ KO mice. Our findings suggest that RIIβ–PKA modulates the duration of leptin receptor signalling and therefore the magnitude of the catabolic response to leptin. PMID:26381935

  2. Visceral adipose tissue modulates mammalian longevity.

    PubMed

    Muzumdar, Radhika; Allison, David B; Huffman, Derek M; Ma, Xiaohui; Atzmon, Gil; Einstein, Francine H; Fishman, Sigal; Poduval, Aruna D; McVei, Theresa; Keith, Scott W; Barzilai, Nir

    2008-06-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) can delay many age-related diseases and extend lifespan, while an increase in adiposity is associated with enhanced disease risk and accelerated aging. Among the various fat depots, the accrual of visceral fat (VF) is a common feature of aging, and has been shown to be the most detrimental on metabolic syndrome of aging in humans. We have previously demonstrated that surgical removal of VF in rats improves insulin action; thus, we set out to determine if VF removal affects longevity. We prospectively studied lifespan in three groups of rats: ad libitum-fed (AL-fed), CR (Fed 60% of AL) and a group of AL-fed rats with selective removal of VF at 5 months of age (VF-removed rats). We demonstrate that compared to AL-fed rats, VF-removed rats had a significant increase in mean (p < 0.001) and maximum lifespan (p < 0.04) and significant reduction in the incidence of severe renal disease (p < 0.01). CR rats demonstrated the greatest mean and maximum lifespan (p < 0.001) and the lowest rate of death as compared to AL-fed rats (0.13). Taken together, these observations provide the most direct evidence to date that a reduction in fat mass, specifically VF, may be one of the possible underlying mechanisms of the anti-aging effect of CR. PMID:18363902

  3. The necroptosis-inducing kinase RIPK3 dampens adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Gautheron, Jérémie; Vucur, Mihael; Schneider, Anne T.; Severi, Ilenia; Roderburg, Christoph; Roy, Sanchari; Bartneck, Matthias; Schrammen, Peter; Diaz, Mauricio Berriel; Ehling, Josef; Gremse, Felix; Heymann, Felix; Koppe, Christiane; Lammers, Twan; Kiessling, Fabian; Van Best, Niels; Pabst, Oliver; Courtois, Gilles; Linkermann, Andreas; Krautwald, Stefan; Neumann, Ulf P.; Tacke, Frank; Trautwein, Christian; Green, Douglas R.; Longerich, Thomas; Frey, Norbert; Luedde, Mark; Bluher, Matthias; Herzig, Stephan; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Luedde, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) mediates necroptosis, a form of programmed cell death that promotes inflammation in various pathological conditions, suggesting that it might be a privileged pharmacological target. However, its function in glucose homeostasis and obesity has been unknown. Here we show that RIPK3 is over expressed in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese mice fed with a choline-deficient high-fat diet. Genetic inactivation of Ripk3 promotes increased Caspase-8-dependent adipocyte apoptosis and WAT inflammation, associated with impaired insulin signalling in WAT as the basis for glucose intolerance. Similarly to mice, in visceral WAT of obese humans, RIPK3 is overexpressed and correlates with the body mass index and metabolic serum markers. Together, these findings provide evidence that RIPK3 in WAT maintains tissue homeostasis and suppresses inflammation and adipocyte apoptosis, suggesting that systemic targeting of necroptosis might be associated with the risk of promoting insulin resistance in obese patients. PMID:27323669

  4. Fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue in genetically heat-tolerant FOK rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Furuyama, F.; Kuroshima, A.

    The phospholipid fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was examined in inbred heat-tolerant FOK rats and compared with that in conventional Wistar rats not previously exposed to heat. The FOK rats showed higher unsaturation states, as indicated by higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a higher unsaturation index and polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio. This higher level of unsaturation was characterized by the higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It may be concluded that the increased docosahexaenoic acid level in BAT phospholipids brings about the hyperplasia of BAT, causing an enhancement of its in vivo thermogernic activity as well as the systemic non-shivering thermogenesis observed in heat-tolerant FOK rats.

  5. The necroptosis-inducing kinase RIPK3 dampens adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Gautheron, Jérémie; Vucur, Mihael; Schneider, Anne T; Severi, Ilenia; Roderburg, Christoph; Roy, Sanchari; Bartneck, Matthias; Schrammen, Peter; Diaz, Mauricio Berriel; Ehling, Josef; Gremse, Felix; Heymann, Felix; Koppe, Christiane; Lammers, Twan; Kiessling, Fabian; Van Best, Niels; Pabst, Oliver; Courtois, Gilles; Linkermann, Andreas; Krautwald, Stefan; Neumann, Ulf P; Tacke, Frank; Trautwein, Christian; Green, Douglas R; Longerich, Thomas; Frey, Norbert; Luedde, Mark; Bluher, Matthias; Herzig, Stephan; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Luedde, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) mediates necroptosis, a form of programmed cell death that promotes inflammation in various pathological conditions, suggesting that it might be a privileged pharmacological target. However, its function in glucose homeostasis and obesity has been unknown. Here we show that RIPK3 is over expressed in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese mice fed with a choline-deficient high-fat diet. Genetic inactivation of Ripk3 promotes increased Caspase-8-dependent adipocyte apoptosis and WAT inflammation, associated with impaired insulin signalling in WAT as the basis for glucose intolerance. Similarly to mice, in visceral WAT of obese humans, RIPK3 is overexpressed and correlates with the body mass index and metabolic serum markers. Together, these findings provide evidence that RIPK3 in WAT maintains tissue homeostasis and suppresses inflammation and adipocyte apoptosis, suggesting that systemic targeting of necroptosis might be associated with the risk of promoting insulin resistance in obese patients. PMID:27323669

  6. Elevated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Contributes to Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Aging.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amiya Kumar; Garg, Sanjay Kumar; Mau, Theresa; O'Brien, Martin; Liu, Jianhua; Yung, Raymond

    2015-11-01

    Adipose tissue inflammation has been linked to age-related metabolic diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in diet associated obesity has been correlated with aberrant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This study was undertaken to test our hypothesis that increased ER stress response contributes to age-associated adipose tissue inflammation. We found elevated ER stress response in adipose tissue of old (18-20 months) compared to young (4-6 months) mice. Elevated ER stress markers BIP (GRP78), CHOP, cleaved-ATF-6, phospho-IRE1α, and XBP-1 were observed in old compared to young adipose tissue stromal cells. Additionally, old adipose tissue stromal cells were more sensitive to an ER stress inducer, thapsigargin. Similar experiments with adipose tissue macrophages showed elevated Chop and Bip expression in old adipose tissue macrophages when induced with thapsigargin. Treatment of chemical chaperone 4-phenyle-butyric acid alleviated ER stress in adipose tissue stromal cells and adipose tissue macrophages and attenuated the production of IL-6 and MCP-1 by adipose tissue stromal cells, and TNF-α by adipose tissue macrophages from both young and old mice. Finally, old mice fed with 4-phenyle-butyric acid have reduced expression of ER stress and inflammatory cytokine genes. Our data suggests that an exaggerated ER stress response in aging adipose tissue contributes to age-associated inflammation that can be mitigated by treatment with chemical chaperones. PMID:25324219

  7. Natural Killer T Cells in Adipose Tissue Are Activated in Lean Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Taisuke; Toyoshima, Yujiro; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Kyuwa, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissues are closely connected with the immune system. It has been suggested that metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes, arteriosclerosis and liver steatosis can be attributed to adipose tissue inflammation characterized by macrophage infiltration. To understand a physiological and pathological role of natural killer T (NKT) cells on inflammation in adipose tissue, we characterized a subset of NKT cells in abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissues in C57BL/6J mice fed normal or high-fat diets. NKT cells comprised a larger portion of lymphocytes in adipose tissues compared with the spleen and peripheral blood, with epididymal adipose tissue having the highest number of NKT cells. Furthermore, some NKT cells in adipose tissues expressed higher levels of CD69 and intracellular interferon-γ, whereas the Vβ repertoires of NKT cells in adipose tissues were similar to other cells. In obese mice fed a high-fat diet, adipose tissue inflammation had little effect on the Vβ repertoire of NKT cells in epididymal adipose tissues. We speculate that the NKT cells in adipose tissues may form an equivalent subset in other tissues and that these subsets are likely to participate in adipose tissue inflammation. Additionally, the high expression level of CD69 and intracellular IFN-γ raises the possibility that NKT cells in adipose tissue may be stimulated by some physiological mechanism. PMID:24172196

  8. DNA methylation mediates the impact of exposure to prenatal maternal stress on BMI and central adiposity in children at age 13½ years: Project Ice Storm

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Lei, Lei; Dancause, Kelsey N; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Massart, Renaud; Szyf, Moshe; Liu, Aihua; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in animals and humans predicts obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. Epigenetic modification of gene function is considered one possible mechanism by which PNMS results in poor outcomes in offspring. Our goal was to determine the role of maternal objective exposure and subjective distress on child BMI and central adiposity at 13½ years of age, and to test the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the effect of PNMS on growth. Mothers were pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec ice storm. We assessed their objective exposure and subjective distress in June 1998. At age 13½ their children were weighed and measured (n = 66); a subsample provided blood samples for epigenetic studies (n = 31). Objective and subjective PNMS correlated with central adiposity (waist-to-height ratio); only objective PNMS predicted body mass index (BMI). Bootstrapping analyses showed that the methylation level of genes from established Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways showed significant mediation of the effect of objective PNMS on both central adiposity and BMI. However, the negative mediating effects indicate that, although greater objective PNMS predicts greater BMI and adiposity, this effect is dampened by the effects of objective PNMS on DNA methylation, suggesting a protective role of the selected genes from Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways. We provide data supporting that DNA methylation is a potential mechanism involved in the long-term adaptation and programming of the genome in response to early adverse environmental factors. PMID:26098974

  9. Social Patterning in Adiposity in Adolescence: Prospective Observations from the Chinese Birth Cohort ‘‘Children of 1997’’

    PubMed Central

    Hui, L. L.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low early life socio-economic position is more strongly associated with adiposity among women than men. We examined whether the sex difference of social patterning in general and central adiposity exists before adulthood. Methods In Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” birth cohort, we used multivariable regression to examine the association of parental education, a marker of early life socio-economic position, with body mass index (BMI) (n = 7252, 88% follow-up) and waist-height ratio (n = 5636, 68% follow-up), at 14 years. Results Parental education of Grade 9 or below, compared to Grade 12 or above, was associated with higher waist-height ratio z-score particularly in girls (0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19, 0.41) compared to boys (0.12, 95% CI 0.02, 0.22) (p for sex interaction = 0.02). Lower parental education was associated with greater BMI z-score in adolescents of locally born mothers, but not adolescents of migrant mothers, with no difference by sex. Conclusions Different social patterning in different markers of adiposity may imply different sociological and biological mediating pathways. A stronger association between low early life socio-economic position and waist-height ratio in adolescent girls may indicate sex-specific influences of SEP related early life exposures on central adiposity. PMID:26735134

  10. Identification of a Novel Function of Adipocyte Plasma Membrane-Associated Protein (APMAP) in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus by Proteomic Analysis of Omental Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuhang; Gao, Jing; Yin, Jiajing; Gu, Liping; Liu, Xing; Chen, Su; Huang, Qianfang; Lu, Huifang; Yang, Yuemin; Zhou, Hu; Wang, Yufan; Peng, Yongde

    2016-02-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is considered as an early stage of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we compared demographic and clinical data between six GDM subjects and six normal glucose tolerance (NGT; healthy controls) subjects and found that homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) increased in GDM. Many previous studies demonstrated that omental adipose tissue dysfunction could induce insulin resistance. Thus, to investigate the cause of insulin resistance in GDM, we used label-free proteomics to identify differentially expressed proteins in omental adipose tissues from GDM and NGT subjects (data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003095). A total of 3528 proteins were identified, including 66 significantly changed proteins. Adipocyte plasma membrane-associated protein (APMAP, a.k.a. C20orf3), one of the differentially expressed proteins, was down-regulated in GDM omental adipose tissues. Furthermore, mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used to simulate omental adipocytes. The inhibition of APMAP expression by RNAi impaired insulin signaling and activated NFκB signaling in these adipocytes. Our study revealed that the down-regulation of APMAP in omental adipose tissue may play an important role in insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of GDM. PMID:26767403

  11. Effects of hypergravity on adipose-derived stem cell morphology, mechanical property and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Tavakolinejad, Alireza; Rabbani, Mohsen; Janmaleki, Mohsen

    2015-08-21

    Alteration in specific inertial conditions can lead to changes in morphology, proliferation, mechanical properties and cytoskeleton of cells. In this report, the effects of hypergravity on morphology of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) are indicated. ADSCs were repeatedly exposed to discontinuous hypergravity conditions of 10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g by utilizing centrifuge (three times of 20 min exposure, with an interval of 40 min at 1 g). Cell morphology in terms of length, width and cell elongation index and cytoskeleton of actin filaments and microtubules were analyzed by image processing. Consistent changes observed in cell elongation index as morphological change. Moreover, cell proliferation was assessed and mechanical properties of cells in case of elastic modulus of cells were evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Increase in proliferation and decrease in elastic modulus of cells are further results of this study. Staining ADSC was done to show changes in cytoskeleton of the cells associated to hypergravity condition specifically in microfilament and microtubule components. After exposing to hypergravity, significant changes were observed in microfilaments and microtubule density as components of cytoskeleton. It was concluded that there could be a relationship between changes in morphology and MFs as the main component of the cells. - Highlights: • Hypergravity (10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g) affects on adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs). • ADSCs after exposure to the hypergravity are more slender. • The height of ADSCs increases in all test groups comparing their control group. • Hypergravity decreases ADSCs modulus of elasticity and cell actin fiber content. • Hypergravity enhances proliferation rate of ADSCs.

