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Sample records for adirondack sleeping shelter

  1. 4. INTERIOR VIEW OF SLEEPING SHELTER SHOWING STORAGE LOCKERS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW OF SLEEPING SHELTER SHOWING STORAGE LOCKERS IN CENTER PORTION WITH SLEEPING BUNKS AT EACH END - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

  2. 1. FRONT VIEW SHOWING MAIN FACADE OF SHELTER WITH SPLIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FRONT VIEW SHOWING MAIN FACADE OF SHELTER WITH SPLIT SHAKES AND LOG BEAM SUPPORTS AND PORCH STEP; NOTE SHELTER NAME 'LAFITTE' OVER EYEBROW - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

  3. 3. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SLEEPING BUNKS AT ONE END AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SLEEPING BUNKS AT ONE END AND STORAGE LOCKER AT RIGHT - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

  4. Association between shelter crowding and incidence of sleep disturbance among disaster evacuees: a retrospective medical chart review study

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Takahisa; Nishiyama, Kei; Morita, Hiroshi; Yamamura, Osamu; Hiraide, Atsuchi; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined whether crowding at emergency shelters is associated with a higher incidence of sleep disturbance among disaster evacuees and identified the minimum required personal space at shelters. Design Retrospective review of medical charts. Setting 30 shelter-based medical clinics in Ishinomaki, Japan, during the 46 days following the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011. Participants Shelter residents who visited eligible clinics. Outcome measures Based on the result of a locally weighted scatter-plot smoothing technique assessing the relationship between the mean space per evacuee and cumulative incidence of sleep disturbance at the shelter, eligible shelters were classified into crowded and non-crowded shelters. The cumulative incidence per 1000 evacuees was compared between groups, using a Mann-Whitney U test. To assess the association between shelter crowding and the daily incidence of sleep disturbance per 1000 evacuees, quasi–least squares method adjusting for potential confounders was used. Results The 30 shelters were categorised as crowded (mean space per evacuee <5.0 m2, 9 shelters) or non-crowded (≥5.0 m2, 21 shelters). The study included 9031 patients. Among the eligible patients, 1079 patients (11.9%) were diagnosed with sleep disturbance. Mean space per evacuee during the study period was 3.3 m2 (SD, 0.8 m2) at crowded shelters and 8.6 m2 (SD, 4.3 m2) at non-crowded shelters. The median cumulative incidence of sleep disturbance did not differ between the crowded shelters (2.3/1000 person-days (IQR, 1.6–5.4)) and non-crowded shelters (1.9/1000 person-days (IQR, 1.0–2.8); p=0.20). In contrast, after adjusting for potential confounders, crowded shelters had an increased daily incidence of sleep disturbance (2.6 per 1000 person-days; 95% CI 0.2 to 5.0/1000 person-days, p=0.03) compared to that at non-crowded shelters. Conclusions Crowding at shelters may exacerbate sleep disruptions in disaster

  5. Can Sleep and Resting Behaviours Be Used as Indicators of Welfare in Shelter Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)?

    PubMed

    Owczarczak-Garstecka, Sara C; Burman, Oliver H P

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on humans and animals suggests that the analysis of sleep patterns may reliably inform us about welfare status, but little research of this kind has been carried out for non-human animals in an applied context. This study explored the use of sleep and resting behaviour as indicators of welfare by describing the activity patterns of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) housed in rescue shelters, and comparing their sleep patterns to other behavioural and cognitive measures of welfare. Sleep and activity patterns were observed over five non-consecutive days in a population of 15 dogs. Subsequently, the characteristics of sleep and resting behaviour were described and the impact of activity on patterns of sleep and resting behaviour analysed. Shelter dogs slept for 2.8% of the day, 14.3% less than previously reported and experienced less sleep fragmentation at night (32 sleep bouts). There were no statistically significant relationships between behaviours exhibited during the day and sleep behaviour. A higher proportion of daytime resting behaviour was significantly associated with a positive judgement bias, less repetitive behaviour and increased time spent coded as 'relaxed' across days by shelter staff. These results suggest that, in the context of a busy shelter environment, the ability to rest more during the day could be a sign of improved welfare. Considering the non-linear relationship between sleep and welfare in humans, the relationship between sleep and behavioural indicators of welfare, including judgement bias, in shelter dogs may be more complex than this study could detect.

  6. Effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and sleep patterns of abused women in shelters.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ruiz, Eugenia

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a music therapy procedure (music listening paired with progressive muscle relaxation) on the reduction of anxiety and improvement of sleep patterns in abused women in shelters. Twenty-eight women residing in 2 domestic violence shelters in a Midwestern city met with the researcher on 5 consecutive days for half-hour sessions. A pretest-posttest design with control and experimental groups was used. The dependent variables included: stait anxiety measured by the STAI (Spielberger et al., 1983) before and after each music stimulus, sleep quality as measured by the PSQI (Buysse et al., 1989) on the first and last sessions, and levels of fatigue as measured by the Fatigue Scale (Lee, 1992) at waking time. The independent variable was a 20-minute recording of participant-selected music with a Progressive Muscle Relaxation script. Results indicated that music therapy constituted an effective method for reducing anxiety levels. Results also indicated a significant effect on sleep quality for the experimental group, but not for the control group. No significant relationships were found between anxiety levels and sleep quality, nor fatigue levels and sleep quality. These results seem promising in the light of domestic violence research, which has found that a greater amount of personal resources is a crucial aspect of abused women's recovery process. Reduction of anxiety and improvement of sleep quality can be considered as increased personal resources, and seem feasible through the use of music therapy.

  7. Can Sleep and Resting Behaviours Be Used as Indicators of Welfare in Shelter Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)?

    PubMed Central

    Owczarczak-Garstecka, Sara C.; Burman, Oliver H. P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on humans and animals suggests that the analysis of sleep patterns may reliably inform us about welfare status, but little research of this kind has been carried out for non-human animals in an applied context. This study explored the use of sleep and resting behaviour as indicators of welfare by describing the activity patterns of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) housed in rescue shelters, and comparing their sleep patterns to other behavioural and cognitive measures of welfare. Sleep and activity patterns were observed over five non-consecutive days in a population of 15 dogs. Subsequently, the characteristics of sleep and resting behaviour were described and the impact of activity on patterns of sleep and resting behaviour analysed. Shelter dogs slept for 2.8% of the day, 14.3% less than previously reported and experienced less sleep fragmentation at night (32 sleep bouts). There were no statistically significant relationships between behaviours exhibited during the day and sleep behaviour. A higher proportion of daytime resting behaviour was significantly associated with a positive judgement bias, less repetitive behaviour and increased time spent coded as ‘relaxed’ across days by shelter staff. These results suggest that, in the context of a busy shelter environment, the ability to rest more during the day could be a sign of improved welfare. Considering the non-linear relationship between sleep and welfare in humans, the relationship between sleep and behavioural indicators of welfare, including judgement bias, in shelter dogs may be more complex than this study could detect. PMID:27732667

  8. Sleep in a Gymnasium: A Study to Examine the Psychophysiological and Environmental Conditions in Shelter-Analogue Settings

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Koh; Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Tanabe, Motoko; Niwano, Katsuko

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine sleep in shelter-analogue settings to determine the sleep and environmental conditions in evacuation shelters. A summer social/educational event was conducted in an elementary school, wherein children and their parents (n = 109) spent one night in the school gymnasium; a total of 15 children and 7 adults completed the study. Data were recording using wrist actigraphy and questionnaires, from two days before the event to two days after the event. During the night in the gymnasium, sleep initiation in the children was found to be significantly delayed, whereas adults did not show any significant change in actigraphic sleep parameters. Although 57% of adults complained of stiffness of the floor, only 7% of children had the same complaint. The nocturnal noise recorded at four locations in the gymnasium showed that the percentage of 1-min data epochs with a noise level >40 dB ranged from 53% to 74% during lights-out. The number of subjects that woke up during the night showed a similar pattern with the changes in the noise level. The changes in sleep might represent event-specific responses, such as to a noisy environment, and the different complaints between adults and children could be useful in shelter management. PMID:27916912

  9. Sleep in a Gymnasium: A Study to Examine the Psychophysiological and Environmental Conditions in Shelter-Analogue Settings.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Koh; Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Tanabe, Motoko; Niwano, Katsuko

    2016-11-30

    We aimed to examine sleep in shelter-analogue settings to determine the sleep and environmental conditions in evacuation shelters. A summer social/educational event was conducted in an elementary school, wherein children and their parents (n = 109) spent one night in the school gymnasium; a total of 15 children and 7 adults completed the study. Data were recording using wrist actigraphy and questionnaires, from two days before the event to two days after the event. During the night in the gymnasium, sleep initiation in the children was found to be significantly delayed, whereas adults did not show any significant change in actigraphic sleep parameters. Although 57% of adults complained of stiffness of the floor, only 7% of children had the same complaint. The nocturnal noise recorded at four locations in the gymnasium showed that the percentage of 1-min data epochs with a noise level >40 dB ranged from 53% to 74% during lights-out. The number of subjects that woke up during the night showed a similar pattern with the changes in the noise level. The changes in sleep might represent event-specific responses, such as to a noisy environment, and the different complaints between adults and children could be useful in shelter management.

