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Sample records for adirondack mountain region

  1. A comparison of the temporally integrated monitoring of ecosystems and Adirondack Long Term-Monitoring programs in the Adirondack Mountain region of New Yrok

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper compares lake chemistry in the Adirondack region of New York measured by the Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) and Adirondack Long-Term Monitoring (ALTM) programs by examining the data from six lakes common to both programs. Both programs were initi...

  2. Regional Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (RILWAS): Major findings for Adirondack and Blue Ridge Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Gherini, S.A.; Munson, R.K. ); Altwicker, E.; Clesceri, N. ); April, R. ); Chen, C.W. ); Cronan, C.S. ); Driscoll, C.T. ); Johannes, A.H. ); Newton, R.M.

    1989-12-01

    The primary objective of this investigation was to test the hydrologic and chemical theory developed during the Integrated Lake Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS). A secondary objective was to assess the distribution of fish species among lakes of varying water quality. A total of 24 lake-watershed systems across the Adirondacks served as stuey sites over a period of two years. The US Forest Service's, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, with over 20 years of data, was used to test the ILWAS model on a Blue Ridge mountain stream. 122 refs., 123 figs., 46 tabs.

  3. Contemporary doming of the Adirondack mountains: Further evidence from releveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isachsen, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The Adirondack Mountains constitute an anomalously large, domical uplift on the Appalachian foreland. The dome has a NNE-SSW axis about 190 km long, and an east-west dimension of about 140 km. It has a structural relief of at least 1600 m, and a local topographic relief of up to 1200 m. First-order leveling in 1955, and again in 1973 along a north-south line at the eastern margin of the Adirondack shows an uplift rate of 2.2 mm/yr at the latitude of the center of the dome and a subsidence rate of 2.8 mm/yr at the northern end of the line near the Canadian border. The net amount of arching along this releveled line is 9 cm ?? 2 cm (Isachsen, 1975). To test the idea that this arching represented an "edge effect" of contemporary doming of the Adirondacks as a whole, the National Geodetic Survey was encouraged to relevel a 1931 north-south line between Utica and Fort Covington (near the Canadian border) which crosses the center of the dome. The releveling showed that the mountain mass is undergoing contemporary domical uplift at a rate which reaches 3.7 mm/yr near the center of the dome (compare with 1 mm/yr for the Swiss Alps). Three other releveled lines in the area support this conclusion. ?? 1981.

  4. Detailed studies of selected, well-exposed fracture zones in the Adirondack Mountains dome, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Wiener, R.W.; Isachsen, Y.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Adirondack Mountains constitute a relatively young (Mesozoic, Cenozoic) dome on the craton. The dome is undergoing contemporary uplift, based on geodetic releveling, and is seismically active. The breached dome provides a very large window through Paleozoic cover and thus permits ground study of the fracture systems that characterize the seismogenic basement and influence the patterns of brittle deformation that are found in overlying Paleozoic rocks of the platform. The predominant fracture zones are linear valleys that trend NNE to NE, parallel to the long axis of the dome. The 36 field studies of the lineament segments discussed in this report suggest that the prominent NE to NNE fracture systems in the eastern Adirondacks are dominantly high angle faults down-stepped to the east, whereas those in the central Adirondacks are dominantly zero-displacement crackle zones. The origin of these features is related to the rapid uplift of the Adirondack dome. Similar features can be expected to be found in other areas of domal uplift or rapid regional uplift.

  5. Evidence for Differential Unroofing in the Adirondack Mountains, New York State, Determined by Apatite Fission-Track Thermochronology.

    PubMed

    Roden-Tice; Tice; Schofield

    2000-03-01

    Apatite fission-track ages of 168-83 Ma for 39 samples of Proterozoic crystalline rocks, three samples of Cambrian Potsdam sandstone, and one Cretaceous lamprophyre dike from the Adirondack Mountains in New York State indicate that unroofing in this region occurred from Late Jurassic through Early Cretaceous. Samples from the High Peaks section of the Adirondack massif yielded the oldest apatite fission-track ages (168-135 Ma), indicating that it was exhumed first. Unroofing along the northern, northwestern, and southwestern margins of the Adirondacks began slightly later, as shown by younger apatite fission-track ages (146-114 Ma) determined for these rocks. This delay in exhumation may have resulted from burial of the peripheral regions by sediment shed from the High Peaks. Apatite fission-track ages for samples from the southeastern Adirondacks are distinctly younger (112-83 Ma) than those determined for the rest of the Adirondack region. These younger apatite fission-track ages are from a section of the Adirondacks dissected by shear zones and post-Ordovician north-northeast-trending normal faults. Differential unroofing may have been accommodated by reactivation of the faults in a reverse sense of motion with maximum compressive stress, sigma1, oriented west-northwest. A change in the orientation of the post-Early Cretaceous paleostress field is supported by a change in the trend of Cretaceous lamprophyre dikes from east-west to west-northwest. PMID:10736267

  6. Post-granulite facies fluid infiltration in the Adirondack Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.; Valley, J.W.

    1988-06-01

    Granulite facies lithologies from the Adirondack Mountains of New York contain alteration assemblages composed dominantly of calcite +/- chlorite +/- sericite. These assemblages document fluid infiltration at middle to upper crustal levels. Cathodoluminescence of samples from the Marcy anorthosite massif indicates that the late fluid infiltration is more widespread than initially indicated by transmitted-light petrography alone. Samples that appear unaltered in transmitted light show extensive anastomosing veins of calcite (< 0.05 mm wide) along grain boundaries, in crosscutting fractures, and along mineral cleavages. The presence of the retrograde calcite documents paleopermeability in crystalline rocks and is related to the formation of high-density CO/sub 2/-rich fluid inclusions. Recognition of this process has important implications for studies of granulite genesis and the geophysical properties of the crust.

  7. Preservation of premetamorphic oxygen isotope ratios in granitic orthogneiss from the adirondack mountains, New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiler, John M.; Valley, John W.

    1994-12-01

    The Adirondack Mountains, New York, expose a diverse group of Proterozoic igneous rocks that were metamorphosed to granulite facies conditions during the Ottawan phase of the Grenville orogeny. Oxygen isotope data for seventy whole rock samples of gabbroic to granitic meta-igneous rocks, primarily from the charnockite suites from the Tupper and Saranac sheets in the central Adirondacks, demonstrate a correlation between δ18Owr and major element composition within continuous, mappable, meta-plutonic units. No such relationship is seen among nonconsanguineous granitoids. Variations in mineral δ18O values and large differences in δ18O between rocks with nonconsanguineous protoliths but similar bulk composition demonstrate that these rocks were not infiltrated by, or isotopically equilibrated through, a pervasive metamorphic fluid. Values of δ18O for mineral separates preserve generally high temperature fractionations indicative of dominantly closed-system retrograde exchange. Values of δ18Owr in Adirondack orthogneisses were not significantly shifted during granulite facies metamorphism and were dominantly controlled by processes active during premetamorphic magmatism. Values of δ18Owr may thus serve as a petrogenetic indicator, allow discrimination of rock units, and serve as a source constraint for meta-igneous rocks. Fayalite meta-granites with low δ18Owr values can be discriminated from surrounding granitoids having high δ18Owr values. A record of assimilation in the evolution of differentiated granitic units is preserved. The preservation of primary igneous δ18Owr values in granulite facies orthogneiss imposes constraints on the synmetamorphic and postmetamorphic fluid history of the Adirondack Highlands. Oxygen isotopic compositions at the hand-sample scale have been preserved through granulite-facies metamorphism. Fluid absence or low fluid/rock ratios on a regional scale are indicated.

  8. Hypothetical assessment of regional liming costs for the Adirondacks

    SciTech Connect

    Tawil, J.J.; Bold, F.C. ); Britt, D.L.; Steiner, A.J. ); Callaway, J.M. )

    1990-02-01

    Previous studies of lake liming costs in the Adirondacks have developed methods for predicting liming costs for individual lakes and reported these costs both for representative and specific lakes in the region. This study develops a method for estimating lake liming costs for a large number of lakes. The specific objectives of this study consisted of developing a methodology for predicting regional lake liming costs that can be extended to other regions in the United States; developing total and marginal cost (i.e., supply) curves for liming and restocking lakes in the Adirondacks Lake region; and assessing the sensitivity of the total cost and supply curves in the Adirondack Lakes region to alternative selection criteria. Lake liming and restocking costs were estimated using a version of the DeAcid model, modified specifically for this study. 2 figs.

  9. Nitrate trends in the Adirondack Mountains, Northeastern US, 1993-2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Adirondack Mountains in New York State receive some of the highest rates of nitrogen deposition in the Northeastern U.S. Between 1993 and 2007, nitrogen deposition loads did not significantly change and average annual wet inorganic nitrogen deposition was 6 kg/ha (Figure 1)....

  10. Effects of acidic deposition and soil acidification on sugar maple trees in the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Timothy J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Bailey, Scott W.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Beier, Colin M.; Weathers, K.C.; McPherson, G.T.; Bishop, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    We documented the effects of acidic atmospheric deposition and soil acidification on the canopy health, basal area increment, and regeneration of sugar maple (SM) trees across the Adirondack region of New York State, in the northeastern United States, where SM are plentiful but not well studied and where widespread depletion of soil calcium (Ca) has been documented. Sugar maple is a dominant canopy species in the Adirondack Mountain ecoregion, and it has a high demand for Ca. Trees in this region growing on soils with poor acid–base chemistry (low exchangeable Ca and % base saturation [BS]) that receive relatively high levels of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition exhibited a near absence of SM seedling regeneration and lower crown vigor compared with study plots with relatively high exchangeable Ca and BS and lower levels of acidic deposition. Basal area increment averaged over the 20th century was correlated (p < 0.1) with acid–base chemistry of the Oa, A, and upper B soil horizons. A lack of Adirondack SM regeneration, reduced canopy condition, and possibly decreased basal area growth over recent decades are associated with low concentrations of nutrient base cations in this region that has undergone soil Ca depletion from acidic deposition.

  11. Abundance of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in Adirondack Mountain shrub wetlands and its influence on inorganic nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, B D; Hurd, T M; Raynal, D J

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the abundance of the nitrogen-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (speckled alder), in shrub wetlands of the Adirondack Mountain region of New York State and to determine whether its abundance affects the concentration or accumulation of inorganic nitrogen in wetland substrates. Alder/willow wetlands are the second most common wetland type in the Adirondack region. The Adirondack Park Agency's digital GIS database of wetland types was used to determine the areal extent of alder/willow wetlands in the Adirondacks. Randomly selected wetlands were sampled to determine the size and abundance of alder. Alder densities averaged approximately 7000 stems ha(-1) and alder was present in 75% of the wetlands. As an indication of short-term accumulation of NO(3-) and NH4(+) in wetland substrates, ion exchange resins were used to sample ground water in high and low alder density wetlands as well as from wetlands lacking alder and dominated by conifers. Additionally, NO(3-) and NH(4+) concentrations in ground water samples were measured. NH(4+) accumulation levels from exchange resins were low for all wetland types while groundwater NH(4+) concentration was highest in the low-density alder sites. Wetlands with high alder density had approximately six times higher NO(3-) accumulation than other wetlands. Substrate groundwater NO(3-) concentrations in wetlands of high-density alder exceeded by three times levels in low or no alder wetlands, showing the importance of alder to local N budgets. To assess the recovery of shrub wetlands from acidification, future studies should determine the fate of fixed N in wetland systems. PMID:12667762

  12. Structural and U/Pb chronology of superimposed folds, Adirondack Mountains: implications for the tectonic evolution of the Grenville Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusky, Timothy M.; Loring, David P.

    2001-10-01

    The Grenville Province of eastern Laurentia formed during Mesoproterozoic events that led to the formation of the supercontinent of Rodinia. Structural analysis and U-Pb geochronology of the Piseco antiform in the southern Adirondack Highlands part of the Grenville Province has shed new light on the geology and structural history of this orogen. An outcrop positioned on the northern limb of the Piseco antiform near Wells, NY, contains a major F 1 fold refolded by regional F 2 and F 3 axes. This is the first recognized large-scale F 1 fold in the Adirondack Highlands. Foliated leucocratic gneiss and deformed metagabbro dikes in the core of the antiform have yielded single-grain U-Pb zircon ages of 1172.4±2.2 and 1165.4±1.3 Ma, respectively. Discordant pegmatitic veins that crosscut the foliation in the metagabbro have yielded an estimated 207Pb/ 206Pb age of 1052.4 Ma. The geochronological data have several important implications. The 1172 Ma age of the Wells leucocratic gneiss is virtually identical with that of the syntectonic Hyde School gneiss, Rockport granite, and Wellesley granite from the Adirondack Lowlands and Frontenac terrane of the Central Metasedimentary Belt, thus extending the known distribution of magmas of this age to the southern Adirondack Highlands. We relate these syntectonic granitoids and F 1 folds to the suturing of the ca. 1350-1250 Ma Adirondack Highlands-Green Mountain arc to the composite arc terrane and Laurentia at 1220-1170 Ma. The 1165 Ma deformed metagabbro contains the S 2 but not the S 1 foliation, and we correlate the metagabbro with the ca. 1170-1125 Ma AMCG suite, interpreted to have formed in response to orogenic collapse and delamination following the collision. The Wells leucocratic gneiss and gabbro were folded by reclined isoclinal F 2 folds and upright F 3 folds, and cut by apparently undeformed ca. 1052.4 Ma pegmatitic dikes. Since the discordant pegmatites cut the S 1, S 2, and S 3 foliations which postdate the ca

  13. Use of stream chemistry for monitoring acidic deposition effects in the Adirondack region of New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; Momen, B.; Roy, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) and pH were measured weekly from October 1991 through September 2001 in three streams in the western Adirondack Mountain region of New York to identify trends in stream chemistry that might be related to changes in acidic deposition. A decreasing trend in atmospheric deposition of SO42- was observed within the region over the 10-yr period, although most of the decrease occurred between 1991 and 1995. Both ANC and pH were inversely related to flow in all streams; therefore, a trend analysis was conducted on (i) the measured values of ANC and pH and (ii) the residuals of the concentration-discharge relations. In Buck Creek, ANC increased significantly (p 0.10). In Bald Mountain Brook, ANC and residuals of ANC increased significantly (p < 0.01), although the trend was diatonic-a distinct decrease from 1991 to 1996 was followed by a distinct increase from 1996 to 2001. In Fly Pond outlet, ANC and residuals of ANC increased over the study period (p < 0.01), although the trend of the residuals resulted largely from an abrupt increase in 1997. In general, the trends observed in the three streams are similar to results presented for Adirondack lakes in a previous study, and are consistent with the declining trend in atmospheric deposition for this region, although the observed trends in ANC and pH in streams could not be directly attributed to the trends in acidic deposition.

  14. Nitrogen biogeochemistry in the Adirondack Mountains of New York: hardwood ecosystems and associated surface waters.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Myron J; Driscoll, Charles T; Inamdar, Shreeram; McGee, Greg G; Mbila, Monday O; Raynal, Dudley J

    2003-01-01

    Studies on the nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry in Adirondack northern hardwood ecosystems were summarized. Specific focus was placed on results at the Huntington Forest (HFS), Pancake-Hall Creek (PHC), Woods Lake (WL), Ampersand (AMO), Catlin Lake (CLO) and Hennessy Mountain (HM). Nitrogen deposition generally decreased from west to east in the Adirondacks, and there have been no marked temporal changes in N deposition from 1978 through 1998. Second-growth western sites (WL, PHC) had higher soil solution NO(3-) concentrations and fluxes than the HFS site in the central Adirondacks. Of the two old-growth sites (AMO and CLO), AMO had substantially higher NO(3-) concentrations due to the relative dominance of sugar maple that produced litter with high N mineralization and nitrification rates. The importance of vegetation in affecting N losses was also shown for N-fixing alders in wetlands. The Adirondack Manipulation and Modeling Project (AMMP) included separate experimental N additions of (NH4)2SO4 at WL, PHC and HFS and HNO3 at WL and HFS. Patterns of N loss varied with site and form of N addition and most of the N input was retained. For 16 lake/watersheds no consistent changes in NO(3-) concentrations were found from 1982 to 1997. Simulations suggested that marked NO(3-) loss will only be manifested over extended periods. Studies at the Arbutus Watershed provided information on the role of biogeochemical and hydrological factors in affecting the spatial and temporal patterns of NO(3-) concentrations. The heterogeneous topography in the Adirondacks has generated diverse landscape features and patterns of connectivity that are especially important in regulating the temporal and spatial patterns of NO(3-) concentrations in surface waters. PMID:12667763

  15. Crustal structure of the western New England Appalachians and the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Stephen; Luetgert, James H.

    1991-09-01

    We present an interpretation of the crustal velocity structure of the New England Appalachians and the Adirondack Mountains based on a seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection experiment in eastern North America extending from the Adirondacks in New York State through the northern Appalachians in Vermont and New Hampshire to central Maine. Modeling of the eastern portion of the profile within the New England Appalachians shows a subhorizontal layered crust with upper crustal velocities ranging from 5.5 to 6.2 km/s, a midcrustal velocity of 6.4 km/s, and a lower crustal velocity of approximately 6.8 km/s. Crustal thickness increases from 36 km beneath Maine to 40 km in Vermont. Little evidence is seen for structures at depth directly related to the White Mountains or the Green Mountains. A major lateral velocity change in the upper and mid crust occurs between the Appalachians and the Adirondacks. This boundary, projecting to the surface beneath the Champlain Valley, dips to the east beneath the Green Mountains and extends to a depth of ˜25 km below the eastern edge of the Connecticut Valley Synclinorium in Vermont. The Tahawus Complex, a series of strong horizontal reflections at 18-24 km depth beneath the Adirondack Highlands, is seen to dip eastward beneath Vermont. Upper crustal rocks in the Adirondack Mountains have Poisson's ratios of 0.28±0.01 that can be correlated with the Marcy Anorthosite. Pois son's ratios of 0.24±0.01 calculated for rocks of the Connecticut Valley Synclinorium indicate a siliceous upper crust in Vermont. The lower crust is considered to be best represented by intermediate to mafic granulites; a high Poisson's ratio (0.26-0.27) tends to support a mafic lower crust in the New England Appalachians. This seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection experiment provides further evidence for the obduction of the allochthonous western Appalachian units onto Grenvillian crust above a zone of detachment that penetrates at least to midcrustal

  16. Paleomagnetism and Monazite Dating of Grenville Rocks, Adirondack Mountains, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L.; McEnroe, S.; Jercinovic, M.

    2003-12-01

    Paleomagnetic studies on three rock units from the Adirondack Highlands, New York State yield stable magnetic directions. Electron microprobe monazite geochronology suggests a strong ca. 1050 Ma signature, corresponding to Ottawan granulite-facies metamorphism. Remnants of older (ca. 1130-1190 Ma) monazite, consistent with early-Grenville tectonomagmatic events are also documented. There is no evidence of younger (<1050 Ma) events with the exception of partial alteration (with Ca-enrichment) of some monazite. Sillimanite-microcline gneisses (gms) of the far-western Highlands, associated with negative aeromagnetic anomalies, exhibit strong stable magnetization dominated by titanohematite with abundant exsolutions of ilmenite, pyrophanite, rutile and spinel. Mean magnetic directions for 14 sites are I-62.8, D=289.2 and a-95=7.6. Sampled in the central Highlands is the post-orogenic fayalite ferro-hedenbergite Wanakena Granite. Samples contain magnetite with ilmenite oxy-exsolution, occurring as discrete grains and inclusions in silicates. Directions from the Wanakena are steeply negative with westerly declinations (I=-76.4, D=296.7, a-95=4.4, N=7). The Marcy meta-anorthosite was sampled in the central and eastern Highlands, although many of these sites proved unstable. Stable results were combined with unpublished data from Rob Hargraves for 13 sites (I=-64.4, D=286.2, a-95=9.1). Over half of the anorthosites and one gms site have normal directions; all Wanakena sites are reversed. Combined anorthosites and gms units give a pole position of 20S/151E; the Wanakena pole is at -29S/132E. Both poles fall in the southern extent of the Grenville loop. The thermodynamically constrained equilibrium phase diagram for ilm-hem predicts that very fine exsolution, most likely responsible for the stable magnetization of the gms rocks, starts to form around 390C, well below the conditions of granulite grade metamorphism. The abundant lamellae provide a stable NRM through the

  17. Homogeneous /sup 18/O enrichment of the Marcy Anorthosite Massif, Adirondack Mountains, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.; Valley, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Marcy Anorthosite Massif in the Adirondack Mountains, New York, is a composite intrusion that was metamorphosed to granulite facies at approx. 1.1 Ga. The massif is dominantly anorthosite but ranges from anorthosite (1-10% mafics) to oxide-rich pyroxenite layers (up to 98% mafics). In the St Regis Quad (SRQ) systematic variations in the percentage of mafics (POM) roughly parallel the foliation and increase toward the contacts (Davis, 1971). In 47 SRQ samples studied the POM varies from 2-25%; garnet ranges from 0-11%, pyroxene from <1-16% and oxides from <1-8%. Percent phenocrysts varies between 1-80. The Port Kent-Westport Unit (PKW) and an associated hybrid unit show significantly greater textural variability. The POM Varies from 1-50%; garnet ranges from 0-18%, pyroxene from 0-15%, oxides from 0-3% and phenocrysts vary from 0-80%. A total of 28 unaltered plagioclase phenocrysts have been analyzed for delta/sup 18/O: in 13 SRQ samples delta/sup 18/O = 9.0-9.8 (x=9.4. sigma=0.2) and in 15 samples from the PKW and hybrid units values of delta/sup 18/O=8.5-10.5 (x=9.5.sigma0.5). No correlations exist between the modal parameters and delta/sup 18/O. The results from SRQ demonstrate an extreme homogeneity suggesting for the first time a pristine magmatic character which is supported by the virtual absence of metasedimentary inclusions. This contrasts with PKW where inclusions are common and delta/sup 18/O values are more heterogeneous. Further analyses will evaluate the possibility of an anomalous source region as a cause of the /sup 18/O enrichment in the anorthosite.

  18. PIXE Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Josh; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Safiq, Alexandrea; Smith, Jeremy; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2013-10-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced x-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the samples and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The PIXE experiments were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. X-Ray energy spectra were measured with a silicon drift detector and analyzed with GUPIX software to determine the elemental concentrations of the aerosols. A broad range of elements from silicon to zinc were detected with significant sulfur concentrations measured for particulate matter between 0.25 and 0.5 μm in size. The PIXE analysis will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

  19. PIXE Analysis of Aerosol and Soil Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of aerosol and soil samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the aerosol samples near Piseco Lake and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The soil samples were also collected at Piseco Lake and pressed into cylindrical pellets for experimentation. PIXE analysis of the aerosol and soil samples were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. There are higher concentrations of sulfur at smaller particle sizes (0.25-1 μm), suggesting that it could be suspended in the air for days and originate from sources very far away. Other elements with significant concentrations peak at larger particle sizes (1-4 μm) and are found in the soil samples, suggesting that these elements could originate in the soil. The PIXE analysis will be described and the resulting data will be presented.

  20. Bacterial diversity in Adirondack mountain lakes as revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Hiorns, W D; Methé, B A; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S A; Zehr, J P

    1997-01-01

    Bacterial communities of seven lakes in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State were characterized by amplification and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA. Analysis of over 100 partial sequences revealed a diverse collection of lineages, largely of the class Proteobacteria (19% alpha subdivision, 31% beta subdivision, and 9% gamma subdivision), the phylum Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides (15%), and the order Actinomycetales (18%). Additionally, a number of the sequences were similar to those of the order Verrucomicrobiales. However, few of the sequence types are closely related to those of characterized species. The relative contributions of the groups of sequences differed among the lakes, suggesting that bacterial population structure varies and that it may be possible to relate aquatic bacterial community structure to water chemistry. PMID:9212443

  1. Developing institutions for regional land-use planning and control: the Adirondack experience. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    This article deals with the institutional structure of the most-significant regional land-use planning and control institution that has been created to date in New York State - i.e., the Adirondack Park Agency. In recent years a fairly substantial volume of literature has been generated about the Adirondack Park Agency and land-use controls in the Adirondacks. Much of that literature has focused on the substance of the land-use controls created in the Adirondack context and the types of legal issues likely to be confronted in the administration of those controls. The Adirondack Park Agency is examined here in terms of its structure as a land-use planning and control institution in order to identify those aspects of its structure that enhance or hinder the fulfillment of the purposes for which it was created - and to assess the importance of the Agency's institutional structure to its continued existence as a viable planning and regulatory entity. From this examination, it is hoped useful information will be provided to other efforts to establish viable regional land-use planning and control institutions.

  2. Proceedings of the workshop on regionalization of aquatic impacts using the Adirondacks as a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Dailey, N.S.; Olson, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Alternative approaches to applying aquatic data from specific sites and surveys to additional areas within a region or to broader regions for analysis and assessment were examined. Studies conducted within the Adirondack Region of New York provided the principal information base for evaluating regional extrapolation. Primary data bases for the Adirondacks were reviewed and statistical and process modeling approaches were discussed as methodologies for regionalization. Small working groups of data analysts and modelers developed approaches moving toward regional extrapolation of Adirondack data sets, based on either estimating current impacts or predicting future impacts. This report outlines suggested approaches, recommendations for future research, and existing data needs. The discussions emphasized (1) the lack of information on the extent and mechanics of aquatic impacts in the Adirondack Region and across the United States as a whole, (2) the need for increased information exchanges, and (3) the need to develop modeling approaches for regionalization. Recommended approaches included the development of a classification system for surface waters and watersheds, based on select criteria and the development of second generation models which would incorporate select features from both simple and complex models.

  3. Applications of water-based magnetic gradiometry to assess the geometry and displacement for concealed faults in the southern Adirondack Mountains, New York, U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentino, David W.; Chiarenzelli, Jeffrey R.; Hewitt, Elise M.; Valentino, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    An integrated magnetic gradiometry and structural analysis was conducted on three lakes in the southern Adirondacks Mountains, New York, in order to develop a geometric and kinematic model for concealed and long lived faults that transect the Proterozoic basement structures, offset Paleozoic strata to the south, and may be associated with the development of the post-Paleozoic cratonic dome (the Adirondack dome). Two lakes occur along the trace of two of the most prominent topographic lineaments that have been proposed to be faults in the southern Adirondack Mountains, and a third lake is located at the apparent fault intersection. Hinkley Lake occurs over the east-west trending lineament that corresponds to the trace of the Prospect fault. Indian Lake resides in a set of north-northeast trending pronounced lineaments that transect an anorthosite-cored structural dome and are inferred to be faults on the NYS geologic map. Piseco Lake is immediately adjacent to the intersection of the two proposed fault zones (Prospect and Indian Lake fault zones). Magnetic surveys were conducted on all three lakes, resulting in anomaly maps. Accompanying two dimensional geologic models for Hinkley and Piseco Lake were produced. At Piseco Lake, field evidence supports a brittle deformation history with sinistral-normal displacement. A similar deformation history is consistent with field data collected at Indian Lake. Correlation of the two dimensional magnetic models resulted in a sinistral, releasing-bend fault geometry beneath Piseco Lake, and the fault truncation of a granitic gneiss cored antiform for the subsurface geology of Hinkley Lake. The magnetic data and models suggest that Piseco Lake resides over a sinistral, pull-apart structure with sufficient throw to preserve the lowermost Paleozoic strata that once covered much of the Adirondack dome. This would account for both sinistral strike-slip and normal displacement on the interpreted faults, at Piseco and Indian Lakes, and

  4. Atmospheric Science Research at the Whiteface Mountain Adirondack High Peaks Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, J. J.; Brandt, R. E.; Casson, P.; Demerjian, K. L.; Crandall, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Atmospheric Sciences Research Center established an atmospheric observatory at Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks in 1961. The current mountain top observatory building was built by the University at Albany in 1969-70 and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) began ozone measurements at this summit location in 1973. Those measurements continue to this day and constitute a valuable long term data record for tropospheric ozone in the northeastern U.S. The elevation of the summit is 1483 m above sea level, and is roughly 90 m above the tree line in this location. With a mean cloud base height of less than 1100 m at the summit, it is a prime location for cloud research. The research station headquarters, laboratories, offices, and a second measurement site are located at the Marble Mountain Lodge, perched on a shoulder northeast of the massif at an elevation of 604 m above sea level. Parameters measured at the site include meteorological variables, trace gases, precipitation chemistry, aerosol mass and components, and more. Precipitation and cloud chemistry has a long history at the lodge and summit locations, respectively, and continues to this day. Some data from the 40-year record will be shown in the presentation. In the late 1980's the summit site was outfitted with instrumentation to measure oxides of nitrogen and other ozone precursors. Measurements of many of these same parameters were added at the lodge site and continue to this day. In this poster we will give an overview of the Whiteface Mountain Observatory and its two measurement locations. We will highlight the parameters currently being measured at our sites, and indicate those measured by ASRC, as well as those measured by other organizations. We will also recap some of the historical activities and measurement programs that have taken place at the site, as alluded to above. Also included will be examples of the rich archive of trends data for gas phase species

  5. A STUDY OF HIGHER EDUCATION POSSIBILITIES FOR THE ADIRONDACK LAKES REGION, NEW YORK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARRIS, NORMAN C.; RUSSEL, JOHN H.

    SEVERAL PROPOSALS FOR COMMUNITY COLLEGES ARE DISCUSSED. FACTORS ARE PRESENTED WHICH RULE OUT A LOCAL COMMUNITY COLLEGE FOR THE ADIRONDACK LAKES REGION AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A BRANCH OF THE CANTON AGRICULTURAL-TECHNICAL COLLEGE IN THE LAKES AREA. CONSIDERATION SHOULD BE GIVEN, THOUGH, TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A COMMUNITY COLLEGE IN OR NEAR…

  6. How much acidification has occurred in Adirondack region lakes (New York, USA) since preindustrial times

    SciTech Connect

    Cumming, B.F.; Smol, J.P.; Kingston, J.C.; Charles, D.F.; Birks, H.J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Preindustrial and present-day lake water pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), total monomeric aluminum Al(sub m), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were inferred from the species composition of diatom and chrysophyte microfossils in the tops (present-day inferences) and bottoms (pre-1850 inferences) of sediment cores collected from a statistically selected set of Adirondack lakes. Results from the study lakes were extrapolated to a predefined target population of 675 low-alkalinity Adirondack region lakes. Estimates of preindustrial to present-day changes in lake water chemistry show that approximately 25-35% of the target population has acidified. The magnitude of acidification was greatest in the low-alkalinity lakes of the southwestern Adirondacks, an area with little geological ability to neutralize acidic deposition and receives the highest annual average rainfall in the region. The authors estimate that approximately 80% of the target population lakes with present-day measured pH = or < 5.2 and 30-45% of lakes with pH between 5.2 and 6.0 have undergone large declines in pH and ANC, and concomitant increases in Al(sub m). Estimated changes in (DOC) were small and show no consistent pattern in the acidified lakes. The study provides the first statistically based regional evaluation of the extent of lake acidification in the Adirondacks.

  7. Middle Proterozoic emplacement and deformation of metanorthosite and related rocks in the northeastern Marcy massif, Adirondack Mountains, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Fakundiny, R.H. ); Muller, P.D. . Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Geologic mapping in the Elizabethtown and Mount Marcy 15 foot quadrangles in the northeastern Adirondack Mountains has shown that Middle Proterozoic anorthosite suite rocks of the Marcy massif were intruded in at least two temporally distinguishable episodes separated by a period of localized ductile shearing. Strain was concentrated in a 100 m to > 1 km thick zone consisting mainly of metamorphosed gabbroic anorthosite, ferrodiorite, and ferrosyenite gneiss with subordinate granite gneiss, calc-silicate gneiss, amphibolite, and marble. This zone of flat to steeply-dipping layered gneisses, designated the Elizabethtown ductile deformation zone (EDDZ) for exposures along Rt 9 south of Elizabethtown, appears to extend from Lake Champlain on the east to at least Lake Placid on the west. Its upper boundary is most clearly evident where it occurs in olivine metagabbro bodies of Jay and Iron Mountain. Massive metagabbro is sheared and recrystallized into amphibolite gneiss. The lower boundary of the zone is more difficult to map, but commonly lies within contaminated metamorphosed gabbroic anorthosite and ferrodiorite gneiss that characterize the margins of the massif in the area. Rocks of the EDDZ display pervasive mesoscopic S and LS fabrics, but exhibit totally recrystallized microtextures. Kinematic indicators such as winged porphyroclasts and S-C fabrics are sporadically developed and provide a regionally ambiguous sense of shear. The authors favor a regional extension origin for the fabrics. Mineral assemblages defining the EDDZ fabrics are consistent with granulite facies conditions during shear-zone development and suggest a lower crustal position. Mapping suggests that the younger anorthosite intrusions were mainly domical and generated a chaotic contact zone typified by block structure and dikes of ferrodiorite, ferromonzonite, and ferrosyenite.

  8. An Adirondack Watershed Data Base: Attribute and mapping information for regional acidic deposition studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, A.E.; Olson, R.J.; Gruendling, G.K.; Bogucki, D.J.; Malanchuk, J.L.; Durfee, R.C.; Turner, R.S.; Adams, K.B.; Wilson, D.L.; Coleman, P.R.

    1988-12-01

    The Adirondack Watershed Data Base (AWDB) provides a means to test hypotheses concerning the relative importance of various watershed attributes that may contribute to increased acidification of Adirondack surface waters. The AWDB is a valuable resource for the study of other ecological phenomena. The AWDB consists of digital watershed boundaries and digital geographic data, stored within a geographic information system, and watershed/lake attribute data stored in a data management system (SAS) for 463 Adirondack headwater lakes. Attributes include watershed morphology, physiography, bedrock, soils, land cover, wetlands, disturbances (e.g., cabins, fire, and logging), beaver activity, precipitation, and atmospheric deposition. Over 600 variables are available for each watershed. These data can be combined with water chemistry data and fish community status for regional-scale examinations of watershed attributes that may account for variability and change in water chemistry and fish populations in the Adirondacks. This report describes the design of the AWDB, documents sources and history of the data; defines the format of the AWDB contents; and characterizes the data using summary statistics, frequency bar charts, and other graphics. In addition, it provides information necessary for researchers using the data base on their own computer systems. 37 refs., 42 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Focal mechanisms of small earthquakes and the stress field in the western Quebec Adirondack region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Zhu, Pei-Ding

    1989-09-01

    Focal mechanisms were determined for 42 small earthquakes (1.4 < M < 3.4) that occurred in the Adirondacks-western Quebec seismic region. The analysis demonstrates the variability of the focal mechanisms and suggests that the region can be divided into two subprovinces with distinctive seismotectonic regimes: (1) in the Adirondacks, the focal mechanisms are mostly strike-slip with a comparatively smaller thrust component and indicate NNE compression: (2) in the western Quebec seismic region, the stress field is more heterogeneous and is dominated by two directions (NE and NW) of horizontal compression. This variable pattern suggests that the seismicity and stress field are controlled by regional plate stresses but are affected by local structures and/or by the predominant orientation of preexisting faults.

  10. Geologic controls on the sources of water to Lake George, Southeastern Adirondack Mountains of New York

    SciTech Connect

    Shuster, E.L.; LaFleur, R.G.; McCaffrey, R. . Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences); Boylen, C.W. . Rensselaer Fresh Water Inst.)

    1993-03-01

    Lake George is a long, deep, fault-bounded lake in the Adirondack Mountains, with relatively undeformed Paleozoic sediments in its valley floor and fractured high-grade meta-igneous and meta-sedimentary Proterozoic rocks in the drainage basins's upland. Overlying these rocks is a thin mantle of glacial deposits, consisting of sandy tills, kamic sands and glacio-lacustrine clays. Stratified ice-contact deposits and glacio-lacustrine deposits are generally restricted to the basins's lower elevations. The configuration of fractured bedrock and glacial overburden deposits of varying hydraulic conductivities suggests a variety of potential hydrogeologic flow routes, which can be generally categorized as reflect near-surface and deep groundwater flow systems. A hydrologic survey of the lake suggests that groundwater contributes approximately 20% to Lake George's annual hydrologic budget, with precipitation directly onto the lake's surface and tributary streamflow comprising the remaining 25% and 55%, respectively. Separating streamflow responses to precipitation by formal inversion into quick-, intermediate-, and slow-recession curves (originating from soils, unconsolidated surficial deposits, and fractured bedrock, respectively) suggests that as much as 40 to 50% of the tributary streamflow during the summer of 1988 originated from the slowest return route, a similar percentage has followed the intermediate route, and less than 10% of the streamflow originated as soil water ( runoff''). The flow-partitioning calculations typically suggest decay constants for these exponential recession curves on the order of 1, 10, and 100 days for the quick-, intermediate-, and slow-flow components to tributary streamflow, respectively.

  11. Geochemistry and origin of albite gneisses, northeastern Adirondack Mountains, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Philip R.; Olmsted, James F.

    1988-08-01

    Albite gneisses containing up to 8.7 percent Na2O and as little as 0.1% K2O comprise a significant part of the Proterozoic Lyon Mountain Gneiss in the Ausable Forks Quadrangle of the northeastern Adirondacks, New York State. Two distinct types of albite gneisses are present. One is a trondhjemitic leucogneiss (LAG) consisting principally of albite (Ab95 Ab98) and quartz with minor magnetite and, locally, minor amounts of amphibole or acmiterich pyroxene. LAG probably originated by metamorphism of a rhyolitie or rhyodacitic ash-flow tuff with A-type geochemical affinities, following post-depositional analcitization in a saline or saline-alkaline environment. The other type is a mafic albite gneiss (MAG) containing albite and pyroxene along with 0 45 percent quartz, minor amphibole, and titanite. MAG locally displays pinstripe banding and contains albite (Ab98) megacrysts up to 5 cm across. Its precursor may have been a sediment composed of diagenetic analcite or albite, dolomite, and quartz. Both types of albite gneiss are interlayered with granitic gneisses (LMG) of variable composition derived from less altered tuffs. A potassium-rich (up to 9.7% K2O) microcline gneiss facies may have had a protolith rich in diagenetic K feldspar. We propose that the albite gneisses and associated granitic gneisses are the granulite-facies metamorphic equivalent of a bimodal, dominantly felsic, volcanic suite with minor intercalated sediments, probably including evaporites. The volcanics were erupted in an anorogenic setting, such as an incipient or failed intracontinental rift. Deposition took place in a closed-basin, playa lake environment, where diagenetic alteration resulted in redistribution of the alkalis and strong oxidation.

  12. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols in the Adirondack Mountains using PIXE, SEM/EDX, and Micro-Raman spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vineyard, M. F.; LaBrake, S. M.; Ali, S. F.; Nadareski, B. J.; Safiq, A. D.; Smith, J. W.; Yoskowitz, J. T.

    2015-05-01

    We are making detailed measurements of the composition of atmospheric aerosols collected in the Adirondack Mountains as a function of particle size using proton-induced X-ray emission, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. These measurements provide valuable data to help identify the sources and understand the transport, transformation, and effects of airborne pollutants in upstate New York. Preliminary results indicate significant concentrations of sulfur in small particles that can travel great distances, and that this sulfur may be in the form of oxides that can contribute to acid rain.

  13. Evidence for multiple metamorphic events in the Adirondack Mountains, N. Y

    SciTech Connect

    McLelland, J.; Lochhead, A.; Vyhnal, C.

    1988-05-01

    Field evidence consisting of: (1) rotated, foliated xenoliths, (2) country rock foliation truncated by isoclinally folded igneous intrusions bearing granulite facies assemblages document one, or more, early dynamothermal event(s) of regional scale and high grade. Early metamorphism resulted in pronounced linear and planar fabric throughout the Adirondacks and preceded the emplacement of the anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite-alaskite (AMCA) suite which contains xenoliths of the metamorphosed rocks. Olivine metagabbros, believed to be approximately contemporaneous with the AMCA-suite, also crosscut and contain xenoliths of, strongly foliated metasediments. These intrusive rocks caused contact metamorphism in the metasediments which locally exhibit both anatectite and restite assemblages. Subsequently, this already complex framework underwent three phases of folding, including an early recumbent isoclinical event, and was metamorphosed to granulite facies P,T conditions. The age of the early metamorphism cannot yet be narrowly constrained, but isotopic results suggest that it may be as young as approx. 1200 Ma or older than approx. 1420 Ma. U-Pb zircon ages indicate emplacement of the AMCA-(metagabbro)-suite in the interval 1160-1130 Ma and place the peak of granulite facies metamorphism between 1070-1025 Ma. The anorogenic character of the AMCA-suite, and the occurrence of metadiabase dike swarms within it, are further evidence of the separate nature of the metamorphic events that precede and postdate AMCA emplacement.

  14. PALEOCOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF RECENT LAKE ACIDIFICATION IN THE ADIRONDACK MOUNTAINS, NY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paleoecological analysis of the sediment record of 12 Adirondack lakes reveals that the 8 clearwater lakes with current pH<5.5 and alkalinity <10 ueq 1-1 have acidified recently. he onset of this acidification occurred between 1920 and 1970. oss of alkalinity, based on quantitati...

  15. Post-metamorphic fluid infiltration into granulites from the Adirondack Mountains, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J.; Valley, John W.

    1988-01-01

    Post-metamorphic effects in the anorthosites of the Adirondacks, New York were described. Calcite-chlorite-sericite assemblages occur as veins, in disseminated form and as clots, and document retrograde fluid infiltration. These features are associated with late-state CO2-rich fluid inclusions. Stable isotope analyses of calcites indicates that the retrograde fluids interacted with meta-igneous and supracrustal lithologies, but the precise timing of the retrogression is as yet unknown.

  16. Post-metamorphic fluid infiltration into granulites from the Adirondack Mountains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, J.; Valley, John W.

    Post-metamorphic effects in the anorthosites of the Adirondacks, New York were described. Calcite-chlorite-sericite assemblages occur as veins, in disseminated form and as clots, and document retrograde fluid infiltration. These features are associated with late-state CO2-rich fluid inclusions. Stable isotope analyses of calcites indicates that the retrograde fluids interacted with meta-igneous and supracrustal lithologies, but the precise timing of the retrogression is as yet unknown.

  17. Deep crustal deformation by sheath folding in the Adirondack Mountains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLelland, J. M.

    As described by McLelland and Isachsen, the southern half of the Adirondacks are underlain by major isoclinal (F sub 1) and open-upright (F sub 2) folds whose axes are parallel, trend approximately E-W, and plunge gently about the horizontal. These large structures are themselves folded by open upright folds trending NNE (F sub 3). It is pointed out that elongation lineations in these rocks are parallel to X of the finite strain ellipsoid developed during progressive rotational strain. The parallelism between F sub 1 and F sub 2 fold axes and elongation lineations led to the hypothesis that progressive rotational strain, with a west-directed tectonic transport, rotated earlier F sub 1-folds into parallelism with the evolving elongation lineation. Rotation is accomplished by ductile, passive flow of F sub 1-axes into extremely arcuate, E-W hinges. In order to test these hypotheses a number of large folds were mapped in the eastern Adirondacks. Other evidence supporting the existence of sheath folds in the Adirondacks is the presence, on a map scale, of synforms whose limbs pass through the vertical and into antiforms. This type of outcrop pattern is best explained by intersecting a horizontal plane with the double curvature of sheath folds. It is proposed that sheath folding is a common response of hot, ductile rocks to rotational strain at deep crustal levels. The recognition of sheath folds in the Adirondacks reconciles the E-W orientation of fold axes with an E-W elongation lineation.

  18. Deep crustal deformation by sheath folding in the Adirondack Mountains, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclelland, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    As described by McLelland and Isachsen, the southern half of the Adirondacks are underlain by major isoclinal (F sub 1) and open-upright (F sub 2) folds whose axes are parallel, trend approximately E-W, and plunge gently about the horizontal. These large structures are themselves folded by open upright folds trending NNE (F sub 3). It is pointed out that elongation lineations in these rocks are parallel to X of the finite strain ellipsoid developed during progressive rotational strain. The parallelism between F sub 1 and F sub 2 fold axes and elongation lineations led to the hypothesis that progressive rotational strain, with a west-directed tectonic transport, rotated earlier F sub 1-folds into parallelism with the evolving elongation lineation. Rotation is accomplished by ductile, passive flow of F sub 1-axes into extremely arcuate, E-W hinges. In order to test these hypotheses a number of large folds were mapped in the eastern Adirondacks. Other evidence supporting the existence of sheath folds in the Adirondacks is the presence, on a map scale, of synforms whose limbs pass through the vertical and into antiforms. This type of outcrop pattern is best explained by intersecting a horizontal plane with the double curvature of sheath folds. It is proposed that sheath folding is a common response of hot, ductile rocks to rotational strain at deep crustal levels. The recognition of sheath folds in the Adirondacks reconciles the E-W orientation of fold axes with an E-W elongation lineation.

  19. Empirical Relationships Between Watershed Attributes and Headwater Lake Chemistry in the Adirondack Region

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    Surface water acidification may be caused or influenced by both natural watershed processes and anthropogenic actions. Empirical models and observational data can be useful for identifying watershed attributes or processes that require further research or that should be considered in the development of process models. This study focuses on the Adirondack region of New York and has two purposes: to (1) develop empirical models that can be used to assess the chemical status of lakes for which no chemistry data exist and (2) determine on a regional scale watershed attributes that account for variability in lake pH and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). Headwater lakes, rather than lakes linked to upstream lakes, were selected for initial analysis. The Adirondacks Watershed Data Base (AWDB), part of the Acid Deposition Data Network maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), integrates data on physiography, bedrock, soils, land cover, wetlands, disturbances, beaver activity, land use, and atmospheric deposition with the water chemistry and morphology for the watersheds of 463 headwater lakes. The AWD8 facilitates both geographic display and statistical analysis of the data. The report, An Adirondack Watershed Data Base: Attribute and Mapping Information for Regional Acidic Deposition Studies (ORNL/TM--10144), describes the AWDB. Both bivariate (correlations and Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests) and multivariate analyses were performed. Fifty-seven watershed attributes were selected as input variables to multiple linear regression and discriminant analysis. For model development -200 lakes for which pH and ANC data exist were randomly subdivided into a specification and a verification data set. Several indices were used to select models for predicting lake pH (31 variables) and ANC (27 variables). Twenty-five variables are common to the pH and ANC models: four lake morphology, nine soil/geology, eight land cover, three disturbance, and one watershed aspect. An

  20. Preliminary Analysis of Borosilicate Minerals in Pegmatitic Leucosomes within Aluminous Granulites at Ledge Mountain, Central Adirondack Highlands, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervais, S. M.; Metzger, E. P.

    2011-12-01

    The borosilicates tourmaline and dumortierite have been identified by polarized light microscopy and electron microprobe analysis in anatectic abyssal-type pegmatites within aluminum-rich granulite-facies migmatites at Ledge Mountain, Central Adirondacks, New York. No other boron-bearing minerals are found in these rocks, and neither borosilicate has been found in the adjacent host gneiss. Tourmaline is ubiquitous in the granulite and upper amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks of the Central Adirondacks. Dumortierite has been reported from pegmatites of the Batchellerville Province of the Southern Adirondacks, approximately 66 km to the southeast of Ledge Mountain, but not previously at this locality. The tourmaline is alkali dravite-schorl with Mg# = 0.49- 0.53. It is present as anhedral grains less than 2 mm wide intergrown with perthitic microcline and quartz, and as euhedral megacrysts several centimeters in diameter. The dumortierite is strongly pleochroic, ranging from deep indigo blue and violet to colorless. Two strikingly different habits of dumortierite coexist within centimeters of one another in the same sample: bundles of fine prisms less than a few tenths of a millimeter across, and larger granular intergrowths with quartz and chlorite. Apatite and xenotime are also present in both leucosomes and melanosomes, indicating phosphate-enrichment and yttrium in the granulites. According to experimentally determined fields of stability for boron-bearing minerals, the presence of tourmaline and dumortierite and absence of other boron-bearing minerals, especially prismatine, in the pegmatites is consistent with estimated metamorphic conditions of approximately 695-770°C and 7.4-8.2 kbar, as previously determined for this locality using garnet-biotite thermometry and GASP barometry (Boone, 1978). The presence of borosilicates in the leucosomes of these migmatites and the conspicuous lack of them in the paleosome may suggest destabilization of boron

  1. Regional application of the PnET-BGC model to assess historical acidification of Adirondack lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Jing; Driscoll, Charles T.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Cosby, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The Adirondack region of New York has high inputs of acidic deposition and large numbers of acidic lakes. The biogeochemical model, PnET-BGC, was applied to 44 statistically representative Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) lake watersheds in the Adirondacks. Model simulations help provide an understanding of historical effects of acidic deposition on soils and lake waters. Model simulations indicate that median annual concentrations of SO42- and NO3- in the 44 EMAP lakes were 15.9 μeq/L and 3.8 μeq/L, respectively, in 1850, compared to the median current measured values of 88.8 μeq/L and 20.0 μeq/L. Simulated median values of pH, acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), and soil percent base saturation were 6.63, 67.7 μeq/L, and 12.3%, respectively, in 1850, compared to the median current measured values of 5.95, 27.8 μeq/L, and 7.9%. The estimated historical surface water acidification was greatest in lakes having low ANC below values of 100 μeq/L. This pattern of historical acidification is in agreement with a previous paleolimnological investigation.

  2. A monitor for continuous measurement of temperature, pH, and conductance of wet precipitation: Preliminary results from the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnsson, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a continuous wet-only precipitation monitor designed by the U.S. Geological Survey to record variations in rainfall temperature, pH, and specific conductance at 1-min intervals over the course of storms. Initial sampling in the Adirondack Mountains showed that rainfall acidity varied over the course of summer storms, with low initial pH values increasing as storm intensity increased.This report describes a continuous wet-only precipitation monitor designed by the U.S. Geological Survey to record variations in rainfall temperature, pH, and specific conductance at 1-min intervals over the course of storms. Initial sampling in the Adirondack Mountains showed that rainfall acidity varied over the course of summer storms, with low initial pH values increasing as storm intensity increased.

  3. Sensitivity of Stream Methyl Hg Concentrations to Environmental Change in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, D. A.; Riva-Murray, K.; Nystrom, E.; Millard, G.; Driscoll, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Adirondacks of New York have high levels of mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation as demonstrated by a region-wide fish consumption advisory for children and women who may become pregnant. The source of this Hg is atmospheric deposition that originates from regional, continental, and global emissions. Soils in the region have large Hg stores equivalent to several decades of atmospheric deposition suggesting that the processes controlling Hg transport from soils to surface waters may greatly affect Hg concentrations and loads in surface waters. Furthermore, Hg can be converted to its neuro-toxic methyl form (MeHg), particularly in riparian and wetland soils where biogeochemical conditions favor net methylation. We measured MeHg concentrations during 33 months at Fishing Brook, a 65 km2 catchment in the upper Hudson River basin in the Adirondacks. Seasonal variation in stream MeHg concentrations was more than tenfold, consistent with temperature-driven variation in net methylation rates in soils and sediment. These data also indicate greater than twofold annual variation in stream MeHg concentrations among the three monitored growing seasons. The driest growing season had the lowest MeHg concentrations, and these values were greater during the two wetter growing seasons. We hypothesize that contact of the riparian water table with abundant organic matter and MeHg stored in the shallowest soil horizons is a dominant control on MeHg transport to the stream. An empirical model was developed that accounted for 81% of the variation in stream MeHg concentrations. Water temperature and the length of time the simulated riparian water table remained in the shallow soil were key predictive variables, highlighting the sensitivity of MeHg to climatic variation. Future changes in other factors such as Hg emissions and deposition and acid deposition will likely also influence stream MeHg concentrations and loads. For example, lime application to an Adirondack stream to increase pH and

  4. Crustal structure of the western New England Appalachians and the Adirondack Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, S.; Leutgert, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    Presents an interpretation of the crustal velocity structure based on a seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection experiment in eastern North America extending from the Adirondacks in New York State through the northern Appalachians in Vermont and New Hampshire to central Maine. Modeling of the eastern portion of the profile within the New England Appalachians shows a subhorizontal layered crust with upper crustal velocities ranging from 5.5 to 6.2 km/s, a midcrustal velocity of 6.4 km/s, and a lower crustal velocity of approximately 6.8 km/s. Crustal thickness increases from 36 km beneath Maine to 40 km in Vermont. This experiment provides further evidence for the obduction of the allochthonous western Appalachian units onto Grenvillian crust above the azone of detachment that penetrates at least to midcrustal depths and was the locus of successive Paleozoic thrusting. -from Authors

  5. Empirical relationships between watershed attributes and headwater lake chemistry in the Adirondack region

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, C.T.; Christensen, S.W.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Olson, R.J.; Turner, R.S.; Malanchuk, J.L.

    1986-12-01

    This study focuses on the Adirondack region of New York and has two purposes: to (1) develop empirical models that can be used to assess the chemical status of lakes for which no chemistry data exist and (2) determine on a regional scale watershed attributes that account for variability in lake pH and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). Headwater lakes, rather than lakes linked to upstream lakes, were selected for initial analysis. Both bivariate (correlations and Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests) and multivariate analyses were performed. Fifty-seven watershed attributes were selected as input variables to multiple linear regression and discriminant analysis. For model development approx.200 lakes for which pH and ANC data exist were randomly subdivided into a specification and a verification data set. Several indices were used to select models for predicting lake pH (31 variables) and ANC (27 variables). Twenty-five variables are common to the pH and ANC models: four lake morphology, nine soil/geology, eight land cover, three disturbance, and one watershed aspect. An atmospheric input variable (H/sup +/ or NO/sub 3//sup -/) explains the greatest amount of variation in the dependent variable (pH and ANC) for both models. The percentage of watershed in conifers is the next strongest predictor variable. For all headwater lakes in the Adirondacks, approx.60% of the lakes are estimated to have an ANC less than or equal to50 ..mu..eq/L, and 40% of the lakes have a pH less than or equal to5.5, levels believed to be detrimental to some fish species.

  6. Paleoecological investigation of recent lake acidification in the Adirondack Mountains, NY

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, D.F.; Binford, M.W.; Furlong, E.T.; Hites, R.A.; Mitchell, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Paleoecological analysis of the sediment record of 12 Adirondack lakes reveals that the 8 clearwater lakes with current pH<5.5 and alkalinity <10 microeq/l have acidified recently. The onset of the acidification occurred between 1920 and 1970. Loss of alkalinity, based on quantitative analysis of diatom assemblages, ranged from 2 to 35 microeq/l. The acidification trends are substantiated by several lines of evidence including stratigraphies of diatom, chrysophyte, chironomid, and cladoceran remains, Ca:Ti and Mn:Ti ratios, sequentially extracted forms of Al, and historical fish data. Acidification trends appear to be continuing in some lakes, despite reductions in atmospheric sulfur loading that began in the early 1970s. The primary cause of the acidification trend is clearly increased atmospheric deposition of strong acids derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. Natural processes and watershed disturbances cannot account for the changes in water chemistry that have occurred, but they may play a role. Sediment core profiles of Pb, Cu, V, Zn, S, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, magnetic particles, and coal and oil soot provide a clear record of increased atmospheric input of materials associated with the combustion of fossil fuels beginning in the late 1800s and early 1900s.

  7. Target loads of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition for protection of acid sensitive aquatic resources in the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, T.J.; Cosby, B.J.; Driscoll, C.T.; McDonnell, T.C.; Herlihy, A.T.; Burns, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic watershed acid-base chemistry model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC) was used to calculate target loads (TLs) of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition expected to be protective of aquatic health in lakes in the Adirondack ecoregion of New York. The TLs were calculated for two future dates (2050 and 2100) and three levels of protection against lake acidification (acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of 0, 20, and 50 eq L -1). Regional sulfur and nitrogen deposition estimates were combined with TLs to calculate exceedances. Target load results, and associated exceedances, were extrapolated to the regional population of Adirondack lakes. About 30% of Adirondack lakes had simulated TL of sulfur deposition less than 50 meq m -2 yr to protect lake ANC to 50 eq L -1. About 600 Adirondack lakes receive ambient sulfur deposition that is above this TL, in some cases by more than a factor of 2. Some critical criteria threshold values were simulated to be unobtainable in some lakes even if sulfur deposition was to be decreased to zero and held at zero until the specified endpoint year. We also summarize important lessons for the use of target loads in the management of acid-impacted aquatic ecosystems, such as those in North America, Europe, and Asia. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Factors affecting acid neutralizing capacity in the Adirondack region of New York: a solute mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mari; Mitchell, Myron J; Driscoll, Charles T; Roy, Karen M

    2005-06-01

    High rates of acidic deposition in the Adirondack region of New York have accelerated acidification of soils and surface waters. Annual input-output budgets for major solutes and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) were estimated for 43 drainage lake-watersheds in the Adirondacks from 1998 to 2000. Sulfate was the predominant anion on an equivalent basis in both precipitation and drainage export. Calcium ion had the largest cation drainage export, followed by Mg2+. While these watersheds showed net nitrogen (N) retention, the drainage losses of SO4(2-), Cl-, base cations, and ANC exceeded their respective inputs from precipitation. Land cover (forest type and wetlands) affected the export of SO4(2-), N solutes, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The relationships of solute export with elevation (negative for base cations and Cl-, positive for NO3- and H+) suggest the importance of the concomitant changes of biotic and abiotic watershed characteristics associated with elevational gradients. The surface water ANC increased with the sum of base cations and was greatest in the lakes with watersheds characterized by thick deposits of glacial till. The surface water ANC was also higher in the lake-watersheds with lower DOC export. Some variation in lake ANC was associated with variability in acidic deposition. Using a classification system previously developed for Adirondack lakes on the basis primarily of surficial geology, lake-watersheds were grouped into five classes. The calculated ANC fluxes based on the major sinks and sources of ANC were comparable with measured ANC for the thick-till (I) and the medium-till lake-watersheds with low DOC (II). The calculated ANC was overestimated for the medium-till with high DOC (III) and the thin-till with high DOC (V) lake-watersheds, suggesting the importance of naturally occurring organic acids as an ANC sink, which was not included in the calculations. The lower calculated estimates than the measured ANC for the thin-till lake

  9. REGIONAL APPLICATION OF A BIOGEOCHEMICAL MODEL (PNET-BGC) TO THE ADIRONDACK REGION OF NEW YORK: RESPONES TO CURRENT AND FUTURE CHANGES IN ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the response of soil and surface waters to changes in atmospheric deposition is critical for guiding future legislation on air pollutants. In this study, the regional response of soil and surface waters in 37 lake watersheds in the Adirondack region of New York to c...

  10. Total Mercury and Methylmercury Dynamics; stream export in an upland forested watershed in the Adirondack region of New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleton, W.; Vidon, P.; Mitchell, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Although levels of mercury and acid rain deposition have greatly declined in recent years due to legislation controls on industry emissions, their legacy has had a lasting effect on the Adirondack region of New York State. This historical mercury deposition is of concern because of the high chance for methylmercury production and export to occur. The impact of forested uplands on methylmercury export remains poorly understood in relation to other ecosystems. Research indicates that sulfate dynamics play a large role in regulating the production of methylmercury in the presence of inorganic mercury; however the relationship between methylmercury production and nitrate availability at various times of the year is less understood, yet, hypothesized to potentially impact sulfate reduction and ultimately methylmercury production in a variety of ecosystems. In this study, mercury and water quality (including sulfate and nitrate) will be monitored in spring, summer and fall of 2012 at 7 locations in Arbutus Watershed, Adirondacks, NY. Proxies (UV absorbance, Fluorescence indices) for total mercury and methylmercury will be utilized to predict export. The main objectives of this research are to determine the relevance of forested uplands in methylmercury export, as well as gain further understanding of mercury dynamics and associated proxies in relation to nitrate and sulfate availability. Photo courtesy of the Adirondack Ecological Center

  11. Acid-base characteristics of the Grass Pond watershed in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State, USA: interactions among soil, vegetation and surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEathron, K. M.; Mitchell, M. J.; Zhang, L.

    2013-07-01

    Grass Pond watershed is located within the southwestern Adirondack Mountain region of New York State, USA. This region receives some of the highest rates of acidic deposition in North America and is particularly sensitive to acidic inputs due to many of its soils having shallow depths and being generally base poor. Differences in soil chemistry and tree species between seven subwatersheds were examined in relation to acid-base characteristics of the seven major streams that drain into Grass Pond. Mineral soil pH, stream water BCS (base-cation surplus) and pH exhibited a positive correlation with sugar maple basal area (p = 0.055; 0.48 and 0.39, respectively). Black cherry basal area was inversely correlated with stream water BCS, ANC (acid neutralizing capacity)c and NO3- (p = 0.23; 0.24 and 0.20, respectively). Sugar maple basal areas were positively associated with watershed characteristics associated with the neutralization of atmospheric acidic inputs while in contrast, black cherry basal areas showed opposite relationships to these same watershed characteristics. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that black cherry had a distinctive relationship with forest floor chemistry apart from the other tree species, specifically a strong positive association with forest floor NH4, while sugar maple had a distinctive relationship with stream chemistry variables, specifically a strong positive association with stream water ANCc, BCS and pH. Our results provide evidence that sugar maple is acid-intolerant or calciphilic tree species and also demonstrate that black cherry is likely an acid-tolerant tree species.

  12. Acid-base characteristics of the Grass Pond watershed in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State, USA: interactions between soil, vegetation and surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEathron, K. M.; Mitchell, M. J.; Zhang, L.

    2012-09-01

    Grass Pond watershed is located within the Southwestern Adirondack Mountain region of New York State, USA. This region receives some of the highest rates of acidic deposition in North America and is particularly sensitive to acidic inputs due to many of its soils having shallow depths and being generally base-poor. Differences in soil chemistry and tree species between seven subwatersheds were examined in relation to acid-base characteristics of the seven major streams that drain into Grass Pond. Mineral soil pH, stream water BCS and pH exhibited a positive correlation with sugar maple basal area (p = 0.055; 0.48 and 0.39, respectively). Black cherry basal area was inversely correlated with stream water BCS, ANCc and NO3- (p = 0.23; 0.24 and 0.20, respectively). Sugar maple basal areas were positively correlated with watershed characteristics associated with the neutralization of atmospheric acidic inputs while in contrast, black cherry basal areas showed opposite relationships to these same watershed characteristics. Canonical Correspondence Analysis indicated that black cherry had a distinctive relationship with forest floor chemistry apart from the other tree species, specifically a strong positive association with forest floor NH4 while sugar maple had a distinctive relationship with stream chemistry variables, specifically a strong positive association with stream water ANCc, BCS and pH. Our results provide evidence that sugar maple is acid-intolerant or calciphilic tree species and also demonstrate that black cherry is likely an acid-tolerant tree species.

  13. Spatial patterns in forest composition and standing dead red spruce in montane forests of the Adirondacks and northern Appalachians.

    PubMed

    Craig, B W; Friedland, A J

    1991-08-01

    The decline of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) in montane forests of the northeastern United States has been previously reported. The objective of this study was to assess spatial patterns, if any, in standing dead red spruce stems in the Adirondacks of New York and northern Appalachians of Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. A stratified random sample of 19 mountains along a west to east transect in the Adirondacks and the northern Appalachians showed that the live basal area of all species was highest in the White Mountains (34.6 m(2) ha(-1)) and lowest in the Adirondack Mountains (23.7 m(2) ha(-1)) in the Green Mountains was significantly lower than in any other region. Intact standing dead red spruce in the Adirondack and Green Mountains (30%) was significantly higher than that in the three eastern clusters (14%). The amount of intact standing dead red spruce trees increased with elevation in only the western part of the region. With the exception of the Adirondacks, there was a greater average percent dead red spruce on the west side than on the east side of each mountain. The sum of standing dead for other tree species (average 13%) showed no statistically significant patterns with region, elevation or aspect, and was significantly lower than the amount of total dead red spruce (average 42%). The standing dead red spruce patterns we observed cannot be associated with any specific causal factors at this time. PMID:24233751

  14. Hydrogeologic controls of surface-water chemistry in the Adirondack region of New York State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.; Driscoll, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    Relationships between surface-water discharge, water chemistry, and watershed geology were investigated to evaluate factors affecting the sensitivity of drainage waters in the Adirondack region of New York to acidification by atmospheric deposition. Instantaneous discharge per unit area was derived from relationships between flow and staff-gage readings at 10 drainage basins throughout the region. The average chemical composition of the waters was assessed from monthly samples collected from July 1982 through July 1984. The ratio of flow at the 50-percent exceedence level to the flow at the 95-percent exceedence level of flow duration was negatively correlated with mean values of alkalinity or acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), sum of basic cations (SBC), and dissolved silica, for basins containing predominantly aluminosilicate minerals and little or no carbonate-bearing minerals. Low ratios are indicative of systems in which flow is predominately derived from surface- and ground-water storage, whereas high ratios are characteristic of watersheds with variable flow that is largely derived from surface runoff. In an evaluation of two representative surface-water sites, concentrations of ANC, SBC, and dissolved silica, derived primarily from soil mineral weathering reactions. decreased with increasing flow. Furthermore, the ANC was highest at low flow when the percentage of streamflow derived from ground water was maximum. As flow increased, the ANC decreased because the contribution of dilute surface runoff and lateral flow through the shallow acidic soil horizons to total flow increased. Basins having relatively high ground-water contributions to total flow, in general, have large deposits of thick till or stratified drift. A major factor controlling the sensitivity of these streams and lakes to acidification is the relative contribution of ground water to total discharge. ?? 1987 Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  15. Adirondack Under the Microscope-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This overhead look at the martian rock dubbed Adirondack was captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera. It shows the approximate region where the rover's microscopic imager began its first close-up inspection.

  16. Inner Adirondack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This close-up image taken by the microscopic imager onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rock dubbed Adirondack after a portion of its surface was ground off by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The observed area is 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across.

  17. Dirty Adirondack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rock dubbed Adirondack before the rover wiped off a portion of the rock's dust coating with a stainless steel brush located on its rock abrasion tool. Spirit cleaned off the rock in preparation for grinding into it to expose fresh rock underneath.

  18. Not all Surface Waters show a Strong Relation between DOC and Hg Species: Results from an Adirondack Mountain Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, D. A.; Schelker, J.; Murray, K. R.; Brigham, M. E.; Aiken, G.

    2009-12-01

    Several recent papers have highlighted the strong statistical correlation between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and total dissolved mercury (THgd) and/or dissolved methyl Hg (MeHgd). These relations of organic carbon with Hg species are often even stronger when a measurement that reflects some fraction of the DOC is used such as UV absorbance at 254 nm or the hydrophobic acid fraction. These strong relations are not surprising given the pivotal role DOC plays in binding and transporting Hg, which is otherwise relatively insoluble in dilute waters. In this study, we show data collected monthly and during some storms and snowmelt over 2.5 years from the 65 km2 Fishing Brook watershed in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. This dataset is noteworthy because of a weak and statistically non-significant (p > 0.05) relationship between DOC and either of THgd or MeHgd over the entire study period. We believe that the lack of a strong DOC-Hg relation in Fishing Brook reflects the combined effects of the heterogeneous land cover and the presence of three ponds within the watershed. The watershed is dominantly (89.3%) hardwood and coniferous forest with 8% wetland area, and 2.7% open water. Despite the lack of a strong relation between DOC and Hg species across the annual hydrograph, the dataset shows strong within-season correlations that have different y-intercepts and slopes between the growing season (May 1 - Sept. 30) and dormant season (Oct. 1 - April 30), as well as strong, but seasonally varying DOC-Hg correlations at smaller spatial scales in data collected on several occasions in 10 sub-watersheds of Fishing Brook. We hypothesize that a combination of several factors can account for these annually weak, but seasonally and spatially strong DOC-Hg correlations: (1) seasonal variations in runoff generation processes from upland and wetland areas that may yield DOC with varying Hg-binding characteristics, (2) photo-induced losses of Hg species and DOC

  19. Adirondack Under the Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit front hazard-identification camera after the rover's first post-egress drive on Mars Sunday, Jan. 15, 2004. Engineers drove the rover approximately 3 meters (10 feet) from the Columbia Memorial Station toward the first rock target, seen in the foreground. The football-sized rock was dubbed Adirondack because of its mountain-shaped appearance. Scientists have begun using the microscopic imager instrument at the end of the rover's robotic arm to examine the rock and understand how it formed.