  12. Characterization of adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and their function in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Andreas; Friemel, Alexandra; Fornoff, Friderike; Adjan, Mouhib; Solbach, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types and thus considered useful for regenerative medicine. However, this differentiation feature seems to be associated with tumor initiation and metastasis raising safety concerns, which requires further investigation. In this study, we isolated adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous as well as from visceral adipose tissues of the same donor and systematically compared their features. Although being characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells, subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells tend to be spindle form-like and are more able to home to cancer cells, whereas visceral adipose-derived stem cells incline to be “epithelial”-like and more competent to differentiate. Moreover, compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells, visceral adipose-derived stem cells are more capable of promoting proliferation, inducing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, enhancing migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by cell-cell contact and by secreting interleukins such as IL-6 and IL-8. Importantly, ASCs affect the low malignant breast cancer cells MCF-7 more than the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. Induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is mediated by the activation of multiple pathways especially the PI3K/AKT signaling in breast cancer cells. BCL6, an important player in B-cell lymphoma and breast cancer progression, is crucial for this transition. Finally, this transition fuels malignant properties of breast cancer cells and render them resistant to ATP competitive Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors BI 2535 and BI 6727. PMID:26439686

  13. Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from subcutaneous, omental, and intrathoracic adipose tissue depots for regenerative applications.

    PubMed

    Russo, Valerio; Yu, Claire; Belliveau, Paul; Hamilton, Andrew; Flynn, Lauren E

    2014-02-01

    Adipose tissue is an abundant source of multipotent progenitor cells that have shown promise in regenerative medicine. In humans, fat is primarily distributed in the subcutaneous and visceral depots, which have varying biochemical and functional properties. In most studies to date, subcutaneous adipose tissue has been investigated as the adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) source. In this study, we sought to develop a broader understanding of the influence of specific adipose tissue depots on the isolated ASC populations through a systematic comparison of donor-matched abdominal subcutaneous fat and omentum, and donor-matched pericardial adipose tissue and thymic remnant samples. We found depot-dependent and donor-dependent variability in the yield, viability, immunophenotype, clonogenic potential, doubling time, and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacities of the ASC populations. More specifically, ASCs isolated from both intrathoracic depots had a longer average doubling time and a significantly higher proportion of CD34(+) cells at passage 2, as compared with cells isolated from subcutaneous fat or the omentum. Furthermore, ASCs from subcutaneous and pericardial adipose tissue demonstrated enhanced adipogenic differentiation capacity, whereas ASCs isolated from the omentum displayed the highest levels of osteogenic markers in culture. Through cell culture analysis under hypoxic (5% O(2)) conditions, oxygen tension was shown to be a key mediator of colony-forming unit-fibroblast number and osteogenesis for all depots. Overall, our results suggest that depot selection is an important factor to consider when applying ASCs in tissue-specific cell-based regenerative therapies, and also highlight pericardial adipose tissue as a potential new ASC source. PMID:24361924

  14. Galectin-3 inhibition prevents adipose tissue remodelling in obesity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, E; Calvier, L; Rossignol, P; Rousseau, E; Fernández-Celis, A; Jurado-López, R; Laville, M; Cachofeiro, V; López-Andrés, N

    2016-06-01

    Extracellular matrix remodelling of the adipose tissue has a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is increased in obesity and mediates inflammation and fibrosis in the cardiovascular system. However, the effects of Gal-3 on adipose tissue remodelling associated with obesity remain unclear. Male Wistar rats were fed either a high-fat diet (33.5% fat) or a standard diet (3.5% fat) for 6 weeks. Half of the animals of each group were treated with the pharmacological inhibitor of Gal-3, modified citrus pectin (MCP; 100 mg kg(-1) per day) in the drinking water. In adipose tissue, obese animals presented an increase in Gal-3 levels that were accompanied by an increase in pericellular collagen. Obese rats exhibited higher adipose tissue inflammation, as well as enhanced differentiation degree of the adipocytes. Treatment with MCP prevented all the above effects. In mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Gal-3 (10(-8 )m) treatment increased fibrosis, inflammatory and differentiation markers. In conclusion, Gal-3 emerges as a potential therapeutic target in adipose tissue remodelling associated with obesity and could have an important role in the development of metabolic alterations associated with obesity. PMID:26853916

  15. Adipose tissue-liver axis in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Dou, Xiao-Bing; Zhou, Zhan-Xiang; Song, Zhen-Yuan

    2016-02-15

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains an important health problem worldwide. The disease spectrum is featured by early steatosis, steatohepatitis (steatosis with inflammatory cells infiltration and necrosis), with some individuals ultimately progressing to fibrosis/cirrhosis. Although the disease progression is well characterized, no effective therapies are currently available for the treatment in humans. The mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of ALD are multifactorial and complex. Emerging evidence supports that adipose tissue dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of ALD. In the first part of this review, we discuss the mechanisms whereby chronic alcohol exposure contributed to adipose tissue dysfunction, including cell death, inflammation and insulin resistance. It has been long known that aberrant hepatic methionine metabolism is a major metabolic abnormality induced by chronic alcohol exposure and plays an etiological role in the pathogenesis of ALD. The recent studies in our group documented the similar metabolic effect of chronic alcohol drinking on methionine in adipose tissue. In the second part of this review, we also briefly discuss the recent research progress in the field with a focus on how abnormal methionine metabolism in adipose tissue contributes to adipose tissue dysfunction and liver damage. PMID:26909225

  16. Adipose tissue-liver axis in alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Dou, Xiao-Bing; Zhou, Zhan-Xiang; Song, Zhen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains an important health problem worldwide. The disease spectrum is featured by early steatosis, steatohepatitis (steatosis with inflammatory cells infiltration and necrosis), with some individuals ultimately progressing to fibrosis/cirrhosis. Although the disease progression is well characterized, no effective therapies are currently available for the treatment in humans. The mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of ALD are multifactorial and complex. Emerging evidence supports that adipose tissue dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of ALD. In the first part of this review, we discuss the mechanisms whereby chronic alcohol exposure contributed to adipose tissue dysfunction, including cell death, inflammation and insulin resistance. It has been long known that aberrant hepatic methionine metabolism is a major metabolic abnormality induced by chronic alcohol exposure and plays an etiological role in the pathogenesis of ALD. The recent studies in our group documented the similar metabolic effect of chronic alcohol drinking on methionine in adipose tissue. In the second part of this review, we also briefly discuss the recent research progress in the field with a focus on how abnormal methionine metabolism in adipose tissue contributes to adipose tissue dysfunction and liver damage. PMID:26909225

  17. Triactome: Neuro–Immune–Adipose Interactions. Implication in Vascular Biology

    PubMed Central

    Chaldakov, George Nikov; Fiore, Marco; Ghenev, Peter I.; Beltowski, Jerzy; Ranćić, Gorana; Tunçel, Neşe; Aloe, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how the precise interactions of nerves, immune cells, and adipose tissue account for cardiovascular and metabolic biology is a central aim of biomedical research at present. A long standing paradigm holds that the vascular wall is composed of three concentric tissue coats (tunicae): intima, media, and adventitia. However, large- and medium-sized arteries, where usually atherosclerotic lesions develop, are consistently surrounded by periadventitial adipose tissue (PAAT), we recently designated tunica adiposa (in brief, adiposa like intima, media, and adventitia). Today, atherosclerosis is considered an immune-mediated inflammatory disease featured by endothelial dysfunction/intimal thickening, medial atrophy, and adventitial lesions associated with adipose dysfunction, whereas hypertension is characterized by hyperinnervation-associated medial thickening due to smooth muscle cell hypertrophy/hyperplasia. PAAT expansion is associated with increased infiltration of immune cells, both adipocytes and immunocytes secreting pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory (metabotrophic) signaling proteins collectively dubbed adipokines. However, the role of vascular nerves and their interactions with immune cells and paracrine adipose tissue is not yet evaluated in such an integrated way. The present review attempts to briefly highlight the findings in basic and translational sciences in this area focusing on neuro–immune–adipose interactions, herein referred to as triactome. Triactome-targeted pharmacology may provide a novel therapeutic approach in cardiovascular disease. PMID:24782857

  18. Control of adipose tissue lipolysis in ectotherm vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Migliorini, R H; Lima-Verde, J S; Machado, C R; Cardona, G M; Garofalo, M A; Kettelhut, I C

    1992-10-01

    Lipolytic activity of fish (Hoplias malabaricus), toad (Bufo paracnemis), and snake (Philodryas patagoniensis) adipose tissue was investigated in vivo and in vitro. Catecholamines or glucagon did not affect the release of free fatty acids (FFA) by incubated fish and toad adipose tissue. Catecholamines also failed to activate snake adipose tissue lipolysis, which even decreased in the presence of epinephrine. However, glucagon stimulated both the lipolytic activity of reptilian tissue in vitro and the mobilization of FFA to plasma when administered to snakes in vivo. The release of FFA from incubated fish, amphibian, and reptilian adipose tissue increased markedly in the presence of cAMP or xanthine derivatives, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase. Forskolin or fluoride, activators of specific components of the adenylate cyclase system, strongly stimulated toad adipose tissue lipolysis. The data suggest that adipocyte triacylglycerol lipase of ectotherm vertebrates is activated by a cAMP-mediated phosphorylation and that the organization of the membrane-bound adenylate cyclase system is similar to that of mammals. PMID:1329567

  19. Bioelectrical impedance analysis can be a useful screen for excess adiposity in spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Sproule, Douglas M; Montes, Jacqueline; Dunaway, Sally L; Montgomery, Megan; Battista, Vanessa; Shen, Wei; Punyanitya, Mark; De Vivo, Darryl C; Kaufmann, Petra

    2010-11-01

    Accurate, noninvasive measures of body composition are needed for management of patients with spinal muscular atrophy. Fat mass index (fat mass/height(2) in kg/m(2)) was measured in 16 subjects with spinal muscular atrophy using 5 bioelectrical impedance analysis equations and compared with a reference method, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The machine default equation, validated by Cordain, was the primary analysis. Fat mass index calculated by impedance measures differed by between -2.5 kg/m(2) and 1.7 kg/m(2) from the reference mean (8.3 ± 5.0 kg/m(2)). The Cordain equation provided the smallest difference (-0.4 ± 2.0 kg/m(2)), with correlation coefficient of 0.92. The Cordain equation showed high sensitivity (85.7%) and specificity (100%) for prediction of ''at risk for overweight'' (fat mass index > 85th percentile for age and gender). Although insufficiently accurate for use as a research tool, bioelectrical impedance can have application as a well-tolerated, noninvasive, easily used screening tool for excess adiposity in patients with spinal muscular atrophy. PMID:20388937

  20. Novel Approaches to Targeting Visceral and Hepatic Adiposities in HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Tien, Phyllis C

    2015-12-01

    Visceral and hepatic adiposities have been associated with both cardiovascular and liver disease and are of concern in HIV-infected persons in the modern era of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). The development of therapeutic targets to reduce visceral and hepatic adiposities in HIV-infected persons has been slow, because of early reports that attributed the excess adiposity to specific antiretroviral drugs. Visceral adiposity was initially thought to occur as part of a protease inhibitor-induced "HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome." Subsequent studies show that visceral adiposity is likely a result of effective ART, recovery of health, and the normal aging process. Visceral adiposity is an established risk factor for hepatic adiposity. Identifying drug targets for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is under active investigation. The present review summarizes the recent literature on the pathogenesis of visceral and hepatic adiposities in HIV-infected persons, current therapeutic strategies, and novel interventions in HIV-infected and uninfected persons. PMID:26493063