  10. Adirondack's Inner Self

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This spectrum - the first taken of a rock on another planet - reveals the different iron-containing minerals that makeup the martian rock dubbed Adirondack. It shows that Adirondack is a type of volcanic rock known as basalt. Specifically, the rock is what is called olivine basalt because in addition to magnetite and pyroxene, two key ingredients of basalt, it contains a mineral called olivine. This data was acquired by Spirit's Moessbauer spectrometer before the rover developed communication problems with Earth on the 18th martian day, or sol, of its mission.

  11. Adirondack Under the Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit front hazard-identification camera after the rover's first post-egress drive on Mars Sunday, Jan. 15, 2004. Engineers drove the rover approximately 3 meters (10 feet) from the Columbia Memorial Station toward the first rock target, seen in the foreground. The football-sized rock was dubbed Adirondack because of its mountain-shaped appearance. Scientists have begun using the microscopic imager instrument at the end of the rover's robotic arm to examine the rock and understand how it formed.

  12. Adirondack Under the Microscope-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This overhead look at the martian rock dubbed Adirondack was captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera. It shows the approximate region where the rover's microscopic imager began its first close-up inspection.

  13. Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... is REM sleep? What is the effect of sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? ... is REM sleep? What is the effect of sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? ...

  14. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  15. Adirondack tourism: perceived consequences of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, W.C.

    1984-03-01

    This report seeks to place in perspective the perceived effects of acid precipitation on the tourist industry in the Adirondacks. The 9375-square mile park is host to almost nine million tourists annually, not including seasonal residents. Since the park was established almost 100 years ago, there have been many changes in tourist characteristics, available recreational facilities, kinds of activities, accessibility of the area, and land use and resource management policies. The tourist industry has been influenced by both controllable and uncontrollable factors. At present the overwhelming majority of recreational opportunities and natural resources important to the Adirondack tourist industry are relatively unaffected by acid precipitation. Fishing, a significant component of the tourist industry, is the most vulnerable, but any presumed adverse economic effect has to be weighed against the location of the impacted waters, total Adirondack fishing habitat, substitution available, habitat usage, fisherman characteristics, resource management, and the declining importance of fishing as an Adirondack recreational attraction. Concern is expressed as to whether present minimal acidification impacts are the precursor of major future impacts on Adirondack terrestrial and aquatic environments, and ultimately tourism. Tourism in the Adirondacks is increasing, while many other regional employment sectors are declining. It is becoming a more stable multiseason industry. Its future growth and character will be affected by government, private organization, business community, and resident controversies regarding land use and resource management attitudes, policies, budgets, and regulations. The acid precipitation issue is only one of many related controversies. 65 references, 2 figures.

  16. Chemical characteristics of Adirondack lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, C.T.; Newton, R.M.

    1985-11-01

    This paper discussed the role of atmospheric deposition of mineral acids in the acidification of low-ionic-strength (dilute) surface waters in remote regions. Surface water acidification has been attributed to the atmospheric deposition of sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and nitric acid, the oxidation of organic nitrogen from the soil, the production of soluble organic acids through the decay of dead plants and animals in soil, the oxidation of naturally occurring sulfide minerals, and the changes in land use. The research reported here was conducted as part of the Regionalized Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (RILWAS). The intent was to evaluate the general chemical characteristics of lakes in the Adirondack region of New York and to access the mechanisms that regulate the acid-base chemistry of these waters. 36 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Episodic acidification of Adirondack lakes during snowmelt

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, D.A.; Driscoll, C.T.; Van Dreason, R.; Yatsko, C.P.

    1990-07-01

    Maximum values of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in Adirondack, New York lake outlets generally occur during summer and autumn. During spring snowmelt, transport of acidic water through acid-sensitive watersheds causes depression of upper lake water ANC. In some systems lake outlet ANC reaches negative values. The authors examined outlet water chemistry from II Adirondack lakes during 1986 and 1987 snowmelts. In these lakes, SO concentrations were diluted during snowmelt and did not depress ANC. For lakes with high baseline ANC values, springtime ANC depressions were primarily accompanied by basic cation dilution. For lakes with low baseline ANC, No increases dominated ANC depressions. Lakes with intermediate baseline ANC were affected by both processes and exhibited larger ANC depressions. Ammonium dilution only affected wetland systems. A model predicting a linear relationship between outlet water ANC minima and autumn ANC was inappropriate. To assess watershed response to episodic acidification, hydrologic flow paths must be considered. (Copyright (c) 1990 by the American Geophysical Union.)

  18. Fluid-absent metamorphism in the Adirondacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valley, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Results on late Proterozoic metamorphism of granulite in the Adirondacks are presented. There more than 20,000 sq km of rock are at granulite facies. Low water fugacites are implied by orthopyroxene bearing assemblages and by stability of k'spar-plag-quartz assemblages. After mentioning the popular concept of infiltration of carbon dioxide into Precambrian rocks and attendent generation of granulite facies assemblages, several features of Adirondack rocks pertinent to carbon dioxide and water during their metamorphism are summarized: wollastonite occurs in the western lowlands; contact metamorphism by anorthosite preceeding granulite metamorphism is indicated by oxygen isotopes. Oxygen fugacity lies below that of the QFM buffer; total P sub water + P sub carbon dioxide determined from monticellite bearing assemblages are much less than P sub total (7 to 7.6 kb). These and other features indicate close spatial association of high- and low-P sub carbon dioxide assemblages and that a vapor phase was not present during metamorphism. Thus Adirondack rocks were not infiltrated by carbon dioxide vapor. Their metamorphism, at 625 to 775 C, occurred either when the protoliths were relatively dry or after dessication occurred by removal of a partial melt phase.

  19. Mercury contribution to an adirondack lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrudato, R. J.; Long, D.; Weinbloom, Robert

    1987-10-01

    Elevated copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in the upper 10 to 20 cm of sediment sampled from Cranberry Lake, a large Adirondack lake, are attributed to atmospheric contributions. Pb-210 and pollen core data, however, suggest Cranberry Lake also received mercury discharges during the turn of the century when the area was the center of extensive lumbering and related activities. Elevated mercury concentrations in Cranberry Lake smallmouth bass derived from remobilization from mercury-contaminated bottom sediments which increased the bioavailability to Cranberry Lake organisms. Mercury remobilization and accumulation by fish are promoted by fluctuating pH values resulting from acid precipilation.

  20. Mercury contribution to an Adirondack lake

    SciTech Connect

    Scrudato, R.J. ); Long, D. ); Weinbloom, R. )

    1987-01-01

    Elevated copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in the upper 10 to 20 cm of sediment sampled from Cranberry Lake, a large Adirondack lake, are attributed to atmospheric contributions. Pb-210 and pollen core data, however, suggest Cranberry Lake also received mercury discharges during the turn of the century when the area was the center of extensive lumbering and related activities. Elevated mercury concentrations in Cranberry Lake smallmouth bass derived from remobilization from mercury-contaminated bottom sediments which increased the bioavailability to Cranberry Lake organisms. Mercury remobilization and accumulation by fish are promoted by fluctuating pH values resulting from acid precipitation.

  1. Spirit Takes a Turn for Adirondack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This rear hazard-identification camera image looks back at the circular tracks made in the martian soil when the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove about 3 meters (10 feet) toward the mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack, Spirit's first rock target. Spirit made a series of arcing turns totaling approximately 1 meter (3 feet). It then turned in place and made a series of short, straightforward movements totaling approximately 2 meters (6.5 feet). The drive took about 30 minutes to complete, including time stopped to take images. The two rocks in the upper left corner of the image are called 'Sashimi' and 'Sushi.' In the upper right corner is a portion of the lander, now known as the Columbia Memorial Station.

  2. Rapid deployment shelter system

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2006-10-10

    A shelter for the protection of for the protection of persons, animals, equipment, materials, property, and similar things of value from potentially damaging environmental conditions is disclosed. Various embodiments include the use of a frame structure and hinged panels which are unfolded to create the walls of the structure. Optionally flexible surfaces may be added to the ends of the shelter to at least partially close the end of the shelter.

  3. Lunar Shelter Habitability Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. Samuel; Loats, Harry L., Jr.; Hay, George M.

    1971-01-01

    Results are reported of an Investigation to determine the capability of pressure suited personnel to deploy lunar shelter/airlock structures install mockup life support, power and miscellaneous equipment within and outside the shelter, and adequately utilize this equipment after installation. Information was obtained on: (1) dimensional requirements for lunar shelter interiors, hatches, and airlocks, (2) limitations imposed on lunar shelter design by pressure suited crewmen, (3) times associated with various work tasks, and (4) redesign recommendations for a lunar stay time extension module (STEM).