  20. Comparison of MAGIC and Diatom paleolimnological model hindcasts of lakewater acidification in the Adirondack region of New York

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Bernert, J.A.; Eliers, J.M. ); Jenne, E.A. ); Cosby, B.J. . School of Forestry and Environmental Studies); Charles, D.F.; Selle, A.R. . Environmental Research Lab.)

    1991-03-01

    Thirty-three lakes that had been statistically selected as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's Eastern Lake Survey and Direct Delayed Response Project (DDRP) were used to compare the MAGIC (watershed) and Diatom (paleolimnological) models. The study lakes represented a well-defined group of Adirondack lakes, each larger than 4 ha in area and having acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) <400 {mu}eq L{sup {minus}1}. The study first compared current and pre-industrial (before 1850) pH and ANC estimates from Diatom and MAGIC as they were calibrated in the preceding Paleocological Investigation of Recent Lake Acidification (PIRLA) and DDRP studies, respectively. Initially, the comparison of hindcasts of pre-industrial chemistry was confounded by seasonal and methodological differences in lake chemistry data used in calibration of the model. Although certain differences proved to be of little significance for comparison, MAGIC did predict significantly higher pre-industrial ANC and pH values than did Diatom, using calibrations in the preceding studies. Both models suggest acidification of low ANC Adirondack region lakes since preindustrial times, but differ primarily in that MAGIC inferred greater acidification and that acidification has occurred in all lakes in the comparison, whereas Diatom inferred that acidification has been restricted to low ANC lakes (

  1. Responses of 20 lake-watersheds in the Adirondack region of New York to historical and potential future acidic deposition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingtao; Driscoll, Charles T; Sullivan, Timothy J

    2015-04-01

    Critical loads (CLs) and dynamic critical loads (DCLs) are important tools to guide the protection of ecosystems from air pollution. In order to quantify decreases in acidic deposition necessary to protect sensitive aquatic species, we calculated CLs and DCLs of sulfate (SO4(2-))+nitrate (NO3-) for 20 lake-watersheds from the Adirondack region of New York using the dynamic model, PnET-BGC. We evaluated lake water chemistry and fish and total zooplankton species richness in response to historical acidic deposition and under future deposition scenarios. The model performed well in simulating measured chemistry of Adirondack lakes. Current deposition of SO4(2-)+NO3-, calcium (Ca2+) weathering rate and lake acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in 1850 were related to the extent of historical acidification (1850-2008). Changes in lake Al3+ concentrations since the onset of acidic deposition were also related to Ca2+ weathering rate and ANC in 1850. Lake ANC and fish and total zooplankton species richness were projected to increase under hypothetical decreases in future deposition. However, model projections suggest that lake ecosystems will not achieve complete chemical and biological recovery in the future. PMID:25544337

  2. Trends in summer chemistry linked to productivity in lakes recovering from acid deposition in the Adirondack region of New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Momen, B.; Lawrence, G.B.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A.; Sutherland, J.W.; Eichler, L.W.; Harrison, J.P.; Boylen, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Adirondack Effects Assessment Program (AEAP) to evaluate and monitor the status of biological communities in lakes in the Adirondack region of New York that have been adversely affected by acid deposition. This program includes chemical analysis of 30 lakes, sampled two to three times each summer. Results of trends analysis for lake chemistry and chlorophyll a (chlor a) are presented for 1994 to 2003, and a general comparison is made with recent results of the Adirondack Long-Term Monitoring (ALTM) Program, which included chemical analysis of all but two of these lakes (plus an additional 24 lakes) monthly, year-round for 1992-2004. Increases in pH were found in 25 of the 30 AEAP lakes (P < 0.05) and increases in acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) were found in 12 of the 30 lakes (P < 0.05). Concentrations of both SO 42- and Mg 2+ decreased in 11 lakes (P < 0.05), whereas concentrations of NO 3- decreased in 20 lakes (P < 0.05). Concentrations of NH 4+ decreased in 10 lakes at a significance level of P < 0.05 and in three other lakes based on P < 0.1. Concentrations of inorganic and organic monomeric aluminum generally were below the reporting limit of 1.5 ??mol L-1, but decreases were detected in four and five lakes, respectively (P < 0.1). Concentrations of chlor a increased in seven lakes at a significance level of P < 0.05 and two lakes at a significance level of P < 0.1. A significant inverse correlation was also found between chlor a and NO 3- concentrations in nine lakes at a significance level of P < 0.05 and two lakes at a significance level of P < 0.1. Results of AEAP analysis of lake chemistry were similar to those of the ALTM Program, although decreases in SO 42- concentrations were more evident in the year-round ALTM record. Overall, the results suggest (a) a degree of chemical recovery from acidification during the summer, (b) an increase in phytoplankton productivity, and (c) a decreasing trend in

  3. Development of a total maximum daily load (TMDL) for acid-impaired lakes in the Adirondack region of New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhraei, Habibollah; Driscoll, Charles T.; Selvendiran, Pranesh; DePinto, Joseph V.; Bloomfield, Jay; Quinn, Scott; Rowell, H. Chandler

    2014-10-01

    Acidic deposition has impaired acid-sensitive surface waters in the Adirondack region of New York by decreasing pH and acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). In spite of air quality programs over past decades, 128 lakes in the Adirondacks were classified as “impaired” under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act in 2010 due to elevated acidity. The biogeochemical model, PnET-BGC, was used to relate decreases in atmospheric sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) deposition to changes in lake water chemistry. The model was calibrated and confirmed using observed soil and lake water chemistry data and then was applied to calculate the maximum atmospheric deposition that the impaired lakes can receive while still achieving ANC targets. Two targets of ANC were used to characterize the recovery of acid-impaired lakes: 11 and 20 μeq L-1. Of the 128 acid-impaired lakes, 97 currently have ANC values below the target value of 20 μeq L-1 and 83 are below 11 μeq L-1. This study indicates that a moderate control scenario (i.e., 60% decrease from the current atmospheric S load) is projected to recover the ANC of lakes at a mean rate of 0.18 and 0.05 μeq L-1 yr-1 during the periods 2022-2050 and 2050-2200, respectively. The total maximum daily load (TMDL) of acidity corresponding to this moderate control scenario was estimated to be 7.9 meq S m-2 yr-1 which includes a 10% margin of safety.

  4. Steep oxygen-isotope gradients at marble—metagranite contacts in the northwest Adirondack Mountains, New York, USA: products of fluid-hosted diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Ian; Valley, John W.

    1991-10-01

    Steep gradients in oxygen-isotope ratios are recorded from two contacts between Grenville marbles (calcite δ 18O = 21-24%) and metamorphosed granitic intrusives (whole rock δ 18O = 11-12%) in the northwest Adirondacks. Oxygen- and carbon-isotope fractionations between coexisting minerals in the marbles and the metagranites are consistent with isotopic equilibration at peak metamorphic temperatures. The δ 18O profiles are sigmoidal with inflection points at the contacts, and are developed over 5-6 m. Quantitative fluid infiltration-diffusion modeling suggests that the isotopic gradients are best explained as the result of fluid-hosted diffusion. For porosities of 10 -3 to 10 -6, the profiles could have formed in 10 3-10 7 years via an interconnected grain boundary fluid. The granites were probably emplaced at shallow crustal levels prior to the regional Grenville metamorphism, and isotopic exchange is most likely to have occurred at that time. Contact metamorphism at these localities involved devolatilisation of the marbles, and the time estimates may reflect the periods over which fluid-producing reactions took place and an enhanced porosity was maintained. In the marbles, there is a progressive increase in the percentage of diopside and K-feldspar at the expense of phlogopite and tremolite towards the metagranites. These mineralogical changes probably occurred due to the temperature increase associated with granite intrusion and diffusion of H 2O from the granite. The two localities lie on either side of the regional-metamorphic amphibolite- to granulite-facies transition. The preservation of isotopic profiles formed during contact metamorphism suggests that there was little pervasive fluid flow at this crustal level during the regional metamorphism, or at any time thereafter. Steep isotopic gradients are present at orthogneiss-marble contacts elsewhere in the Adirondacks, suggesting that this conclusion may be generally applicable to this terrain.

  5. Sedimentology of basal Potsdam sandstone in Adirondack border region, New York, southeastern Ontario, and southwestern Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    McRae, L.E.; Johnson, G.D.

    1986-05-01

    Field evidence supports the relatively widespread presence of nonmarine facies within the basal Potsdam formation of the Adirondack border areas of northern New York, southeastern Ontario, and southwestern Quebec. Detailed observations of areal extent, analysis of sedimentary structures and paleocurrent directions, and petrographic studies have been combined with the paleomagnetic determination of the temporal relationships of these strata to establish depositional patterns and facies trends within basal Potsdam units. Four distinct nonmarine lithofacies have been identified: massive matrix-supported conglomerate, stratified framework-supported conglomerate, conglomerate-arkose, and pebble conglomerate-arkose fining-upward sequences, interpreted to represent debris flows, proximal gravelly braided-stream deposits, intermediate to distal gravelly braided-stream deposits, and proximal sandy braided-stream deposits, respectively. Facies of eolian or possibly tidal, and shallow marine origin have also been identified at the base of the Potsdam sequence. Most basal Potsdam sediments are compositionally and texturally immature, derived directly from the crystalline detritus of the extensively weathered Precambrian surface and regoliths that may have locally developed on the craton. The desert-like environment of the Precambrian surface allowed for rapid transport and deposition of relatively unweathered sediments and the subsequent construction of a braided alluvial plain system. Field relations and evidence derived from consideration of the paleomagnetic properties in five localities of fine-grained alluvium suggest that terrestrial Potsdam deposition in the Early and Middle Cambrian largely preceded the marine transgression that deposited the thick, shallow marine units typifying most of the Potsdam sequence.

  6. Hydrologic analysis of two headwater lake basins of differing lake pH in the west-central Adirondack Mountains of New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murdoch, Peter S.; Peters, N.E.; Newton, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrologic analysis of two headwater lake basins in the Adirondack Mountains, New York, during 1980-81 indicates that the degree of neutralization of acid precipitation is controlled by the groundwater contribution to the lake. According to flow-duration analyses, daily mean outflow/unit area from the neutral lake (Panther Lake, pH 5-7) was more sustained and contained a higher percentage of groundwater than that of the acidic lake (Woods Lake, pH 4-5). Outflow recession rates and maximum base-flow rates, derived from individual recession curves, were 3.9 times and 1.5 times greater, respectively, in the neutral-lake basin than in the acidic-lake basin. Groundwater contribution to lake outflow was also calculated from a lake-water budget; the groundwater contribution to the neutral lake was about 10 times greater than that to the acidic lake. Thick sandy till forms the groundwater reservoir and the major recharge area in both basins but covers 8.5 times more area in the neutral-lake basin than in the acidic-lake basin. More groundwater storage within the neutral basin provides longer contact time with neutralizing minerals and more groundwater discharge. As a result, the neutral lake has relatively high pH and alkalinity, and more net cation transport. (USGS)

  7. The Carthage-Colton mylonite zone (Adirondack Mountains, New York): The site of a cryptic suture in the Grenville Orogen

    SciTech Connect

    Mezger, K.; Pluijm, B.A. van der; Essene, E.J.; Halliday, A.N. )

    1992-09-01

    U-Pb ages were determined on metamorphic sphenes and monazites from the Late Proterozoic Adirondack Highlands and Lowlands in the vicinity of the Carthage-Colton mylonite zone. Monazites were extracted from metapelites, and sphenes were separated from marbles, calc-silicate gneisses, and granite gneisses in order to determine the timing and the duration of metamorphism as well as the cooling histories for rocks on either side of the mylonite zone. Monazite ages from the Lowlands range from 1,171-1,137 Ma; sphene ages in the Lowlands range from 1,156-1,103 Ma, those from the Highlands immediately to the east of the mylonite zone range from 1,050-982 ma. The ages indicate that the last high-grade metamorphism in the Highlands is ca. 100 m.y. younger than in the Lowlands and that both terranes had separate cooling histories at least until ca. 1,000 Ma. Sphenes from within the Carthage-Colton mylonite zone yield ages of about 1,098 Ma, which are distinct from sphene ages on either side of the shear zone. The mineral ages, structures, and metamorphic histories suggests that the Carthage-Colton mylonite zone is a fundamental tectonic boundary within the Proterozoic Grenville Orogen of North America.

  8. Compositional controls on spinel clouding and garnet formation in plagioclase of olivine metagabbros, Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLelland, J.M.; Whitney, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Olivine metagabbros from the Adirondacks usually contain both clear and spinel-clouded plagioclase, as well as garnet. The latter occurs primarily as the outer rim of coronas surrounding olivine and pyroxene, and less commonly as lamellae or isolated grains within plagioclase. The formation of garnet and metamorphic spinel is dependent upon the anorthite content of the plagioclase. Plagioclase more sodic than An38??2 does not exhibit spinel clouding, and garnet rarely occurs in contact with plagioclase more albitic than An36??4. As a result of these compositional controls, the distribution of spinel and garnet mimics and visually enhances original igneous zoning in plagioclase. Most features of the arrangement of clear (unclouded) plagioclase, including the shells or moats of clear plagioclase which frequently occur inside the garnet rims of coronas, can be explained on the basis of igneous zoning. The form and distribution of the clear zones may also be affected by the metamorphic reactions which have produced the coronas, and by redistribution of plagioclase in response to local volume changes during metamorphism. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Long-term recovery of lakes in the Adirondack region of New York to decreases in acidic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Kristin; Driscoll, Charles; Lynch, Jason; Newcomb, Dani; Roy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    After years of adverse impacts to the acid-sensitive ecosystems of the eastern United States, the Acid Rain Program and Nitrogen Budget Program were developed to control sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions through market-based cap and trade systems. We used data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program's National Trends Network (NTN) and the U.S. EPA Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) program to evaluate the response of lake-watersheds in the Adirondack region of New York to changes in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides resulting from the Acid Rain Program and the Nitrogen Budget Program. TIME is a long-term monitoring program designed to sample statistically selected subpopulations of lakes and streams across the eastern U.S. to quantify regional trends in surface water chemistry due to changes in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in wet sulfate deposition for the TIME lake-watersheds from 1991 to 2007 (-1.04 meq m -2-yr) generally corresponded with decreases in estimated lake sulfate flux (-1.46 ± 0.72 meq m -2-yr), suggesting declines in lake sulfate were largely driven by decreases in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in lake sulfate and to a lesser extent nitrate have generally coincided with increases in acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) resulting in shifts in lakes among ANC sensitivity classes. The percentage of acidic Adirondack lakes (ANC <0 μeq L -1) decreased from 15.5% (284 lakes) to 8.3% (152 lakes) since the implementation of the Acid Rain Program and the Nitrogen Budget Program. Two measures of ANC were considered in our analysis: ANC determined directly by Gran plot analysis (ANC G) and ANC calculated by major ion chemistry (ANC calc = CB - CA). While these two metrics should theoretically show similar responses, ANC calc (+2.03 μeq L -1-yr) increased at more than twice the rate as ANC G (+0.76 μeq L -1-yr). This discrepancy has important implications for assessments of lake recovery

  10. Concentration and flux of solutes from snow and forest floor during snowmelt in the West-Central Adirondack region of New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rascher, C.M.; Driscoll, C.T.; Peters, N.E.

    1987-01-01

    Decreases in pH and increases in the concentration of Al and NO3- have been observed in surface waters draining acid-sensitive regions in the northeastern U.S. during spring snowmelt. To assess the source of this acidity, we evaluated solute concentrations in snowpack, and in meltwater collected from snow and forest floor lysimeters in the west-central Adirondack Mountains of New York during the spring snowmelt period, 29 March through 15 April 1984. During the initial phase of snowmelt, ions were preferentially leached from the snowpack resulting in elevated concentrations in snowmelt water (e.g. H+ = 140 ??eq.l-1; NO42- = 123 ??eq.l-1; SO3- = 160 ??eq.l-1). Solute concentrations decreased dramatically within a few days of the initial melt (< 50 ??eq.l-1). The concentrations of SO42- and NO3- in snowpack and snowmelt water were similar, whereas NO-3 in the forest floor leachate was at least two times the concentration of SO42-. Study results suggest that the forest floor was a sink for snowmelt inputs of alkalinity, and a net source of H+, NO3-, dissolved organic carbon, K+ and Al inputs to the mineral soil. The forest floor was relatively conservative with respect to snowmelt inputs of Ca2+, SO42- and Cl-. These results indicate that mineralization of N, followed by nitrification in the forest floor may be an important process contributing to elevated concentrations of H+ and NO3- in streams during the snowmelt period. ?? 1987 Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  11. An evaluation of processes regulating spatial and temporal patterns in lake sulfate in the Adirondack region of New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Limin; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2004-09-01

    As a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970 and 1990, there have been significant decreases in sulfate (SO42-) concentrations in surface waters across the northeastern United States. The 37 Direct/Delayed Response Program (DDRP) watersheds in the Adirondacks receive elevated levels of atmospheric S deposition and showed considerable variability in lake SO42- concentrations. In response to decreases in atmospheric S deposition, these sites have generally exhibited relatively uniform decreases in surface water SO42- concentrations. In this study, an integrated biogeochemical model (PnET-BGC) was used to simulate the response of lake SO42- concentrations at these DDRP sites to recent changes in atmospheric S deposition. Using default parameters and algorithms, the model underpredicted lake SO42- concentrations at sites with high SO42- concentrations and overpredicted at sites with low SO42- concentrations. Initial predictions of lake SO42- were relatively uniform across the region. Initial model simulations also underpredicted decreases in lake SO42- concentrations from 1984 to 2001. We identified seven hypotheses that might explain the discrepancies between model predictions and the measured data. Model inputs, parameters, and algorithms were modified to help test these hypotheses and better understand factors that control spatial and temporal patterns in lake SO42- in this acid-sensitive region.

  12. Digital mountains: toward development and environment protection in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaobo

    2007-06-01

    Former studies on mountain system are focused on the department or subject characters, i.e. different department and branches of learning carry out researches only for their individual purposes and with individual characters of the subject of interests. As a whole, their investigation is lacking of comprehensive study in combination with global environment. Ecological environment in mountain regions is vulnerable to the disturbance of human activities. Therefore, it is a key issue to coordinate economic development and environment protection in mountain regions. On the other hand, a lot of work is ongoing on mountain sciences, especially depending on the application of RS and GIS. Moreover, the development of the Digital Earth (DE) provides a clue to re-understand mountains. These are the background of the emergence of the Digital Mountains (DM). One of the purposes of the DM is integrating spatial related data and information about mountains. Moreover, the DM is a viewpoint and methodology of understanding and quantifying mountains holistically. The concept of the DM is that, the spatial and temporal data related to mountain regions are stored and managed in computers; moreover, manipulating, analyzing, modeling, simulating and sharing of the mountain information are implemented by utilizing technologies of RS, GIS, GPS, Geo-informatic Tupu, computer, virtual reality (VR), 3D simulation, massive storage, mutual operation and network communication. The DM aims at advancing mountain sciences and sustainable mountain development. The DM is used to providing information and method for coordinating the mountain regions development and environment protection. The fundamental work of the DM is the design of the scientific architecture. Furthermore, construct and develop massive databases of mountains are the important steps these days.

  13. AN EVALUATION OF PROCESSES REGULATING SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL PATTERNS IN LAKE SULFATE IN THE ADIRONDACK REGION OF NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970 and 1990, there have been significant decreases in sulfate (SO4^2-) concentrations in surface waters across the northeastern U.S. The 37 Direct/Delayed Response Program (DDRP) watersheds in the Adirondacks receive elevated level...

  14. Adirondack tourism: perceived consequences of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, W.C.

    1984-03-01

    This report seeks to place in perspective the perceived effects of acid precipitation on the tourist industry in the Adirondacks. The 9375-square mile park is host to almost nine million tourists annually, not including seasonal residents. Since the park was established almost 100 years ago, there have been many changes in tourist characteristics, available recreational facilities, kinds of activities, accessibility of the area, and land use and resource management policies. The tourist industry has been influenced by both controllable and uncontrollable factors. At present the overwhelming majority of recreational opportunities and natural resources important to the Adirondack tourist industry are relatively unaffected by acid precipitation. Fishing, a significant component of the tourist industry, is the most vulnerable, but any presumed adverse economic effect has to be weighed against the location of the impacted waters, total Adirondack fishing habitat, substitution available, habitat usage, fisherman characteristics, resource management, and the declining importance of fishing as an Adirondack recreational attraction. Concern is expressed as to whether present minimal acidification impacts are the precursor of major future impacts on Adirondack terrestrial and aquatic environments, and ultimately tourism. Tourism in the Adirondacks is increasing, while many other regional employment sectors are declining. It is becoming a more stable multiseason industry. Its future growth and character will be affected by government, private organization, business community, and resident controversies regarding land use and resource management attitudes, policies, budgets, and regulations. The acid precipitation issue is only one of many related controversies. 65 references, 2 figures.

  15. Effects of acid deposition on dissolution of carbonate stone during summer storms in the Adirondack Mountains, New York, 1987-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, S.I.

    1994-01-01

    This study is part of a long-term research program designed to identify and quantify acid rain damage to carbonate stone. Acidic deposition accelerates the dissolution of carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. Sequential sampling of runoff from carbonate-stone (marble) and glass (reference) microcatchments in the Adirondack Mountains in New York State provided a detailed record of the episodic fluctuations in rain rate and runoff chemistry during individual summer storms. Rain rate and chemical concentrations from carbonate-stone and glass runoff fluctuated three to tenfold during storms. Net calcium-ion concentrations from the carbonatestone runoff, a measure of stone dissolution, typically fluctuated twofold during these storms. High net sulfate and net calcium concentrations in the first effective runoff at the start of a storm indicated that atmospheric pollutants deposited on the stone surface during dry periods formed calcium sulfate minerals, an important process in carbonate stone dissolution. Dissolution of the carbonate stone generally increased up to twofold during coincident episodes of low rain rate (less than 5 millimeters per hour) and decreased rainfall (glass runoff) pH (less than 4.0); episodes of high rain rate (cloudbursts) were coincident with a rapid increase in rainfall pH and also a rapid decrease in the dissolution of carbonate-stone. During a storm, it seems the most important factors causing increased dissolution of carbonate stone are coincident periods of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. Dissolution of the carbonate stone decreased slightly as the rain rate exceeded about 5 millimeters per hour, probably in response to rapidly increasing rainfall pH during episodes of high rain rate and shorter contact time between the runoff and the stone surface. High runoff rates resulting from cloudbursts remove calcium sulfate minerals formed during dry periods prior to storms and also remove dissolution products formed in large

  16. USE OF A LUMPED MODEL (MAGIC) TO BOUND THE ESTIMATION OF POTENTIAL FUTURE EFFECTS OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN DEPOSITION ON LAKE CHEMISTRY IN THE ADIRONDACK MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leaching of atmospherically deposited nitrogen from forested watersheds can acidify lakes and streams. Using a modified version of the Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments, we made computer simulations of such effects for 36 lake catchments in the Adirondack Mount...

  17. The Influences of Climate, Landcover, and In-lake Processes on Nitrogen Solutes and Dissolved Organic Carbon in Small Lake-Watersheds on the Southwestern Adirondack Region of New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, M.; Mitchell, M. J.; Driscoll, C. T.; Kretser, W.; Roy, K. M.

    2001-05-01

    In the Adirondack region of New York where soils and surface waters have been found to be highly sensitive to acidic deposition, precipitation concentrations of nitrate have not declined. In order to understand the responses of lake-watersheds to nitrogen deposition in the Adirondack region and to identify effective approaches to deal with potential problems associated with high N deposition, the factors regulating nitrogen solutes in discharge from lake-watersheds are being evaluated. In the present analysis, nitrogen solutes and dissolved organic carbon in two small lake-watersheds were examined from 1999 to 2000 to assess the influences of climate, land cover, and in-lake processes on these solutes in the southwestern part of the Adirondack region where wet deposition of nitrate and nitrate concentrations in surface waters were higher than in other parts of the Adirondacks. The interrelationships among nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon were evaluated to assist in characterizing the influences of the above factors.

  18. Children's Camps in the Adirondacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Hallie E.

    2003-01-01

    In the late 19th century, camps in the Adirondacks responded to concerns that the American character was softening. Much camping philosophy came from the progressive movement in education. Aspects of Indian culture were adopted because they seemed to fit naturally in the Adirondacks, and children loved them. Adirondack camps have always been…

  19. Adirondack's Inner Self

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This spectrum - the first taken of a rock on another planet - reveals the different iron-containing minerals that makeup the martian rock dubbed Adirondack. It shows that Adirondack is a type of volcanic rock known as basalt. Specifically, the rock is what is called olivine basalt because in addition to magnetite and pyroxene, two key ingredients of basalt, it contains a mineral called olivine. This data was acquired by Spirit's Moessbauer spectrometer before the rover developed communication problems with Earth on the 18th martian day, or sol, of its mission.

  20. The application of an integrated biogeochemical model (PnET-BGC) to five forested watersheds in the Adirondack and Catskill regions of New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, L.; Driscoll, C.T.; Gbondo-Tugbawa, S.; Mitchell, M.J.; Murdoch, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    PnET-BGC is an integrated biogeochemical model formulated to simulate the response of soil and surface waters in northern forest ecosystems to changes in atmospheric deposition and land disturbances. In this study, the model was applied to five intensive study sites in the Adirondack and Catskill regions of New York. Four were in the Adirondacks: Constable Pond, an acid-sensitive watershed; Arbutus Pond, a relatively insensitive watershed; West Pond, an acid-sensitive watershed with extensive wetland coverage; and Willy's Pond, an acid-sensitive watershed with a mature forest. The fifth was Catskills: Biscuit Brook, an acid-sensitive watershed. Results indicated model-simulated surface water chemistry generally agreed with the measured data at all five sites. Model-simulated internal fluxes of major elements at the Arbutus watershed compared well with previously published measured values. In addition, based on the simulated fluxes, element and acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) budgets were developed for each site. Sulphur budgets at each site indicated little retention of inputs of sulphur. The sites also showed considerable variability in retention of NO3-. Land-disturbance history and in-lake processes were found to be important in regulating the output of NO3- via surface waters. Deposition inputs of base cations were generally similar at these sites. Various rates of base cation outputs reflected differences in rates of base cation supply at these sites. Atmospheric deposition was found to be the largest source of acidity, and cation exchange, mineral weathering and in-lake processes served as sources of ANC. ?? 2004 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  1. Experimental examination of two-pyroxene graphical thermometers using natural pyroxenes with application to metaigneous pyroxenes from the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabelek, P. I.; Lindsley, D. H.; Bohlen, S. R.

    1987-09-01

    Clinopyroxene with exsolved orthopyroxene and coexisting orthopyroxene with exsolved clinopyroxene (inverted pigeonite) in metaigneous rocks from the Adirondacks, New York, were experimentally homogenized at temperatures near those inferred for their original crystallization. The purposes were several: (1) to test the graphical two-pyroxene geothermometer of Lindsley (1983); (2) to test the hypothesis of Bohlen and Essene (1978) that these were originally igneous pyroxenes; and (3) to test whether modal recombination of complexly exsolved pyroxenes yields realistic compositions. Experiments on Fe-rich compositions at 930° and 870° C (1 GPa) are compatible with the graphical thermometer of Lindsley (1983); however, this graphical thermometer yields apparent temperatures approximately 50° C too high for experiments at 1050° C and 1100° C (0 MPa). This suggests that at intermediate Mg/Fe the augite isotherms for these temperatures lie at lower wollastonite compositions than shown by Lindsley. The results are, however, in good agreement with isotherms derived from the solution model of Davidson (1985). When these isotherms are applied to a variety of terrestrial and lunar igneous rocks and the metaigneous rocks from the Adirondacks, temperatures given by augite and pigeonite compositions from coexisting pairs are similar. Comparison of the experimentally homogenized compositions with modally recombined compositions of Bohlen and Essene (1978) show that discrepancies between augite and pigeonite temperatures may nevertheless arise if pyroxene grains formed by granular exsolution are not correctly reintegrated.

  2. Oxygen isotope evidence for shallow emplacement of Adirondack anorthosite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valley, J.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic analysis of wollastonites from the Willsboro Mine, Adirondack Mountains, New York reveals a 400-ft wide zone of 18O depletion at anorthosite contacts. Values of ??18O vary more sharply with distance and are lower (to -1.3) than any yet reported for a granulite fades terrain. Exchange with circulating hot meteoric water best explains these results and implies that the anorthosite was emplaced at relatively shallow depths, <10 km, in marked contrast to the depth of granulite fades metamorphism (23 km). These 18O depletions offer the first strong evidence for shallow emplacement of anorthosite within the Grenville Province and suggest that regional metamorphism was a later and tectonically distinct event. ?? 1982 Nature Publishing Group.

  3. Origin of biotite-hornblende-garnet coronas between oxides and plagioclase in olivine metagabbros, Adirondack region, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, P.R.; McLelland, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Complex multivariant reactions involving Fe-Ti oxide minerals, plagioclase and olivine have produced coronas of biotite, hornblende and garnet between ilmenite and plagioclase in Adirondack olivine metagabbros. Both the biotite (6-10% TiO2) and the hornblende (3-6% TiO2) are exceptionally Titanium-rich. The garnet is nearly identical in composition to the garnet in coronas around olivine in the same rocks. The coronas form in two stages: (a) Plagioclase+Fe-Ti Oxides+Olivine+water =Hornblende+Spinel+Orthopyroxene??Biotite +more-sodic Plagioclase (b) Hornblende+Orthopyroxene??Spinel+Plagioclase =Garnet+Clinopyroxene+more-sodic Plagioclase The Orthopyroxene and part of the clinopyroxene form adjacent to olivine. Both reactions are linked by exchange of Mg2+ and Fe2+ with the reactions forming pyroxene and garnet coronas around olivine in the same rocks. The reactions occur under granulite fades metamorphic conditions, either during isobaric cooling or with increasing pressure at high temperature. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Adirondack's True Self

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows a cleaned off portion of the rock dubbed Adirondack. In preparation for grinding into the rock, Spirit wiped off a fine coat of dust with a brush located on its rock abrasion tool. Scientists plan to analyze the newly-exposed patch of rock with the rover's suite of science instruments, both before and after the top layer is removed.

  5. Acidification in the Adirondacks: Defining the Biota in trophic Levels of 30 Chemically Diverse Acid-Impacted Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Adirondack Mountains in New York State have a varied surficial geology and chemically diverse surface waters that are among the most impacted by acid deposition in the U.S. No single Adirondack investigation has been comprehensive in defining the effects of acidification on ...

  6. Composition and petrogenesis of oxide-, apatite-rich gabbronorites associated with Proterozoic anorthosite massifs: examples from the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLelland, James; Ashwal, Lewis; Moore, Laura

    1994-03-01

    Mafic dikes and sheets rich in Fe, Ti-oxides and apatite are commonly associated with Proterozoic massif anorthosites and are referred to as oxide-apatite gabbronorites (OAGN). Within the Adirondacks, field evidence indicates that during middle to late stages of anorthositic evolution, these bodies were emplaced as magmas with unspecified liquid-crystal ratios. Sixty whole rock analyses of Adirondack OAGN and related rocks define continuous oxide trends on Harker variation diagrams (SiO2=37 54%). Similar trends exist for Sr, Y, Nb, Zr, and REE and together suggest a common origin via fractional crystallization. A representative parental magma (plagioclase-rich crystal mush) has been chosen from this suite, and successive daughter magmas have been produced by removal of minerals with compositions corresponding to those determined in actual rocks. Least squares, mass balance calculations of major element trends indicate that removal of intermediate plagioclase (˜An40 50) plus lesser amounts of pyroxene account for the compositional variation of this suite and produce very low sums of the squares of the residuals (R2 s>0.25). The extracted mineral phases correspond volumetrically and compositionally to those of the anorthositic suite, and the model succeeds in accounting for the observed OAGN trends. The major element model is utilized to calculate trace elejent concentrations for successive magmas, and these agree closely with observation. We conclude that, beginning with a plagioclase-rich crystal mush, the extraction of intermediate plagioclase (˜An40 50) drives residual magmas to increasingly Fe-, Ti-, and P-rich and SiO2-poor conditions characteristic of Fenner-type fractionation. The crystallization sequence is plagioclase→plagioclase+orthopyroxene→plagioclase+orthopyroxene (pigeonite)+augite. Fe, Ti-oxides begin to crystallize near the end of the sequence and are followed by apatite and fayalitic olivine which appears in place of pigeonite. Augitic

  7. Tectonic and neotectonic framework of the Yucca Mountain Region

    SciTech Connect

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1992-09-30

    Highlights of major research accomplishments concerned with the tectonics and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain Region include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; recognition of significance of pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; compilation of map of quaternary faulting in Southern Amargosa Valley; and preliminary paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain.

  8. Adirondack's Finer Side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This close-up look at the martian rock dubbed Adirondack was captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's microscopic imager before Spirit stopped communicating with Earth on the 18th martian day, or sol, of its mission. The rock's smooth and pitted surface is revealed in this first-ever microscopic image of a rock on another planet. The examined patch of rock is 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across; features within the rock as small as 1/10 of a millimeter (.04 inch) can be detected. The rover's shadow appears at the bottom of the image.

  9. Regional assessment of the response of the acid-base status of lake watersheds in the Adirondack region of New York to changes in atmospheric deposition using PnET-BGC.

    PubMed

    Chen, Limin; Driscoll, Charles T

    2005-02-01

    Understanding the response of soil and surface waters to changes in atmospheric deposition is critical for guiding future legislation on air pollution. The Adirondack region of New York experiences among the most severe ecological impacts from acidic deposition. The region is characterized by considerable variability in atmospheric deposition, surficial and bedrock geology, hydrologic flow paths, and vegetation resulting in variability in effects of acidic deposition. In this study, an integrated biogeochemical model (PnET-BGC) was applied to 37 forest lake watersheds to assess the response of soil and surface waters of the Adirondacks to changes in atmospheric deposition at a regional scale. Model-simulated surface water chemistry was validated against data from two synoptic surveys conducted in 1984 and 2001. Results indicate that the model is able to capture the observed changes in surface water chemistry during this period. The model was further used to forecast the response of soil and surface waters to three future emission control scenarios. Results indicate that under the Clean Air Act, surface water SO4(2-) concentrations will continue to decrease at a median rate of -0.38 microeq/L-yr, and surface water ANC is predicted to increase at a median rate of 0.11 microeq/L-yr. More aggressive emission reductions will accelerate the rate of recovery. Under an aggressive control scenario, which represents an additional 75% reduction in SO2 emissions beyond the implementation of the Clean Air Act, surface water SO4(2-) concentrations are predicted to decrease at a median rate of -0.88 microeq/L-yr, and surface water ANC is predicted to increase at a median rate of 0.43 microeq/L-yr. Model predictions of several biologically relevant chemical indicators are also reported. PMID:15757340

  10. Modeled effects of soil acidification on long-term ecological and economic outcomes for managed forests in the Adirondack region (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caputo, Jesse PhD.; Beier, Colin M.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is among the most ecologically and economically important tree species in North America, and its growth and regeneration is often the focus of silvicultural practices in northern hardwood forests. A key stressor for sugar maple (SM) is acid rain, which depletes base cations from poorly-buffered forest soils and has been associated with much lower SM vigor, growth, and recruitment. However, the potential interactions between forest management and soil acidification – and their implications for the sustainability of SM and its economic and cultural benefits – have not been investigated. In this study, we simulated the development of 50 extant SM stands in the western Adirondack region of NY (USA) for 100 years under different soil chemical conditions and silvicultural prescriptions. We found that interactions between management prescription and soil base saturation will strongly shape the ability to maintain SM in managed forests. Below 12% base saturation, SM did not regenerate sufficiently after harvest and was replaced mainly by red maple (Acer rubrum) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia). Loss of SM on acid-impaired sites was predicted regardless of whether the shelterwood or diameter-limit prescriptions were used. On soils with sufficient base saturation, models predicted that SM will regenerate after harvest and be sustained for future rotations. We then estimated how these different post-harvest outcomes, mediated by acid impairment of forest soils, would affect the potential monetary value of ecosystem services provided by SM forests. Model simulations indicated that a management strategy focused on syrup production – although not feasible across the vast areas where acid impairment has occurred – may generate the greatest economic return. Although pollution from acid rain is declining, its long-term legacy in forest soils will shape future options for sustainable forestry and ecosystem stewardship in the northern

  11. Modeled effects of soil acidification on long-term ecological and economic outcomes for managed forests in the Adirondack region (USA).

    PubMed

    Caputo, Jesse; Beier, Colin M; Sullivan, Timothy J; Lawrence, Gregory B

    2016-09-15

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is among the most ecologically and economically important tree species in North America, and its growth and regeneration is often the focus of silvicultural practices in northern hardwood forests. A key stressor for sugar maple (SM) is acid rain, which depletes base cations from poorly-buffered forest soils and has been associated with much lower SM vigor, growth, and recruitment. However, the potential interactions between forest management and soil acidification - and their implications for the sustainability of SM and its economic and cultural benefits - have not been investigated. In this study, we simulated the development of 50 extant SM stands in the western Adirondack region of NY (USA) for 100years under different soil chemical conditions and silvicultural prescriptions. We found that interactions between management prescription and soil base saturation will strongly shape the ability to maintain SM in managed forests. Below 12% base saturation, SM did not regenerate sufficiently after harvest and was replaced mainly by red maple (Acer rubrum) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia). Loss of SM on acid-impaired sites was predicted regardless of whether the shelterwood or diameter-limit prescriptions were used. On soils with sufficient base saturation, models predicted that SM will regenerate after harvest and be sustained for future rotations. We then estimated how these different post-harvest outcomes, mediated by acid impairment of forest soils, would affect the potential monetary value of ecosystem services provided by SM forests. Model simulations indicated that a management strategy focused on syrup production - although not feasible across the vast areas where acid impairment has occurred - may generate the greatest economic return. Although pollution from acid rain is declining, its long-term legacy in forest soils will shape future options for sustainable forestry and ecosystem stewardship in the northern hardwood

  12. Eskers as an aid to the understanding of deglaciation in the Northern Adirondacks

    SciTech Connect

    King, G.S. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Eskers in the Northern Adirondack Mountains of New York State have been examined in order to gain a better understanding of their origin, their relationship to other glacial landforms, and to determine the relative timing of their formation. Ultimately, it is hoped that eskers can be used to construct a model of the former ice sheet for the region. Cross sections and longitudinal profiles were constructed to give a better understanding of esker form. Subsequent fieldwork was designed to confirm and compliment these morphometric analyses. The sedimentology of an esker and adjacent fan was logged and interpreted. The spatial relations between the eskers, fans, and delta complexes were identified. Results indicate that the eskers of the Northern Adirondack Mountains formed at different stages in the retreat of the ice sheet and are not related to an integrated subglacial drainage system. The presence of a lacustrine fan at the south end of the St. Regis Esker indicates that a glacial lake was present at the ice sheet margin and delimits an ice marginal position. The morphology and distribution of eskers may be useful as an indicator in the timing of continental deglaciation of northern New York State. Research for this project was funded by a University of Dayton Research Council Grant to D. Pair.

  13. Application of the PnET-BGC - An integrated biogeochemical model - To assess the surface water ANC recovery in the Adirondack region of New York under three multi-pollutant proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2009-11-01

    SummaryWe applied an integrated biogeochemical model PnET-BGC to predict the response of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in lakes - a measure of the ability of water to neutralize inputs of strong acid - from 2001 to 2050 in the Adirondack region of New York, USA under three multi-pollutant proposal scenarios. Through model predictions, we assessed the impacts of these proposals on ecosystem recovery for research and policy initiatives. Our analysis indicated that the predicted recovery rates of surface water ANC obtained from the PnET-BGC model show low spatial autocorrelation. Predicted recovery rates are also closely related with the percentage of watershed areas of coniferous vegetation and deciduous vegetation, elevation and lake area, which turn out not to be significantly different from each other over the entire period of future scenarios (2001-2050). We applied a Geographic Weighted Regression model (GWR) to study the spatial patterns of predicted lake ANC in the Adirondacks through 2050 due to its high spatial autocorrelation. These results showed that lake depth and square of elevation can explain 40% of variation in the predicted ANC, which is 26% more variation than explained by the non-spatial Ordinary Least-Squares Regression (OLS). Our calculations also suggest that even under the Carper Bill, the most aggressive air pollutant control scenario considered, not all Adirondack lakes will recover (i.e., ANC > 50 μeq/L) from elevated acidic deposition by 2050. The research provides a basis for more informed emission controls and land use/land cover (LULC) policy-making in the north-eastern USA and elsewhere.

  14. Acid Rain Effects on Adirondack Streams - Results from the 2003-05 Western Adirondack Stream Survey (the WASS Project)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Roy, Karen M.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, Howard A.; Passy, Sophia I.; Bode, Robert W.; Capone, Susan B.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally lakes have been the focus of acid rain assessments in the Adirondack region of New York. However, there is a growing recognition of the importance of streams as environmental indicators. Streams, like lakes, also provide important aquatic habitat, but streams more closely reflect acid rain effects on soils and forests and are more prone to acidification than lakes. Therefore, a large-scale assessment of streams was undertaken in the drainage basins of the Oswegatchie and Black Rivers; an area of 4,585 km2 in the western Adirondack region where acid rain levels tend to be highest in New York State.

  15. Spirit Takes a Turn for Adirondack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This rear hazard-identification camera image looks back at the circular tracks made in the martian soil when the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove about 3 meters (10 feet) toward the mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack, Spirit's first rock target. Spirit made a series of arcing turns totaling approximately 1 meter (3 feet). It then turned in place and made a series of short, straightforward movements totaling approximately 2 meters (6.5 feet). The drive took about 30 minutes to complete, including time stopped to take images. The two rocks in the upper left corner of the image are called 'Sashimi' and 'Sushi.' In the upper right corner is a portion of the lander, now known as the Columbia Memorial Station.

  16. Geochemical affinities of a Late Precambrian basaltic dike, Adirondack Lowlands, Northern New York

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, R.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Late Precambrian rifting and the opening of the Iapetus Ocean basin have produced a series of NE-trending basaltic dikes in the Adirondack Lowlands of New York. Twelve samples were taken from the largest of these dikes, a 14 km long body, in order to study the chemical variability along and across strike and to characterize the source region. The dike consists of an assemblage of plagioclase, Ti-rich clinopyroxene, magnetite/ilmenite and a hydrated phase that was probably olivine. All analyzed samples contain normative olivine, and most contain normative nepheline, indicative of alkalic affinities. Chemical variations are relatively minor, with generally as much variation occurring across strike (max. width 10m) as along strike. SiO[sub 2] varies from 43.9--45.0 wt%; TiO[sub 2]: 4.8--5.1 wt%; P[sub 2]O[sub 5]: 0.8--1.1 wt%; Ni: 55--79 ppm; Sr:P 300--600 ppm; Rb: 35--66 ppm; Y/Nb = 1.1; Zr/Nb = 8. Chondrite normalized REE patterns show strong LREE enrichment. Tectonic discrimination plots (Zr--Ti/100--Y[star]) are indicative of within plate magmatism, and plots of Y/nb vs. Zr/Nb suggest an enriched, OIB-type mantle plume source. Trace element characteristics suggest a genetic correlation with Late Precambrian, rift related magmas of the Ottawa Graben and of the eastern Adirondack Mountains and western Vermont.

  17. Simulation of growth of Adirondack conifers in relation to global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Y.; Raynal, D.J. )

    1993-06-01

    Several conifer species grown in plantations in the southeastern Adirondack mountains of New York were chosen to model tree growth. In the models, annual xylem growth was decomposed into several components that reflect various intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Growth signals indicative of climatic effects were used to construct response functions using both multivariate analysis and Kalman filter methods. Two models were used to simulate tree growth response to future CO[sub 2]-induced climate change projected by GCMs. The comparable results of both models indicate that different conifer species have individualistic growth responses to future climatic change. The response behaviors of trees are affected greatly by local stand conditions. The results suggest possible changes in future growth and distributions of naturally occurring conifers in this region.

  18. Modeling and Mapping of Atmospheric Mercury Deposition in Adirondack Park, New York

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xue; Driscoll, Charles T.; Huang, Jiaoyan; Holsen, Thomas M.; Blackwell, Bradley D.

    2013-01-01

    The Adirondacks of New York State, USA is a region that is sensitive to atmospheric mercury (Hg) deposition. In this study, we estimated atmospheric Hg deposition to the Adirondacks using a new scheme that combined numerical modeling and limited experimental data. The majority of the land cover in the Adirondacks is forested with 47% of the total area deciduous, 20% coniferous and 10% mixed. We used litterfall plus throughfall deposition as the total atmospheric Hg deposition to coniferous and deciduous forests during the leaf-on period, and wet Hg deposition plus modeled atmospheric dry Hg deposition as the total Hg deposition to the deciduous forest during the leaf-off period and for the non-forested areas year-around. To estimate atmospheric dry Hg deposition we used the Big Leaf model. The average atmospheric Hg deposition to the Adirondacks was estimated as 17.4 g m yr with a range of −3.7–46.0 g m yr. Atmospheric Hg dry deposition (370 kg yr) was found to be more important than wet deposition (210 kg yr) to the entire Adirondacks (2.4 million ha). The spatial pattern showed a large variation in atmospheric Hg deposition with scattered areas in the eastern Adirondacks having total Hg deposition greater than 30 μg m−2 yr−1, while the southwestern and the northern areas received Hg deposition ranging from 25–30 μg m−2 yr−1. PMID:23536871

  19. Basaltic volcanic episodes of the Yucca Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, B.M.

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize briefly the distribution and geologic characteristics of basaltic volcanism in the Yucca Mountain region during the last 10--12 Ma. This interval largely postdates the major period of silicic volcanism and coincides with and postdates the timing of major extensional faulting in the region. Field and geochronologic data for the basaltic rocks define two distinct episodes. The patterns in the volume and spatial distribution of these basaltic volcanic episodes in the central and southern part of the SNVF are used as a basis for forecasting potential future volcanic activity in vicinity of Yucca Mountain. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Geodesy and contemporary strain in the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Keefer, W.R.; Coe, J.A.; Pezzopane, S.K.; Hunter, W.C.

    1997-10-01

    Geodetic surveys provide important information for estimating recent ground movement in support of seismotectonic investigations of the potential nuclear-waste storage site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Resurveys of established level lines document up to 22 millimeters of local subsidence related to the 1992 Little Skull Mountain earthquake, which is consistent with seismic data that show normal-slip rupture and with data from a regional trilateration network. Comparison of more recent surveys with a level line first established in 1907 suggests 3 to 13 centimeters of subsidence in the Crater Flat-Yucca Mountain structural depression that coincides with the Bare Mountain fault; small uplifts also were recorded near normal faults at Yucca Mountain. No significant deformation was recorded by a trilateration network over a 10-year period, except for coseismic deformation associated with the Little Skull Mountain earthquake, but meaningful results are limited by the short temporal period of that data set and the small rate of movement. Very long baseline interferometry that is capable of measuring direction and rates of deformation is likewise limited by a short history of observation, but rates of deformation between 8 and 13 millimeters per year across the basin and Range province are indicated by the available data.

  1. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  2. Absolute Performance of AUSGeoid09 in Mountainous Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussanna, Vittorio; Janssen, Volker; Gibbings, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The Australian Height Datum (AHD) is the current national vertical datum for Australia, and AUSGeoid09 is the latest quasigeoid model used to compute (normal-orthometric)AHDheights fromGlobalNavigation Satellite System (GNSS) derived ellipsoidal heights. While previous studies have evaluated the AUSGeoid09 model across Australia, such studies have not focused on mountainous regions in particular. This paper investigates the performance of AUSGeoid09 in an absolute sense in the Mid Hunter and Snowy Mountains regions of New South Wales. Absolute (i.e. single point) comparisons were undertaken between AUSGeoid09-derived heights and published AHD heights. The performance of AUSGeoid09 was evaluated relative to its predecessor AUSGeoid98. In both study areas, an overall improvement is evident when applying AUSGeoid09 to compute AHD heights in an absolute sense. In the MidHunter, AUSGeoid09 provided a substantial improvement over its predecessor, clearly demonstrating the benefits of its new geometric component on GNSS-derived AHD height determination. In the Snowy Mountains, moderate improvement over AUSGeoid98 was evident. However, a slope was detected for AUSGeoid09 residuals, and it appears that the geometric component may have overcompensated for sea surface topography in this area. While this appraisal of AUSGeoid09 performance in mountainous regions is encouraging, it has been shown that some discrepancies still remain between AUSGeoid09-derived heights and AHD. Eventually, a new vertical datum will be necessary to ensure homogeneity across Australia.

  3. Elevation-dependent warming in mountain regions of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountain Research Initiative Edw Working Group; Pepin, N.; Bradley, R. S.; Diaz, H. F.; Baraer, M.; Caceres, E. B.; Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H.; Greenwood, G.; Hashmi, M. Z.; Liu, X. D.; Miller, J. R.; Ning, L.; Ohmura, A.; Palazzi, E.; Rangwala, I.; Schöner, W.; Severskiy, I.; Shahgedanova, M.; Wang, M. B.; Williamson, S. N.; Yang, D. Q.

    2015-05-01

    There is growing evidence that the rate of warming is amplified with elevation, such that high-mountain environments experience more rapid changes in temperature than environments at lower elevations. Elevation-dependent warming (EDW) can accelerate the rate of change in mountain ecosystems, cryospheric systems, hydrological regimes and biodiversity. Here we review important mechanisms that contribute towards EDW: snow albedo and surface-based feedbacks; water vapour changes and latent heat release; surface water vapour and radiative flux changes; surface heat loss and temperature change; and aerosols. All lead to enhanced warming with elevation (or at a critical elevation), and it is believed that combinations of these mechanisms may account for contrasting regional patterns of EDW. We discuss future needs to increase knowledge of mountain temperature trends and their controlling mechanisms through improved observations, satellite-based remote sensing and model simulations.

  4. Task 5 -- Tectonic and neotectonic framework of the Yucca Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Progress on the tectonics of the Yucca Mountain region is described. Results are reported in the following: regional overview of structure and geometry of Meozoic thrust faults and folds in the area around Yucca Mountain; Evaluation of pre-middle Miocecne structure of Grapevine Mountains and it`s relation to Bare Mountain; Kinematic analysis of low and high angle normal faults in the Bare Mountain area, and comparison of structures with the Grapevine Mountains; and Evaluation of paleomagnetic character of tertiary and pre-tertiary units in the Yucca Mountain region.

  5. Climate change velocity underestimates climate change exposure in mountainous regions

    PubMed Central

    Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Parks, Sean A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change velocity is a vector depiction of the rate of climate displacement used for assessing climate change impacts. Interpreting velocity requires an assumption that climate trajectory length is proportional to climate change exposure; longer paths suggest greater exposure. However, distance is an imperfect measure of exposure because it does not quantify the extent to which trajectories traverse areas of dissimilar climate. Here we calculate velocity and minimum cumulative exposure (MCE) in degrees Celsius along climate trajectories for North America. We find that velocity is weakly related to MCE; each metric identifies contrasting areas of vulnerability to climate change. Notably, velocity underestimates exposure in mountainous regions where climate trajectories traverse dissimilar climates, resulting in high MCE. In contrast, in flat regions velocity is high where MCE is low, as these areas have negligible climatic resistance to movement. Our results suggest that mountainous regions are more climatically isolated than previously reported. PMID:27476545

  6. Climate change velocity underestimates climate change exposure in mountainous regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Parks, Sean A.

    2016-08-01

    Climate change velocity is a vector depiction of the rate of climate displacement used for assessing climate change impacts. Interpreting velocity requires an assumption that climate trajectory length is proportional to climate change exposure; longer paths suggest greater exposure. However, distance is an imperfect measure of exposure because it does not quantify the extent to which trajectories traverse areas of dissimilar climate. Here we calculate velocity and minimum cumulative exposure (MCE) in degrees Celsius along climate trajectories for North America. We find that velocity is weakly related to MCE; each metric identifies contrasting areas of vulnerability to climate change. Notably, velocity underestimates exposure in mountainous regions where climate trajectories traverse dissimilar climates, resulting in high MCE. In contrast, in flat regions velocity is high where MCE is low, as these areas have negligible climatic resistance to movement. Our results suggest that mountainous regions are more climatically isolated than previously reported.

  7. Climate change velocity underestimates climate change exposure in mountainous regions.

    PubMed

    Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Parks, Sean A

    2016-01-01

    Climate change velocity is a vector depiction of the rate of climate displacement used for assessing climate change impacts. Interpreting velocity requires an assumption that climate trajectory length is proportional to climate change exposure; longer paths suggest greater exposure. However, distance is an imperfect measure of exposure because it does not quantify the extent to which trajectories traverse areas of dissimilar climate. Here we calculate velocity and minimum cumulative exposure (MCE) in degrees Celsius along climate trajectories for North America. We find that velocity is weakly related to MCE; each metric identifies contrasting areas of vulnerability to climate change. Notably, velocity underestimates exposure in mountainous regions where climate trajectories traverse dissimilar climates, resulting in high MCE. In contrast, in flat regions velocity is high where MCE is low, as these areas have negligible climatic resistance to movement. Our results suggest that mountainous regions are more climatically isolated than previously reported. PMID:27476545

  8. Wolf restoration to the Adirondacks: the advantages and disadvantages of public participation in the decision

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2000-01-01

    The first time I ever saw a wolf in New York State's Adirondack Mountains was in 1956. It was a brush wolf, or coyote (Canis latrans), not a real wolf, but to an eager young wildlife student this distinction meant little. The presence of this large deer-killing canid let my fresh imagination view the Adirondacks as a real northern wilderness. Since then I have spent the last 40 years studying the real wolf: the gray wolf (Canis lupus). Although inhabiting nearby Quebec and Ontario, the gray wolf still has not made its way back to the Adirondacks as it has to Wisconsin, Michigan, and Montana. Those three states had the critical advantages of a nearby reservoir population of wolves and wilderness corridors through which dispersers from the reservoirs could immigrate. The Adirondacks, on the other hand, are geographically more similar to the greater Yellowstone area in that they are separated from any wolf reservoir by long distances and intensively human-developed areas aversive to wolves from the reservoir populations. If wolves are to return to the Adirondacks, they almost certainly will have to be reintroduced, as they were to Yellowstone National Park. Wolf reintroduction, as distinct from natural recovery, is an especially contentious issue, for it entails dramatic, deliberate action that must be open to public scrutiny, thorough discussion and review, and highly polarized debate. This is as it should be because once a wolf population is reintroduced to an area, it must be managed forever. There is no turning back. The wolf was once eradicated not just from the Adirondacks but from almost all of the 48 contiguous states. That feat was accomplished by a primarily pioneering society that applied itself endlessly to the task, armed with poison. We can never return to those days, so once the wolf is reintroduced successfully, it will almost certainly be here to stay.

  9. Regional Observation of Seismic Activity in Baekdu Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Geunyoung; Che, Il-Young; Shin, Jin-Soo; Chi, Heon-Cheol

    2015-04-01

    Seismic unrest in Baekdu Mountain area between North Korea and Northeast China region has called attention to geological research community in Northeast Asia due to her historical and cultural importance. Seismic bulletin shows level of seismic activity in the area is higher than that of Jilin Province of Northeast China. Local volcanic observation shows a symptom of magmatic unrest in period between 2002 and 2006. Regional seismic data have been used to analyze seismic activity of the area. The seismic activity could be differentiated from other seismic phenomena in the region by the analysis.

  10. Agroclimatic study of mountainous regions and its progress in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yangcai

    1992-02-01

    In recent years, the agroclimatic investigations have been made at various temporal and spatial scales in moun-tainous and hilly regions, and so have the adaptability tests on the crop ecoclimate. A large quantity of reliable and representative data are obtained. Through the synthetic studies on “ belt” , “ layer” , “ topography” and “ecological-type” in mountainy and hilly regions, climate with agriculture ard zonality with non-zonality are closely combined to show the similarities and differences of agroclimatic resources at various layers and with different topography types in mountainy and hilly regions. A general review is given in this paper.

  11. 40 CFR 81.147 - Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.147 Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  12. 40 CFR 81.153 - Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Western Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.153 Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  13. 40 CFR 81.147 - Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.147 Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  14. 40 CFR 81.147 - Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.147 Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  15. 40 CFR 81.147 - Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.147 Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  16. 40 CFR 81.153 - Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Western Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.153 Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  17. 40 CFR 81.153 - Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Western Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.153 Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  18. 40 CFR 81.153 - Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Western Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.153 Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  19. 40 CFR 81.153 - Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Western Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.153 Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  20. 40 CFR 81.147 - Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.147 Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  1. Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

  2. Decline of red spruce in the Adirondacks, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.T.; Siccama, T.G.; Johnson, A.H.; Breisch, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-two stands in the spruce-fir forests of Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks, originally sampled from 1964-66, were resurveyed in 1982. From 10-25 Bitterlich points were used in each stand in 1982 to obtain an estimate of basal area per hectare. Data were summarized for low elevation (<900m) and high elevation (> or = 900m) forests. Red spruce declined by 40-60% in basal area for the low elevation forests and by 60-70% above 900m. Balsam fir decreased by 35% at high elevations, due to natural disturbance in several of the stands, but was unchanged when only undisturbed stands were considered. The decline of red spruce accounted for about three quarters of the total decrease in basal area for both the high- and low-elevation forests. Spruce seedling frequency for the high-elevation sample decreased by 80%, but was unchanged below 900m. The pattern of spruce decline in the Adirondacks is similar to findings for New England. The cause of the decline is speculative at the time.

  3. Tectonic and neotectonic framwork of the Yucca Mountain region, Task 5

    SciTech Connect

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1993-09-30

    Research continued on the tectonic and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain region. Highlights from projects include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Funeral Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; development of structural models for pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; Paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain; sampling of pegmatites in Bullfrog Hills and Funeral Mountains for U-Pb isotopic analysis; and review and analysis of Mesozoic structure between eastern sierra and Nevada test Site.

  4. 40 CFR 81.241 - Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Southwestern Mountains-Augustine... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.241 Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate...

  5. 40 CFR 81.241 - Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Southwestern Mountains-Augustine... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.241 Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate...

  6. 40 CFR 81.241 - Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Southwestern Mountains-Augustine... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.241 Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate...

  7. Aeromagnetic map of Yucca Mountain and surrounding regions, southwest Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Martin Francis; Bracken, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic anomalies over Yucca Mountain and surrounding areas are largely caused by variations in magnetic properties and shapes, including structural offsets, of the extensive volcanic units that underlie the region. In a few places the anomalies are caused by intrusions. Correlation between magnetic properties measured from rock samples and those derived from rock unit-magnetic anomaly associations is excellent. Anomaly characteristics, extensive magnetic gradients, and marked changes in the regional magnetic field can be coupled with the magnetic properties of the rock units to delineate structural boundaries. Three major boundaries are indicated by contrasts in regional magnetic expressions. Less extensive but more clearly indicated boundaries in the immediate vicinity of Yucca Mountain are interpreted from a distinctive pairing of northerly-trending linear positive and negative anomalies which are caused by vertical displacement in generally gently dipping volcanic beds. The displacement between beds is located approximately along the border line between the linear anomaly pairs. One series of pairs of more northeasterly trend lies over the general location of a change from moderately thick to very thick volcanic units that was interpreted from gravity data. Several low amplitude but distinctively shaped anomalies in areas underlain primarily by sedimentary strata indicate the presence of intrusions and faults.

  8. Modeling and mapping of atmospheric mercury deposition in adirondack park, new york.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xue; Driscoll, Charles T; Huang, Jiaoyan; Holsen, Thomas M; Blackwell, Bradley D

    2013-01-01

    The Adirondacks of New York State, USA is a region that is sensitive to atmospheric mercury (Hg) deposition. In this study, we estimated atmospheric Hg deposition to the Adirondacks using a new scheme that combined numerical modeling and limited experimental data. The majority of the land cover in the Adirondacks is forested with 47% of the total area deciduous, 20% coniferous and 10% mixed. We used litterfall plus throughfall deposition as the total atmospheric Hg deposition to coniferous and deciduous forests during the leaf-on period, and wet Hg deposition plus modeled atmospheric dry Hg deposition as the total Hg deposition to the deciduous forest during the leaf-off period and for the non-forested areas year-around. To estimate atmospheric dry Hg deposition we used the Big Leaf model. The average atmospheric Hg deposition to the Adirondacks was estimated as 17.4 [Formula: see text]g m[Formula: see text] yr[Formula: see text] with a range of -3.7-46.0 [Formula: see text]g m[Formula: see text] yr[Formula: see text]. Atmospheric Hg dry deposition (370 kg yr[Formula: see text]) was found to be more important than wet deposition (210 kg yr[Formula: see text]) to the entire Adirondacks (2.4 million ha). The spatial pattern showed a large variation in atmospheric Hg deposition with scattered areas in the eastern Adirondacks having total Hg deposition greater than 30 μg m(-2) yr(-1), while the southwestern and the northern areas received Hg deposition ranging from 25-30 μg m(-2) yr(-1). PMID:23536871

  9. Regional metamorphism in the Condrey Mountain Quadrangle, north-central Klamath Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotz, Preston Enslow

    1979-01-01

    Fork in this region is composed of siliceous phyllite and phyllitic quartzite and is believed to be the metamorphosed equivalent of rocks over which it is thrust. In the Yreka-Fort Jones area, potassium-argon determinations on mica from the blueschist facies in the Stuart Fork gave ages of approximately 220 m.y. (Late Triassic) for the age of metamorphism. Rocks of the amphibolite facies structurally overlie the Condrey Mountain Schist along a moderate to steeply dipping thrust fault. The amphibolite terrane is composed of amphibolite and metasedimentary rocks in approximately equal amounts accompanied by many bodies of serpentinite and a number of gabbro and dioritic plutons. Most of the amphibolite is foliated, but some is nonfoliated; the nonfoliated amphibolite has an amphibolite mineralogy and commonly a relict volcanic rock texture. The nonfoliated amphibolite occurs on the southern and eastern borders of the amphibolite terrane between the areas offoliated amphibolite and the overly ing metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Hornblende and plagioclase (An30-35) are the characteristic minerals, indicating that the rocks are of the almandine-amphibolite metamorphic facies. The metasedimentary rocks interbedded with the amphibolites include siliceous schist and phyllite, minor quartzite, and subordinate amounts of marble. Potassium-argon age dates obtained on hornblende from foliated amphibolite yield ages of 146?4 and 148? 4 m.y., suggesting a Late Jurassic metamorphic episode. Mafic and ultramafic rocks are widespread in the amphibolite terrane but are almost entirely absent from the area of greenschist facies metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. The ultramafic rocks, predominantly serpentinite, occur as a few large bodies and many small tabular concordant bodies interleaved with the foliated rocks. The ultramafic rocks include harzburgite and d1lIlite and their serpentinized equivalents. In the Condrey Mountain quadrangle, probably more t

  10. EPISODIC ACIDIFICATION OF ADIRONDACK LAKES DURING SNOWMELT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maximum values of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in Adirondack, New York lake outlets generally occur during summer and autumn. During spring snowmelt, transport of acidic water through acid-sensitive watersheds causes depression of upper lake water ANC. n some systems lake out...

  11. Learning Resources at Adirondack Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Connie

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Scoville Learning Center at Adirondack Community College (Queensbury, New York). Discusses the layout and functions of the building's three floors and learning-resources services, including staff, library instruction seminars, the online catalog, outreach, equipment, computer labs, and future plans. (AEF)

  12. The St. Lawrence University Adirondack Semester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Baylor; Alexander, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This article features St. Lawrence University's Adirondack Semester, a small program, with enrollment limited to twelve students. The participants of the program are composed of a small group of students with shared interests and serious purpose, living harmoniously and mostly free from the temptations and distractions of the larger world,…

  13. Implications for Ecosystem Services of Watershed Processes that affect the Transport and Transformations of Mercury in an Adirondack Stream Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, D. A.; Riva-Murray, K.; Bradley, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a potent neurotoxin that can affect the health of humans and wildlife through the ingestion of methyl Hg. Mercury contamination of ecosystems originates from human activities such as mining, coal burning and other industrial emissions, and the use of Hg-containing products. Natural sources such as volcanic and geothermal emissions and the weathering of Hg-bearing minerals also contribute to Hg contamination, but are believed to be minor sources in most ecosystems. Various ecosystem disturbances including fires, forest harvesting, and the submergence of land by impoundment may also contribute to Hg ecosystem contamination by mobilizing stores that have previously originated from the sources described above. Mercury from a mix of regional and global emissions sources is transported in the atmosphere to remote landscapes that are distant from local emissions sources. The Adirondacks of New York State is a forested, mountainous region characterized by abundant lakes and streams, and is distant from local emissions sources. Recreational fishing, wildlife viewing, hiking, and hunting are valued ecosystem services in this region. Here, we report on the relevance to ecosystem services of findings based on five years of Hg data collection of stream water, groundwater, invertebrates, and fish in the upper Hudson River basin in the central part of the Adirondack region. The New York State Dept. of Health has issued fish consumption advisories for the entire Adirondacks based on elevated levels previously measured in lakes and rivers of this region. Our work seeks improved understanding and models of the landscape sources and watershed processes that control the transformation of Hg to its methyl form (MeHg), the transport of MeHg to streams, and bioaccumulation of MeHg in aquatic food webs. Mean annual atmospheric Hg deposition was 6.3 μg/m2/yr during 2007-09, compared to mean annual filtered total Hg stream yields of 1.66 μg/m2/yr and filtered MeHg stream

  14. Causal Chains Arising from Climate Change in Mountain Regions: the Core Program of the Mountain Research Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Mountains are a widespread terrestrial feature, covering from 12 to 24 percent of the world's terrestrial surface, depending of the definition. Topographic relief is central to the definition of mountains, to the benefits and costs accruing to society and to the cascade of changes expected from climate change. Mountains capture and store water, particularly important in arid regions and in all areas for energy production. In temperate and boreal regions, mountains have a great range in population densities, from empty to urban, while tropical mountains are often densely settled and farmed. Mountain regions contain a wide range of habitats, important for biodiversity, and for primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. Climate change interacts with this relief and consequent diversity. Elevation itself may accentuate warming (elevationi dependent warming) in some mountain regions. Even average warming starts complex chains of causality that reverberate through the diverse social ecological mountain systems affecting both the highlands and adjacent lowlands. A single feature of climate change such as higher snow lines affect the climate through albedo, the water cycle through changes in timing of release , water quality through the weathering of newly exposed material, geomorphology through enhanced erosion, plant communities through changes in climatic water balance, and animal and human communities through changes in habitat conditions and resource availabilities. Understanding these causal changes presents a particular interdisciplinary challenge to researchers, from assessing the existence and magnitude of elevation dependent warming and monitoring the full suite of changes within the social ecological system to climate change, to understanding how social ecological systems respond through individual and institutional behavior with repercussions on the long-term sustainability of these systems.

  15. Exploratory Study of an Active Landslide in the Adirondacks Using Applied Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, K. W.; Sherrod, L. A.; Kozlowski, A.; Bird, B.; Swiontek, J.