  1. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time: cross-sectional and prospective associations with adiposity in the Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Lucy J; Sera, Francesco; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Law, Catherine; Ness, Andrew; Dezateux, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) in primary school-aged children are associated with adiposity at the start of secondary school, and whether these associations differ by sex or ethnic group. Design Nationally representative prospective cohort study. Setting Children born across the UK, between 2000 and 2002. Participants 6497 singleton children. Outcome measures Measures of adiposity (body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and fat free mass index (FFMI))—obtained at 7 and 11 years. Explanatory measures Total daily PA (mean counts per minute (cpm)); minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA); and ST. All assessed at 7 years using accelerometers. Results In cross-sectional analyses, total PA was inversely associated with FMI (3.7% (95% CI 2.7% to 4.7%) reduction per 150 cpm increase), as was MVPA (4.2% (CI 3.2% to 5.2%) reduction per 20 min/day increase). Associations were stronger in black and South Asian ethnic groups. Total PA and MVPA were not associated with FFMI. ST was positively associated with FMI (1.3% (CI 0.2% to 2.3%) increase per 50 min/day increase) and inversely associated with FFMI (0.5% (CI 0.2% to 0.7%) reduction per 50 min/day increase). Longitudinally, MVPA at age 7 years remained inversely associated with FMI at age 11 years (1.5% (CI 0.4% to 2.6%) reduction per 20 min/day increase). No association was found between total PA and ST and any of the later adiposity measures. Conclusions 7-year-old children who are more physically active are less likely to be obese at that age and at age 11 years. These associations were particularly evident in children from black or South Asian ethnicity at age 7 years and in boys at age 11 years. Measurements of fat mass provide valuable insights into ethnic differences in associations between adiposity and activity. PMID:27067891

  2. In Vivo Dedifferentiation of Adult Adipose Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Feng; Dong, Ziqing; Chang, Qiang; Gao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adipocytes can dedifferentiate into fibroblast-like cells in vitro and thereby acquire proliferation and multipotent capacities to participate in the repair of various organs and tissues. Whether dedifferentiation occurs under physiological or pathological conditions in vivo is unknown. Methods A tissue expander was placed under the inguinal fat pads of rats and gradually expanded by injection of water. Samples were collected at various time points, and morphological, histological, cytological, ultrastructural, and gene expression analyses were conducted. In a separate experiment, purified green fluorescent protein+ adipocytes were transplanted into C57 mice and collected at various time points. The transplanted adipocytes were assessed by bioluminescence imaging and whole-mount staining. Results The expanded fat pad was obviously thinner than the untreated fat pad on the opposite side. It was also tougher in texture and with more blood vessels attached. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy indicated there were fewer monolocular adipocytes in the expanded fat pad and the morphology of these cells was altered, most notably their lipid content was discarded. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expanded fat pad contained an increased number of proliferative cells, which may have been derived from adipocytes. Following removal of the tissue expander, many small adipocytes were observed. Bioluminescence imaging suggested that some adipocytes survived when transplanted into an ischemic-hypoxic environment. Whole-mount staining revealed that surviving adipocytes underwent a process similar to adipocyte dedifferentiation in vitro. Monolocular adipocytes became multilocular adipocytes and then fibroblast-like cells. Conclusions Mature adipocytes may be able to dedifferentiate in vivo, and this may be an adipose tissue self-repair mechanism. The capacity of adipocytes to dedifferentiate into stem cell-like cells may also have a

  3. Adiposity and Different Types of Screen Time

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Hu, Frank B.; Field, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Few prospective studies have examined separate forms of screen time in relation to adiposity. Our objective was to assess independent relations of television, electronic games (video/computer), and digital versatile disc (DVD)/videos and total screen time with change in adolescent BMI. METHODS: Using data from the 2004, 2006, and 2008 waves of the ongoing Growing up Today Study II, we assessed baseline and 2-year change in reported screen time in relation to concurrent change in BMI among 4287 girls and 3505 boys aged 9 to 16 years in 2004. Gender-specific models adjusted for previous BMI, age, race/ethnicity, growth/development, months between questionnaires, and physical activity. RESULTS: Among girls and boys, each hour per day increase in reported television viewing was associated with a 0.09 increase in BMI (Ps < .001), and each hour per day increase in total screen time was associated with a 0.07 increase among girls and 0.05 increase among boys (Ps < .001). Among girls only, greater baseline television, games, and total screen time and change in DVDs/videos were associated with gains in BMI (Ps < .05). BMI gains associated with change in television and total screen time were stronger among overweight girls than lean girls (Ps-heterogeneity < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Television, which remains the steadiest source of food advertising, was most consistently associated with BMI gains. Among girls, electronic games and DVDs/videos were also related to increased BMI, possibly due to influences of product placements and advergames on diet and/or distracted eating. Adolescents, especially overweight adolescents, may benefit from reduced time with multiple types of media. PMID:24276840

  4. Perivascular adipose tissue contains functional catecholamines

    PubMed Central

    Ayala-Lopez, Nadia; Martini, Marisa; Jackson, William F; Darios, Emma; Burnett, Robert; Seitz, Bridget; Fink, Gregory D; Watts, Stephanie W

    2014-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system and its neurotransmitter effectors are undeniably important to blood pressure control. We made the novel discovery that perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) contains significant concentrations of catecholamines. We hypothesized that PVAT contains sufficient releasable catecholamines to affect vascular function. High-pressure liquid chromatography, isometric contractility, immunohistochemistry, whole animal approaches, and pharmacology were used to test this hypothesis. In normal rat thoracic aorta and superior mesenteric artery, the indirect sympathomimetic tyramine caused a concentration-dependent contraction that was dependent on the presence of PVAT. Tyramine stimulated release of norepinephrine (NA), dopamine (DA) and the tryptamine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) from PVAT isolated from both arteries. In both arteries, tyramine-induced concentration-dependent contraction was rightward-shifted and reduced by the noradrenaline transporter inhibitor nisoxetine (1 μmol/L), the vesicular monoamine transporter inhibitor tetrabenazine (10 μmol/L), and abolished by the α adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin (100 nmol/L). Inhibitors of the DA and 5-HT transporter did not alter tyramine-induced, PVAT-dependent contraction. Removal of the celiac ganglion as a neuronal source of catecholamines for superior mesenteric artery PVAT did not significantly reduce the maximum or shift the concentration-dependent contraction to tyramine. Electrical field stimulation of the isolated aorta was not affected by the presence of PVAT. These data suggest that PVAT components that are independent of sympathetic nerves can release NA in a tyramine-sensitive manner to result in arterial contraction. Because PVAT is intimately apposed to the artery, this raises the possibility of local control of arterial function by PVAT catecholamines. PMID:24904751

  5. Serially Transplanted Nonpericytic CD146(-) Adipose Stromal/Stem Cells in Silk Bioscaffolds Regenerate Adipose Tissue In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Trivia P; Bowles, Annie; Lee, Stephen; Abbott, Rosalyn; Tucker, Hugh A; Kaplan, David; Wang, Mei; Strong, Amy; Brown, Quincy; He, Jibao; Bunnell, Bruce A; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2016-04-01

    Progenitors derived from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of white adipose tissue (WAT) possess the ability to form clonal populations and differentiate along multiple lineage pathways. However, the literature continues to vacillate between defining adipocyte progenitors as "stromal" or "stem" cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that a nonpericytic subpopulation of adipose stromal cells, which possess the phenotype, CD45(-) /CD31(-) /CD146(-) /CD34(+) , are mesenchymal, and suggest this may be an endogenous progenitor subpopulation within adipose tissue. We hypothesized that an adipose progenitor could be sorted based on the expression of CD146, CD34, and/or CD29 and when implanted in vivo these cells can persist, proliferate, and regenerate a functional fat pad over serial transplants. SVF cells and culture expanded adipose stromal/stem cells (ASC) ubiquitously expressing the green fluorescent protein transgene (GFP-Tg) were fractionated by flow cytometry. Both freshly isolated SVF and culture expanded ASC were seeded in three-dimensional silk scaffolds, implanted subcutaneously in wild-type hosts, and serially transplanted. Six-week WAT constructs were removed and evaluated for the presence of GFP-Tg adipocytes and stem cells. Flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and confocal microscopy demonstrated GFP-Tg cell persistence, proliferation, and expansion, respectively. Glycerol secretion and glucose uptake assays revealed GFP-Tg adipose was metabolically functional. Constructs seeded with GFP-Tg SVF cells or GFP-Tg ASC exhibited higher SVF yields from digested tissue, and higher construct weights, compared to nonseeded controls. Constructs derived from CD146(-) CD34(+) -enriched GFP-Tg ASC populations exhibited higher hemoglobin saturation, and higher frequency of GFP-Tg cells than unsorted or CD29(+) GFP-Tg ASC counterparts. These data demonstrated successful serial transplantation of nonpericytic adipose-derived progenitors that can

  6. EMMSE Media Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.

    This index provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The index is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…

  7. Exploring Volumetrically Indexed Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-01-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup "n" is equal to "n" times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to…

  8. HUMAN USE INDEX (FUTURE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

  9. HUMAN USE INDEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

  10. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…

  11. Drought Frequency Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, J.; Valdes, J. B.

    2003-04-01

    Droughts are related with prolonged time periods during moisture is significantly below normal situation. Drought indexes try to scale the main drought features based on similar definitions. The Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) is a well-known index, which for a given aggregation-time measures the deviation from the normality of the precipitation. One of the SPI weak points in the representation of drought phenomenon is that drought duration should be analyzed by using different aggregation-times. In this work, a new index is presented, which simultaneously characterize droughts based on the deviation from the normal precipitation regime and the drought persistence, both from the statistical point of view. The new index does not require aggregation at different time-lengths. Instead droughts are treated as multivariate events, whose dimensionality depends on the duration. Probabilistic events with different dimensionalities are compared on a common dimension of interest. In this case the dimension chosen is the mean frequency of recurrence. The derived index, named Drought Frequency Index (DFI) may be used to characterize historical droughts or current situation. It can be apply not only over precipitation but also over flows or other hydroclimatic variables. The new index was applied to several places in USA and Spain both for precipitation and flow historical sequences, and compared with SPI. The DFI allows the representation of the main drought characteristics in a single value, based on the stochastic feature of the phenomenon, and scaled on the mean frequency of recurrence.

  12. Transfer Index: One Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinselman, James L.

    A transfer index of the proportion of students in California's community colleges transferring to the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) system for fall 1982, 1983, and 1984 is presented in this report. Introductory material provides one definition of an appropriate index of transfer rates, i.e., the ratio of…

  13. A Computer Calculated Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Francis J.

    The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…

  14. Gradient index retroreflector

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Clyde B.

    1988-01-01

    A retroreflector is formed of a graded index lens with a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded index lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.

  15. High-fat diet-induced adiposity, adipose inflammation, hepatic steatosis and hyperinsulinemia in outbred CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingming; Ma, Yongjie; Liu, Dexi

    2015-01-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) has been applied to a variety of inbred mouse strains to induce obesity and obesity related metabolic complications. In this study, we determined HFD induced development of metabolic disorders on outbred female CD-1 mice in a time dependent manner. Compared to mice on regular chow, HFD-fed CD-1 mice gradually gained more fat mass and consequently exhibited accelerated body weight gain, which was associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and up-regulated expression of adipose inflammatory chemokines and cytokines such as Mcp-1 and Tnf-α. Increased fat accumulation in white adipose tissue subsequently led to ectopic fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, giving rise to whitening of brown adipose tissue without altering plasma level of triglyceride. Ectopic fat deposition was also observed in the liver, which was associated with elevated expression of key genes involved in hepatic lipid sequestration, including Ppar-γ2, Cd36 and Mgat1. Notably, adipose chronic inflammation and ectopic lipid deposition in the liver and brown fat were accompanied by glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, which was correlated with hyperinsulinemia and pancreatic islet hypertrophy. Collectively, these results demonstrate sequentially the events that HFD induces physiological changes leading to metabolic disorders in an outbred mouse model more closely resembling heterogeneity of the human population. PMID:25768847

  16. Adipose atrophy in cancer cachexia: morphologic and molecular analysis of adipose tissue in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Bing, C; Russell, S; Becket, E; Pope, M; Tisdale, M J; Trayhurn, P; Jenkins, J R