  4. Acid Rain Effects on Adirondack Streams - Results from the 2003-05 Western Adirondack Stream Survey (the WASS Project)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Roy, Karen M.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, Howard A.; Passy, Sophia I.; Bode, Robert W.; Capone, Susan B.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally lakes have been the focus of acid rain assessments in the Adirondack region of New York. However, there is a growing recognition of the importance of streams as environmental indicators. Streams, like lakes, also provide important aquatic habitat, but streams more closely reflect acid rain effects on soils and forests and are more prone to acidification than lakes. Therefore, a large-scale assessment of streams was undertaken in the drainage basins of the Oswegatchie and Black Rivers; an area of 4,585 km2 in the western Adirondack region where acid rain levels tend to be highest in New York State.

  5. Nuclear effects hardened shelters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindke, Paul

    1990-11-01

    The Houston Fearless 76 Government Projects Group has been actively engaged for more than twenty-five years as a sub-contractor and currently as a prime contractor in the design, manufacture, repair and logistics support of custom mobile ground stations and their equipment accommodations. Other associated products include environmental control units (ECU's), mobilizers for shelters and a variety of mobile power generation units (MPU's). Since 1984, Houston Fearless 76 has designed and manufactured four 8' x 8' x 22' nuclear hardened mobile shelters. These shelters were designed to contain electronic data processing/reduction equipment. One shelter is currently being operated by the Air Force as a Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) approved and certified Special Corrpartmented Information Facility (SCIF). During the development and manufacturing process of the shelters, we received continual technical assistance and design concept evaluations from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Operations Analysis and Logistics Engineering Division and the Nondestructive Inspection Lab at McClellan AFB. SAIC was originally employed by the Air Force to design the nuclear hardening specifications applied to these shelters. The specific levels of hardening to which the shelters were designed are classified and will not be mentioned during this presentation.

  6. Deployable Temporary Shelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Joe R.; Headley, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Compact storable components expand to create large shelter. Fully deployed structure provides large, unobstructed bay. Deployed trusses support wall and roof blankets. Provides temporary cover for vehicles, people, and materials. Terrestrial version used as garage, hangar, or large tent.

  7. Evacuation and Community Shelters

    MedlinePlus

    Evacuation and community shelters − Leave natural gas on unless local officials advise otherwise. Local government officials issue evacuation orders when disaster threatens. Listen to local radio and TV ...

  8. A comparison of the temporally integrated monitoring of ecosystems and Adirondack Long Term-Monitoring programs in the Adirondack Mountain region of New Yrok

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper compares lake chemistry in the Adirondack region of New York measured by the Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) and Adirondack Long-Term Monitoring (ALTM) programs by examining the data from six lakes common to both programs. Both programs were initi...

  9. Contemporary doming of the Adirondack mountains: Further evidence from releveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isachsen, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The Adirondack Mountains constitute an anomalously large, domical uplift on the Appalachian foreland. The dome has a NNE-SSW axis about 190 km long, and an east-west dimension of about 140 km. It has a structural relief of at least 1600 m, and a local topographic relief of up to 1200 m. First-order leveling in 1955, and again in 1973 along a north-south line at the eastern margin of the Adirondack shows an uplift rate of 2.2 mm/yr at the latitude of the center of the dome and a subsidence rate of 2.8 mm/yr at the northern end of the line near the Canadian border. The net amount of arching along this releveled line is 9 cm ?? 2 cm (Isachsen, 1975). To test the idea that this arching represented an "edge effect" of contemporary doming of the Adirondacks as a whole, the National Geodetic Survey was encouraged to relevel a 1931 north-south line between Utica and Fort Covington (near the Canadian border) which crosses the center of the dome. The releveling showed that the mountain mass is undergoing contemporary domical uplift at a rate which reaches 3.7 mm/yr near the center of the dome (compare with 1 mm/yr for the Swiss Alps). Three other releveled lines in the area support this conclusion. ?? 1981.

  10. Advanced, Energy Efficient Shelter Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-02

    Development Analysis, M&S Thermal Barriers Large Shelter Efficiency System Integration Follow-On Demonstrations Lessons Learned from Initial...UNCLASSIFIED 13 Technology Development: Thermal Barriers Objective: Address the enduring challenge of developing a thermal insulation for shelter systems

  11. Sheltering Retirement Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, E. Lewis; Cash, L. Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Eligibility for an IRA has been severely changed by the Tax Reform Act of 1986. In 1987 educators who have a retirement plan administered by their employer will face new eligibility rules. For self-employment income, a Keogh plan is an excellent way to shelter income and provide retirement income. (MLW)

  12. Survey of animal shelter managers regarding shelter veterinary medical services.

    PubMed

    Laderman-Jones, B E; Hurley, K F; Kass, P H

    2016-04-01

    Veterinary services are increasingly used in animal shelters, and shelter medicine is an emerging veterinary specialty. However, little is known about working relationships between animal shelters and veterinarians. The aims of this survey were to characterize working relationships that shelter personnel have and want with veterinarians, identify opinions that shelter managers have regarding the veterinarians they work with, and determine areas for relationship growth between veterinarians and shelter managers. An electronic survey was distributed to 1373 managers of North American animal shelters; 536 (39.0%) responded. Almost all shelters had some veterinary relationship, and most had regular relationships with veterinarians. The proportion of shelters that used local clinics (73.9%) was significantly higher than the proportion that retained on-site paid veterinarians (48.5%). The proportion of respondents who did not have but wanted a paid on-site veterinarian (42%) was significantly higher than the proportion of respondents who did not use local clinics but wanted to (7.9%). These data suggest shelter managers valued veterinary relationships, and wished to expand on-site veterinary services. Almost all shelters in this study provided some veterinary care, and all respondents identified at least one common infectious disease, which, for most, had a substantial negative impact on shelter successes. Respondents indicated that the most important roles and greatest expertise of veterinarians were related to surgery, diagnosis and treatment of individual animals. Education of both veterinarians and shelter managers may help ensure that shelters benefit from the full range of services veterinarians can provide, including expertise in disease prevention and animal behavior.

  13. Shelter for the Sky

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieman, Eric A.

    2007-07-01

    A solemn ceremony in Slavutich Ukraine on April 26th 2007 marked the twenty-first anniversary of the most catastrophic accident in the history of commercial nuclear power. Significant progress has recently been made toward transformation of Chernobyl to an environmentally sound site. Many readers will recall that in only eight months following the 1986 accident, the Soviets constructed an enormous facility to contain the radioactive contamination in the remains of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit-4. Popularly known as the “sarcophagus”, but correctly referred to as the “Object Shelter”, it has deteriorated with time and is now in danger of collapse. STABILIZATION Several measures to structurally stabilize the Object Shelter and prevent its collapse have recently been completed. These measures are the largest construction projects undertaken in the local zone since the completion of the Object Shelter. The most significant risk reduction was accomplished by Measure-2 in December 2006. Stabilization

  14. Protective Vertical Shelters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-29

    on Generic MX Structures" by John Betz. 5. (AFCMD/82-013) "Finite Element Dynamic Analysis of th, DCT-2 Models" by Barry Bingham . 61 (AFCMD/82-017) "MX...facility to define the HEST structure for the GOVS tests. A SAMSON dynamic finite-element computer code provided pretest predictions of strdsses and...as piecewise linear, elastic- plastic materials. TEST DESCRIPTION Shel ter Models The generic MX vertical shelter is basically a large, reinforced

  15. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Michael B.; Dennison, Deborah; Kane, Jave; Walker, Hoyt; Miller, Paul

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  16. Drainage basin control of acid loadings to two Adirondack lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booty, W. G.; Depinto, J. V.; Scheffe, R. D.

    1988-07-01

    Two adjacent Adirondack Park (New York) calibrated watersheds (Woods Lake and Cranberry Pond), which receive identical atmospheric inputs, generate significantly different unit area of watershed loading rates of acidity to their respective lakes. A watershed acidification model is used to evaluate the watershed parameters which are responsible for the observed differences in acid loadings to the lakes. The greater overall mean depth of overburden on Woods Lake watershed, which supplies a greater buffer capacity as well as a longer retention time of groundwater, appears to be the major factor responsible for the differences.

  17. Airborne geophysical surveys over the eastern Adirondacks, New York State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Anjana K.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne geophysical surveys were conducted in the eastern Adirondacks from Dec. 7, 2015 - Dec. 21, 2015, by Goldak Airborne Surveys. The area was flown along a draped surface with a nominal survey height above ground of 200 meters. The flight line spacing was 250 meters for traverse lines and 2500 meters for control lines. Here we present downloadable magnetic and radiometric (gamma spectrometry) data from those surveys as image (Geotiff) and flight line data (csv format).BackgroundThe Eastern Adirondacks region was known for iron mining in the 1800's and 1900's but it also contains deposits of rare earth minerals. Rare earth minerals are used in advanced technology such as in cell phones, rechargeable batteries and super-magnets. In many areas rare earth minerals appear to be associated with iron ore.The surveys were flown in order to map geologic variations in three dimensions. Magnetic surveys measure subtle changes in Earth's magnetic field that reflect different types of buried rock, such as iron-rich ore bodies. Radiometric methods detect naturally occurring gamma particles. The energy spectra of these particles can be used to estimate relative amounts of potassium, uranium and thorium (also referred to as gamma ray spectrometry), which are sometimes associated with rare earth elements. Together, these data provide insights into the regional tectonic and magmatic history as well as mineral resources in the area.