    2011-12-01

    Residents of Keene Valley, NY face a serious natural hazard in the form of a landslide on Porter Mountain in the High-Peaks region of the Adirondack Mountains. The slide initiated in early May 2011 as a result of the melting of heavy snowpack and the onset of abnormally excessive April rain on the mountain slopes. Spanning 82 acres, this is the largest documented landslide in New York state history. Although it is advancing slowly, with downslope soil movement rates between 15 and 60 cm per day, the slide has proven to be destructive. At the time of this study, shifting soils had caused one house to be condemned due to the unstable ground under the foundation. At the same time, three other houses were in immediate danger. The destructive nature of this landslide speaks to the importance of understanding the distribution and character of glacial sediments deposited on the steep slopes during deglaciation of the region, and the interaction of a complex groundwater system. In order to understand the framework and mechanisms of the current landslide and to aid in predicting the potential for other slides in the area, geophysical methods were employed. Geophysical surveys and corresponding subsurface imaging were used to examine the amount of sediment present and the stratigraphy of the shallow subsurface. The bedrock in this area is believed to be anorthosite which underlies a surficial lithology of glacial sediments. Depth to the bedrock was measured at 76 m in a borehole at the base of the slide. However, in a well near the top of the slide, depth to bedrock was measured at 6 m, with some exposures of bedrock visible at the surface. To delineate three-dimensional trends of the bedrock in the subsurface, several of the geophysical surveys followed the surface exposures of bedrock to a depth where these features were no longer detectable. Nineteen resistivity surveys were implemented to map the subsurface glacial features and depth to bedrock using a MPT DAS-1

  16. Regional prioritisation of flood risk in mountainous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelis, M. C.; Werner, M.; Obregón, N.; Wright, G.

    2015-07-01

    A regional analysis of flood risk was carried out in the mountainous area surrounding the city of Bogotá (Colombia). Vulnerability at regional level was assessed on the basis of a principal component analysis carried out with variables recognised in literature to contribute to vulnerability; using watersheds as the unit of analysis. The area exposed was obtained from a simplified flood analysis at regional level to provide a mask where vulnerability variables were extracted. The vulnerability indicator obtained from the principal component analysis was combined with an existing susceptibility indicator, thus providing an index that allows the watersheds to be prioritised in support of flood risk management at regional level. Results show that the components of vulnerability can be expressed in terms of four constituent indicators; socio-economic fragility, which is composed of demography and lack of well-being; lack of resilience, which is composed of education, preparedness and response capacity, rescue capacity, social cohesion and participation; and physical exposure is composed of exposed infrastructure and exposed population. A sensitivity analysis shows that the classification of vulnerability is robust for watersheds with low and high values of the vulnerability indicator, while some watersheds with intermediate values of the indicator are sensitive to shifting between medium and high vulnerability. The complex interaction between vulnerability and hazard is evidenced in the case study. Environmental degradation in vulnerable watersheds shows the influence that vulnerability exerts on hazard and vice versa, thus establishing a cycle that builds up risk conditions.

  17. Southern Appalachian Mountains initiative: Regional partnership for air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, P.F.

    1999-07-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) is a voluntary partnership of state and federal agencies, industry, environmental groups, academia, and interested public. SAMI was established to identify and recommend air emissions management strategies to remedy existing and prevent future adverse air quality impacts to natural resources in Southern Appalachia, with particular focus on Class I national park and wilderness areas. SAMI's integrated assessment is focusing simultaneously on ozone, visibility impairment, and acid deposition. Computer models are linking emissions, atmospheric transport, exposures, and environmental and socioeconomic effects. The assessment is considering the impacts of existing and newly enacted federal air regulatory requirements and alternative emissions management strategies that SAMI might recommend for regional, state, or community-based actions.

  18. Diatom diversity in chronically versus episodically acidified adirondack streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passy, S.I.; Ciugulea, I.; Lawrence, G.B.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between algal species richness and diversity, and pH is controversial. Furthermore, it is still unknown how episodic stream acidification following atmospheric deposition affects species richness and diversity. Here we analyzed water chemistry and diatom epiphyton dynamics and showed their contrasting behavior in chronically vs. episodically acidic streams in the Adirondack region. Species richness and diversity were significantly higher in the chronically acidic brown water stream, where organic acidity was significantly higher and the ratio of inorganic to organic monomeric aluminum significantly lower. Conversely, in the episodically acidic clear water stream, the inorganic acidity and pH were significantly higher and the diatom communities were very species-poor. This suggests that episodic acidification in the Adirondacks may be more stressful for stream biota than chronic acidity. Strong negative linear relationships between species diversity, Eunotia exigua, and dissolved organic carbon against pH were revealed after the influence of non-linear temporal trends was partialled out using a novel way of temporal modeling. ?? 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  19. Regional crustal thickness and precipitation in young mountain chains

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, W. G.

    2004-01-01

    Crustal thickness is related to climate through precipitation-induced erosion. Along the Andes, the highest mountains and thickest crust (≈70 km) occur at 25° south, a region of low precipitation. Westerly winds warm passing over the Atacama Desert; precipitation is modest in the High Andes and eastward over the Altiplano. Severe aridity, hence low erosion rates, helps to account for the elevated volcanogenic contractional arc and high, internally draining plateau in its rain shadow. Weak erosion along the north-central arc provides scant amounts of sediment to the Chile–Peru Trench, starving the subduction channel. Subcrustal removal might be expected to reduce the crustal thickness, but is not a factor at 25° south. The thickness of the gravitationally compensated continental crust cannot reflect underplating and/or partial fusion of sediments, but must be caused chiefly by volcanism-plutonism and contraction. Contrasting climate typifies the terrane at 45° south where moisture-laden westerly winds encounter a cool margin, bringing abundant precipitation. The alpine landscape is of lower average elevation compared with the north-central Andes and is supported by thinner continental crust (≈35 km). Intense erosion supplies voluminous clastic debris to the offshore trench, and vast quantities are subducted. However, the southern Andean crust is only about half as thick as that at 25° south, suggesting that erosion, not subcrustal sediment accretion or anatexis, is partly responsible for the thickness of the mountain belt. The Himalayas plus Tibetan Plateau, the Sierra Nevada plus Colorado Plateau, and the Japanese Islands exhibit analogous relationships between crustal thickness and climate. PMID:15471988

  20. Regional crustal thickness and precipitation in young mountain chains.

    PubMed

    Ernst, W G

    2004-10-19

    Crustal thickness is related to climate through precipitation-induced erosion. Along the Andes, the highest mountains and thickest crust (approximately 70 km) occur at 25 degrees south, a region of low precipitation. Westerly winds warm passing over the Atacama Desert; precipitation is modest in the High Andes and eastward over the Altiplano. Severe aridity, hence low erosion rates, helps to account for the elevated volcanogenic contractional arc and high, internally draining plateau in its rain shadow. Weak erosion along the north-central arc provides scant amounts of sediment to the Chile-Peru Trench, starving the subduction channel. Subcrustal removal might be expected to reduce the crustal thickness, but is not a factor at 25 degrees south. The thickness of the gravitationally compensated continental crust cannot reflect underplating and/or partial fusion of sediments, but must be caused chiefly by volcanism-plutonism and contraction. Contrasting climate typifies the terrain at 45 degrees south where moisture-laden westerly winds encounter a cool margin, bringing abundant precipitation. The alpine landscape is of lower average elevation compared with the north-central Andes and is supported by thinner continental crust (approximately 35 km). Intense erosion supplies voluminous clastic debris to the offshore trench, and vast quantities are subducted. However, the southern Andean crust is only about half as thick as that at 25 degrees south, suggesting that erosion, not subcrustal sediment accretion or anatexis, is partly responsible for the thickness of the mountain belt. The Himalayas plus Tibetan Plateau, the Sierra Nevada plus Colorado Plateau, and the Japanese Islands exhibit analogous relationships between crustal thickness and climate. PMID:15471988

  1. Fish population losses from Adirondack lakes: The role of surface water acidity and acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.P. ); Warren-Hicks, W.J. ); Gallagher, J. ); Christensen, S.W. )

    1993-04-01

    Within the United States, the Adirondack region of New York State has the largest percentage of waters that are acidic and classified as deposition dominated. Thus, the Adirondacks have been the focus of much of the debate regarding the extent and magnitude of effects to date from acidic deposition. Completion of the Adirondack Lakes Survey in 1987, a survey of 1,469 lakes, in combination with the relatively extensive historical record on fish communities in the region, provided the opportunity for a thorough evaluation of changes in Adirondack fish communities over the last 50-60 years, and the degree to which these changes may have resulted from changes in surface water acid-base chemistry. Results indicate that 16-19% of the lakes with adequate historical data appeared to have lost one or more fish populations as a result of acidification. Brook trout and acid-sensitive minnows had experienced the most widespread effects, with losses in 11-19% of the lakes. Fish species occurring in lower elevation and larger lakes such as bass and brown trout, experienced little or no effects. Lakes judged to have lost fish populations to acidification had significantly lower pH and higher concentrations of inorganic aluminum and occurred at higher elevations than other lakes. No other lake characteristics showed consistent associations with fish population losses. Acidification is not the only factor, nor even the dominant factor affecting Adirondack fish communities, however. Other causes of fish loses include lake reclamation, changes in stocking policy, and the introduction (or invasion) of competitors or predators.

  2. Regional prioritisation of flood risk in mountainous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelis, María Carolina; Werner, Micha; Obregón, Nelson; Wright, Nigel

    2016-03-01

    In this paper a method is proposed to identify mountainous watersheds with the highest flood risk at the regional level. Through this, the watersheds to be subjected to more detailed risk studies can be prioritised in order to establish appropriate flood risk management strategies. The prioritisation is carried out through an index composed of a qualitative indicator of vulnerability and a qualitative flash flood/debris flow susceptibility indicator. At the regional level, vulnerability was assessed on the basis of a principal component analysis carried out with variables recognised in literature to contribute to vulnerability, using watersheds as the unit of analysis. The area exposed was obtained from a simplified flood extent analysis at the regional level, which provided a mask where vulnerability variables were extracted. The vulnerability indicator obtained from the principal component analysis was combined with an existing susceptibility indicator, thus providing an index that allows the watersheds to be prioritised in support of flood risk management at regional level. Results show that the components of vulnerability can be expressed in terms of three constituent indicators: (i) socio-economic fragility, which is composed of demography and lack of well-being; (ii) lack of resilience and coping capacity, which is composed of lack of education, lack of preparedness and response capacity, lack of rescue capacity, cohesiveness of the community; and (iii) physical exposure, which is composed of exposed infrastructure and exposed population. A sensitivity analysis shows that the classification of vulnerability is robust for watersheds with low and high values of the vulnerability indicator, while some watersheds with intermediate values of the indicator are sensitive to shifting between medium and high vulnerability.

  3. Episodic acidification of Adirondack lakes during snowmelt

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, D.A.; Driscoll, C.T.; Van Dreason, R.; Yatsko, C.P.

    1990-07-01

    Maximum values of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in Adirondack, New York lake outlets generally occur during summer and autumn. During spring snowmelt, transport of acidic water through acid-sensitive watersheds causes depression of upper lake water ANC. In some systems lake outlet ANC reaches negative values. The authors examined outlet water chemistry from II Adirondack lakes during 1986 and 1987 snowmelts. In these lakes, SO concentrations were diluted during snowmelt and did not depress ANC. For lakes with high baseline ANC values, springtime ANC depressions were primarily accompanied by basic cation dilution. For lakes with low baseline ANC, No increases dominated ANC depressions. Lakes with intermediate baseline ANC were affected by both processes and exhibited larger ANC depressions. Ammonium dilution only affected wetland systems. A model predicting a linear relationship between outlet water ANC minima and autumn ANC was inappropriate. To assess watershed response to episodic acidification, hydrologic flow paths must be considered. (Copyright (c) 1990 by the American Geophysical Union.)

  4. Adirondack Post-Drill (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool to drill into the rock. Debris from the use of the tool is visible to the left of the hole.

  5. Fluid-absent metamorphism in the Adirondacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, J. W.

    Results on late Proterozoic metamorphism of granulite in the Adirondacks are presented. There more than 20,000 sq km of rock are at granulite facies. Low water fugacites are implied by orthopyroxene bearing assemblages and by stability of k'spar-plag-quartz assemblages. After mentioning the popular concept of infiltration of carbon dioxide into Precambrian rocks and attendent generation of granulite facies assemblages, several features of Adirondack rocks pertinent to carbon dioxide and water during their metamorphism are summarized: wollastonite occurs in the western lowlands; contact metamorphism by anorthosite preceeding granulite metamorphism is indicated by oxygen isotopes. Oxygen fugacity lies below that of the QFM buffer; total P sub water + P sub carbon dioxide determined from monticellite bearing assemblages are much less than P sub total (7 to 7.6 kb). These and other features indicate close spatial association of high- and low-P sub carbon dioxide assemblages and that a vapor phase was not present during metamorphism. Thus Adirondack rocks were not infiltrated by carbon dioxide vapor. Their metamorphism, at 625 to 775 C, occurred either when the protoliths were relatively dry or after dessication occurred by removal of a partial melt phase.

  6. Fluid-absent metamorphism in the Adirondacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valley, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Results on late Proterozoic metamorphism of granulite in the Adirondacks are presented. There more than 20,000 sq km of rock are at granulite facies. Low water fugacites are implied by orthopyroxene bearing assemblages and by stability of k'spar-plag-quartz assemblages. After mentioning the popular concept of infiltration of carbon dioxide into Precambrian rocks and attendent generation of granulite facies assemblages, several features of Adirondack rocks pertinent to carbon dioxide and water during their metamorphism are summarized: wollastonite occurs in the western lowlands; contact metamorphism by anorthosite preceeding granulite metamorphism is indicated by oxygen isotopes. Oxygen fugacity lies below that of the QFM buffer; total P sub water + P sub carbon dioxide determined from monticellite bearing assemblages are much less than P sub total (7 to 7.6 kb). These and other features indicate close spatial association of high- and low-P sub carbon dioxide assemblages and that a vapor phase was not present during metamorphism. Thus Adirondack rocks were not infiltrated by carbon dioxide vapor. Their metamorphism, at 625 to 775 C, occurred either when the protoliths were relatively dry or after dessication occurred by removal of a partial melt phase.

  7. Late Paleozoic paleotectonics of the northern Rocky Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The present-day configuration of northern Rocky Mountain foreland uplifts and basins evolved mainly by middle to late Tertiary time. Many of these structures, however, were inherited from Paleozoic and early Mesozoic tectonic episodes and thus have a long history of influence on sediment source terranes, clastic and carbonate facies distributions, thickness relationships, and diagenetic processes. New structural growth, and renewed older growth, were particularly important during late Paleozoic time, approximately coincident in time with growth of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains. Some features tend to trend with, or are sub-parallel to elements of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, including the Laramie-Casper Big Horn high, the Powder River, Bighorn, and Wind River sags, and the Alliance-Denver basin. Late Paleozoic growth of these features, and perhaps others, undoubtedly was affected by stresses associated with the Ancestral Rocky Mountains episode. Interpretations, however, depend on careful stratigraphic and sedimentary facies analyses.

  8. 3. Photocopied June 1978 'ADIRONDACK VILLAGE.' ENGRAVING MADE IN 1859, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopied June 1978 'ADIRONDACK VILLAGE.' ENGRAVING MADE IN 1859, LOOKING DOWN MAIN STREET. SOURCE: BENSON LOSSING, THE HUDSON, FROM THE WILDERNESS TO THE SEA, TROY, NEW YORK, 1866, p. 27. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

  9. Agreement Between the Faculty Association of Adirondack Community College and the Board of Trustees of Adirondack Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adirondack Community Coll., Glen Falls, NY.

    This agreement between the Board of Trustees of Adirondack Community College and the faculty association of Adirondack Community Colleges covers the period from September 1, 1972 until August 31, 1974. Articles in the agreement cover recognition, dues deduction, negotiation procedure, academic freedom, professional meetings, initial employment,…

  10. Gaseous mercury fluxes from the forest floor of the Adirondacks.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Deok; Holsen, Thomas M

    2009-02-01

    The flux of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) from the forest floor of the Adirondack Mountains in New York (USA) was measured numerous times throughout 2005 and 2006 using a polycarbonate dynamic flux chamber (DFC). The Hg flux ranged between -2.5 and 27.2 ng m(-2) h(-1) and was positively correlated with temperature and solar radiation. The measured Hg emission flux was highest in spring, and summer, and lowest in winter. During leaf-off periods, the Hg emission flux was highly dependent on solar radiation and less dependent on temperature. During leaf-on periods, the Hg emission flux was fairly constant because the forest canopy was shading the forest floor. Two empirical models were developed to estimate yearly Hg(0) emissions, one for the leaf-off period and one for the leaf-on period. Using the U.S. EPA's CASTNET meteorological data, the cumulative estimated emission flux was approx. 7.0 microg Hg(0) m(-2) year(-1). PMID:18922608

  11. Geology of the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington: Petrology and tectonic evolution of pre-tertiary rocks of the Blue Mountains region. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Vallier, T.L.; Brooks, H.C.

    1995-12-31

    U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1438 is one volume of a five-volume series on the geology, paleontology, and mineral resources of the Blue Mountains region eastern Oregon, western Idaho, and southeastern Washington. This professional paper deals specifically with petrology and tectonic evolution.

  12. Sludge management regulations and their applicability in mountainous regions.

    PubMed

    Wett, B; Becker, W; Ingerle, K

    2002-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) is just working out a new directive in order to regulate the agricultural reuse of sewage sludge. This new regulation will also effect a "special case"--sludge usage in a mountainous environment--which will be discussed in this paper. Three reuse sites at small wastewater treatment plants of mountain refuges at altitudes more than 2,000 m a.s.l. are investigated. Applied sludge, soil and drainage flow from lysimeters are analysed. Concerning heavy metal concentrations domestic sewage sludge from these sites differs significantly from municipal sludge. A comparison with background concentrations reveals that no relevant accumulative pollution of the soil is possible. An increase of coliform bacteria of maximum two orders of magnitude is preserved during the long winter period and indicates a limited hygienic risk. PMID:12479485

  13. A computer simulation model to compute the radiation transfer of mountainous regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuguang; Zhao, Feng; Song, Rui

    2011-11-01

    In mountainous regions, the radiometric signal recorded at the sensor depends on a number of factors such as sun angle, atmospheric conditions, surface cover type, and topography. In this paper, a computer simulation model of radiation transfer is designed and evaluated. This model implements the Monte Carlo ray-tracing techniques and is specifically dedicated to the study of light propagation in mountainous regions. The radiative processes between sun light and the objects within the mountainous region are realized by using forward Monte Carlo ray-tracing methods. The performance of the model is evaluated through detailed comparisons with the well-established 3D computer simulation model: RGM (Radiosity-Graphics combined Model) based on the same scenes and identical spectral parameters, which shows good agreements between these two models' results. By using the newly developed computer model, series of typical mountainous scenes are generated to analyze the physical mechanism of mountainous radiation transfer. The results show that the effects of the adjacent slopes are important for deep valleys and they particularly affect shadowed pixels, and the topographic effect needs to be considered in mountainous terrain before accurate inferences from remotely sensed data can be made.

  14. Changes in vegetation cover and composition in the Swedish mountain region.

    PubMed

    Hedenås, Henrik; Christensen, Pernilla; Svensson, Johan

    2016-08-01

    Climate change, higher levels of natural resource demands, and changing land use will likely lead to changes in vegetation configuration in the mountain regions. The aim of this study was to determine if the vegetation cover and composition have changed in the Swedish region of the Scandinavian Mountain Range, based on data from the long-term landscape biodiversity monitoring program NILS (National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden). Habitat type and vegetation cover were assessed in 1740 systematically distributed permanent field plots grouped into 145 sample units across the mountain range. Horvitz-Thompson estimations were used to estimate the present areal extension of the alpine and the mountain birch forest areas of the mountain range, the cover of trees, shrubs, and plants, and the composition of the bottom layer vegetation. We employed the data from two subsequent 5-year monitoring periods, 2003-2007 and 2008-2012, to determine if there have been any changes in these characteristics. We found that the extension of the alpine and the mountain birch forest areas has not changed between the inventory phases. However, the total tree canopy cover increased in the alpine area, the cover of graminoids and dwarf shrubs and the total cover of field vegetation increased in both the alpine area and the mountain birch forest, the bryophytes decreased in the alpine area, and the foliose lichens decreased in the mountain birch forest. The observed changes in vegetation cover and composition, as assessed by systematic data in a national and regional monitoring scheme, can validate the results of local studies, experimental studies, and models. Through benchmark assessments, monitoring data also contributes to governmental policies and land-management strategies as well as to directed cause and effect analyses. PMID:27387190

  15. 36 CFR 261.72 - Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. 261.72 Section 261.72 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2....

  16. 36 CFR 261.72 - Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. 261.72 Section 261.72 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2....

  17. 36 CFR 261.72 - Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. 261.72 Section 261.72 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2....

  18. 36 CFR 261.72 - Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. 261.72 Section 261.72 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2....

  19. 36 CFR 261.72 - Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. 261.72 Section 261.72 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2....

  20. Preorogenic history of the Adirondacks as an elsonian anorogenic caldera complex

    SciTech Connect

    McLelland, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Adirondack Highlands are characterized by the close association of a distinctive trinity of metaigneous rocks: (1) anorthosites, (2) mangeritic and quartz mangeritic gneisses that tend to envelop the anorthosites, and (3) alaskitic and trondjhemitic gneisses many of which represent metamorphosed volcanic material. All rocks within the province exhibit high concentrations of iron (FeO/FeO + MgO approx. 0.8), and both titaniferous and non-titaniferous iron oxide deposits occur. The mangeritic rocks are alkaline to peralkaline while the alaskitic gneisses are meta- to peraluminous. A/CNK, KN/C, as well as oxides vs SiO/sub 2/ plots yield patterns identical to those cited by J. L. Anderson (1983) as diagnostic of Proterozoic anorogenic plutonism. Within North American this plutonism corresponds to the Elsonian magmatic event with most ages falling between 1.5 - 1.3 b.y. This belt is characterized by high-level anorogenic bimodal magmatism developed in caldera complexes with zoned magma chambers and widespread rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs. Examples of this activity are found in the St. Francois Mountains, Missouri; the Wolf River batholith, Wisconsin; and the Nain Province. The Adirondacks lie along this trend and exhibit the same bulk chemistry and chemical variation as the other complexes. In addition they show enrichment in halogens (esp. F), REE, Zr, and other trace elements associated with calderas. Fayalite and ferroaugite are widely developed. These similarities strongly suggest that prior to the Grenville Orogeny, the Adirondacks consisted of bimodal caldera complexes which were part of the Elsonian anorogenic magmatism extending across North America.

  1. Geology of the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, G.W. )

    1990-01-01

    This volume reports on the geology of the Blue Mountains region, consists of six chapters having various individual authorship. This book focuses on the stratigraphy, ages, structure, and chemical characteristics of terrestrial Cenozoic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the region and on the relation of the Cenozoic volcanism to tectonism.

  2. Tectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range mountain front: Evidence from the Atigun Gorge region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, C.G.; Glenn, R.K.; Adams, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Atigun Gorge, at the northern front of the eastern Endicott Mountains, contains well-exposed rocks of the upper part of the Endicott Mountains allochthon and rocks of the structurally higher Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon. These allochthons contain rocks as young as Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) and are separated by a nearly vertical fault zone that contains exotic blocks of Triassic and Jurassic chert and silicified mudstone. Siliceous rocks of this type are not present in the Endicott Mountains allochthon but are characteristic of the Picnic Creek, Ipnavik River, and some of the other allochthons that structurally overlie the Endicott Mountains allochthon in the central and western Brooks Range. These exotic blocks, therefore indicate that structurally higher rocks of either the Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous and are preserved along the northern flank of the eastern Endicott Mountains. The deformed thickness of this higher allochthon in the subsurface north of the mountains is unknown but probably exceeds 2 kilometers. Similar relations are mapped east of Atigun Gorge in an area of structural transition from the eastern Endicott Mountains into the northern Philip Smith Mountains, which are formed by the parautochthonous North Slope stratigraphic assemblage. The allochthonous rocks at the mountain front are regionally unconformably overlain by proximal Lower Cretaceous (Albian) foredeep conglomerate at the southern flank of the Colville basin, but at Atigun Gorge, the base of these deposits is interpreted as a possible back thrust at a triangle zone. Conglomerate clasts in the foredeep deposits are dominantly chert, mafic igneous rock, and other lithologies characteristic of the Picnic Creek and Ipnavik River allochthons and scattered clasts from the Endicott Mountains allochthon. The conglomerates show that the chert-rich allochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains allochthon were emplaced in the

  3. Assessing climate change impacts on water resources in remote mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, Wouter; De Bièvre, Bert

    2013-04-01

    From a water resources perspective, remote mountain regions are often considered as a basket case. They are often regions where poverty is often interlocked with multiple threats to water supply, data scarcity, and high uncertainties. In these environments, it is paramount to generate locally relevant knowledge about water resources and how they impact local livelihoods. This is often problematic. Existing environmental data collection tends to be geographically biased towards more densely populated regions, and prioritized towards strategic economic activities. Data may also be locked behind institutional and technological barriers. These issues create a "knowledge trap" for data-poor regions, which is especially acute in remote and hard-to-reach mountain regions. We present lessons learned from a decade of water resources research in remote mountain regions of the Andes, Africa and South Asia. We review the entire tool chain of assessing climate change impacts on water resources, including the interrogation and downscaling of global circulation models, translating climate variables in water availability and access, and assessing local vulnerability. In global circulation models, mountain regions often stand out as regions of high uncertainties and lack of agreement of future trends. This is partly a technical artifact because of the different resolution and representation of mountain topography, but it also highlights fundamental uncertainties in climate impacts on mountain climate. This problem also affects downscaling efforts, because regional climate models should be run in very high spatial resolution to resolve local gradients, which is computationally very expensive. At the same time statistical downscaling methods may fail to find significant relations between local climate properties and synoptic processes. Further uncertainties are introduced when downscaled climate variables such as precipitation and temperature are to be translated in hydrologically

  4. Geology of the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington; petrology and tectonic evolution of pre-Tertiary rocks of the Blue Mountains region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallier, T. L., (Edited By); Brooks, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    This Professional Paper contains 14 chapters on the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington. The authors discuss petrology and tectonic evolution of an island arc that formed in the ancestral Pacific Ocean during the Permian to Cretaceous interval. The island arc was accreted to cratonal North America in the Early Cretaceous and thereby became one of the several exotic terranes in western North America.

  5. Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region (RMCCS)

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince

    2013-09-30

    The primary objective of the “Characterization of Most Promising Carbon Capture and Sequestration Formations in the Central Rocky Mountain Region” project, or RMCCS project, is to characterize the storage potential of the most promising geologic sequestration formations within the southwestern U.S. and the Central Rocky Mountain region in particular. The approach included an analysis of geologic sequestration formations under the Craig Power Station in northwestern Colorado, and application or extrapolation of those local-scale results to the broader region. A ten-step protocol for geologic carbon storage site characterization was a primary outcome of this project.

  6. MANGANESE BIOGEOCHEMISTRY IN A SMALL ADIRONDACK FORESTED LAKE WATERSHED.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, James B.

    1986-01-01

    In September and October 1981, manganese (Mn) concentrations and pH were intensively monitored in a small forested lake watershed in the west-central Adirondack Mountains, New York, during two large acidic storms (each approximately 5 cm rainfall, pH 4. 61 and 4. 15). The data were evaluated to identify biogeochemical pathways of Mn and to assess how these pathways are altered by acidic atmospheric inputs. Concentrations of Mn averaged 1. 1 mu g/L in precipitation and increased to 107 mu g/L in canopy throughfall, the enrichment reflecting active biological cycling of Mn. Rain pH and throughfall Mn were negatively correlated, suggesting that foliar leaching of Mn was enhanced by rainfall acidity. The pulse-like input of Mn to the forest floor in the high initial concentrations in throughfall (approximately 1000 mu g/L) did not affect Mn concentrations in soil water ( less than 20 mu g/L) or groundwater (usually less than 40 mu g/L), which varied little with time. In the inlet stream, Mn concentrations remained constant at 48 mu g/L as discharge varied from 1. 1 to 96 L/s. Manganese was retained in the vegetative cycle and regulated in the stream by adsorption in the soil organic horizon. The higher Mn levels in the stream may be linked to its high acidity (pH 4. 2-4. 3). Mixing of Mn-rich stream water with neutral lake water (pH 7. 0) caused precipitation of Mn and deposition in lake sediment.

  7. The Grenville Orogenic Cycle (ca. 1350-1000 Ma): an Adirondack perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLelland, James; Daly, J. Stephen; McLelland, Jonathan M.

    1996-11-01

    The Adirondack Mountains are characterized by three major events that took place during the interval ca. 1350-1000 Ma. The earliest of these is the arc-related Elzevirian Orogeny (ca. 1350-1185 Ma) during which substantial volumes of juvenile calc-alkaline crust were added to the Adirondacks as well as to the northwest segment of the Central Metasedimentary Belt. Data from the southwestern United States as well as from Ireland and Baltica indicate that Elzevirian magmatism and orogeny were of global dimensions. Within the southwestern sector of the Grenville Province, the Elzevirian Orogeny culminated at ca. 1185 Ma when accretion of all outboard terranes was completed. Compressional orogeny related to this convergence resulted in overthickened crust and lithosphere which subsequently delaminated giving rise to orogen collapse and AMCG magmatism that swept southeastward from the Frontenac Terrane into the Adirondack Highlands during the interval ca. 1180-1130 Ma. Localized compressional events within neighboring parts of the Grenville Province emphasize the continued existence of contraction during this interval, although crustal extension caused local in sedimentary basins in which were deposited the Flinton and the St. Boniface Groups. The Adirondacks have not yet provided any record of events within the interval ca. 1125-1100 Ma, although there is evidence of contraction elsewhere in the southwestern Grenville Province at that time. At 1100-1090 Ma the northern Adirondack Highlands were invaded by mildly A-type hornblende granites (Hawkeye suite) that are interpreted to be the result of local crustal thinning contemporaneous with rifting and mafic magmatism taking place in the Midcontinent rift. Immediately following, at ca. 1090 Ma, the global-scale continental collision of the Ottawan Orogeny was initiated. Strong convergence, deformation, and metamorphism continued to at least ca. 1070 Ma, and rocks older than this are profoundly affected by this event

  8. Intraspecific phylogeography of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in the central Rocky Mountain region of North America.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gregory M; Den Bussche, Ronald A; McBee, Karen; Johnson, Lacrecia A; Jones, Cheri A

    2005-11-01

    We used variation in a portion of the mitochondrial DNA control region to examine phylogeography of Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, a boreal-adapted small mammal in the central Rocky Mountain region. AMOVA revealed that 65.66% of genetic diversity was attributable to variation within populations, 16.93% to variation among populations on different mountain ranges, and 17.41% to variation among populations within mountain ranges. Nested clade analysis revealed two major clades that likely diverged in allopatry during the Pleistocene: a southern clade from southern Colorado and a northern clade comprising northern Colorado, Wyoming, eastern Utah, and eastern Idaho. Historically restricted gene flow as a result of geographic barriers was indicated between populations on opposite sides of the Green River and Wyoming Basin and among populations in eastern Wyoming. In some instances genetic structure indicated isolation by distance. PMID:16247688

  9. Past and future changes in frost day indices on Catskill Mountain Region of New York

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in frost indices in the New York’s Catskill Mountains region, the location of water supply reservoirs for New York City, have potentially important implications. Frost day is defined as a day with Tmin < 0ºC. The objective of this study was to investigate past and predicted changes in minimu...

  10. 40 CFR 81.241 - Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.241 Section 81.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality...

  11. 40 CFR 81.241 - Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.241 Section 81.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality...

  12. ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGIONAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RESEARCH CENTER FOR REMEDIATION OF MINE WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 11 research projects were funded as part of the Rocky Mountain Regional HSRC. The typical project duration was 2 years, with one project funded for 3 years and another project funded for only 1 year. Three projects were funded in each of three research focus areas, ...

  13. Past and future changes in frost day indices on Catskill Mountains region of New York

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in frost indices in New York's Catskill Mountains region, the location of water supply reservoirs for New York City, have potentially important implications. Frost day is defined as a day with Tmin < 0 deg C. The objective of this study was to investigate past and predicted changes in minimu...

  14. Rocky Mountain Regional Resource Center: Service and Training. Volume II of III. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffmire, Judy Ann

    The second volume of a three-volume report on the Rocky Mountain Regional Resource Center provides data on service and training components of the Center's functioning from its inception in 1970 through 1974. Provided are analyses of three 1-year stages in the development of the stratistician model which was originally designed to provide a…

  15. Ground magnetic studies along a regional seismic-reflection profile across Bare Mountain, Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Ground magnetic data were collected along a 26-km-long regional seismic-reflection profile in southwest Nevada that starts in the Amargosa Desert, crosses Bare Mountain, Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, and ends in Midway Valley. Parallel ground magnetic profiles were also collected about 100 m to either side of the western half of the seismic-reflection line. The magnetic data indicate that the eastern half of Crater Flat is characterized by closely-spaced faulting (1--2 km) in contrast to the western half of Crater Flat. Modeling of the data indicates that the Topopah Spring Tuff is offset about 250 m on the Solitario Canyon fault and about 50 m on the Ghost Dance fault. These estimates of fault offset are consistent with seismic-reflection data and geologic mapping. A broad magnetic high of about 500--600 nT is centered over Crater Flat. Modeling of the magnetic data indicates that the source of this high is not thickening and doming of the Bullfrog Tuff, but more likely lies below the Bullfrog Tuff. Possible source lithologies for this magnetic high include altered argillite of the Eleana Formation, Cretaceous or Tertiary intrusions, and mafic sills.

  16. Nitrate formation in acid forest soils from the Adirondacks

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, T.M.; Kreitinger, J.P.; Alexander, M.

    1983-01-01

    Nitrate formation in three forest soils from the Adirondacks region of New York was studied in the laboratory. The organic and surface mineral layers of the soils has pH values ranging from 3.6 to 4.1. Nitrate was formed when the soils were treated with artificial rain at pH 3.5, 4.1, or 5.6. Compared to simulated rain at pH 5.6, simulated rain at pH 3.5 enhanced nitrate formation in one soil and inhibited it in two other soils. The rate of nitrate accumulation was about 10 times higher in the organic horizon than in the mineral horizon, and nitrate formation was not enhanced by ammonium additions. Nitrate formation in soil suspensions was dependent on the amount of soil in the suspension, and none was formed if little soil was present. Ammonium did not enhance nitrate production in the suspensions. It is suggested that nitrate formation in these acid soils is not limited by the ammonium supply. 19 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Development stages of hazardous mountain lakes and simulation of their outbursts (Central Caucasus, Russia; Sichuan mountain region, China).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidyaeva, Vera; Krylenko, Inna; Chernomorets, Sergey; Petrakov, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    The importance of mountain lakes studies is related to the increasing threat of natural disasters, associated with lake outbursts and debris flows formation, because of population growth on exposed areas. The outburst hazard has not been sufficiently researched, there is a lack of data because of the lakes inaccessibility and remote sensing data is usually not detailed enough. The main scientific topics include assessment of outburst possibility and further simulation of possible outbursts scenarios. There are two types of mountain lakes: glacial (cirque, cirque-moraine, barrier-moraine, glacial-barrier, etc.) lakes and barrier (landslide, rockfall, debris flow, etc.) lakes. The first type was studied in the Central Caucasus (Russia), and the second type - in the Sichuan mountain region (China). The group of scientists, including authors, has been monitoring glacial lakes in the Mnt. Elbrus area for more than ten years. The unique data were collected, including detailed hydrological characteristics of more than ten lakes (water level dynamics, temperature, morphometrical characteristics, water balance components, etc.). Outbursts of at least three glacial lakes were observed. Hydrological characteristics of landslide Tangjiashan Lake were collected with Chinese colleagues during field studies in 2010 and 2011 years. Analysis of the collected data was used to understand the outburst mechanisms, formation factors, dam breaking factors, development stages of mountain lakes. Statistical methods of analysis in this case can be applied with some limitations because of the lack of sufficient monitoring objects, and therefore the results has been verified by experts. All types of possible outbursts mechanisms were divided by the authors into five groups: geomorphologic (caused by changes in lake dams), seismic, or geodynamic (caused by seiches, waves from rockfalls, landslides), glacial (caused by breaks in impounding glaciers, ice floating and melting), water

  18. Professional School Counseling in the Rocky Mountain Region: Graduation Rates of CACREP vs. Non-CACREP Accredited Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Mary D.; Boes, Susan R.; Snow, Brent M.; Chibbaro, Julia S.

    2010-01-01

    School Counseling in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States was explored with a focus on the production of professional school counselors in the Rocky Mountain region of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (RMACES). Comparisons of program graduates are made by state and program as well as by accreditation status. State…

  19. Leaf litter decomposition in three Adirondack lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.; Quinby, H.L.; Hendrey, G.R.; Hoogendyk, C.G.

    1983-04-01

    Decomposition of terrestrial leaf litter in three Adirondack lakes with water pH values approximately 5, 6, and 7 was studied. Litter bags containing leaves of American beech, sugar maple, red maple, leather leaf, and red spruce were placed in the lakes. Samples were removed periodically over a 3-year period and analyzed for loss in weight, changes in leaf surface area, carbon, nitrogen, and bacterial populations. The rate of decomposition of litter depended on the leaf species tested as well as on the lake water in which they were incubated. Of the five leaf species tested, red maple decomposed much faster and red spruce more slowly, i.e., red maple > sugar maple > beech > leather leaf > red spruce. Further, the data indicated that the rate of decomposition of the leaves differed among the lakes in the order Woods (pH approx. 5) < Sagamore (pH approx. 6) < Panther (pH approx. 7), and that the microbial colonization of some leaf species was affected. Accumulations of leaf litter in acid lakes due to reduction in microbial decomposition may affect nutrient recycling in lake ecosystems. 8 references, 4 tables.

  20. On Using CO2 Concentration Measurements at Mountain top and Valley Locations in Regional Flux Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wekker, S. F.; Song, G.; Stephens, B. B.

    2007-12-01

    Data from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON) are used to investigate atmospheric controls on temporal and spatial variability of CO2 in mountainous terrain and the usefulness of mountain top and valley measurement for the estimation of regional CO2 fluxes. Rocky RACCOON consists of four sites installed in fall of 2005 and spring of 2006: Niwot Ridge, near Ward, Colorado; Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, Colorado; Fraser Experimental Forest, near Fraser Colorado; and Hidden Peak, near Snowbird, Utah. The network uses the NCAR-developed Autonomous Inexpensive Robust CO2 Analyzer. These units measure CO2 concentrations at three levels on a tower, producing individual measurements every 2.5 minutes precise to 0.1 ppm CO2 and closely tied to the WMO CO2 scale. Three of the sites are located on a mountain top while one site is located in a valley. Initial analyses show interesting relationships between CO2 concentration and atmospheric parameters, such as wind speed and direction, temperature, and incoming solar radiation. The nature of these relationships is further investigated with an atmospheric mesoscale model. Idealized and realistic simulations are able to capture the observed behavior of spatial and temporal CO2 variability and reveal the responsible physical processes. The implications of the results and the value of the measurements for providing information on local to regional scale respiration and photosynthesis rates in the Rockies are discussed.

  1. Regional Comparative Unit Cost Studies for Maintenance and Operation of Physical Plants in Universities and Colleges in Central States Region and Rocky Mountain Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators, Corvallis, OR.

    Presented in this document are data pertaining to maintenance and operations costs at colleges and universities in the central states region and the Rocky Mountain region. The major accounts included in the cost analysis are: (1) physical plant administration, (2) building maintenance, (3) custodial services, (4) utilities, (5) landscape and…

  2. Chronic and episodic acidification of Adirondack streams from acid rain in 2003-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; Roy, K.M.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, H.A.; Capone, S.B.; Sutherland, J.W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A.; Boylen, C.W.

    2008-01-01

    Limited information is available on streams in the Adirondack region of New York, although streams are more prone to acidification than the more studied Adirondack lakes. A stream assessment was therefore undertaken in the Oswegatchie and Black River drainages; an area of 4585 km2 in the western part of the Adirondack region. Acidification was evaluated with the newly developed base-cation surplus (BCS) and the conventional acid-neutralizing capacity by Gran titration (ANCG). During the survey when stream water was most acidic (March 2004), 105 of 188 streams (56%) were acidified based on the criterion of BCS < 0 ??eq L-1, whereas 29% were acidified based on an ANCG value < 0 ??eq L-1. During the survey when stream water was least acidic (August 2003), 15 of 129 streams (12%) were acidified based on the criterion of BCS < 0 ??eq L-1, whereas 5% were acidified based on ANCG value < 0 ??eq L -1. The contribution of acidic deposition to stream acidification was greater than that of strongly acidic organic acids in each of the surveys by factors ranging from approximately 2 to 5, but was greatest during spring snowmelt and least during elevated base flow in August. During snowmelt, the percentage attributable to acidic deposition was 81%, whereas during the October 2003 survey, when dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were highest, this percentage was 66%. The total length of stream reaches estimated to be prone to acidification was 718 km out of a total of 1237 km of stream reaches that were assessed. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  3. Blue Mountain Lake, New York, earthquake of October 7, 1983.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wendt, G.

    1984-01-01

    The October 7 earthquake near Blue Mountain Lake in the central Adirondack Mountains registered a preliminary Richter magnitude of 5.2. It was widely felt throughout the Northeastern United States and Canada and occurred in an area that has been periodically shaken by earthquakes throughout recorded history. Since 1737, at least 346 felt earthquakes have occurred in New York; an earthquake of similar magnitude last shook the Blue Mountain Lake area on June 9, 1975.    

  4. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 8. The southern Rocky Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, S.R.; Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    The Southern Rocky Mountain atlas assimilates five collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the four states that compose the Southern Rocky Mountain region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  5. Lower-Tropospheric Ozone (LTO) derived from TOMS near mountainous regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newchurch, M. J.; Liu, X.; Kim, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    Using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version-7 level-2 clear-sky (reflectivity ≤ 20%) ozone measurements corrected for aerosol effects and sea-glint errors, we derived Lower Tropospheric Ozone (LTO) west and east of the Andes, the Mexican and Rocky Mountains, the mountains in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, New Guinea, and the Himalayan Mountains. The derived results agree reasonably well with the seasonality of LTO from ozonesonde observations at Boulder, Cristobal, Fiji, Java, and Tahiti. The LTO seasonality found in the biomass burning seasons characterized by the ATSR World Fire Atlas west and east of the Andes (23°S-2°N), east of the Mexican Mountains (15°-23°N), South Sudan (6°-14°N), South Africa (30°-28°S), and west of New Guinea is consistent with the influence of biomass burning on the formation of tropospheric ozone in these regions. The significant El Niño influence on LTO west of New Guinea is evident throughout several El Niño cycles. The spring maximum in ozone west of the Mexican Mountains, in western China, and west of the Andes (32°-23°S) is consistent with a stratospheric intrusion source. East of the Mexican Mountains (23°-30°N), both west and east of the Rocky Mountains, in north Sudan and Iraq, and in western China, high concentrations of ozone are found in these continental and coastal regions which are affected by anthropogenic sources. The maximum ozone in these regions usually occurs in the summer due to photochemical ozone production. A summer LTO minimum occurs in coastal regions west of the Andes and west of Mexico, due to ozone destruction in low NOx and high H2O marine environment. A summer minimum also occurs in south Sudan in the rainy season. The LTO in the northern tropics of South America (4°-10°N), Africa (1°S-2°N), and east of New Guinea (7°-3°S) experiences little seasonal variation.

  6. Phenological models for blooming of apple in a mountainous region.

    PubMed

    Rea, Roberto; Eccel, Emanuele

    2006-09-01

    Six phenological series were available for 'Golden Delicious' apple blooming at six sites in Trentino, an alpine fruit-growing region. Several models were tested to predict flowering dates, all involving a "chilling and forcing" approach. In many cases, application of the models to different climatic conditions results in low accuracy of prediction of flowering date. The aim of this work is to develop a model with more general validity, starting from the six available series, and to test it against five other phenological series outside the original area of model development. A modified version of the "Utah" model was the approach that performed best. In fact, an algorithm using "chill units" for rest completion and a thermal sum for growing-degree-hours (GDH), whose efficiency changes over time depending on the fraction of forcing attained, yielded a very good prediction of flowering. Results were good even if hourly temperatures were reconstructed from daily minimum and maximum values. Errors resulting from prediction of flowering data were relatively small, and root mean square errors were in the range of 1-6 days, being <2 days for the longest phenological series. In the most general form of the model, the summation of GDH required for flowering is not a fixed value, but a function of topoclimatic variables for a particular site: slope, aspect and spring mean temperature. This approach allows extension of application of the model to sites with different climatic features outside the test area. PMID:16909259

  7. Multi-Scale Statistical Properties of Rainfall for Extreme Hydrometeorological Events in Mountainous Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykanen, D. K.

    2006-12-01

    Hydrometeorological events that produce heavy rainfall and catastrophic flooding in mountainous regions present a great challenge for forecasters. Accurate predictions of flooding resulting from this type of storm require high resolution rainfall data. In a forecast mode, output from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models must be used to drive the hydrologic models. Although much progress has been made in the past decade, the output from NWP models remains at a coarser resolution than what is needed for hydrologic predictions. Bridging the scale gap between precipitation forecasts from NWP models and the resolution needs of hydrologic models for streamflow prediction requires alternative methods such as statistical downscaling of the rainfall fields. This study quantifies the multi-scale statistical properties of rainfall for extreme hydrometeorological events in mountainous regions across scales of 1~20 km. The Buffalo Creek flood of 1996, Fort Collins flood of 1997, and several other extreme hydrometerological events in the Appalachian region and Front Range of the Rocky Mountains are included in the analysis. The following questions will be investigated: (1) does spatial scaling exist as a common feature in convective rainfall events in mountainous regions?, (2) at what spatial scales do meteorological and topographic controls manifest themselves in the space-time variability of the rainfall fields?, and (3) how does meteorological forcings and geographic location impact trends in topographic influences on the multi-scale statistical properties of rainfall? Focus is placed on linking changes in the multi-scale statistical properties with orographic influences on the rainfall and developing predictive relationships between multi-scale parameters and meteorological and topographic forcings. Differences in geographic region and predominant orographic controls (e.g., windward versus leeward forcing) on trends in multi-scale properties of rainfall is investigated

  8. Regional analysis of changes in snow pack in mountainous basins in the central Danube region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Gabor; Juričeková, Katarina; Gauzer, Balazs; Hlavčová, Kamila; Kohnová, Silvia; Szolgay, Jan; Zsideková, Beata

    2013-04-01

    Accurate estimation of the volume of water stored in the snow pack and its rate of release is essential to predict the flow during the snowmelt period. In mountainous drainage basins water stored in the snow pack represents an important component of the water budget. Two modelling tools are compared. The first, HOLV snowmelt model is developed by the Hungarian National Hydrological Forecasting Service (VITUKI NHFS) for regional assessment of snow accumulation and ablation of the central Danube. The model originates from the early 80's and it is under continuous development, while its recent distributed version over a grid with 0.1 degree resolution is in use. The snowmelt model has a flexible structure; it is able to change its own structure in function of data availability. In case when only precipitation and air temperature data are available temperature index method is used. When also other data are accessible (cloudiness, dew point, wind speed) using of energy balance model is to be preferred. If there are suitable data available for calculation of the energy terms, the energy balance method can be applied. The second semi-distributed Hron model, developed at the Slovak University of Technology was applied to a smaller sub-basin to represent spatial distribution of snow cover by simulated snow water equivalent. The upper Hron river basin with an area of 1766 km2 is located in central Slovakia. The conceptual semi-distributed tool applied contains three basic storage components with 15 calibrated parameters, as the flow routing component the cascade of linear reservoirs is used as opposed to the original simple triangular routing function. The snow sub-model uses the temperature index (degree-day) method for snow accumulation and snowmelt calculations. Uncertainty of model parameters was reduced by multi-calibration on the mean daily discharges in the basin outlet and measured stations data of snow water equivalent. Changes in the model parameters during the

  9. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O'Leary

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain.

  10. Christmas Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Christmas Mountains     View Larger Image ... New Brunswick. Located above image center are the Christmas Mountains, a region of old-growth forest nestled in a remote wilderness. Within ...

  11. Analysis of the mineral acid-base components of acid-neutralizing capacity in Adirondack Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munson, R. K.; Gherini, S. A.

    1993-04-01

    Mineral acids and bases influence pH largely through their effects on acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). This influence becomes particularly significant as ANC approaches zero. Analysis of data collected by the Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC) from 1469 lakes throughout the Adirondack region indicates that variations in ANC in these lakes correlate well with base cation concentrations (CB), but not with the sum of mineral acid anion concentrations (CA). This is because (CA) is relatively constant across the Adirondacks, whereas CB varies widely. Processes that supply base cations to solution are ion-specific. Sodium and silica concentrations are well correlated, indicating a common source, mineral weathering. Calcium and magnesium also covary but do not correlate well with silica. This indicates that ion exchange is a significant source of these cations in the absence of carbonate minerals. Iron and manganese concentrations are elevated in the lower waters of some lakes due to reducing conditions. This leads to an ephemeral increase in CB and ANC. When the lakes mix and oxic conditions are restored, these ions largely precipitate from solution. Sulfate is the dominant mineral acid anion in ALSC lakes. Sulfate concentrations are lowest in seepage lakes, commonly about 40 μeq/L less than in drainage lakes. This is due in part to the longer hydraulic detention time in seepage lakes, which allows slow sulfate reduction reactions more time to decrease lake sulfate concentration. Nitrate typically influences ANC during events such as snowmelt. Chloride concentrations are generally low, except in lakes impacted by road salt.

  12. Bankfull-channel geometry and discharge curves for the Rocky Mountains Hydrologic Region in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    Regional curves relate bankfull-channel geometry and bankfull discharge to drainage area in regions with similar runoff characteristics and are used to estimate the bankfull discharge and bankfull-channel geometry when the drainage area of a stream is known. One-variable, ordinary least-squares regressions relating bankfull discharge, cross-sectional area, bankfull width, and bankfull mean depth to drainage area were developed from data collected at 35 streamgages in or near Wyoming. Watersheds draining to these streamgages are within the Rocky Mountains Hydrologic Region of Wyoming and neighboring states.

  13. Soil cover patterns and land resources in the south of the Selenga mountainous region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, T. V.; Tsybzhitov, Ts. Kh.; Tsybikdorzhiev, Ts. Ts.; Gonchikov, B.-M. N.

    2009-04-01

    Soil cover patterns within the Kyakhta area of pine stands and the Kudarinsk area of dry steppes in the south of the Selenga mountainous region are characterized. The groups of soil combinations are shown on the map developed on a scale of 1: 500000. The areas of particular soils composing the combinations have been calculated. Thus, this small-scale soil map generally preserves information reflected on large- and medium-scale soil maps.

  14. Ground surface temperature scenarios in complex high-mountain topography based on regional climate model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzmann, Nadine; NöTzli, Jeannette; Hauck, Christian; Gruber, Stephan; Hoelzle, Martin; Haeberli, Wilfried

    2007-06-01

    Climate change can have severe impacts on the high-mountain cryosphere, such as instabilities in rock walls induced by thawing permafrost. Relating climate change scenarios produced from global climate models (GCMs) and regional climate models (RCMs) to complex high-mountain environments is a challenging task. The qualitative and quantitative impact of changes in climatic conditions on local to microscale ground surface temperature (GST) and the ground thermal regime is not readily apparent. This study assesses a possible range of changes in the GST (ΔGST) in complex mountain topography. To account for uncertainties associated with RCM output, a set of 12 different scenario climate time series (including 10 RCM-based and 2 incremental scenarios) was applied to the topography and energy balance (TEBAL) model to simulate average ΔGST for 36 different topographic situations. Variability of the simulated ΔGST is related primarily to the emission scenarios, the RCM, and the approach used to apply RCM results to the impact model. In terms of topography, significant influence on GST simulation was shown by aspect because it modifies the received amount of solar radiation at the surface. North faces showed higher sensitivity to the applied climate scenarios, while uncertainties are higher for south faces. On the basis of the results of this study, use of RCM-based scenarios is recommended for mountain permafrost impact studies, as opposed to incremental scenarios.

  15. Condition of Education in the Adirondack Blue Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This document profiles education in the Adirondack Park area of upstate New York. The introduction describes the Adironack Blue Line area, its school districts, and its revenues for school funding. Elementary and secondary education are described in terms of attendance rates, pupil-teacher ratio, teacher turnover rate, and median teacher salaries…

  16. VALUATION OF NATURAL RESOURCE IMPROVEMENTS IN THE ADIRONDACKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The benefits of improving natural resources in the Adirondacks are estimated to be between $336 million and $1.1 billion per year (2003$), according to a new study by Resources for the Future. The five-year study, supported by an EPA grant, estimates New Yorkers willingness-to-...

  17. Climate variability in the Carpathian Mountains Region over 1961-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheval, Sorin; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2014-07-01

    The Carpathian Mountains Region (CMR) lies over parts of the territories of seven Central and Southeastern European countries, and the mountain chain induces major changes in the temperate climate specific to the latitudes between 43° and 49°N. Different administrations govern the long-term meteorological networks; the infrastructure, collection protocols, and storage capacities are specific to each country, so that a comprehensive study on the climate of the area has met considerable difficulties along time. Climate of the Carpathian Region (CARPATCLIM) is a regional initiative developed between 2010 and 2013 aiming to enhance the climatic information in the area by providing comprehensive, temporally and spatially homogenous data sets of the main meteorological variables. Based on daily data aggregated to a monthly scale at 10-km resolution, this study exploits and promotes the results of the CARPATCLIM project, documenting the variability of the main climatic variables over 1961-2010. For each month, the significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified, mapped and placed in the context of previous studies and climate change perspectives. The study has revealed several patterns in the climatic variability, i.e., positive or negative trends prevailing over the entire area, very distinct delineation between various trends induced by the Carpathian Mountain chain, and pledges for further scientific approaches, i.e., causes of the variability and applications in other domains.

  18. Mapping extreme rainfall in a mountainous region using geostatistical techniques: a case study in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudhomme, Christel; Reed, Duncan W.

    1999-10-01

    The spatial pattern of precipitation is known to be highly dependent on meteorological conditions and relief. However, the relationships between precipitation and topography in mountainous areas are not very well known, partly because of the complex topography in these regions, and partly because of the sparsity of information available to study such relationships in high elevation areas. The purpose of the investigation was to find a method of mapping extreme rainfall in the mountainous region of Scotland, which was easy to use and to understand, and which gave satisfactory results both in terms of statistical performance and consistency with meteorological mechanisms.Among the interpolation methods described in the literature, ordinary kriging and modified residual kriging have been found attractive by reason of their simplicity and ease of use. Both methods have been applied to map an index of extreme rainfall, the median of the annual maximum daily rainfall (RMED), in the mountainous region of Scotland. Rainfall records from a network of 1003 raingauges are used, covering Scotland with uneven density. A 4-parameter regression equation developed in a previous study, relating a transformed variable of RMED to topographical variables, is used in the modified residual kriging method. Comparing the relative performances of ordinary kriging and modified residual kriging shows that the use of topographical information helps to compensate for the lack of local data from which any interpolation method, such as ordinary kriging, might suffer, thus improving the final mapping.

  19. Moderate pressure metamorphism and anatexis due to anorthosite intrusion, western Adirondack Highlands, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florence, F. P.; Darling, R. S.; Orrell, S. E.

    1995-10-01

    Garnet-sillimanite-biotite gneiss near Port Leyden, in the western Adirondack Highlands, New York, contains mineral assemblages and textures that formed during high temperature metamorphism and anatexis at mid-crustal pressures. Evidence for melting includes thin, plagioclase-rich veins, sieve textures in biotite, and the presence of small, euhedral garnet neoblasts. Hercynite-silicate equilibria in combination with the solidus for biotite dehydration melting indicate metamorphic pressure was between 4 and 6.4 kbar at the temperature of melting (ca. 735° C). The gneiss is intruded by a small, discordant Fe-Ti oxide-apatite (nelsonite) dike. Reported field occurrences of nelsonite demonstrate its common association with anorthosite plutons. Although no anorthosite bodies are exposed in the Port Leyden region, the presence of nelsonite is evidence of anorthositic magmatism in the western Adirondacks. Post-intrusion metamorphism has caused partial apatite recrystallization and produced a weak foliated texture in the dike. U-Pb ages from zircon and monazite from both the gneiss and the nelsonite dike indicate that these rocks experienced a complex, polymetamorphic history that we interpret to reflect two thermal episodes. An older event is recorded by discordant zircons in the gneiss, which indicate a minimum age of 1129±6 Ma. A linear best fit to the data yields an upper intercept at 1166±53 Ma. This range of ages coincides with anorthosite-suite magmatism in the Adirondacks. A minimum zircon age of 1104±3 Ma was obtained from the nelsonite dike. Lead-loss or late zircon crystallization at about 1020 Ma affected the U-Pb systematics of zircon in the dike. Monazite ages from both rocks also indicate high temperature metamorphism (>700° C) between 1040 and 960 Ma. The older zircon ages and textural relations in the metapelite are viewed as evidence for anatexis at ca. 1150 Ma, and the presence of nelsonite suggests that the intrusion of anorthosite was coincident

  20. A Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network In The Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, B.; de Wekker, S.; Watt, A.; Schimel, D.

    2005-12-01

    We have established a continuous CO2 observing network in the Rocky Mountains, building on technological and modeling advances made during the Carbon in the Mountains Experiment (CME), to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes and to fill key gaps in the North American Carbon Program (NACP). We will present a description of the Rocky RACCOON network and early results from the first three sites. There are strong scientific and societal motivations for determining CO2 exchanges on regional scales. NACP aims to address these concerns through a dramatic expansion in observations and modeling capabilities over North America. Mountain forests in particular represent a significant potential net CO2 sink in the U.S. and are highly sensitive to land-use practices and climate change. However, plans for new continuous CO2 observing sites have omitted the mountain west. This resulted from expensive instrumentation in the face of limited resources, and a perception that current atmospheric transport models are not sophisticated enough to interpret CO2 measurements made in complex terrain. Through our efforts in CME, we have a new autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analysis system and are developing mountain CO2 modeling tools that will help us to overcome these obstacles. Preliminary observational and modeling results give us confidence that continuous CO2 observations from mountain top observatories will provide useful constraints on regional carbon cycling and will be valuable in the continental inverse modeling efforts planned for NACP. We began at three Colorado sites in August 2005 and hope to add three to six sites in other western states in subsequent years, utilizing existing observatories to the maximum extent possible. The first three sites are at Niwot Ridge, allowing us to have an ongoing intercomparison with flask measurements made by NOAA CMDL; at Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, allowing us to investigate comparisons between these

  1. Wetland vegetation responses to liming an Adirondack watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Mackun, I.R.

    1993-01-01

    Watershed liming as a long-term mitigation strategy to neutralize lake acidity, from increasing acid deposition, was initiated in North America at Woods Lake in the west central Adirondack region of New York. In October 1989, a dose of 10 MT lime (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) ha[sup [minus]1] was aerially applied to 48% of the watershed. The wetlands adjacent to Woods Lake showed two distinct community types: one dominated by Chamaedaphne calyculata, and one dominated by graminoids and other herbaceous species. Within two years, liming did not alter the structure of either community type, and changed the cover or frequency of only 6 of 64 individual taxa. Most of these changes occurred in the herbaceous community type. The only strong positive response to liming was a nearly threefold increase in cover of the rhizomatous sedge Cladium mariscoides. The cover of Carex interior and Sphagnum spp. benefited from lime addition, while cover of Drosera intermedia and Muhlenbergia uniflora, and frequency of Hypericum canadense responded negatively to lime. Liming influenced the competitive release of only three taxa, all forbs with small growth forms. The tissue chemistry of foliage and twigs of Myrica gale, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and Carex stricta in the Chamaedaphne calyculata community type clearly illustrated species-specific patterns of nutrient accumulation and allocation both before and after liming. Concentrations of 17 of 20 elements responded to liming, although the responses varied among species and plant parts. Carex foliage was least responsive to liming, and Chamaedaphne twigs were most responsive. Elemental changes in plant tissues will be reflected in litter and many influence long-term nutrient dynamics in the wetland community.

  2. Age and character of basaltic rocks of the Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleck, R.J.; Turrin, B.D.; Sawyer, D.A.; Warren, R.G.; Champion, D.E.; Hudson, M.R.; Minor, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Volcanism in the Yucca Mountain region of southern Nevada in the last 5 m.y. is restricted to moderate-to-small volumes of subalkaline basaltic magmas, produced during at least 6 intervals, and spanning an age range from 4.6 Ma to about 125 ka. Where paleomagnetic evidence is available, the period of volcanism at individual eruptive centers apparently was geologically short-lived, even where multiple eruptions involved different magma types. K-Ar studies are consistent with most other geochronologic information, such as the minimum ages of exposure-dating techniques, and show no evidence of renewed volcanism after a significant quiescence at any of the centers in the Yucca Mountain region. A volcanic recurrence interval of 860 ?? 350 kyr is computed from a large K-Ar data set and an evaluation of their uncertainties. Monte Carlo error propagations demonstrate the validity of uncertainties obtained for weighted-mean ages when modified using the goodness of fit parameter, MSWD. Elevated 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios (Sri) in the basalts, nearly constant at 0.707, combined with low SiO2 and Rb/Sr ratios indicate a subcontinental, lithospheric mantle source, previously enriched in radiogenic Sr and depleted in Rb. Beginning with eruptions of the most voluminous eruptive center, the newly dated Pliocene Thirsty Mountain volcano, basaltic magmas have decreased in eruptive volume, plagioclase-phenocryst content, various trace element ratios, and TiO2, while increasing in light rare earth elements, U, Th, P2O5, and light REE/heavy REE ratios. These time-correlated changes are consistent with either increasing depths of melting or a decreasing thermal gradient in the Yucca Mountain region during the last 5 m.y.

  3. Impacts of mountains on black carbon aerosol under different synoptic meteorology conditions in the Guanzhong region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shuyu; Tie, Xuexi; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    The Xi'an City and the surrounding area (the Guan-Zhong-GZ region) in western China have been suffering severe air pollutions during wintertime in recent years. In-situ black carbon (BC) measurement combined with a regional dynamical and chemical model (WRF-Chem model) is used to investigate the formation of a haze episode occurred from Jan. 3rd to Jan. 13th 2013. The results show that the measured BC concentrations exhibit a large day-to-day variability. The impacts of synoptic weather systems, local meteorological parameters and mountain effect on the BC variability are studied. Because the GZ region is surrounded by two major mountains, the Loess Plateau in the north and the Qinling Mountains in the south, especially the peak of the Qinling Mountains higher than 3000 m, we particularly analyze the effects of the Qinling Mountains on the BC pollution. The analysis shows that the BC pollution in Xi'an City and the GZ region is strongly affected by the synoptic weather systems, local meteorological winds and the Qinling Mountains. Under a typical northeast wind condition, winds are blocked by the Qinling Mountains, and BC particles are trapped at the foothill of the mountains, resulting in high BC concentrations in the city of Xi'an. Under a typical east wind condition, BC particles are transported along a river valley and the foothill of the Qinling Mountains. In this case, the mountain-river valley plays a role to accelerate the east wind, resulting in a reduction of the BC pollution. Under a typical calm wind condition, the BC particles are less diffused from their source region, and there is a mountain breeze from the Qinling Mountains to the city of Xi'an, and BC particles accumulate in the city, especially in the north side of the city. This study illustrates that while locating between complicated terrain conditions, such as the GZ region, the mountains play very important roles for the formation of hazes in the region.

  4. Piecewise Delamination Drives Uplift in the Atlas Mountains Region of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezada, M. J.; Humphreys, E.; Martin Davila, J.; mimoun, H.; Josep, G.; Palomeras, I.

    2013-12-01

    The elevation of the intra-continental Atlas Mountains of Morocco and surrounding regions requires a mantle component of buoyancy, and there is consensus that this buoyancy results from an abnormally thin lithosphere. Lithospheric delamination under the Atlas Mountains and thermal erosion caused by upwelling mantle have each been suggested as thinning mechanisms. We use seismic tomography to image the upper mantle of Morocco by inverting teleseimic p-wave delay times, complemented with local delays, recorded on a dense array of stations in the Iberian peninsula and Morocco. A surface wave model provides constraint on the shallower layers. We determine the geometry of lithospheric cavities and mantle upwelling beneath the Middle Atlas and central High Atlas, and image delaminated lithosphere at ~400 km beneath the Middle Atlas. We propose discontinuous delamination of an intrinsically unstable Atlas lithosphere, enabled by the presence of anomalously hot mantle, as a mechanism for producing the imaged structures. The Atlas lithosphere was made unstable by a combination of tectonic shortening and eclogite loading during Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic magmatism. The presence of hot mantle, sourced from regional upwellings in northern Africa or the Canary Islands, enabled the mobilization of this lithosphere. Flow around the retreating Alboran slab focused upwelling mantle under the Middle Atlas, where we image the most recent delamination. The Atlas Mountains of Morocco stand as an example of mantle-generated uplift and large-scale lithospheric loss in a mildly contractional orogen.

  5. Social and economic assessment: A technical report used in amending the Rocky Mountain regional guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of the Socio-economic Assessment is threefold in nature: to describe the socio-economic forces at work within the rural and urban areas throughout the Rocky Mountain Region (the Region); to develop social and economic profiles for the Region as a whole and each of its eight subregions; and, finally, to describe the potential impacts of the above mentioned forces on the Region and to make recommendations for developing future strategies to facilitate coordination between the Forest Service, the various state, local, and other federal agencies, and Native American Indian tribes. This project involved the analysis of various social and economic variables in an attempt to determine the social and economic situation in the Rocky Mountain Region, and how it has been altered over the last three decades. To this end, data was collected on demographic changes, income growth, employment and unemployment, payrolls, number and size of firms, and SIC industrial breakdowns for various industries within each subregion and economic impact area.

  6. Quantifying Hydrologic Parameters in Basin-Scale Ecosystem Research: the Adirondack Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanowicz, E. A.; Mihuc, T. B.; Woodcock, T.

    2005-05-01

    How does one quantify hydrologic processes related to open channel flow and basin drainage at spatial and temporal scales suitable for ecosystem research? This is a very important question as more and more research brings together the disciplines of hydrology and ecology. Differences in the types of parameters measured, spatial and temporal variations of these parameters and the nature of field procedures between hydrological and ecological research results in different scales of study. Linkages between hydrology, geomorphology and ecology are easily identified. Ecological communities in streams are affected in part by the following stream characteristics: depth, water velocity, ponding and water quality. These stream characteristics are affected by processes or characteristics occurring at very different scales (e.g. bedrock, soils, soil depth, stream bed material, channel morphology, vegetation, topography, and climate). How do we apply these different processes and scales to extrapolate hydrologic data from specific points to a basin scale? As part of an NSF funded research project (DEB 022165) to study the effects of land use policy on hydrologic, ecologic and water quality indicators of watershed integrity we instrumented 22 basins in the eastern Adirondack Mountains (New York) to monitor water stage, water temperature and air temperature. Stage recorders with temperature sensors were installed in stilling wells adjacent to natural stream channels. Stage-discharge rating curves were developed for each site to estimate stream discharge as a function of stage. Streams in the Adirondacks tend to very flashy due to low infiltration capacity in the drainage basins. Consequently, streams respond quickly to storm events, making it difficult to quantify discharges at peak flows. The rating curves are better at predicting base flow discharge, however, there is insufficient data to estimate peak discharge from stage data. In this presentation we will discuss the issue

  7. Groundwater Recharge and Flow Processes in Taihang Mountains, a Semi-humid Region, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, Koichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Jie

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater flow/recharge variations in time and space are crucial for effective water management especially in semi-arid and semi-humid regions. In order to reveal comprehensive groundwater flow/recharge processes in a catchment with a large topographical relief and seasonal hydrological variations, intensive field surveys were undertaken at 4 times in different seasons (June 2011, August 2012, November 2012, February 2014) in the Wangkuai watershed, Taihang mountains, which is a main groundwater recharge area of the North China Plain. The groundwater, spring, stream water and reservoir water were taken, and inorganic solute constituents and stable isotopes of oxygen-18 and deuterium were determined on all water samples. Also, the stream flow rate and the depth of groundwater table were observed. The stable isotopic compositions and inorganic solute constituents in the groundwater are depleted and shown similar values as those of the surface water at the mountain-plain transitional area. Additionally, the groundwater in the vicinity of the Wangkuai Reservoir presents clearly higher stable isotopic compositions and lower d-excess than those of the stream water, indicating the groundwater around the reservoir is affected by evaporation same as the Wangkuai Reservoir itself. Hence, the surface water in the mountain-plain transitional area and Wangkuai Reservoir are principal groundwater recharge sources. An inversion analysis and simple mixing model were applied in the Wangkuai watershed using stable isotopes of oxygen-18 and deuterium to construct a groundwater flow model. The model shows that multi-originated groundwater flows from upstream to downstream along topography with certain mixing. In addition, the groundwater recharge occurs dominantly at the altitude from 421 m to 953 m, and the groundwater recharge rate by the Wangkuai Reservoir is estimated to be 2.4 % of the total groundwater recharge in the Wangkuai watershed. Therefore, the stream water and

  8. Crustal structure of the Adirondacks determined from broadband teleseismic waveform modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Thomas J.