    2006-10-23

    Extensive loss of adipose tissue is a hallmark of cancer cachexia but the cellular and molecular basis remains unclear. This study has examined morphologic and molecular characteristics of white adipose tissue in mice bearing a cachexia-inducing tumour, MAC16. Adipose tissue from tumour-bearing mice contained shrunken adipocytes that were heterogeneous in size. Increased fibrosis was evident by strong collagen-fibril staining in the tissue matrix. Ultrastructure of 'slimmed' adipocytes revealed severe delipidation and modifications in cell membrane conformation. There were major reductions in mRNA levels of adipogenic transcription factors including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) in adipose tissue, which was accompanied by reduced protein content of C/EBPalpha and SREBP-1. mRNA levels of SREBP-1c targets, fatty acid synthase, acetyl CoA carboxylase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase, also fell as did glucose transporter-4 and leptin. In contrast, mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha and uncoupling protein-2 were increased in white fat of tumour-bearing mice. These results suggest that the tumour-induced impairment in the formation and lipid storing capacity of adipose tissue occurs in mice with cancer cachexia. PMID:17047651

  17. High-Fat Diet-Induced Adiposity, Adipose Inflammation, Hepatic Steatosis and Hyperinsulinemia in Outbred CD-1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Mingming; Ma, Yongjie; Liu, Dexi

    2015-01-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) has been applied to a variety of inbred mouse strains to induce obesity and obesity related metabolic complications. In this study, we determined HFD induced development of metabolic disorders on outbred female CD-1 mice in a time dependent manner. Compared to mice on regular chow, HFD-fed CD-1 mice gradually gained more fat mass and consequently exhibited accelerated body weight gain, which was associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and up-regulated expression of adipose inflammatory chemokines and cytokines such as Mcp-1 and Tnf-α. Increased fat accumulation in white adipose tissue subsequently led to ectopic fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, giving rise to whitening of brown adipose tissue without altering plasma level of triglyceride. Ectopic fat deposition was also observed in the liver, which was associated with elevated expression of key genes involved in hepatic lipid sequestration, including Ppar-γ2, Cd36 and Mgat1. Notably, adipose chronic inflammation and ectopic lipid deposition in the liver and brown fat were accompanied by glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, which was correlated with hyperinsulinemia and pancreatic islet hypertrophy. Collectively, these results demonstrate sequentially the events that HFD induces physiological changes leading to metabolic disorders in an outbred mouse model more closely resembling heterogeneity of the human population. PMID:25768847

  18. Bone marrow adipose tissue: formation, function and regulation.

    PubMed

    Suchacki, Karla J; Cawthorn, William P; Rosen, Clifford J

    2016-06-01

    The human body requires an uninterrupted supply of energy to maintain metabolic homeostasis and energy balance. To sustain energy balance, excess consumed calories are stored as glycogen, triglycerides and protein, allowing the body to continue to function in states of starvation and increased energy expenditure. Adipose tissue provides the largest natural store of excess calories as triglycerides and plays an important role as an endocrine organ in energy homeostasis and beyond. This short review is intended to detail the current knowledge of the formation and role of bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT), a largely ignored adipose depot, focussing on the role of MAT as an endocrine organ and highlighting the pharmacological agents that regulate MAT. PMID:27022859

  19. The effect of hypokinesia on lipid metabolism in adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, Ladislav; Kvetn̆anský, Richard; Ficková, Mária

    The increase of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in plasma was observed in rats subjected to hypokinesia for 1-60 days. In the period of recovery (7 and 21 days after 60 days immobilization) the content of NEFA returned to control values. The increase of fatty acid release from adipose tissue was observed in hypokinetic rats, however the stimulation of lipolysis by norepinephrine was lower in rats exposed to hypokinesis. The decrease of the binding capacity and a diminished number of beta-adrenergic receptors were found in animals after hypokinesia. The augmentation of the incorporation of glucose into lipids and the marked increase in the stimulation of lipogenesis by insulin were found in adipose tissue of rats subjected to long-term hypokinesia. These results showed an important effect of hypokinesia on lipid mobilization, on lipogenesis and on the processes of hormone regulation in adipose tissue.

  20. Feast and famine: Adipose tissue adaptations for healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Aquilano, Katia

    2016-07-01

    Proper adipose tissue function controls energy balance with favourable effects on metabolic health and longevity. The molecular and metabolic asset of adipose tissue quickly and dynamically readapts in response to nutrient fluctuations. Once delivered into cells, nutrients are managed by mitochondria that represent a key bioenergetics node. A persistent nutrient overload generates mitochondrial exhaustion and uncontrolled reactive oxygen species ((mt)ROS) production. In adipocytes, metabolic/molecular reorganization is triggered culminating in the acquirement of a hypertrophic and hypersecretory phenotype that accelerates aging. Conversely, dietary regimens such as caloric restriction or time-controlled fasting endorse mitochondrial functionality and (mt)ROS-mediated signalling, thus promoting geroprotection. In this perspective view, we argued some important molecular and metabolic aspects related to adipocyte response to nutrient stress. Finally we delineated hypothetical routes by which molecularly and metabolically readapted adipose tissue promotes healthy aging. PMID:27223996

  1. In vivo Analysis of White Adipose Tissue in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Minchin, James E.N.; Rawls, John F.

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is the major site of energy storage in bony vertebrates, and also serves central roles in the endocrine regulation of energy balance. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying WAT development and physiology are not well understood. This is due in part to difficulties associated with imaging adipose tissues in mammalian model systems, especially during early life stages. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently emerged as a new model system for adipose tissue research, in which WAT can be imaged in a transparent living vertebrate at all life stages. Here we present detailed methods for labeling adipocytes in live zebrafish using fluorescent lipophilic dyes, and for in vivo microscopy of zebrafish WAT. PMID:21951526

  2. Recent Advances in Proteomic Studies of Adipose Tissues and Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Won Kon; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Han, Baek Soo; Lee, Sang Chul; Bae, Kwang-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that is associated with significantly increased levels of risk of a number of metabolic disorders. Despite these enhanced health risks, the worldwide prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past few decades. Obesity is caused by the accumulation of an abnormal amount of body fat in adipose tissue, which is composed mostly of adipocytes. Thus, a deeper understanding of the regulation mechanism of adipose tissue and/or adipocytes can provide a clue for overcoming obesity-related metabolic diseases. In this review, we describe recent advances in the study of adipose tissue and/or adipocytes, focusing on proteomic approaches. In addition, we suggest future research directions for proteomic studies which may lead to novel treatments of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:25734986

  3. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  4. Visceral adipose tissue is prognostic for survival of diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated with frontline R-CHOP.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Yeop; Kim, Areumnuri; Byun, Byung Hyun; Moon, Hansol; Kim, Soyeun; Ko, Young-Jin; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Hyo-Rak; Kang, Hye-Jin; Na, Im Il; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung Sook; Yang, Sung-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    The potential role of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) as a prognostic factor in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with frontline rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) immunochemotherapy was explored. Total adipose tissue and VAT were measured by analyzing positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) images obtained during the initial staging of patients with DLBCL. The VAT ratio was calculated as follows: VAT ratio = VAT area/total adipose tissue area. Body mass index (BMI), sex, and International Prognostic Index (IPI) were also incorporated as co-variates in the final model of multivariate Cox regression analysis for survival. A total of 156 patients with DLBCL, who were treated with frontline R-CHOP, were enrolled in our study. The median patient age was 61 years, and 81 patients were male (51.9 %). The median cycle of R-CHOP was six. The IPI risk group was a strong prognostic factor for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (p < 0.001). Obese BMIs were an independent prognostic factor for PFS, but not for OS in multivariate analyses, compared to patients with normal BMIs (HR = 0.43, 95 % CI = 0.19-0.98, and p = 0.046 for PFS). A high VAT ratio (third tertile) was an independent adverse prognostic factor for PFS and OS in multivariate analyses (HR = 2.87 and 2.66, 95 % CI = 1.30-6.32 and 1.30-5.44, and p = 0.009 and 0.007 for PFS and OS, respectively). VAT ratio was an independent prognostic factor for patients with DLBCL treated with first-line R-CHOP; thus, additional large prospective studies are warranted. PMID:26658607

  5. Infrequent Breakfast Consumption Is Associated with Higher Body Adiposity and Abdominal Obesity in Malaysian School-Aged Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  6. Development of the Mouse Dermal Adipose Layer Occurs Independently of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Is Marked by Restricted Early Expression of FABP4

    PubMed Central

    Ambler, Carrie A.; Manning, Craig B.; Jahoda, Colin A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is a key animal model for studies of adipose biology, metabolism and disease, yet the developmental changes that occur in tissues and cells that become the adipose layer in mouse skin have received little attention. Moreover, the terminology around this adipose body is often confusing, as frequently no distinction is made between adipose tissue within the skin, and so called subcutaneous fat. Here adipocyte development in mouse dorsal skin was investigated from before birth to the end of the first hair follicle growth cycle. Using Oil Red O staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and TUNEL staining we confirmed previous observations of a close spatio-temporal link between hair follicle development and the process of adipogenesis. However, unlike previous studies, we observed that the skin adipose layer was created from cells within the lower dermis. By day 16 of embryonic development (e16) the lower dermis was demarcated from the upper dermal layer, and commitment to adipogenesis in the lower dermis was signalled by expression of FABP4, a marker of adipocyte differentiation. In mature mice the skin adipose layer is separated from underlying subcutaneous adipose tissue by the panniculus carnosus. We observed that the skin adipose tissue did not combine or intermix with subcutaneous adipose tissue at any developmental time point. By transplanting skin isolated from e14.5 mice (prior to the start of adipogenesis), under the kidney capsule of adult mice, we showed that skin adipose tissue develops independently and without influence from subcutaneous depots. This study has reinforced the developmental link between hair follicles and skin adipocyte biology. We argue that because skin adipocytes develop from cells within the dermis and independently from subcutaneous adipose tissue, that it is accurately termed dermal adipose tissue and that, in laboratory mice at least, it represents a separate adipose depot. PMID:23555789

  7. Adipose Tissue Remodeling: Its Role in Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Choe, Sung Sik; Huh, Jin Young; Hwang, In Jae; Kim, Jong In; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-01-01

    The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secrete various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines) that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in peripheral tissues. In response to changes in the nutritional status, the adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling, including quantitative and qualitative alterations in adipose tissue-resident cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that adipose tissue remodeling in obesity is closely associated with adipose tissue function. Changes in the number and size of the adipocytes affect the microenvironment of expanded fat tissues, accompanied by alterations in adipokine secretion, adipocyte death, local hypoxia, and fatty acid fluxes. Concurrently, stromal vascular cells in the adipose tissue, including immune cells, are involved in numerous adaptive processes, such as dead adipocyte clearance, adipogenesis, and angiogenesis, all of which are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue remodeling. Chronic overnutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses, leading to systemic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance. This review will discuss current mechanistic understandings of adipose tissue remodeling processes in adaptive energy homeostasis and pathological remodeling of adipose tissue in connection with immune response. PMID:27148161

  8. Adipose tissue development in extramuscular and intramuscular depots in meat animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cellular and metabolic aspects of developing intramuscular adipose tissue and other adipose tissue depots have been studied including examination of the expression of a number of genes. Depot dependent or depot “marker” genes such as stearoyl-CoA desaturase and leptin for subcutaneous adipose ti...

  9. Regulation of cholesteryl ester transfer activity in adipose tissue: comparison between hamster and rat species.

    PubMed

    Shen, G X; Angel, A

    1995-07-01

    The present study demonstrates cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) in cultured hamster and rat adipose tissue. Cultured hamster and rat adipose tissue fragments released CETA into the conditioned medium, and this was associated with a reciprocal decrease in adipose tissue CETA. Regional variations in adipose CETA were observed. The levels of CETA released from cultured hamster and rat adipocytes were higher than those from adipose tissue fragments. In hamsters but not in rats, the secretion of CETA from cultured adipose tissue was increased by insulin and inhibited by EDTA in a dose-dependent fashion. Monoclonal antibodies against human cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibited the CETA secreted from hamster adipose tissue but not that from rat adipose tissue. Fasting for 24 h and a high-cholesterol saturated fat-rich diet increased adipose CETA in hamsters and rats, and this was associated with an elevation of plasma CETA only in hamsters. This supports the view that, in hamsters, adipose CETA has in situ and intravascular functions, whereas in rats the role of adipose CETA is restricted to tissue-specific functions. Hamster cholesteryl ester transfer protein may differ from rat adipose-associated CETA in the structure of the active site and the regulatory mechanism for its secretion. PMID:7631784

  10. Adipose Tissue Remodeling: Its Role in Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Sung Sik; Huh, Jin Young; Hwang, In Jae; Kim, Jong In; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-01-01

    The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secrete various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines) that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in peripheral tissues. In response to changes in the nutritional status, the adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling, including quantitative and qualitative alterations in adipose tissue-resident cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that adipose tissue remodeling in obesity is closely associated with adipose tissue function. Changes in the number and size of the adipocytes affect the microenvironment of expanded fat tissues, accompanied by alterations in adipokine secretion, adipocyte death, local hypoxia, and fatty acid fluxes. Concurrently, stromal vascular cells in the adipose tissue, including immune cells, are involved in numerous adaptive processes, such as dead adipocyte clearance, adipogenesis, and angiogenesis, all of which are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue remodeling. Chronic overnutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses, leading to systemic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance. This review will discuss current mechanistic understandings of adipose tissue remodeling processes in adaptive energy homeostasis and pathological remodeling of adipose tissue in connection with immune response. PMID:27148161

  11. Association between subcutaneous white adipose tissue and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but the distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in adipose tissue is not known. Objectives: To determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons an...