  18. Decline of red spruce in the Adirondacks, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.T.; Siccama, T.G.; Johnson, A.H.; Breisch, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-two stands in the spruce-fir forests of Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks, originally sampled from 1964-66, were resurveyed in 1982. From 10-25 Bitterlich points were used in each stand in 1982 to obtain an estimate of basal area per hectare. Data were summarized for low elevation (<900m) and high elevation (> or = 900m) forests. Red spruce declined by 40-60% in basal area for the low elevation forests and by 60-70% above 900m. Balsam fir decreased by 35% at high elevations, due to natural disturbance in several of the stands, but was unchanged when only undisturbed stands were considered. The decline of red spruce accounted for about three quarters of the total decrease in basal area for both the high- and low-elevation forests. Spruce seedling frequency for the high-elevation sample decreased by 80%, but was unchanged below 900m. The pattern of spruce decline in the Adirondacks is similar to findings for New England. The cause of the decline is speculative at the time.

  19. Diatom diversity in chronically versus episodically acidified adirondack streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passy, S.I.; Ciugulea, I.; Lawrence, G.B.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between algal species richness and diversity, and pH is controversial. Furthermore, it is still unknown how episodic stream acidification following atmospheric deposition affects species richness and diversity. Here we analyzed water chemistry and diatom epiphyton dynamics and showed their contrasting behavior in chronically vs. episodically acidic streams in the Adirondack region. Species richness and diversity were significantly higher in the chronically acidic brown water stream, where organic acidity was significantly higher and the ratio of inorganic to organic monomeric aluminum significantly lower. Conversely, in the episodically acidic clear water stream, the inorganic acidity and pH were significantly higher and the diatom communities were very species-poor. This suggests that episodic acidification in the Adirondacks may be more stressful for stream biota than chronic acidity. Strong negative linear relationships between species diversity, Eunotia exigua, and dissolved organic carbon against pH were revealed after the influence of non-linear temporal trends was partialled out using a novel way of temporal modeling. ?? 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  20. Fallout sheltering: is it feasible?

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, R; Ring, J

    1987-03-01

    The feasibility of sheltering the U.S. population from fallout resulting from a large-scale nuclear attack is assessed using a mathematical model. The model is used to calculate the reduction in cumulative dose received by a sheltered survivor, as a function of five adjustable parameters. Three time periods are postulated: time in the shelter, a transition period during which time out of the shelter increases and a final period in which half the time is spent outside the shelter. The parameters are varied independently, and the resulting dose reduction factor is compared with what seems to be necessary for survival in different regions of the country under the postulated attack. Another model developed by K.S. Gant and C.V. Chester is compared with this one. Similarities and differences are pointed out, and where possible the results of the two are checked for compatibility. An important question addressed in this paper is whether under the conditions of a large-scale nuclear attack sheltering a relatively unprepared population is at all feasible. Sensitivity tests of the various parameters in our model show that relatively low protection factor areas such as basements or inner rooms already existing in homes or other buildings could quite adequately serve as shelters for most of the area of the contiguous United States. Furthermore, continuous stays in these shelters of more than three weeks do not seem to be necessary for these large parts of the United States.

  1. Fallout sheltering: is it feasible

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.; Ring, J.

    1987-03-01

    The feasibility of sheltering the U.S. population from fallout resulting from a large-scale nuclear attack is assessed using a mathematical model. The model is used to calculate the reduction in cumulative dose received by a sheltered survivor, as a function of five adjustable parameters. Three time periods are postulated: time in the shelter, a transition period during which time out of the shelter increases and a final period in which half the time is spent outside the shelter. The parameters are varied independently, and the resulting dose reduction factor is compared with what seems to be necessary for survival in different regions of the country under the postulated attack. Another model developed by K.S. Gant and C.V. Chester is compared with this one. Similarities and differences are pointed out, and where possible the results of the two are checked for compatibility. An important question addressed in this paper is whether under the conditions of a large-scale nuclear attack sheltering a relatively unprepared population is at all feasible. Sensitivity tests of the various parameters in our model show that relatively low protection factor areas such as basements or inner rooms already existing in homes or other buildings could quite adequately serve as shelters for most of the area of the contiguous United States. Furthermore, continuous stays in these shelters of more than three weeks do not seem to be necessary for these large parts of the United States.

  2. Sheltered Instruction Techniques for ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pray, Lisa; Monhardt, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The suggestions described here to adapt instruction for English Language Learners (ELLs) are based on the concept of "sheltered instruction," a model of language-support methods for instruction for ELLs derived primarily through the Sheltered Instruction Observational Protocol (SIOP) developed by Jana Echevarria, Mary Ellen Vogt, and Deborah Short…

  3. AIRCRAFT SHELTER-DICE THROW Data Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    SHELTER-OICE THROW Test Site Layout for 9 AFWL Test Structures 4 AIRCRAFT SHELTER-DICE THROW ANFO Charge Configuration 10 5 Upgraded Aircraft Shelter...including Ilast pressures, accelerometers, velocity gages, displacement gages, and strain gages. Four pressure sensitive gages were also installed in the...approximately 150 meters (500 ft). This shelter is the same as Shelter "$", but with a heavy overlay of concrete. As with Shelter "B", end walls were

  4. Adirondack lakes survey: An interpretive analysis of fish communities and water chemistry, 1984--1987

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.P. , Raleigh, NC ); Gherini, S.A.; Munson, R.K. ); Christensen, S.W. ); Driscoll, C.T. ); Gallagher, J. ); Newton, R.M. ); Reckhow, K.H. ); Schofield, C.L. (Co

    1990-01-01

    The Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC) was formed as a cooperative effort of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation to better characterize the chemical and biological status of Adirondack lakes. Between 1984 and 1987, the ALSC surveyed 1469 lakes within the Adirondack ecological zone. As a follow-up to the survey, the ALSC sponsored a series of interpretive analyses of the ALSC data base. The primary objectives of these analyses were as follows: Evaluate the influence of mineral acids (from acidic deposition) and nonmineral acids (natural organic acids) on lake pH levels; classify Adirondack lakes according to lake and watershed features expected to influence their responsiveness to changes in acidic deposition; evaluate the sensitivity of Adirondack lakes to changes in environmental conditions, such as changes in mineral acids or dissolved organic carbon concentrations; identify lake characteristics important in explaining the observed present-day status of fish communities in Adirondack lakes, in particular the relative importance of lake acidity; evaluate changes that have occurred over time in Adirondack fish communities and probable causes for these trends by using the available historical data on fish communities in the Adirondacks and the ALSC data base; and determine the degree to which the existing fish resource might be at risk from continued acidic deposition, or might recover if acidity levels were reduced. The basic approach examined relationships observed in the ALSC data base among watershed characteristics, lake chemistry, and fish status. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  5. Oxygen isotope evidence for shallow emplacement of Adirondack anorthosite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valley, J.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic analysis of wollastonites from the Willsboro Mine, Adirondack Mountains, New York reveals a 400-ft wide zone of 18O depletion at anorthosite contacts. Values of ??18O vary more sharply with distance and are lower (to -1.3) than any yet reported for a granulite fades terrain. Exchange with circulating hot meteoric water best explains these results and implies that the anorthosite was emplaced at relatively shallow depths, <10 km, in marked contrast to the depth of granulite fades metamorphism (23 km). These 18O depletions offer the first strong evidence for shallow emplacement of anorthosite within the Grenville Province and suggest that regional metamorphism was a later and tectonically distinct event. ?? 1982 Nature Publishing Group.

  6. Post-granulite facies fluid infiltration in the Adirondack Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.; Valley, J.W.

    1988-06-01

    Granulite facies lithologies from the Adirondack Mountains of New York contain alteration assemblages composed dominantly of calcite +/- chlorite +/- sericite. These assemblages document fluid infiltration at middle to upper crustal levels. Cathodoluminescence of samples from the Marcy anorthosite massif indicates that the late fluid infiltration is more widespread than initially indicated by transmitted-light petrography alone. Samples that appear unaltered in transmitted light show extensive anastomosing veins of calcite (< 0.05 mm wide) along grain boundaries, in crosscutting fractures, and along mineral cleavages. The presence of the retrograde calcite documents paleopermeability in crystalline rocks and is related to the formation of high-density CO/sub 2/-rich fluid inclusions. Recognition of this process has important implications for studies of granulite genesis and the geophysical properties of the crust.