    1987-06-01

    Broadband receiver functions developed from teleseismic P waveforms recorded on the midperiod passband of the Department of Energy's Regional Seismic Test Network station RSNY are analyzed to examine the crustal structure beneath the Adirondack Highlands of upstate New York. Radial receiver functions are inverted in the time domain to determine the vertical shear velocity structure at four distinct back azimuths. Lateral changes in structure are identified by examining azimuthal variations in the vertical structure. Southeast of RSNY, our model consists of a thick crust, including a broad crust-mantle transition. The most prominent structure is a high-velocity zone (shear velocity >4.0 km/s) between 18 and 26 km depth which overlies a lower crust of low average shear velocity (< 3.7 km/s). The extent of the high-velocity zone correlates in depth with a highly reflective zone in Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling profiles SE of RSNY, while the deep low-velocity zone may be correlated with a broad electrical conductivity anomaly in the Adirondacks. This general structure is also seen SW of RSNY, but is more difficult to document at NW and NE azimuths.

  9. Spatial patterns of mercury in biota of Adirondack, New York lakes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xue; Driscoll, Charles T; Montesdeoca, Mario; Evers, David; Duron, Melissa; Williams, Kate; Schoch, Nina; Kamman, Neil C

    2011-10-01

    We studied the spatial distribution patterns of mercury (Hg) in lake water, littoral sediments, zooplankton, crayfish, fish, and common loons in 44 lakes of the Adirondacks of New York State, USA, a region that has been characterized as a "biological Hg hotspot". Our study confirmed this pattern, finding that a substantial fraction of the lakes studied had fish and loon samples exceeding established criteria for human and wildlife health. Factors accounting for the spatial variability of Hg in lake water and biota were lake chemistry (pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), percent carbon in sediments), biology (taxa presence, trophic status) and landscape characteristics (land cover class, lake elevation). Hg concentrations in zooplankton, fish and common loons were negatively associated with the lake water acid-base status (pH, ANC). Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for methyl Hg (MeHg) increased from crayfish (mean log(10) BAF = 5.7), to zooplankton (5.9), to prey fish (6.2), to larger fish (6.3), to common loons (7.2). MeHg BAF values in zooplankton, crayfish, and fish (yellow perch equivalent) all increased with increasing lake elevation. Our findings support the hypothesis that bioaccumulation of MeHg at the base of the food chain is an important controller of Hg concentrations in taxa at higher trophic levels. The characteristics of Adirondack lake-watersheds (sensitivity to acidic deposition; significant forest and wetland land cover; and low nutrient inputs) contribute to elevated Hg concentrations in aquatic biota. PMID:21691858

  10. Changes in the chemistry of acidified Adirondack streams from the early 1980s to 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; Simonin, H.A.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Roy, K.M.; Capone, S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Lakes in the Adirondack region of New York have partially recovered in response to declining deposition, but information on stream recovery is limited. Here we report results of Adirondack stream monitoring from the early 1980s to 2008. Despite a 50% reduction in atmospheric deposition of sulfur, overall increases in pH of only 0.28 and ANC of 13 μeq L-1 were observed in 12 streams over 23 years, although greater changes did occur in streams with lower initial ANC, as expected. In the North Tributary of Buck Creek with high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, SO(4)(2-) concentrations decreased from 1999 to 2008 at a rate of 2.0 μmol L-1 y-1, whereas in the neighboring South Tributary with low DOC concentrations, the decrease was only 0.73 μmol L-1 y-1. Ca2+ leaching decreased in the North Tributary due to the SO(4)(2-) decrease, but this was partially offset by an increase in Ca2+ leaching from increased DOC concentrations.

  11. Acidification in the Adirondacks: defining the biota in trophic levels of 30 chemically diverse acid-impacted lakes.

    PubMed

    Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A; Boylen, Charles W; Eichler, Lawrence W; Harrison, James P; Sutherland, James W; Shaw, William; Daniels, Robert A; Charles, Donald F; Acker, Frank W; Sullivan, Timothy J; Momen, Bahram; Bukaveckas, Paul

    2010-08-01

    The Adirondack Mountains in New York State have a varied surficial geology and chemically diverse surface waters that are among the most impacted by acid deposition in the U.S. No single Adirondack investigation has been comprehensive in defining the effects of acidification on species diversity, from bacteria through fish, essential for understanding the full impact of acidification on biota. Baseline midsummer chemistry and community composition are presented for a group of chemically diverse Adirondack lakes. Species richness of all trophic levels except bacteria is significantly correlated with lake acid-base chemistry. The loss of taxa observed per unit pH was similar: bacterial genera (2.50), bacterial classes (1.43), phytoplankton (3.97), rotifers (3.56), crustaceans (1.75), macrophytes (3.96), and fish (3.72). Specific pH criteria were applied to the communities to define and identify acid-tolerant (pH<5.0), acid-resistant (pH 5.0-5.6), and acid-sensitive (pH>5.6) species which could serve as indicators. Acid-tolerant and acid-sensitive categories are at end-points along the pH scale, significantly different at P<0.05; the acid-resistant category is the range of pH between these end-points, where community changes continually occur as the ecosystem moves in one direction or another. The biota acid tolerance classification (batc) system described herein provides a clear distinction between the taxonomic groups identified in these subcategories and can be used to evaluate the impact of acid deposition on different trophic levels of biological communities. PMID:20614900

  12. Consistent response of vegetation dynamics to recent climate change in tropical mountain regions.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; John, Robert; Joseph, Shijo

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change has emerged as a major driver of ecosystem change. Here, we present evidence for globally consistent responses in vegetation dynamics to recent climate change in the world's mountain ecosystems located in the pan-tropical belt (30°N-30°S). We analyzed decadal-scale trends and seasonal cycles of vegetation greenness using monthly time series of satellite greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and climate data for the period 1982-2006 for 47 mountain protected areas in five biodiversity hotspots. The time series of annual maximum NDVI for each of five continental regions shows mild greening trends followed by reversal to stronger browning trends around the mid-1990s. During the same period we found increasing trends in temperature but only marginal change in precipitation. The amplitude of the annual greenness cycle increased with time, and was strongly associated with the observed increase in temperature amplitude. We applied dynamic models with time-dependent regression parameters to study the time evolution of NDVI-climate relationships. We found that the relationship between vegetation greenness and temperature weakened over time or was negative. Such loss of positive temperature sensitivity has been documented in other regions as a response to temperature-induced moisture stress. We also used dynamic models to extract the trends in vegetation greenness that remain after accounting for the effects of temperature and precipitation. We found residual browning and greening trends in all regions, which indicate that factors other than temperature and precipitation also influence vegetation dynamics. Browning rates became progressively weaker with increase in elevation as indicated by quantile regression models. Tropical mountain vegetation is considered sensitive to climatic changes, so these consistent vegetation responses across widespread regions indicate persistent global-scale effects of climate warming and associated moisture

  13. A new reference section for palynostratigraphic zonation of Paleocene rocks in the Rocky Mountain region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, D.J.; Flores, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    A biostratigraphic (palynostratigraphic) zonation of Paleocene rocks was established in the northeastern Wind River Basin near Waltman, Natrona County, Wyoming, in 1978 and subsequently applied extensively by various workers throughout the Rocky Mountain region. Because the original study on which the zonation was based was proprietary, precise details about the locations of the two reference sections and the samples on which the zonation was based were not published and are no longer retrievable. Therefore, it is useful (although not required) to designate formally a new reference section for the Paleocene biozones. Accordingly, exposures of Paleocene and associated strata within and west of the Castle Gardens Petroglyph Site in Fremont County, Wyoming, in the east-central part of the Wind River Basin, were selected for this purpose. At this location, composite stratigraphic sections encompassing 740 m of strata were measured, described, and sampled. Productive samples yielded characteristic Maastrichtian palynomorphs from the lower part of the sampled interval and diagnostic species of the six palynological biozones zones widely known as P1 (lower Paleocene) through P6 (upper Paleocene), through an interval of about 580 m. The Paleocene biozones are present in the same consistent stratigraphic order in the Castle Gardens area as observed in the 1978 study and subsequent studies throughout the Rocky Mountain region. In accordance with the North American Stratigraphic Code, the historical background is presented; intent to establish the Castle Gardens reference section is declared; the category, rank, and formal names of biostratigraphic units within it are specified; and the features of the biozonation are described, including biozone boundaries, ages, and regional relations. Occurrences of biostratigraphically significant palynological species within each biozone in the reference section are tabulated, and presence of these and other species in correlative

  14. Analysis and simulation of recent climate variability in the high-mountain regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Emily; Mölg, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Kilimanjaro is the highest free-standing mountain in the world, and the glaciers at its summit represent regionally unique high-altitude sampling points in the troposphere. The region is influenced by, among other phenomena, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Indian Ocean Zonal Mode, and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. However, the impacts of these phenomena as well as interactions between them on climate conditions in the high-mountain regions of East Africa are poorly constrained. Here we analyze recent high-altitude climate variability in East Africa using a combination of atmospheric reanalysis data, convection permitting (~1 km grid spacing) numerical simulations with the regional atmospheric model WRF, and multi-year in-situ weather station data at the summits of Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro. We utilize these datasets to elucidate the impact of modes of internal climate variability, with a particular emphasis on ENSO, on both the large- and local-scale atmospheric conditions. Our analysis is compared with a ten-year record of glacier surface-height-change measurements on Kilimanjaro to elucidate the drivers of recent glacier response in East Africa.

  15. Regional bankfull geometry relationships for southern California mountain streams and hydrologic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modrick, Theresa M.; Georgakakos, Konstantine P.

    2014-09-01

    This study develops and intercompares regional relationships for bankfull channel width, hydraulic depth, and cross-sectional area for southern California mountain streams based on several data sources: surveyed streams, US Geological Survey stream survey reports, and existing literature. Although considerable uncertainty exists in estimating bankfull conditions, the relationships developed from the varying data sources show significant agreement. For small watersheds with drainage area ranging from 15 to ~ 2000 km2, the estimates of bankfull top width ranged from 7.2 to 44.5 m and hydraulic depth estimates ranged from 0.35 to 1.15 m. The utility of the developed bankfull geometry regional curves is demonstrated for southern California catchments through (a) the computation of the bankfull discharge and (b) the estimation of the surface runoff response necessary to produce bankfull conditions in the streams at the outlet of these catchments. For selected locations with instantaneous flow records, the occurrence frequency of events exceeding bankfull flow was examined for the available 10-15 year span of observational records. Bankfull discharge estimates for all small watersheds in the region ranged from 1.3 to 74 m3/s, while the range at the selected gauged stream locations was from 2.6 to 16.4 m3/s. Stream locations along the Transverse Mountains of southern California showed an average occurrence frequency of less than 1 year, whereas along the Peninsular Mountains the average return period tended to be greater than 1 year. The application of the regional curves to the estimation of the surface runoff response necessary to produce bankfull conditions at the channel outlets of small catchments may be used as an index for conditions of minor flooding with saturated soils. This surface runoff response index ranges from 2.0 to 5.5 mm for a 3-hour rainfall duration for southern California watersheds greater than 15 km2 in area. Differences between the values for the

  16. Regional and local correlations of feldspar geochemistry of the Peach Spring Tuff, Alvord Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buesch, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of feldspar grains in an ignimbrite from the Spanish Canyon Formation in the Alvord Mountain area, California, have been used to confirm similarities in three measured sections locally, and they are similar to exposures of the Peach Spring Tuff (PST) regionally. Feldspar grains were identified on the basis of texture (zoning, as mantled feldspars, or in crystal clusters), whether the grains were attached to glass or were in pumice clasts, or were simply crystal fragments with no textural context. Chemistry was determined by electron microprobe analysis, and each analysis is calculated in terms of the percent endmember and plotted on orthoclase (Or) versus anorthite (An) plots. In general, the PST has sanidine and plagioclase compositions that are consistent with having formed in high-silica rhyolite and trachyte within a zoned magma chamber. Feldspars from the PST in Spanish Canyon area cluster along the rhyolitic trend with no grains along the trachytic trend. Similar clustering of feldspars along the rhyolitic trend with no grains along the trachytic trend also occur in the PST from Granite Spring and Providence Mountains to the east of the Alvord Mountain area, and the ranges in compositions are also similar in these locations. In contrast, the PST in the Kane Wash area of the Newberry Mountains has feldspars only from the rhyolitic trend in the basal deposits, but some grains from the trachytic trend are in the upper part of the deposit, and the range in compositions are greater than in the Spanish Canyon area. The variations in vertical compositional zoning and compositional range in these different deposits suggests there were probably different flow paths (or timing of the delivery) during the eruption and runout of the pyroclastic flow(s) generated from the climactic eruption of the PST magma chamber.

  17. GEOLOGIC ASPECTS OF TIGHT GAS RESERVOIRS IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, Charles W.

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe some geologic characteristics of tight gas reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region. These reservoirs usually have an in-situ permeability to gas of 0. 1 md or less and can be classified into four general geologic and engineering categories: (1) marginal marine blanket, (2) lenticular, (3) chalk, and (4) marine blanket shallow. Microscopic study of pore/permeability relationships indicates the existence of two varieties of tight reservoirs. One variety is tight because of the fine grain size of the rock. The second variety is tight because the rock is relatively tightly cemented and the pores are poorly connected by small pore throats and capillaries.

  18. Eruptive history of the Dieng Mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C. Dan; Sushyar, R.; Santoso; Hamidi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location.

  19. Eruptive history of the Dieng mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.D.; Sukhyar, R.; Santoso; Hamidi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location. 6 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  20. PBO Facility Construction: Basin and Range and Rocky Mountain Regions Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, B.; Jenkins, F.; Kasmer, D.; Feaux, K.

    2006-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the larger NSF-funded EarthScope project, will study the three- dimensional strain field resulting from active plate boundary deformation across the Western United States. PBO is a large construction project involving the reconnaissance, permitting, installation, documentation, and maintenance of 852 permanent GPS stations in five years. 163 of these stations lie within the Basin and Range and Rocky Mountain Regions consisting of the states of Montana, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona. During the third year of the project, the Basin and Range and Rocky Mountain regions of PBO accelerated production goals in reconnaissance, permitting, and installation activities. The summer of 2006 saw the completion of nearly all of the reconnaissance field work for the regions, with permits submitted to landholders for 88% of the total number of stations. A major milestone in the permitting phase of the construction project was the approval of 33 GPS stations located on Bureau of Land Management controlled public lands in Nevada. This transect is located along Highway 50 and will profile the extension of the Basin and Range province. Construction of these stations will be conducted throughout the fall of 2006. The focus for construction efforts in year 3 was in the state of Montana, where many of the backbone and Yellowstone cluster stations were completed. To date, construction is complete for 80 of 163 GPS stations.

  1. Origin and evolution of mountainous regions north of Tibet, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, D.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The huge deformation field associated with the Indo-Eurasia collision provides an unrivalled opportunity to investigate the origin and evolution of anomalously high topography in an intraplate, continental interior setting. Mountainous regions north of Tibet and south of the Hangay Dome are hyper-arid with internally drained basins and very low erosion rates. Consequently, the tectonic signal is very strongly expressed in the landscape. Directly north of Tibet, the Beishan is an anomalous plateau region whose first-order topography cannot be explained by Tertiary-Quaternary faulting, although second-order topographic culminations within the plateau are due to Quaternary-Recent transpressional fault displacements. The Beishan appears to be a peripheral bulge due to significant underthrusting of the Tarim-Dunhuang Block beneath the northern margin of Tibet. North of the Beishan region, the Eastern Tien Shan and Gobi Altai are essentially a transpressional basin and range province whose origin is due to thrust and oblique-slip thrust reactivation of older basement structures and diffuse sinistral strike-slip faulting. The angular relationship between SHmax and older structural trends is the first-order control on the kinematics of Quaternary faulting in the region and the style of mountain building. Restraining bends, thrust blocks and diverse transpressional fault arrays generate a complex 3D orogenic architecture that differs significantly from a contractional fold and thrust belt. Late Cenozoic uplift of the Gobi Altai, eastern Tien Shan and Altai orogens is due to diffuse transpressional reactivation of a mechanically weak Paleozoic terrane collage sandwiched between more rigid Precambrian basement blocks, representing the ';soft' core of Central Asia. Southeast of Mongolia and northeast of Tibet, the Lang Shan, Yabrai Shan and Helan Shan mountainous regions comprise footwall block uplifts associated with Ordos Basin extension and the left-lateral strike

  2. Nature of migrabitumen and their relation to regional thermal maturity, Ouachita Mountains, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardott, Brian J.; Ruble, Tim E.; Suneson, Neil H.

    1993-01-01

    Two grahamite and three impsonite localities are within an 82-km-long segment of the Ouachita Mountains of southeastern Oklahoma. Grab samples were collected to study the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of the migrabitumen at the grahamite-impsonite transition and the relation of the migrabitumen to the regional thermal maturity pattern. Maximum and random bitumen reflectance values increased from 0.75 to 1.80% from west to east, consistent with the regional thermal maturation trend. Mean bireflectance values increased from 0.04 to 0.38%. The two grahamite samples are classified at the grahamite-impsonite boundary with conflicting petrographic (bitumen reflectance) and bulk chemical (volatile matter) maturity indicators. The regional maturation trend, based on vitrinite reflectance and bitumen reflectance values, was confirmed by a detailed geochemical investigation of bitumen extracts. Although biomarker analyses were influenced by extensive biodegradation effects, molecular parameters based on the phenanthrenes, dibenzothiophenes, and tricyclic terpanes were identified as useful maturity indicators.

  3. Potential yields of wells in unconsolidated aquifers in upstate New York-- Adirondack sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bugliosi, Edward F.; Trudell, Ruth A.; Casey, George D.

    1988-01-01

    This map shows the location and potential well yield from unconsolidated aquifers in the Adirondack region at a 1:250,000 scale. It also delineates segments of aquifers that are heavily used by community water systems and designated by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation as ' Primary Water Supply ' aquifers and cites published reports that give detailed information on each area. Most aquifers were deposited in low-lying areas such as valleys or plains during deglaciation of the region. Thick, permeable, well-sorted sand and gravel deposits generally yield large quantities of water, greater than 100 gal/min. Thin sand, sand and gravel deposits, or thicker gravel units have a large content of silt and fine sand, yield moderate amounts of water, 10 to 100 gal/min. Wells dug in till and those drilled in bedrock commonly yield less than 10 gal/min. (USGS)

  4. Modelling Sub-canopy Shortwave Under Needle-Leaf Forests in Mountain Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, C.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2006-12-01

    Snowmelt is one of the most important hydrological events in mountain regions, responsible for soil moisture recharge, vegetation growth, and ecosystem productivity. Mountain snowmelt is also of tremendous importance to the downstream water resource of many North American regions, from where over 80% of river- flows may originate. As mountain regions are covered largely by needle-leaf forests, turbulent energy exchanges are suppressed and snowmelt is driven primarily by shortwave irradiance energy transmitted to the sub-canopy Thus, effective prediction of the timing and magnitude of mountain snowmelt runoff for the purposes reservoir operation, land-use planning, and flood forecasting require accurate estimation of shortwave irradiance transmission through sloping forest-cover. This paper outlines and evaluates a physically-based model requiring minimal calibration designed to estimate shortwave irradiance transmission through needle-leaf forest cover with respect to surface orientation. Transmission was estimated using forest-survey data to calculate the fractions of forest occupied by non-transmitting trunks, partially-transmitting crowns and fully-transmitting gaps with respect to both above-canopy diffuse and beam irradiance. Simulations were conducted for continuous and uniform lodgepole pine forests on level and north-facing slopes and a discontinuous, non-uniform forest on a southeast-facing slope during snowmelt at the Marmot Creek Research Basin, Alberta, Canada. Mean observed daily transmissivity values were 0.09 at the north-facing forest, 0.21 at the level forest and 0.36 at the southeast-facing forest. Modelled and observed results indicate that sub-canopy shortwave irradiance snowmelt energy exhibited greatest variation with change in sky condition and forest-cover density under south-facing forests and the least variation under north-facing forests. This suggests the timing and rate of snowmelt may vary more for south-facing forests than for forests

  5. Topographic and meteorological influences on space-time scaling of heavy convective rainfall in mountainous regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubert Godoy, A.; Nykanen, D.

    2003-04-01

    Characterizing the space-time scaling and dynamics of convective precipitation in mountainous terrain and the development of downscaling methods to transfer precipitation fields from one scale to another is the overall motivation for this research. Subtantiing a space-time statistical downscaling model for orographic convective precipitation based on the interplay between meteorological forcings and topographic influences on the scale-invariant properties of precipitation will be assessed.al progress has been made on characterizing the space-time organization of mid-western convective systems and tropical rainfall, which has lead to the development of statistical/dynamical downscaling models. Space-time analysis and downscaling of orographic precipitation has received much less attention due to the complexities of topographic influences. This study uses multi-scale statistical analysis to investigate the space-time scaling of organized thunderstorms that produced heavy rainfall and catastrophic flooding in mountainous regions. Focus is placed on the eastern and western slopes of the Appalachian region and the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Parameter estimates are analyzed over time and focus is placed on linking changes in the multi-scale parameters with meteorological forcings and orographic influences on the rainfall. Influences of geographic region (e.g., western versus eastern United States) and predominant orographic controls (e.g., windward versus leeward forcing)on trends in multi-scale properties of precipitation are investigated. Spatial resolutions from 1 km to 50 km and temporal integrations from 5 minutes to 3 hours ae considered. This range of space-time scales is needed to bridge typical scale gaps between distributed hydrologic models and numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts and attempts to address the open research problem of scaling organized thunderstorms and convection in mountainous terrain down to 1-4 km scales. The potential for

  6. [Variation Characteristics of Total Gaseous Mercury at Simian Mountain Background Station in Mid-subtropical Region].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-ming; Ma, Ming; Wang, Ding-yong; Sun, Tao; Wei, Shi-qiang

    2016-05-15

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was continuously monitored at the Simian Mountain Forest Nature Reserve in Chongqing, a representative of the mid-subtropical region, using high-resolution automatic atmospheric mercury vapor analyzer (Tekran 2537X) from March 2012 to February 2013. The results showed that the average concentration of TGM during the monitoring was (2.88 ± 1.54) ng · m⁻³, which was much higher than the background TGM on north hemisphere but lower than those at most of the other monitoring sites in China. These results suggested that the TGM level in Simian Mountain was still in the normal range on regional scale, but had an increasing tendency globally. The TGM level exhibited a distinct seasonal variation, following the order of winter (3.68 ± 2.43) ng · m⁻³ > summer (3.29 ± 0.79) ng · m⁻³ > spring (2.44 ± 0.69) ng · m⁻³ > autumn (2.13 ± 0.97) ng · m⁻³, and the TGM concentration varied to a greater extent in winter. The diurnal variation of TGM concentration characterized as being higher at the nighttime in spring, while higher during the daytime in other seasons. The concentration variation of TGM had a positive correlation to temperature and light intensity. The result of backward trajectory analysis using HYSPLIT showed that the main source of the TGM in Simian Mountain was the local coal combustion, and long distance transportation by the Indian monsoon might also play a role in the increasing TGM level. PMID:27506014

  7. Physical processes and effects of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, G.A.; Crowe, B.M.; Perry, F.V.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes initial studies related to the effects of volcanism on performance of the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository, and to the general processes of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region. Volcanism or igneous activity can affect the repository performance by ejection of waste onto the earth`s surface (eruptive effects), or by subsurface effects of hydrothermal processes and altered hydrology if an intrusion occurs within the repository block. Initial, conservative calculations of the volume of waste that might be erupted during a small-volume basaltic eruption (such as those which occurred in the Yucca Mountain region) indicate that regulatory limits might be exceeded. Current efforts to refine these calculations, based upon field studies at analog sites, are described. Studies of subsurface effects are just beginning, and are currently focused on field studies of intrusion properties and contact metamorphism at deeply eroded analog sites. General processes of magmatism are important for providing a physical basis for predictions of future volcanic activity. Initial studies have focused on modeling basaltic magma chambers in conjunction with petrographic and geochemical studies. An example of the thermal-fluid dynamic evolution of a small basaltic sill is described, based on numerical simulation. Quantification of eruption conditions can provide valuable information on the overall magmatic system. We are developing quantitative methods for mapping pyroclastic facies of small basaltic centers and, in combination with two-phase hydrodynamic simulation, using this information to estimate eruption conditions. Examples of such hydrodynamic simulations are presented, along with comparison to an historical eruption in Hawaii.

  8. Developing Temperature Forcing for Snow and Ice Melt Runoff Models in High Mountain Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, A. P.; Armstrong, R. L.; Brodzik, M. J.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Raup, B. H.; Rittger, K.

    2014-12-01

    Glaciers and snow cover are natural storage reservoirs that delay runoff on seasonal and longer time-scales. Glacier wastage and reduced snow packs will impact the volume and timing of runoff from mountain basins. Estimates of the contributions of glacier and snow melt to runoff in river systems draining mountain regions are critical for water resources planning. The USAID funded CHARIS project aims to estimate the contributions of glacier and snow melt to streamflow in the Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers. Most efforts to estimate glacier and snow melt contributions use temperature-index or degree-day approaches. Near-surface air temperature is a key forcing variable for such models. As with all mountain regions, meteorological stations are sparse and may have short records. Few stations exist at high elevations, with most stations located in valleys below the elevations of glaciers and seasonal snow cover. Reanalyses offer an alternative source of temperature data. However, reanalyses have coarse resolution and simplified topography, especially in the Himalaya. Surface fields are often biased. Any reanalysis product must be both bias-corrected and "downscaled" to the resolution of the melt-runoff model. We present a combined empirically-based bias-correction and downscaling procedure that uses near-surface air temperature from global atmospheric reanalyses to generate near-surface temperature forcing fields for the five river basins in the CHARIS study area. We focus on three 3rd Generation reanalyses; NASA MERRA, NCEP CFSR and ECMWF ERA-Interim. Evaluation of reanalysis temperature fields reveals differences between seasonal means of 500 hPa air temperatures for the three products are of the order of 1 °C, indicating choice of reanalysis can impact model results. The procedure accounts for these seasonal variations in biases of the reanalysis products and in lapse rates.

  9. [Life span and cercaria shedding of schistosome-infected snails in mountain region of Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Xie, F; Yin, G; Wu, J; Duan, Y; Zhang, X; Yang, J; Qian, K; Tan, H; Zheng, J; Zhang, R

    1990-01-01

    The life span and cercaria shedding of infected Oncomelania snails in a mountain region of Shitoudi village, Weishan County, Yunnan Province were observed in simulated local ecological environments. 135 infected snails were isolated for observation 3 months after exposure to miracidia in August, 1987. The snail survival rate from the day of initial cercaria shedding to next June, July, August and September was 27.4, 16.3, 13.3 and 11.9% respectively, and the average number of cercariae shed was 139.9, 29.6, 39.2 and 75 per month respectively. The average life span of infected snails was 171.6 days. The average number of cercariae shed per snail in its whole life was 673.0. It was estimated that the average patent period of infected snails was over half a year. As this is the first report in our country in respect to the life span and cercariae shedding of infected snails in a mountain region, the result might be useful for quantitative analysis of epidemiological factors of schistosomiasis in this kind of endemic areas as well as for formulation of control strategy. PMID:2114229

  10. PBO Facility Construction: Basin and Range and Rocky Mountain Regions Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, B.; Jenkins, F.; Kasmer, D.; Feaux, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the larger NSF-funded EarthScope project, will study the three- dimensional strain field resulting from active plate boundary deformation across the western United States. PBO is a large construction project involving the reconnaissance, permitting, installation, documentation, and maintenance of 875 permanent GPS stations in five years. 163 of these stations lie within the Basin and Range and Rocky Mountain Regions consisting of the states of Montana, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona. During the fourth year of the project, the Basin and Range and Rocky Mountain regions of PBO completed reconnaissance and nearly all permitting activities, and maintained a fast pace of station installations. The fall of 2006 and spring of 2007 were devoted to the construction of a large push of 50 stations, most located on Bureau of Land Management controlled public lands in Nevada. This transect is located along Highway 50 and will profile the extension of the Basin and Range province. The Yellowstone area, including surrounding National Parks and Forests was the target of summer 2007, during which time 10 remote stations with difficult logistics were installed. To date, construction is complete for 135 of 163 GPS stations.

  11. Risk Assessment of Geologic Formation Sequestration in The Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the outcome of a targeted risk assessment of a candidate geologic sequestration site in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. Specifically, a major goal of the probabilistic risk assessment was to quantify the possible spatiotemporal responses for Area of Review (AoR) and injection-induced pressure buildup associated with carbon dioxide (CO₂) injection into the subsurface. Because of the computational expense of a conventional Monte Carlo approach, especially given the likely uncertainties in model parameters, we applied a response surface method for probabilistic risk assessment of geologic CO₂ storage in the Permo-Penn Weber formation at a potential CCS site in Craig, Colorado. A site-specific aquifer model was built for the numerical simulation based on a regional geologic model.

  12. Topography of sinuous rilles in the Harbinger Mountains region of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strain, P. L.; El-Baz, F.

    1977-01-01

    Five sinuous rilles in mare basalts in the Harbinger Mountains region of the moon are described. Rille length ranges from 12 to 79 km, width from 0.8 to 4.8 km, and depth from 100 to 300 m. The rilles appear to become shallower to the north, while the southern ends are characterized by circular-to-elongate depressions that occur on a 30-km-in-diameter dome of probable volcanic origin. Longitudinal profiles show that the rille floors have a northward slope of less than one deg, consistent with the general slope of the surrounding mare surface. Structural studies indicate that slope, rather than the regional structural pattern, is the dominant factor controlling rill direction. Topographic data support the theory that the rilles were formed as lave channels or tubes.

  13. Geology of the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington; stratigraphy, physiography, and mineral resources of the Blue Mountains region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallier, T. L., (Edited By); Brooks, H.C.

    1994-01-01

    PART 1: Stratigraphic and sedimentological analysis of sedimentary sequences from the Wallowa terrane of northeastern Oregon has provided a unique insight into the paleogeography and depositional history of the terrane, as well as establishing important constraints on its tectonic evolution and accretionary history. Its Late Triassic history is considered here by examining the two most important sedimentary units in the Wallowa terrane-the Martin Bridge Limestone and the Hurwal Formation. Conformably overlying epiclastic volcanic rocks of the Seven Devils Group, the Martin Bridge Limestone comprises shallow-water platform carbonate rocks and deeper water, off-platform slope and basin facies. Regional stratigraphic and tectonic relations suggest that the Martin Bridge was deposited in a narrow, carbonate-dominated (forearc?) basin during a lull in volcanic activity. The northern Wallowa platform was a narrow, rimmed shelf delineated by carbonate sand shoals. Interior parts of the shelf were characterized by supratidal to shallow subtidal carbonates and evaporites, which were deposited in a restricted basin. In the southern Wallowa Mountains, lithofacies of the Martin Bridge are primarily carbonate turbidites and debris flow deposits, which accumulated on a carbonate slope apron adjacent to the northern Wallowa rimmed shelf from which they were derived. Drowning of the platform in the latest Triassic, coupled with a renewed influx of volcanically derived sediments, resulted in the progradation of fine-grained turbidites of the Hurwal Formation over the carbonate platform. Within the Hurwal, Norian conglomerates of the Excelsior Gulch unit contain exotic clasts of radiolarian chert, which were probably derived from the Bakei terrane. Such a provenance provides evidence of a tectonic link between the Baker and Wallowa terranes as early as the Late Triassic, and offers support for the theory that both terranes were part of a more extensive and complex Blue Mountains

  14. Role of land use change in landslide-related sediment fluxes in tropical mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guns, M.; Vanacker, V.; Demoulin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Tropical mountain regions are characterised by high denudation rates. Landslides are known to be recurrent phenomena in active mountain belts, but their contribution to the overall sedimentary fluxes is not yet well known. Previous studies on sedimentary cascades have mostly focused on natural environments, without considering the impact of human and/or anthropogenic disturbances on sedimentary budgets. In our work, we hypothesise that human-induced land use change might alter the sediment cascade through shifts in the landslide magnitude-frequency relationship. We have tested this assumption in the Virgen Yacu catchment (approximately 11km2), in the Ecuadorian Cordillera Occidental. Landslide inventories and land use maps were established based on a series of sequential aerial photos (1963, 1977, 1984 and 1989), a HR Landsat image (2001) and a VHR WorldView2 image (2010). Aerial photographs were ortho-rectified, and coregistred with the WorldView2 satellite image. Field campaigns were realised in 2010 and 2011 to collect field-based data on landslide type and geometry (depth, width and length). This allowed us to establish an empirical relationship between landslide area and volume, which was then applied to the landslide inventories to estimate landslide-related sediment production rates for various time periods. The contribution of landslides to the overall sediment flux of the catchment was estimated by comparing the landslide-related sediment production to the total sediment yield. The empirical landslide area-volume relationship established here for the Ecuadorian Andes is similar to that derived for the Himalayas. It suggests that landslides are the main source of sediment in this mountainous catchment. First calculations indicate that human-induced land use change alters the magnitude-frequency relationship through strong increase of small landslides.

  15. Particulate organic carbon export from soil and vegetation in temperate mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. C.; Hovius, N.; Galy, A.; Tye, A.; Turowski, J.

    2012-04-01

    In assessing the significance of terrestrial particulate organic carbon (POC) export in the global carbon cycle, it is essential to be able to predict the POC yield and its make-up (broadly, fossil versus non-fossil) from any given setting. Because mountains vastly dominate the physical erosion load, an understanding of the processes operating in mountains of different kinds, and what controls them, is necessary. In particular, the dynamics of POC harvest in temperate forested uplands are poorly constrained, despite the large area covered by these zones. C and N concentration and isotopic composition data (for both riverine suspended sediment and carbon stores) are presented from two contrasting temperate mountain regions with vast stocks of soil organic carbon. In the northern Swiss Alps, as discharge increases, POC is initially diluted by lithic material through in-channel clearing, but beyond a threshold POC is added. This happens under moderate flow conditions when hillslopes are activated and rain- induced overland flow delivers soil POC to channels. As a result, the proportion of non-fossil POC increases significantly as discharge and suspended sediment load increase. In contrast to the Swiss Alps, overland flow occurs rarely in the Oregon Cascades and Coast Range. There, hillslope soil is decoupled from the channel, due largely to riparian vegetation that both prevents extensive mobilisation and traps sediment before it reaches the stream. Where channels are aggrading, there is no other input mechanism for soil or bedrock, resulting in very low total sediment and POC yields (and correspondingly high POC concentrations). In the Coast Range, with largely sedimentary rather than volcanic substrate, there is some evidence for hillslope soil mobilisation, but not (under moderate meteorological conditions) on the scale observed in Switzerland. Instead, nearly all POC exported comes from vegetation. Initial dilution of POC through in-channel clearing is still

  16. SEASONAL AND LONG-TERM TEMPORAL PATTERNS IN THE CHEMISTRY OF ADIRONDACK LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is considerable interest in the recovery of surface waters from acidification by acidic deposition. he Adirondack Long-Term Monitoring (ALTM) program was established in 1982 to evaluate changes in the chemistry of 17 Adirondack lakes. he objectives of this paper are to: 1) ...

  17. VARIATION IN ADIRONDACK, NEW YORK, LAKEWATER CHEMISTRY AS A FUNCTION OF SURFACE AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from a recent survey conducted by the Adirondack Lake Survey Corporation were used to evaluate the influence of lake surface area on the acid-base status of lakes in Adirondack State Park, New York. cid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in the small lakes (<4 ha) occurred more fre...

  18. Investigating Downscaling Methods and Evaluating Climate Models for Use in Estimating Regional Water Resources in Mountainous Regions under Changing Climatic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frei, Allan; Nolin, Anne W.; Serreze, Mark C.; Armstrong, Richard L.; McGinnis, David L.; Robinson, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this three-year study is to develop and evaluate techniques to estimate the range of potential hydrological impacts of climate change in mountainous areas. Three main objectives are set out in the proposal. (1) To develop and evaluate transfer functions to link tropospheric circulation to regional snowfall. (2) To evaluate a suite of General Circulation Models (GCMs) for use in estimating synoptic scale circulation and the resultant regional snowfall. And (3) to estimate the range of potential hydrological impacts of changing climate in the two case study areas: the Upper Colorado River basin, and the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York State. Both regions provide water to large populations.

  19. Differential insect and mammalian response to Late Quaternary climate change in the Rocky Mountain region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Scott A.

    2015-07-01

    Of the 200 beetle species identified from Rocky Mountain Late Pleistocene insect faunal assemblages, 23% are no longer resident in this region. None of the 200 species is extinct. In contrast to this, only 8% of 73 identified mammal species from Rocky Mountain Late Pleistocene assemblages are no longer resident in the Rockies, and 12 species are now extinct. Since both groups of organisms are highly mobile, it would appear that their responses to the large-scale fluctuations of climate associated with the last 125,000 years have been considerably different. Most strikingly contrasting with the insects, there are no mammals in the Rocky Mountain Late Pleistocene fossil record that are found exclusively today in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region. The PNW does have a distinctive modern mammalian fauna, but only one of these, Keen's Myotis, has a fossil record outside the PNW region, in the eastern and central United States. No modern PNW vertebrate species have been found in any Rocky Mountain fossil assemblages. Based on these data, it appears that there has been little or no mammalian faunal exchange between the PNW region and the Rocky Mountains during the Late Pleistocene or Holocene. This is in stark contrast to the fossil beetle record, where PNW species are a substantial component in many faunas, right through to the Late Holocene.

  20. Psychosocial needs of cancer patients living in the Adirondacks: a needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Riley-Clark, Alison; Pieper, Barbara B

    2014-01-01

    As the national conversation on solutions to healthcare factors such as affordability and access is likely to intensify, health inequities continue to persist in rural areas. National studies suggest a growing, aging, rural population impacting the revenues of local healthcare facilities, as well as contributing to complexity of care. This paper examines factors influencing the health of rural citizens in upstate New York and offers the results of an initial needs assessment looking at the psychosocial healthcare needs of cancer patients living in the Adirondack Park region. Patients were surveyed regarding their perceptions of psychosocial needs and experiences as a cancer patient. Psychosocial factors while acknowledged as important influences on recovery and healing remain an underdeveloped intervention toward improving the quality of cancer care. Recommendations are made based on the results to enhance the quality of life for this vulnerable population. PMID:26021132

  1. Habitat assessment for giant pandas in the Qinling Mountain region of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, Tian-Tian; Van Manen, Frank T.; Zhao, Na-Xun; Li, Ming; Wei, Fu-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Because habitat loss and fragmentation threaten giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), habitat protection and restoration are important conservation measures for this endangered species. However, distribution and value of potential habitat to giant pandas on a regional scale are not fully known. Therefore, we identified and ranked giant panda habitat in Foping Nature Reserve, Guanyinshan Nature Reserve, and adjacent areas in the Qinling Mountains of China. We used Mahalanobis distance and 11 digital habitat layers to develop a multivariate habitat signature associated with 247 surveyed giant panda locations, which we then applied to the study region. We identified approximately 128 km2 of giant panda habitat in Foping Nature Reserve (43.6% of the reserve) and 49 km2 in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (33.6% of the reserve). We defined core habitat areas by incorporating a minimum patch-size criterion (5.5 km2) based on home-range size. Percentage of core habitat area was higher in Foping Nature Reserve (41.8% of the reserve) than Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (26.3% of the reserve). Within the larger analysis region, Foping Nature Reserve contained 32.7% of all core habitat areas we identified, indicating regional importance of the reserve. We observed a negative relationship between distribution of core areas and presence of roads and small villages. Protection of giant panda habitat at lower elevations and improvement of habitat linkages among core habitat areas are important in a regional approach to giant panda conservation.

  2. [Spatial variability and management zone of soil major nutrients in tobacco fields in Qiannan mountainous region].

    PubMed

    Wu, De-Chuan; Luo, Hong-Xiang; Song, Ze-Min; Guo, Guang-Dong; Chen, Yong-An; Li, Yu-Xiang; Jiang, Yu-Ping; Li, Zhang-Hai

    2014-06-01

    Spatial variability and management zone of soil major nutrients in tobacco fields in Qian-nan mountainous region were analyzed using geostatistics and fuzzy c-mean algorithm. Results indicated that the level of soil organic matter (OM) was moderate, and alkalytic nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) were rich according to tobacco soil nutrient classification standards. Coefficients of variation (CV) of OM, AN, AP and AK were moderate. Contents of OM, AN, AP and AK fitted log-normal distributions. Correlation analysis showed moderate correlations between OM and AN, AP and AK. OM and AN were best described by Gaussian semivariogram models, while AP and AK were described by exponential models. The four nutrients displayed moderate spatial autocorrelation. There were significant differences among lag distances of four soil nutrients. OM, AN, AP and AK in the majority of studied regions varied at moderate to very rich levels, and deficiencies of OM, AN, AP and AK only accounted for 0.93%, 0.53%, 0.24% and 7.91% of the total studied region, respectively. Based on the results, the studied region was divided into two management zones (MZ), namely MZ1 and MZ2, accounting for 69. 8% and 30. 2% of the studied region respectively. The soil levels of OM, AN, AP and AK in MZ1 were significantly lower than those in MZ2 (P < 0.01). PMID:25223027

  3. Developing scenarios to assess future landslide risks: a model-based approach applied to mountainous regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacquie, Laure; Houet, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In the last century, European mountain landscapes have experienced significant transformations. Natural and anthropogenic changes, climate changes, touristic and industrial development, socio-economic interactions, and their implications in terms of LUCC (land use and land cover changes) have directly influenced the spatial organization and vulnerability of mountain landscapes. This study is conducted as part of the SAMCO project founded by the French National Science Agency (ANR). It aims at developing a methodological approach, combining various tools, modelling platforms and methods, to identify vulnerable regions to landslide hazards accounting for futures LUCC. It presents an integrated approach combining participative scenarios and a LULC changes simulation models to assess the combined effects of LUCC and climate change on landslide risks in the Cauterets valley (French Pyrenees Mountains) up to 2100. Through vulnerability and risk mapping, the objective is to gather information to support landscape planning and implement land use strategies with local stakeholders for risk management. Four contrasting scenarios are developed and exhibit contrasting trajectories of socio-economic development. Prospective scenarios are based on national and international socio-economic contexts relying on existing assessment reports. The methodological approach integrates knowledge from local stakeholders to refine each scenario during their construction and to reinforce their plausibility and relevance by accounting for local specificities, e.g. logging and pastoral activities, touristic development, urban planning, etc. A process-based model, the Forecasting Scenarios for Mountains (ForeSceM) model, developed on the Dinamica Ego modelling platform is used to spatially allocate futures LUCC for each prospective scenario. Concurrently, a spatial decision support tool, i.e. the SYLVACCESS model, is used to identify accessible areas for forestry in scenario projecting logging

  4. Effect of land use and land cover change on soil erosion and the spatio-temporal variation in Liupan Mountain Region, southern Ningxia, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Liupan Mountains are located in the southern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China, which forms an important dividing line between landforms and bio-geographic regions. The populated part of the Liupan Mountains region has suffered tremendous ecological damages over time due to population press...

  5. The Influence of Speckled Alder on Nitrogen Accumulation in Adirondack Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiernan, B. D.; Hurd, T. M.; Raynal, D. J.

    2001-05-01

    Shrub-dominated wetlands of the Adirondacks typically support vigorous populations of nitrogen-fixing speckled alder Alnus incana (L.) Moench var. americana Regel), and are the second most abundant wetland type in the Adirondack region. In symbiotic association with an actinomycete of the genus Frankia, this shrub fixes 37-43 kg N/ha/yr in monotypic stands. This study was undertaken to quantify the abundance of alder in wetlands typed as "Scrub-shrub 1" (SS1; known as alder/willow wetlands) in the National Wetlands Inventory, and to determine the accumulation of nitrate and ammonium in alder wetland substrates. Twenty wetlands from the Oswegatchie-Black (OB) and Upper Hudson (UH) watersheds were randomly selected using the Adirondack Park Agency's GIS data base which includes wetland cover types assigned using remotely sensed data. Wetlands designated as "SS1" (scrub-shrub vegetation) and "SS1/EM1" (scrub-shrub with emergent herbaceous vegetation) were included in the sample. Six wetlands varying in alder abundance were chosen to estimate N accumulation in the substrate, with measurement of dissolved inorganic N in groundwater and ion exchange resin extracts. In the OB watershed, A. incana averaged 30 % of total shrub density in SS1 wetlands and 36 % in SS1/EM1 wetlands. Alder accounted for 49 % of all stems in UH SS1 wetlands, 28 % in the SS1/EM1 wetlands and in total accounted for 35 % of all stems in this study. Nitrate in IER extracts and groundwater was significantly higher in high-density alder wetlands (p < 0.05). Eight of the 20 wetlands included in this study were estimated to have less than 3,000 alder stems/ha, and five were estimated to have greater than 10,000 stems/ha. The other seven wetlands averaged 6,000 stems/ha. At nine sites, foliar N equaled or exceeded estimated atmospheric deposition (~10 kg/ha/yr), and was likely derived from N fixation. We conclude that 50 % of the SS1/EM1 wetlands and at least 75 % of the SS1 wetlands in these watersheds

  6. Coal in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains Region -- Clean, compliant, and available

    SciTech Connect

    Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.S.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R.

    1998-12-31

    The Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region produced over 340 million short tons of coal in 1997, approximately 30 percent of the nation`s total coal production. Coals from this region are shipped to 26 states in the western, midwest, southern, and eastern US and production is projected to increase to 415 million short tons by 2015; the projected increase will be utilized primarily for production of electric power. The coals are economically attractive because they can be produced by surface mining, and do not require costly beneficiation to be compliant with emission standards. The coals are compliant because their chemical composition was influenced by tectonic settings of the coal basins and provenance of the sediments entering the basins. Tectonics during the Paleocene also influenced rates of precipitation and depositional systems. These factors, in concert, controlled the amount, distribution, and levels of sulfur, ash, and trace elements of environmental concern in the region`s coals. The emphasis of this paper is on the chemistry of these thick, high-quality coals and the geologic controls that resulted in their accumulation.

  7. Heat transport by fluids during late Cretaceous regional metamorphism in the Big Maria Mountains, southeastern California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoisch, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Big Maria Mountains of SE California preserve evidence of a large-scale fluid flux that accompanied regional metamorphism in late Cretaceous time. Neither magmatism nor radioactive heat sources are adequate to explain the T of metamorphism. Simultaneously crystallizing plutons at different levels within the crust could have contributed to the overall hot fluid flux. A fluid:rock ratio of 17:1 may be calculated given average conditions of 3 kbar, 500oC, an infiltrating fluid of composition XH2O = 1.0, an equilibrium fluid composition of XH2O = 0.97, and 90% wollastonite in the final rock form the reaction quartz + calcite = CO2 + wollastonite. The minimum quantity of fluid of 1.7 rock volume was estimated to pass through the area if the fluid was approximately at granite solidus T at the start. Deep penetrative structures within the crust may have served to channel fluids. -L.C.H.

  8. Geologic map of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park region, Tennessee and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Schultz, Art; Denenny, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    The geology of the Great Smoky Mountain National Park (GSMNP) region of Tennessee and North Carolina was studied from 1993 to 2003 as part of a cooperative investigation with the National Park Service (NPS). This work has been compiled as a 1:100,000-scale map derived from mapping done at 1:24,000 and 1:62,500 scale. The geologic data are intended to support cooperative investigations with NPS, the development of a new soil map by the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (http://www.discoverlifeinamerica.org/). At the request of NPS, we mapped areas previously not visited, revised the geology where stratigraphic and structural problems existed, and developed a map database for use in interdisciplinary research, land management, and interpretive programs for park visitors.

  9. Geologic map of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park region, Tennessee and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Schultz, Art; Aleinikoff, John N.; Merschat, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    The geology of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park region of Tennessee and North Carolina was studied from 1993 to 2003 as part of a cooperative investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey with the National Park Service (NPS). This work resulted in a 1:100,000-scale geologic map derived from mapping that was conducted at scales of 1:24,000 and 1:62,500. The geologic data are intended to support cooperative investigations with the NPS, the development of a new soil map by the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory. In response to a request by the NPS, we mapped previously unstudied areas, revised the geology where problems existed, and developed a map database for use in interdisciplinary research, land management, and interpretive programs for park visitors.

  10. Influence of livestock husbandry on schistosomiasis transmission in mountainous regions of Yunnan Province.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z; Zheng, Q S; Wang, X F; Hua, Z H

    1997-06-01

    An investigation was conducted in the highly endemic areas of schistosomiasis japonica in Weishan and Eryuan counties, Yunnan Province. The results are summarized as follows: 1) the number of domestic animals was increasing annually; 2) the proportion of animal husbandry gains in the total agriculture income had a yearly escalating tendency; 3) the infection rate of inhabitants was upgrading as a result of the development of and the prevalence in domestic animals in the recent decades. Owing to frequent migration of domestic animals, serious spread of infection sources and high prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica occurred. It is suggested that more attention should be paid to the control of schistosomiasis japonica in mountainous endemic regions during the course of economic development, especially in the development of domestic animals. PMID:9444008

  11. Analysis and Modelling of Extreme Wind Speed Distributions in Complex Mountainous Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laib, Mohamed; Kanevski, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Modelling of wind speed distributions in complex mountainous regions is an important and challenging problem which interests many scientists from several fields. In the present research, high frequency (10 min) Swiss wind speed monitoring data (IDAWEB service, Meteosuisse) are analysed and modelled with different parametric distributions (Weibull, GEV, Gamma, etc.) using maximum likelihood method. In total, 111 stations placed in different geomorphological units and at different altitude (from 203 to 3580 meters) are studied. Then, this information is used for training machine learning algorithms (Extreme Learning Machines, Support vector machine) to predict the distribution at new places, potentially useful for aeolian energy generation. An important part of the research deals with the construction and application of a high dimensional input feature space, generated from digital elevation model. A comprehensive study was carried out using feature selection approach to get the best model for the prediction. The main results are presented as spatial patterns of distributions' parameters.

  12. Abbreviated bibliography on energy development—A focus on the Rocky Mountain Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montag, Jessica M.; Willis, Carolyn J.; Glavin, Levi W.

    2011-01-01

    Energy development of all types continues to grow in the Rocky Mountain Region of the western United States. Federal resource managers increasingly need to balance energy demands, effects on the natural landscape and public perceptions towards these issues. To assist in efficient access to valuable information, this abbreviated bibliography provides citations to relevant information for myriad of issues for which resource managers must contend. The bibliography is organized by seven large topics with various sup-topics: broad energy topics (energy crisis, conservation, supply and demand, etc.); energy sources (fossil fuel, nuclear, renewable, etc.); natural landscape effects (climate change, ecosystem, mitigation, restoration, and reclamation, wildlife, water, etc.); human landscape effects (attitudes and perceptions, economics, community effects, health, Native Americans, etc.); research and technology; international research; and, methods and modeling. A large emphasis is placed on the natural and human landscape effects.

  13. Orographic and Meteorological Influences on the Spatial Organization of Thunderstorms in Mountainous Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykanen, D. K.; Godoy, A. R.

    2002-12-01

    The use of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to provide input of spatial rainfall patterns for distributed hydrologic models has gained increasing popularity over the past decade. One of the key challenges in this approach is the discrepancy between the typical scale of NWP forecasts and the scale needed for accurate hydrologic predictions, especially in moderate to extreme topography. Issues of scale also arise when driving hydrologic models with observed precipitation as the observations may have space-time resolutions that are too coarse (satellite) or fine (gage) for the needs of the hydrologic model. A better understanding of the space-time scaling and dynamics of convective precipitation across spatial resolutions from 1 km to 50 km and temporal integrations from 5 minutes to 3 hours is needed to bridge these scale gaps. Substantial progress has been made on characterizing the space-time organization of midwestern convective systems and tropical rainfall, which has lead to the development of statistical/dynamical downscaling models. Space-time analysis and downscaling of orographic precipitation has received much less attention due to the complexities of topographic influences on precipitation processes. Characterizing the space-time scaling and dynamics of orographic convective precipitation and the development of downscaling methods to transfer precipitation fields from one scale to another is the overall motivation for this research. This paper investigates the space-time organization of several heavy convective rainfall events in mountainous terrain using multi-scale statistical analysis. Focus is placed on the Appalachian region and the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Case studies which are characteristic of organized thunderstorms that produce heavy rainfall and catastrophic flooding in mountainous regions have been studied to explore the multi-scaling behavior of orographic precipitation and specifically investigate differences in the

  14. Fog water collection and reforestation at mountain locations in a western Mediterranean basin region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiente, Ja; Estrela, Mj; Corell, D.; Fuentes, D.; Valdecantos, A.

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies carried out by the authors have shown the potential of fog water collection at several mountain locations in the Valencia region (western Mediterranean basin). This coastal region features typical conditions for a dry Mediterranean climate characterized by a pluviometric regime ranging from 400 to 600 mm with a strong annual dependence. Dry conditions together with land degradation that frequently results after recurrent fires occurred in the past make a difficult self-recovery for native forest vegetation so that some kind of human intervention is always recommended. In plots reforested with Mediterranean woody species, periods of more than 120 days without significant precipitation (>5 mm) result in mortality rates above 80% during the first summer in the field. The good potential of fog-water collection at certain mountain locations is considered in this study as an easily available water resource for the reforestation of remote areas where native vegetation cannot be reestablished by itself. A large flat panel made of UV-resistant HD-polyethylene monofilament mesh was deployed at a mountain location for bulk fog water harvesting. Water was stored in high-capacity tanks for the whole length of the experimental campaign and small timely water pulses localized deep in the planting holes were conducted during the summer dry periods. Survival rates and seedling performance of two forest tree species, Pinus pinaster and Quercus ilex, were quantified and correlated to irrigation pulses in a reforestation plot that took an area of about 2500 m2 and contained 620 1-year-old plants. Before and concurrently to the flat panel deployment, a passive omnidirectional fog-water collector of cylindrical shape was set in the area in combination to other environmental instruments such as a rain gauge, a wind direction and velocity sensor and a temperature and humidity probe. Proper orientation of the large flat panel was possible once the direction of local winds

  15. Relationships between surface sediment diatom assemblages and lakewater characteristics in Adirondack Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, D.F.

    1985-06-01

    Relationships between surface sediment diatom assemblages and lakewater characteristics were studied in 38 lakes in the Adirondack Mountains of northern New York. Most of the lakes are dilute, poorly buffered, and oligotrophic to mesotrophic. The diatom flora typical for circumneutral to acidic lakes. The purposes of this study were to identify the environmental factors most strongly related to the distributions of diatom taxa and the overall composition of diatom assemblages, and to derive equations to infer lakewater pH from diatom assemblage data. Relationships between diatom assemblages and environmental gradients were analyzed using reciprocal averaging ordination (RA). Correlations between Ra axis 1 and pH-related factors were strong. Correlations were weaker (but still statistically significant) with elevation, epilimnion temperature, and concentrations of SO/sub 4/, Cl, and Si. Total P, chlorophyll a, water color, and mean depth were not important in explaining differences among assemblages. Predictive equations were derived for inferring lakewater pH from diatom assemblage data. Agreement between predicted and measured pH was very good. These predictive relationships can be used to interpret stratigraphic diatom assemblages to reconstruct lake pH histories.

  16. Spatial analysis of relative humidity during ungauged periods in a mountainous region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Yeonjoo

    2016-06-01

    Although atmospheric humidity influences environmental and agricultural conditions, thereby influencing plant growth, human health, and air pollution, efforts to develop spatial maps of atmospheric humidity using statistical approaches have thus far been limited. This study therefore aims to develop statistical approaches for inferring the spatial distribution of relative humidity (RH) for a mountainous island, for which data are not uniformly available across the region. A multiple regression analysis based on various mathematical models was used to identify the optimal model for estimating monthly RH by incorporating not only temperature but also location and elevation. Based on the regression analysis, we extended the monthly RH data from weather stations to cover the ungauged periods when no RH observations were available. Then, two different types of station-based data, the observational data and the data extended via the regression model, were used to form grid-based data with a resolution of 100 m. The grid-based data that used the extended station-based data captured the increasing RH trend along an elevation gradient. Furthermore, annual RH values averaged over the regions were examined. Decreasing temporal trends were found in most cases, with magnitudes varying based on the season and region.

  17. Mercury in Wetlands, Adirondack Region of New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavitt, J. B.; Kalicin, M.; Driscoll, C. T.; Newton, R.; Munson, R.

    2001-05-01

    Wetlands play a prominent role in the cycling of mercury by harboring bacteria that transform mercury into methyl mercury, a neurotoxin, and by having high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that interact with mercury transport. We are measuring total mercury and methyl mercury in vegetation, soil, surface water, and ground water in the Sunday Lake watershed, in which wetlands cover 274 ha of the 1340-ha watershed area. Three wetland types occur: (1) riparian wetlands adjacent to low-order streams that drain the upland forested watershed; (2) peat-forming wetlands dominated by Carex sedges; and, (3) low shrub, Sphagnum (bog moss) dominated peatlands. Total mercury concentrations in wetland ground waters were greater in the riparian wetland (10.6 ng/L) and in sites with shallow peat than deep peat, suggesting water moves more readily around the peat than through it. The highest rates of microbial activity occurred in the top 10-cm of the sedge-derived peat, presumably being fueled by the freshest organic matter, although there was no relationship between microbial activity and DOC. Microbial sulfate reduction, which can methylate inorganic mercury, occurred in sites closest to low-order streams, presumably being fueled by sulfate brought into wetlands in surface water. Sites located away from the stream had microbial methane production, where demethylation might be occurring. Overall the wetlands are the primary source of methyl mercury within the watershed, and we are measuring water flow pathways and microbial processes to learn more about wetland controls of mercury cycling in watersheds.

  18. Geochemical and grain-size evidence for the provenance of loess deposits in the Central Shandong Mountains region, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shuzhen; Hao, Qingzhen; Wang, Luo; Ding, Min; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanan; Guo, Zhengtang

    2016-03-01

    Widespread loess deposits in the Central Shandong Mountains yield valuable paleoclimatic records for this currently semi-humid monsoonal region of northern China. The grain-size distribution and major element composition for bulk samples and two grain-size fractions (< 20 and 20-63 μm) for the loess in the Central Shandong Mountains were compared with loess from the Chinese Loess Plateau and sediment from the Yellow River to help determine its provenance. The presence of a significant percentage of medium- and coarse-silt, and the difference in relatively immobile major element ratios of TiO2/Al2O3 and K2O/Al2O3 for the < 20 and 20-63 μm fractions, suggests that sediment that forms the loess deposits in the Central Shandong Mountains was not blown directly from the northern deserts of China as is the case for the loess deposits of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Rather, this suggests that sediments exposed during glacial times on the North China fluvial plain, including the floodplain of the Yellow River, were the major dust source for the loess in the Central Shangong Mountains. In addition, the wide distribution of perimontane loess in the Central Shandong Mountains region indicates the occurrence of strengthened local aridification during glacial times since the middle Pleistocene.

  19. High concentrations of regional dust from deserts to plains across the central Rocky Mountains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, R. L.; Munson, S. M.; Fernandez, D. P.; Neff, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Regional mineral dust in the American Southwest affects snow-melt rates, biogeochemical cycling, visibility, and public health. We measured total suspended particulates (TSP) across a 500-km-long sampling network of five remote sites in Utah and Colorado, USA, forming a gradient in distance from major dust emitting areas. The two westernmost sites on the Colorado Plateau desert had similar TSP concentrations (2008-2012, daily average=126 μg m-3; max. daily average over a two-week period=700 μg m-3 at Canyonlands National Park, Utah), while the easternmost High Plains site, close to cropped and grazed areas in northeastern Colorado, had an average concentration of 143 μg m-3 in 2011-2012 (max. daily average=656 μg m-3). Such concentrations rank comparably with those of TSP in several African and Asian cities in the paths of frequent dust storms. Dust loadings at the two intervening montane sites decreased from the western slope of the Rocky Mountains (Telluride, daily average=68 μg m-3) to an eastern site (Niwot Ridge, daily average=58 μg m-3). Back-trajectory analyses and satellite retrievals indicated that the three westernmost sites received most dust from large desert-source regions as far as 300 km to their southwest. These sources also sometimes sent dust to the two easternmost sites, which additionally captured dust from sources north and northwest of the central Rocky Mountains as well as locally at the Plains site. The PM10 fraction accounted for <15% of TSP, but most TSP is only slightly larger (typical median size, 15-20 μm) after about 100-800 km transport distances. Correlations between TSP and PM10 values indicate increases in both fractions during regional wind storms, especially related to Pacific frontal systems during late winter to late spring. These measurements and observations indicate that most dust deposition and associated air-quality problems in the interior American West are connected to regional dust sources and not to those in

  20. Sustainability and economics: The Adirondack Park experience, a forest economic-ecological model, and solar energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Jon David

    The long-term sustainability of human communities will depend on our relationship with regional environments, our maintenance of renewable resources, and our successful disengagement from nonrenewable energy dependence. This dissertation investigates sustainability at these three levels, following a critical analysis of sustainability and economics. At the regional environment level, the Adirondack Park of New York State is analyzed as a potential model of sustainable development. A set of initial and ongoing conditions are presented that both emerge from and support a model of sustainability in the Adirondacks. From these conditions, a clearer picture emerges of the definition of regional sustainability, consequences of its adoption, and lessons from its application. Next, an economic-ecological model of the northern hardwood forest ecosystem is developed. The model integrates economic theory and intertemporal ecological concepts, linking current harvest decisions with future forest growth, financial value, and ecosystem stability. The results indicate very different economic and ecological outcomes by varying opportunity cost and ecosystem recovery assumptions, and suggest a positive benefit to ecological recovery in the forest rotation decision of the profit maximizing manager. The last section investigates the motives, economics, and international development implications of renewable energy (specifically photovoltaic technology) in rural electrification and technology transfer, drawing on research in the Dominican Republic. The implications of subsidizing a photovoltaic market versus investing in basic research are explored.

  1. Teaching Science in Public Elementary Schools of the Plains, Rocky Mountain and Southeast Regions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Melvin Richard

    This research presents the science teaching practices for schools in the Plains, Rocky Mountain, and Southeast regions of the United States and the all-inclusive curricular events surrounding them, as they existed during the 1970-71 school year. Subproblems investigated were relationships between teacher characteristics and science teaching…

  2. EFFECTS OF ACIDIC DEPOSITION ON STREAMS IN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS AND PIEDMONT REGION OF THE MID-ATLANTIC UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Streams in the Appalachian Mountain area of the Mid-Atlantic receive some of the largest acidic deposition loadings of any region of the United States. ompilation of survey data from the Mid-Appalachians yields a consistent picture of the acid-base status of streams. cidic stream...

  3. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liang; Yin, Yan; Xiao, Hui; Yu, Xingna; Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui; Liu, Chao

    2016-04-15

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core-shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ±6% and ±14% for external mixture and ±9% and ±31% for core-shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. PMID:26851881

  4. Statistical downscaling of regional climate models in Bulgarian mountains and some projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Air temperature and precipitation data from three high mountainous Bulgarian stations were used as well as outputs from nine regional climate models (RCMs) for air temperatures and eight RCMs for precipitation. Data from 40-year experiments driven by the ERA-40 reanalysis (temporal coverage from 1961 to 2000) of the ECMWF were employed for calibration of statistical downscaling models. Statistical methods were used in this research—Spearman and Pearson correlation, Mann-Whitney test, multiple linear regression, generalized linear models, etc. Projections, based on SRES A1B scenario and RCMs driven by four different GCMs, were made for the following future 30-years periods: 2005-2034, 2035-2064, and 2065-2094. RCMs ETHZ-CLM, DMI-ARPEGE-HIRHAM, HadRM3Q0, and HadRM3Q16 show the best correlation with observed air temperatures in mountain stations. RCMs ETHZ-CLM, HadRM3Q16, and RACMO have the best relationship with precipitation. Constructed monthly multiple linear regression models describe well enough air temperatures throughout the entire year. Monthly GLMs describe better precipitation in January, March, August, and September, as well as peak Musala and Cherni vrah precipitation. Projections for future 30-year periods indicate that air temperatures are expected to rise by 2065-2094 at all of the three investigated stations with 2.8 to 3.2 °C. This increase is mainly due to the summer months. Annual precipitation amounts are expected to decrease by the period 2065-2094 at all the three stations with about 7 to 17 %. Some increase of annual precipitation amounts in the beginning of twenty-first century against the general negative trend could happen at Musala station, which is probably due to the increase in frequency of liquid precipitation.

  5. Preliminary geophysical interpretations of regional subsurface geology near the Questa Mine Tailing Facility and Guadalupe Mountain, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Thompson, Ren A.; Bauer, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents geophysical interpretations of regional subsurface geology in the vicinity of the Tailing Facility of the Questa Mine near Guadalupe Mountain, Taos County, New Mexico, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department. The interpretations were developed from aeromagnetic data, regional gravity data, data from four ground magnetic traverses, geologic mapping, a digital elevation model, and information from a few shallow wells. The resolution of the geophysical data is only appropriate for a broad assessment of the regional setting. Aeromagnetic data provided the most comprehensive information for interpretation. Qualitative and semiquantitative interpretations indicate the nature and extent of volcanic rocks, their relative depths, and inferred contacts between them, as well as conjectured locations of faults. In particular, the aeromagnetic data indicate places where volcanic rocks extend at shallow depths under sedimentary cover. Trachydacites of Guadalupe Mountain are magnetic, but their associated aeromagnetic anomalies are opposite in sign over the northern versus the southern parts of the mountain. The difference indicates that lavas erupted during different magnetic-polarity events in the north (reverse polarity) versus the south (normal polarity) and therefore have different ages. We postulate a buried volcano with reverse-polarity magnetization lies under the northeast side of Guadalupe Mountain, which likely predated the exposed trachydacites. Faults interpreted for the study area generally align with known fault zones. We interpret a northern extension to one of these faults that crosses northwesterly underneath the Tailing Facility. Gravity data indicate that Guadalupe Mountain straddles the western margin of a subbasin of the Rio Grande rift and that significant (>400 meters) thicknesses of both volcanic and sedimentary rocks underlie the mountain.