  12. Flow cytometry on the stromal-vascular fraction of white adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose tissue contains cell types other than adipocytes that may contribute to complications linked to obesity. For example, macrophages have been shown to infiltrate adipose tissue in response to a high-fat diet. Isolation of the stromal-vascular fraction of adipose tissue allows one to use flow c...

  13. Adipocyte insulin receptor activity maintains adipose tissue mass and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Max; Hudak, Carolyn S; Warren, Curtis R; Xia, Fang; Cowan, Chad A

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes follows a well-defined progressive pathogenesis, beginning with insulin resistance in metabolic tissues such as the adipose. Intracellular signaling downstream of insulin receptor activation regulates critical metabolic functions of adipose tissue, including glucose uptake, lipogenesis, lipolysis and adipokine secretion. Previous studies have used the aP2 promoter to drive Cre recombinase expression in adipose tissue. Insulin receptor (IR) knockout mice created using this aP2-Cre strategy (FIRKO mice) were protected from obesity and glucose intolerance. Later studies demonstrated the promiscuity of the aP2 promoter, casting doubts upon the tissue specificity of aP2-Cre models. It is our goal to use the increased precision of the Adipoq promoter to investigate adipocyte-specific IR function. Towards this end we generated an adipocyte-specific IR knockout (AIRKO) mouse using an Adipoq-driven Cre recombinase. Here we report AIRKO mice are less insulin sensitive throughout life, and less glucose tolerant than wild-type (WT) littermates at the age of 16 weeks. In contrast to WT littermates, the insulin sensitivity of AIRKO mice is unaffected by age or dietary regimen. At any age, AIRKO mice are comparably insulin resistant to old or obese WT mice and have a significantly reduced lifespan. Similar results were obtained when these phenotypes were re-examined in FIRKO mice. We also found that the AIRKO mouse is protected from high-fat diet-induced weight gain, corresponding with a 90% reduction in tissue weight of major adipose depots compared to WT littermates. Adipose tissue mass reduction is accompanied by hepatomegaly and increased hepatic steatosis. These data indicate that adipocyte IR function is crucial to systemic energy metabolism and has profound effects on adiposity, hepatic homeostasis and lifespan. PMID:27246738

  14. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, M.V.; Vierck, J.L.; Hausman, G.J.; Guan, L.L.; Fernyhough, M.E.; Poulos, S.P.; Mir, P.S.; Jiang, Z.

    2010-04-02

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  15. Cold-Induced Changes in Gene Expression in Brown Adipose Tissue, White Adipose Tissue and Liver

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Andrew M.; Karamitri, Angeliki; Kemp, Paul; Speakman, John R.; Graham, Neil S.; Lomax, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Cold exposure imposes a metabolic challenge to mammals that is met by a coordinated response in different tissues to prevent hypothermia. This study reports a transcriptomic analysis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), white adipose (WAT) and liver of mice in response to 24 h cold exposure at 8°C. Expression of 1895 genes were significantly (P<0.05) up- or down-regulated more than two fold by cold exposure in all tissues but only 5 of these genes were shared by all three tissues, and only 19, 14 and 134 genes were common between WAT and BAT, WAT and liver, and BAT and liver, respectively. We confirmed using qRT-PCR, the increased expression of a number of characteristic BAT genes during cold exposure. In both BAT and the liver, the most common direction of change in gene expression was suppression (496 genes in BAT and 590 genes in liver). Gene ontology analysis revealed for the first time significant (P<0.05) down regulation in response to cold, of genes involved in oxidoreductase activity, lipid metabolic processes and protease inhibitor activity, in both BAT and liver, but not WAT. The results reveal an unexpected importance of down regulation of cytochrome P450 gene expression and apolipoprotein, in both BAT and liver, but not WAT, in response to cold exposure. Pathway analysis suggests a model in which down regulation of the nuclear transcription factors HNF4α and PPARα in both BAT and liver may orchestrate the down regulation of genes involved in lipoprotein and steroid metabolism as well as Phase I enzymes belonging to the cytochrome P450 group in response to cold stress in mice. We propose that the response to cold stress involves decreased gene expression in a range of cellular processes in order to maximise pathways involved in heat production. PMID:23894377

  16. Reduction in visceral adiposity is highly related to improvement in vascular endothelial dysfunction among obese women: an assessment of endothelial function by radial artery pulse wave analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Si-Hoon; Shim, Kyung-Won

    2005-08-31

    Because obesity is frequently complicated by other cardiovascular risk factors, the impact of a reduction in visceral adiposity on vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in obese patients is difficult to determine. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of a reduction in visceral adiposity on VED in obese women. Thirty-six premenopausal obese women (BMI >/= 25 kg/m2) without complications were enrolled in the study. VED was evaluated by determining the augmentation index (AIx) from radial artery pulse waves obtained by applanation tonometry. Changes in AIx in response to nitroglycerin- induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation (DeltaAIx-NTG) and in response to salbutamol administration (DeltaAIx-Salb) were determined before and after weight reduction. After a 12-week weight reduction program, the average weight loss was 7.96 +/- 3.47 kg, with losses of 21.88 +/- 20.39 cm2 in visceral fat areas (p < 0.001). Pulse wave analysis combined with provocative pharmacological testing demonstrated preserved endothelium-independent vasodilation in healthy premenopausal obese women (DeltaAIx-NTG: 31.36 +/- 9.80% before weight reduction vs. 28.25 +/- 11.21% after weight reduction, p > 0.1) and an improvement in endothelial-dependent vasodilation following weight reduction (DeltaAIx-Salb: 10.03 +/- 6.49% before weight reduction vs. 19.33 +/- 9.28% after reduction, p < 0.001). A reduction in visceral adipose tissue was found to be most significantly related to an increase in DeltaAIx-Salb (beta=-0.57, p < 0.001). A reduction in visceral adiposity was significantly related to an improvement in VED. This finding suggests that reduction of visceral adiposity may be as important as the control of other major risk factors in the prevention of atherosclerosis in obese women. PMID:16127776

  17. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat. PMID:25715692

  18. Exercise Regulation of Marrow Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Pagnotti, Gabriel M.; Styner, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Despite association with low bone density and skeletal fractures, marrow adipose tissue (MAT) remains poorly understood. The marrow adipocyte originates from the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) pool that also gives rise to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and myocytes, among other cell types. To date, the presence of MAT has been attributed to preferential biasing of MSC into the adipocyte rather than osteoblast lineage, thus negatively impacting bone formation. Here, we focus on understanding the physiology of MAT in the setting of exercise, dietary interventions, and pharmacologic agents that alter fat metabolism. The beneficial effect of exercise on musculoskeletal strength is known: exercise induces bone formation, encourages growth of skeletally supportive tissues, inhibits bone resorption, and alters skeletal architecture through direct and indirect effects on a multiplicity of cells involved in skeletal adaptation. MAT is less well studied due to the lack of reproducible quantification techniques. In recent work, osmium-based 3D quantification shows a robust response of MAT to both dietary and exercise intervention in that MAT is elevated in response to high-fat diet and can be suppressed following daily exercise. Exercise-induced bone formation correlates with suppression of MAT, such that exercise effects might be due to either calorie expenditure from this depot or from mechanical biasing of MSC lineage away from fat and toward bone, or a combination thereof. Following treatment with the anti-diabetes drug rosiglitazone – a PPARγ-agonist known to increase MAT and fracture risk – mice demonstrate a fivefold higher femur MAT volume compared to the controls. In addition to preventing MAT accumulation in control mice, exercise intervention significantly lowers MAT accumulation in rosiglitazone-treated mice. Importantly, exercise induction of trabecular bone volume is unhindered by rosiglitazone. Thus, despite rosiglitazone augmentation of MAT, exercise

  19. Exercise Regulation of Marrow Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Pagnotti, Gabriel M; Styner, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Despite association with low bone density and skeletal fractures, marrow adipose tissue (MAT) remains poorly understood. The marrow adipocyte originates from the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) pool that also gives rise to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and myocytes, among other cell types. To date, the presence of MAT has been attributed to preferential biasing of MSC into the adipocyte rather than osteoblast lineage, thus negatively impacting bone formation. Here, we focus on understanding the physiology of MAT in the setting of exercise, dietary interventions, and pharmacologic agents that alter fat metabolism. The beneficial effect of exercise on musculoskeletal strength is known: exercise induces bone formation, encourages growth of skeletally supportive tissues, inhibits bone resorption, and alters skeletal architecture through direct and indirect effects on a multiplicity of cells involved in skeletal adaptation. MAT is less well studied due to the lack of reproducible quantification techniques. In recent work, osmium-based 3D quantification shows a robust response of MAT to both dietary and exercise intervention in that MAT is elevated in response to high-fat diet and can be suppressed following daily exercise. Exercise-induced bone formation correlates with suppression of MAT, such that exercise effects might be due to either calorie expenditure from this depot or from mechanical biasing of MSC lineage away from fat and toward bone, or a combination thereof. Following treatment with the anti-diabetes drug rosiglitazone - a PPARγ-agonist known to increase MAT and fracture risk - mice demonstrate a fivefold higher femur MAT volume compared to the controls. In addition to preventing MAT accumulation in control mice, exercise intervention significantly lowers MAT accumulation in rosiglitazone-treated mice. Importantly, exercise induction of trabecular bone volume is unhindered by rosiglitazone. Thus, despite rosiglitazone augmentation of MAT, exercise significantly

  20. Bovine dedifferentiated adipose tissue (DFAT) cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shengjuan; Du, Min; Jiang, Zhihua; Duarte, Marcio S; Fernyhough-Culver, Melinda; Albrecht, Elke; Will, Katja; Zan, Linsen; Hausman, Gary J; Elabd, Elham M Youssef; Bergen, Werner G; Basu, Urmila; Dodson, Michael V

    2013-01-01

    Dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) are derived from lipid-containing (mature) adipocytes, which possess the ability to symmetrically or asymmetrically proliferate, replicate, and redifferentiate/transdifferentiate. Robust cell isolation and downstream culture methods are needed to isolate large numbers of DFAT cells from any (one) adipose depot in order to establish population dynamics and regulation of the cells within and across laboratories. In order to establish more consistent/repeatable methodology here we report on two different methods to establish viable DFAT cell cultures: both traditional cell culture flasks and non-traditional (flat) cell culture plates were used for ceiling culture establishment. Adipocytes (maternal cells of the DFAT cells) were easier to remove from flat culture plates than flasks and the flat plates also allowed cloning rings to be utilized for cell/cell population isolation. While additional aspects of usage of flat-bottomed cell culture plates may yet need to be optimized by definition of optimum bio-coating to enhance cell attachment, utilization of flat plate approaches will allow more efficient study of the dedifferentiation process or the DFAT progeny cells. To extend our preliminary observations, dedifferentiation of Wagyu intramuscular fat (IMF)-derived mature adipocytes and redifferentiation ability of DFAT cells utilizing the aforementioned isolation protocols were examined in traditional basal media/differentiation induction media (DMI) containing adipogenic inducement reagents. In the absence of treatment approximately 10% isolated Wagyu IMF-mature adipocytes dedifferentiated spontaneously and 70% DFAT cells displayed protracted adipogenesis 12 d after confluence in vitro. Lipid-free intracellular vesicles in the cytoplasm (vesicles possessing an intact membrane but with no any observable or stainable lipid inside) were observed during redifferentiation. One to 30% DFAT cells redifferentiated into lipid

  1. A Prospective Study of Gynecological Cancer Risk in Relation to Adiposity Factors: Cumulative Incidence and Association with Plasma Adipokine Levels