  7. Non-primary layering in some Adirondack orthogneisses

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, R.; McLelland, J.; Ritter, A. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Metamorphic, as opposed to primary, layering has been shown to be important in many tectonites. Within orthogneisses additional types of non-primary layering are common and have important genetic implications. Here the authors cite three Adirondack examples. (1) Hyde School Gneiss of the Adirondack Lowlands contains semi-continuous layers of foliated amphibolite arranged parallel to contacts and early foliation and disrupted by pegmatitic, alaskitic, and tonalitic host rock. Layering appears to be the result of penetration of amphibolite by granitoid magma first along extensional fractures and then parallel to foliation. Intrusion is envisaged to take place in active shear zones initially occupied by foliated amphibolite that is subsequently penetrated parallel to foliation by granitoids. (2) South of Elizabethtown foliated, isoclinally folded gabbroic anorthosite is well layered with garnetiferous amphibolite, quartz-feldspar gneiss, and calcsilicate. Because of rock composition, the layering cannot be due to metavolcanic sequences nor can disruption be attributed to partial melting. A satisfactory interpretation is that gabbroic anorthosite intruded mafic and carbonate-rich rocks in lit-par-lit fashion. (3) North of Speculator a garnetiferous amphibolite/gabbro has been intruded by granite now containing xenoliths, some with ophitic opx. Much of the layering in the granite consists of clots of plagioclase, garnet, pyroxene (chloritized) arranged in parallel. These are interpreted as small xenoliths of garnetiferous amphibolite/gabbro entrained into the granitic magma and strung out in the direction of flow. These examples provide further evidence that layering can develop during magmatic emplacement and need not represent primary stratification. Assignment of a primary origin to such layering necessarily results in misinterpretation of geologic history.

  8. 30 CFR 57.9360 - Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shelter holes. 57.9360 Section 57.9360 Mineral....9360 Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes shall be— (1) Provided at intervals adequate to assure the safety... farthest projection of moving equipment. (b) Shelter holes shall not be used for storage unless a...

  9. 30 CFR 57.9360 - Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shelter holes. 57.9360 Section 57.9360 Mineral....9360 Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes shall be— (1) Provided at intervals adequate to assure the safety... farthest projection of moving equipment. (b) Shelter holes shall not be used for storage unless a...

  10. 30 CFR 57.9360 - Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shelter holes. 57.9360 Section 57.9360 Mineral....9360 Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes shall be— (1) Provided at intervals adequate to assure the safety... farthest projection of moving equipment. (b) Shelter holes shall not be used for storage unless a...

  11. 30 CFR 57.9360 - Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shelter holes. 57.9360 Section 57.9360 Mineral....9360 Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes shall be— (1) Provided at intervals adequate to assure the safety... farthest projection of moving equipment. (b) Shelter holes shall not be used for storage unless a...

  12. 30 CFR 57.9360 - Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shelter holes. 57.9360 Section 57.9360 Mineral....9360 Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes shall be— (1) Provided at intervals adequate to assure the safety... farthest projection of moving equipment. (b) Shelter holes shall not be used for storage unless a...

  13. SOME TRAINING IMPLICATIONS OF LARGE SHELTERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEND, EMIL

    BASED LARGELY ON AIR RESEARCH ON SHELTER MANAGEMENT SIMULATION, AN ANALYSIS WAS MADE OF THE IMPACT OF THE LARGE, COMPLEX SHELTER ON SHELTER MANAGEMENT TRAINING NEEDS. THE LARGE SHELTER REQUIRES THE TYPE OF LEADERSHIP THAT ONLY THOSE WHO ALREADY HAVE SUPERVISORY SKILLS CAN SUPPLY. SUCH PEOPLE ARE NEITHER ATTRACTED NOR HELPED BY THE USUAL SHELTER…

  14. Acidification in the Adirondacks: Defining the Biota in trophic Levels of 30 Chemically Diverse Acid-Impacted Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Adirondack Mountains in New York State have a varied surficial geology and chemically diverse surface waters that are among the most impacted by acid deposition in the U.S. No single Adirondack investigation has been comprehensive in defining the effects of acidification on ...

  15. [Medical and psychological problems relating to emergency shelters in case of war].

    PubMed

    Stoffel, R; Binswanger, R; Kind, H

    1975-02-01

    Modern warfare requires protection of the entire civilian population, and a main feature of Swiss planning is the provision of adequate shelter space for every inhabitant. The medical and psychologic problems of prolonged shelter living are considered, with reference to the literature on experience in other countries. The study centers on description of a shelter occupancy experiment. 25 men with an average age of 37 years spent 7 days in a closed shelter during the hottest part of the year. Floor space was 1.2 m2 and room volume 2.5 m3 per person. The experiment revealed that in-shelter climatic conditions remained tolerable. Initially several members of the group suffered from insomnia and nausea, while sleep disturbances, headache and gastrointestinal symptoms also occurred in the course of the stay. Daily self-rating of condition with appropriate scales showed a positive correlation of "irritability" with air humidity and a negative correlation of "vitality" with room temperature. Good shelter management and a trained leader are essential prerequisites for prolonged shelter occupancy.

  16. Wolf restoration to the Adirondacks: the advantages and disadvantages of public participation in the decision

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Sharpe, V.A.; Norton, B.; Donnelley, S.

    2000-01-01

    The first time I ever saw a wolf in New York State's Adirondack Mountains was in 1956. It was a brush wolf, or coyote (Canis latrans), not a real wolf, but to an eager young wildlife student this distinction meant little. The presence of this large deer-killing canid let my fresh imagination view the Adirondacks as a real northern wilderness. Since then I have spent the last 40 years studying the real wolf: the gray wolf (Canis lupus). Although inhabiting nearby Quebec and Ontario, the gray wolf still has not made its way back to the Adirondacks as it has to Wisconsin, Michigan, and Montana. Those three states had the critical advantages of a nearby reservoir population of wolves and wilderness corridors through which dispersers from the reservoirs could immigrate. The Adirondacks, on the other hand, are geographically more similar to the greater Yellowstone area in that they are separated from any wolf reservoir by long distances and intensively human-developed areas aversive to wolves from the reservoir populations. If wolves are to return to the Adirondacks, they almost certainly will have to be reintroduced, as they were to Yellowstone National Park. Wolf reintroduction, as distinct from natural recovery, is an especially contentious issue, for it entails dramatic, deliberate action that must be open to public scrutiny, thorough discussion and review, and highly polarized debate. This is as it should be because once a wolf population is reintroduced to an area, it must be managed forever. There is no turning back. The wolf was once eradicated not just from the Adirondacks but from almost all of the 48 contiguous states. That feat was accomplished by a primarily pioneering society that applied itself endlessly to the task, armed with poison. We can never return to those days, so once the wolf is reintroduced successfully, it will almost certainly be here to stay.

  17. Shelter upgrading manual: key worker shelters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tansley, R.S.; Bernard, R.D.

    1981-05-01

    This manual is one of a series being developed in support of the civil defense concept of crisis location planning. One basic element of crisis relocation is plant site protection of key industry people who operate essential facilities through a crisis period. The manual is intended to provide a framework for the practical development of key worker shelters by any interested party. The information contained herein was developed under Contract EMW-C-0153, Work Unit 1128A, and is based on previously developed structural information, but has yet to be tested in the field. The manual is designed to be used by planners and plant personnel in risk areas. It presents a methodology for evaluating basement areas and expedient shelters and provides alternative methods to develop the necessary structural upgrading for blast and fallout protection. Expedient shelters are proposed for industries without available basements, and upgrading methods and the resources required for each are presented. Included are sketches and figures that assist in the evaluation of a structure for use as a potential shelter, provide data and charts for closing small openings, and illustrate alternative details of shoring systems. Tables and charts for sizing the shoring or other materials required for each alternative have been provided to simplify applications. The manual is in looseleaf format so that worksheets, tables, and charts can be removed to develop upgrading plans for a specific structure. This format also allows for the insertion of new data and techniques as they become available.

  18. Multi-Hazard Shelter Incentive Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    etc., for the shelter analyst cadre training function are estimated at $1,478,000. (4) FEMA Regional Program Support. Involvement of FEMA Regional ...anticipated that FEMA Regional staff involvement would be primarily directed to the Shelter Advisory Centers and cadre training programs. For a...standard. B-10 Section 11.1. Shock isolation for shelter occupants is not a design requirement. Access and Egress Section 12.0. Public shelters shall have no

  19. Wetland vegetation responses to liming an Adirondack watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Mackun, I.R.

    1993-01-01

    Watershed liming as a long-term mitigation strategy to neutralize lake acidity, from increasing acid deposition, was initiated in North America at Woods Lake in the west central Adirondack region of New York. In October 1989, a dose of 10 MT lime (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) ha[sup [minus]1] was aerially applied to 48% of the watershed. The wetlands adjacent to Woods Lake showed two distinct community types: one dominated by Chamaedaphne calyculata, and one dominated by graminoids and other herbaceous species. Within two years, liming did not alter the structure of either community type, and changed the cover or frequency of only 6 of 64 individual taxa. Most of these changes occurred in the herbaceous community type. The only strong positive response to liming was a nearly threefold increase in cover of the rhizomatous sedge Cladium mariscoides. The cover of Carex interior and Sphagnum spp. benefited from lime addition, while cover of Drosera intermedia and Muhlenbergia uniflora, and frequency of Hypericum canadense responded negatively to lime. Liming influenced the competitive release of only three taxa, all forbs with small growth forms. The tissue chemistry of foliage and twigs of Myrica gale, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and Carex stricta in the Chamaedaphne calyculata community type clearly illustrated species-specific patterns of nutrient accumulation and allocation both before and after liming. Concentrations of 17 of 20 elements responded to liming, although the responses varied among species and plant parts. Carex foliage was least responsive to liming, and Chamaedaphne twigs were most responsive. Elemental changes in plant tissues will be reflected in litter and many influence long-term nutrient dynamics in the wetland community.