  6. Genetic diversity of native soybean bradyrhizobia from different topographical regions along the southern slopes of the Himalayan Mountains in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Risal, Chandra Prasad; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Djedidi, Salem; Sekimoto, Hitoshi

    2010-11-01

    Soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia are genetically diverse and are classified into different species. In this study, the genetic diversity of native soybean bradyrhizobia isolated from different topographical regions along the southern slopes of the Himalayan Mountains in Nepal was explored. Soil samples were collected from three different topographical regions with contrasting climates. A local soybean cultivar, Cobb, was used as a trap plant to isolate bradyrhizobia. A total of 24 isolates selected on the basis of their colony morphology were genetically characterized. For each isolate, the full nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene and ITS region, and partial sequences of the nifD and nodD1 genes were determined. Two lineages were evident in the conserved gene phylogeny; one representing Bradyrhizobium elkanii (71% of isolates), and the other representing Bradyrhizobium japonicum (21%) and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense (8%). Phylogenetic analyses revealed three novel lineages in the Bradyrhizobium elkanii clade, indicating high levels of genetic diversity among Bradyrhizobium isolates in Nepal. B. japonicum and B. yuanmingense strains were distributed in areas from 2420 to 2660 m above sea level (asl), which were mountain regions with a temperate climate. The B. elkanii clade was distributed in two regions; hill regions ranging from 1512 to 1935 m asl, and mountain regions ranging from 2420 to 2660 m asl. Ten multi-locus genotypes were detected; seven among B. elkanii, two among B. japonicum, and one among B. yuanmingense-related isolates. The results indicated that there was higher species-level diversity of Bradyrhizobium in the temperate region than in the sub-tropical region along the southern slopes of the Himalayan Mountains in Nepal. PMID:20851547

  7. Seasonal variations in atmospheric SOx and NOy species in the adirondacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Thomas J.; Mclaren, Scott E.; Kadlecek, John A.

    This paper reports the results of over 2 years of measurements of several of the species comprising atmospheric SOx (= SO2+ SO42-) and NOy (= NO+ NO2 + PAN + HNO3+ NO3-+ organicnitrates + HONO + 2 N2O5 …) at Whiteface Mountain, New York. Continuous real-time measurements of SO 2 and total gaseous NOy provided data for about 50% and 65% of the period, respectively, and 122 filter pack samples were obtained for HNO 3, SO 2 and aerosol SO 42-, NO 3-, H + and NH 4+. Concentrations of SO 2 and NOy were greatest in winter, whereas concentrations of the reaction products SO 42- and HNO 3were greatest in summer. The seasonal variation in SO 42- was considerably more pronounced than that of HNO 3and the high concentrations of SO 42- aerosol present in summer were also relatively more acidic than SO 42- aerosol in other seasons. As a result, SO 42- aerosol was the predominant acidic species present in summer, HNO 3was predominant in other seasons. Aerosol NO 3- concentrations were low in all seasons and appeared unrelated to simultaneous NOy and HNO 3concentrations. These data are consistent with seasonal variations in photochemical oxidation rates and with existing data on seasonal variations in precipitation composition. The results of this study suggest that emission reductions targeted at the summer season might be a cost-effective way to reduce deposition of S species, but would not be similarly cost-effective in reducing deposition of N species. kwAcid deposition, seasonal variation, sulfate, nitrate, nitric acid, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, air pollution, Adirondack Mountains

  8. Effects of changes in seasonal precipitation in Catskill Mountain region on NYC water supply system management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matonse, A. H.; Pierson, D. C.; Frei, A.; Zion, M.; Mukundan, R.

    2010-12-01

    Simulated future air temperature and precipitation derived from General Circulation Models (GCMs) are used as input to the Generalized Watershed Loading Functions - Variable Source Area (GWLF-VSA) watershed model to simulate future inflows to reservoirs that are part of the New York City Water Supply System (NYCWSS). This ongoing study focuses on the effect of projected changes in temperature and rainfall in the Catskill Mountain region and consequent changes in snow accumulation, snowmelt and the timing of runoff on NYC water supply system storage and operation as simulated by the NYC reservoir system OASIS model. Future scenarios that use current system operation rules and demands, but changed reservoir inflows, suggest that changes in precipitation and snowmelt in this region will affect water availability on a seasonal basis. Despite increased evapotranspiration during non-winter periods, greater runoff earlier in the winter period leads to a reduction in the number of days the system is under drought conditions, and earlier reservoir refill in the spring. Since reservoir storage levels fill up earlier in winter, total volume of water releases and spills also appear to increase during the winter. Of importance is how much (if any) indication of this possible future trend is already captured in current observations and at what level these changes will require operation rules to be adjusted in order to continue to achieve the management objectives of the system.

  9. Spatial patterns of tropospheric ozone in the Mount Rainier region of the Cascade Mountains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brace, S.; Peterson, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Few data exist on tropospheric ozone concentrations in rural and wildland areas of western Washington, U.S.A. We measured tropospheric ozone in Mount Rainier National Park and the Puget Sound region of Washington using electronic analyzers and passive samplers during the summers of 1994 and 1995. Electronic analyzers recorded hourly ozone concentrations from five locations between Seattle and Mount Rainier. Ozone concentrations generally increased with distance from Seattle, with maximum hourly concentrations recorded at Enumclaw (319 m elevation, 50 km SE of Seattle). Paradise (1650 m elevation, 100 km SE of Seattle) had the highest monthly mean concentration of all sites measured with analyzers. Diurnal patterns on high-ozone days indicate that concentrations at Paradise remain near 60 ppbv throughout the day, whereas ozone concentrations closer to Seattle had higher peaks during the afternoon but dropped to near zero at night. Passive ozone samplers were used to measure weekly average ozone exposures in four river drainages within Mount Rainier National Park, across an elevation gradient (420 a??2100 m). In most drainages, ozone levels increased with elevation, with highest average weekly ozone exposure (47 ppbv) recorded at 2100 m. Ozone concentrations are significantly higher in the western portion of the park, indicating that ozone exposure varies considerably over short distances. These data provide a reference point for air quality in western Washington and indicate that intensive sampling is necessary to quantify spatial patterns of tropospheric ozone in mountainous regions.

  10. Surficial Geologic Map of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park Region, Tennessee and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Schultz, Art; Denenny, Danielle; Triplett, James

    2004-01-01

    The Surficial Geology of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park Region, Tennessee and North Carolina was mapped from 1993 to 2003 under a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS). This 1:100,000-scale digital geologic map was compiled from 2002 to 2003 from unpublished field investigations maps at 1:24,000-scale. The preliminary surficial geologic data and map support cooperative investigations with NPS, the U.S. Natural Resource Conservation Service, and the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (http://www.dlia.org/) (Southworth, 2001). Although the focus of our work was within the Park, the geology of the surrounding area is provided for regional context. Surficial deposits document the most recent part of the geologic history of this part of the western Blue Ridge and eastern Tennessee Valley of the Valley and Ridge of the Southern Appalachians. Additionally, there is great variety of surficial materials, which directly affect the different types of soil and associated flora and fauna. The surficial deposits accumulated over tens of millions of years under varied climatic conditions during the Cenozoic era and resulted from a composite of geologic processes.

  11. Evaluation of Ground Radar Snowfall Products Using SNOTEL Measurements over Mountainous Regions in Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Y.; Kirstetter, P.; Gourley, J. J.; Hong, Y.; Behrangi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Snow contributes to regional and global water budgets and is of critical importance to our society. Snow can also cause potentially hazardous weather, and rapidly-melting snowpack may cause flooding. For large-scale weather monitoring, snowfall observations from ground radar have become highly desirable. However, verification and refinement of these retrievals requires ground-validation datasets. This study conducts a comprehensive evaluation of NOAA/NSSL Multi-Radar/ Multi-Sensor (MRMS) snowfall products using the Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) hourly and daily precipitation and Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) datasets. The statistical analysis reveals that the MRMS snowfall estimation has bias compared to SNOTEL in-situ measurements. The bias between MRMS and SNOTEL is studied by considering environmental variables, radar beam sampling characteristics (blockage, beam height and width) and snow density. We expect a step forward towards establishing a robust surface-based snowfall reference database in West Mountainous Region, which can be shared with the satellite snowfall and snowpack community.

  12. An Integrated Study of the Holy Cross Mountains region of the Eastern European TESZ in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averill, M. G.; Bond, T.; Sroda, P.; Keller, G. R.; Miller, K.

    2002-12-01

    The Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) in Eastern Europe is an anomalous region marking the suture of Phanerozoic Western European terrains with the Precambrian Eastern European Craton (EEC). The nature of this suture is known primarily from geophysical studies. Seismic velocity and gravity models indicate changes of crustal thickness from 28-35 km to 42-47 km across the TTZ (Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone) from the Paleozoic Platform of Western Europe to the Eastern European Craton. Tectonic models suggest the presence of a Precambrian/Early Paleozoic passive margin beneath the TTZ. The Holy Cross Mountains in southeastern Poland represent an anomalous crustal block whose origin and interaction with the EEC is unknown. The subject of this study is the origin and tectonic evolution of this and adjacent crustal blocks in relation to the eastern TESZ and EEC. We have employed a technique to integrate industry acquired well and reflection data, as well as refraction data from the CELEBRATION 2000, POLONAISE '97 and TTZ experiments. We used well check shot surveys and CDP (common depth point) stacking velocities from reflection surveys in addition to refraction data as controls in a tomographic inversion. In turn, gravity, magnetics, drilling and geologic data is incorporated to support an integrated study of this region.

  13. Improving Remotely-sensed Precipitation Estimates Over Mountainous Regions For Use In Hydrological Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucel, I.; Akcelik, M.; Kuligowski, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    In support of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service's (NWS) flash flood warning and heavy precipitation forecast efforts, the NOAA National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS) Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) has been providing satellite based precipitation estimates operationally since 1978. Two of the satellite based rainfall algorithms are the Hydro-Estimator (HE) and the Self-Calibrating Multivariate Precipitation Retrieval (SCaMPR). However, unlike the HE algorithm the SCaMPR does not currently make any adjustments for the effects of complex topography on rainfall. This study investigates the potential for improving the SCaMPR algorithm by incorporating an orographic correction and humidity correction based calibration of the SCaMPR against rain gauge transects in northwestern Mexico to identify correctable biases related to elevation, slope, wind direction and humidity. Elevation-dependent bias structure of the SCaMPR algorithm suggest that the rainfall algorithm underestimates precipitation in case of upward atmospheric movements and overestimates rainfall in case of downward atmospheric movements along with mountainous terrain. A regionally dependent empirical elevation-based bias correction technique may help improve the quality of satellite-derived precipitation products. As well as orography, effect of atmospheric indices over precipitation estimates is analyzed. The findings suggest that continued improvement to the developed orographic correction scheme is warranted in order to advance quantitative precipitation estimation in complex terrain regions for use in weather forecasting and hydrologic applications.

  14. Distribution and growth of thaw slumps in the Richardson Mountains-Peel Plateau region, northwestern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacelle, Denis; Brooker, Alex; Fraser, Robert H.; Kokelj, Steve V.

    2015-04-01

    Retrogressive thaw slumps are one of the most active geomorphic features in permafrost terrain. This study investigated the distribution and growth of thaw slumps in the Richardson Mountains and Peel Plateau region, northwestern Canada, using Tasseled Cap (TC) trend analysis of a Landsat image stack. Based on the TC linear trend image, more than 212 thaw slumps were identified in the study area, of which 189 have been active since at least 1985. The surface area of the slumps ranges from 0.4 to 52 ha, with 10 slumps exceeding 20 ha. The thaw slumps in the region are all situated within the maximum westward extent of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Based on relations between frequency distribution of slumps and that of terrain factors in the landscape, the slumps are more likely to occur on the ice-rich hummocky rolling moraines at elevations of 300-350 m and 450-500 m and along east-facing slopes (slope aspects of 15° to 180°) with gradients of 8° to 12°. Pixel-level trend analysis of the TC greenness transformation in the Landsat stack allowed calculating headwall retreat rates for 19 thaw slumps. The 20-year average retreat rates (1990-2010 period) for 19 slumps ranged from 7.2 to 26.7 m yr- 1, with the largest slumps having higher retreat rates. At the regional scale, the 20-yr headwall retreat rates are mainly related to slope aspect, with south- and west-facing slopes exhibiting higher retreat rates, and large slumps appear to be generating feedbacks that allow them to maintain growth rates well above those of smaller slumps. Overall, the findings presented in this study allow highlighting of key sensitive landscapes and ecosystems that may be impacted by the presence and growth of thaw slumps in one of the most rapidly warming region in the Arctic.

  15. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain Region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 22

    SciTech Connect

    La Camera, R.J.; Westenburg, C.L.

    1994-08-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site-Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, ground-water quality at 19 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations through time at selected monitoring locations. Data are included in this report from 1910 through 1992.

  16. Snow covers detection using terrestrial photography. Application to a mountain catchment in Alps region (France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Thierry; Saulnier, Georges-Marie; Malet, Emmanuel

    2010-05-01

    In August 2005, a significant mudflow leaded to major impacts damages at the Sainte-Agnes village located downstream the Vorz torrent (35 km2, elevations ranging from 1248m and 2977m, Alps region, France). To meet the demand of populations and civil authorities a research program was launched to both monitor and model these regions to help to quantify water resources and vulnerability to such hazardous events, including their probable evolutions do to climatic changes. This communication focuses on one of the several forcing variables of the water cycle in mountainous regions: the snow covering. Indeed, its controls a significant part of the future available water resources and may strongly interact with liquid precipitations during snow melting season. Usual sensors such as remote sensing cannot easily quantify accurately the snow covering for small mountainous catchment at hydrological models spatial and temporal resolutions (typically Dx < 50m, Dx= 30'-1h). Consequently, we decided to develop a specific monitoring system based on terrestrial photos. Two cameras were installed within the catchment at two different elevations (1950m and 2250m). Each camera acquires pictures every 2-3 hours from 8.00am to 8.00pm. Thus, a lot of data on snow covering are acquired at a minimal costs. The first step of this technique is to place the cameras at "optimal location", i.e. able to see a large surface of the catchment with various elevations and aspects. This position must also be reached by direct solar radiation to recharge the embedded solar panel. A 2 or 3 hours sampling time-step was chosen for pictures shots (depending to available energy and memory capacity of camera). Indeed it allows observing all the day and offers an accurate sampling of the melting period. First major difficulty of this technique is the retro mapping of the 2D pictures from the camera on the 3D Digital Terrain Model to distribute the snow covering by elevation and aspects. The second difficulty

  17. Faulting in the Yucca Mountain region: Critical review and analyses of tectonic data from the central Basin and Range

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrill, D.A.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Stamatakos, J.; Morris, A.P.; Spivey, K.H.; Wernicke, B.P.

    1996-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. The tectonic setting of Yucca Mountain presents several potential hazards for a proposed repository, such as potential for earthquake seismicity, fault disruption, basaltic volcanism, magma channeling along pre-existing faults, and faults and fractures that may serve as barriers or conduits for groundwater flow. Characterization of geologic structures and tectonic processes will be necessary to assess compliance with regulatory requirements for the proposed high level waste repository. In this report, we specifically investigate fault slip, seismicity, contemporary stain, and fault-slip potential in the Yucca Mountain region with regard to Key Technical Uncertainties outlined in the License Application Review Plan (Sections 3.2.1.5 through 3.2.1.9 and 3.2.2.8). These investigations center on (i) alternative methods of determining the slip history of the Bare Mountain Fault, (ii) cluster analysis of historic earthquakes, (iii) crustal strain determinations from Global Positioning System measurements, and (iv) three-dimensional slip-tendency analysis. The goal of this work is to assess uncertainties associated with neotectonic data sets critical to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses` ability to provide prelicensing guidance and perform license application review with respect to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain.

  18. Russian aeromagnetic surveys of the Prince Charles Mountains and adjacent regions into the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golynsky, Alexander; Golynsky, Dmitry; Kiselev, Alexander; Masolov, Valery

    2014-05-01

    Russian aeromagnetic investigations in the Prince Charles Mountains (PCM) and surrounding areas, seek to contribute data on the tectonics of Precambrian igneous belts and cratonic fragments, the crustal structure of the Lambert Rift system and other major aspects of Antarctic geology, critical to understanding continental growth processes (Golynsky et al., 2006). Over the past decade, the Polar Marine Geoscience Expedition projects acquired approximately 77,400 line-km of aeromagnetic data over the largely ice-covered regions of MacRobertson Land and Princess Elizabeth Land. The airborne surveys were performed with a standard profile spacing of 5 km and tie-line interval of 15-25 km. The total amount of the Russian aeromagnetic data collected in this region exceeded more than 165,000 line-km. Together with the PCMEGA and AGAP surveys (Damaske and McLean, 2005; Ferraccioli et al., 2011) the PMGE dataset forms the longest transect ever mapped in East Antarctica exceeding 1950 km in length. Several distinct crustal subdivisions are clearly differentiated in the magnetic data. The high-amplitude positive anomalies that extend around the Vestfold Hills and Rauer Islands are likely be attributed to the southern boundary of high-grade metamorphic Late Archean craton. The northern PCM that are composed by ~1 Ga orthogneiss and charnockite display a predominantly northeasterly trending magnetic fabric that continues to the eastern shoulder of the Lambert Rift. The aeromagnetic data from the Southern PCM reveal the spatial boundary of the Archaean Ruker Terrane that is characterized by a short-wavelength anomalies and the prominent Ruker Anomaly that is associated with a banded iron formation. The prominent alternating system of linear NE-SW positive and negative anomalies over the eastern shoulder of the Lambert Rift may reflect the western boundary of the Princess Elizabeth Land cratonic(?) block, although its relationships and tectonic origin remained largely ambiguous

  19. Data-collection methods and quality-assurance/quality-control procedures used in the study of episodic stream acidification and its effect on fish and aquatic invertebrates in four Catskill Mountain streams, New York, 1988-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ranalli, Anthony J.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Horan-Ross, Debra; Allen, Ronald V.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted a 20-month study during 1988-90 to evaluate the effects of episodic acidification on fish and aquatic invertebrates in pristine headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains of New York. The study was part of the Episodic Response Project, a regional survey of episodic acidification by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and was carried out simultaneously with other studies in the Adirondack Mountains of New York by the Adirondack Lake Survey Corporation and in central Pennsylvania by Pennsylvania State University. This report summarizes the methods used, describes the sampling sites, and presents the data collected from October 1, 1988 through May 30, 1990 at four headwater watersheds (Biscuit Brook, East Branch Neversink River, Black Brook, and High Falls Brook). The study entailed (1) monitoring the quantity and chemical quality of atmospheric deposition and the quality of discharge of streams, and (2) experiments to determine the effect of stream-water-quality changes on fish and invertebrate populations.

  20. False alarms and mine seismicity: An example from the Gentry Mountain mining region, Utah. Los Alamos Source Region Project

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.R.

    1992-09-23

    Mining regions are a cause of concern for monitoring of nuclear test ban treaties because they present the opportunity for clandestine nuclear tests (i.e. decoupled explosions). Mining operations are often characterized by high seismicity rates and can provide the cover for excavating voids for decoupling. Chemical explosions (seemingly as part of normal mining activities) can be used to complicate the signals from a simultaneous decoupled nuclear explosion. Thus, most concern about mines has dealt with the issue of missed violations to a test ban treaty. In this study, we raise the diplomatic concern of false alarms associated with mining activities. Numerous reports and papers have been published about anomalous seismicity associated with mining activities. As part of a large discrimination study in the western US (Taylor et al., 1989), we had one earthquake that was consistently classified as an explosion. The magnitude 3.5 disturbance occurred on May 14, 1981 and was conspicuous in its lack of Love waves, relative lack of high- frequency energy, low Lg/Pg ratio, and high m{sub b} {minus} M{sub s}. A moment-tensor solution by Patton and Zandt (1991) indicated the event had a large implosional component. The event occurred in the Gentry Mountain coal mining region in the eastern Wasatch Plateau, Utah. Using a simple source representation, we modeled the event as a tabular excavation collapse that occurred as a result of normal mining activities. This study raises the importance of having a good catalogue of seismic data and information about mining activities from potential proliferant nations.

  1. Gastrointestinal nematodes in rotationally grazing ewes in the mountainous region of central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Ramírez, P M C; Quiroz-Romero, H; Cruz-Mendoza, I; Ulloa-Arvizu, R; Ibarra-Velarde, F

    2013-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of egg shedding (percentage of egg-positive faecal samples) and faecal egg counts (FEC) over 13 months in two different breeds of ewes, both pregnant and non-pregnant, in a mountainous region of central Mexico. Additionally, the effect of ivermectin and albendazole treatments on FEC reduction was recorded. The study also aimed to relate temperature and rainfall to FEC. The gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) third-stage larvae genera recovered from both faeces and grassland pastures in a temperate region were also assessed. Faecal samples were collected from ewes at monthly intervals for 13 months to investigate the FEC population of GIN larvae, their concentration and genera in grass samples collected from grazed and rested pastures. Egg-shedding frequency ranged from 0 to 92% and FEC from 0 to 12,000 eggs per g faeces (epg), with counts in Suffolk higher than in Dorset ewes. The identified genera were Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Teladorsagia, Cooperia, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, Nematodirus and Strongyloides. Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus were the most common genera. The number of L3 was higher in grazing lands than in those at rest. The highest FEC were recorded in the dry season due to peripartum, but the highest L3 counts were recorded in the rainy season. The coexistence of species of different geographical distributions at this site may be because there is a confluence of Nearctic and Neotropical geographic regions; thus, despite the temperate climate, tropical species can be found. Additionally, this study suggests that increasing temperatures could favour the presence of different tropical GIN species together with typical temperate-zone GIN species. PMID:22380595

  2. Geothermal data for 95 thermal and nonthermal waters of the Valles Caldera - southern Jemez Mountains region, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; McCormick, Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Grigsby, C.O.

    1982-05-01

    Field, chemical, and isotopic data for 95 thermal and nonthermal waters of the southern Jemez Mountains, New Mexico are presented. This region includes all thermal and mineral waters associated with Valles Caldera and many of those located near the Nacimiento Uplift, near San Ysidro. Waters of the region can be categorized into five general types: (1) surface and near surface meteoric waters; (2) acid-sulfate waters (Valles Caldera); (3) thermal meteoric waters (Valles Caldera); (4) deep geothermal and derivative waters (Valles Caldera); and (5) mineralized waters near San Ysidro. Some waters display chemical and isotopic characteristics intermediate between the types listed. The object of the data is to help interpret geothermal potential of the Jemez Mountains region and to provide background data for investigating problems in hydrology, structural geology, hydrothermal alterations, and hydrothermal solution chemistry.

  3. A Ten Step Protocol and Plan for CCS Site Characterization, Based on an Analysis of the Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince

    2013-09-15

    This report expresses a Ten-Step Protocol for CO2 Storage Site Characterization, the final outcome of an extensive Site Characterization analysis of the Rocky Mountain region, USA. These ten steps include: (1) regional assessment and data gathering; (2) identification and analysis of appropriate local sites for characterization; (3) public engagement; (4) geologic and geophysical analysis of local site(s); (5) stratigraphic well drilling and coring; (6) core analysis and interpretation with other data; (7) database assembly and static model development; (8) storage capacity assessment; (9) simulation and uncertainty assessment; (10) risk assessment. While the results detailed here are primarily germane to the Rocky Mountain region, the intent of this protocol is to be portable or generally applicable for CO2 storage site characterization.

  4. Hydrogeochemical data for thermal and nonthermal waters and gases of the Valles Caldera- southern Jemez Mountains region, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.; Goff, F.; Vuataz, F.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Janik, C.J.; Evans, W.

    1987-03-01

    This report presents field, chemical, gas, and isotopic data for thermal and nonthermal waters of the southern Jemez Mountains, New Mexico. This region includes all thermal and mineral waters associated with Valles Caldera and many of those located near the Nacimiento Uplift, north of San Ysidro. Waters of the region can be categorized into five general types: (1) surface and near-surface meteoric waters; (2) acid-sulfate waters at Sulphur Springs (Valles Caldera); (3) thermal meteoric waters in the ring fracture zone (Valles Caldera); (4) deep geothermal waters of the Baca geothermal field and derivative waters in the Soda Dam and Jemez Springs area (Valles Caldera); and (5) mineralized waters near San Ysidro. Some waters display chemical and isotopic characteristics intermediate between the types listed. Data in this report will help in interpreting the geothermal potential of the Jemez Mountains region and will provide background for investigating problems in hydrology, structural geology, hydrothermal alterations, and hydrothermal solution chemistry.

  5. Cadmium and other elements in tissues from four ungulate species from the Mackenzie Mountain region of the Northwest Territories, Canada.

    PubMed

    Larter, N C; Macdonald, C R; Elkin, B T; Wang, X; Harms, N J; Gamberg, M; Muir, D C G

    2016-10-01

    Tissue samples from four ungulate species from the south Mackenzie Mountain region of the Northwest Territories (NT), Canada, were analysed for stable and radioactive elements and (15)N and (13)C stable isotopes. Elevated Cd concentrations in moose (Alces americanus) kidney have been observed in the region and are a health care concern for consumers of traditional foods. This study examined the factors associated with, and potential renal effects from, the accumulation of cadmium, and interactions with other elements in four sympatric ungulate species. Mean renal Cd concentration was highest in moose (48.3mg/kg ww), followed by mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) (13.9mg/kg ww) and mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) (5.78mg/kg ww). No local sources of Cd were evident and the elevated levels in moose are considered to be natural in origin. Conversely, total Hg concentration was significantly higher in mountain caribou kidney (0.21mg/kg ww) than in moose (0.011mg/kg ww). (134)Cs (t½=2.1 y) in mountain goat and Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli) muscle is evidence of deposition from the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011. (137)Cs (t½=30.2 y) in all four ungulates is primarily a remnant of the nuclear weapons tests of the 1960s. The levels of both nuclides are low and the risk to the animals and people consuming them is negligible. Stable isotope δ(15)N and δ(13)C signatures in muscle showed a separation between the mountain caribou, with a lichen-dominated diet, and moose, which browse shrubs and forbs. Isotope signatures for mountain goat and Dall's sheep showed generalist feeding patterns. Differences in elemental and radionuclide levels between species were attributed to relative levels of metal accumulation in the different food items in the diets of the respective species. Kidneys from each species showed minor histological changes in the proximal tubule and glomerulus, although glomerular changes were rare and all changes were rare in mountain goat kidney

  6. [Natural regeneration of young Excentrodendron hsienmu in karst mountainous region in Southwest Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Ou, Zhi-Yang; Su, Zhi-Yao; Peng, Yu-Hua; Hu, Qin-Fei; Huang, Xiao-Rong

    2013-09-01

    A field survey was conducted in the karst mountainous region in Pingguo County of Southwest Guangxi, China to explore the structural characteristics, spatial distribution pattern, and growth dynamics of young Excentrodendron hsienmu as well as the main environmental factors affecting the natural regeneration of the E. hsienmu population. In the study area, the population structure of the young E. hsienmu was stable, and exhibited a clumped spatial pattern for the seedlings and seedling sprouts. The ground diameter growth and height growth of the young E. hsienmu presented the same variation trend, i. e., the ground diameter increased with increasing height. The ground diameter growth and height growth of the E. hsienmu seedlings were limited by population density, i. e., decreased with increasing population density. The correlation analysis showed that the trees more than 2.5 m in height and the shrubs were the major stand factors affecting the natural regeneration of young E. hsienmu, while the herbs had no significant correlation with the regeneration. The percentage of covered rock also had no significant effects on the regeneration. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed that there existed significant differences in the height and ground diameter of young E. hsienmu at different slope degrees and slope positions. The population density, height, and ground diameter had significant differences across slope aspects. The natural regeneration of young E. hsienmu was comprehensively affected by the species biological characteristics, intraspecific competition, interspecific competition, heterogeneous habitat, and anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:24417099

  7. [Soil carbon cycle of Pinus tabulaeformis forest in Huoditang forest region of Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Kang, Bowen; Liu, Jianjun; Dang, Kunliang; Chen, Haibin

    2006-05-01

    With soil carbon cycle compartment model,this paper studied the carbon storage and flux of each carbon compartment of soil under Pinus tabulaeformis, a main forest type in the Huoditang forest region of Qinling Mountain. The results showed that the storage of soil organic carbon was 146.071 t x hm(-2), with 130.366 t x hm(-2) in mineral soil layer and 12.626 t x hm(-2) in litter layer. The storage was lower than the average value of forest soils in China and of oak Sharptooth forest soil in Huoditang, but higher than that of the soils under temperate coniferous forest and tropical forest. The annual carbon input into litter layer was 5.939 t x hm(-2), with 56.9% from above-ground litter and 43.1% from underground dead roots, while that into mineral soil layer via humic acid was 2. 034 t x hm(-2). The annual amount of carbon released from the respiration of P. zabulaeformis forest-soil system was 14. 012 t x hm(-2), with litter layer, mineral soil layer, dead root system, and live root system occupied 15.7%, 14.5%, 11.7% and 58.1%, respectively. PMID:16883796

  8. Utilizing ERTS-A imagery for tectonic analysis through study of Big Horn Mountains region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. MSS scene 1085-17294 of the Big Horn region has been subjected to detailed structural analysis. Band 7 is particularly good for revealing structural and drainage patterns because of enhance topographic detail and the subdued vegetational contrasts. Considerable stereo coverage through sidelap with adjoining scenes adds to the effectiveness of the study and has been used on both positive transparencies and enlarged prints. Negative prints of Band 7 positive transparencies have proven to be much more useful than positive prints because the higher resolution of the positive transparencies can be maintained. The Bighorn Mountains are crisscrossed by a number of prominent topographic linears, most of which can be correlated with known fault and shear zones in the Precambrian crystalline core. Many of these do not appear to continue into the flanking sedimentary rocks and a few that do (Tensleep, Tongue River lineaments) are very difficult to trace farther out into the basins. The Tongue River lineament, long a source of speculation and uncertainty as to its existence, appears as a very prominent discontinuity in the imagery.

  9. Raman microscopy of hand stencils rock art from the Yabrai Mountain, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernanz, Antonio; Chang, Jinlong; Iriarte, Mercedes; Gavira-Vallejo, Jose M.; de Balbín-Behrmann, Rodrigo; Bueno-Ramírez, Primitiva; Maroto-Valiente, Angel

    2016-07-01

    A series of rock art pictographs in the form of hand stencils discovered in two sites of the Yabrai Mountain, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (China) has been studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for the first time. These studies have made possible to characterise the materials present. The minerals α-quartz, phlogopite, albite and microcline have been identified in the granitic rocks supporting the paintings. Calcite and dolomite micro-particles detected on the rock surface have been attributed to desert dust. Accretions of gypsum, anhydrite and whewellite have also been identified on the rock surface. Haematite is the pigment used in the red pictographs, whereas well-crystallised graphite has been used in the black ones. The use of crystalline graphite instead of amorphous carbon (charcoal, soot or bone black) as a black pigment in rock art is an interesting novelty. Overlapped hands are proposed as a new type of hand stencils to make an unusual pictorial symbol in rock art that has been found in these sites.

  10. Composite geochemical database for coalbed methane produced water quality in the Rocky Mountain region.

    PubMed

    Dahm, Katharine G; Guerra, Katie L; Xu, Pei; Drewes, Jörg E

    2011-09-15

    Coalbed methane (CBM) or coalbed natural gas (CBNG) is an unconventional natural gas resource with large reserves in the United States (US) and worldwide. Production is limited by challenges in the management of large volumes of produced water. Due to salinity of CBM produced water, it is commonly reinjected into the subsurface for disposal. Utilization of this nontraditional water source is hindered by limited knowledge of water quality. A composite geochemical database was created with 3255 CBM wellhead entries, covering four basins in the Rocky Mountain region, and resulting in information on 64 parameters and constituents. Database water composition is dominated by sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride type waters with total dissolved solids concentrations of 150 to 39,260 mg/L. Constituents commonly exceeding standards for drinking, livestock, and irrigation water applications were total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), temperature, iron, and fluoride. Chemical trends in the basins are linked to the type of coal deposits, the rank of the coal deposits, and the proximity of the well to fresh water recharge. These water composition trends based on basin geology, hydrogeology, and methane generation pathway are relevant to predicting water quality compositions for beneficial use applications in CBM-producing basins worldwide. PMID:21790201

  11. Environmental impact assessment of mountain tourism in developing regions: A study in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya

    SciTech Connect

    Geneletti, Davide; Dawa, Dorje

    2009-07-15

    Mountain tourism in developing countries is becoming a growing environmental concern due to extreme seasonality, lack of suitable infrastructures and planning, and interference with fragile ecosystems and protected areas. This paper presents a study devoted to assess the adverse environmental impacts of tourism, and in particular of trekking-related activities, in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya. The proposed approach is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) modeling and remote sensing imageries to cope with the lack of data that affect the region. First, stressors associated with trekking, and environmental receptors potentially affected were identified. Subsequently, a baseline study on stressors (trail use, waste dumping, camping, pack animal grazing and off-road driving) and receptors (soil, water, wildlife, vegetation) was conducted through field work, data collection, and data processing supported by GIS. Finally, impacts were modeled by considering the intensity of the stressors, and the vulnerability and the value of the receptors. The results were spatially aggregated into watershed units, and combined to generate composite impact maps. The study concluded that the most affected watersheds are located in the central and southeastern part of Ladakh, along some of the most visited trails and within the Hemis and the Tsokar Tsomoriri National parks. The main objective of the study was to understand patterns of tourism-induced environmental degradation, so as to support mitigation interventions, as well as the development of suitable tourism policies.

  12. [Ecological classification system of forest landscape in eastern mountainous region of Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Tang, Li-na; Wang, Qing-li; Dai, Li-min; Shao, Guo-fan

    2008-01-01

    Based on Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and satellite SPOT-5 data, and by using the spatial analysis function in Geographic Information System, a hierachical Ecological Classification System of forest landscape was developed for the eastern mountainous region of Liaoning Province, and the two lowest layers in the hierachical framework, Ecological Land Types (ELTs) and Ecological Land Type Phases (ELTPs), were mapped. The results indicated that there were 5 ELTs and 34 ELTPs. The boundaries of ELTs, which presented the potential vegetation distribution and potential forestry ecosystem productivity, were determined by environmental conditions quantified by DEM. ELTPs were classified by overlaying ELTs with forest vegetation data layers which were obtained from remotely sensed data, forest inventory data, and ground data. The ELTPs represented the divisions of land in terms of both natural and human-induced forest conditions, and therefore, were reliable units for forest inventories and management. ELTPs could function as conventional forest inventory sub-compartments. By this means, forestry departments could adjust forest management planning and forest management measures from the viewpoint of forest landscape scale to realize forest ecosystem management. PMID:18419066

  13. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. L.; Li, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were indentified through interactive discussions with multidisciplinary specialists and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA). The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial working in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors to social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerable households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1, and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.248), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce the household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed based on the assessment results. The results provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and response to flood hazards.

  14. Remote sensing and deforestation in humid tropical region: case of Bambouto mountain in West Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël Leumbe Leumbe, Olivier; Bitom, Dieudonné; Joly Assako Assako, René

    2015-04-01

    A diachronic study of landscapes base on remote sensing data, has been realized on mount Bambouto in the humid tropical mountain region, through soil occupation analyses. It is a volcanic massif situated in the western part of Cameroon. It has an altitude of 2740 m. The objective is to evaluate the anthropic preasure on deforestation within this zone in order to predie the consequences on the area within a short period. The successive ways in which people occupy the soil within a period of about 30 years have thus been evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively on the bases of MSS images of 1978, Tm images of 1988, ETM+ of 2001 and 2007 of Landsat. In these images, the successive application of the index of vegetation and of a supervised classification couple with field observations, digital terrain model and with population data which display serious soils degradation of the volcanic massif from the 1980s, due to continous growing anthropic preasures. In all, between 1978 and 2007, the density of population became 17 times more important more than 43 000 ha of the massif soils has been deforested, this correspond to 1 483 ha/year. IF this velocity of deforestation is maintain, most of the natural vegetation in the Bambouto massif will disappear in 2029

  15. Better utilization of ground water in the Piedmont and mountain region of the southeast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heath, Ralph C.

    1979-01-01

    The development of water supplies for domestic consumption, and for those commercial and industrial uses requiring relatively pure water, has followed a pattern in the Piedmont and mountain areas of the southeast similar to that in most other humid areas. The first settlers utilized seepage springs on hillsides. Such springs occur along steep slopes where the water table intersects the land surface. As the population of the region grew, it became increasingly necessary to resort to shallow dug wells for domestic water supplies. Such wells also served as sources of water for the villages that developed, in time, around crossroad taverns. Seepage springs and dug wells are a satisfactory source of water in a virgin environment but are quickly polluted by careless waste-disposal practices. Thus disposal of domestic wastes in shallow pits resulted in epidemics of water-borne diseases as the villages grew into towns. This resulted in the third phase of water-supply development, which consisted of installing water lines and supplying water to homes from town-owned wells. In time, some of these wells became polluted and others failed to supply adequate water for the increasing needs of the larger urban areas. In the fourth phase these areas met their needs by drawing water from nearby streams. By the early years of this century it was possible to make this water palatable and relatively safe as a result of improvement in filtration methods. Streams, of course, have highly variable rates of flow and, as towns grew into small cities, the minimum flow of many streams was not adequate to meet the water-supply needs. This problem was solved in the fifth phase by building dams on the streams. We are still in this phase as we build larger and larger reservoirs to meet our growing water needs. Thus, through five phases of growth in the Piedmont and mountains we have advanced from the point where ground water was the sole source of supply to the point where it is the forgotten

  16. Late Quaternary history of the southwestern St. Lawrence Lowlands and adjacent Adirondack Highlands

    SciTech Connect

    Pair, D.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The reconstruction of Late Wisconsinan ice retreat, proglacial lakes, and Champlain Sea history from the northwest Adirondack slope and adjacent St. Lawrence Lowlands is critical to the synthesis of a regional picture of deglacial events in the eastern Great Lakes region. Unfortunately, these same areas are well known for their limited exposures, landforms covered by thick forest, large tracts of land inaccessible to detailed field mapping, and the overall paucity of glacial materials preserved on upland surfaces. Despite these limitations, a model which utilizes multiple and field-truthed evidence has been used to designate areas where ice border deposits indicate a substantial recessional position. It employs the following criteria in this analysis: sedimentology and morphostratigraphy of morainal landform segments and related sediments; orientation and continuity of ice border drainage channels; and the relationship of ice borders and drainage systems to well documented local and regional water bodies which accompanied ice retreat. The results of this approach have provided a unique regional picture of deglaciation. Despite the inherent limitations of working in upland areas to reconstruct glacial events, detailed morphostratigraphic correlations based on multiple lines of evidence can yield important information. The positions of five former ice borders have been reconstructed from the available data. These ice margins correspond closely with those documented previously by others adjoining areas. This type of study, utilizing multiple and field-truthed lines of evidence, constitutes a tangible step towards understanding the nature and history of ice retreat along this portion of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  17. Adirondack lakes survey: An interpretive analysis of fish communities and water chemistry, 1984--1987

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.P. , Raleigh, NC ); Gherini, S.A.; Munson, R.K. ); Christensen, S.W. ); Driscoll, C.T. ); Gallagher, J. ); Newton, R.M. ); Reckhow, K.H. ); Schofield, C.L. (Co

    1990-01-01

    The Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC) was formed as a cooperative effort of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation to better characterize the chemical and biological status of Adirondack lakes. Between 1984 and 1987, the ALSC surveyed 1469 lakes within the Adirondack ecological zone. As a follow-up to the survey, the ALSC sponsored a series of interpretive analyses of the ALSC data base. The primary objectives of these analyses were as follows: Evaluate the influence of mineral acids (from acidic deposition) and nonmineral acids (natural organic acids) on lake pH levels; classify Adirondack lakes according to lake and watershed features expected to influence their responsiveness to changes in acidic deposition; evaluate the sensitivity of Adirondack lakes to changes in environmental conditions, such as changes in mineral acids or dissolved organic carbon concentrations; identify lake characteristics important in explaining the observed present-day status of fish communities in Adirondack lakes, in particular the relative importance of lake acidity; evaluate changes that have occurred over time in Adirondack fish communities and probable causes for these trends by using the available historical data on fish communities in the Adirondacks and the ALSC data base; and determine the degree to which the existing fish resource might be at risk from continued acidic deposition, or might recover if acidity levels were reduced. The basic approach examined relationships observed in the ALSC data base among watershed characteristics, lake chemistry, and fish status. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  18. Age, field, and petrological relationships of the Hyde School Gneiss, Adirondack lowlands, New York: Criteria for an intrusive igneous origin

    SciTech Connect

    McLelland, J. ); Perham, A. ); Chiarenzelli, J.

    1992-01-01

    Alaskitic and tonalitic rocks constituting Hyde School Gneiss (HSG) occur in 14 domical bodies in the Adirondack lowlands. Recent models have interpreted these bodies as metamorphosed rhyolitic and dacitic ash-flow deposits forming the basal member of a regional stratigraphic package. In contrast, this paper presents criteria and evidence for an intrusive origin for HSG. Field evidence includes intrusion breccias and complex crosscutting relationships involving mafic layers resembling synplutonic dikes. Petrologic constraints supporting an intrusive origin include: (1) the common occurrence of quartz-mesoperthite hypersolvus assemblages; (2) magmatic features in tonalitic, trondhjemitic, and alaskitic facies, (3) local occurrences of orthopyroxene in all facies of HSG; and (4) the development of marginal garnet-sillimanite gneiss with corundum-spinel-garnet-sillimanite assemblages yielding paleotemperatures of 780-810C and interpreted as restite remaining after anatexis of country rock metapelite by intrusions of hypersolvus granitoids. U-Pb zircon ages reported here suggest that the majority of the HSG was intruded at ca. 1230 Ma, contemporaneous with high-grade metamorphic activity in the Adirondacks and elsewhere in the SW sector of the Grenville Province. Geochronological evidence from a leucogranitic rock crosscutting metasediments on Wellesley Island suggest that these metasediments are older than 1416 {plus minus} 5 Ma.

  19. A geomorphic classification of ephemeral channels in a mountainous, arid region, southwestern Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutfin, Nicholas A.; Shaw, Jeremy; Wohl, Ellen E.; Cooper, David

    2014-09-01

    Despite the global abundance of arid-region ephemeral streams, hydrologic and geomorphic data for these systems are limited compared to their perennial counterparts. High spatial and temporal variability in flow makes hydrologic and geomorphic aspects of dryland ephemeral channels difficult to characterize. Perennial stream classifications have been extended to dryland ephemeral streams but do not adequately describe observed differences in channel geometry and characteristics of ephemeral channels in desert environments. We present a geomorphic classification for ephemeral streams in mountainous regions based on planform, degree of confinement, and composition of confining material. Five stream types were identified in the Sonoran desert of southwestern Arizona: (1) piedmont headwater, (2) bedrock, (3) bedrock with alluvium, (4) incised alluvium, and (5) braided channels. Nonparametric permutational multivariate analysis of variance for 101 surveyed reaches indicated differences (p < 0.001) in channel geometry and hydraulics among the five stream types. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination identified the strongest channel geometry and hydraulic variables capable of distinguishing the five channel types, and a classification tree determined relative importance of these variables in the following order: width-to-depth ratio (W/D), stream gradient (S), stream power (Ω), and shear stress (τ). A classification tree and discriminant analysis used W/D, S, Ω, and τ for 86 study reaches on the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (77% and 77% internal validation hit rate, respectively) to predict stream type of 15 separate study reaches on Barry Goldwater Air Force Range with 67% and 73% external validation hit rates, respectively. Differences in channel geometry among the five stream types reflect likely differences in hydrology, hydraulics, and sediment transport with implications for disturbance regime, channel adjustment to disturbance, and ecological sensitivity.

  20. Testing geostatistical methods to combine radar and rain gauges for precipitation mapping in a mountainous region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdin, R.; Frei, C.; Sideris, I.; Kuensch, H.-R.

    2010-09-01

    There is an increasing demand for accurate mapping of precipitation at a spatial resolution of kilometers. Radar and rain gauges - the two main precipitation measurement systems - exhibit complementary strengths and weaknesses. Radar offers high spatial and temporal resolution but lacks accuracy of absolute values, whereas rain gauges provide accurate values at their specific point location but suffer from poor spatial representativeness. Methods of geostatistical mapping have been proposed to combine radar and rain gauge data for quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). The aim is to combine the respective strengths and compensate for the respective weaknesses of the two observation platforms. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of these methods over topography of moderate complexity, but their performance remains unclear for high-mountain regions where rainfall patterns are complex, the representativeness of rain gauge measurements is limited and radar observations are obstructed. In this study we examine the potential and limitations of two frequently used geostatistical mapping methods for the territory of Switzerland, where the mountain chain of the Alps poses particular challenges to QPE. The two geostatistical methods explored are kriging with external drift (KED) using radar as drift variable and ordinary kriging of radar errors (OKRE). The radar data is a composite from three C-band radars using a constant Z-R relationship, advanced correction processings for visibility, ground clutter and beam shielding and a climatological bias adjustment. The rain gauge data originates from an automatic network with a typical inter-station distance of 25 km. Both combination methods are applied to a set of case examples representing typical rainfall situations in the Alps with their inherent challenges at daily and hourly time resolution. The quality of precipitation estimates is assessed by several skill scores calculated from cross validation errors at

  1. [Measurement and estimation of grassland evapotranspiration in a mountainous region at the upper reach of Heihe River basin, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Chen, Ren-sheng; Song, Yao-xuan; Liu, Jun-feng; Han, Chun-tan; Liu, Zhang-wen

    2013-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of water cycle, but its measurement in high altitude mountainous region is quite difficult, inducing the insufficient understanding on the actual ET in high altitude mountainous region and the effects of ET on this region' s water cycle. In this paper, two small type weighing mini-lysimeters were applied to measure the daily ET in a piece of grassland in a high altitude mountainous region of the Heihe River basin from July 1st, 2009 to June 30th, 2010. Based on the measured data, the methods of FAO-56 Penman-Monteith (F-P-M), Priestley-Taylor (P-T), and Hargreaves-Samani (H-S) were employed to estimate the ET to analyze the applicability of the three methods for the mountainous region, and the pan coefficient at the measurement spots was discussed. During the measurement period, the total annual ET at the measurement spots was 439.9 mm, accounting for 96.5% of the precipitation in the same period, and the ET showed an obvious seasonal distribution, being 389. 3 mm in May-October, accounting for 88. 5% of the annual value. All the three methods could be well applied to estimate the summer ET but not the winter ET, and their applicability followed the sequence of P-T > F-P-M > H-S. At the measurement spots, the daily pan coefficient in summer was 0.7-0. 8, while that in winter was quite variable. PMID:23898665

  2. Establishing a mountain flash flood forecasting/warning strategy through case studies in different climatic regions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Qinghua; Yang, Dawen

    2015-04-01

    Flash flood is one of the most common natural hazards in China, particularly in mountainous areas, causing heavy damages and casualties. However, mountain flash flood forecast remains challenging due to its short response time and the limited monitoring capacity over ungauged regions. This paper aims at assessing the predictability of flash flood in mountainous watersheds in humid, semi-humid and semi-arid regions of China. To access the applicability of flood forecast based on the rain-gauge network, we implement a distributed hydrological model (GBHM) over several mountainous catchments in China with drainage area of 5 to 2882 km2. The response time of flood is first derived using typical rainstorm, and the low limit of catchment area for flash flood forecast based on the rain-gauge network is determined through the intercomparison over different spatial scales. For those catchments smaller than the lowest limit, people can only escape from the flash floods by warning rather than by forecast due to the short response time. Hence the flash flood warning (FFN) method is introduced. Implement of the FFN needs to determine the rainfall threshold that may be different due to the antecedent soil moisture status. Based on the GBHM simulation using the historical rainfall data, we introduced an appropriate method to determine the FFN rainfall threshold in different climatic regions in China. The results show that the rainfall threshold decreases significantly with the antecedent soil moisture in the humid regions, while it keeps constant approximately in different soil wet conditions in the semi-arid regions.

  3. Emissions implications of future natural gas production and use in the U.S. and in the Rocky Mountain region.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Jeffrey D; Brinkman, Gregory L; Milford, Jana B

    2014-11-18

    Enhanced prospects for natural gas production raise questions about the balance of impacts on air quality, as increased emissions from production activities are considered alongside the reductions expected when natural gas is burned in place of other fossil fuels. This study explores how trends in natural gas production over the coming decades might affect emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for the United States and its Rocky Mountain region. The MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) energy system optimization model is used with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's nine-region database to compare scenarios for natural gas supply and demand, constraints on the electricity generation mix, and GHG emissions fees. Through 2050, total energy system GHG emissions show little response to natural gas supply assumptions, due to offsetting changes across sectors. Policy-driven constraints or emissions fees are needed to achieve net reductions. In most scenarios, wind is a less expensive source of new electricity supplies in the Rocky Mountain region than natural gas. U.S. NOx emissions decline in all the scenarios considered. Increased VOC emissions from natural gas production offset part of the anticipated reductions from the transportation sector, especially in the Rocky Mountain region. PMID:25329514

  4. Gastric cancer incidence and mortality is associated with altitude in the mountainous regions of Pacific Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Javier; Correa, Pelayo; Ferreccio, Catterina; Hernandez-Suarez, Gustavo; Herrero, Rolando; Cavazza-Porro, Maria; Dominguez, Ricardo; Morgan, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    In Latin America, gastric cancer is a leading cancer, and countries in the region have some of the highest mortality rates worldwide, including Chile, Costa Rica, and Colombia. Geographic variation in mortality rates is observed both between neighboring countries and within nations. We discuss epidemiological observations suggesting an association between altitude and gastric cancer risk in Latin America. In the Americas, the burden of gastric cancer mortality is concentrated in the mountainous areas along the Pacific rim, following the geography of the Andes sierra, from Venezuela to Chile, and the Sierra Madre and Cordillera de Centroamérica, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. Altitude is probably a surrogate for host genetic, bacterial, dietary, and environmental factors that may cluster in the mountainous regions. For example, H. pylori strains from patients of the Andean Nariño region of Colombia display European ancestral haplotypes, whereas strains from the Pacific coast are predominantly of African origin. The observation of higher gastric cancer rates in the mountainous areas is not universal: the association is absent in Chile, where risk is more strongly associated with the age of H. pylori acquisition and socio-economic determinants. The dramatic global and regional variations in gastric cancer incidence and mortality rates offer the opportunity for scientific discovery and focused prevention programs. PMID:23224271

  5. Non-primary layering in some Adirondack orthogneisses

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, R.; McLelland, J.; Ritter, A. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Metamorphic, as opposed to primary, layering has been shown to be important in many tectonites. Within orthogneisses additional types of non-primary layering are common and have important genetic implications. Here the authors cite three Adirondack examples. (1) Hyde School Gneiss of the Adirondack Lowlands contains semi-continuous layers of foliated amphibolite arranged parallel to contacts and early foliation and disrupted by pegmatitic, alaskitic, and tonalitic host rock. Layering appears to be the result of penetration of amphibolite by granitoid magma first along extensional fractures and then parallel to foliation. Intrusion is envisaged to take place in active shear zones initially occupied by foliated amphibolite that is subsequently penetrated parallel to foliation by granitoids. (2) South of Elizabethtown foliated, isoclinally folded gabbroic anorthosite is well layered with garnetiferous amphibolite, quartz-feldspar gneiss, and calcsilicate. Because of rock composition, the layering cannot be due to metavolcanic sequences nor can disruption be attributed to partial melting. A satisfactory interpretation is that gabbroic anorthosite intruded mafic and carbonate-rich rocks in lit-par-lit fashion. (3) North of Speculator a garnetiferous amphibolite/gabbro has been intruded by granite now containing xenoliths, some with ophitic opx. Much of the layering in the granite consists of clots of plagioclase, garnet, pyroxene (chloritized) arranged in parallel. These are interpreted as small xenoliths of garnetiferous amphibolite/gabbro entrained into the granitic magma and strung out in the direction of flow. These examples provide further evidence that layering can develop during magmatic emplacement and need not represent primary stratification. Assignment of a primary origin to such layering necessarily results in misinterpretation of geologic history.

  6. Potential contaminant transport in the regional Carbonate Aquifer beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredehoeft, John; King, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the site of the proposed US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The repository is to be a mine, sited approximately 300 m below the crest of the mountain, in a sequence of variably welded and fractured mid-Miocene rhylolite tuffs, in the unsaturated zone, approximately 300 m above the water table. Beneath the proposed repository, at a depth of 2 km, is a thick sequence of Paleozoic carbonate rocks that contain the highly transmissive Lower Carbonate Aquifer. In the area of Yucca Mountain the Carbonate Aquifer integrates groundwater flow from north of the mountain, through the Amargosa Valley, through the Funeral Mountains to Furnace Creek in Death Valley, California where the groundwater discharges in a set of large springs. Data that describe the Carbonate Aquifer suggest a concept for flow through the aquifer, and based upon the conceptual model, a one-layer numerical model was constructed to simulate groundwater flow in the Carbonate Aquifer. Advective transport analyses suggest that the predicted travel time of a particle from Yucca Mountain to Death Valley through the Carbonate Aquifer might be as short as 100 years to as long 2,000 years, depending upon the porosity.

  7. Investigation of mineral aerosols radiative effects over High Mountain Asia in 1990-2009 using a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zhenming; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan; Chen, Pengfei; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-09-01

    Mineral aerosols scatter and absorb incident solar radiation in the atmosphere, and play an important role in the regional climate of High Mountain Asia (the domain includes the Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau, Pamir, Hindu-kush, Karakorum and Tienshan Mountains). Dust deposition on snow/ice can also change the surface albedo, resulting in perturbations in the surface radiation balance. However, most studies that have made quantitative assessments of the climatic effect of mineral aerosols over the High Mountain Asia region did not consider the impact of dust on snow/ice at the surface. In this study, a regional climate model coupled with an aerosol-snow/ice feedback module was used to investigate the emission, distribution, and deposition of dust and the climatic effects of aerosols over High Mountain Asia. Two sets of simulations driven by a reanalysis boundary condition were performed, i.e., with and without dust-climate feedback. Results indicated that the model captured the spatial and temporal features of the climatology and aerosol optical depth (AOD). High dust emission fluxes were simulated in the interior of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the Yarlung Tsangpo Valley in March-April-May (MAM), with a decreasing trend during 1990-2009. Dry deposition was controlled by the topography, and its spatial and seasonal features agreed well with the dust emission fluxes. The maximum wet deposition occurred in the western (southern and central) TP in MAM (JJA). A positive surface radiative forcing was induced by dust, including aerosol-snow/ice feedback, resulting in 2-m temperature increases of 0.1-0.5 °C over the western TP and Kunlun Mountains in MAM. Mineral dust also caused a decrease of 5-25 mm in the snow water equivalent (SWE) over the western TP, Himalayas, and Pamir Mountains in DJF and MAM. The long-term regional mean radiative forcing via dust deposition on snow showed an rising trend during 1990-2009, which suggested the contribution of aerosols surface

  8. Trends in synoptic circulation and precipitation in the Snowy Mountains region, Australia, in the period 1958-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theobald, Alison; McGowan, Hamish; Speirs, Johanna

    2016-03-01

    The hydroclimate of the Snowy Mountains, south-east Australia (SEA), is influenced by tropical and extra-tropical synoptic scale weather systems. Accordingly, it is sensitive to any changes in the mid-latitude westerly wind belt, the dominant driver of precipitation in winter, and the entrainment of moisture from tropical latitudes, particularly during the warmer months of the austral summer. The region has historically observed a cool-season (April-October) dominated precipitation regime. However, evidence is presented of a decline in precipitation during the autumn and spring transition months. Autumn precipitation is particularly important for crop sowing and agricultural production in the Murray-Darling Basin downstream of the Snowy Mountains, whilst spring precipitation influences snowmelt and water storage replenishment in the Snowy Mountains. Instead, we show a change in the annual precipitation distribution is evident, with an increase in precipitation during warmer months. Trend analyses for the period 1958-2012 show a decrease in annual frequency of precipitation days capable of generating inflows to the catchments of the Snowy Mountains of - 1.4 days per decade on average, whilst the precipitation they generate has increased by + 5.7 mm per decade. These results align with climate change projections that precipitation events are becoming less frequent but more intense.

  9. Impact of sublimation losses in the mass balance of glaciers in semi-arid mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alvaro; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Burlando, Paolo; MacDonell, Shelley; McPhee, James

    2016-04-01

    Glaciers in semiarid mountain regions may lose an important part of their winter snow accumulation through sublimation processes that are enhanced by the high-elevation, intense radiation and dry atmosphere of these environments. As glaciers in these regions secure freshwater resources to lower valleys during summer and drought periods, it is important to advance in a detailed quantification of their sublimation losses. However, logistical concerns and complex meteorological features make the measuring and modelling of glacier mass balances a difficult task. In this study, we estimated the spring-summer mass balances of Tapado and Juncal Norte glaciers in the semiarid Andes of north-central Chile by running a distributed energy balance model that accounts for melt, refreezing and sublimation from the surface and blowing snow. Meteorological input data were available from on-glacier Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) that were installed during the ablation season of years 2005-06, 2008-09, 2013-14 and 2014-15. Snow pits, ablation stakes and a time-lapse camera that provided surface albedo were also available. Distributed air temperature and wind speed were dynamically downscaled from NASA MERRA reanalysis using the software WINDSIM and validated against the data from the AWSs. The rest of the meteorological variables were distributed using statistical relations with air temperature derived from the AWSs data. Initial snow conditions were estimated using satellite images and distributed manual snow depth measurements. Preliminary results show that total ablation diminishes with elevation and that, during the early ablation season (October-November), melt is the main ablation component below 4500 m with sublimation dominating the ablation above this elevation. Above 4500 m an important fraction of meltwater refreezes during night. As the ablation season advances (December-February), melt extends to higher elevations, refreezing plays a smaller role and sublimation is

  10. An original methodology to compute SWE of mountainous regions: insight from the Italian Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianfarra, Paola; Valt, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    classified by snow depth and by season. In this way it is possible to derive a statistical, predictive tool for the evaluation of the mean snow density by snow depth classes, by altitude interval, and by season in the Eastern Alps. The SWE by altitude interval and/or by season and/or by sub-regions in the investigated area is then computed as the product of SCA, of the mean Hs, and of the mean snow density. Despite the precision that can be improved with the availability of higher spatial resolution satellite images, this methodology allows to quickly compute near real time SWE for vast regions using multispectral satellite data freely available in the internet and the Italian Avalanche Services data base. This methodology may be easily tuned and applied in other mountainous regions where Hs and snow density values are available from local Snow Services.

  11. The relative importance of relief, hydroclimate and human activity as drivers of environmental change in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaymaker, O.

    2009-04-01

    At longer, geological time scales relief is the dominant driver of environmental change and is a function of the rate of movement of global tectonic plates. At shorter, anthropocene time scales, hydroclimate and human activity vie for the role of dominant driver. It is anticipated that at future time scales human activity will become progressively more dominant. Mountain regions, representing about 20% of the terrestrial surface area of the globe, are by definition steep, high elevation regions which differ spatially in their absolute rates of change as a function of relief, hydroclimate and human activity. Global relief variations are characterized in terms of elevation and local elevation range. Superimposed on relief variations are global climate variations which are often closely correlated with relief. The question which engages greatest attention today is the extent to which environmental disturbances, whether hydroclimatic or anthropogenic, are indexed by sediment flux. In order to answer this question at global scale it is necessary to invoke a typology of mountain regions which is equally sensitive to both hydroclimatic and anthropogenic disturbances. Examples are drawn from tropical, temperate and polar mountain environments.

  12. Floodplain Modulation of Solute Fluxes from Mountainous Regions: the Amazonian Madre de Dios River Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, M. A.; West, A. J.; Baronas, J. J.; Ponton, C.; Clark, K. E.; Feakins, S. J.; Galy, V.

    2015-12-01

    In many large river systems, solutes released by chemical weathering in mountainous regions are transported through floodplains before being discharged into the ocean. Chemical reactions within floodplains can both add and remove solutes, significantly modulating fluxes. Despite their importance in the relationship between tectonic uplift and solute fluxes to the ocean, many aspects of floodplain processes are poorly constrained since the chemistry of large rivers is also significantly affected by the mixing between multiple tributaries, which makes the separation and quantification of floodplain processes challenging. Here we explore how floodplain processes affect a suite of major and trace elements in the Madre de Dios River system in Peru. To separate floodplain processes from conservative mixing, we developed a tributary mixing model that uses water isotopic ratios and chloride concentrations measured in each tributary and upstream and downstream of each tributary confluence for all major tributaries along a floodplain reach. The results of the tributary mixing model allow for the chemical composition of the mainstem of the Madre de Dios River to be modeled assuming completely conservative mixing. Differences between the modeled and measured chemical composition of the mainstem are then used to identify and quantify the effects of floodplain processes on different solutes. Our results show that during both the wet and dry seasons, Li is removed and Ca, Mg, and Sr are added to the dissolved load during floodplain transit. Other solutes, like Na and SO4, appear to behave conservatively during floodplain transit. Likely, the removal of Li from the dissolved load reflects the precipitation of secondary silicate minerals in the floodplain. The release of Ca, Mg, and Sr likely reflects the dissolution of detrital carbonate minerals. Our analyses also show that tributaries with Andean headwaters contribute disproportionately to solute budgets while the water budget

  13. Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov., Isolated from Surface Soil in the Permafrost Region of Qilian Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Piao, Ai-Lian; Feng, Xiao-Min; Nogi, Yuichi; Han, Lu; Li, Yonghong; Lv, Jie

    2016-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated X1(T), was isolated from the permafrost region of Qilian Mountains in northwest of China. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain X1(T) was a member of the genus Sphingomonas and shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Sphingomonas oligophenolica JCM 12082(T) (96.9%), followed by Sphingomonas glacialis CGMCC 1.8957(T) (96.7%) and Sphingomonas alpina DSM 22537(T) (96.4%). Strain X1(T) was able to grow at 15-30 °C, pH 6.0-10.0 and with 0-0.3% NaCl (w/v). The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 64.8 mol%. Strain X1(T)-contained Q-10 as the dominant ubiquinone and C(18:1)ω7c, C(16:1)ω7c, C(16:0) and C(14:0) 2-OH as the dominant fatty acids. The polar lipid profile of strain XI(T)-contained sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipid. Due to the phenotypic and genetic distinctiveness and other characteristic studied in this article, we consider X1(T) as a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas and propose to name it Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov. The type strain is X1(T) (=CGMCC 1.15349(T) = KCTC 42862(T)). PMID:26676296

  14. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Delin; Li, Yue

    2016-05-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were identified using existing literature and discussions with experts from multiple disciplines and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA) and an expert scoring method. The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial work in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors of social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerability households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1 and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.748), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed, which included (1) improving the local residents' income and their disaster-related knowledge and evacuation skills, (2) developing emergency plans and carrying out emergency drills and training, (3) enhancing the accuracy of disaster monitoring and warning systems and (4) establishing a specific emergency management department and comprehensive rescue systems. These results can provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and respond to flood hazards, and the corresponding strategies can help local households to reduce their social vulnerability and improve their ability to resist flood hazard.

  15. Digital modelling of landscape and soil in a mountainous region: A neuro-fuzzy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viloria, Jesús A.; Viloria-Botello, Alvaro; Pineda, María Corina; Valera, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Research on genetic relationships between soil and landforms has largely improved soil mapping. Recent technological advances have created innovative methods for modelling the spatial soil variation from digital elevation models (DEMs) and remote sensors. This generates new opportunities for the application of geomorphology to soil mapping. This study applied a method based on artificial neural networks and fuzzy clustering to recognize digital classes of land surfaces in a mountainous area in north-central Venezuela. The spatial variation of the fuzzy memberships exposed the areas where each class predominates, while the class centres helped to recognize the topographic attributes and vegetation cover of each class. The obtained classes of terrain revealed the structure of the land surface, which showed regional differences in climate, vegetation, and topography and landscape stability. The land-surface classes were subdivided on the basis of the geological substratum to produce landscape classes that additionally considered the influence of soil parent material. These classes were used as a framework for soil sampling. A redundancy analysis confirmed that changes of landscape classes explained the variation in soil properties (p = 0.01), and a Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences (p = 0.01) in clay, hydraulic conductivity, soil organic carbon, base saturation, and exchangeable Ca and Mg between classes. Thus, the produced landscape classes correspond to three-dimensional bodies that differ in soil conditions. Some changes of land-surface classes coincide with abrupt boundaries in the landscape, such as ridges and thalwegs. However, as the model is continuous, it disclosed the remaining variation between those boundaries.

  16. Regional Hydraulic Geometry Curves of the Northern Cascade Mountains, Chelan and King Counties, Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperi, J. T.; McClung, J. M.; Hanson, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    The USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service has developed regional hydraulic geometry curves relating drainage area to bankfull top width, mean depth and cross-sectional area for the east and west sides of the northern Cascade Mountains in Chelan and King Counties, Washington. NRCS surveyed 10 channel reaches with drainage areas from 1 to 1000 square miles within the Wenatchee River drainage of Chelan County and 10 channel reaches with drainage areas of 1 to 100 square miles within the Cedar and Green River drainages of King County. Selection criteria for stream reaches required a minimum of 20 years of USGS stream gage discharge records, unregulated flows and safe access. Survey data were collected with a Sokkia Total Station during low flow conditions from August 2004 to September 2005. NRCS measured a channel cross-section at each of the USGS stream gage sites and two or three additional cross-sections up and downstream. The authors also collected samples of bed material for gradation analysis and estimation of Manning's roughness coefficient, n. Bankfull elevations were estimated based on visual identification of field indicators and USGS flood discharges for the 50% exceedance probability event. Field data were evaluated with the Ohio DNR Reference Reach spreadsheet to determine bankfull top width, mean depth and cross-sectional area. We applied a simple linear regression to the data following USGS statistical methods to evaluate the closeness of fit between drainage area and bankfull channel dimensions. The resulting R2 values of 0.83 to 0.93 for the eastern Cascade data of Chelan County and 0.71 to 0.88 for the western Cascade data of King County indicate a close association between drainage area and bankfull channel dimensions for these two sets of data.

  17. Daily air temperature interpolated at high spatial resolution over a large mountainous region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodson, R.; Marks, D.

    1997-01-01

    Two methods are investigated for interpolating daily minimum and maximum air temperatures (Tmin and Tmax) at a 1 km spatial resolution over a large mountainous region (830 000 km2) in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The methods were selected because of their ability to (1) account for the effect of elevation on temperature and (2) efficiently handle large volumes of data. The first method, the neutral stability algorithm (NSA), used the hydrostatic and potential temperature equations to convert measured temperatures and elevations to sea-level potential temperatures. The potential temperatures were spatially interpolated using an inverse-squared-distance algorithm and then mapped to the elevation surface of a digital elevation model (DEM). The second method, linear lapse rate adjustment (LLRA), involved the same basic procedure as the NSA, but used a constant linear lapse rate instead of the potential temperature equation. Cross-validation analyses were performed using the NSA and LLRA methods to interpolate Tmin and Tmax each day for the 1990 water year, and the methods were evaluated based on mean annual interpolation error (IE). The NSA method showed considerable bias for sites associated with vertical extrapolation. A correction based on climate station/grid cell elevation differences was developed and found to successfully remove the bias. The LLRA method was tested using 3 lapse rates, none of which produced a serious extrapolation bias. The bias-adjusted NSA and the 3 LLRA methods produced almost identical levels of accuracy (mean absolute errors between 1.2 and 1.3??C), and produced very similar temperature surfaces based on image difference statistics. In terms of accuracy, speed, and ease of implementation, LLRA was chosen as the best of the methods tested.