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meei-Maan; You, San-Lin; Cheng, Wen-Fang; Chen, Chi-An; Lee, Te-Chang; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Background Associations of obesity and obesity-related metabolic factors (adiposity factors) with uterine corpus cancer (UCC) and ovarian cancer (OVC) risk have been described. Still, a cause-effect relationship and the underlying mediators remain unclear, particularly for low-incidence populations. We aimed to prospectively determine whether adiposity factors could predict the development of UCC and OVC in Taiwanese women. To explore the biological mediators linking adiposity factors to cancer risk, we examined the association of two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, with the gynecological cancers. Methods Totally, 11,258 women, aged 30–65, were recruited into the Community-Based Cancer Screening Program (CBCSP) study during 1991–1993, and were followed for UCC and OVC cases until December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). Adiposity factors and risk covariates were assessed at recruitment. Newly-developed cancer cases were determined from data in the government’s National Cancer Registry and Death Certification System. For adipokienes study, a nested case-control study was conducted within the cohort. Baseline plasma samples of 40 incident gynecological cancer cases and 240 age-menopause-matched controls were assayed for adipokines levels. Findings There were 38 and 30 incident cases of UCC and OVC, respectively, diagnosed during a median 19.9 years of follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that alcohol intake (HR = 16.00, 95% = 4.83–53.00), high triglyceride levels (HR = 2.58, 95% = 1.28–5.17), and years of endogenous estrogen exposure per 5-year increment (HR = 1.91, 95% = 1.08–3.38) were associated with increased UCC risk. High body mass index (BMI≥27 kg/m2, HR = 2.90, 95% = 1.30–6.46) was associated with increased OVC risk. Analysis further showed an independent effect of adipokines on UCC and OVC risk after adjustment of the risk covariates. Conclusion We

  2. Adipose tissue attracts and protects acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells from chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Pramanik, Rocky; Sheng, Xia; Ichihara, Brian; Heisterkamp, Nora; Mittelman, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) relapse. Using mouse and cell co-culture models, we investigated whether adipose tissue attracts ALL to a protective microenvironment. Syngeneically implanted ALL cells migrated into adipose tissue within ten days. In vitro, murine ALL cells migrated towards adipose tissue explants and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Human and mouse ALL cells migrated toward adipocyte conditioned media, which was mediated by SDF-1α. In addition, adipose tissue explants protected ALL cells against daunorubicin and vincristine. Our findings suggest that ALL migration into adipose tissue could contribute to drug resistance and potentially relapse. PMID:23332453

  3. NASA 1981 photography index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An index of representative photographs is presented. Color transparencies and black and white glossies of major launches, Mariner spacecraft, Pioneer spacecraft, planets and other space phenomena, Skylab, space shuttle, Viking spacecraft, and Voyager spacecraft are included.

  4. Cardiometabolic risk assessments by body mass index z-score or waist-to-height ratio in a multiethnic sample of sixth-graders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz) referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabol...

  5. Exploring volumetrically indexed cups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-03-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup n is equal to n times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to geometry, algebra and differential calculus. Students with an understanding of these topics should be able to complete the analysis and related exercises contained herein.

  6. JSC document index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

  7. Relationships between body roundness with body fat and visceral adipose tissue emerging from a new geometrical model

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Diana M.; Bredlau, Carl; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Mueller, Manfred; Shen, Wei; Gallagher, Dympna; Maeda, Yuna; McDougall, Andrew; Peterson, Courtney M.; Ravussin, Eric; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a new geometrical index that combines height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) and relate this index to total and visceral body fat. Design and Methods Subject data were pooled from three databases that contained demographic, anthropometric, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured fat mass, and magnetic resonance imaging measured visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume. Two elliptical models of the human body were developed. Body roundness was calculated from the model using a well-established constant arising from the theory. Regression models based on eccentricity and other variables were used to predict % body fat and % VAT. Results A body roundness index (BRI) was derived to quantify the individual body shape in a height-independent manner. Body roundness slightly improved predictions of % body fat and % VAT compared to the traditional metrics of body mass index (BMI), WC, or HC. On this basis, healthy body roundness ranges were established. An automated graphical program simulating study results was placed at http://www.pbrc.edu/bodyroundness. Conclusions Body roundness index, a new shape measure, is a predictor of % body fat and % VAT and can be applied as a visual tool for health status evaluations. PMID:23519954

  8. New generic indexing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

  9. Functions of AMP-activated protein kinase in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Daval, Marie; Foufelle, Fabienne; Ferré, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is involved in cellular energy homeostasis. Its functions have been extensively studied in muscles and liver. AMPK stimulates pathways which increase energy production (glucose transport, fatty acid oxidation) and switches off pathways which consume energy (lipogenesis, protein synthesis, gluconeogenesis). This has led to the concept that AMPK has an interesting pharmaceutical potential in situations of insulin resistance and it is indeed the target of existing drugs and hormones which improve insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue is a key player in energy metabolism through the release of substrates and hormones involved in metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Activation of AMPK in adipose tissue can be achieved through situations such as fasting and exercise. Leptin and adiponectin as well as hypoglycaemic drugs are activators of adipose tissue AMPK. This activation probably involves changes in the AMP/ATP ratio and the upstream kinase LKB1. When activated, AMPK limits fatty acid efflux from adipocytes and favours local fatty acid oxidation. Since fatty acids have a key role in insulin resistance, especially in muscles, activating AMPK in adipose tissue might be found to be beneficial in insulin-resistant states, particularly as AMPK activation also reduces cytokine secretion in adipocytes. PMID:16709632

  10. Colonic Macrophages "Remote Control" Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Subhra K; Bonecchi, Raffaella

    2016-08-01

    The early events linking diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance remain poorly understood. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Kawano et al. (2016) show that infiltration of colonic pro-inflammatory macrophages orchestrated by the intestinal CCL2/CCR2 axis kick-starts this process during high-fat-diet feeding. PMID:27508866

  11. Lipolytic and thermogenic depletion of adipose tissue in cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Tsoli, Maria; Swarbrick, Michael M; Robertson, Graham R

    2016-06-01

    Although muscle wasting is the obvious manifestation of cancer cachexia that impacts on patient quality of life, the loss of lipid reserves and metabolic imbalance in adipose tissue also contribute to the devastating impact of cachexia. Depletion of fat depots in cancer patients is more pronounced than loss of muscle and often precedes, or even occurs in the absence of, reduced lean body mass. Rapid mobilisation of triglycerides stored within adipocytes to supply the body with fatty acids in periods of high-energy demand is normally mediated through a well-defined process of lipolysis involving the lipases ATGL, HSL and MGL. Studies into how these lipases contribute to fat loss in cancer cachexia have revealed the prominent role for ATGL in initiating lipolysis during adipose tissue atrophy, together with links between tumour-derived factors and the signalling pathways that control lipid flux within fat cells. The recent findings of increased thermogenesis in brown fat during cancer cachexia indicate that metabolically active adipose tissue contributes to the imbalance in energy homeostasis involved in catabolic wasting. Such energetically futile use of fatty acids liberated from adipose tissue to generate heat represents a maladaptive response in conjunction with anorexia experienced by cancer patients. As IL-6 release by tumours provokes lipolysis and activates the thermogenic programme in brown fat, this review explores the overlap in dysregulated metabolic processes due to inflammatory mediators in cancer cachexia and other disease states characterised by elevated cytokines such as obesity and diabetes. PMID:26529279

  12. Adipocyte Death, Adipose Tissue Remodeling and Obesity Complications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the role of adipocyte death in obesity-induced adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and obesity complications. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high fat diet for 20 weeks to induce obesity. Every four weeks, insulin resistance (IR) was assessed by intraperitoneal...

  13. Matrix-Assisted Transplantation of Functional Beige Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Tharp, Kevin M; Jha, Amit K; Kraiczy, Judith; Yesian, Alexandra; Karateev, Grigory; Sinisi, Riccardo; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Healy, Kevin E; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Novel, clinically relevant, approaches to shift energy balance are urgently needed to combat metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. One promising approach has been the expansion of brown adipose tissues that express uncoupling protein (UCP) 1 and thus can uncouple mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis. While expansion of UCP1-expressing adipose depots may be achieved in rodents via genetic and pharmacological manipulations or the transplantation of brown fat depots, these methods are difficult to use for human clinical intervention. We present a novel cell scaffold technology optimized to establish functional brown fat-like depots in vivo. We adapted the biophysical properties of hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels to support the differentiation of white adipose tissue-derived multipotent stem cells (ADMSCs) into lipid-accumulating, UCP1-expressing beige adipose tissue. Subcutaneous implantation of ADMSCs within optimized hydrogels resulted in the establishment of distinct UCP1-expressing implants that successfully attracted host vasculature and persisted for several weeks. Importantly, implant recipients demonstrated elevated core body temperature during cold challenges, enhanced respiration rates, improved glucose homeostasis, and reduced weight gain, demonstrating the therapeutic merit of this highly translatable approach. This novel approach is the first truly clinically translatable system to unlock the therapeutic potential of brown fat-like tissue expansion. PMID:26293504

  14. Maternal nutritional manipulations program adipose tissue dysfunction in offspring.

    PubMed

    Lecoutre, Simon; Breton, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Based on the concept of Developmental Origin of Health and Disease, both human and animal studies have demonstrated a close link between nutrient supply perturbations in the fetus or neonate (i.e., maternal undernutrition, obesity, gestational diabetes and/or rapid catch-up growth) and increased risk of adult-onset obesity. Indeed, the adipose tissue has been recognized as a key target of developmental programming in a sex-and depot-specific manner. Despite different developmental time windows, similar mechanisms of adipose tissue programming have been described in rodents and in bigger mammals (sheep, primates). Maternal nutritional manipulations reprogram offspring's adipose tissue resulting in series of alterations: enhanced adipogenesis and lipogenesis, impaired sympathetic activity with reduced noradrenergic innervations and thermogenesis as well as low-grade inflammation. These changes affect adipose tissue development, distribution and composition predisposing offspring to fat accumulation. Modifications of hormonal tissue sensitivity (i.e., leptin, insulin, glucocorticoids) and/or epigenetic mechanisms leading to persistent changes in gene expression may account for long-lasting programming across generations. PMID:26029119

  15. General versus central adiposity and relationship to pediatric metabolic risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and general versus central adiposity on pediatric metabolic risk is not well described. We conducted a secondary analyses on pediatric participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2006 (n=2,155). MVPA (min...

  16. Examination of adipose depot-specific PRAR moieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory ani...

  17. Perceived facial adiposity conveys information about women's health.

    PubMed

    Tinlin, Rowan M; Watkins, Christopher D; Welling, Lisa L M; DeBruine, Lisa M; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S; Jones, Benedict C

    2013-05-01

    Although several prominent theories of human facial attractiveness propose that some facial characteristics convey information about people's health, empirical evidence for this claim is somewhat mixed. While most previous research into this issue has focused on facial characteristics such as symmetry, averageness, and sexual dimorphism, a recent study reported that ratings of facial adiposity (i.e., perceptions of fatness in the face) were positively correlated with indices of poor physical condition in a sample of young adults (i.e., reported past health problems and measures of cardiovascular fitness). These findings are noteworthy, since they suggest that perceived adiposity is a potentially important facial cue of health that has been overlooked by much of the previous work in this area. Here, we show that ratings of young adult women's facial adiposity are (1) better predicted by their body weight than by their body shape (Studies 1 and 2), (2) correlated with a composite measure of their physical and psychological condition (Study 2), and (3) negatively correlated with their trait (i.e., average) salivary progesterone levels (Study 3). Together, these findings present further evidence that perceived facial adiposity, or a correlate thereof, conveys potentially important information about women's actual health. PMID:23560669

  18. A novel animal model linking adiposity to altered circadian rhythms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers have provided evidence for a link between obesity and altered circadian rhythms (e.g., shift work, disrupted sleep), but the mechanism for this association is still unknown. Adipocytes possess an intrinsic circadian clock, and circadian rhythms in adipocytokines and adipose tissue metab...