  20. Mafic rocks of the Adirondack Highlands: One suite or many

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, P.R. . New York State Museum)

    1993-03-01

    Mafic rocks in the granulite facies terrane of the Adirondack Highlands form at least 3 and possibly as many as 6 groups, based on field, petrographic, and geochemical criteria. Most abundant is the olivine metagabbro-amphibolite group (OMA), equivalent to the mafic suite'' of Olson (J. Petrol. 33:471, 1992). OMA occurs in irregular to tabular bodies, locally with intrusive relations, in all major rock types in the E and central Highlands. OMA is strongly olivine normative and forms a continuous differentiation series (Olson, 1992). Plagioclase-two pyroxene-garnet granulites (PGG) form dikes up to several m wide, in anorthositic host rocks. PGG are ferrogabbroic or ferrodioritic and approximately silica saturated. Two subgroups differ sharply in Mg, P, and trace elements. Ferrodiorite and monzodiorite gneisses (FMG), quartz normative and commonly migmatitic, occur in several large bodies in the NE Highlands and as extensive thin sheets in the W and SE Highlands, in association with anorthositic rocks. Three subgroups are distinguishable using Mg/Fe ratios and trace elements. Major element least-squares modeling suggests that both PGG and FMG could be derived by fractionation of gabbroic anorthosite liquids. A differentiation series is not evident, however, and both trace element (Ba, Rb, Sr, Zr and REE) data and normative plagioclase (An [>=] plag. in anorthosite) indicate a more complex origin. One subgroup of FMG may be early cumulates of the mangerite-charnockite suite. The chemistry of OMA, PGG, and FMG reflects their evolved nature and cannot be readily interpreted in terms of magma sources.

  1. Manganese biogeochemistry in a small Adirondack forested lake watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, James B.

    1986-01-01

    In September and October 1981, manganese (Mn) concentrations and pH were intensively monitored in a small forested lake watershed in the west-central Adirondack Mountains, New York, during two large acidic storms (each approximately 5 cm rainfall, pH 4. 61 and 4. 15). The data were evaluated to identify biogeochemical pathways of Mn and to assess how these pathways are altered by acidic atmospheric inputs. Concentrations of Mn averaged 1. 1 mu g/L in precipitation and increased to 107 mu g/L in canopy throughfall, the enrichment reflecting active biological cycling of Mn. Rain pH and throughfall Mn were negatively correlated, suggesting that foliar leaching of Mn was enhanced by rainfall acidity. The pulse-like input of Mn to the forest floor in the high initial concentrations in throughfall (approximately 1000 mu g/L) did not affect Mn concentrations in soil water ( less than 20 mu g/L) or groundwater (usually less than 40 mu g/L), which varied little with time. In the inlet stream, Mn concentrations remained constant at 48 mu g/L as discharge varied from 1. 1 to 96 L/s. Manganese was retained in the vegetative cycle and regulated in the stream by adsorption in the soil organic horizon. The higher Mn levels in the stream may be linked to its high acidity (pH 4. 2-4. 3). Mixing of Mn-rich stream water with neutral lake water (pH 7. 0) caused precipitation of Mn and deposition in lake sediment.

  2. Family Friends in Homeless Shelters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Aging, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Family Friends is a nationwide outreach program that enlists the support of senior volunteers in providing nurturing help to children and their parents. Homeless Children is a branch of the program in which volunteers are matched to homeless families with young children, and, during biweekly visits to homeless shelters, become surrogate…

  3. V-2 Emerges from Shelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    In this undated file photo, probably from World War II, a V-2 rocket emerges from its camouflaged shelter. The team of German engineers and scientists who developed the V-2 came to the United States after World War II and worked for the U. S. Army at Fort Bliss, Texas and Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama.

  4. Schools Built with Fallout Shelter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Fallout protection can be built into a school building with little or no additional cost, using areas that are in continual use in the normal functioning of the building. A general discussion of the principles of shelter design is given along with photographs, descriptions, drawings, and cost analysis for a number of recently constructed schools…

  5. Evaluation of Sheltered Employment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgarten, Allan; And Others

    The report evaluates the functions and effectiveness of sheltered workshops for handicapped students in Minnesota. The initial chapter reviews the history of the workshops, discusses participation in state workshops, describes programs and services of vocational rehabilitation, and summarizes funding of rehabilitation facilities. A chapter on…

  6. The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

  7. Pentagon. Civil Defense and Fire Instructions. Part 2: Shelter Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Army Headquarters Commandant, Washington, DC.

    This instructional guide to civil defense shelter management is given as an aid to shelter survival techniques rather than to shelter comfort. The basis, purposes, and organization of shelter administration are outlined, with instructions on--(1) shelter management, (2) shelter teams and functions, (3) supplies and locations, and (4) daily shelter…

  8. How much acidification has occurred in Adirondack region lakes (New York, USA) since preindustrial times

    SciTech Connect

    Cumming, B.F.; Smol, J.P.; Kingston, J.C.; Charles, D.F.; Birks, H.J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Preindustrial and present-day lake water pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), total monomeric aluminum Al(sub m), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were inferred from the species composition of diatom and chrysophyte microfossils in the tops (present-day inferences) and bottoms (pre-1850 inferences) of sediment cores collected from a statistically selected set of Adirondack lakes. Results from the study lakes were extrapolated to a predefined target population of 675 low-alkalinity Adirondack region lakes. Estimates of preindustrial to present-day changes in lake water chemistry show that approximately 25-35% of the target population has acidified. The magnitude of acidification was greatest in the low-alkalinity lakes of the southwestern Adirondacks, an area with little geological ability to neutralize acidic deposition and receives the highest annual average rainfall in the region. The authors estimate that approximately 80% of the target population lakes with present-day measured pH = or < 5.2 and 30-45% of lakes with pH between 5.2 and 6.0 have undergone large declines in pH and ANC, and concomitant increases in Al(sub m). Estimated changes in (DOC) were small and show no consistent pattern in the acidified lakes. The study provides the first statistically based regional evaluation of the extent of lake acidification in the Adirondacks.

  9. Nitrate trends in the Adirondack Mountains, Northeastern US, 1993-2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Adirondack Mountains in New York State receive some of the highest rates of nitrogen deposition in the Northeastern U.S. Between 1993 and 2007, nitrogen deposition loads did not significantly change and average annual wet inorganic nitrogen deposition was 6 kg/ha (Figure 1)....

  10. Response of fish assemblages to declining acidic deposition in Adirondack Mountain lakes, 1984-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldigo, B. P.; Roy, K. M.; Driscoll, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    Adverse effects of acidic deposition on the chemistry and fish communities were evident in Adirondack Mountain lakes during the 1980s and 1990s. Fish assemblages and water chemistry in 43 Adirondack Long-Term Monitoring (ALTM) lakes were sampled by the Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation during three periods (1984-87, 1994-2005, and 2008-12) to document regional impacts and potential biological recovery associated with the 1990 amendments to the 1963 Clean Air Act (CAA). We assessed standardized data from 43 lakes sampled during the three periods to quantify the response of fish-community richness, total fish abundance, and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) abundance to declining acidity that resulted from changes in U.S. air-quality management between 1984 and 2012. During the 28-year period, mean acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) increased significantly from 3 to 30 μeq/L and mean inorganic monomeric Al concentrations decreased significantly from 2.22 to 0.66 μmol/L, yet mean species richness, all species or total catch per net night (CPNN), and brook trout CPNN did not change significantly in the 43 lakes. Regression analyses indicate that fishery metrics were not directly related to the degree of chemical recovery and that brook trout CPNN may actually have declined with increasing ANC. While the richness of fish communities increased with increasing ANC as anticipated in several Adirondack lakes, observed improvements in water quality associated with the CAA have generally failed to produce detectable shifts in fish assemblages within a large number of ALTM lakes. Additional time may simply be needed for biological recovery to progress, or else more proactive efforts may be necessary to restore natural fish assemblages in Adirondack lakes in which water chemistry is steadily recovering from acidification.