  18. Nitrogen solutes in an Adirondack forested watershed: Importance of dissolved organic nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHale, M.R.; Mitchell, M.J.; McDonnell, Jeffery J.; Cirmo, C.P.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) dynamics were evaluated from 1 June 1995 through 31 May 1996 within the Arbutus Lake watershed in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State, U.S.A. At the Arbutus Lake outlet dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), NO3/- and NH4/+ contributed 61%, 33%, and 6% respectively, to the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) flux (259 mol ha-1 yr-1). At the lake inlet DON, NO3/-, and NH4/+ constituted 36%, 61%, and 3% respectively, of TDN flux (349 mol ha-1 yr-1). Differences between the factors that control DON, NO3/-, and NH4+ stream water concentrations were evaluated using two methods for estimating annual N flux at the lake inlet. Using biweekly sampling NO3/- and NH4/+ flux was 10 and 4 mol ha-1 yr-1 respectively, less than flux estimates using biweekly plus storm and snowmelt sampling. DON flux was 18 mol ha-1 yr-1 greater using only biweekly sampling. These differences are probably not of ecological significance relative to the total flux of N from the watershed (349 mol ha-1 yr-1). Dissolved organic N concentrations were positively related to discharge during both the dormant (R2 = 0.31; P<0.01) and growing season (R2= 0.09; P<0.01). There was no significant relationship between NO3/- concentration and discharge during the dormant season, but a significant negative relationship was found during the growing season (R2 = 0.29; P<0.01). Biotic controls in the growing season appeared to have had a larger impact on stream water NO3- concentrations than on DON concentrations. Arbutus Lake had a major impact on stream water N concentrations of the four landscape positions sampled, suggesting the need to quantify within lake processes to interpret N solute losses and patterns in watershed-lake systems.

  19. An empirical approach to modeling methylmercury concentrations in an Adirondack stream watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Douglas A.; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Wolock, David M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Riva-Murray, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Inverse empirical models can inform and improve more complex process-based models by quantifying the principal factors that control water quality variation. Here we developed a multiple regression model that explains 81% of the variation in filtered methylmercury (FMeHg) concentrations in Fishing Brook, a fourth-order stream in the Adirondack Mountains, New York, a known “hot spot” of Hg bioaccumulation. This model builds on previous observations that wetland-dominated riparian areas are the principal source of MeHg to this stream and were based on 43 samples collected during a 33 month period in 2007–2009. Explanatory variables include those that represent the effects of water temperature, streamflow, and modeled riparian water table depth on seasonal and annual patterns of FMeHg concentrations. An additional variable represents the effects of an upstream pond on decreasing FMeHg concentrations. Model results suggest that temperature-driven effects on net Hg methylation rates are the principal control on annual FMeHg concentration patterns. Additionally, streamflow dilutes FMeHg concentrations during the cold dormant season. The model further indicates that depth and persistence of the riparian water table as simulated by TOPMODEL are dominant controls on FMeHg concentration patterns during the warm growing season, especially evident when concentrations during the dry summer of 2007 were less than half of those in the wetter summers of 2008 and 2009. This modeling approach may help identify the principal factors that control variation in surface water FMeHg concentrations in other settings, which can guide the appropriate application of process-based models.

  20. An empirical approach to modeling methylmercury concentrations in an Adirondack stream watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Wolock, David M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Riva-Murray, Karen

    2014-10-01

    Inverse empirical models can inform and improve more complex process-based models by quantifying the principal factors that control water quality variation. Here we developed a multiple regression model that explains 81% of the variation in filtered methylmercury (FMeHg) concentrations in Fishing Brook, a fourth-order stream in the Adirondack Mountains, New York, a known "hot spot" of Hg bioaccumulation. This model builds on previous observations that wetland-dominated riparian areas are the principal source of MeHg to this stream and were based on 43 samples collected during a 33 month period in 2007-2009. Explanatory variables include those that represent the effects of water temperature, streamflow, and modeled riparian water table depth on seasonal and annual patterns of FMeHg concentrations. An additional variable represents the effects of an upstream pond on decreasing FMeHg concentrations. Model results suggest that temperature-driven effects on net Hg methylation rates are the principal control on annual FMeHg concentration patterns. Additionally, streamflow dilutes FMeHg concentrations during the cold dormant season. The model further indicates that depth and persistence of the riparian water table as simulated by TOPMODEL are dominant controls on FMeHg concentration patterns during the warm growing season, especially evident when concentrations during the dry summer of 2007 were less than half of those in the wetter summers of 2008 and 2009. This modeling approach may help identify the principal factors that control variation in surface water FMeHg concentrations in other settings, which can guide the appropriate application of process-based models.

  1. Precipitation isotopes link regional climate patterns to water supply in a tropical mountain forest, eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, Martha A.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2014-01-01

    Like many mountainous areas in the tropics, watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico have abundant rainfall and stream discharge and provide much of the water supply for the densely populated metropolitan areas nearby. Projected changes in regional temperature and atmospheric dynamics as a result of global warming suggest that water availability will be affected by changes in rainfall patterns. It is essential to understand the relative importance of different weather systems to water supply to determine how changes in rainfall patterns, interacting with geology and vegetation, will affect the water balance. To help determine the links between climate and water availability, stable isotope signatures of precipitation from different weather systems were established to identify those that are most important in maintaining streamflow and groundwater recharge. Precipitation stable isotope values in the Luquillo Mountains had a large range, from fog/cloud water with δ2H, δ18O values as high as +12 ‰, −0.73 ‰ to tropical storm rain with values as low as −127 ‰, −16.8 ‰. Temporal isotope values exhibit a reverse seasonality from those observed in higher latitude continental watersheds, with higher isotopic values in the winter and lower values in the summer. Despite the higher volume of convective and low-pressure system rainfall, stable isotope analyses indicated that under the current rainfall regime, frequent trade -wind orographic showers contribute much of the groundwater recharge and stream base flow. Analysis of rain events using 20 years of 15 -minute resolution data at a mountain station (643 m) showed an increasing trend in rainfall amount, in agreement with increased precipitable water in the atmosphere, but differing from climate model projections of drying in the region. The mean intensity of rain events also showed an increasing trend. The determination of recharge sources from stable isotope tracers indicates that water

  2. Precipitation isotopes link regional climate patterns to water supply in a tropical mountain forest, eastern Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, Martha A.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2014-05-01

    Like many mountainous areas in the tropics, watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico have abundant rainfall and stream discharge and provide much of the water supply for the densely populated metropolitan areas nearby. Projected changes in regional temperature and atmospheric dynamics as a result of global warming suggest that water availability will be affected by changes in rainfall patterns. It is essential to understand the relative importance of different weather systems to water supply to determine how changes in rainfall patterns, interacting with geology and vegetation, will affect the water balance. To help determine the links between climate and water availability, stable isotope signatures of precipitation from different weather systems were established to identify those that are most important in maintaining streamflow and groundwater recharge. Precipitation stable isotope values in the Luquillo Mountains had a large range, from fog/cloud water with δ2H, δ18O values as high as +12 ‰, -0.73 ‰ to tropical storm rain with values as low as -127 ‰, -16.8 ‰. Temporal isotope values exhibit a reverse seasonality from those observed in higher latitude continental watersheds, with higher isotopic values in the winter and lower values in the summer. Despite the higher volume of convective and low-pressure system rainfall, stable isotope analyses indicated that under the current rainfall regime, frequent trade -wind orographic showers contribute much of the groundwater recharge and stream base flow. Analysis of rain events using 20 years of 15 -minute resolution data at a mountain station (643 m) showed an increasing trend in rainfall amount, in agreement with increased precipitable water in the atmosphere, but differing from climate model projections of drying in the region. The mean intensity of rain events also showed an increasing trend. The determination of recharge sources from stable isotope tracers indicates that water supply

  3. Rainfall infiltration process in mountain headwater region using electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, M.; Yamamiya, K.; Shimada, J.

    2008-12-01

    Many researchers have studied about the hydrological process, especially rainfall-runoff process, in the headwater region using multi hydrometric methods. Since the possibility has been recognized that bedrock groundwater has important role to play in the rainfall-runoff process, it is important to comprehend the rainfall infiltration process within fluctuations of bedrock groundwater. However, we would need many hydrological instruments to understand this process precisely. So we have applied electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method to understand rainfall infiltration process in the area that is estimated the contribution of bedrock groundwater for rainfall-runoff processes. Resistivity changes with the saturation rate of the pore fluid in the subsurface material. So it is possible to estimate spatial and temporal distribution of subsurface water by using ERT. In this study, we will estimate rainfall infiltration process in mountain headwater region using resistivity method. The study area is the Mamushi-dani watershed in Shiranui, Kumamoto, Japan. We described the bedrock groundwater storage systems using resistivity method in this watershed previously. Resistivity has been observed at 2 measurement lines in slope areas of this watershed. Both measurement lines have 47m in length, 1m electrode spacing and 48 electrodes. We used the multi-electrode system, NEXT-400(Kowa Co. Ltd., Japan) for measuring apparent resistivity and the application software, E-tomo (Diaconsultant Co. Ltd., Japan) for inversion of apparent resistivity data. The observed resistivity data were compared with water head observed at borehole and specific discharge observed at foot of the watershed. Inverted resistivity profiles and observed hydrological data showed the interface between saturated and unsaturated zone. During rainfall occurs, resistivity in surface area gets lower than that before the rainfall and resistivity in some part of unsaturated area shows increasing tendency. Both

  4. InSAR and GPS time series analysis: Crustal deformation in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C. W.; Plag, H.

    2010-12-01

    Several previous studies have successfully demonstrated that long time series (e.g. >5 years) of GPS measurements can be employed to detect tectonic signals with a vertical rate greater than 0.3 mm/yr (e.g. Hill and Blewitt, 2006; Bennett et al. 2009). However, GPS stations are often sparse, with spacing from a few kilometres to a few hundred kilometres. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) can complement GPS by providing high horizontal spatial resolution (e.g. meters to tens-of metres) over large regions (e.g. 100 km × 100 km). A major source of error for repeat-pass InSAR is the phase delay in radio signal propagation through the atmosphere. The portion of this attributable to tropospheric water vapour causes errors as large as 10-20 cm in deformation retrievals. InSAR Time Series analysis with Atmospheric Estimation Models (InSAR TS + AEM), developed at the University of Glasgow, is a robust time series analysis approach, which mainly uses interferograms with small geometric baselines to minimise the effects of decorrelation and inaccuracies in topographic data. In addition, InSAR TS + AEM can be used to separate deformation signals from atmospheric water vapour effects in order to map surface deformation as it evolves in time. The principal purposes of this study are to assess: (1) how consistent InSAR-derived deformation time series are with GPS; and (2) how precise InSAR-derived atmospheric path delays can be. The Yucca Mountain, Nevada region is chosen as the study site because of its excellent GPS network and extensive radar archives (>10 years of dense and high-quality GPS stations, and >17 years of ERS and ENVISAT radar acquisitions), and because of its arid environment. The latter results in coherence that is generally high, even for long periods that span the existing C-band radar archives of ERS and ENVISAT. Preliminary results show that our InSAR LOS deformation map agrees with GPS measurements to within 0.35 mm/yr RMS misfit at the stations which is the

  5. Implication of Groundwater Resources Utilization in Mountainous Region for Slopeland Disaster Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chi-Chao; Hsu, Shih-Meng; Lo, Hung-Chieh

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, groundwater resources from mountainous regions have been considered as an alternative water resource in Taiwan. According to previous research outcomes (Hsu, 2011), such a groundwater resource is capable of providing stable and high quality water resources. Additionally, another advantage of using the water resources is attributed to the contribution of slopeland disaster prevention. While pumping groundwater as water resources in hilly areas (e.g., at landslide-prone sites), pore-water pressures can be dropped, which can result in stabilizing landslide-prone slopes. However, the benefit to slope stability by using groundwater resources needs to be quantified. The purpose of this study is to investigate groundwater potential of a deep-seated landslide site first, and then to evaluate variations of slope stability by changing well pumping rate conditions. In this paper, the Baolong landslide site located at the Jiasian district of Kaohsiung city in Southern Taiwan has been selected as a case study. Hydrogeological investigation for the landslide site was conducted to clarify the complexity of field characteristics and to establish a precise conceptual model for simulation. The investigation content includes surficial geology investigation, borehole drilling (6 drilling boreholes and 350 meters drilling length in total), 45 m pumping well construction, borehole hydrogeological tests (borehole televiewer, caliper, borehole electrical logging, sonic logging, flowmeter measurement, pumping test, and double packer test), and laboratory tests from rock core samples (physical properties test of soil and rocks, triaxial permeability test of soil, porosity determination test using helium, and gas permeability test). Based on the aforementioned investigation results, a hydrogeological conceptual model for the Baolong landslide site was constructed, and a 2D slope stability model coupled with transient seepage flow model was used for numerical simulation to

  6. 137Cs and 40K in some traditional herbal teas collected in the mountain regions of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Branislava M; Grdović, Svetlana N; Vitorović, Gordana S; Vitorović, Duško P; Pantelić, Gordana K; Grubić, Goran A

    2014-01-01

    Herbal teas are an important part of traditional medicine in Serbia. The objective of the present study was to determine the activity concentrations of (40)K and (137)Cs in herbal tea, using the gamma spectroscopy method. The samples were collected during the period 2011-2012 in three mountain regions in Western and Central Serbia. The activity concentrations of (40)K and (137)Cs were found to be in the range of 130-1160 and 0.7-124 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The average annual effective dose equivalents from ingestion of (40)K and (137)Cs for an adult person consuming one cup of herbal tea daily were found to be 588.4-5250.2 nSv for (40)K and 4.0-706.1 nSv for (137)Cs. Our investigation showed that the herbal teas originating from Maljen, Zlatibor and Tara mountains are radiologically safe for human consumption. PMID:25322769

  7. Hydrology of a Riparian Wetland in the Adirondacks of New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R. M.; Hodo, R. M.; Pufall, A.

    2001-12-01

    A riparian wetland in the Sunday Lake watershed located in the western Adirondack region of New York State was instrumented as part of a study of mercury in Adirondack wetlands, lakes and terrestrial systems. Multiple arrays of shallow groundwater piezometers were installed adjacent to the inlet stream and along the shore of Sunday Lake. Four dataloggers equipped with pressure transducers continuously monitor groundwater stage at 4 of the piezometers and surface water stage at 3 gage stations. In addition, rainfall (tipping bucket), air temperature and water temperature (thermisters) are also monitored at these sites. Water samples are taken monthly from all piezometers and surface waters and analyzed for major ion chemistry as well as 18O and deuterium. Head measurements show that the riparian wetlands discharge water to the streams from surrounding areas of stratified drift throughout most of the year. During baseflow periods in the growing season, water levels in piezometers display a daily oscillation in stage of as much as 3 cm due to evapotranspiration. During hydrologic events the groundwater flow system in the riparian wetland can be reversed with water from the stream flowing into the groundwater system. Groundwater hydrographs show a rapid rise in stage associated with rapid infiltration from rainfall or snowmelt events. This is immediately followed by a rapid decline and then a slow rise. The slow rise appears to be due to infiltration of stream water into the groundwater during peak stream flow. The peak in the stream hydrograph occurs well after (10-12 hrs) the initial rise in groundwater stage. The reversal of hydraulic gradient during the peak stream flow extends completely across the riparian wetland and a rise in groundwater stage due to stream infiltration has been detected in piezometers located as far as 30 meters from the stream. The shallow riparian groundwater, like the surface waters, is chemically dilute (specific conductance <40 μ S

  8. Population pressure, mobility, and socio-economic change in mountainous environments: regions of refuge in comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, R

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines demographic and socioeconomic forces in high isolated parts of the world. These regions were not always isolated; they were once the centers of their own particular worlds which, in some cases, were complex civilizations. It is their relegation to the very periphery of the modern world that is the principal theme of this paper. Population migration, both into and out of these areas, has played a vital role in linking mountainous regions to the wider world. Particular attention is paid to the part played by the traditional mobility patterns and by the resource base of the mountains in the transformation of integral, self-sufficient cultures into dependent, subservient part-cultures, the regions of refuge. The effect of population pressure and the development of outmigration from the Andes of Peru is examined first and the analysis extended to the highlands of Papua-New Guinea and to several regions in the Himalayan arc to provide the background for a comparative study of regions of refuge. PMID:12267903

  9. Earthquake cluster activity beneath the Tanzawa Mountains region, Japan: Migration of hypocenters and low stress drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.; Yukutake, Y.

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake cluster activity was observed beneath the Tanzawa Mountains region, Japan with a depth of 20 km in the end of January, 2012. Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) determined hypocenters of 76 earthquakes with M > 2 in the area within 50 hours. Five of them had magnitudes greater than 4 and the largest one was 5.4. Four out of the five earthquakes had the reverse-type focal mechanisms with the P axis in the NW-SE direction. First we relocated hypocenters of the activity following the method of Yukutake et al. (2012). We estimated relative arrival times of P and S waves by calculating the coefficients of the cross correlation and relocated hypocenters with the double-difference relocation method (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000). We found that the cluster activity showed a migration from the first earthquake of the activity. The parabolic migration speed was consistent with the migration speed of the deep tremor sources (Ide et al., 2010) for which the fluid activity would play an important role. We then analyzed stress drops of 17 earthquakes with M > 3.5 that occurred from January, 2000 to June, 2012 in the area of the cluster activity. We calculated empirical Green's functions from waveforms of earthquakes with magnitudes of 3.0 to 3.2 and estimated stress drops of the earthquakes assuming that the source spectra can be expressed as the omega-squared model. We found that earthquakes of the cluster activity had smaller stress drops by an order of magnitude than the values of earthquakes that occurred in the same area before the cluster activity. These results suggest that the fluid played an important role for the earthquake cluster activity. That is, the fluid increased the pore pressure, decreased the effective normal stress and triggered the cluster activity. The difference of the rupture speed and the change of the rigidity might also be candidates that account for our results. They, however, can hardly explain the results quantitatively. Fig

  10. A regional analysis of elements at risk exposed to mountain hazards in the Eastern European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Zischg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to quantify the number and value of buildings exposed to torrents and snow avalanches in the Austrian Alps, as well as the number of exposed people. Based on a unique population and building register dataset, a relational SQL database was developed that allows in combination with GIS data a rule-based nation-wide automated analysis. Furthermore, possibilities and challenges are discussed with respect to the use of such data in vulnerability assessment and with respect to resilience measures. We comprehensively address the challenge of data accuracy, scale and uncertainties. From the total of approximately 2.4 million buildings with a clearly attributable geographical location, around 120,000 are exposed to torrent processes (5 %) and snow avalanches (0.4 %); exposition was defined here as located within the digitally available hazard maps of the Austrian Torrent and Avalanche Control Service. Around 5 % of the population (360,000 out of 8.5 million inhabitants), based on those people being compulsory listed in the population register, are located in these areas. The analysis according to the building category resulted in 2.05 million residential buildings in Austria (85 %), 93,000 of which (4.5 %) are exposed to these hazards. In contrast, 37,300 buildings (1.6 %) throughout the country belong to the category of accommodation facilities, 5,600 of which are exposed (15 %). Out of the 140,500 commercial buildings, 8,000 (5 %) are exposed. A considerable spatial variation was detectable within the communities and Federal States. In general, an above-average exposition of buildings to torrent process and snow avalanches was detectable in communities located in the Federal State of Salzburg, Styria and Vorarlberg (torrents), and Tyrol and Vorarlberg (snow avalanches). In the alpine part of Austria, the share of exposed accommodation buildings was two times (Salzburg) and three times (Vorarlberg) higher than the regional average of exposed buildings

  11. Cooling Town - How landscape is affecting urban climates in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerle, Albin; Leitinger, Georg; Heinl, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Cities and urban areas are known to have a local climate different from that of surrounding rural landscapes. The so-called 'urban heat island' phenomenon results from the replacement of natural with impervious, non-evaporative surfaces such as concrete and asphalt. Urban areas usually have higher solar radiation absorption and a greater thermal conductivity and capacity that lead to greater heat storage during the day and heat release at night. This results in a modified climate that is warmer than the surrounding rural areas. Despite being often considered as 'heating islands', cities are not isolated from their environment and are affected by their thermal properties. Reports for the cities of Vienna (Austria) or Stuttgart (Germany) document the importance of the environmental setting for the climate in the cities. Especially large forest areas around the cities have shown to provide cooling and higher air quality. It is therefore not only the core urban area that needs to be considered for climatic effects but also the large-scale surrounding and environmental setting of the city. But only very few studies (e.g. for rice fields in Japan and Taiwan) specifically investigated this temperature effect of surrounding landscapes on urban areas. The research project "Cooling Town" (www.coolingtown.at) addresses this little knowledge on temperature regimes of urban areas and their thermal connectivity with surrounding landscapes, focusing on mountain environments. One major aspect in this research is to assess the summer temperature regime of the city of Bolzano in South Tyrol (northern Italy). The spatial distribution of air and surface temperatures is analyzed to derive rural and urban and regions with specific temperature regimes and climates and their connectivity. Twelve climate stations were placed in and around the city of Bolzano to measure air and surface temperatures together with wind parameters throughout summer 2012. Thermal infrared images were taken from

  12. Identification and interpretation of tectonic features from ERTS-1 imagery. [geological faults in California mountain regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Gawad, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery shows that the southern segment of the San Gabriel fault which controls the west fork of the San Gabriel River is strikingly similar to the Mill Creek Fault in the San Bernardino Mountains. It has also been noted that there is a similarity between the Sierra Madre thrust zone of the San Gabriel Mountains to the Banning thrust of the San Bernardino Mountains. This suggests that the southern San Gabriel fault was once continuous with the Mill Creek fault. When the San Bernardino Mountain block is theoretically moved to the northwest along the San Jacinto fault so that the Mill Creek fault is aligned with the southern part of the San Gabriel fault, it was found that the four transverse fault segments become aligned with the Pinto Fault on the east and with the Raymond-Santa Monica Malibu Fault zone on the west. The reconstruction identifies a continuous zone of transverse faulting extending from the Colorado River Desert to the Pacific. It seems likely that the entire fault zone was once a continuous left-lateral shear. This Anacapa Shear has probably been subjected to a 50 km left lateral movement. This analysis strongly indicates that the tectonic history of the Transverse Range has been characterized by left lateral shear on transverse faults and right lateral shear on the San Andreas fault system.

  13. Association analysis of PRNP gene region with chronic wasting disease in Rocky Mountain elk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of cervids including whitetail (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and moose (Alces alces). A leucine variant at position 132 (132L) in...

  14. Does WEPP meet the specificity of soil erosion in steep mountain regions?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We chose the USDA-ARS-WEPP model (Water Erosion Prediction Project) to describe the soil erosion in the Urseren valley (Central Switzerland) as it seems to be one of the most promising models for steep mountain environments. Crucial model parameters were determined in the field (slope, plant species...

  15. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Iron Mountain Mine, Redding, CA, September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected interim remedial action for control of releases of hazardous substances from widespread area sources in the Slickrock Creek watershed at the Iron Mountain Mine Site. This interim action addresses the most significant source of currently uncontrolled IMM AMD-the Slickrock Creek area sources entering the reach of Slickrock Creek directly below the most heavily disturbed mining area.

  16. Long-term pCO2 trends in Adirondack Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seekell, David A.; Gudasz, Cristian

    2016-05-01

    Lakes are globally significant sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. However, there are few temporally resolved records of lake CO2 concentrations and long-term patterns are poorly characterized. We evaluated annual trends in the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) based on chemical measurements from 31 Adirondack Lakes taken monthly over an 18 year period. All lakes were supersaturated with CO2 and were sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. There were significant pCO2 trends in 29% of lakes. The median magnitude of significant positive trends was 32.1 µatm yr-1. Overall, 52% of lakes had pCO2 trends greater than those reported for the atmosphere and ocean. Significant trends in lake pCO2 were attributable to regional recovery from acid deposition and changing patterns of ice cover. These results illustrate that lake pCO2 can respond rapidly to environmental change, but the lack of significant trend in 71% of lakes indicates substantial lake-to-lake variation in magnitude of response.

  17. Chemistry and transport of soluble humic substances in forested watersheds of the Adirondack Park, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronan, C.S.; Aiken, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were conducted in conjunction with the Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS) to examine the chemistry and leaching patterns of soluble humic substances in forested watersheds of the Adirondack region. During the summer growing season, mean dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the ILWAS watersheds ranged from 21-32 mg C l-1 in O/A horizon leachates, from 5-7 mg C l-1 in B horizon leachates, from 2-4 mg C l-1 in groundwater solutions, from 6-8 mg C l-1 in first order streams, from 3-8 mg C l-1 in lake inlets, and from 2-7 mg C l-1 in lake outlets. During the winter, mean DOC concentrations dropped significantly in the upper soil profile. Soil solutions from mixed and coniferous stands contained as much as twice the DOC concentration of lysimeter samples from hardwood stands. Results of DOC fractionation analysis showed that hydrophobia and hydrophilic acids dominate the organic solute composition of natural waters in these watersheds. Charge balance and titration results indicated that the general acid-base characteristics of the dissolved humic mixture in these natural waters can be accounted for by a model organic acid having an averagepKa of 3.85, an average charge density of 4-5 ??eq mg-1 C at ambient pH, and a total of 6-7 meq COOH per gram carbon. ?? 1985.

  18. Increases in dissolved organic carbon accelerate loss of toxic Al in Adirondack lakes recovering from acidification.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Dukett, James E; Houck, Nathan; Snyder, Phil; Capone, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Increasing pH and decreasing Al in surface waters recovering from acidification have been accompanied by increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated organic acids that partially offset pH increases and complicate assessments of recovery from acidification. To better understand the processes of recovery, monthly chemistry from 42 lakes in the Adirondack region, NY, collected from 1994 to 2011, were used to (1) evaluate long-term changes in DOC and associated strongly acidic organic acids and (2) use the base-cation surplus (BCS) as a chemical index to assess the effects of increasing DOC concentrations on the Al chemistry of these lakes. Over the study period, the BCS increased (p < 0.01) and concentrations of toxic inorganic monomeric Al (IMAl) decreased (p < 0.01). The decreases in IMAl were greater than expected from the increases in the BCS. Higher DOC concentrations that increased organic complexation of Al resulted in a decrease in the IMAl fraction of total monomeric Al from 57% in 1994 to 23% in 2011. Increasing DOC concentrations have accelerated recovery in terms of decreasing toxic Al beyond that directly accomplished by reducing atmospheric deposition of strong mineral acids. PMID:23751119

  19. Increases in dissolved organic carbon accelerate loss of toxic Al in Adirondack lakes recovering from acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Dukett, James E; Houck, Nathan; Snyder, Phillip; Capone, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing pH and decreasing Al in surface waters recovering from acidification have been accompanied by increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated organic acids that partially offset pH increases and complicate assessments of recovery from acidification. To better understand the processes of recovery, monthly chemistry from 42 lakes in the Adirondack region, NY, collected from 1994 to 2011, were used to (1) evaluate long-term changes in DOC and associated strongly acidic organic acids and (2) use the base-cation surplus (BCS) as a chemical index to assess the effects of increasing DOC concentrations on the Al chemistry of these lakes. Over the study period, the BCS increased (p < 0.01) and concentrations of toxic inorganic monomeric Al (IMAl) decreased (p < 0.01). The decreases in IMAl were greater than expected from the increases in the BCS. Higher DOC concentrations that increased organic complexation of Al resulted in a decrease in the IMAl fraction of total monomeric Al from 57% in 1994 to 23% in 2011. Increasing DOC concentrations have accelerated recovery in terms of decreasing toxic Al beyond that directly accomplished by reducing atmospheric deposition of strong mineral acids.

  20. Chemistry and transport of soluble humic substances in forested watersheds of the Adirondack Park, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronan, Christopher S.; Aiken, George R.

    1985-08-01

    Studies were conducted in conjunction with the Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS) to examine the chemistry and leaching patterns of soluble humic substances in forested watersheds of the Adirondack region. During the summer growing season, mean dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the ILWAS watersheds ranged from 21-32 mg C l-1 in O/A horizon leachates, from 5-7 mg C l-1 in B horizon leachates, from 2-4 mg C l-1 in groundwater solutions, from 6-8 mg C l-1 in first order streams, from 3-8 mg C l-1 in lake inlets, and from 2-7 mg C l-1 in lake outlets. During the winter, mean DOC concentrations dropped significantly in the upper soil profile. Soil solutions from mixed and coniferous stands contained as much as twice the DOC concentration of lysimeter samples from hardwood stands. Results of DOC fractionation analysis showed that hydrophobia and hydrophilic acids dominate the organic solute composition of natural waters in these watersheds. Charge balance and titration results indicated that the general acid-base characteristics of the dissolved humic mixture in these natural waters can be accounted for by a model organic acid having an averagepKa of 3.85, an average charge density of 4-5 μeq mg-1 C at ambient pH, and a total of 6-7 meq COOH per gram carbon.

  1. Regional patterns and proximal causes of the recent snowpack decline in the Rocky Mountains, U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pederson, Gregory T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; McCabe, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    We used a first-order, monthly snow model and observations to disentangle seasonal influences on 20th century,regional snowpack anomalies in the Rocky Mountains of western North America, where interannual variations in cool-season (November–March) temperatures are broadly synchronous, but precipitation is typically antiphased north to south and uncorrelated with temperature. Over the previous eight centuries, regional snowpack variability exhibits strong, decadally persistent north-south (N-S) antiphasing of snowpack anomalies. Contrary to the normal regional antiphasing, two intervals of spatially synchronized snow deficits were identified. Snow deficits shown during the 1930s were synchronized north-south by low cool-season precipitation, with spring warming (February–March) since the 1980s driving the majority of the recent synchronous snow declines, especially across the low to middle elevations. Spring warming strongly influenced low snowpacks in the north after 1958, but not in the south until after 1980. The post-1980, synchronous snow decline reduced snow cover at low to middle elevations by ~20% and partly explains earlier and reduced streamflow and both longer and more active fire seasons. Climatologies of Rocky Mountain snowpack are shown to be seasonally and regionally complex, with Pacific decadal variability positively reinforcing the anthropogenic warming trend.

  2. Quaternary glacial geomorphosites from the Cantabrian Mountains (northern Iberian Peninsula): the Redes Natural Reservation and Picos de Europa Regional Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María

    2013-04-01

    The Cantabrian Mountains is a mountain range 480 km-long and up to 2,648 m altitude (Torre Cerredo Peak) trending parallel to the Cantabrian Coastline between Pyrenees and the northwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula (~43oN 5oW). This mountain range is an outstanding area to research the climatic patterns across South Europe during the Quaternary glaciations since well-preserved glacial features evidence the occurrence of past mountain glaciations in a climatic environment marked by the transition from a maritime climate (Atlantic) to Mediterranean one across the mountain range. The available studies in the Cantabrian Mountains stand that the regional glacial maximum recorded here is prior to ca 38, and that glaciers were in some locations remarkably retreated by the time of the global Last Glacial Maximum (Jiménez-Sánchez et al., in press; Serrano et al., in press). This study is focused on an area about 800 km2 that includes 36 peaks over 2,000 m (Pico Mampodre; 2,192 m) and partially covers the Redes Natural Reservation and Picos de Europa Regional Park. A geomorphologic database in ArcGIS was produced for this area as a previous step to reconstruct in detail the extent, flow pattern and chronology of the former glaciers (PhD under progress). Here we present a selection of 18 glacial geomorphosites classified according to genetic criteria in sites that show: (i) a nicely preserved moraine sequence recording the transition from glacial to periglacial conditions; (ii) glacial erosion features; (iii) glacial and ice related deposits (like moraines, ice-dammed deposits, erratic boulders or fluvio-glacial deposits); (iv) slope instability related to glacial debuttressing (complex landslides and rock avalanches); and (v) the interaction between the landscape and human activity. The interest of the geomorphosites is supported by its good quality of preservation, allowing its use as a basis to reconstruct the glacial and paraglacial processes in this region during

  3. Identifying Common Patterns in Diverse Systems: Effects of Exurban Development on Birds of the Adirondack Park and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glennon, Michale J.; Kretser, Heidi E.; Hilty, Jodi A.

    2015-02-01

    We examined the impacts of exurban development on bird communities in Essex County, New York and Madison County, Montana by comparing differences in abundance of songbirds between subdivisions and control sites in both regions. We hypothesized that impacts to bird communities would be greater in the relatively homogeneous, closed canopy Adirondack forest of northern New York State than they would be in the more naturally heterogeneous grasslands interspersed with trees and shrubs of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We examined birds in five functional groups expected to be responsive to exurban development, and determined relative abundance within subdivisions and control sites across these two distinct regions. We found little support for our hypothesis. For birds in the area-sensitive, low nesting, and Neotropical migrant functional groups, relative abundance was lower in subdivisions in the Adirondacks and in Madison County, while relative abundance of edge specialists was greater in subdivisions in both regions. The direction and magnitude of change in the avian communities between subdivisions and controls was similar in both regions for all guilds except microhabitat specialists. These similarities across diverse ecosystems suggest that the ecological context of the encompassing region may be less important than other elements in shaping avian communities in exurban systems. This finding suggests that humans and their specific behaviors and activities in exurban areas may be underappreciated but potentially important drivers of change in these regions.

  4. Identifying common patterns in diverse systems: effects of exurban development on birds of the Adirondack Park and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA.

    PubMed

    Glennon, Michale J; Kretser, Heidi E; Hilty, Jodi A

    2015-02-01

    We examined the impacts of exurban development on bird communities in Essex County, New York and Madison County, Montana by comparing differences in abundance of songbirds between subdivisions and control sites in both regions. We hypothesized that impacts to bird communities would be greater in the relatively homogeneous, closed canopy Adirondack forest of northern New York State than they would be in the more naturally heterogeneous grasslands interspersed with trees and shrubs of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We examined birds in five functional groups expected to be responsive to exurban development, and determined relative abundance within subdivisions and control sites across these two distinct regions. We found little support for our hypothesis. For birds in the area-sensitive, low nesting, and Neotropical migrant functional groups, relative abundance was lower in subdivisions in the Adirondacks and in Madison County, while relative abundance of edge specialists was greater in subdivisions in both regions. The direction and magnitude of change in the avian communities between subdivisions and controls was similar in both regions for all guilds except microhabitat specialists. These similarities across diverse ecosystems suggest that the ecological context of the encompassing region may be less important than other elements in shaping avian communities in exurban systems. This finding suggests that humans and their specific behaviors and activities in exurban areas may be underappreciated but potentially important drivers of change in these regions. PMID:25421994

  5. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Westenburg, C.L.; La Camera, R.J.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and groundwater withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1994. Data collected prior to 1994 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-94.

  6. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westenburg, C.L.; La Camera, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1994. Data collected prior to 1994 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-94.

  7. Response of surface water chemistry to reduced levels of acid precipitation: comparison of trends in two regions of New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Douglas A.; McHale, Michael R.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Roy, Karen M.

    2006-04-01

    In light of recent reductions in sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions mandated by Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, temporal trends and trend coherence in precipitation (1984-2001 and 1992-2001) and surface water chemistry (1992-2001) were determined in two of the most acid-sensitive regions of North America, i.e. the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains of New York. Precipitation chemistry data from six sites located near these regions showed decreasing sulphate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), and base cation (CB) concentrations and increasing pH during 1984-2001, but few significant trends during 1992-2001. Data from five Catskill streams and 12 Adirondack lakes showed decreasing trends in SO42- concentrations at all sites, and decreasing trends in NO3-, CB, and H+ concentrations and increasing trends in dissolved organic carbon at most sites. In contrast, acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) increased significantly at only about half the Adirondack lakes and in one of the Catskill streams. Flow correction prior to trend analysis did not change any trend directions and had little effect on SO42- trends, but it caused several significant non-flow-corrected trends in NO3- and ANC to become non-significant, suggesting that trend results for flow-sensitive constituents are affected by flow-related climate variation. SO42- concentrations showed high temporal coherence in precipitation, surface waters, and in precipitation-surface water comparisons, reflecting a strong link between S emissions, precipitation SO42- concentrations, and the processes that affect S cycling within these regions. NO3- and H+ concentrations and ANC generally showed weak coherence, especially in surface waters and in precipitation-surface water comparisons, indicating that variation in local-scale processes driven by factors such as climate are affecting trends in acid-base chemistry in these two regions.

  8. Response of surface water chemistry to reduced levels of acid precipitation: Comparison of trends in two regions of New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Douglas A.; McHale, M.R.; Driscoll, C.T.; Roy, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    In light of recent reductions in sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions mandated by Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, temporal trends and trend coherence in precipitation (1984-2001 and 1992-2001) and surface water chemistry (1992-2001) were determined in two of the most acid-sensitive regions of North America, i.e. the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains of New York. Precipitation chemistry data from six sites located near these regions showed decreasing sulphate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), and base cation (CB) concentrations and increasing pH during 1984-2001, but few significant trends during 1992-2001. Data from five Catskill streams and 12 Adirondack lakes showed decreasing trends in SO42- concentrations at all sites, and decreasing trends in NO3-, CB, and H+ concentrations and increasing trends in dissolved organic carbon at most sites. In contrast, acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC increased significantly at only about half the Adirondack lakes and in one of the Catskill streams. Flow correction prior to trend analysis did not change any trend directions and had little effect on SO42- trends, but it caused several significant non-flow-corrected trends in NO3- and ANC to become non-significant, suggesting that trend results for flow-sensitive constituents are affected by flow-related climate variation. SO42- concentrations showed high temporal coherence in precipitation, surface waters, and in precipitation-surface water comparisons, reflecting a strong link between S emissions, precipitation SO42- concentrations, and the processes that affect S cycling within these regions. NO3- and H+ concentrations and ANC generally showed weak coherence, especially in surface waters and in precipitation-surface water comparisons, indicating that variation in local-scale processes driven by factors such as climate are affecting trends in acid-base chemistry in these two regions. Copyright ?? 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January 2000-December 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, Glenn L.; La Camera, Richard J.

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 35 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are tabulated from January 2000 through December 2002. Historical data on water levels, discharges, and withdrawals are graphically presented to indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented for 1992–2002 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements, maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to selected baseline periods. Baseline periods varied for 1985–93. At six of the seven wells in Jackass Flats, the median water levels for 2002 were slightly higher (0.3–2.4 feet) than for their respective baseline periods. At the remaining well, data for 2002 was not summarized statistically but median water-level altitude in 2001 was 0.7 foot higher than that in its baseline period.

  10. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    La Camera, R.J.; Westenburg, C.L.; Locke, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    The US Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and groundwater withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1995. Data collected prior to 1995 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals in support of US Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-95. Compared with baseline periods for the seven wells, median water levels for calendar year 1995 were slightly lower (0.1 to 0.2 foot) at two principal water-supply wells and one observation well nearest to those supply wells, slightly higher (0.2 to 0.5 foot) at three other wells in Jackass Flats, and unchanged at the seventh well.

  11. SELECTED GROUND-WATER DATA FRO YUCCA MOUNTAIN REGION, SOUTHERN NEVADA AND EASTERN CALIFORNIA, THROUGH DECEMBER 1998

    SciTech Connect

    C.G. Groat

    2000-11-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 34 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1998. Data collected prior to 1998 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other Geological Survey programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-98. At two water-supply wells and a nearby observation well, median water levels for calendar year 1998 were slightly lower (0.2 to 0.3 foot) than for their respective baseline periods. At the remaining four wells in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 1998 were unchanged at two wells and slightly higher (0.4 and 1.4 foot) at two wells than those for their respective baseline periods.

  12. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    LaCamera, R.J.; Locke, G.L.

    1997-12-31

    The US Geological Survey, in support of the US Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1996. Data collected prior to 1996 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals in support of US Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992--96. At two water-supply wells and a nearby observation well, median water levels for calendar year 1996 were slightly lower (0.3 to 0.4 foot) than for the respective baseline periods. At four other wells in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 1996 were unchanged, slightly lower (0.2 foot), and slightly higher (0.2 and 0.7 foot) than for the respective baseline periods.

  13. Selected Ground-Water Data of Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January 2000-December 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, Glenn L.; La Camera, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 35 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are tabulated from January 2000 through December 2002. Historical data on water levels, discharges, and withdrawals are graphically presented to indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented for 1992-2002 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements, maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to selected baseline periods. Baseline periods varied for 1985-93. At six of the seven wells in Jackass Flats, the median water levels for 2002 were slightly higher (0.3-2.4 feet) than for their respective baseline periods. At the remaining well, data for 2002 was not summarized statistically but median water-level altitude in 2001 was 0.7 foot higher than that in its baseline period.

  14. Land cover disturbance due to tourism in Jeseniky mountain region: a remote sensing and GIS based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boori, Mukesh S.; Vozenilek, Vit

    2014-10-01

    The Jeseníky Mountains tourism in Czech Republic is unique for its floristic richness, which is caused mainly by the altitude division and polymorphism of the landscape; climate and oil structure are other important factors. This study assesses the impacts of tourism on the land cover in the Jeseniky mountain region by comparing multi-temporal Landsat imagery (1991, 2001 and 2013) to describe the rate and extent of land-cover change throughout the Jeseniky mountain region. This was achieved through spectral classification of different land cover and by assessing the change in forest; settlements; pasture and agriculture in relation to increasing distances (5, 10 and 15 km) from three tourism site. The results indicate that the area was deforested (11.13%) from 1991 to 2001 than experienced forest regrowth (6.71%) from 2001 to 2013. In first decay pasture and agriculture areas was increase and then in next decay it was decrease. The influence of tourism facilities on land cover is also variable. Around each of the tourism site sampled there was a general trend of forest removal decreasing as the distance from each village increased, which indicates tourism does have a negative impact on forests. However, there was an opposite trend from 2001 to 2013 that indicate conservation area. The interplay among global (tourism, climate), regional (national policies, large-river management), and local (construction and agriculture, energy and water sources to support the tourism industry) factors drives a distinctive but complex pattern of land-use and land-cover disturbance.

  15. Spatiotemporal Variability of Mountain Block Recharge in Three Semiarid Watersheds along the U.S.-Mexico Border Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Mascaro, G.; Dominguez, F.; Rivera-fernandez, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater recharge in semiarid mountains of the western U.S. remains a critical component of the regional water balance and has significant repercussions on water resources management, in particular during periods of drought. The bimodal distribution of annual precipitation in the southwest United States and northwest Mexico present a challenge as differential climate impacts during the winter and summer seasons are not currently well understood. In this work, we focus on the predictions of Mountain Block Recharge (MBR) using precipitation forcing from a reanalysis product, regional climate model-based precipitation products and available ground observations. MBR estimates in the Santa Cruz, San Pedro and Sonora River basins (>40,000 km2) are compared along a north to south gradient crossing the U.S.-Mexico border. As a result of the influence of the North American monsoon, the impact of seasonality in each of these systems is evaluated. Simulated precipitation fields under historical (1991-2000) conditions and climate change (2031-2040 and 2070-2080) scenarios are compared at resolutions of 10-km and 35-km as generated from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model using boundary conditions from two general circulation models (MPI-ECHAM and HadCM3). Mountain subbasins to apply a seasonal MBR method were delineated using a threshold in terrain slope that matched official boundaries of known aquifers in these transboundary watersheds. We evaluated the MBR outcomes from the various precipitation products to quantify biases involved in the historical estimates and to inform groundwater management on the uncertainties inherent in future projections. We also inspect the variability of MBR across pluvial and drought periods lasting several years. Seasonal comparisons across a north to south spatial gradient yield a valuable assessment on the impacts of climate change on MBR for important basins in the U.S.-Mexico border region.

  16. Genetic variation between Schistosoma japonicum lineages from lake and mountainous regions in China revealed by resequencing whole genomes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Mingbo; Liu, Xiao; Xu, Bin; Huang, Jian; Zheng, Qi; Yang, Zhong; Feng, Zheng; Han, Ze-Guang; Hu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Schistosoma infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Schistosomiasis japonica is endemic in mainland China along the Yangtze River, typically distributed in two geographical categories of lake and mountainous regions. Study on schistosome genetic diversity is of interest in respect of understanding parasite biology and transmission, and formulating control strategy. Certain genetic variations may be associated with adaptations to different ecological habitats. The aim of this study is to gain insight into Schistosoma japonicum genetic variation, evolutionary origin and associated causes of different geographic lineages through examining homozygous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) based on resequenced genome data. We collected S. japonicum samples from four sites, three in the lake regions (LR) of mid-east (Guichi and Tonglin in Anhui province, Laogang in Hunan province) and one in mountainous region (MR) (Xichang in Sichuan province) of south-west of China, resequenced their genomes using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology, and made use of the available database of S. japonicum draft genomic sequence as a reference in genome mapping. A total of 14,575 SNPs from 2059 genes were identified in the four lineages. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed significant genetic variation exhibited between the different geographical lineages, and further revealed that the MR Xichang lineage is phylogenetically closer to LR Guich lineage than to other two LR lineages, and the MR lineage might be evolved from LR lineages. More than two thirds of detected SNPs were nonsynonymous; functional annotation of the SNP-containing genes showed that they are involved mainly in biological processes such as signaling and response to stimuli. Notably, unique nonsynonymous SNP variations were detected in 66 genes of MR lineage, inferring possible genetic adaption to mountainous ecological condition. PMID:27207135

  17. Atmospheric mercury (Hg) in the Adirondacks: Concentrations and sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun-Deok Choi; Thomas M. Holsen; Philip K. Hopke

    2008-08-15

    Hourly averaged gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) concentrations and hourly integrated reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), and particulate Hg (HgP) concentrations in the ambient air were measured at Huntington Forest in the Adirondacks, New York from June 2006 to May 2007. The average concentrations of GEM, RGM, and HgP were 1.4 {+-} 0.4 ng m{sup -3}, 1.8 {+-} 2.2 pg m{sup -3}, and 3.2 {+-} 3.7 pg m{sup -3}, respectively. RGM represents <3.5% of total atmospheric Hg or total gaseous Hg (TGM: GEM + RGM) and HgP represents <3.0% of the total atmospheric Hg. The highest mean concentrations of GEM, RGM, and HgP were measured during winter and summer whereas the lowest mean concentrations were measured during spring and fall. Significant diurnal patterns were apparent in warm seasons for all species whereas diurnal patterns were weak in cold seasons. RGM was better correlated with ozone concentration and temperature in both warm than the other species. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis was applied to identify possible Hg sources. This method identified areas in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, Texas, Indiana, and Missouri, which coincided well with sources reported in a 2002 U.S. mercury emissions inventory. 51 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Parasites of two native fishes in adjacent Adirondack lakes.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eric F; Whipps, Christopher M

    2013-08-01

    This survey of parasites in 2 adjacent lakes is the first of its kind in the Adirondack Park of New York State. Wolf Lake is designated as a heritage lake whereas nearby Deer Lake is limnologically similar but has at least 5 introduced fish species. Both lakes have 2 native species, i.e., white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus), which were the focus of this study. Parasite communities of both hosts were surveyed and compared between each lake and were statistically evaluated for differences in species similarity, prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance. Between lakes, white suckers had significant differences in the prevalence of 4 parasite species (Myxobolus sp. 2, Myxobolus bibulatus, Octospinifer macilentis, and Pomphorhynchus bulbocoli) and mean abundances of 4 parasites (neascus larvae, Octospinifer macilentis, Pomphorhynchus bulbocoli, and Glaridacris confusus). Redbreast sunfish had significant differences in the prevalence of 3 species (Myxobolus uvuliferis, a coccidian species, and Spinitectus carolini) and differences in parasite mean abundance of 5 species (neascus larvae, Clinostomum marginatum , Leptorhynchoides thecatus, Spinitectus carolini, and Eustrongylides sp.). Differences in component communities between lakes were found and, although the exact causes cannot be determined by this study, we speculate on several possible explanations. PMID:23384764

  19. Public health assessment for USAF Mountain Home Air Force Base, Mountain Home AFB, Elmore County, Idaho, Region 10. CERCLIS Number ID3572124557; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-25

    Mountain Home Air Force Base (Mountain Home AFB) is located approximately 50 miles southeast of Boise and 10 miles southwest of the city of Mountain Home in Elmore County, Idaho. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed Mountain Home AFB on the National Priority List on August 30, 1990, as a result of concerns regarding groundwater contamination throughout the base, and soil contamination at the Fire Training Area and a closed sanitary landfill. Contaminants of potential concern are metals, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum hydrocarbons. On the basis of a review of available information on contamination of soil, groundwater, and surface water and sediment, ATSDR concludes that Mountain Home AFB should be assigned to the No Apparent Public Health Hazard category.

  20. THE DRAINAGE EFFICIENCY INDEX (DEI) AS AN MORPHOLOGIAL INDICATOR OF LANDSLIDE SPATIAL OCCURRENCE IN MOUNTAINOUS CATCHMENTS. A case of study applied in the mountainous region of Brazilian Southeastern.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Muniz Lima, Pedro; Luiza Coelho Netto, Ana; do Couto Fernandes, Manoel

    2016-04-01

    Morphometric parameters, acquired notoriety mainly after the Drainage Density proposition (Horton 1932, 1945) and after they were applied by geomorphologists on the perspective to understand landscape functionalities, quantifying their characteristics through parameters and indexes. After the drainage density, many other parameters which describe the basin characteristics, behavior and dynamics have been proposed. Among them, for example, the DEI was proposed by Coelho Netto and contributors during the 80's, while they were seek to understand the hydrological and erosive dynamics on Bananal river basin (Brazilian Southeastern). Through this investigations the DEI was created, revealing the importance of parameters as hollow and drainage density, conjugated to the topographic gradient (Meis et al. 1982) who prosecute controls on the water flow efficiency along the hollows in order to activate the regressive erosion of the main channel. Later on this index was applied on the basin scale in several works developed in mountainous regions, showing a remarkable correlation with the occurrence of landslides such as showed by Coelho Netto et al. (2007); that posteriorly use this index as one of the components of the landslide susceptibility map for the Tijuca Massif, located in Rio de Janeiro Municipality. This work aims to establish patterns of the DEI index values (applied to mountainous low order basins) and the relationship on the occurrence of Debriflows or shallow translational slides. For this, the DEI index was applied on 4 different study areas located on the Southeastern mountainous region of Brazil to address deeply the connection between the index and the occurrence of landslides of different types applied for first and second order basins. The major study area is the Córrego Dantas Basin, situated in Nova Friburgo municipality (RJ), which is a 53 km² basin was affected by 327 landslides caused by a heavy rainfall on January 2011; Coelho Netto et al. (in

  1. A Two-Component Mixing Model for Predicting Regional Episodic Acidification of Surface Waters During Spring Snowmelt Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshleman, Keith N.; Davies, Trevor D.; Tranter, Martyn; Wigington, Parker J.

    1995-04-01

    A two-component mixing model of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) is proposed for explaining two observed features related to the episodic acidification of surface waters during snowmelt periods: (1) maximum episodic declines in ANC are largest in high ANC systems and increase linearly with antecedent ANC and (2) relative depressions in ANC attributable to increases in nitric acid concentrations are larger in low ANC systems, while relative depressions in ANC attributable to dilution of base cations are larger in high ANC systems. Conceptually, the model represents the physical mixing of two hydrochemical end-members within a surface water environment, although the physical sources of water in the model are undefined. The model is shown to explain 55-72% of the total variation of these characteristics among various surface water systems within the Catskill and Adirondack mountain regions of New York. In addition, the model also explains 11-47% of the relative depression in ANC attributable to natural organic acidity in surface waters in these regions. The model is subsequently linked to an empirical equilibrium acidification model for predicting the long-term episodic acidification response of Adirondack lakes during snowmelt periods. Model predictions suggest that percentage decreases in sulfuric acid concentrations of the magnitude mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (40%) will not restore to positive values the ANC of all Adirondack lakes which are currently acidic (ANC < 0) during spring snowmelt periods. Long-term increases in nitric acid concentrations may counterbalance the expected increases in ANC attributable to reductions in sulfur deposition.

  2. Multiple resource evaluation of region 2 US forest service lands utilizing LANDSAT MSS data. [San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, P. V.; Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT MSS imagery provided an excellent overview which put a geomorphic study into a regional perspective, using scale 1:250,000 or smaller. It was used for deriving a data base for land use planning for southern San Juan Mountains. Stereo pairing of adjacent images was the best method for all geomorphic mapping. Combining this with snow enhancement, seasonal enhancement, and reversal aided in interpretation of geomorphic features. Drainage patterns were mapped in much greater detail from LANDSAT than from a two deg quadrangle base.

  3. GIS for Predicting the Avalanche Zones in the Mountain Regions of Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omirzhanova, Zh. T.; Urazaliev, A. S.; Aimenov, A. T.

    2015-10-01

    Foothills of Trans Ili Alatau is a recreational area with buildings and sports facilities and resorts, sanatoriums, etc. In summer and winter there are a very large number of skiers, climbers, tourists and workers of organizations which located in the mountains. In this regard, forecasting natural destructive phenomena using GIS software is an important task of many scientific fields. The formation of avalanches, except meteorological conditions, such as temperature, wind speed, snow thickness, especially affecting mountainous terrain. Great importance in the formation of avalanches play steepness (slope) of the slope and exposure. If steep slopes contribute to the accumulation of snow in some places, increase the risk of flooding of the slope, the various irregularities can delay an avalanche. According to statistics, the bulk of the avalanche is formed on the slopes steeper than 30°. In the course of research a 3D model of the terrain was created with the help of programs ArcGIS and Surfer. Identified areas with steep slopes, the exposure is made to the cardinal. For dangerous terrain location is divided into three groups: favorable zone, danger zone and the zone of increased risk. The range of deviations from 30-45° is dangerous, since the angle of inclination of more than 30°, there is a maximum thickness of sliding snow, water, the upper layer of the surface and there is an increase rate of moving array, and the mountain slopes at an angle 450 above are the area increased risk. Created on DTM data are also plotted Weather Service for the winter of current year. The resulting model allows to get information upon request and display it on map base, assess the condition of the terrain by avalanches, as well as to solve the problem of life safety in mountainous areas, to develop measures to prevent emergency situations and prevent human losses.

  4. Specific ultra-violet absorbance as an indicator measurement of merucry sources in an Adirondack River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Douglas A.; Aiken, George R.; Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Schelker, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The Adirondack region of New York has been identified as a hot spot where high methylmercury concentrations are found in surface waters and biota, yet mercury (Hg) concentrations vary widely in this region. We collected stream and groundwater samples for Hg and organic carbon analyses across the upper Hudson River, a 493 km2 basin in the central Adirondacks to evaluate and model the sources of variation in filtered total Hg (FTHg) concentrations. Variability in FTHg concentrations during the growing seasons (May-Oct) of 2007-2009 in Fishing Brook, a 66-km2 sub-basin, was better explained by specific ultra-violet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), a measure of organic carbon aromaticity, than by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, a commonly used Hg indicator. SUVA254 was a stronger predictor of FTHg concentrations during the growing season than during the dormant season. Multiple linear regression models that included SUVA254 values and DOC concentrations could explain 75 % of the variation in FTHg concentrations on an annual basis and 84 % during the growing season. A multiple linear regression landscape modeling approach applied to 27 synoptic sites across the upper Hudson basin found that higher SUVA254 values are associated with gentler slopes, and greater riparian area, and lower SUVA254 values are associated with an increasing influence of open water. We hypothesize that the strong Hg?SUVA254 relation in this basin reflects distinct patterns of FTHg and SUVA254 that are characteristic of source areas that control the mobilization of Hg to surface waters, and that the seasonal influence of these source areas varies in this heterogeneous basin landscape.

  5. Toward Improved Calibration of Hydrologic Models: Multi-objective Analysis of Streamflow and SWE Modeling Errors in Mountainous Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, C.; Boyle, D. P.; Bastidas, L. A.; Schumer, R.

    2008-12-01

    In many of the mountainous regions of the western United States, much of the streamflow runoff at the mountain front originates as melt water from snow. As a result, many hydrologic models applied in these regions have components that represent the snow water equivalent (SWE) throughout the accumulation and depletion processes of the snow pack. The limited number of point observations of SWE in these regions, however, generally precludes an accurate estimate of the spatial and temporal distribution of SWE in most model applications. As a result, hydrologic model calibration and evaluation is generally focused on the fitting of simulated streamflow to observed streamflow data. In this study, we examine the utility of SWE estimates obtained from the Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) product as a surrogate for SWE observations in the calibration and evaluation of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). Specifically, we employ a multi-objective analysis of several streamflow behaviors (e.g., rising limb, falling limb, and baseflow) and snow pack behaviors (e.g., accumulation, depletion, and no snow) aimed at better understanding the sensitivities of the different behaviors to changes in values of specific PRMS model parameters. The multi-objective approach is carried out with the Multi-Objective Generalized Sensitivity Analysis (MOGSA) algorithm and the Multi-Objective Complex Evolution (MOCOM).

  6. Relict colluvial boulder deposits as paleoclimatic indicators in the Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, J.W.; Harrington, C.D.

    1993-08-01

    Six colluvial boulder deposits from Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, were dated by cation-ratio dating of rock varnish accreted on boulder surfaces. Estimated minimum ages of these boulder deposits range from 760 to 170 ka. Five additional older deposits on nearby Skull and Little Skull Mountains and Buckboard Mesa yielded cation-ratio minimum-age estimates of 1.38 Ma to 800 ka. An independent cosmogenic chlorine-36 surface exposure date was obtained on one deposit, which confirms an estimated early to middle Quaternary age. These deposits have provided the oldest age estimates for unconsolidated hillslope deposits in the southwestern United States. We suggest that the colluvial boulder deposits were produced during early and middle Pleistocene glacial/pluvial episodes and were stabilized during the transition to drier interglacial climates. By comparison to modern periglacial environments, winter minimum monthly temperatures of -3 to -5 {degree}C were necessary to initiate freeze-thaw conditions of such vigor to physically weather relatively large volumes of large boulders from the upper hillslopes of the Yucca Mountain area. These conditions imply that early and middle Pleistocene glacial winter temperature were at least 1 to 3{degree}C colder than existed during the last Pleistocene glacial episode and 7 to 9{degree}C colder than present. 53 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Climate Change Impacts on the Cryosphere of Mountain Regions: Validation of a Novel Model Using the Alaska Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosier, T. M.; Hill, D. F.; Sharp, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Mountain regions are natural water towers, storing water seasonally as snowpack and for much longer as glaciers. Understanding the response of these systems to climate change is necessary in order to make informed decisions about prevention or mitigation measures. Yet, mountain regions are often data sparse, leading many researchers to implement simple or enhanced temperature index (ETI) models to simulate cryosphere processes. These model structures do not account for the thermal inertia of snowpack and glaciers and do not robustly capture differences in system response to climate regimes that differ from those the model was calibrated for. For instance, a temperature index calibration parameter will differ substantially in cold-dry conditions versus warm-wet ones. To overcome these issues, we have developed a cryosphere hydrology model, called the Significantly Enhanced Temperature Index (SETI), which uses an energy balance structure but parameterizes energy balance components in terms of minimum, maximum and mean temperature, precipitation, and geometric inputs using established relationships. Additionally, the SETI model includes a glacier sliding model and can therefore be used to estimate long-term glacier response to climate change. Sensitivity of the SETI model to changing climate is compared with an ETI and a simple temperature index model for several partially-glaciated watersheds within Alaska, including Wolverine glacier where multi-decadal glacier stake measurements are available, to highlight the additional fidelity attributed to the increased complexity of the SETI structure. The SETI model is then applied to the entire Alaska Range region for an ensemble of global climate models (GCMs), using representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5. Comparing model runs based on ensembles of GCM projections to historic conditions, total annual snowfall within the Alaska region is not expected to change appreciably, but the spatial distribution of snow

  8. Similarity and Complementarity of Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR Data in High Mountain Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamp, Nicole; Glira, Philipp; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2013-04-01

    Glacier melt and a consequential increased sediment transport (erosion, transportation and accumulation) in high mountain regions are causing a frequent occurrence of geomorphic processes such as landslides and other natural hazards. These effects are investigated at the Gepatschferner (Kaunertal, Oetztal Alps, Tyrol), the second largest glacier in Austria, in the PROSA project (Catholic University Eichstätt - Ingolstadt, Vienna University of Technology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, University of Innsbruck, Munich University of Technology). To monitor these geomorphic processes, data with a very high spatial and very high temporally accuracy and resolution are needed. For this purpose multi-temporal terrestrial and aerial laser scanning data are acquired, processed and analysed. Airborne LiDAR data are collected with a density of 10 points/m² over the whole study area of the glacier and its foreland. Terrestrial LiDAR data are gathered to complement and improve the airborne LiDAR data. The different viewing geometry results in differences between airborne and terrestrial data. Very steep slopes and rock faces (around 90°, depending on the viewing direction) are not visible from the airborne view point. On the other hand, terrestrial viewpoints exhibit shadows for areas above the scanner position and in viewing direction behind vertical or steep faces. In addition, the density of terrestrial data is varying strongly, but has for most of the covered area a much higher level of detail than the airborne dataset. A small temporal baseline is also inevitable and may cause differences between acquisition of airborne and terrestrial data. The goal of this research work is to develop a method for merging airborne and terrestrial LiDAR data. One prerequisite for merging is the identification of areas which are measurements of the same physical surface in either data set. This allows a transformation of the

  9. Boreal temperature variability inferred from maximum latewood density and tree-ring width data, Wrangell Mountain region, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davi, Nicole K.; Jacoby, Gordon C.; Wiles, Gregory C.

    2003-11-01

    Variations in both width and density of annual rings from a network of tree chronologies were used to develop high-resolution proxies to extend the climate record in the Wrangell Mountain region of Alaska. We developed a warm-season (July-September) temperature reconstruction that spans A.D. 1593-1992 based on the first eigenvector from principal component analysis of six maximum latewood density (MXD) chronologies. The climate/tree-growth model accounts for 51% of the temperature variance from 1958 to 1992 and shows cold in the late 1600s-early 1700s followed by a warmer period, cooling in the late 1700s-early 1800s, and warming in the 20th century. The 20th century is the warmest of the past four centuries. Several severely cold warm-seasons coincide with major volcanic eruptions. The first eigenvector from a ring-width (RW) network, based on nine chronologies from the Wrangell Mountain region (A.D. 1550-1970), is correlated positively with both reconstructed and recorded Northern Hemisphere temperatures. RW shows a temporal history similar to that of MXD by increased growth (warmer) and decreased growth (cooler) intervals and trends. After around 1970 the RW series show a decrease in growth, while station data show continued warming, which may be related to increasing moisture stress or other factors. Both the temperature history based on MXD and the growth trends from the RW series are consistent with well-dated glacier fluctuations in the Wrangell Mountains and some of the temperature variations also correspond to variations in solar activity.

  10. Modeling forest lines and forest distribution patterns with remote-sensing data in a mountainous region of semiarid central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinge, M.; Bohner, J.; Erasmi, S.

    2015-05-01

    Satellite images and digital elevation models provide an excellent database to analyze forest distribution patterns and forest limits in the mountain regions of semiarid central Asia on the regional scale. For the investigation area in the northern Tien Shan, a strong relationship between forest distribution and climate conditions could be found. Additionally areas of potential human impact on forested areas are identified at lower elevations near the edge of the mountains based on an analysis of the differences in climatic preconditions and the present occurrence of forest stands. The distribution of spruce (Picea schrenkiana) forests is hydrologically limited by a minimum annual precipitation of 250 mm and thermally by a minimum monthly mean temperature of 5 °C during the growing season. While the actual lower forest limit increases from 1600 m a.s.l. (above sea level) in the northwest to 2600 m a.s.l. in the southeast, the upper forest limit rises in the same direction from 1800 m a.s.l. to 2900 m a.s.l.. In accordance with the main wind directions, the steepest gradient of both forest lines and the greatest local vertical extent of the forest belt of 500 to 600 m to a maximum of 900 m occur at the northern and western mountain fronts. The forests in the investigation area are strongly restricted to north-facing slopes, which is a common feature in semiarid central Asia. Based on the presumption that variations in local climate conditions are a function of topography, the potential forest extent was analyzed with regard to the parameters slope, aspect, solar radiation input and elevation. All four parameters showed a strong relationship to forest distribution, yielding a total potential forest area that is 3.5 times larger than the present forest remains of 502 km2.

  11. Growing season loss of nitrate at three northeastern hardwood forests: A regional indicator of nitrogen saturation

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, L.H.; Murdoch, P.E.; Mitchell, M.J.; Driscoll, C.T.; Likens, G.E. )

    1994-06-01

    Nitrogen is typically tightly retained in terrestrial ecosystems in the Northeast. In ecosystems with episodic nitrogen losses, nitrate export during the summer period of high biotic demand remains low. Increasing nitrate loss during the growing season is an early indicator of ecosystems shifting from episodic to chronic nitrogen loss (nitrogen saturation). Studies of nitrogen cycling from Biscuit Brook, Catskills, NY, Huntington Forest, Adirondacks, NY and Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, White Mountains, NH, showed high nitrate loss at each site during the summer of 1990. This regional pattern many be caused by anthropogenic (higher nitrogen deposition), climatic (temperature and weather interactions), and/or natural (eg. pest outbreaks) disturbance. High nitrate loss causes surface water quality deterioration and may be linked to forest decline. The pattern also demonstrates the need for surface water monitoring on a regional scale to assess the effects of air pollution emissions legislation.

  12. Cross-Scale Analysis of the Region Effect on Vascular Plant Species Diversity in Southern and Northern European Mountain Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Guisan, Antoine; Vittoz, Pascal; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Dullinger, Stefan; Pauli, Harald; Willner, Wolfgang; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Virtanen, Risto; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region) to quantify four diversity components: (i) total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity), (ii) number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity), (iii) pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity) and (iv) number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity). We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale) diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale) diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity components. For

  13. Elimination of schistosomiasis japonica from formerly endemic areas in mountainous regions of southern China using a praziquantel regimen.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Dong, Guo-Dong; Liu, Jin-Ming; Gao, Jian-Xing; Shi, Yao-Jun; Zhang, Ying-Guo; Jin, Ya-Mei; Lu, Ke; Cheng, Guo-feng; Lin, Jiao-Jiao

    2015-03-15

    Schistosomiasis japonica is a major public health problem in China. Domestic animals play a major role in the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum to humans. To better understand the epidemiology of schistosomiasis japonica in domestic animals in the mountainous areas of China, we performed a 5-year longitudinal study of schistosomiasis in cattle and horses in Yunnan Province from 2009 to 2013. We also performed a concurrent drug-based intervention study in three settlement groups in Yunnan Province aimed at developing an effective means of controlling transmission in this region. The prevalence of infection in cattle fluctuated between 1.67% and 3.05% from 2009 to 2011, and monthly treatments of schistosome-positive animals reduced the prevalence to 0% (P<0.05) from 2012 to 2013. Prior to the intervention, we found that schistosomiasis was prevalent from May to October, with the highest prevalence observed in June (10.00%). We surveyed for environmental schistosome contamination, and 94.29% of the miracidia found were from cattle. Our study showed that it is possible to eliminate schistosomiasis in domestic animals in the mountainous regions of China by monthly treating cattle and horses from schistosome-positive households from May to October. PMID:25591407

  14. The relationship of the Yucca Mountain repository block to the regional ground-water system: A geochemical model

    SciTech Connect

    Matuska, N.A.; Hess, J.W.

    1989-08-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being studied by the Department of Energy and the State of Nevada as the site of a high-level nuclear waste repository. Geochemical and isotopic modeling were used in this study to define the relationship of the volcanic tuff aquifers and aquitards to the underlying regional carbonate ground-water system. The chemical evolution of a ground water as it passes through a hypothetical tuffaceous aquifer was developed using computer models PHREEQE, WATEQDR and BALANCE. The tuffaceous system was divided into five parts, with specific mineralogies, reaction steps and temperatures. The initial solution was an analysis of a soil water from Rainier Mesa. The ending solution in each part became the initial solution in the next part. Minerals consisted of zeolites, smectites, authigenic feldspars and quartz polymorphs from described diagentic mineral zones. Reaction steps were ion exchange with zeolites. The solution from the final zone, Part V, was chosen as most representative, in terms of pH, element molalities and mineral solubilities, of tuffaceous water. This hypothetical volcanic water from Part V was mixed with water from the regional carbonate aquifer, and the results compared to analyses of Yucca Mountain wells. Mixing and modeling attempts were conducted on wells in which studies indicated upward flow.