  19. Do Neighborhood Characteristics in Amsterdam Influence Adiposity at Preschool Age?

    PubMed Central

    Hrudey, E. Jessica; Kunst, Anton E.; Stronks, Karien; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neighborhood characteristics may contribute to adiposity in young children, but results in the current literature are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate whether objective (socioeconomic status (SES)) and subjective (perceived safety, satisfaction with green spaces and perceived physical disorder) neighborhood characteristics directly influence child adiposity (as measured by BMI, percent body fat (%BF) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)). Methods: Data on child BMI, %BF and WHtR were obtained from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development cohort at 5–6 years of age. Three thousand four hundred and sixty nine (3469) children were included in the analyses. Mixed models, using random intercepts for postal code area to account for neighborhood clustering effects, were used to analyze the relationships of interest. Results: Associations were observed for both perceived safety and neighborhood SES with %BF after adjustment for maternal education and ethnicity. All relationships were eliminated with the inclusion of individual covariates and parental BMI into the models. Conclusions: In general, child adiposity at age 5–6 years was not independently associated with neighborhood characteristics, although a small relationship between child %BF and both neighborhood SES and perceived safety cannot be ruled out. At this young age, familial and individual factors probably play a more important role in influencing child adiposity than neighborhood characteristics. PMID:26006128

  20. Links between mothers' and children's disinhibited eating and children's adiposity.

    PubMed

    Zocca, Jaclyn M; Shomaker, Lauren B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Columbo, Kelli M; Raciti, Gina R; Brady, Sheila M; Crocker, Melissa K; Ali, Asem H; Matheson, Brittany E; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2011-04-01

    Few studies have examined relationships between parents' and children's specific disinhibited eating behaviors. We investigated links among mothers' and children's binge/loss of control eating, eating in the absence of hunger, and children's adiposity in 305 non-treatment-seeking youth, aged 8-17 years (13.62±2.65 years; 49.8% female) and their mothers. Youths' loss of control eating and eating in the absence of hunger were assessed by interview and self-report questionnaire. Children's adiposity was assessed with BMI-z and air displacement plethysmography. Maternal binge eating, eating in the absence of hunger and highest, non-pregnant BMI were self-reported. In structural equation models controlling for mothers' BMI, mothers' binge eating related to children's loss of control eating, and mothers' eating in the absence of hunger related to children's eating in the absence of hunger. Mothers' binge eating and children's eating in the absence of hunger were unrelated, as were mothers' eating in the absence of hunger and children's loss of control. Further, mothers' binge eating was indirectly related to children's adiposity through children's loss of control eating. Likewise, mothers' eating in the absence of hunger indirectly related to children's adiposity through children's eating in the absence of hunger. Mothers and children share similar, specific disinhibited eating styles. PMID:21182882

  1. Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging is commonly associated with low-grade adipose inflammation, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone which is known to increase obesity and insulin resistance. We previously reported that the expression of the ghrelin receptor, growth ho...

  2. Browning attenuates murine white adipose tissue expansion during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Lasar, D; Julius, A; Fromme, T; Klingenspor, M

    2013-05-01

    During postnatal development of mice distinct white adipose tissue depots display a transient appearance of brown-like adipocytes. These brite (brown in white) adipocytes share characteristics with classical brown adipocytes including a multilocular appearance and the expression of the thermogenic protein uncoupling protein 1. In this study, we compared two inbred mouse strains 129S6sv/ev and C57BL6/N known for their different propensity to diet-induced obesity. We observed transient browning in retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue depots of these two strains. From postnatal day 10 to 20 the increase in the abundance of multilocular adipocytes and uncoupling protein 1 expression was higher in 129S6sv/ev than in C57BL6/N pups. The parallel increase in the mass of the two fat depots was attenuated during this browning period. Conversely, epididymal white and interscapular brown adipose tissue displayed a steady increase in mass during the first 30 days of life. In this period, 129S6sv/ev mice developed a significantly higher total body fat mass than C57BL6/N. Thus, while on a local depot level a high number of brite cells is associated with the attenuation of adipose tissue expansion the strain comparison reveals no support for a systemic impact on energy balance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease. PMID:23376694

  3. Adipose dysfunction, interaction of reactive oxygen species, and inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This American Society for Nutrition sponsored symposium summary contains information about the symposium focus and the general content of speaker presentation. The focus of the symposium was to delineate the significance of obesity-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, and adipose ...

  4. Endotrophin triggers adipose tissue fibrosis and metabolic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kai; Park, Jiyoung; Gupta, Olga T.; Holland, William L.; Auerbach, Pernille; Zhang, Ningyan; Marangoni, Roberta Goncalves; Nicoloro, Sarah M.; Czech, Michael P.; Varga, John; Ploug, Thorkil; An, Zhiqiang; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2014-01-01

    We recently identified endotrophin as an adipokine with potent tumour-promoting effects. However, the direct effects of local accumulation of endotrophin in adipose tissue have not yet been studied. Here we use a doxycycline-inducible adipocyte-specific endotrophin overexpression model to demonstrate that endotrophin plays a pivotal role in shaping a metabolically unfavourable microenvironment in adipose tissue during consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD). Endotrophin serves as a powerful co-stimulator of pathologically relevant pathways within the ‘unhealthy’ adipose tissue milieu, triggering fibrosis and inflammation and ultimately leading to enhanced insulin resistance. We further demonstrate that blocking endotrophin with a neutralizing antibody ameliorates metabolically adverse effects and effectively reverses metabolic dysfunction induced during HFD exposure. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that endotrophin exerts a major influence in adipose tissue, eventually resulting in systemic elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance, and the results establish endotrophin as a potential target in the context of metabolism and cancer. PMID:24647224

  5. CREBH-FGF21 axis improves hepatic steatosis by suppressing adipose tissue lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Gil; Xu, Xu; Cho, Sungyun; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Myung-Shik; Kersten, Sander; Lee, Ann-Hwee

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue lipolysis produces glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) that serve as energy sources during nutrient scarcity. Adipose tissue lipolysis is tightly regulated and excessive lipolysis causes hepatic steatosis, as NEFA released from adipose tissue constitutes a major source of TG in the liver of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. Here we show that the liver-enriched transcription factor CREBH is activated by TG accumulation and induces FGF21, which suppresses adipose tissue lipolysis, ameliorating hepatic steatosis. CREBH-deficient mice developed severe hepatic steatosis due to increased adipose tissue lipolysis, when fasted or fed a high-fat low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. FGF21 production was impaired in CREBH-deficient mice, and adenoviral overexpression of FGF21 suppressed adipose tissue lipolysis and improved hepatic steatosis in these mice. Thus, our results uncover a negative feedback loop in which CREBH regulates NEFA flux from adipose tissue to the liver via FGF21. PMID:27301791

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Lower Leg Adipose Tissue Distribution in Youth with Myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Lorenzana, Daniel J; Mueske, Nicole M; Ryan, Deirdre D; Van Speybroeck, Alexander L; Wren, Tishya A L

    2016-07-01

    Children with myelomeningocele have a high prevalence of obesity and excess fat accumulation in their lower extremities. However, it is not known if this is subcutaneous or intramuscular fat, the latter of which has been associated with insulin resistance and metabolic disorders. This study quantified lower leg bone, muscle, and adipose tissue volume in children with myelomeningocele, classifying adipose as subcutaneous or muscle-associated. Eighty-eight children with myelomeningocele and 113 children without myelomeningocele underwent lower leg computed tomographic scans. Subcutaneous and muscle-associated adipose were classified based on location relative to the crural fascia. No differences were seen in subcutaneous adipose. Higher level disease severity was associated with increased muscle-associated adipose volume and decreased muscle volume. Bone volume tended to decrease with higher levels of involvement. Increases in lower leg adiposity in children with myelomeningocele are primarily attributable to accumulation of muscle-associated adipose, which may signify increased risk for metabolic disorders. PMID:26961265

  7. CREBH-FGF21 axis improves hepatic steatosis by suppressing adipose tissue lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Gil; Xu, Xu; Cho, Sungyun; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Myung-Shik; Kersten, Sander; Lee, Ann-Hwee

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue lipolysis produces glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) that serve as energy sources during nutrient scarcity. Adipose tissue lipolysis is tightly regulated and excessive lipolysis causes hepatic steatosis, as NEFA released from adipose tissue constitutes a major source of TG in the liver of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. Here we show that the liver-enriched transcription factor CREBH is activated by TG accumulation and induces FGF21, which suppresses adipose tissue lipolysis, ameliorating hepatic steatosis. CREBH-deficient mice developed severe hepatic steatosis due to increased adipose tissue lipolysis, when fasted or fed a high-fat low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. FGF21 production was impaired in CREBH-deficient mice, and adenoviral overexpression of FGF21 suppressed adipose tissue lipolysis and improved hepatic steatosis in these mice. Thus, our results uncover a negative feedback loop in which CREBH regulates NEFA flux from adipose tissue to the liver via FGF21. PMID:27301791

  8. Sex-Specific Mediating Role of Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in the Effect of Adiposity on Blood Pressure of Prepubertal Children

    PubMed Central

    Correia-Costa, Liane; Santos, Ana Cristina; Severo, Milton; Guerra, António; Schaefer, Franz; Caldas Afonso, Alberto; Barros, Henrique; Azevedo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between obesity indices and blood pressure (BP) at 4 years of age, in each sex, and to quantify to which extent this association is mediated by inflammation and insulin resistance (IR). Materials and Methods We studied 1250 4-year-old children selected from the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI. Associations between body mass index (BMI) z-score and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), office BP, inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein) and IR (HOMA-IR index) were assessed. Path Analysis, a modified multivariate regression approach, was applied to test causal models and quantify direct and indirect effects of predictors of systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP). Results SBP and DBP increased significantly with BMI and WHtR in both sexes. There was a strong direct association (explaining 74.1-93.2% of the total association) of both measures of adiposity with SBP, in both sexes. This association was additionally indirectly mediated by IR, particularly regarding WHtR (20.5% in girls and 9.4% in boys). Mediation by inflammation did not reach statistical significance in either sex. Regarding DBP, the direct effect of adiposity was strong (>95% for BMI and WHtR in boys) and the mediation by IR was much smaller in boys than in girls. Discussion The direct association between adiposity and BP in healthy 4-year-old children is strong and IR plays an important mediating role. The strength of effects of IR and inflammation suggests sex differences in the complex interplay between BP, adiposity and inflammation. PMID:26125190

  9. Longitudinal Study of Growth and Adiposity in Parous Compared With Nulligravid Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Erica P.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth; Schreiber, George; Hudes, Mark; Biro, Frank; Daniels, Stephen; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of pregnancy on adolescent growth and adiposity relative to nulligravidas of similar maturation stage. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The multicenter National Heart, Lung and Blood Growth and Health Study with annual examinations from 1987-1988 through 1996-1997. Participants One thousand eight hundred ninety girls (983 black and 907 white) aged 9 to 10 years at enrollment. Main Exposure Self-reported number of pregnancies and births during adolescence and young adulthood (age, 15-19 years): 311 primiparas (17%), 84 multiparas (4%), 196 nulliparous gravidas (10%), and 1299 nulligravidas (69%). Outcome Measures Estimated race-specific changes in body weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to hip ratio, and percent body fat, defined as the difference between baseline and measurements 9 to 10 years later. Results Thirty-one percent of black and 10% of white girls gave birth during adolescence and young adulthood. We found evidence of race by pregnancy interactions (P < .10) for changes in weight, body mass index, hip circumference, and percent body fat. Black primiparas and multiparas, respectively, had smaller decrements in waist to hip ratio (0.019 and 0.023) and greater increments in weight (3.6 and 6.0 kg), body mass index (1.3 and 2.3), waist circumference (3.5 and 5.2 cm), hip circumference (2.1 and 4.0 cm), and percent body fat (3.4% and 4.6%) than black nulligravidas after adjustment for baseline measurements, age, study center, family income, parental education, age at menarche, hours of television and video viewing, and height at visit 9 or 10 in weight models (P < .01). White primiparas had borderline greater increments in waist circumference (2.4 cm) and percent body fat (0.9%) and smaller decrements in waist to hip ratio (0.017) than white nulligravidas (P < .05). Height did not differ by pregnancy status. Conclusions Women who give birth during adolescence and young

  10. Myostatin Attenuation In Vivo Reduces Adiposity, but Activates Adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Naisi; Yang, Qiyuan; Walker, Ryan G; Thompson, Thomas B; Du, Min; Rodgers, Buel D

    2016-01-01

    A potentially novel approach for treating obesity includes attenuating myostatin as this increases muscle mass and decreases fat mass. Notwithstanding, conflicting studies report that myostatin stimulates or inhibits adipogenesis and it is unknown whether reduced adiposity with myostatin attenuation results from changes in fat deposition or adipogenesis. We therefore quantified changes in the stem, transit amplifying and progenitor cell pool in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) using label-retaining wild-type and mstn(-/-) (Jekyll) mice. Muscle mass was larger in Jekyll mice, WAT and BAT mass was smaller and label induction was equal in all tissues from both wild-type and Jekyll mice. The number of label-retaining cells, however, dissipated quicker in WAT and BAT of Jekyll mice and was only 25% and 17%, respectively, of wild-type cell counts 1 month after induction. Adipose cell density was significantly higher in Jekyll mice and increased over time concomitant with label-retaining cell disappearance, which is consistent with enhanced expansion and differentiation of the stem, transit amplifying and progenitor pool. Stromal vascular cells from Jekyll WAT and BAT differentiated into mature adipocytes at a faster rate than wild-type cells and although Jekyll WAT cells also proliferated quicker in vitro, those from BAT did not. Differentiation marker expression in vitro, however, suggests that mstn(-/-) BAT preadipocytes are far more sensitive to the suppressive effects of myostatin. These results suggest that myostatin attenuation stimulates adipogenesis in vivo and that the reduced adiposity in mstn(-/-) animals results from nutrient partitioning away from fat and in support of muscle. PMID:26580671