  11. Response of fish assemblages to declining acidic deposition in Adirondack Mountain lakes, 1984–2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Roy, Karen; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2016-01-01

    Adverse effects of acidic deposition on the chemistry and fish communities were evident in Adirondack Mountain lakes during the 1980s and 1990s. Fish assemblages and water chemistry in 43 Adirondack Long-Term Monitoring (ALTM) lakes were sampled by the Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation during three periods (1984–87, 1994–2005, and 2008–12) to document regional impacts and potential biological recovery associated with the 1990 amendments to the 1963 Clean Air Act (CAA). We assessed standardized data from 43 lakes sampled during the three periods to quantify the response of fish-community richness, total fish abundance, and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) abundance to declining acidity that resulted from changes in U.S. air-quality management between 1984 and 2012. During the 28-year period, mean acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) increased significantly from 3 to 30 μeq/L and mean inorganic monomeric Al concentrations decreased significantly from 2.22 to 0.66 μmol/L, yet mean species richness, all species or total catch per net night (CPNN), and brook trout CPNN did not change significantly in the 43 lakes. Regression analyses indicate that fishery metrics were not directly related to the degree of chemical recovery and that brook trout CPNN may actually have declined with increasing ANC. While the richness of fish communities increased with increasing ANC as anticipated in several Adirondack lakes, observed improvements in water quality associated with the CAA have generally failed to produce detectable shifts in fish assemblages within a large number of ALTM lakes. Additional time may simply be needed for biological recovery to progress, or else more proactive efforts may be necessary to restore natural fish assemblages in Adirondack lakes in which water chemistry is steadily recovering from acidification.

  12. Sleep walking

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep cycle has stages, from light drowsiness to deep sleep. During the stage called rapid eye movement ( ... REM sleep. Sleepwalking (somnambulism) most often occurs during deep, non-REM sleep (called N3 sleep) early in ...

  13. Highly Erectable Dome Shelter: Results and Recommendations of Shelter Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-22

    redesigned to fit on a pallet. Shipped in an 8 by 8 by 20 ISO Container Yes Approx. Weight of Heaviest Item ...... 200 pounds Approx. Shipping Weight...Force erected this shelter ir the arctic area It also requires ladders and scaffolds to erect and dismantle. The configuration f th. isO ., n", , lend...Shipped on a 463L Pallet ..... Yes Shipped in an 8 by 8 by 20 ISO Container Yes Approx. Weight of Heaviest Item ...... 100 pounds Approx. Shipping Weight

  14. Aerodynamic considerations in open shelters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, R.G.

    1984-11-01

    Aerodynamic factors are addressed bearing on the suitability of open structures as blast shelters. Blast closures and attenuator designs are discussed. The research on shelter filling is reviewed; this includes both experimental and theoretical work on scale models and full-scale structures of large dimensions. Shock-dominated and pressure-gradient-dominated shelter-filling mechanisms are described and their potential effects on people are discussed.

  15. Shelter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weather Snowstorms & Extreme Cold Space Weather Thunderstorms & Lightning Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Make an Emergency Plan Plan ... safe for that hazard. For example, for a tornado, a room should be selected that is in ...

  16. U-Pb age of the Diana Complex and Adirondack granulite petrogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basu, A.R.; Premo, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    U-Pb isotopic analyses of eight single and multi-grain zircon fractions separated from a syenite of the Diana Complex of the Adirondack Mountains do not define a single linear array, but a scatter along a chord that intersects the Concordia curve at 1145 ?? 29 and 285 ?? 204 Ma. For the most concordant analyses, the 207Pb/206Pb ages range between 1115 and 1150 Ma. Detailed petrographic studies revealed that most grains contained at least two phases of zircon growth, either primary magmatic cores enclosed by variable thickness of metamorphic overgrowths or magmatic portions enclosing presumably older xenocrystic zircon cores. The magmatic portions are characterized by typical dipyramidal prismatic zoning and numerous black inclusions that make them quite distinct from adjacent overgrowths or cores when observed in polarizing light microscopy and in back-scattered electron micrographs. Careful handpicking and analysis of the "best" magmatic grains, devoid of visible overgrowth of core material, produced two nearly concordant points that along with two of the multi-grain analyses yielded an upper-intercept age of 1118 ?? 2.8 Ma and a lower-intercept age of 251 ?? 13 Ma. The older age is interpreted as the crystallization age of the syenite and the younger one is consistent with late stage uplift of the Appalachian region. The 1118 Ma age for the Diana Complex, some 35 Ma younger than previously believed, is now approximately synchronous with the main Adirondack anorthosite intrusion, implying a cogenetic relationship among the various meta-igneous rocks of the Adirondacks. The retention of a high-temperature contact metamorphic aureole around Diana convincingly places the timing of Adirondack regional metamorphism as early as 1118 Ma. This result also implies that the sources of anomalous high-temperature during granulite metamorphism are the syn-metamorphic intrusions, such as the Diana Complex.

  17. Post-metamorphic fluid infiltration into granulites from the Adirondack Mountains, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J.; Valley, John W.

    1988-01-01

    Post-metamorphic effects in the anorthosites of the Adirondacks, New York were described. Calcite-chlorite-sericite assemblages occur as veins, in disseminated form and as clots, and document retrograde fluid infiltration. These features are associated with late-state CO2-rich fluid inclusions. Stable isotope analyses of calcites indicates that the retrograde fluids interacted with meta-igneous and supracrustal lithologies, but the precise timing of the retrogression is as yet unknown.

  18. How to Cope with Sheltering in Place

    MedlinePlus

    ... your own or a relative’s home, school, or work. Sheltering in place may be required because of an emergency such ... things to keep yourself calm while sheltering in place. Relax your body often by doing things that work for you—take deep breaths, stretch, meditate or ...

  19. 1966 Architectural Awards. Buildings With Fallout Shelter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Award winning designs are presented demonstrating that economical dual-use shelter space can be incorporated in the designs of new buildings without sacrifice of either function or aesthetic values. The eight award winning designs are discussed, and graphic illustration is provided of the nature of dual-use shelter, which contributes to…

  20. DUAL USE OF SCHOOL FALLOUT SHELTER SPACE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAYERS, JOHN

    THIS REPORT DISCUSSES CONSIDERATIONS IN THE USE OF FALLOUT SHELTER SPACE FOR NORMAL SCHOOL ACTIVITIES, INCLUDING THE REQUIREMENTS FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS AND PROBLEMS RELATED TO WINDOWLESS ROOMS. THE PRESENT LACK OF INFORMATION ABOUT PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS RELATED TO WINDOWLESS ROOMS IS MENTIONED. THE BEST USES FOR WINDOWLESS SPACE ARE NOTED--(1)…

  1. Shelter upgrading manual: host area shelters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, C.; Gabrielsen, B.L.; Tansley, R.S.

    1980-03-01

    The manual is one of a series being developed in support of the civil defense concept of crisis relocation planning. One basic element of crisis relocation is shelter protection of the people in the relocated environment. This manual is designed to be used by planners in host areas. It presents a methodology for evaluating floors, roofs, and openings; develops a variety of ways to provide the necessary structural upgrading for blast and fallout protection; develops a framework for the practical use of the manual by all persons of interest; and contains charts, pictorial representations, and worksheets that complement and simplify the utility of the manual. The manual is in looseleaf form to permit removal of pertinent worksheets and charts for developing upgrading plans for a specific building, and to permit the addition of new and replacement material as the work progresses.

  2. Sleep Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  3. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  4. Fluid heterogeneity during granulite facies metamorphism in the Adirondacks: stable isotope evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valley, J.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The preservation of premetamorphic, whole-rock oxygen isotope ratios in Adirondack metasediments shows that neither these rocks nor adjacent anorthosites and gneisses have been penetrated by large amounts of externally derived, hot CO2-H2O fluids during granulite facies metamorphism. This conclusion is supported by calculations of the effect of fluid volatilization and exchange and is also independently supported by petrologic and phase equilibria considerations. The data suggest that these rocks were not an open system during metamorphism; that fluid/rock ratios were in many instances between 0.0 and 0.1; that externally derived fluids, as well as fluids derived by metamorphic volatilization, rose along localized channels and were not pervasive; and thus that no single generalization can be applied to metamorphic fluid conditions in the Adirondacks. Analyses of 3 to 4 coexisting minerals from Adirondack marbles show that isotopic equilibrium was attained at the peak of granulite and upper amphibolite facies metamorphism. Thus the isotopic compositions of metamorphic fluids can be inferred from analyses of carbonates and fluid budgets can be constructed. Carbonates from the granulite facies are on average, isotopically similar to those from lower grade or unmetamorphosed limestones of the same age showing that no large isotopic shifts accompanied high grade metamorphism. Equilibrium calculations indicate that small decreases in ??18O, averaging 1 permil, result from volatilization reactions for Adirondack rock compositions. Additional small differences between amphibolite and granulite facies marbles are due to systematic lithologie differences. The range of Adirondack carbonate ??18O values (12.3 to 27.2) can be explained by the highly variable isotopic compositions of unmetamorphosed limestones in conjunction with minor 18O and 13C depletions caused by metamorphic volatilization suggesting that many (and possibly most) marbles have closely preserved their

  5. Patterns of nutrient dynamics in Adirondack lakes recovering from acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Jacqueline R; Driscoll, Charles T; Roy, Karen M