  15. Regional significance of Mississippian rocks at Pentagon Mountain, Lewis and Clark Range, northwestern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    Pentagon Mountain exposes one of the best of the few sections of Mississippian rocks in the Lewis and Clark Range of northwestern Montana. This section consists of 225 m (738 ft) of marine carbonate rocks from which conodonts, ranging in age from earliest Osagean to early Meramecian, have been identified. Its stratigraphic base is well exposed, but the top has been eroded. Five units are recognized in this sequence, in ascending order: (1) phosphatized coarsely crinoidal and spiculitic wackestone, (2) dolomitic lime mudstone or wackestone, thinly interbedded with spiculitic biogenic chert, (3) partly dolomitized lime bioclastic wackestone showing much pressure-solution compaction, (4) partly dolomitized lime bioclastic packstone or wackestone, also showing much pressure-solution compaction, and (5) dolomitic mudstone. The Mississippian sequence at Pentagon Mountain can be readily correlated lithologically, across the Lewis thrust system with Mississippian rocks that crop out to the east in the Sawtooth Range. This implies either that Mississippian units were originally widespread or that the magnitude of thrusting between the Mississippian rocks in the Lewis and Clark Range and those in the Sawtooth Range was insignificant. However, Mississippian rocks at Pentagon Mountain exhibit extreme pressure-solution compaction, which suggests greater stratigraphic or structural burial of these rocks than their Mississippian counterparts in the Sawtooth Range. Secondary dolomite is pervasive in the lower part of the Mississippian section in the Lewis and Clark Range, and spectacular solution breccias locally disrupt the base of the section. These breccias and the adjacent dolomite are probably related, as both are thought to result from the passage of fluids through these rocks during Laramide uplift and/or post Laramide erosion and extension.

  16. Utilizing ERTS-A imagery for tectonic analysis through study of Big Horn Mountains Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. NASA-provided color composite (1048-17234) which includes the southeastern portion of the Bighorn Mountains and the western Powder River basin is of excellent quality. The considerable variations in the red hues indicate that vegetational mapping will be enhanced over the black and white. Some additional delineation of rock units can be made, particularly the Chugwater formation. Preliminary look at just received winter scenes indicates that topographic features are enhanced both due to the snow cover and to the lower sun angle.

  17. Rapid Evolving Environment and Exposure and Their Implication of New Risks in Mountainous Regions after Major Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wentao; Wang, Ming; Shi, Peijun

    2014-05-01

    The Ms 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake occurred in mountainous Sichuan Province triggered widespread coseismic landslides and heavy human casualties in the year 2008. Much attention has been focused on instantaneous hazards of seismicity and coseismic landslides, while few attentions are paid on the effects of the changed mountain environments caused by great earthquakes of this magnitude. Five years following the devastating Ms 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake, new landslides, debris flow and flash floods are frequently reported and observed in the severely earthquake stricken regions. This indicates that the geological hazards after the major earthquake in a mountainous environment can be a long-term evolving threat. In this work, we combine image interpretation and extensive field reconnaissances to uncover the mechanism of the constant post-quake disasters that repeatedly destroyed rebuilt houses in Wenchuan Region. Based on high resolution image interpretations and field reconnaissance, coseismic landslides in 2008, post-quake landslide in 2011 and rural house footprints in 2002 and 2011 are interpreted manually in Shikan River Watershed of the heavily affected Pingwu County. Spatial analysis reveals that the spatial distributions of coseismic landslides mainly concentrated in steeper and high altitude slopes, while the post quake landslides evolves to gentle and lower slopes. Compared with pre-quake houses, more relocated houses are also concentrated on limited flat regions near riversides. The evolution of landslide debris and changing distribution of rebuilt houses after the Wenchuan Earthquake has shown quite similar moving trends to lower elevations and gentle slopes, and more post-disaster houses were relocated closer to expanded riverbed after the earthquake. Field reconnaissance also confirmed the downward movement of post-quake mass wasting, which fills up riverbed with debris, expanding river width and results in a catastrophic flash flood event in August 2013. Here

  18. 1999 resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fort Union Coal Assessment Team

    1999-01-01

    The USGS has assessed resources of selected coal of the Fort Union Formation and equivalent units in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. The assessment focused on coal in the Powder River, Williston, Hanna-Carbon, and Greater Green River basins most likely to be utilized in the next few decades. In other basins in the region Tertiary coal resources are summarized but not assessed. Disc 1, in PDF files, includes results of the assessment and chapters on coal geology, quantity and quality, and land use and ownership. Disc 2 provides GIS files for land use and ownership maps and geologic maps, and basic GIS data for the assessed basins. ArcView shapefiles, PDF files for cross sections and TIFF files are included along with ArcView Datapublisher software for Windows-based computer systems.

  19. Atmospheric mercury (Hg) in the Adirondacks: concentrations and sources.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Deok; Holsen, Thomas M; Hopke, Philip K

    2008-08-01

    Hourly averaged gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) concentrations and hourly integrated reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), and particulate Hg (Hg(p)) concentrations in the ambient air were measured at Huntington Forest in the Adirondacks, New York from June 2006 to May 2007. The average concentrations of GEM, RGM, and Hg(p) were 1.4 +/- 0.4 ng m(-3), 1.8 +/- 2.2 pg m(-3), and 3.2 +/- 3.7 pg m(-3), respectively. RGM represents < 3.5% of total atmospheric Hg or total gaseous Hg (TGM: GEM + RGM) and Hg(p) represents < 3.0% of the total atmospheric Hg. The highest mean concentrations of GEM, RGM, and Hg(p) were measured during winter and summer whereas the lowest mean concentrations were measured during spring and fall. Significant diurnal patterns were apparent in warm seasons for all species whereas diurnal patterns were weak in cold seasons. RGM was better correlated with ozone concentration and temperature in both warm (rho (RGM - ozone) = 0.57, p < 0.001; rho (RGM - temperature) = 0.62, p < 0.001) and cold seasons (rho (RGM - ozone) = 0.48, p = 0.002; rho (RGM - temperature) = 0.54, p = 0.011) than the other species. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis was applied to identify possible Hg sources. This method identified areas in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, Texas, Indiana, and Missouri, which coincided well with sources reported in a 2002 U.S. mercury emissions inventory. PMID:18754488

  20. Mafic rocks of the Adirondack Highlands: One suite or many

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, P.R. . New York State Museum)

    1993-03-01

    Mafic rocks in the granulite facies terrane of the Adirondack Highlands form at least 3 and possibly as many as 6 groups, based on field, petrographic, and geochemical criteria. Most abundant is the olivine metagabbro-amphibolite group (OMA), equivalent to the mafic suite'' of Olson (J. Petrol. 33:471, 1992). OMA occurs in irregular to tabular bodies, locally with intrusive relations, in all major rock types in the E and central Highlands. OMA is strongly olivine normative and forms a continuous differentiation series (Olson, 1992). Plagioclase-two pyroxene-garnet granulites (PGG) form dikes up to several m wide, in anorthositic host rocks. PGG are ferrogabbroic or ferrodioritic and approximately silica saturated. Two subgroups differ sharply in Mg, P, and trace elements. Ferrodiorite and monzodiorite gneisses (FMG), quartz normative and commonly migmatitic, occur in several large bodies in the NE Highlands and as extensive thin sheets in the W and SE Highlands, in association with anorthositic rocks. Three subgroups are distinguishable using Mg/Fe ratios and trace elements. Major element least-squares modeling suggests that both PGG and FMG could be derived by fractionation of gabbroic anorthosite liquids. A differentiation series is not evident, however, and both trace element (Ba, Rb, Sr, Zr and REE) data and normative plagioclase (An [>=] plag. in anorthosite) indicate a more complex origin. One subgroup of FMG may be early cumulates of the mangerite-charnockite suite. The chemistry of OMA, PGG, and FMG reflects their evolved nature and cannot be readily interpreted in terms of magma sources.

  1. Relict colluvial boulder deposits as paleoclimatic indicators in the Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, J.W.; Harrington, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    Early to middle Pleistocene boulder deposits are common features on southern Nevada hillslopes. These darkly varnished, ancient colluvial deposits stand out in stark contrast to the underlying light-colored bedrock of volcanic tuffs, and they serve as minor divides between drainage channels on modern hillslopes. To demonstrate the antiquity of these stable hillslope features, six colluvial boulder deposits from Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, were dated by cation-ratio dating of rock varnish accreted on boulder surfaces. Estimated minimum ages of these boulder deposits range from 760 to 170 ka. Five additional older deposits on nearby Skull and Little Skull Mountains and Buckboard Mesa yielded cation-ratio minimum-age estimates of 1.38 Ma to 800 ka. An independent cosmogenic chlorine-36 surface exposure date was obtained on one deposit, which confirms an estimated early to middle Quaternary age. These deposits have provided the oldest age estimates for unconsolidated hillslope deposits in the southwestern United States. We suggest that the colluvial boulder deposits were produced during early and middle Pleistocene glacial/pluvial episodes and were stabilized during the transition to drier interglacial climates. The preservation of old, thin hillslope deposits and the less-than-2-m incision by hillslope runoff adjacent to these deposits, indicate that extremely low denudation rates have occurred on resistant volcanic hillslopes in the southern Great Basin during Quaternary time. -from Authors

  2. Developing a climatological / hydrological baseline for climate change impact assessment in a remote mountain region - an example from Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzmann, N.; Huggel, C.; Calanca, P.; Diaz, A.; Jonas, T.; Konzelmann, T.; Lagos, P.; Rohrer, M.; Silverio, W.; Zappa, M.

    2009-04-01

    Changes in the availability of fresh water caused by climatic changes will become a major issue in the coming years and decades. In this context, regions presently depending on water from retreating mountain glaciers are particularly vulnerable. In many parts of the Andes for example, people already suffer from the impacts of reduced glacier run off. Therefore, the development and implementation of adequate adaptation measures is an urgent need. To better understand the impact of climate change on water resources in the Andean region, a new research program (PACC - Programa de Adaptación al Cambio Climático en el Perú) between Peru and Switzerland has recently been launched by SDC (Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation). As a first step, a scientific baseline relative to climatology, hydrology, agriculture and natural disasters will be developed on a regional scale for the Departments of Cusco and Apurimac in close cooperation with partners from Universities and governmental institutions as well as NGOs in Peru. A reliable data baseline is a must for the development of adaptation measures that can effectively cope with the risks induced by climate change. The realization of this task in remote mountain regions, where observational data are generally sparse, however, is challenging. Temporal and spatial gaps must be filled using indirect methods such as re-analyses, remote sensing and interpolation techniques. For future scenarios, the use of climate model output along with statistical and dynamical downscaling is indicated. This contribution will present and discuss approaches and possible concepts to tackle the challenges in a Peruvian context. In addition, first experiences will be reported particularly on cross-disciplinary issues that naturally emerge from the integrative perspective needed in climate change impact assessments and the development of adaptation strategies.

  3. Regional and Local Carbon Flux Information from a Continuous Atmospheric CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, S.; Stephens, B.; Watt, A.; Schimel, D.; Aulenbach, S.

    2006-12-01

    We have established a Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON) to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes and to fill key gaps in the North American Carbon Program (NACP). There are strong scientific and societal motivations for determining CO2 exchanges on regional scales. Mountain forests in particular represent a significant potential net CO2 sink in the U.S. and are highly sensitive to land-use practices and climate change. We have developed a new autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analysis system (AIRCOA) and have deployed these systems at 4 sites: Niwot Ridge (NWR), near Ward, Colorado (August, 2005); Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) near Steamboat Springs, Colorado (September, 2005); Fraser Experimental Forest (FEF), near Fraser Colorado (August, 2005); and Hidden Peak (HDP), near Snowbird, Utah (April, 2006). We will deploy a fifth site in Northeastern Arizona in September 2006. Measurements of surveillance gas cylinders, and an ongoing intercomparison with flask measurements made by NOAA GMD at Niwot Ridge, show measurement biases of 0.2 ppm or better. Preliminary analysis of CO2 variability at our sites provides valuable information on the usefulness of mountaintop observations in data-assimilation and inverse modeling. Comparisons between our sites and to background sites can give direct regional-scale flux estimates, and analysis of the nocturnal CO2 build-ups at FEF provides unique insights into valley-scale respiration rates. We will present results of these preliminary analyses and plans for future integration with the NACP effort.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of techniques for transforming regional climate model output to the potential repository site in support of Yucca Mountain future climate synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Church, H.W.; Zak, B.D.; Behl, Y.K.

    1995-06-01

    The report describes a preliminary evaluation of models for transforming regional climate model output from a regional to a local scale for the Yucca Mountain area. Evaluation and analysis of both empirical and numerical modeling are discussed which is aimed at providing site-specific, climate-based information for use by interfacing activities. Two semiempirical approaches are recommended for further analysis.

  5. College-Bound Seniors, 1979. [College Board ATP Summary Reports for: National, New England, Middle States, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    The Admissions Testing Program (ATP) is a service of the College Board. The 1979 ATP summary reports on college-bound seniors were produced for each region of the United States, including New England, the Middle, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western States. The national and each regional report are in separate booklets.…

  6. Seismic mapping of shallow fault zones in the San Gabriel Mountains from the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, G.S.; Ryberg, T.; Lutter, W.J.; Ehlig, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    During the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE), a reflection/refraction survey was conducted along a profile (line 1) extending from Seal Beach, California, northeastward to the Mojave Desert and crossing the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley basins and San Gabriel Mountains. In most shot gathers from the southern and central San Gabriel Mountains, clear secondary arrivals are seen that merge, or appear to merge, with first arrivals at three locations, including the location of the Vincent thrust fault, an exposed late Mesozoic/early Cenozoic megathrust. These secondary arrivals are interpretable as reflections in the shallow crust (<5 km depth) from a concave-upward interface that projects to the surface in the north near the Vincent thrust fault, is offset in its central part at the San Gabriel fault (an old branch of the San Andreas fault), and terminates in the south at 1 to 2 km depth at the southern mountain front. The velocity structure above and below this interface strongly suggests it is the Vincent thrust fault: intermediate velocities (6.2 km/s), consistent with mylonites overlying the Vincent thrust fault, are observed above it; lower velocities (5.8 km/s), consistent with the Pelona Schist underlying the Vincent thrust fault, are observed below it. Problems arise, however, in attempting to match this reflector to the exposed Vincent thrust fault, which is seen in outcrops east of line 1. The Vincent thrust fault is shallower than the reflector in most places. An unmapped structure (steep fault, monocline, or thrust fault) is required between line 1 and the outcrops that either drops the Vincent thrust fault down to the depths of the reflector or repeats the Vincent thrust fault beneath line 1 in the footwall of another thrust fault. An alternative interpretation of the reflector is a deep greenstone horizon within the Pelona Schist, although this alternative is not favored by the velocity structure. Copyright 2001 by the American

  7. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January-December 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Camera, Richard J.; Locke, Glenn L.; Habte, Aron M.; Darnell, Jon G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Repository Development, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region of southern Nevada and eastern California. These data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 35 boreholes and 1 fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs, both ground-water levels and discharge at 1 flowing borehole, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are tabulated from January through December 2004. Also tabulated are ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or collected as part of other programs) and data revised from those previously published at monitoring sites. Historical data on water levels, discharges, and withdrawals are presented graphically to indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven boreholes in Jackass Flats is presented for the period 1992-2004 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements, maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to the 1992-93 baseline period. At six boreholes in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 2004 were slightly higher (0.3-2.7 feet) than their median water levels for 1992-93. At one borehole in Jackass Flats, median water level for 2004 equaled the median water level for 1992-93.

  8. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, Through December 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Camera, Richard J.; Westenburg, Craig L.

    1994-01-01

    Tne U.S. Geological Survey. in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site- Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes water-resource data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to document the historical and current condition of ground-water resources, to detect and document changes in those resources through time, and to allow assessments of ground-water resources during investigations to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground- water discharge at 6 sites, ground-water quality at 19 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Fiat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies or as part of other programs are included to further indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels and median annual ground-water withdrawals in Jackass Flats is presented. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of a11 water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar year 1992. Data on ground-water quality are compared to established, proposed, or tentative primary and secondary drinking-water standards, and measures which exceeded those standards are listed for 18 sites. Detected organic compounds for which established, proposed, or tentative drinking-water standards exist also are listed.

  9. Regional debris flow susceptibility analysis in mountainous peri-urban areas through morphometric and land cover indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelis, M. C.; Werner, M.

    2014-11-01

    A method for assessing regional debris flow susceptibility at the watershed scale, based on an index composed of a morphometric indicator and a land cover indicator, is proposed and applied in 106 peri-urban mountainous watersheds in Bogotá, Colombia. The indicator of debris flow susceptibility is obtained from readily available information common to most peri-urban mountainous areas and can be used to prioritise watersheds that can subsequently be subjected to detailed hazard analysis. Susceptibility is considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flows occurring. Morphological variables recognised in the literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows are used to construct the morphometric indicator by applying principal component analysis. Subsequently, this indicator is compared with the results of debris flow propagation to assess its capacity in identifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation of debris flows was carried out using the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the slope-area curve of the watersheds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped into four indicators: size, shape, hypsometry and (potential) energy, with energy being the component that best explains the capability of a watershed to transport debris flows. However, the morphometric indicator was found to not sufficiently explain the records of past floods in the study area. Combining the morphometric indicator with land cover indicators improved the agreement and provided a more reliable assessment of debris flow susceptibility in the study area. The analysis shows that, even if morphometric parameters identify a high disposition to the occurrence of debris flow, improving land cover can reduce the susceptibility. However, if favourable morphometric conditions are present

  10. Ecological Model to Predict Potential Habitats of Oncomelania hupensis, the Intermediate Host of Schistosoma japonicum in the Mountainous Regions, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hong-Ru; Liu, Lu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Yang, Guo-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis japonica is a parasitic disease that remains endemic in seven provinces in the People’s Republic of China (P.R. China). One of the most important measures in the process of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China is control of Oncomelania hupensis, the unique intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Compared with plains/swamp and lake regions, the hilly/mountainous regions of schistosomiasis endemic areas are more complicated, which makes the snail survey difficult to conduct precisely and efficiently. There is a pressing call to identify the snail habitats of mountainous regions in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Methods Twelve out of 56 administrative villages distributed with O. hupensis in Eryuan, Yunnan Province, were randomly selected to set up the ecological model. Thirty out of the rest of 78 villages (villages selected for building model were excluded from the villages for validation) in Eryuan and 30 out of 89 villages in Midu, Yunnan Province were selected via a chessboard method for model validation, respectively. Nine-year-average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) as well as Digital Elevation Model (DEM) covering Eryuan and Midu were extracted from MODIS and ASTER satellite images, respectively. Slope, elevation and the distance from every village to its nearest stream were derived from DEM. Suitable survival environment conditions for snails were defined by comparing historical snail presence data and remote sensing derived images. According to the suitable conditions for snails, environment factors, i.e. NDVI, LST, elevation, slope and the distance from every village to its nearest stream, were integrated into an ecological niche model to predict O. hupensis potential habitats in Eryuan and Midu. The evaluation of the model was assessed by comparing the model prediction and field investigation. Then, the consistency rate of model validation was calculated

  11. An Empirical Approach to Modeling Methylmercury Concentrations in an Adirondack Stream Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, D. A.; Nystrom, E.; Wolock, D.; Bradley, P. M.; Riva Murray, K.

    2013-12-01

    Existing process-based models have provided only a limited ability to predict variation in methylmercury concentrations in surface waters, suggesting a need for simple data-based inverse modeling approaches to better explain this variation. Here, we used a multiple regression approach to develop a model that explains about 81% of the variation in filtered methylmercury (FMeHg) concentrations in Fishing Brook, a 4th-order stream in the headwaters of the Hudson River basin in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, a known hot spot of Hg bioaccumulation. Previous work in the study basin indicated that riparian wetland soils are the dominant source of MeHg to this stream. The model, based on 43 stream samples collected during a 33-mo period during 2007-09, included variables that represent the influence of seasonal temperature, streamflow, and modeled riparian water table depth on seasonal and annual patterns of FMeHg concentrations. An additional variable was added to the model to represent the effects of a pond on decreasing FMeHg concentrations immediately upstream of the sampling site. The model suggests that seasonal temperature variation is a principal control on annual patterns of FMeHg concentrations, most likely the result of temperature-driven effects on the rates of net methylation and mobilization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Additionally, streamflow has a dilution effect on FMeHg concentrations, which is most evident during the dormant season (Nov. through Apr.). A valuable insight provided by this modeling approach is that the connection of the riparian water table to the principal source of MeHg and DOC in the shallow (upper 500 mm) riparian soil and the persistence of that connection are the dominant controls on FMeHg concentration patterns during the growing season (May - Oct.). This was especially evident during the dry summer of 2007 when FMeHg concentrations were less than half those of the wetter summers of 2008 and 2009. The approach used in

  12. Dissolved Organic Matter Characteristics Control Filtered Total Mercury Concentrations in an Adirondack River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, D. A.; Aiken, G.; Bradley, P. M.; Journey, C.

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays important roles in the transport and biogeochemical processes that affect mercury (Hg) cycling in the environment. Previous investigations have shown strong correlations between DOC and Hg concentrations in surface waters. Commonly, other DOC-related measures such as ultraviolet absorbance (UV254), and hydrophobic acid content (HPOA) show even stronger positive correlations with Hg in waters indicating the importance of the more aromatic fraction of DOC in Hg cycling. Finally, in-situ optical sensor-derived DOC concentrations have proven useful as inexpensive proxies for estimating Hg concentrations in some surface waters. Here, we describe results from the 493 km2 Upper Hudson River basin in the Adirondack Mountains of New York in which stream water samples were collected for filtered total Hg (FTHg) concentrations, DOC concentrations, UV254, HPOA, and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA, derived from the absorbance and DOC measurements) at two temporal and spatial scales during 2006-09: (1) biweekly to monthly in a 66 km2 basin, and (2) seasonally at 27 synoptic sites distributed across the larger Upper Hudson basin. These results indicate that SUVA values are more strongly correlated with FTHg concentrations than are those of DOC concentrations, especially during summer. The presence of numerous open water bodies in this basin appears to greatly affect DOC and FTHg concentrations and SUVA values as reflected by data collected upstream and downstream of ponds and lakes. Multivariate regression models developed to examine the landscape factors that control spatial variation in SUVA values among synoptic sites indicate that open water area is inversely correlated with these values, reflecting autochthonous carbon sources in lakes/ponds that are more aliphatic in character than that found in streams. In contrast, metrics such as percent riparian area that reflect the influence of soils with high organic carbon content are

  13. Characteristics and significance of two pre-late-Wisconsinan weathering profiles (Adirondacks, USA and Miramichi Highlands, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Mireille; Jolicoeur, Serge; Pierre, Guillaume

    1995-04-01

    The properties of two weathering profiles developed from granitic rocks and covered by deposits of Wisconsinan age were studied in order to characterize saprolites and non saprolite residuum of the glaciated area of northeastern North America. The Warrensburg profile (Adirondacks, New York) is more than 9 m thick and formed on a hornblende granitic gneiss. Total chemical analysis of the sandy saprolite shows slight losses compared to bedrock. Kaolinite is the main weathering product in the < 2 μm fraction, and vermiculite and gibbsite are present. Biotite is altered to kaolinite locally. Hornblende is the most altered mineral and is pseudomorphed by vermiculite. There is 4% of kaolinite and 1.5% of gibbsite in the fine fraction ( < 63 μm) of the saprolite. The Big Bald Mountain profile (Miramichi Highlands, New-Brunswick) is 2 m deep and has developed on a biotite granite. Tors, weathering pits and gruss more than 20 m deep in an alveole at the foot of the mountain were reported. The sandy residuum shows limited geochemical and mineralogic evolution. Most primary minerals appear fresh, biotite and plagioclase being slightly altered. Smectite, chlorite and vermiculite sometimes interstratified with mica, are the dominant clay minerals of the fine fraction, but kaolinite and gibbsite are also present. The two profiles have limited mineralogic evolution even though kaolinite and gibbsite occur in small amounts. Their characteristics do not indicate climatic conditions different from those of the present, thus their age is within the limits of the Plio-Pleistocene. The temperate conditions and the quick drainage of these porous materials can explain the observed properties and their thickness. Saprolites are witnesses of an important process in relief evolution, yet they are overlooked factors in the analysis of landform evolution of formerly glaciated areas. Thorough analysis of weathering profiles is needed in these areas since it can give valuable information on

  14. Dispersal, niche, and isolation processes jointly explain species turnover patterns of nonvolant small mammals in a large mountainous region of China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhixin; Quan, Qing; Du, Yuanbao; Xia, Lin; Ge, Deyan; Yang, Qisen

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that govern the spatial patterns of species turnover (beta diversity) has been one of the fundamental issues in biogeography. Species turnover is generally recognized as strong in mountainous regions, but the way in which different processes (dispersal, niche, and isolation) have shaped the spatial turnover patterns in mountainous regions remains largely unexplored. Here, we explore the directional and elevational patterns of species turnover for nonvolant small mammals in the Hengduan Mountains of southwest China and distinguish the relative roles of geographic distance, environmental distance, and geographic isolation on the patterns. The spatial turnover was assessed using the halving distance (km), which was the geographic distance that halved the similarity (Jaccard similarity) from its initial value. The halving distance was calculated for the linear, logarithmic, and exponential regression models between Jaccard similarity and geographic distance. We found that the east-west turnover is generally faster than the south-north turnover for high-latitudinal regions in the Hengduan Mountains and that this pattern corresponds to the geographic structure of the major mountain ranges and rivers that mainly extend in a south-north direction. There is an increasing trend of turnover toward the higher-elevation zones. Most of the variation in the Jaccard similarity could be explained by the pure effect of geographic distance and the joint effects of geographic distance, environmental distance, and average elevation difference. Our study indicates that dispersal, niche, and isolation processes are all important determinants of the spatial turnover patterns of nonvolant small mammals in the Hengduan Mountains. The spatial configuration of the landscape and geographic isolation can strongly influence the rate of species turnover in mountainous regions at multiple spatial scales. PMID:26941938

  15. Late cenozoic evolution of Fortymile Wash: Major change in drainage pattern in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada region during late miocene volcanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstrom, S.C.; Warren, R.G.

    1994-04-01

    The site characterization of Yucca Mountain, NV as a potential high level nuclear waste repository includes study of the surficial deposits as a record of the paleoenvironmental history of the Yucca Mountain region. An important aspect of this history is an understanding of the evolution of paleogeography leading to establishment of the present drainage pattern. Establishment of drainage basin evolution is needed before geomorphic response to paleoclimate and tectonics can be assessed, because a major change in drainage basin geometry can predominantly affect the sedimentary record. Because alluvial aquifers are significant to regional hydrology, a major change in surface drainage resulting in buried alluvium could have hydrogeologic significance. In this paper, we report on geologic evidence for a major modification in surface drainage pattern in the Yucca Mountain region, resulting in the probable establishment of the Fortymile Wash drainage basin by latest Miocene time.

  16. Comparison of Observed Temperature and Wind in Mountainous and Coastal Regions in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. S.

    2015-12-01

    For more than one year, temperature and wind are observed at several levels in three different environments in Korea. First site is located in a ski jump stadium in a mountain area and observations are performed at 5 heights. Second site is located in an agricultural land 1.4km inland from the seaside and the observing tower is 300m tall. Third site is located in the middle of sea 30km away from the seaside and the tower is 100m tall. The vertical gradients of air temperature are compared on the daily and seasonal bases. Not only the strengths of atmospheric stability are analyzed but also the times when the turnover of the signs of vertical gradients of temperature are occurred. The comparison is also applied to vertical gradients of wind speed and turning of wind direction due to surface slope and sea/land breeze. This study may suggest characteristics of local climate over different environments quantitatively.

  17. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Iron Mountain Mine, Redding, California, October 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-03

    Iron Mountain Mine (IMM) was periodically mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite. Rainfall, infiltrating into the underground mine workings mixes with ground water and the ore zone to produce sulfuric acid and high concentrations of zinc, cadmium, and copper. The resulting heavy metal-laden acidic waters, referred to as acid mine drainage (AMD), was eventually discharged through mine adits or ground water seepage into the Spring Creek watershed streams, Spring Creek Reservoir, and the Sacramento River. The primary contaminants of concern include: AMD, copper, cadmium, and zinc. The desired remedial action for this site was not selected due to excessive cost. Alternatives were proposed and are detailed in the report.

  18. Geomorphology and forest ecology of a mountain region in the central Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hack, John Tilton; Goodlett, John C.

    1960-01-01

    The area studied, mostly in the headwaters of the Shenandoah River, Augusta and Rockingham Counties, Va., includes about 55 square miles of densely forested mountain land and has an average relief of about 1,500 feet. It is part of an area that in June 1949 was subjected to a violent cloudburst which damaged large tracts on slopes and bottom lands. Most of the area is underlain by flaggy arkosic sandstone and interbedded reddish shale of the Hampshire formation of Devonian age. The highest ridges are capped by massive sandstone of the Pocono formation of Mississippian age. In most of the area the rocks dip gently to the southeast but in the northwestern and southeastern parts they are folded into synclines that localize northeastward-trending ridges.

  19. Factors Enhancing the Teaching of Information Literacy to Adirondack Community College Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joyce

    This study examines the status of information literacy skills among the faculty of Adirondack Community College (ACC) in New York, and describes factors that enhance these skills. Three primary questions posed by the study are: (1) what information literacy skills do faculty have now?; (2) what factors strengthen the teaching of information…

  20. Density and magnetic suseptibility values for rocks in the Talkeetna Mountains and adjacent region, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanger, Elizabeth A.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a compilation and statistical analysis of 306 density and 706 magnetic susceptibility measurements of rocks from south-central Alaska that were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS) scientists between the summers of 1999 and 2002. This work is a product of the USGS Talkeetna Mountains Transect Project and was supported by USGS projects in the Talkeetna Mountains and Iron Creek region, and by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) projects in the Delta River Mining District that aim to characterize the subsurface structures of the region. These data were collected to constrain potential field models (i.e., gravity and magnetic) that are combined with other geophysical methods to identify and model major faults, terrane boundaries, and potential mineral resources of the study area. Because gravity and magnetic field anomalies reflect variations in the density and magnetic susceptibility of the underlying lithology, these rock properties are essential components of potential field modeling. In general, the average grain density of rocks in the study region increases from sedimentary, felsic, and intermediate igneous rocks, to mafic igneous and metamorphic rocks. Magnetic susceptibility measurements performed on rock outcrops and hand samples from the study area also reveal lower magnetic susceptibilities for sedimentary and felsic intrusive rocks, moderate susceptibility values for metamorphic, felsic extrusive, and intermediate igneous rocks, and higher susceptibility values for mafic igneous rocks. The density and magnetic properties of rocks in the study area are generally consistent with general trends expected for certain rock types.

  1. Landslides susceptibility change over time according to terrain conditions in a mountain area of the tropic region.

    PubMed

    Pineda, M C; Viloria, J; Martínez-Casasnovas, J A

    2016-04-01

    Susceptibility to landslides in mountain areas results from the interaction of various factors related to relief formation and soil development. The assessment of landslide susceptibility has generally taken into account individual events, or it has been aimed at establishing relationships between landslide-inventory maps and maps of environmental factors, without considering that such relationships can change in space and time. In this work, temporal and space changes in landslides were analysed in six different combinations of date and geomorphological conditions, including two different geological units, in a mountainous area in the north-centre of Venezuela, in northern South America. Landslide inventories from different years were compared with a number of environmental factors by means of logistic regression analysis. The resulting equations predicted landslide susceptibility from a range of geomorphometric parameters and a vegetation index, with diverse accuracy, in the study area. The variation of the obtained models and their prediction accuracy between geological units and dates suggests that the complexity of the landslide processes and their explanatory factors changed over space and time in the studied area. This calls into question the use of a single model to evaluate landslide susceptibility over large regions. PMID:27030353

  2. Landslides susceptibility change over time according to terrain conditions in a mountain area of the tropic region.

    PubMed

    Pineda, M C; Viloria, J; Martínez-Casasnovas, J A

    2016-04-01

    Susceptibility to landslides in mountain areas results from the interaction of various factors related to relief formation and soil development. The assessment of landslide susceptibility has generally taken into account individual events, or it has been aimed at establishing relationships between landslide-inventory maps and maps of environmental factors, without considering that such relationships can change in space and time. In this work, temporal and space changes in landslides were analysed in six different combinations of date and geomorphological conditions, including two different geological units, in a mountainous area in the north-centre of Venezuela, in northern South America. Landslide inventories from different years were compared with a number of environmental factors by means of logistic regression analysis. The resulting equations predicted landslide susceptibility from a range of geomorphometric parameters and a vegetation index, with diverse accuracy, in the study area. The variation of the obtained models and their prediction accuracy between geological units and dates suggests that the complexity of the landslide processes and their explanatory factors changed over space and time in the studied area. This calls into question the use of a single model to evaluate landslide susceptibility over large regions. PMID:27358998

  3. Natural foci of Borrelia lusitaniae in a mountain region of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tarageľová, Veronika Rusňáková; Mahríková, Lenka; Selyemová, Diana; Václav, Radovan; Derdáková, Markéta

    2016-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. It is caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex and transmitted to humans by ticks of the genus Ixodes. Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana are the most common genospecies in Central Europe. In contrast, Borrelia lusitaniae predominates in Mediterranean countries such as Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Slovakia, its prevalence is low and restricted to only a few sites. The aim of our research was to study the expansion of ticks into higher altitudes in the ecosystem of the Malá Fatra mountains (north Slovakia) and their infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. pathogens. Questing ticks were collected by flagging in seven years (2004, 2006-2011) at three different altitudes: low (630-660 m above sea level (ASL)), intermediate (720-750 m ASL), and high (1040-1070 m ASL). Tick abundance was highest at the lowest altitude and lowest at the highest altitude. The average infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in nymphs and adults was 16.8% and 36.2%, respectively. The number of infected ticks decreased from 38.5% at the lowest altitude to 4.4% at the highest altitude. B. lusitaniae was the most frequently found genospecies (>60% of the ticks found positive for B. burgdorferi s.l.) in all sites in all the studied years with the exception of 2008 when B. afzelii predominated (62%). Our study confirms the spread of Ixodes ricinus ticks to higher altitudes in Slovakia. The discovery that our mountain study sites were a natural foci of B. lusitaniae was unexpected because this genospecies is usually associated with lizards and xerothermic habitats. PMID:26711673

  4. Forest Fire Derived Black Carbon in the Adirondack Mountains, NY, ~1745 to 1850 A.D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, L.; Khan, A. J.; Shareef, A.; Ahmed, T.

    2008-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), a product of incomplete combustion, is ubiquitously present in our environment. The term BC and BC (elemental carbon) are often synonymously used. It absorbs solar radiation and causes heating of the atmosphere. Its presence in the atmosphere as fine particles has been linked to cardiac and pulmonary disease. It constitutes a significant portion of the organic matter. Long-term BC data, either in atmosphere or sediments is sparse. The sources of BC are forest fires, biomass burning, coal-, gasoline-, and diesel-combustion. Contributions from these sources have drastically changed over the last three centuries. Before ~1880, little fossil fuel was used in the United States. Hence BC was produced almost entirely from the biomass burning, either as a source of heat or forest fires. Contribution from forest fires must have dominated in the United States before human population reached a significant level. Lake sediments can be used to quantify BC emissions backward in time. Husain et al [JGR 113, D13102, doi:10.1029/2007JD009398, 2008] developed a new technique to calibrate the deposition of BC in to lake sediments, and used the BC measurements in individual sediment samples to determine atmospheric BC concentrations from ~1850 to 2005. In this work we have attempted to extend the measurements back to ~1745. Bottom sediment cores were collected from West Pine Pond (44°20'N, 74°25'W) using gravity coring, sliced into 1.25 or 2.5 cm sections, and freeze dried. The ages or the time of deposition of each section was determined using 210Pb dating technique. The 55- cm long core represented about 260 years or the 1745 to 2005 period. BC was separated from the sediments using a technique described by Husain et al [2008], and concentrations determined using the thermal optical method. The BC concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 3 mg g-1 dry weight of the sediment. The BC concentrations increased sharply around 1890 to 1902, reaching a level of 1.27 mg g-1, or about five times higher than that observed in 1854- 1865. Preliminary data shows only a small variation in the concentration from ~1745 to ~1845. So the level observed during the later period could be used to deduce an upper limit for BC concentrations resulting from forest fires in the United States. It should be recognized that these are long term averages and hence subject to large year to year variations. The appearance of anthropogenic BC component as a major source appears consistent with the population growth in the Eastern US. For example, the population of New York City in 1700, 1790, 1839, 1850, 1870, 1910 was 4937, 33131, 197112, 515547, 942292, 4766883, respectively. It is likely that population growth in the Eastern US followed similar or slower growth. We believe that a more detailed analysis of the lake sediment cores and our technique to determine atmospheric concentrations from sediment measurements can delineate contributions from various sources of BC over the last ~260 years.

  5. Challenges in precipitation observation and analysis over the cold/mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Zhang, Y.; Ma, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Precipitation is one of the most important variables for climate, hydrology, glacier, and ecosystem research at local, regional, and global scales. It is a great challenge to compile regional precipitation datasets and to develop reliable products for various research activities over the cold regions, i.e. the high altitudes and high latitudes. The TPE program has recognized the urgent need and critical importance for accurate regional precipitation datasets and products. This presentation will show new results from regional analyses of surface and remote sensing precipitation datasets for the TPE. It will also discuss key issues in cold region precipitation research, such as compatibility of data/observations over the national borders, bias-correction methods and results, and common challenges and linkages between high-latitude and high-altitude regions.

  6. The role of synmetamorphic igneous rocks in the metamorphism and partial melting of metasediments, Northwest Adirondacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Roger E.; Bohlen, Steven R.

    1985-08-01

    Field and petrologic studies along the Adirondack Lowlands — Highlands boundary near Harrisville, NY, indicate that heat from the synmetamorphic intrusion of the Diana syenite complex (intrusion temperature of ˜1,050° C) played a major role in the local metamorphic thermal regime and was responsible for extensive partial melting of adjacent metasedimentary units (Major Paragneiss of Engel and Engel). Metamorphic temperatures inferred from two — feldspar and spinel — quartz assemblages decrease from 850 950° C along the Diana — metasediment contact to 650 700° C, 2 3 km away from the contact. Metamorphic pressures are 7±0.5 kb as determined from coexisting plagioclase — garnet — sillimanite — quartz, kyanite — sillimanite, and garnet — rutile — ilmenite — sillimanite — quartz (GRAIL). In the paragneiss, migmatites consisting of quartz — microcline perthite — sodic plagioclase leucosomes are generally concordant with the melanosome consisting of biotite — sillimanite — garnet — spinel — plagioclase ±corundum±cordierite. Qualitatively the amount of partial melt and occurrences of corundum-bearing assemblages decrease away from the Diana contact. Activity of H2O inferred from coexisting biotite — sillimanite — quartz — garnet — K-feldspar ranges from 0.01 to 0.17 and is five to ten times lower in corundum-bearing rocks. Melting proceeded via vapor-absent reactions involving biotite in response to localized heating by synmetamorphic intrusion of magma. This unusually preserved, synmetamorphic contact aureole in a regional granulite terrane supports the concept that granulites owe their origin to magma intrusion and/or the ponding of magmas at the base of the crust.

  7. Influence of natural acidity and fisheries management activities upon the status of Adirondack fish populations

    SciTech Connect

    Retzsch, W.C.; Everett, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Acidification and the disappearance of fish from some Adirondack waters does not appear to be caused solely by acid rain. Acidification is a natural process under certain conditions and precipitation acidified by industrial emissions appears to be only one of many possible causes of pond, lake and stream acidification. Factors other than acid precipitation can cause acidification or reduce fish stocks. As a result of glaciation, northern New York State has hundreds of glacial ponds and lakes, most of which are dystrophic or oligotrophic. Many such waters are located in the western and central portions of the Adirondacks, an area frequently cited as exhibiting the most pronounced effects of acid rain. It is widely recognized that natural unpolluted bogs and peat deposits result in low pH environments. Seasonal and weather conditions also appear to have a substantial effect upon the acidity of peat-bog outflows. An evaluation of recent survey data on critically acidified Adirondack waters indicates that of 192 waters with values less than pH 5.0, approximately 61 percent appear to be directly influenced by natural bog conditions and an additional 14 percent are probably influenced. A review of historical and recent survey data suggest that significant factors, such as natural causes of acidification, low oxygen concentrations, high CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S concentrations, and extreme temperatures may have been ignored or underestimated in evaluating the cause of acidification and fish disappearances in some Adirondack waters. Another factor responsible for the current status of fish stocks in the Adirondacks involves past and present fishery resource management activities.

  8. Regional and Local Carbon Flux Information from a Continuous Atmospheric CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, S. L.; Stephens, B.; Watt, A.

    2007-12-01

    We will present preliminary carbon flux estimates from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON). In order to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes in the Rocky Mountain West, we have developed and deployed autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analyzers (AIRCOA) at five sites throughout Colorado and Utah, and plan additional deployments on the Navajo Reservation, Arizona in September 2007 and atop Mount Kenya, Africa in November 2007. We have used a one- dimensional CO2 budget equation, following Bakwin et al. (2004), to estimate regional monthly-mean fluxes from our continuous CO2 concentrations. These comparisons between our measurements and estimates of free- tropospheric background concentrations reveal regional-scale CO2 flux signals that are generally consistent with one another across the Rocky RACCOON sites. We will compare the timing and magnitude of these estimates with expectations from local-scale eddy-correlation flux measurements and bottom-up ecosystem models. We will also interpret the differences in monthly-mean flux signals between our sites in terms of their varying upwind areas of influence and inferred regional variations in CO2 fluxes. Our measurements will be included in future CarbonTracker assimilation runs and other planned model-data fusion efforts. However, questions still exist concerning the ability of these models to accurately represent the various influences on CO2 concentrations in continental boundary layers, and at mountaintop sites in particular. We will present an analysis of the diurnal cycles in CO2 concentration and CO2 variability at our sites, and compare these to various model estimates. Several of our sites near major population centers reflect the influence of industrial CO2 sources in afternoon upslope flows, with CO2 concentration increasing and variable in the mid to late afternoon. Other more remote sites show more consistent and decreasing CO2

  9. Changing regional emissions of airborne pollutants reflected in the chemistry of snowpacks and wetfall in the Rocky Mountain region, USA, 1993–2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, George P.; Miller, Debra C.; Morris, Kristi H.; McMurray, Jill A.; Port, Garrett M.; Caruso, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Wintertime precipitation sample data from 55 Snowpack sites and 17 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network Wetfall sites in the Rocky Mountain region were examined to identify long-term trends in chemical concentration, deposition, and precipitation using Regional and Seasonal Kendall tests. The Natural Resources Conservation Service snow-telemetry (SNOTEL) network provided snow-water-equivalent data from 33 sites located near Snowpack- and NADP Wetfall-sampling sites for further comparisons. Concentration and deposition of ammonium, calcium, nitrate, and sulfate were tested for trends for the period 1993–2012. Precipitation trends were compared between the three monitoring networks for the winter seasons and downward trends were observed for both Snowpack and SNOTEL networks, but not for the NADP Wetfall network. The dry-deposition fraction of total atmospheric deposition, relative to wet deposition, was shown to be considerable in the region. Potential sources of regional airborne pollutant emissions were identified from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2011 National Emissions Inventory, and from long-term emissions data for the period 1996–2013. Changes in the emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide were reflected in significant trends in snowpack and wetfall chemistry. In general, ammonia emissions in the western USA showed a gradual increase over the past decade, while ammonium concentrations and deposition in snowpacks and wetfall showed upward trends. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide declined while regional trends in snowpack and wetfall concentrations and deposition of nitrate and sulfate were downward.

  10. Integrated research and observation experiment of hydrological process in small watershed in cold regions of Qilian Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R.; Liu, J.

    2012-04-01

    Heihe Qilian Mountain station is located at QingHai Province, northeast of Tibetan Plateau, belongs to the Source Region of Heihe River Basin at latitude 38° 15¢542 N and longitude 99° 52¢ 532 E. The research objective of this station is to find the mutual mechanisms of eco-hydrological processes and to predict the runoff with high precision in cold watershed in China under global warming. Hulugou watershed, with a total area of 23.1 km2 and elevation fluctuating from 2960m to 4820m, has obvious vertical landscape and all types of typical underlying surface of cold regions. Thus, it was chosen as the researched watershed for integrated research and observation experiment of hydrological process in cold regions. In 2008, four ENVIS (Environmental Information System) were built along different altitude gradient in Hulugou experiment watershed to measure heat and water flux of the frozen soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer systems. Besides, many apparatus measuring snow, frozen soil, glacier, evapotranspiration, infiltration and runoff were built on various typical underlying surfaces. Through the observation net in Hulugou experiment watershed, various hydrological and meteorological data was obtained for hydrological processes research in cold regions.

  11. Recent changes in glacial area and volume on Tuanjiefeng peak region of Qilian Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junli; Liu, Shiyin; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Wanqin; Wang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Glaciers' runoff in the Qilian Mountains serves as a critical water resource in the northern sections of the Gansu province, the northeastern sections of the Qinghai province, and the northeastern fringe of the Tibetan Plateau. Changes in the glacial area and volume around the highest peak of the Qilian Mountains, i.e., Tuanjiefeng Peak, were estimated using multi-temporal remote-sensing images and digital elevation models, and all possible sources of uncertainty were considered in detail. The total glacier area decreased by 16.1±6.34 km(2) (9.9±3.9%) during 1966 to 2010. The average annual glacier shrinkage was -0.15% a(-1) from 1966 to 1995, -0.61% a(-1) from 1995 to 2000, -0.20% a(-1) from 2000 to 2006, and -0.45% a(-1) from 2006 to 2010. A comparison of glacier surface elevations using digital elevation models derived from topographic maps in 1966 and from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission in 1999 suggests that 65% of the grid cells has decreased, thereby indicating that the glacier thickness has declined. The average change in glacier thickness was -7.3±1.5 m (-0.21±0.04 m·a(-1)) from 1966 to 1999. Glaciers with northeastern aspects thinned by 8.3±1.4 m from 1966 to 1999, i.e., almost twice as much as those with southwestern aspects (4.3±1.3 m). The ice volume decreased by 11.72±2.38×10(8) m(3) from 1966 to 1999, which was about 17.4% more than the value calculated from the statistical relationship between glacier area and volume. The relationship between glacier area change and elevation zone indicates that glacier change is not only dominated by climate change but also affected by glacier dynamics, which are related to local topography. The varied response of a single glacier to climate change indicates that the glacier area change scheme used in some models must be improved. PMID:24015174

  12. Recent Changes in Glacial Area and Volume on Tuanjiefeng Peak Region of Qilian Mountains, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junli; Liu, Shiyin; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Wanqin; Wang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Glaciers' runoff in the Qilian Mountains serves as a critical water resource in the northern sections of the Gansu province, the northeastern sections of the Qinghai province, and the northeastern fringe of the Tibetan Plateau. Changes in the glacial area and volume around the highest peak of the Qilian Mountains, i.e., Tuanjiefeng Peak, were estimated using multi-temporal remote-sensing images and digital elevation models, and all possible sources of uncertainty were considered in detail. The total glacier area decreased by 16.1±6.34 km2 (9.9±3.9%) during 1966 to 2010. The average annual glacier shrinkage was −0.15% a−1 from 1966 to 1995, −0.61% a−1 from 1995 to 2000, −0.20% a−1 from 2000 to 2006, and −0.45% a−1 from 2006 to 2010. A comparison of glacier surface elevations using digital elevation models derived from topographic maps in 1966 and from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission in 1999 suggests that 65% of the grid cells has decreased, thereby indicating that the glacier thickness has declined. The average change in glacier thickness was −7.3±1.5 m (−0.21±0.04 m·a−1) from 1966 to 1999. Glaciers with northeastern aspects thinned by 8.3±1.4 m from 1966 to 1999, i.e., almost twice as much as those with southwestern aspects (4.3±1.3 m). The ice volume decreased by 11.72±2.38×108 m3 from 1966 to 1999, which was about 17.4% more than the value calculated from the statistical relationship between glacier area and volume. The relationship between glacier area change and elevation zone indicates that glacier change is not only dominated by climate change but also affected by glacier dynamics, which are related to local topography. The varied response of a single glacier to climate change indicates that the glacier area change scheme used in some models must be improved. PMID:24015174

  13. Evaluating the relative impact of climate and economic changes on forest and agricultural ecosystem services in mountain regions.

    PubMed

    Briner, Simon; Elkin, Ché; Huber, Robert

    2013-11-15

    Provisioning of ecosystem services (ES) in mountainous regions is predicted to be influenced by i) the direct biophysical impacts of climate change, ii) climate mediated land use change, and iii) socioeconomic driven changes in land use. The relative importance and the spatial distribution of these factors on forest and agricultural derived ES, however, is unclear, making the implementation of ES management schemes difficult. Using an integrated economic-ecological modeling framework, we evaluated the impact of these driving forces on the provision of forest and agricultural ES in a mountain region of southern Switzerland. Results imply that forest ES will be strongly influenced by the direct impact of climate change, but that changes in land use will have a comparatively small impact. The simulation of direct impacts of climate change affects forest ES at all elevations, while land use changes can only be found at high elevations. In contrast, changes to agricultural ES were found to be primarily due to shifts in economic conditions that alter land use and land management. The direct influence of climate change on agriculture is only predicted to be substantial at high elevations, while socioeconomic driven shifts in land use are projected to affect agricultural ES at all elevations. Our simulation results suggest that policy schemes designed to mitigate the negative impact of climate change on forests should focus on suitable adaptive management plans, accelerating adaptation processes for currently forested areas. To maintain provision of agricultural ES policy needs to focus on economic conditions rather than on supporting adaptation to new climate. PMID:23995509

  14. Crustal structure of Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas: A model based on integration of COCORP reflection profiles and regional geophysical data

    SciTech Connect

    Lillie, R.J.; de Voogd, B.; Brewer, J.A.; Brown, L.D.; Kaufman, S.; Nelson, K.D.; Oliver, J.E.; Viele, G.W.

    1983-06-01

    COCORP deep seismic reflection profiles across the Ouachita Mountains in western Arkansas suggest that a large fraction of the crust in this region is composed of tectonically thickened Paleozoic sediments (and metasediments). Reflections representing a southward-thickening wedge of layered rock on the northern portions of the survey are associated with approximately 12 km (39,000 ft) of Carboniferous flysch overlying thin, lower to middle Paleozoic shelf strata in the Frontal thrust zone. Toward the interior of the mountain belt, the Benton uplift is a broad antiform, apparently cored by crystalline basement at depths below 7 km (23,000 ft). Beneath the southern Ouachitas and the adjacent Gulf coastal plain, a zone of south-dipping reflections probably represents at least 14 km (46,000 ft) of tectonically thickened, lower to middle Paleozoic off-shelf strata and Carboniferous flysch. Regional Bouguer gravity data show a minimum coincident with the thickest accumulation of flysch in the Frontal thrust zone. To the south, the Benton uplift lies on a steep gravity gradient which is continuous along most of the Ouachita trend and which may be analogous to a gradient observed along the Appalachian chain. The Ouachita gravity signature can be modeled as a southward shallowing of the Moho (from 40 km (131,000 ft) in northern Arkansas to about 30 km (98,000 ft) just south of the Ouachitas), coincident with the tectonic thickening of the Paleozoic strata interpreted from the COCORP data. The resulting crustal section can be interpreted as the remnants of an early Paleozoic passive margin which was subducted beneath a thick accretionary wedge in Carboniferous time. The Benton uplift is viewed as a late-stage involvement of crystalline basement in foreland thrusting as the margin entered the south-dipping subduction zone.

  15. Evaluating regional patterns in nitrate sources to watersheds in national parks of the rocky mountains using nitrate isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nanus, L.; Williams, M.W.; Campbell, D.H.; Elliott, E.M.; Kendall, C.

    2008-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains, there is uncertainty about the source areas and emission types that contribute to nitrate (NO3) deposition, which can adversely affect sensitive aquatic habitats of high-elevation watersheds. Regional patterns in NO3 deposition sources were evaluated using NO3 isotopes in five National Parks, including 37 lakes and 7 precipitation sites. Results indicate that lake NO3 ranged from detection limit to 38 ??eq/L, ??18O (NO3) ranged from -5.7 to +21.3???, and ??15N (NO3) ranged from -6.6 to +4.6???. ??18O (NO3) in precipitation ranged from +71 to +78???. ??15N (NO 3) in precipitation and lakes overlap; however, ??15N (NO3) in precipitation is more depleted than ??15N (NO3) in lakes, ranging from -5.5 to -2.0???. ??15N (NO3) values are significantly related (p < 0.05) to wet deposition of inorganic N, sulfate, and acidity, suggesting that spatial variability of ??15N (NO3) over the Rocky Mountains may be related to source areas of these solutes. Regional patterns show that NO3 and ??15N (NO3) are more enriched in lakes and precipitation from the southern Rockies and at higher elevations compared to the northern Rockies. The correspondence of high NO 3 and enriched ??15N (NO3) in precipitation with high NO3 and enriched ??15N (NO3) in lakes, suggests that deposition of inorganic N in wetfall may affect the amount of NO3 in lakes through a combination of direct and indirect processes such as enhanced nitrification. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  16. Fish Communities and Habitat of Geomorphically Stable Reference Reaches in Streams of the Catskill Mountain Region, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulvihill, Christiane I.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Ernst, Anne G.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New York City Department of Environmental Protection, began a 5-year study to develop a database that documents the physical and biological characteristics of nine stable reference reaches from seven streams in the New York City West of Hudson Water Supply Watershed in the Catskill Mountain region of New York State. Primary objectives of this study were to (1) develop a reference-reach database of morphology, aquatic biology, and fluvial processes, and (2) summarize the relations between fish communities, aquatic habitat, and stable stream morphology in streams in the Catskill Mountain region. Secondary objectives included documenting year-to-year variability in fish populations and stream habitat in geomorphically stable streams and demonstrating how reliably Habitat Suitability Index models can be used to characterize habitat conditions and predict the presence and abundance of populations of trout species. Fish and habitat databases were developed, and several important relations were identified. Fish-community indices differed considerably among sites where trout were present and where they were either absent or present in very low numbers; these differences were reflected in higher Habitat Suitability Index scores at trout-dominated sites. Several fish- community and habitat variables were found to be strongly associated with indices of stability and, therefore, determined to be useful tools for evaluating stream condition. Lastly, preliminary results suggest Rosgen stream type data can help refine fish and habitat relations and assist in our ability to predict habitat potential and fish-community composition.

  17. Hydrologic and geologic characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site relevant to the performance of a potential repository: Day 1, Las Vegas, Nevada to Pahrump, Nevada: Stop 6A. Keane Wonder Spring and regional groundwater flow in the Death Valley region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinkampf, W.C.

    2000-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, located ~100 mi northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, has been designated by Congress as a site to be characterized for a potential mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This field trip will examine the regional geologic and hydrologic setting for Yucca Mountain, as well as specific results of the site characterization program, The first day focuses on the regional seeing with emphasis on current and paleo hydrology, which are both of critical concern for predicting future performance of a potential repository. Morning stops will be in southern Nevada and afternoon stops will be in Death Valley. The second day will be spent at Yucca Mountain. The filed trip will visit the underground testing sites in the "Exploratory Studies Facility" and the "Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Field Test" plus several surface-based testing sites. Much of the work at the site has concentrated on studies of the unsaturated zone, and element of the hydrologic system that historically has received little attention. Discussions during the second day will comprise selected topics of Yucca Mountain geology, mic hazard in the Yucca Mountain area. Evening discussions will address modeling of regional groundwater flow, the geology and hydrology of Yucca Mountain to the performance of a potential repository. Day 3 will examine the geologic framework and hydrology of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley Groundwater Basin and then will continue to Reno via Hawthorne, Nevada and the Walker Lake area.

  18. A New Twist on the Seasonality of Nitrate Retention and Release in Adirondack Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, G. B.; Ross, D. S.; Sutherland, J. W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.; Boylen, C.

    2004-12-01

    Release of nitrate to surface waters in the Northeast has a distinct seasonality that is generally explained by high retention from plant uptake during the growing season, and low retention during the non-growing season, when biological demand is low and soil- water flux is elevated in the absence of transpiration. In the Adirondack region of New York, the highest rates of release, which consistently occur during spring snowmelt, are considered to be the result of nitrate accumulation in the soil and snowpack over the winter. This explanation implies that plants out compete nitrifying bacteria for available ammonium during the growing season. Biweekly and automated high-flow sampling over five years in two tributaries of Buck Creek, in the western Adirondacks, however, has revealed inconsistencies with the conventional view of nitrate retention and release. Although low concentrations of nitrate were measured in stream water during the growing season, concentrations were lowest each year in mid October (near the completion of leaf drop) in the North tributary, and were either the lowest or second lowest each year in mid October in the South tributary. Furthermore, concentrations of nitrate in both watersheds remained elevated throughout the snowmelt periods despite sustained high flows. For example, the concentration in the South tributary on April 9th, 2001, (the initial stage of snowmelt) was 76 micromoles per liter, and on April 24th (following two of the three largest flow events over the 5 years of sampling), was 82 micromoles per liter. Flushing of nitrate stored in the soil over the winter would result in a peak concentration in the stream that would be followed by a rapid decrease. To explain these results we hypothesize a three-way competition that includes heterotrophic non-nitrifying bacteria, as well as plants and autotrophic nitrifying bacteria. Leaf drop in the fall provides a large input of labile carbon with a high C to N ratio (>20) that favors

  19. The Steens Mountain ( Oregon) geomagnetic polarity transition ( USA). 3. Its regional significance.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mankinen, E.A.; Larson, E.E.; Gromme, C.S.; Prevot, M.; Coe, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Study of the variations of direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field as recorded by the Miocene lava flows on Steens Mountain, SE Oregon, has resulted in a detailed description of total field behavior during a reversal in polarity. In addition to information about the polarity reversal itself, the detailed paleomagnetic record includes several thousand years of geomagnetic history preceding and following the polarity transition at 15.5 Ma. To test the feasibility of using this record as a means of correlation in this part of the western US, comparisons are made of reconnaissance and previously published paleomagnetic records obtained from what has been thought to be the Steens Basalt or rocks of equivalent age. Despite the fact that many of these earlier studies were not detailed and were not intended for correlation purposes, convincing similarities among some of the records are evident. The Steens Basalt paleomagnetic record does, indeed, have potential as a correlation tool during this time of widespread basaltic volcanism. Concludes that findings indicate no post-20 Ma differential rotation between S-E Washington and S-central Oregon, in contrast to previous interpretations. -from Authors

  20. An effective modified water extraction method for Landsat-8 OLI imagery of mountainous plateau regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.; Wang, L.; Jing, L.; Xu, J.

    2016-04-01

    Water body extraction from remote sensing imagery is an efficient way to investigate and monitor water resources. In the study area of this research, a mountainous plateau near Kashgar, China, sparse vegetation and seasonal rivers affect water body extraction. In order to extract water bodies, a modified water body extraction method is proposed in this paper and tested using Landsat-8 OLI imagery. Following this method, binary images are first generated using a classification, a Tasseled Cap transform, and a normalized difference water index, respectively, and then combined to yield a mask. Next, water bodies are delineated by masking the Landsat-8 OLI imagery and then refined by eliminating false areas using a supervised classification. It is demonstrated from the resulting water body maps that terrain related shadows in imagery were effectively eliminated and river tributaries and artificial ditches were precisely delineated, with accuracy up to 94%. Compared with several current water body extraction methods, the modified method yielded water body maps with better visualization and slightly improved accuracy.

  1. Stable isotope evidence for hydrologic conditions during regional metamorphism in the Panamint Mountains, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bergfeld, D.; Nabelek, P.I. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Labotka, T.C. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Kingston Peak Formation forms part of the Panamint Mountains, California, metamorphic core-complex. Peak tremolite-grade metamorphism as exhibited in Wildrose Canyon occurred in the Jurassic; a retrograde thermal event may have occurred in the Cretaceous. The formation consists dominantly of interbedded siliceous limestones and graphitic calcareous schists. Stable isotopic analysis shows two distinct groups of data. delta O-18 values of calcite from the limestones range between 15.3 and 17.3[per thousand], probably reflecting their original Proterozoic depositional values. Likewise the delta C-13 values are also unshifted, ranging from +1% to +3.8%o. In contrast, delta O-18 values of calcite from the schists are for the most part > 20[per thousand]. These high values could reflect the original depostional conditions; however, they may be due to equilibration with silicate minerals which range from 14.9 to 17.9[per thousand]. Overall, the combined oxygen and carbon isotopic data indicate that most isotopic changes can be explained by closed-system equilibration. Only a limited amount of interaction with externally-derived fluids during metamorphism is evident in the isotopic data. The interaction may have been confined to vicinities of faults and fractures which are common in Wildrose Canyon.

  2. Regional flood susceptibility analysis in mountainous areas through the use of morphometric and land cover indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelis, M. C.; Werner, M.

    2013-12-01

    A classification of susceptibility to flooding of 106 mountain watersheds was carried out in Bogotá (Colombia) through the use of an index composed of a morphometric indicator and a land cover indicator. Susceptibility was considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flows. Morphological variables recognised in literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows were used to construct the morphometric indicator by applying principal component analysis. Subsequently, this indicator was compared with the results of debris flow propagation to assess its capacity in indentifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation of debris flows was carried out using the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the slope-area curve of the watersheds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped in four categories: size, shape, hypsometry and energy, with energy being the component that best explains the capability of a watershed to transport debris flows. However, the morphometric indicator was found to not sufficiently explain the records of past floods in the study area. Combining the morphometric indicator with land cover indicators improved the agreement, showing that even if morphometric parameters identify a high disposition to the occurrence of debris flow, improving land cover can reduce the susceptibility. On the contrary, if good morphometric conditions are present but deterioration of the land cover in the watershed takes place then the susceptibility to debris flow events increases.

  3. Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) over mountainous region of Cameron Highlands- Batang Padang Catchment of Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidek, L. M.; Mohd Nor, M. D.; Rakhecha, P. R.; Basri, H.; Jayothisa, W.; Muda, R. S.; Ahmad, M. N.; Razad, A. Z. Abdul

    2013-06-01

    The Cameron Highland Batang Padang (CHBP) catchment situated on the main mountain range of Peninsular Malaysia is of large economical importance where currently a series of three dams (Sultan Abu Bakar, Jor and Mahang) exist in the development of water resources and hydropower. The prediction of the design storm rainfall values for different return periods including PMP values can be useful to review the adequacy of the current spillway capacities of these dams. In this paper estimates of the design storm rainfalls for various return periods and also the PMP values for rainfall stations in the CHBP catchment have been computed for the three different durations of 1, 3 & 5 days. The maximum values for 1 day, 3 days and 5 days PMP values are found to be 730.08mm, 966.17mm and 969.0mm respectively at Station number 4513033 Gunung Brinchang. The PMP values obtained were compared with previous study results undertaken by NAHRIM. However, the highest ratio of 1 day, 3 day and 5 day PMP to highest observed rainfall are found to be 2.30, 1.94 and 1.82 respectively. This shows that the ratio tend to decrease as the duration increase. Finally, the temporal pattern for 1 day, 3day and 5 days have been developed based on observed extreme rainfall at station 4513033 Gunung Brinchang for the generation of Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) in dam break analysis.

  4. Retrieval of snow Specific Surface Area (SSA) from MODIS data in mountainous regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mary, A.; Dumont, M.; Dedieu, J.-P.; Durand, Y.; Sirguey, P.; Milhem, H.; Mestre, O.; Negi, H. S.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.

    2012-05-01

    This study describes a method to retrieve snow specific surface area (SSA) from satellite radiance reasurements in mountainous terrain. It aims at comparing different retrieval methods and at addressing topographic corrections of reflectance, namely slope and aspect of terrain and multiple reflections on neighbouring slopes. We use an iterative algorithm to compute reflectance from radiance of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) with a comprehensive correction of local illumination with regards to topography. The retrieved SSA is compared to the results of the snowpack model Crocus, fed by driving data from the SAFRAN meteorological analysis, over a large domain in the French Alps. We compared SSA retrievals with and without topographic or anisotropy correction, and with a spherical or non-spherical snow reflectance model. The topographic correction enables SSA to be retrieved in better agreement with those from SAFRAN-Crocus. The root mean square deviation is 10.0 m2 kg-1 and the bias is -0.6 m2 kg-1, over 3829 pixels representing seven different dates and snow conditions. The standard deviation of MODIS retrieved data, larger than the one of SAFRAN-Crocus estimates, is responsible for half this RMSD. It is due to the topographic classes used by SAFRAN-Crocus. In addition, MODIS retrieved data show SSA gradients with elevation and solar exposition, physically consistent and in good agreement with SAFRAN-Crocus.

  5. CASTNet mountain acid deposition monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Bowser, J.J.; Anderson, J.B.; Edgerton, E.S.; Mohnen, V.; Baumgardener, R.

    1994-12-31

    Concern over the influence of air pollution on forest decline has led the USEPA to establish the Mountain Acid Deposition Monitoring Program (MADMP) to quantify total deposition at high altitudes, i.e., above cloud base. Clouds can be a major source of atmospheric deposition to sensitive, mountain ecosystems. This program is a part of the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet), a national assessment of the effects of the 1990 Clean Air Act. The objectives of MADMP are to estimate total deposition, measure cloud chemistry, and characterize spacial and temporal trends at four selected high altitude sites in the Eastern US. Four MADMP sites have been established for the 1994 field season: Clingman`s Dome, Great Smoky Mountain Nat. Park, TN; Slide Mountain, Catskill State Park, NY; Whiteface Mountain, Adirondack State Park, NY; and Whitetop Mountain, Mt. Rogers Nat`l Recreational Area, VA. An automated cloud collection system will be utilized in combination with continuous measurements of cloud liquid water content in order to estimate cloudwater deposition. Other relevant data will include continuous meteorological measurements, ozone and sulfur dioxide concentrations, wet deposition from rainfall analysis, and dry deposition from filter pack analysis. Quality assurance and quality control measures will be employed to maximize accuracy and precision.