  11. Exercise Effects on White Adipose Tissue: Beiging and Metabolic Adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Kristin I.; Middelbeek, Roeland J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity and exercise training have long been known to cause adaptations to white adipose tissue (WAT), including decreases in cell size and lipid content and increases in mitochondrial proteins. In this article, we discuss recent studies that have investigated the effects of exercise training on mitochondrial function, the “beiging” of WAT, regulation of adipokines, metabolic effects of trained adipose tissue on systemic metabolism, and depot-specific responses to exercise training. The major WAT depots in the body are found in the visceral cavity (vWAT) and subcutaneously (scWAT). In rodent models, exercise training increases mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in both these adipose tissue depots. Exercise training also increases expression of the brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in both adipose tissue depots, although these effects are much more pronounced in scWAT. Consistent with the increase in UCP1, exercise training increases the presence of brown-like adipocytes in scWAT, also known as browning or beiging. Training results in changes in the gene expression of thousands of scWAT genes and an altered adipokine profile in both scWAT and vWAT. Transplantation of trained scWAT in sedentary recipient mice results in striking improvements in skeletal muscle glucose uptake and whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Human and rodent exercise studies have indicated that exercise training can alter circulating adipokine concentration as well as adipokine expression in adipose tissue. Thus, the profound changes to WAT in response to exercise training may be part of the mechanism by which exercise improves whole-body metabolic health. PMID:26050668

  12. Inhibition of Sam68 triggers adipose tissue browning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junlan; Cheng, Min; Boriboun, Chan; Ardehali, Mariam M; Jiang, Changfei; Liu, Qinghua; Han, Shuling; Goukassian, David A; Tang, Yao-Liang; Zhao, Ting C; Zhao, Ming; Cai, Lu; Richard, Stéphane; Kishore, Raj; Qin, Gangjian

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; molecular mechanisms that promote energy expenditure can be utilized for effective therapy. Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kDa (Sam68) is potentially significant, because knockout (KO) of Sam68 leads to markedly reduced adiposity. In the present study, we sought to determine the mechanism by which Sam68 regulates adiposity and energy homeostasis. We first found that Sam68 KO mice have a significantly reduced body weight as compared to controls, and the difference is explained entirely by decreased adiposity. Interestingly, these effects were not mediated by a difference in food intake; rather, they were associated with enhanced physical activity. When they were fed a high-fat diet, Sam68 KO mice gained much less body weight and fat mass than their WT littermates did, and they displayed an improved glucose and insulin tolerance. In Sam68 KO mice, the brown adipose tissue (BAT), inguinal, and epididymal depots were smaller, and their adipocytes were less hypertrophied as compared to their WT littermates. The BAT of Sam68 KO mice exhibited reduced lipid stores and expressed higher levels of Ucp1 and key thermogenic and fatty acid oxidation genes. Similarly, depots of inguinal and epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) in Sam68 KO mice appeared browner, their multilocular Ucp1-positive cells were much more abundant, and the expression of Ucp1, Cidea, Prdm16, and Ppargc1a genes was greater as compared to WT controls, which suggests that the loss of Sam68 also promotes WAT browning. Furthermore, in all of the fat depots of the Sam68 KO mice, the expression of M2 macrophage markers was up-regulated, and that of M1 markers was down-regulated. Thus, Sam68 plays a crucial role in controlling thermogenesis and may be targeted to combat obesity and associated disorders. PMID:25934704

  13. Myocardial regeneration potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xiaowen; Alt, Eckhard

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving tremendous attention from basic scientists and clinicians and hold great promise for myocardial regeneration. {yields} For practical reasons, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells are attractive stem cells for future clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium. {yields} This review summarizes the characteristics of cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential and the, underlying mechanisms, and safety issues. -- Abstract: Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold promise for myocardial regeneration. For practical reasons, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are attractive cells for clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium based on the following advantages: abundant adipose tissue in most patients and easy accessibility with minimally invasive lipoaspiration procedure. Several recent studies have demonstrated that both cultured and freshly isolated ASCs could improve cardiac function in animal model of myocardial infarction. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of ASCs on myocardial regeneration are not fully understood. Growing evidence indicates that transplantation of ASCs improve cardiac function via the differentiation into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, and through paracrine pathways. Paracrine factors secreted by injected ASCs enhance angiogenesis, reduce cell apoptosis rates, and promote neuron sprouts in damaged myocardium. In addition, Injection of ASCs increases electrical stability of the injured heart. Furthermore, there are no reported cases of arrhythmia or tumorigenesis in any studies regarding myocardial regeneration with ASCs. This review summarizes the characteristics of both cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential, and the

  14. Inhibition of Sam68 triggers adipose tissue browning

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junlan; Cheng, Min; Boriboun, Chan; Ardehali, Mariam Mina; Jiang, Changfei; Liu, Qinghua; Han, Shuling; Goukassian, David A.; Tang, Yao-Liang; Zhao, Ting C.; Zhao, Ming; Cai, Lu; Richard, Stéphane; Kishore, Raj; Qin, Gangjian

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; molecular mechanisms promoting energy expenditure may be utilized for effective therapy. Src-associated-in-mitosis-of-68kDa (Sam68) is potentially significant because knockout (KO) of Sam68 leads to markedly-reduced adiposity. Here we sought to determine the mechanism by which Sam68 regulates adiposity and energy homeostasis. We firstly found in Sam68-KO mice a significantly-reduced body weight with the difference explained entirely by decreased adiposity. Interestingly, these effects were not mediated by a difference in food intake, but rather associated with enhanced physical activity. When fed high-fat diet, Sam68-KO mice gained much lesser body weight and fat mass as compared to wild-type (WT) littermates and displayed an improved glucose and insulin tolerance. The brown adipose tissue (BAT), inguinal and epididymal depots are smaller and their adipocytes less hypertrophy in Sam68-KO mice than in WT littermates. The BAT of Sam68-KO mice exhibited reduced lipid stores and expressed higher levels of Ucp1 and key thermogenic and fatty-acid-oxidation genes. Similarly, depots of inguinal and epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) in Sam68-KO mice appeared browner, their multilocular Ucp1-positive cells were much more abundant, and the expression of Ucp1, Cidea, Prdm16 and Ppargc1a genes was greater as compared to WT controls, suggesting that loss of Sam68 also promotes WAT browning. Furthermore, in all fat depots of Sam68-KO mice, the expression of M2 macrophage markers were upregulated and M1 markers downregulated. Thus Sam68 plays a crucial role in the control of thermogenesis and may be targeted to combat obesity and associated disorders. PMID:25934704

  15. Adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism during pregnancy in swine.

    PubMed

    McNamara, J P; Dehoff, M H; Collier, R J; Bazer, F W

    1985-08-01

    In vitro adipose tissue fatty acid pool size (POOL), fatty acid release (FAR) and esterification (EST) were measured in peritoneal (PFP) and subcutaneous mammary (MFP) fat pads of swine at d 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 112 of pregnancy. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG) were not altered by stage of pregnancy. Basal EST in PFP was generally constant across pregnancy with a peak at d 75. Basal EST in MFP was elevated at d 30, 75 and 112. Esterification in response to norepinephrine stimulus (NE) was lower than basal rates in both fat depots. Basal FAR was constant throughout pregnancy in PFP, but elevated at d 75 and 90 in MFP. Fatty acid release in response to NE was biphasic with peaks at d 30 and in late pregnancy (in MFP, micromolar FAR in response to NE was 69.3% greater on d 75 to 112 than on d 45 to 60). Basal POOL was constant throughout pregnancy in both depots and lower than NE-stimulated POOL. All responses to NE were greater in MFP than in PFP, indicating that adipose tissue surrounding the developing mammary gland had higher metabolic activity and a greater response to NE than peritoneal adipose. Changes in fatty acid metabolism during pregnancy in swine are temporally related to published values for plasma steroids, fetal growth and mammary development. Metabolic adaptations in adipose and mannary epithelial tissue occur in synchrony with changing plasma estrogen concentrations, redirecting energy flow from maternal adipose tissue toward developing mammary and fetal tissue. PMID:4044440

  16. Adiposity-Dependent Regulatory Effects on Multi-tissue Transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Glastonbury, Craig A; Viñuela, Ana; Buil, Alfonso; Halldorsson, Gisli H; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Helgason, Hannes; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Spector, Tim D; Small, Kerrin S

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic that is causally associated with a range of diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, at the population-level. However, there is marked heterogeneity in obesity-related outcomes among individuals. This might reflect genotype-dependent responses to adiposity. Given that adiposity, measured by BMI, is associated with widespread changes in gene expression and regulatory variants mediate the majority of known complex trait loci, we sought to identify gene-by-BMI (G × BMI) interactions on the regulation of gene expression in a multi-tissue RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) dataset from the TwinsUK cohort (n = 856). At a false discovery rate of 5%, we identified 16 cis G × BMI interactions (top cis interaction: CHURC1, rs7143432, p = 2.0 × 10(-12)) and one variant regulating 53 genes in trans (top trans interaction: ZNF423, rs3851570, p = 8.2 × 10(-13)), all in adipose tissue. The interactions were adipose-specific and enriched for variants overlapping adipocyte enhancers, and regulated genes were enriched for metabolic and inflammatory processes. We replicated a subset of the interactions in an independent adipose RNA-seq dataset (deCODE genetics, n = 754). We also confirmed the interactions with an alternate measure of obesity, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived visceral-fat-volume measurements, in a subset of TwinsUK individuals (n = 682). The identified G × BMI regulatory effects demonstrate the dynamic nature of gene regulation and reveal a functional mechanism underlying the heterogeneous response to obesity. Additionally, we have provided a web browser allowing interactive exploration of the dataset, including of association between expression, BMI, and G × BMI regulatory effects in four tissues. PMID:27588447

  17. Metabolic remodeling of white adipose tissue in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Timothy D.; Holden, Candice R.; Sansbury, Brian E.; Gibb, Andrew A.; Shah, Jasmit; Zafar, Nagma; Tang, Yunan; Hellmann, Jason; Rai, Shesh N.; Spite, Matthew; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue metabolism is a critical regulator of adiposity and whole body energy expenditure; however, metabolic changes that occur in white adipose tissue (WAT) with obesity remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to understand the metabolic and bioenergetic changes occurring in WAT with obesity. Wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) showed significant increases in whole body adiposity, had significantly lower V̇o2, V̇co2, and respiratory exchange ratios, and demonstrated worsened glucose and insulin tolerance compared with low-fat-fed mice. Metabolomic analysis of WAT showed marked changes in lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate, nucleotide, and energy metabolism. Tissue levels of succinate and malate were elevated, and metabolites that could enter the Krebs cycle via anaplerosis were mostly diminished in high-fat-fed mice, suggesting altered mitochondrial metabolism. Despite no change in basal oxygen consumption or mitochondrial DNA abundance, citrate synthase activity was decreased by more than 50%, and responses to FCCP were increased in WAT from mice fed a high-fat diet. Moreover, Pgc1a was downregulated and Cox7a1 upregulated after 6 wk of HFD. After 12 wk of high-fat diet, the abundance of several proteins in the mitochondrial respiratory chain or matrix was diminished. These changes were accompanied by increased Parkin and Pink1, decreased p62 and LC3-I, and ultrastructural changes suggestive of autophagy and mitochondrial remodeling. These studies demonstrate coordinated restructuring of metabolism and autophagy that could contribute to the hypertrophy and whitening of adipose tissue in obesity. PMID:24918202

  18. Simple and longstanding adipose tissue engineering in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Wakako; Inamoto, Takashi; Ito, Ran; Morimoto, Naoki; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Toi, Masakazu

    2013-03-01

    Adipose tissue engineering for breast reconstruction can be performed for patients who have undergone breast surgery. We have previously confirmed adipogenesis in mice implanted with type I collagen sponge with controlled release of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and human adipose tissue-derived stem cells. However, in order to use this approach to treat breast cancer patients, a large amount of adipose tissue is needed, and FGF2 is not readily available. Thus, we aimed to regenerate large amounts of adipose tissue without FGF2 for a long period. Under general anesthesia, cages made of polypropylene mesh were implanted into the rabbits' bilateral fat pads. Each cage was 10 mm in radius and 10 mm in height. Minced type I collagen sponge was injected as a scaffold into the cage. Regenerated tissue in the cage was examined with ultrasonography, and the cages were harvested 3, 6, and 12 months after the implantation. Ultrasonography revealed a gradually increasing homogeneous high-echo area in the cage. Histology of the specimen was assessed with hematoxylin and eosin staining. The percentages of regenerated