  6. Analysis of magnetotelluric profile data from the Ruby Mountains metamorphic core complex and southern Carlin Trend region, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wannamaker, Philip E.; Doerner, William M.; Stodt, John A.; Sodergen, Timothy L.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    We have collected about 150 magnetotelluric (MT) soundings in northeastern Nevada in the region of the Ruby Mountains metamorphic core complex uplift and southern Carlin mineral trend, in an effort to illuminate controls on core complex evolution and deposition of world-class gold deposits. The region has experienced a broad range of tectonic events including several periods of compressional and extensional deformation, which have contributed to the total expression of electrical resistivity. Most of the soundings are in three east-west profiles across increasing degrees of core uplift to the north (Bald Mountain, Harrison Pass and Secret Pass latitudes). Two shorter lines cross a prominent east-west structure to the north of the northern profile. MT impedance tensor and vertical magnetic field rotations imply a N-NNE average regional geoelectric strike, similar to surface geologic trends. Model resistivity cross sections were derived using a 2-D inversion algorithm, which damps departures of model parameters from an a priori structure, emphasizing the transverse magnetic (TM) mode and vertical magnetic field data. Geological interpretation of the resistivity combines previous seismic, potential field and isotope models, structural and petrological models for regional compression and extension, and detailed structural/stratigraphic interpretations incorporating drilling for petroleum and mineral exploration. To first order, the resistivity structure is one of a moderately conductive, Phanerozoic sedimentary section fundamentally disrupted by intrusion and uplift of resistive crystalline rocks. Late Devonian and early Mississippian shales of the Pilot and Chainman Formations together form an important conductive marker sequence in the stratigraphy and show pronounced increases in conductance (conductivity-thickness product) from east to west. These increases in conductance are attributed to graphitization caused by Elko-Sevier era compressional shear deformation and

  7. Mapping Asbestos-Cement Roofing with Hyperspectral Remote Sensing over a Large Mountain Region of the Italian Western Alps

    PubMed Central

    Frassy, Federico; Candiani, Gabriele; Rusmini, Marco; Maianti, Pieralberto; Marchesi, Andrea; Nodari, Francesco Rota; Via, Giorgio Dalla; Albonico, Carlo; Gianinetto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that 100 thousand people in the world die every year from asbestos-related cancers and more than 300 thousand European citizens are expected to die from asbestos-related mesothelioma by 2030. Both the European and the Italian legislations have banned the manufacture, importation, processing and distribution in commerce of asbestos-containing products and have recommended action plans for the safe removal of asbestos from public and private buildings. This paper describes the quantitative mapping of asbestos-cement covers over a large mountainous region of Italian Western Alps using the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer sensor. A very large data set made up of 61 airborne transect strips covering 3263 km2 were processed to support the identification of buildings with asbestos-cement roofing, promoted by the Valle d'Aosta Autonomous Region with the support of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency. Results showed an overall mapping accuracy of 80%, in terms of asbestos-cement surface detected. The influence of topography on the classification's accuracy suggested that even in high relief landscapes, the spatial resolution of data is the major source of errors and the smaller asbestos-cement covers were not detected or misclassified. PMID:25166502

  8. Mapping asbestos-cement roofing with hyperspectral remote sensing over a large mountain region of the Italian Western Alps.

    PubMed

    Frassy, Federico; Candiani, Gabriele; Rusmini, Marco; Maianti, Pieralberto; Marchesi, Andrea; Rota Nodari, Francesco; Dalla Via, Giorgio; Albonico, Carlo; Gianinetto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that 100 thousand people in the world die every year from asbestos-related cancers and more than 300 thousand European citizens are expected to die from asbestos-related mesothelioma by 2030. Both the European and the Italian legislations have banned the manufacture, importation, processing and distribution in commerce of asbestos-containing products and have recommended action plans for the safe removal of asbestos from public and private buildings. This paper describes the quantitative mapping of asbestos-cement covers over a large mountainous region of Italian Western Alps using the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer sensor. A very large data set made up of 61 airborne transect strips covering 3263 km2 were processed to support the identification of buildings with asbestos-cement roofing, promoted by the Valle d'Aosta Autonomous Region with the support of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency. Results showed an overall mapping accuracy of 80%, in terms of asbestos-cement surface detected. The influence of topography on the classification's accuracy suggested that even in high relief landscapes, the spatial resolution of data is the major source of errors and the smaller asbestos-cement covers were not detected or misclassified. PMID:25166502

  9. Atmospheric Flow over a Mountainous Region by a One-Way Coupled Approach Based on Reynolds-Averaged Turbulence Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, C. Veiga; Palma, J. M. L. M.; Rodrigues, Á. H.

    2016-05-01

    The atmospheric flow over a mountainous region has been simulated using a model-chain approach, whereby the flow in a larger region was simulated using a mesoscale model with three nesting levels, down to a 3-km horizontal resolution, within which a fourth nesting level was set with a microscale flow solver and a domain with varying horizontal resolution, around 300 m at the site of interest. Two periods in the summer (July) and autumn (November-December) 2005, each with a duration of two weeks, were selected to test the present approach. Two sites were chosen, comprising a total of seven meteorological masts with wind vanes and anemometers at two heights. The microscale solver improved the wind-speed prediction of the mesoscale model in 10 of the 14 anemometers and replicated the high wind speeds, which were under-predicted in the mesoscale model. The wind conditions in summer varied with the daily cycle, related to regional-scale sea breezes and their interaction with local circulations induced by the topography. Regarding the turbulence intensity, the predicted decay with wind-speed increase was in agreement with the measurements. This study shows the need of both models: the microscale model captures the details of the boundary-layer physics, which would not be possible without the boundary conditions provided by the mesoscale model.

  10. Seasonal variations in atmospheric chemistry in the Adirondacks

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, T.J.; Tanner, R.L.; McLaren, S.E.; DuBois, M.V.

    1985-03-01

    The results of continuous real-time measurements of aerosol composition, HNO/sub 3/, and SO/sub 2/, performed at the summit of Whiteface Mountain, New York, during 1984 are reported. The purpose was to shed light on the seasonal variation in atmospheric acidity in this ecologically sensitive area. 13 refs., 5 figs. (ACR)

  11. Cultural Perspectives Concerning Adolescent Use of Tobacco and Alcohol in the Appalachian Mountain Region

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michael G.; Toborg, Mary A.; Denham, Sharon A.; Mande, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    Context Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and alcohol use. Methods With 4 grants from the National Institutes of Health, 34 focus groups occurred between 1999 and 2003 in 17 rural Appalachian jurisdictions in 7 states. These jurisdictions ranged between 4 and 8 on the Rural-Urban Continuum Codes of the Economic Research Service of the US Department of Agriculture. Of the focus groups, 25 sought the perspectives of women in Appalachia, and 9, opinions of adolescents. Findings The family represented the key context where residents of Appalachia learn about tobacco and alcohol use. Experimentation with tobacco and alcohol frequently commenced by early adolescence and initially occurred in the context of the family home. Reasons to abstain from tobacco and alcohol included a variety of reasons related to family circumstances. Adults generally displayed a greater degree of tolerance for adolescent alcohol use than tobacco use. Tobacco growing represents an economic mainstay in many communities, a fact that contributes to the acceptance of its use, and many coal miners use smokeless tobacco since they cannot light up in the mines. The production and distribution of homemade alcohol was not a significant issue in alcohol use in the mountains even though it appeared not to have entirely disappeared. Conclusions Though cultural factors support tobacco and alcohol use in Appalachia, risk awareness is common. Messages tailored to cultural themes may decrease prevalence. PMID:18257873

  12. Recent climate trends and implications for water resources in the Catskill Mountain region, New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Klaus, Julian; McHale, Michael R.

    2007-03-01

    SummaryClimate scientists have concluded that the earth's surface air temperature warmed by 0.6 °C during the 20th century, and that warming induced by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases is likely to continue in the 21st century, accompanied by changes in the hydrologic cycle. Climate change has important implications in the Catskill region of southeastern New York State, because the region is a source of water supply for New York City. We used the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test to evaluate annual, monthly, and multi-month trends in air temperature, precipitation amount, stream runoff, and potential evapotranspiration (PET) in the region during 1952-2005 based on data from 9 temperature sites, 12 precipitation sites, and 8 stream gages. A general pattern of warming temperatures and increased precipitation, runoff, and PET is evident in the region. Regional annual mean air temperature increased significantly by 0.6 °C per 50 years during the period; the greatest increases and largest number of significant upward trends were in daily minimum air temperature. Daily maximum air temperature showed the greatest increase during February through April, whereas minimum air temperature showed the greatest increase during May through September. Regional mean precipitation increased significantly by 136 mm per 50 years, nearly double that of the regional mean increase in runoff, which was not significant. Regional mean PET increased significantly by 19 mm per 50 years, about one-seventh that of the increase in precipitation amount, and broadly consistent with increased runoff during 1952-2005, despite the lack of significance in the mean regional runoff trend. Peak snowmelt as approximated by the winter-spring center of volume of stream runoff generally shifted from early April at the beginning of the record to late March at the end of the record, consistent with a decreasing trend in April runoff and an increasing trend in maximum March air temperature. This

  13. Recent climate trends and implications for water resources in the Catskill Mountain region, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Douglas A.; Klaus, Julian; McHale, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Climate scientists have concluded that the earth’s surface air temperature warmed by 0.6 °C during the 20th century, and that warming induced by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases is likely to continue in the 21st century, accompanied by changes in the hydrologic cycle. Climate change has important implications in the Catskill region of southeastern New York State, because the region is a source of water supply for New York City. We used the non-parametric Mann–Kendall test to evaluate annual, monthly, and multi-month trends in air temperature, precipitation amount, stream runoff, and potential evapotranspiration (PET) in the region during 1952–2005 based on data from 9 temperature sites, 12 precipitation sites, and 8 stream gages. A general pattern of warming temperatures and increased precipitation, runoff, and PET is evident in the region. Regional annual mean air temperature increased significantly by 0.6 °C per 50 years during the period; the greatest increases and largest number of significant upward trends were in daily minimum air temperature. Daily maximum air temperature showed the greatest increase during February through April, whereas minimum air temperature showed the greatest increase during May through September. Regional mean precipitation increased significantly by 136 mm per 50 years, nearly double that of the regional mean increase in runoff, which was not significant. Regional mean PET increased significantly by 19 mm per 50 years, about one-seventh that of the increase in precipitation amount, and broadly consistent with increased runoff during 1952–2005, despite the lack of significance in the mean regional runoff trend. Peak snowmelt as approximated by the winter–spring center of volume of stream runoff generally shifted from early April at the beginning of the record to late March at the end of the record, consistent with a decreasing trend in April runoff and an increasing trend in maximum March air

  14. Regionalization of soil base cation weathering for evaluating stream water acidification in the Appalachian Mountains, USA.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, T C; Cosby, B J; Sullivan, T J

    2012-03-01

    Estimation of base cation supply from mineral weathering (BC(w)) is useful for watershed research and management. Existing regional approaches for estimating BC(w) require generalized assumptions and availability of stream chemistry data. We developed an approach for estimating BC(w) using regionally specific empirical relationships. The dynamic model MAGIC was used to calibrate BC(w) in 92 watersheds distributed across three ecoregions. Empirical relationships between MAGIC-simulated BC(w) and watershed characteristics were developed to provide the basis for regionalization of BC(w) throughout the entire study region. BC(w) estimates extracted from MAGIC calibrations compared reasonably well with BC(w) estimated by regression based on landscape characteristics. Approximately one-third of the study region was predicted to exhibit BC(w) rates less than 100 meq/m(2)/yr. Estimates were especially low for some locations within national park and wilderness areas. The regional BC(w) results are discussed in the context of critical loads (CLs) of acidic deposition for aquatic ecosystem protection. PMID:22243883

  15. Severe deep convection events in the Andes region (Mendoza, Argentina) and their relation with large amplitude mountain waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, Alejandro; Hierro, Lic. R.; Llamedo, Lic. P.; Rolla, Lic. A.; Alexander, Peter

    In addition to an environmental lapse rate conditionally unstable and sufficient available mois-ture, some process by which a parcel is lifted to its LFC is required for the occurrence of deep convection. Since rising motions associated with synoptic scale processes are too weak to lift a moist parcel to its LFC, some strong sub-synoptic mechanism such us upward motion over a frontal zone, anabatic/katabatic winds or mountain waves are required to supply the necessary energy to trigger deep convection. We analyze here, two selected recent severe storms developed in the absence of fronts and registered at the south of Mendoza, Argentina, a semiarid region situated at midlatitudes (roughly between 32S and 36S) at the east of the highest Andes tops. The storms were initiated at the same local time. In both cases, large amplitude stationary mountain waves with similar wavelengths were generated through the forcing of the NW wind by the Andes Range, just before the first cell was detected in the S-band radar. Mesoscale model simulatons (WRF3V, three domains, inner at 4 km) were conducted. The wave pat-tern was analyzed at several constant pressure levels with a Morlet wavelet. This wavelet has proven to be a useful technique for this purpose, as propagating mountain waves are well local-ized within a horizontal domain of some hundred kilometers. The simulated evolution in space and time of vertical wind oscillations (even better than reflectivity) reveal their influence in the genesis zone of both storms. The synoptic conditions observed (low-pressure system over the NW of Argentina, slow displacement of anticyclones in Pacific and Atlantic oceans, a low level jet carrying warm and moist air from the N and geopotential distribution at 1000, 500 and 300 hPa) are consistent with earlier works. We describe and discuss, in both cases, i) the vertical and horizontal wavelengths, ii) the direction of propagation of the main wave modes, iii) their lineal polarization and phase

  16. How the Presence of Tenure Relates to Institutional Performance Factors at Publicly-Funded Two-Year Colleges in the Mountain States' Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Russell F.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how the presence of formal tenure systems at publicly-funded two-year colleges in the Mountain States' region of the United States relates to differences in the common institutional performance factors of graduation rate, retention rate, and unrestricted instructional cost per FTE student as reported to the Integrated…

  17. Late Paleogene topography of the Central Rocky Mountains and western Great Plains region using hydrogen isotope ratios in volcanic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, G.; Fricke, H. C.; Cassel, E. J.; Evanoff, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Rocky Mountains (CRM), located in southern Wyoming, Colorado, and northern New Mexico, are characterized by the highest elevation basins (up to 2500 m) and mountains (over 4000 m) in the North American Cordillera. The timing and drivers for surface uplift of the CRM have not been conclusively determined. The goal of this study is to constrain the timing of surface uplift of the CRM by comparing hydrogen isotope ratios of hydration waters (δDglass) in late Paleogene volcanic glasses preserved in felsic tuffs deposited in CRM basins to δDglass values from glasses of similar age (34.9 to 32.2 Ma) preserved in tuffs from the surrounding Great Plains. The tuffs deposited in the Great Plains, to the north and east of the CRM, are currently at elevations of 1100-1600 m. Volcanic glass hydrates shortly after deposition, preserving the δD of ancient meteoric water on geologic timescales, and can thus be used as a proxy for ancient precipitation δD values. Volcanic glasses from the CRM have δDglass values that are an average of ~31‰ higher than δDglass values from the Great Plains, while modern day precipitation δD values in the CRM are ~25‰ lower than δD values in the Great Plains. These results suggest that the uplift of the CRM relative to the surrounding Great Plains occurred after ~32 Ma. This requires a mechanism such as mantle upwelling or differential crustal hydration, not solely Laramide tectonism, to uplift the CRM to current elevations. Elevation, however, may not have been the only control on the spatial distribution of precipitation δD values across the western US. Similar to the modern, mixing of Pacific and Gulf coast air masses likely occurred during the latest Paleogene, driving regional variability in δD values of precipitation.

  18. Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Wolf (Canis lupus) Breeding Areas in a Mountainous Region of Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Elena; Willis, Stephen G.; Passilongo, Daniela; Mattioli, Luca; Apollonio, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in Italy represent a relict west European population. They are classified as vulnerable by IUCN, though have increased in number and expanded their range in recent decades. Here we use 17 years of monitoring data (from 1993 to 2010) collected in a mountainous region of central Italy (Arezzo, Tuscany) in an ecological niche-based model (MaxEnt) to characterize breeding sites (i.e. the areas where pups were raised) within home ranges, as detected from play-back responses. From a suite of variables related to topography, habitat and human disturbance we found that elevation and distance to protected areas were most important in explaining the locality of wolf responses. Rendezvous sites (family play-back response sites) typically occurred between 800 and 1200 m a.s.l., inside protected areas, and were usually located along mountain chains distant from human settlements and roads. In these areas human disturbance is low and the densities of ungulates are typically high. Over recent years, rendezvous sites have occurred closer to urban areas as the wolf population has continued to expand, despite the consequent human disturbance. This suggests that undisturbed landscapes may be reaching their carrying capacity for wolves. This, in turn, may lead to the potential for increased human-wolf interactions in future. Applying our model, both within and beyond the species’ current range, we identify sites both within the current range and also further afield, that the species could occupy in future. Our work underlines the importance of the present protected areas network in facilitating the recolonisation by wolves. Our projections of suitability of sites for future establishment as the population continues to expand could inform planning to minimize future wolf-human conflicts. PMID:26035174

  19. Utilizing ERTS-A imagery for tectonic analysis through study of the Bighorn Mountains Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary vegetation analysis has been undertaken on MSS scene 1085-17294, Oct. 16, 1973 in the Bighorn region. Forest Service maps showing detailed distribution of dominant forest types have been compared with MSS bands 5 and 7 positive transparencies, enlarged positive prints, and color imagery produced on an Addcol viewer. Patterns on the ERTS imagery match those on the Forest Service maps quite well. A tectonic map ovearlay of MSS band 7 of the Bighorn region reveals a strong concentration of linears in the uplift as compared to basins. Folds in the Bighorn Basin are visible where not covered by post-Paleocene deposits. In regions where far less is known of the geology than in this area, it might be possible to predict the subsurface occurrence of folds and lineaments on the basis of imagery analysis and more confidently explore covered areas for concealed oil structures and mineral deposits.

  20. Rocky Mountain Regional CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity and Significance

    SciTech Connect

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Esser, Richard; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-08-30

    The purpose of this study includes extensive characterization of the most promising geologic CO{sub 2} storage formations on the Colorado Plateau, including estimates of maximum possible storage capacity. The primary targets of characterization and capacity analysis include the Cretaceous Dakota Formation, the Jurassic Entrada Formation and the Permian Weber Formation and their equivalents in the Colorado Plateau region. The total CO{sub 2} capacity estimates for the deep saline formations of the Colorado Plateau region range between 9.8 metric GT and 143 metric GT, depending on assumed storage efficiency, formations included, and other factors.

  1. DEM-based delineation for improving geostatistical interpolation of rainfall in mountainous region of Central Himalayas, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Madhuri; Singh, Chander Kumar; Bakimchandra, Oinam; Basistha, Ashoke

    2016-07-01

    In mountainous region with heterogeneous topography, the geostatistical modeling of the rainfall using global data set may not confirm to the intrinsic hypothesis of stationarity. This study was focused on improving the precision of the interpolated rainfall maps by spatial stratification in complex terrain. Predictions of the normal annual rainfall data were carried out by ordinary kriging, universal kriging, and co-kriging, using 80-point observations in the Indian Himalayas extending over an area of 53,484 km2. A two-step spatial clustering approach is proposed. In the first step, the study area was delineated into two regions namely lowland and upland based on the elevation derived from the digital elevation model. The delineation was based on the natural break classification method. In the next step, the rainfall data was clustered into two groups based on its spatial location in lowland or upland. The terrain ruggedness index (TRI) was incorporated as a co-variable in co-kriging interpolation algorithm. The precision of the kriged and co-kriged maps was assessed by two accuracy measures, root mean square error and Chatfield's percent better. It was observed that the stratification of rainfall data resulted in 5-20 % of increase in the performance efficiency of interpolation methods. Co-kriging outperformed the kriging models at annual and seasonal scale. The result illustrates that the stratification of the study area improves the stationarity characteristic of the point data, thus enhancing the precision of the interpolated rainfall maps derived using geostatistical methods.

  2. [Characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in mountain background region of East China].

    PubMed

    Su, Bin-Bin; Liu, Xin-Dong; Tao, Jun

    2013-02-01

    The online PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were measured from March 2011 'to February 2012 at the national atmospheric background monitoring station in Wuyishan of Fujian Province to discuss the characteristic of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations and the impact factors in forest and mountain background region of East China. HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model was used to investigate the potential sources of particulates during the pollution episodes. The results showed that the background concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were (23 +/- 16) microg.m-3 and (18 +/- 12) microg.m-3, respectively. Seasonal variations of PMl0 and PM2.5 loadings were observed, and loadings decreased in the same order: spring > autumn > winter > summer. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were obviously higher in spring than in other seasons because of the transportation of dust storm. The fine particles were the dominant pollutant which accounted for 76% of PM10. The good correlation between PM10/PM2.5 and gas pollutants suggested that regional transportation and secondary aerosol were the major sources in the background station. One episode occurring in April 2011 was related with the transportation of dust storm. However, another episode occurring in September 2011 had close relationship with the transportation of higher pollutant loadings in East China. PMID:23668109

  3. Regional-scale analysis of high-mountain multi-hazard and risk in the Pamir (Tajikistan) with GRASS GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, F. E.; Mergili, M.

    2013-04-01

    We present a model framework for the regional-scale analysis of high-mountain multi-hazard and -risk, implemented with the Open Source software package GRASS GIS. This framework is applied to a 98 300 km2 study area centred in the Pamir (Tajikistan). It includes (i) rock slides, (ii) ice avalanches, (iii) periglacial debris flows, and (iv) lake outburst floods. First, a hazard indication score is assigned to each relevant object (steep rock face, glacier or periglacial slope, lake). This score depends on the susceptibility and on the expected event magnitude. Second, the possible travel distances, impact areas and, consequently, impact hazard indication scores for all types of processes are computed using empirical relationships. These scores are finally superimposed with an exposure score derived from the type of land use, resulting in a raster map of risk indication scores finally discretized at the community level. The analysis results are presented and discussed at different spatial scales. The major outcome of the study, a set of comprehensive regional-scale hazard and risk indication maps, shall represent an objective basis for the prioritization of target communities for further research and risk mitigation measures.

  4. THE EXTENT OF MINE DRAINAGE INTO STREAMS OF THE CENTRAL APPALACHIAN AND ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Runoff and drainage from active and inactive mines are contaminating streams throughout the United States with acidic and metal contaminated waters and sediments. The extent of mining impacts on streams of the coal bearing region of the Central Appalachians and the metal bearing...

  5. The direct impact of landslides on household income in tropical regions: A case study from the Rwenzori Mountains in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mertens, K; Jacobs, L; Maes, J; Kabaseke, C; Maertens, M; Poesen, J; Kervyn, M; Vranken, L

    2016-04-15

    Landslides affect millions of people worldwide, but theoretical and empirical studies on the impact of landslides remain scarce, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study proposes and applies a method to estimate the direct impact of landslides on household income and to investigate the presence of specific risk sharing and mitigation strategies towards landslides in a tropical and rural environment. An original cross-sectional household survey is used in combination with geographical data to acquire detailed information on livelihoods and on hazards in the Rwenzori mountains, Uganda. Ordinary least square regressions and probit estimations with village fixed effects are used to estimate the impact of landslides and the presence of mitigation strategies. Geographical information at household level allows to disentangle the direct impact from the indirect effects of landslides. We show that the income of affected households is substantially reduced during the first years after a landslide has occurred. We find that members of recently affected households participate more in wage-employment or in self-employed activities, presumably to address income losses following a landslide. Yet, we see that these jobs do not provide sufficient revenue to compensate for the loss of income from agriculture. Given that landslides cause localized shocks, finding a significant direct impact in our study indicates that no adequate risk sharing mechanisms are in place in the Rwenzori sub-region. These insights are used to derive policy recommendations for alleviating the impact of landslides in the region. By quantifying the direct impact of landslides on household income in an agricultural context in Africa this study draws the attention towards a problem that has been broadly underestimated so far and provides a sound scientific base for disaster risk reduction in the region. Both the methodology and the findings of this research are applicable to other tropical regions with high

  6. Size-resolved aerosol trace elements at a rural mountainous site in Northern China: importance of regional transport.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuepeng; Wang, Yuesi; Sun, Yang; Tian, Shili; Cheng, Mengtian

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents an intensive field measurement campaign carried out at the rural mountainous site of Xinglong (960 m a.s.l.) in Northern China during Sep. 3-20 2008. Size-segregated samples were collected daily and analyzed for 25 trace elements (TEs). The majority of the TEs showed comparable concentrations in fine (<2.1 μm) and coarse particles (2.1-9 μm). In addition, elements like K, Mn, Cu, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Tl and Pb were accumulated in fine mode whereas Al, Co and Sb were concentrated in a coarse mode. For most of the TEs, their enrichment factor (EF) increased with decreasing particle size from large (>9 μm) to coarse, and to fine, signifying influences by anthropogenic emissions. The observed concentrations of heavy metals in fine particles, with EF values higher than 100, were significantly higher than the historical data recorded in the 1980s and 1990s, reflecting the increasing emissions in the target area. One pronounced event occurred on Sep. 14 when all of the TEs showed a peak, which was associated with regional emissions from both southeast (SE) and southwest (SW) indicated by backward trajectory analysis. This is further supported by the measurements in upwind sites where the concentrations of TEs were several times higher than those in Xinglong, suggesting potential source regions. Episodes of heavy metals were generally characterized by significant enhancements of fine mode and air mass trajectories from SE or SW alone. Taking this finding and factor analysis results together, the metallic episodes were attributable to the long-range transport of regional plumes from coal consumption and nonferrous metal smelting. With the rapid urbanization and industrialization in Northern China, the increasing emissions of TEs will place a great strain on human health and the environment in the downwind regions, thus long-term and multi-site observation with high time resolution are necessary. PMID:23792621

  7. How a geomorphosite inventory can contribute to regional sustainable development? The case of the Simen Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauerhofer, Lukas; Reynard, Emmanuel; Asrat, Asfawossen; Hurni, Hans; Wildlife Conservation Authority, Ethiopian

    2016-04-01

    This research aimed at investigating how an inventory of geomorphosites can foster or improve the knowledge and management of geomorphological heritages in the context of developing countries. Accordingly, a geomorphosite inventory in the Simen Mountains National Park (SMNP), Ethiopia was conducted following the method of Reynard et al. (2015). The national context of geoheritage and geoconservation in Ethiopia was appraised and a road map for the management of the inventoried sites in the SMNP was elaborated. Ethiopia hosts numerous geoheritage sites, some of which of highest international significance. Therefore, geotourism has recently been promoted throughout the country (Asrat et al., 2008). Despite numerous trials of the scientific community, there is not yet a national policy for geoconservation in the country. Many parts of Ethiopia are underdeveloped in terms of economic subsistence and infrastructure, making these immediate priorities over conservation efforts. Nevertheless, this study showed that the Simen Mountains have the potential to become a UNESCO Global Geopark and that geosites could be used to develop geotourism within SMNP, and that development and conservation are not contradictory. Twenty-one geomorphosites were identified and assessed. Diverse geomorphological contexts including fluvial, structural, glacial, periglacial, anthropic and organic characterize the SMNP. The temporal stages, which allow the reconstitution of the morphogenesis of the Simen Mountains, are the Cenozoic volcanism, Last Glacial Maximum, Holocene as well as historic/modern landscape modification. Four synthesis maps were elaborated to present the results of the assessment. The average scientific value of the inventoried geomorphosites is very high compared to other inventories realized using the same method. This is particularly due to the extremely high integrity of the sites. Almost all geomorphosites are in a good state of conservation and only few sites are

  8. Review: Natural tracers in fractured hard-rock aquifers in the Austrian part of the Eastern Alps—previous approaches and future perspectives for hydrogeology in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilberg, Sylke

    2016-08-01

    Extensive in-depth research is required for the implementation of natural tracer approaches to hydrogeological investigation to be feasible in mountainous regions. This review considers the application of hydrochemical and biotic parameters in mountain regions over the past few decades with particular reference to the Austrian Alps, as an example for alpine-type mountain belts. A brief introduction to Austria's hydrogeological arrangement is given to show the significance of fractured hard-rock aquifers for hydrogeological science as well as for water supply purposes. A literature search showed that research concerning fractured hard-rock aquifers in Austria is clearly underrepresented to date, especially when taking the abundance of this aquifer type and the significance of this topic into consideration. The application of abiotic natural tracers (hydrochemical and isotope parameters) is discussed generally and by means of examples from the Austrian Alps. The potential of biotic tracers (microbiota and meiofauna) is elucidated. It is shown that the meiofauna approach to investigating fractured aquifers has not yet been applied in the reviewed region, nor worldwide. Two examples of new approaches in mountainous fractured aquifers are introduced: (1) use of CO2 partial pressure and calcite saturation of spring water to reconstruct catchments and flow dynamics (abiotic approach), and, (2) consideration of hard-rock aquifers as habitats to reconstruct aquifer conditions (biotic approach).

  9. Review: Natural tracers in fractured hard-rock aquifers in the Austrian part of the Eastern Alps—previous approaches and future perspectives for hydrogeology in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilberg, Sylke

    2016-03-01

    Extensive in-depth research is required for the implementation of natural tracer approaches to hydrogeological investigation to be feasible in mountainous regions. This review considers the application of hydrochemical and biotic parameters in mountain regions over the past few decades with particular reference to the Austrian Alps, as an example for alpine-type mountain belts. A brief introduction to Austria's hydrogeological arrangement is given to show the significance of fractured hard-rock aquifers for hydrogeological science as well as for water supply purposes. A literature search showed that research concerning fractured hard-rock aquifers in Austria is clearly underrepresented to date, especially when taking the abundance of this aquifer type and the significance of this topic into consideration. The application of abiotic natural tracers (hydrochemical and isotope parameters) is discussed generally and by means of examples from the Austrian Alps. The potential of biotic tracers (microbiota and meiofauna) is elucidated. It is shown that the meiofauna approach to investigating fractured aquifers has not yet been applied in the reviewed region, nor worldwide. Two examples of new approaches in mountainous fractured aquifers are introduced: (1) use of CO2 partial pressure and calcite saturation of spring water to reconstruct catchments and flow dynamics (abiotic approach), and, (2) consideration of hard-rock aquifers as habitats to reconstruct aquifer conditions (biotic approach).

  10. Population data on nine STRs from Cantabria, a mountainous region in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Zarrabeitia, M T; Riancho, J A

    2001-11-01

    Allele frequencies for nine STRs loci included in the AmpFlTR Profiler Plus kit (D3S1358, vWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820) were obtained from a sample of 158 unrelated individuals living in Cantabria, a region in northern Spain. PMID:11672975

  11. LANDSAT applications by the Adirondack Park Agency for land cover analyses and forest cover change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banta, J. S.; Curran, R. P.

    1981-01-01

    The New York State Adirondack Park Agency is using LANDSAT imagery to provide current, consistent parkwide data on forest cover, forest change and other land cover characteristics for the Adirondack Park, an area of 9,375 sq. miles (24,280 sq km). Boundaries of the study area were digitized and the data were enhanced and geographically rectified. A classification scheme was devised which emphasized the basic land cover types of the Park: hardwoods, spruce-fir, pine, wet conifer, brushland, grassland, agricultural areas, exposed earth, urban areas, and water bodies. Cover type classifications for disturbed forest land were also chosen: cut hardwoods, regenerating hardwoods, and cut spruce fir. Field verification of 1978 classification revealed an accurate differentiation of forest types within types and between nonforested/forested areas. The classification accurately detects forest land disturbances; however, it is not always descriptive of the level of disturbance.

  12. Variation in Adirondack, New York, lakewater chemistry as function of surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J. ); Kugler, D.L.; Johnson, C.B.; Rosenbaum, B.J. ); Small, M.J. ); Landers, D.H. ); Overton, W.S. ); Kretser, W.A.; Gallagher, J. )

    1990-02-01

    Data from a recent survey conducted by the Adirondack Lake Survey Corporation were used to evaluate the influence of lake surface area on the acid-base status of lakes in Adirondack State Park, New York. Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in the small lakes (<4 ha) occurred more frequently at extreme values (>200, <0 {mu}eq L{sup {minus}1}), whereas larger lakes tended to be intermediate in ANC. Consequently, acidic (ANC {le} 0) and low-pH lakes were typically small. The small lakes also exhibited lower Ca{sup 2+} concentration and higher dissolved organic carbon than did larger lakes. Lakes {ge} 4 ha were only half as likely to be acidic as were lakes {ge} 1 ha in area. These data illustrate the dependence of lake chemistry on lake surface area and the importance of the lower lake area limit for a statistical survey of lakewater chemistry.

  13. To Grid or Not to Grid… Precipitation Data and Hydrological Modeling in the Khangai Mountain Region of Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venable, N. B. H.; Fassnacht, S. R.; Adyabadam, G.

    2014-12-01

    Precipitation data in semi-arid and mountainous regions is often spatially and temporally sparse, yet it is a key variable needed to drive hydrological models. Gridded precipitation datasets provide a spatially and temporally coherent alternative to the use of point-based station data, but in the case of Mongolia, may not be constructed from all data available from government data sources, or may only be available at coarse resolutions. To examine the uncertainty associated with the use of gridded and/or point precipitation data, monthly water balance models of three river basins across forest steppe (the Khoid Tamir River at Ikhtamir), steppe (the Baidrag River at Bayanburd), and desert steppe (the Tuin River at Bogd) ecozones in the Khangai Mountain Region of Mongolia were compared. The models were forced over a 10-year period from 2001-2010, with gridded temperature and precipitation data at a 0.5 x 0.5 degree resolution. These results were compared to modeling using an interpolated hybrid of the gridded data and additional point data recently gathered from government sources; and with point data from the nearest meteorological station to the streamflow gage of choice. Goodness-of-fit measures including the Nash-Sutcliff Efficiency statistic, the percent bias, and the RMSE-observations standard deviation ratio were used to assess model performance. The results were mixed with smaller differences between the two gridded products as compared to the differences between gridded products and station data. The largest differences in precipitation inputs and modeled runoff amounts occurred between the two gridded datasets and station data in the desert steppe (Tuin), and the smallest differences occurred in the forest steppe (Khoid Tamir) and steppe (Baidrag). Mean differences between water balance model results are generally smaller than mean differences in the initial input data over the period of record. Seasonally, larger differences in gridded versus station

  14. A Discussion of the Area Method for Hydrograph Separation, Case Study in the Adirondacks, New York State (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutras, B. A.; Romanowicz, E. A.

    2004-05-01

    Many hydrology texts refer to the area method for estimating the end of surface runoff after the peak discharge in storm hydrographs. This method is used to aid in separating base flow from surface runoff in stream flow during storm events. The area method assumes that the duration of surface runoff after peak discharge is a function of the area of the drainage basin. The duration of surface runoff in days is equal to the area of the drainage basin (sq. miles) raised to the 0.2 power. References to the type of watersheds for which this relationship is true are vague. The method is assumed to be applicable for large watersheds. In our poster we report the results of a study to test the validity of this relationship. Five nested watersheds (2.1 to 19.2 sq. km) were selected in the Adirondack Mountains near Jay, NY (USA). Stage was monitored every 15-minutes using a 1500 mm capacitance rod at the mouth of each watershed. The capacitance rods were installed in stilling wells adjacent to the natural channel. Select storm hydrographs were picked for hydrograph separation during the fall 2003. Preliminary results indicate that the area method is a reasonable predictor of the duration of runoff in these watersheds. Our original intent in pursuing this investigation was to determine how changes in the relationship between drainage area and runoff duration could be attributed to different properties of the watershed. We hypothesized that we would observe a different relationship. The difference could be attributed to differences in our watersheds and the ordinal watersheds from which the relationship was derived. However, in investigating the literature we could find no references that give any information on the original watersheds. This would appear to be a serious handicap for an often-cited method.

  15. Timing of Proterozoic regional deformation in the southern Manzano Mountains, central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, P.W. ); Bowring, S.A. . Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences); Karlstrom, K.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Early Proterozoic supracrustal and plutonic rocks of the Manzano Mtns have sustained a remarkably complex history of ductile deformation, metamorphism, and plutonism. A comparison of field relations and deformational features between the two southernmost plutons suggests that they differ greatly in timing of intrusion with respect to regional deformation. The Monte Largo pluton consists of medium-grained granodiorite and quartz monzonite that is bounded on three sides by strongly deformed quartzite and phyllite. An S1 foliation is folded by upright, N-trending folds (F2). S2, axial planar to F2, is mylonitic along the E pluton margin. The degree of deformation in the pluton is comparable to that in the country rock. The Monte Largo pluton has a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 1.66 Ga. The Priest pluton is a 10-km-long, N-S elongate, megacrystic quartz monzonite that is intrusive into quartzite sand schists. Large microcline crystals define a magmatic foliation. The body contains a weakly to moderately well-developed NE-striking tectonic foliation defined by flattened quartz grains, best developed along the W margin. On the N end of the pluton, map-scale folds in quartzite and schist have been cross-cut, and a contact metamorphic aureole cross-cuts country rock structures. The degree of deformation in the pluton is significantly less than that of country rock quartzites, some of which are mylonitic. The Priest Pluton has a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 1.45 Ga. These data suggest that the ca. 1.66 Ga Monte Largo pluton is syntectonic with respect to regional deformation, whereas the ca. 1.45 Ga priest pluton is post-tectonic with respect to the regional deformation.

  16. Accelerated construction of a regional DNA-barcode reference library: Caddisflies (Trichoptera) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, X.; Robinson, J.L.; Geraci, C.J.; Parker, C.R.; Flint, O.S., Jr.; Etnier, D.A.; Ruiter, D.; DeWalt, R.E.; Jacobus, L.M.; Hebert, P.D.N.

    2011-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) barcoding is an effective tool for species identification and lifestage association in a wide range of animal taxa. We developed a strategy for rapid construction of a regional DNA-barcode reference library and used the caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) as a model. Nearly 1000 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences, representing 209 caddisfly species previously recorded from GSMNP, were obtained from the global Trichoptera Barcode of Life campaign. Most of these sequences were collected from outside the GSMNP area. Another 645 COI sequences, representing 80 species, were obtained from specimens collected in a 3-d bioblitz (short-term, intense sampling program) in GSMNP. The joint collections provided barcode coverage for 212 species, 91% of the GSMNP fauna. Inclusion of samples from other localities greatly expedited construction of the regional DNA-barcode reference library. This strategy increased intraspecific divergence and decreased average distances to nearest neighboring species, but the DNA-barcode library was able to differentiate 93% of the GSMNP Trichoptera species examined. Global barcoding projects will aid construction of regional DNA-barcode libraries, but local surveys make crucial contributions to progress by contributing rare or endemic species and full-length barcodes generated from high-quality DNA. DNA taxonomy is not a goal of our present work, but the investigation of COI divergence patterns in caddisflies is providing new insights into broader biodiversity patterns in this group and has directed attention to various issues, ranging from the need to re-evaluate species taxonomy with integrated morphological and molecular evidence to the necessity of an appropriate interpretation of barcode analyses and its implications in understanding species diversity (in contrast to a simple claim for barcoding failure).

  17. Trace gas and aerosol measurements at Whiteface Mountain, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, T.J.

    1985-09-01

    This report presents the results of a 12-month program of atmospheric chemical measurements performed at Whiteface Mountain, New York. The purpose of this program was to study the concentrations and seasonal variability of several atmospheric chemical species which are of importance in the acid deposition issue. Whiteface Mountain (WFM) was chosen as the site of these measurements because it lies in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State, one of the areas considered susceptible to ecological damage from acid deposition. These measurements were the first long term study of atmospheric chemistry in the Adirondacks. Continuous real-time measurements of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ were made with commercial instruments modified for increased sensitivity and stability, and aerosol composition, HNO/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/ were measured with a three-stage filter pack. The main conclusions of this work are (1) that concentrations of gaseous SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ are highest in the winter months, whereas their oxidation products SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and HNO/sub 3/ were highest in summer; (2) that aerosol acidity is closely associated with SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, aerosol NO/sub 3//sup -/ concentrations being very low in all seasons; (3) and that the relative importance of aerosol acidity and HNO/sub 3/ vary with season, because the strong seasonal variation in SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ results in a very strong seasonal variation in aerosol acidity.

  18. Utilizing ERTS-1 imagery for tectonic analysis through study of the Bighorn Mountains region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Comparisons of imagery of three seasons, late summer-fall, winter, and spring indicate that for this region fall imagery is the best for overall geologic analysis. Winter scenes with light to moderate snow cover provide excellent topographic detail owing to snow enhancement, lower sun angle, and clarity of the atmosphere. Spring imagery has considerable reduction of tonal contrast owing to the low reflecting heavy green grass cover which subdues lithologic effects; heavy snow cover in the uplands masks topography. Mapping of geologic formations is impractical in most cases. Separation into tonal units can provide some general clues on structure. A given tonal unit can include parts of several geologic formations and different stratigraphic units can have the same tonal signature. Drainage patterns and anomalies provide the most consistent clues for detecting folds, monoclines, and homoclines. Vegetation only locally reflects lithology and structure. False color infrared 9 x 9 transparencies are the most valuable single imagery. Where these can be supplemented by U-2 color infrared for more detailed work, a tremendous amount of information is available. Adequately field checking such a large area just in one scene is the major logistic problem even in a fairly well known region.

  19. Habitat suitability for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) reproduction in Adirondack Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, Carl L.

    1993-04-01

    The relationships between habitat characteristics and reproductive status of Adirondack brook trout populations were examined utilizing the Adirondack Lake Survey Corporation data base, which includes physical, chemical, and biological data for 1469 lakes. The only variables strongly related to brook trout natural reproduction were indices of groundwater influence on surface water chemistry, specifically silica and sodium concentrations. This finding supports the hypothesis that lake spawning populations of brook trout are strongly dependent on groundwater seepage for successful reproduction. Spawning habitat in small headwater lakes impounded by beaver activity may be degraded as a result of siltation of nearshore zones and diminished groundwater seepage. Adirondack lakes situated in thick-till basins receive proportionally greater groundwater input than thin-till lake types and thick-till lakes also had the highest proportion of self-sustaining brook trout populations. Acidification is most pronounced in thin-till basins, which also exhibited a low frequency of self-sustaining brook trout populations. Although brook trout fisheries may be maintained in acidic lakes by liming and stocking, the establishment of self-sustaining brook trout populations is not a likely outcome of these management practices. Additionally, there appears to be limited potential for restoration of lake spawning brook trout populations in currently acidic, fishless lakes should acidic inputs decline as a result of reductions in acid-forming emissions.

  20. Experiment to evaluate feasibility of utilizing Skylab-EREP remote sensing data for tectonic analysis of the Bighorn Mountains region, Wyoming-Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. S-190A color transparencies from SL-2 of the Big Horn basin region provide the best format to date for geologic study of that region; red beds are quite mappable and resistant key beds sharply outlined. An S-190B color frame from SL-3 of the Pryor-Bighorn mountains provides no indication that the Nye-Bowler lineament extends east of East Pryor Mountain. This has important implications regarding the role of this and other lineaments (which also appear to be of restricted length) in the tectonics of the region. Extensions of these lineaments for great distances does not seem warranted on the basis of surface evidence.

  1. Risk-based consequences of extreme natural hazard processes in mountain regions - Multi-hazard analysis in Tyrol (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Stötter, Johann

    2010-05-01

    Reinsurance companies are stating a high increase in natural hazard related losses, both insured and economic losses, within the last decades on a global scale. This ongoing trend can be described as a product of the dynamic in the natural and in the anthroposphere. To analyze the potential impact of natural hazard process to a certain insurance portfolio or to the society in general, reinsurance companies or risk management consultants have developed loss models. However, those models are generally not fitting the scale dependent demand on regional scales like it is appropriate (i) for analyses on the scale of a specific province or (ii) for portfolio analyses of regional insurance companies. Moreover, the scientific basis of most of the models is not transparent documented and therefore scientific evaluations concerning the methodology concepts are not possible (black box). This is contrary to the scientific principles of transparency and traceability. Especially in mountain regions like the European Alps with their inherent (i) specific characteristic on small scales, (ii) the relative high process dynamics in general, (iii) the occurrence of gravitative mass movements which are related to high relief energy and thus only exists in mountain regions, (iv) the small proportion of the area of permanent settlement on the overall area, (v) the high value concentration in the valley floors, (vi) the exposition of important infrastructures and lifelines, and others, analyses must consider these circumstances adequately. Therefore, risk-based analyses are methodically estimating the potential consequences of hazard process on the built environment standardized with the risk components (i) hazard, (ii) elements at risk, and (iii) vulnerability. However, most research and progress have been made in the field of hazard analyses, whereas the other both components are not developed accordingly. Since these three general components are influencing factors without any

  2. Black Carbon Deposition on Glaciers and in the Seasonal Snowpack in Western Washington's Mountainous Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, I.; Kaspari, S.; Larrabee, M.

    2012-12-01

    Black carbon deposition on snow and ice darkens the surface of glaciers and snowpack, reducing albedo. Radiation absorbed by black carbon in snow can accelerate snowmelt and change the timing of runoff. This is particularly important in Washington State, as glaciers and seasonal snowpack have shrunk considerably in recent years and are integral to the region's water resources. However, little data exists regarding the concentration of black carbon in Washington snow, which is necessary to determine if enough black carbon is present to substantially accelerate snowmelt. From the winter through the summer of 2012, we collected snow samples from the snow surface, snow pits and snow cores (< 5 m depth, in many cases capturing the entire annual snowpack). Study sites include the Nisqually and Emmons glaciers on Mt. Rainier, Blewett Pass in the central Cascades, N. Klawatti, Noisy and Sandalee glaciers in the North Cascades and Blue Glacier on Mt. Olympus. Samples were analyzed for black carbon using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), and select samples were also analyzed for black carbon using a Sunset Lab OC-EC Aerosol Analyzer to compare with the SP2 method. We use the resultant data set to examine how snow accumulation, dry deposition, and proximity to emission sources (such as the Puget Sound metropolitan area) affect black carbon concentration in snow and ice. The results of this research provide insight in to 1) regional scale variation in black carbon deposition, 2) temporal trends in black carbon deposition, and 3) the persistence of black carbon in the snowpack throughout the season.

  3. Woody species diversity in forest plantations in a mountainous region of Beijing, China: effects of sampling scale and species selection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxin; Zhang, Shuang; Ma, Keming; Fu, Bojie; Anand, Madhur

    2014-01-01

    The role of forest plantations in biodiversity conservation has gained more attention in recent years. However, most work on evaluating the diversity of forest plantations focuses only on one spatial scale; thus, we examined the effects of sampling scale on diversity in forest plantations. We designed a hierarchical sampling strategy to collect data on woody species diversity in planted pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr.), planted larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.), and natural secondary deciduous broadleaf forests in a mountainous region of Beijing, China. Additive diversity partition analysis showed that, compared to natural forests, the planted pine forests had a different woody species diversity partitioning pattern at multi-scales (except the Simpson diversity in the regeneration layer), while the larch plantations did not show multi-scale diversity partitioning patterns that were obviously different from those in the natural secondary broadleaf forest. Compare to the natural secondary broadleaf forests, the effects of planted pine forests on woody species diversity are dependent on the sampling scale and layers selected for analysis. Diversity in the planted larch forest, however, was not significantly different from that in the natural forest for all diversity components at all sampling levels. Our work demonstrated that the species selected for afforestation and the sampling scales selected for data analysis alter the conclusions on the levels of diversity supported by plantations. We suggest that a wide range of scales should be considered in the evaluation of the role of forest plantations on biodiversity conservation. PMID:25545860

  4. Strong topographic sheltering effects lead to spatially complex treeline advance and increased forest density in a subtropical mountain region.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Sarah; Chen, Jan-Chang; Chen, Chaur-Tzuhn; Jump, Alistair S

    2014-12-01

    Altitudinal treelines are typically temperature limited such that increasing temperatures linked to global climate change are causing upslope shifts of treelines worldwide. While such elevational increases are readily predicted based on shifting isotherms, at the regional level the realized response is often much more complex, with topography and local environmental conditions playing an important modifying role. Here, we used repeated aerial photographs in combination with forest inventory data to investigate changes in treeline position in the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan over the last 60 years. A highly spatially variable upslope advance of treeline was identified in which topography is a major driver of both treeline form and advance. The changes in treeline position that we observed occurred alongside substantial increases in forest density, and lead to a large increase in overall forest area. These changes will have a significant impact on carbon stocking in the high altitude zone, while the concomitant decrease in alpine grassland area is likely to have negative implications for alpine species. The complex and spatially variable changes that we report highlight the necessity for considering local factors such as topography when attempting to predict species distributional responses to warming climate. PMID:25141823

  5. Proposed shallow drilling at the interface between the southern Oklahoma aulacogen and Ouachita fold belt, Arbuckle Mountains region, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lidiak, E.G. . Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science); Denison, R.E.

    1993-02-01

    Two major tectonic elements in southern North America are the southern Oklahoma aulacogen and the Ouachita foldbelt. The Aulacogen is characterized by basement-cored high-angle fault blocks along which movement occurred throughout much of Paleozoic time. It is one of the most intensely deformed areas in the stable interior platform of the craton. The fold belt, in contrast, consists primarily of thin-skinned compressional structures that formed in Late Paleozoic time. These two prominent tectonic features strike at a high angle to one another and are juxtaposed in southeast Oklahoma where the contact is buried shallowly beneath Cretaceous rocks of the Gulf Coastal Plain. A drilling program comprised of a series of shallow holes drilled across the contact zone will establish the structural and stratigraphic relationships at this important tectonic interface. The results obtained should be critical in elucidating the effect that the transverse aulacogen structures had on the development of the Ouachita frontal zone. Proposed drilling sites are in northern Bryan and Choctaw counties, Oklahoma, along the Tishomingo--Belton anticlines southeast of the basement-cored eastern Arbuckle Mountains. Crystalline rocks in this region are massive middle Proterozoic granitoid rocks overlain by Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Farther southeast, rocks in the frontal zone consist mainly of Late Paleozoic flysch-type sedimentary rocks. Depths to Paleozoic and older rocks beneath the coastal plain deposits are about 300--500 meters so that targeted structures can easily be reached.

  6. Multi-level landscape degradation due to tourist-oriented land use changes in Serbian mountainous regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radić, B.; Ristić, R.; Vasiljević, N.; Nikić, Z.; Beloica, J.; Malušević, I.

    2012-04-01

    Mountain regions are characterized by pronounced heterogeneity resulting from a wide range of altitude gradients, topography and specific microclimate. In these areas natural hazards are emphasized and additional anthropogenic activities have a catalytic effect on the degradation processes. Land use change for touristic and recreational purposes, results in the creation of artificial landscape elements that disturb the landscape structure. Skiing as a type of tourist and recreational activity strongly influences the land cover, changing the dynamics of natural ecosystems. Initially, ski resorts provoke intensive erosion processes, affecting the surrounding environment and even endangering the functionality of the built objects. The dominant disturbing activities (clear cuttings, trunk transport, machine grading of slopes, huge excavations, and access road construction) are followed by the activities during skiing and non skiing periods (skiing, usage of snow groomers, moving of vehicles and tourists, forestry activities and overgrazing). On a landscape scale, the impact of the ski resorts broadens to larger areas, which is accompanied by the degradation of the landscape visual quality. Due to the technical characteristics of the ski slopes, their volume and linear distribution evoke strong contrast in the scenery (geometrical versus bimorph edges). Such areas are losing their scenic quality and visual identity, and as such can be considered anthropogenic. The applied restoration and erosion control measures have stopped the degradation processes and helped to rehabilitate the appearance and functions of the landscape. The results of this investigation can contribute to the improvement of planning processes and the implementation of development projects in ski areas.

  7. Woody Species Diversity in Forest Plantations in a Mountainous Region of Beijing, China: Effects of Sampling Scale and Species Selection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuxin; Zhang, Shuang; Ma, Keming; Fu, Bojie; Anand, Madhur

    2014-01-01

    The role of forest plantations in biodiversity conservation has gained more attention in recent years. However, most work on evaluating the diversity of forest plantations focuses only on one spatial scale; thus, we examined the effects of sampling scale on diversity in forest plantations. We designed a hierarchical sampling strategy to collect data on woody species diversity in planted pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr.), planted larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.), and natural secondary deciduous broadleaf forests in a mountainous region of Beijing, China. Additive diversity partition analysis showed that, compared to natural forests, the planted pine forests had a different woody species diversity partitioning pattern at multi-scales (except the Simpson diversity in the regeneration layer), while the larch plantations did not show multi-scale diversity partitioning patterns that were obviously different from those in the natural secondary broadleaf forest. Compare to the natural secondary broadleaf forests, the effects of planted pine forests on woody species diversity are dependent on the sampling scale and layers selected for analysis. Diversity in the planted larch forest, however, was not significantly different from that in the natural forest for all diversity components at all sampling levels. Our work demonstrated that the species selected for afforestation and the sampling scales selected for data analysis alter the conclusions on the levels of diversity supported by plantations. We suggest that a wide range of scales should be considered in the evaluation of the role of forest plantations on biodiversity conservation. PMID:25545860

  8. Influence of organic acids on the pH and acid-neutralizing capacity of Adirondack Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munson, R. K.; Gherini, S. A.

    1993-04-01

    Past approaches for evaluating the effects of organic acids on the acid-base characteristics of surface waters have typically treated them solely as weak acids. Analysis of data collected by the Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC) from 1469 lakes throughout the Adirondack region shows that this approach is not valid. While the data indicate that natural organics contain a continuum of acid functional groups, many of which display weak acid characteristics, a significant fraction of the organic acid is strong (pKa < 3). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contributes 4.5-5 μeq/mg DOC of strong acid to solution. The associated anions make a negative contribution to Gran acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). Because organic anions can produce negative Gran ANC values, the common practice of considering negative values of Gran ANC evidence of acidification solely by mineral acids is not valid. The strength of organic acids also influences the observed deviation between Gran ANC values and ANC values calculated as the difference between base cation and mineral acid anion concentrations (CB - CA). Ninety percent of the deviation is due to the presence of strong organics while the remaining 10% is due to DOC-induced curvature in the F1 Gran function. Organic acids can also strongly influence pH. Their largest effects were found in the 0-50 μeq/L Gran ANC range where they depressed pH by up to 1.5 units. In addition, a method for predicting changes in pH in response to changes in mineral acidity, DOC, or both without having to rely on inferred thermodynamic constants and the uncertainties associated with them has been developed. Using the predictive method, the response of representative lakes from four sensitive lake classes to a 15-μeq/L decrease in mineral acidity ranged from +0.17 to +0.38 pH units. If concurrent increases in DOC are considered, the pH changes would be even smaller.

  9. Analysis of dissolved gas and fluid chemistry in mountainous region of Goaping river watershed in southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kai-Wen; Chen, Cheng-Hong; Liu, Tsung-Kwei

    2016-04-01

    Annual rainfall in Taiwan is up to 2500 mm, about 2.5 times the average value of the world. However due to high topographic relief of the Central Mountain Range in Taiwan, groundwater storage is critical for water supply. Mountain region of the Goaping river watershed in southern Taiwan is one of the potential areas to develop groundwater recharge model. Therefore the target of this study is to understand sources of groundwater and surface water using dissolved gas and fluid chemistry. Four groundwater and 6 surface water samples were collected from watershed, 5 groundwater and 13 surface water samples were collected from downstream. All samples were analyzed for stable isotopes (hydrogen and oxygen), dissolved gases (including nitrogen, oxygen, argon, methane and carbon dioxide), noble gases (helium and radon) and major ions. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of surface water and groundwater samples aligned along meteoric water line. For surface water, dissolved gases are abundant in N2 (>80%) and O2 (>10%); helium isotopic ratio is approximately equal to 1 RA (RA is 3He/4He ratio of air); radon-222 concentration is below the detection limit (<200 Bq/m3); and concentrations of major anions and cations are low (Na+ <20 ppm, Ca2+ < 60 ppm, Cl‑ <2 ppm). All these features indicate that surface waters are predominately recharged by precipitation. For groundwater, helium isotopic ratios (0.9˜0.23 RA) are lower and radon-222 concentrations (300˜6000 Bq/m3) are much higher than the surface water. Some samples have high amounts of dissolved gases, such as CH4 (>20%) or CO2 (>10%), most likely contributed by biogenic or geogenic sources. On the other hand, few samples that have temperature 5° higher than the average of other samples, show significantly high Na+ (>1000 ppm), Ca2+ (>150 ppm) and Cl‑ (>80 ppm) concentrations. An interaction between such groundwater and local hot springs is inferred. Watershed and downstream samples differ in dissolved gas species and

  10. Cripple Creek and other alkaline-related gold deposits in the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA: Influence of regional tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, K.D.; Ludington, S.

    2002-01-01

    Alkaline-related epithermal vein, breccia, disseminated, skarn, and porphyry gold deposits form a belt in the southern Rocky Mountains along the eastern edge of the North American Cordillera. Alkaline igneous rocks and associated hydrothermal deposits formed at two times. The first was during the Laramide orogeny (about 70-40 Ma), with deposits restricted spatially to the Colorado mineral belt (CMB). Other alkaline igneous rocks and associated gold deposits formed later, during the transition from a compressional to an extensional regime (about 35-27 Ma). These younger rocks and associated deposits are more widespread, following the Rocky Mountain front southward, from Cripple Creek in Colorado through New Mexico. All of these deposits are on the eastern margin of the Cordillera, with voluminous calc-alkaline rocks to the west. The largest deposits in the belt include Cripple Creek and those in the CMB. The most important factor in the formation of all of the gold deposits was the near-surface emplacement of relatively oxidized volatile-rich alkaline magmas. Strontium and lead isotope compositions suggest that the source of the magmas was subduction-modified subcontinental lithosphere. However, Cripple Creek alkaline rocks and older Laramide alkaline rocks in the CMB that were emplaced through hydrously altered LREE-enriched rocks of the Colorado (Yavapai) province have 208Pb/204Pb ratios that suggest these magmas assimilated and mixed with significant amounts of lower crust. The anomalously hot, thick, and light crust beneath Colorado may have been a catalyst for large-scale transfer of volatiles and crustal melting. Increased dissolved H2O (and CO2, F, Cl) of these magmas may have resulted in more productive gold deposits due to more efficient magmatic-hydrothermal systems. High volatile contents may also have promoted Te and V enrichment, explaining the presence of fluorite, roscoelite (vanadium-rich mica) and tellurides in the CMB deposits and Cripple Creek as

  11. Regional Assessment of the Relationship Between Landscape Attributes and Water Quality in Five National Parks of the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanus, L.; Williams, M. W.; Campbell, D. H.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of pollutants threatens pristine environments around the world. However, scientifically-based decisions regarding management of these environments has been confounded by spatial variability of atmospheric deposition, particularly across regional scales at which resource management is typically considered. A statistically based methodology coupled within GIS is presented that builds on small alpine lake and sub-alpine catchments scale to identify deposition-sensitive lakes across larger watershed and regional scales. The sensitivity of 874 alpine and subalpine lakes to acidification from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur was estimated using statistical models relating water quality and landscape attributes in Glacier National Park, Yellowstone National Park, Grand Teton National Park, Rocky Mountain National Park and Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve. Water-quality data measured during synoptic lake surveys were used to calibrate statistical models of lake sensitivity. In the case of nitrogen deposition, water quality data were supplemented with dual isotopic measurements of d15N and d18O of nitrate. Landscape attributes for the lake basins were derived from GIS including the following explanatory variables; topography (basin slope, basin aspect, basin elevation), bedrock type, vegetation type, and soil type. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, probability estimates were developed for acid-neutralizing capacity, nitrate, sulfate and DOC concentrations, and lakes with a high probability of being sensitive to atmospheric deposition were identified. Water-quality data collected at 60 lakes during fall 2004 were used to validate statistical models. Relationships between landscape attributes and water quality vary by constituent, due to spatial variability in landscape attributes and spatial variation in the atmospheric deposition of pollutants within and among the five National Parks. Predictive ability, model

  12. Slope deformations in high-mountain regions as observed by InSAR: Examples from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Holger; Strozzi, Tazio; Caduff, Rafael; Huggel, Christian; Klimeš, Jan; Vilímek, Vít; Wiesmann, Andreas; Kääb, Andreas; Cochachin, Alejo; Plummer, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Steep topography, the world's highest concentration of tropical glaciers, numerous glacial lakes and strong seismic activity combined with a densely populated valley bottom in the Rio Santa basin characterize the Cordillera Blanca in Peru. Besides glacier-related processes, a variety of landslide types and processes is present outside the glaciated areas, favoured by the steep terrain, geological conditions, sparse vegetation, intense precipitation, and strong seismicity. This combination of high hazard potentials and vulnerabilities results in a long list of natural disasters. Information on surface displacements is very valuable for early detection of emerging hazard potentials and their assessment. Interferometric processing of SAR data (InSAR) provides the possibility to remotely detect different types of surface displacement processes, also in remote locations where no other monitoring data are available. This contribution, developed under the ESA-funded S:GLA:MO project (sglamo.gamma-rs.ch), shows the potential of InSAR products for hazard assessments and glaciological investigations in high-mountain regions. We present a selection of different surface displacements as observed in the Cordillera Blanca based on InSAR data: a landslide zone near the Rampac Grande village, where in 2009 a landslide caused casualties and property loss; a landslide at the entry of the Santa Cruz Valley, northern Cordillera Blanca, where the displacement history could be reconstructed over five years; surface displacements at the interior moraine slopes surrounding Laguna Palcacocha, a major glacier lake above the city of Huaraz, which are compared to and complemented by geophysical investigations in the field; surface displacements at the moraine damming Laguna Safuna Alta, a glacier lake in the northern part of the Cordillera Blanca; glacier velocities across the entire Cordillera Blanca, revealing ice flow velocities of more than 200 m yr-1 at certain locations at the end of

  13. An Analysis of Climate Variability and Snowmelt Mechanisms inMountainous Regions

    SciTech Connect

    jimingjin@lbl.gov

    2003-09-26

    The impacts of snowpack on climate variability and themechanisms of snowmelt over the Sierra Nevada, California-Nevadamountainous region was studied using the Penn State-National Center forAtmospheric Research fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5) driven by6-hour reanalysis data from the National Centers for EnvironmentalPrediction. The analyses of a one-way nested 48 km to 12 km model runduring the 1998 snowmelt season (April - June) shows that snowpack isunderestimated when there is stronger precipitation and highertemperature. Model resolution and simulated snowpack are found to affectthe temperature and precipitation. Coarser resolution underestimates thetopographic elevation in the Sierra Nevada, increasing the surface airtemperature and precipitation in light of the lapse rate and the rainshadow effect. An observed daily snowpack dataset, assimilated to MM5,reduces the warm bias, because the energy used to increase temperature ina model run without assimilated snow is consumed by snowmelt. The cooledsurface leads to a more stable simulated atmosphere, leading to areduction in the exaggerated precipitation. An underestimated surfacealbedo weakly contributes to the stronger snowmelt. A more realisticphysically-based land-surface model with sophisticated snow andvegetation physics driven by the MM5 output is shown to significantlyimprove the snowpack simulation.

  14. Regional compilation and analysis of aeromagnetic anomalies for the Transantarctic Mountains Ross Sea sector of the Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, M.; Ferraccioli, F.; Bozzo, E.; Damaske, D.

    2002-03-01

    Magnetic observations over the area of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) and the Ross Sea have been compiled into a digital database that furnishes a new regional scale view of the magnetic anomaly crustal field in this key sector of the Antarctic continent. This compilation is a component of the ongoing IAGA/SCAR Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project (ADMAP). The aeromagnetic surveys total 115 000 line km, and are distributed across the Victoria Land sector of the TAM, the Ross Sea, and Marie Byrd Land. The magnetic campaigns were performed within the framework of the national and international Italian-German-US Antarctic research programs and conducted with differing specifications during nine field seasons from 1971 until 1997. Generally flight line spacing was less than 5 km while survey altitude varied from about 610 to 4000 m above sea level for barometric surveys and was equal to 305 m above topography for the single draped survey. Reprocessing included digitizing the old contour data, improved levelling by means of microlevelling in the frequency domain, and re-reduction to a common reference field based on the DGRF90 model. A multi-frequency grid procedure was then applied to obtain a coherent and merged total intensity magnetic anomaly map. The shaded relief map covers an area of approximately 380 000 km 2. This new compilation provides a regional image of the location and spatial extent of the Cenozoic alkaline magmatism related to the TAM-Ross Sea rift, Jurassic tholeiites, and crustal segments of the Early Palaeozoic magmatic arc. A linear, approximately 100-km wide and 600-km long Jurassic rift-like structure is newly identified. Magnetic fabric in the Ross Sea rift often matches seismically imaged Cenozoic fault arrays. Major buried onshore pre-rift fault zones, likely inherited from the Ross Orogen, are also delineated. These faults may have been reactivated as strike-slip belts that segmented the TAM into various crustal blocks.

  15. The influence of regional urbanization and abnormal weather conditions on the processes of human climatic adaptation on mountain resorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artamonova, M.; Golitsyn, G.; Senik, I.; Safronov, A.; Babyakin, A.; Efimenko, N.; Povolotskaya, N.; Topuriya, D.; Chalaya, E.

    2012-04-01

    in patients with coronary heart disease, hypertension stage I-II syndrome disadaptative using the transcranial mezo diencephalic modulation / L.I.Zherlitsina, N.V. Efimenko, N.P. Povolotskaya, I.I. Velikanov. the Patent for the invention No.2422128, RU (11) 2 422 128 (13) C1 from 6/27/2011; Bull.13). We have observed that such anthropogenic characteristics as accumulation of aerosol with the size of particles 500-5000 nanometers in the lower atmosphere in the quantity more than 60 particles/sm3 (getting to alveoli); decrease in quantity of negative ions (N-) lower than 200 ions/sm3, high coefficient of ions unipolarity (N+/N-) - more than 4-6; mass concentration of aerosol more than 150 mkg/m3 and other modules of the environment can act as limited markers for the forecast of dangerous NAR, SAD and taking of urgent radical preventive measures. These techniques of medical weather forecast and meteo prevention can be used in other mountain regions of the world. The studies were performed by support of the Program "Basic Sciences for Medicine" and RFBR project No.10-05-01014_a.

  16. Fluid heterogeneity during granulite facies metamorphism in the Adirondacks: stable isotope evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valley, J.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The preservation of premetamorphic, whole-rock oxygen isotope ratios in Adirondack metasediments shows that neither these rocks nor adjacent anorthosites and gneisses have been penetrated by large amounts of externally derived, hot CO2-H2O fluids during granulite facies metamorphism. This conclusion is supported by calculations of the effect of fluid volatilization and exchange and is also independently supported by petrologic and phase equilibria considerations. The data suggest that these rocks were not an open system during metamorphism; that fluid/rock ratios were in many instances between 0.0 and 0.1; that externally derived fluids, as well as fluids derived by metamorphic volatilization, rose along localized channels and were not pervasive; and thus that no single generalization can be applied to metamorphic fluid conditions in the Adirondacks. Analyses of 3 to 4 coexisting minerals from Adirondack marbles show that isotopic equilibrium was attained at the peak of granulite and upper amphibolite facies metamorphism. Thus the isotopic compositions of metamorphic fluids can be inferred from analyses of carbonates and fluid budgets can be constructed. Carbonates from the granulite facies are on average, isotopically similar to those from lower grade or unmetamorphosed limestones of the same age showing that no large isotopic shifts accompanied high grade metamorphism. Equilibrium calculations indicate that small decreases in ??18O, averaging 1 permil, result from volatilization reactions for Adirondack rock compositions. Additional small differences between amphibolite and granulite facies marbles are due to systematic lithologie differences. The range of Adirondack carbonate ??18O values (12.3 to 27.2) can be explained by the highly variable isotopic compositions of unmetamorphosed limestones in conjunction with minor 18O and 13C depletions caused by metamorphic volatilization suggesting that many (and possibly most) marbles have closely preserved their

  17. Fish population losses from Adirondack Lakes: The role of surface water acidity and acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Joan P.; Warren-Hicks, William J.; Gallagher, James; Christensen, Sigurd W.

    1993-04-01

    Changes over time in the species composition of fish communities in Adirondack lakes were assessed to determine (1) the approximate numbers offish populations that have been lost and (2) the degree to which fish population losses may have resulted from surface water acidification and acidic deposition. Information on the present-day status offish communities was obtained by the Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation, which surveyed 1469 Adirondack lakes in 1984-1987 (53% of the total ponded waters in the Adirondack ecological zone). Two hundred and ninety-five of these lakes had been surveyed in 1929-1934 during the first statewide biological survey; 720 had been surveyed in one or more years prior to 1970. Sixteen to 19% of the lakes with adequate historical data appeared to have lost one or more fish populations as a result of acidification. Brook trout and acid-sensitive minnow species had experienced the most widespread effects. Populations of brook trout and acid-sensitive minnows had been lost apparently as a result of acidification from 11% and 19%, respectively, of the lakes with confirmed historical occurrence of these taxa. By contrast, fish species that tend to occur primarily in lower elevation and larger lakes, such as largemouth and smallmouth bass and brown trout, have experienced little to no documented adverse effects. Lakes that were judged to have lost fish populations as a result of acidification had significantly lower; pH and, in most cases, also had higher estimated concentrations of inorganic aluminum and occurred at higher elevations than did lakes with the