    2016-09-01

    With decreases in acid deposition, nitrogen : phosphorus (N:P) ratios in lakes are anticipated to decline, decreasing P limitation of phytoplankton and potentially changing current food web dynamics. This effect could be particularly pronounced in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State, a historic hotspot for effects of acid deposition. In this study, we evaluate spatial patterns of nutrient dynamics in Adirondack lakes and use these to infer potential future temporal trends. We calculated Mann-Kendall tau correlations among total phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll a, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and nitrate (NO3(-) ) concentrations in 52 Adirondack Long Term Monitoring (ALTM) program lakes using samples collected monthly during 2008-2012. We evaluated the hypothesis that decreased atmospheric N and S deposition will decrease P limitation in freshwater ecosystems historically impacted by acidification. We also compared these patterns among lake watershed characteristics (i.e., seepage or lacking a surface outlet, chain drainage, headwater drainage, thin glacial till, medium glacial till). We found that correlations (P < 0.05) were highly dependent upon the different hydrologic flowpaths of seepage vs. drainage lakes. Differentiations among watershed till depth were also important in determining correlations due to water interaction with surficial geology. Additionally, we found low NO3(-) :TP (N:P mass) values in seepage lakes (2.0 in winter, 1.9 in summer) compared to chain drainage lakes (169.4 in winter, 49.5 in summer) and headwater drainage lakes (97.0 in winter, 10.9 in summer), implying a high likelihood of future shifts in limitation patterns for seepage lakes. With increasing DOC and decreasing NO3(-) concentrations coinciding with decreases in acid deposition, there is reason to expect changes in nutrient dynamics in Adirondack lakes. Seepage lakes may become N-limited, while drainage lakes may become less P

  6. 9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheltered housing facilities. 3.77... Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.77 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities must be...

  7. 9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheltered housing facilities. 3.77... Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.77 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities must be...

  8. 24 CFR 576.102 - Emergency shelter component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Emergency shelter component. 576... and Eligible Activities § 576.102 Emergency shelter component. (a) General. Subject to the expenditure... families and individuals in emergency shelters, renovating buildings to be used as emergency shelter...

  9. 9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... placed in the housing facility so as to protect the nonhuman primates from excessive light. (d) Shelter from the elements. Sheltered housing facilities for nonhuman primates must provide adequate shelter..., and from any weather conditions that may occur. (e) Capacity: multiple shelters. Both the...

  10. 26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Confidential corporate tax shelters. 301.6111-2....6111-2 Confidential corporate tax shelters. (a) In general. (1) Under section 6111(d) and this section, a confidential corporate tax shelter is treated as a tax shelter subject to the requirements...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Confidential corporate tax shelters. 301.6111-2....6111-2 Confidential corporate tax shelters. (a) In general. (1) Under section 6111(d) and this section, a confidential corporate tax shelter is treated as a tax shelter subject to the requirements...

  12. Shelters for Houseless Youth: A Follow-Up Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekel, Rachel; Peled, Einat; Spiro, Shimon E.

    2003-01-01

    Follows Israeli youngsters who had been residents of shelters for runaway and homeless youths. A majority of the youngsters had either returned to their family homes, or had been placed out of home. Post-shelter place of residence was related to length of stay at the shelter, amount of contact with their family while at the shelter, and manner of…

  13. 26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Confidential corporate tax shelters. 301.6111-2....6111-2 Confidential corporate tax shelters. (a) In general. (1) Under section 6111(d) and this section, a confidential corporate tax shelter is treated as a tax shelter subject to the requirements...

  14. 26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidential corporate tax shelters. 301.6111-2....6111-2 Confidential corporate tax shelters. (a) In general. (1) Under section 6111(d) and this section, a confidential corporate tax shelter is treated as a tax shelter subject to the requirements...

  15. Recent Incarceration History among a Sheltered Homeless Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metraux, Stephen; Culhane, Dennis P.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined incarceration histories and shelter use patterns of 7,022 persons staying in public shelters in New York City. Through matching administrative shelter records with data on releases from New York State prisons and New York City jails, 23.1% of a point-prevalent shelter population was identified as having had an incarceration…

  16. 9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... placed in the housing facility so as to protect the nonhuman primates from excessive light. (d) Shelter from the elements. Sheltered housing facilities for nonhuman primates must provide adequate shelter..., and from any weather conditions that may occur. (e) Capacity: multiple shelters. Both the...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidential corporate tax shelters. 301.6111-2....6111-2 Confidential corporate tax shelters. (a) In general. (1) Under section 6111(d) and this section, a confidential corporate tax shelter is treated as a tax shelter subject to the requirements...

  18. Design and Construction Guidance for Community Shelters. FEMA 361.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    This manual presents guidance to engineers, architects, building officials, and prospective shelter owners concerning the design and construction of community shelters that will provide protection during tornado and hurricane events. The manual covers two types of community shelters: stand-alone shelters designed to withstand high winds and the…

  19. Possible evidence for contemporary doming of the Adirondack Mountains, New York, and suggested implications for regional tectonics and seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isachsen, Y.W.

    1975-01-01

    The Adirondack Mountain massif is a dissected elongate dome having a north-northeast axis about 190 km long, and an east-west dimension of about 140 km. The dome exposes a core of Proterozoic metamorphic rocks from which the Paleozoic cover rocks have been eroded, except in several north-northeast-trending graben. The minimum amplitude of the dome, based on a 'reconstruction' of the Proterozoic-Paleozoic unconformity is 1600 m. The Adirondack dome is an anomalous feature of the eastern edge of the North American craton. It differs from other uplifts in the Interior Lowlands of the craton not only in terms of the greater combined amplitude and area of its uplift, but in the present high elevation of its Mountains (up to 1600 m) which are unequalled on the craton except along the Rocky Mountain front and in the Torngat Mountains of northernmost Labrador. This prompted an interest in the possibility that the Adirondack dome has undergone neotectonic regeneration and may be undergoing domical uplift at the present time. Accordingly, leveling records were consulted at the National Geodetic Survey data base in Rockville, Maryland, and used to construct leveling profiles. The most informative of these extends north-south along the block-faulted eastern flank of the Adirondack dome, extending from Saratoga Springs to Rouses Point, a distance of 245 km. A comparison of the level lines for 1955 and 1973 demonstrates that arching has occurred. An uplift of 40 mm along the central portion of the line, and a corresponding subsidence of 50 mm at the northern end, has produced a net increase in the amplitude of arching of 90 mm in the 18-year interval. This differential uplift, particularly with subsidence at the northern end, argues for a tectonic rather than glacio-isostatic mechanism. Pending releveling across the center of the Adirondack dome, it is tempting to extrapolate the releveling profile and suggest that the Adirondacks as a whole may be undergoing contemporary doming

  20. Chemical Agents: Facts about Sheltering in Place

    MedlinePlus

    ... shelter room: First aid kit Flashlight, battery-powered radio, and extra batteries for both A working telephone ... severe” terror alert, you should pay attention to radio and television broadcasts to know right away whether ...

  1. Food and Shelter Standards in Humanitarian Action.

    PubMed

    Pothiawala, Sohil

    2015-10-01

    The number of disasters, both natural as well as man-made, has been increasing in frequency in the recent years. This leads to short as well as long-term effects on food security and shelter, requiring humanitarian assistance. This article aims to identify the principles and standards that are applicable to food and shelter related aid that needs to be provided by the co-operation of the local government as well as the relevant supporting organizations. Also, food and shelter security during a disaster response is achieved through better preparedness. The level of preparedness must include risk assessment, contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and supplies, emergency services and stand-by arrangements, communications, information management and coordination arrangements between various agencies involved. Discussing these issues would contribute to a better understanding of the implications of the right to adequate food and shelter, which in complex humanitarian emergencies, is one of the key necessities of the affected population.

  2. Prefabricated panelized nuclear-hardened shelter

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.A.

    1987-08-18

    This patent describes a shelter for protecting occupants therein from dynamic blast waves and barometric overpressure created by an above ground nuclear detonation proximate to the shelter, the shelter being buried below ground under soil, the soil comprising means for the attenuation of the dynamic blast wave generated by the detonation, the shelter having a semipherical domed roof and a base means supporting the roof, the semipherical domed roof being downwardly displaceable and having a lower edge which is vertically and downwardly movable in response to barometric overpressure generated by the detonation, the base means being a ring made up of a plurality of arcuate sections, the arcuate sections of the base means being crushable in response to the vertical downward movement of the roof to enable the roof to move downwardly to a lower position where it is supported on the crushed base member, the overpressure being transmitted through the soil surrounding the roof.

  3. Chronic and episodic acidification of Adirondack streams from acid rain in 2003-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; Roy, K.M.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, H.A.; Capone, S.B.; Sutherland, J.W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A.; Boylen, C.W.

    2008-01-01

    Limited information is available on streams in the Adirondack region of New York, although streams are more prone to acidification than the more studied Adirondack lakes. A stream assessment was therefore undertaken in the Oswegatchie and Black River drainages; an area of 4585 km2 in the western part of the Adirondack region. Acidification was evaluated with the newly developed base-cation surplus (BCS) and the conventional acid-neutralizing capacity by Gran titration (ANCG). During the survey when stream water was most acidic (March 2004), 105 of 188 streams (56%) were acidified based on the criterion of BCS < 0 ??eq L-1, whereas 29% were acidified based on an ANCG value < 0 ??eq L-1. During the survey when stream water was least acidic (August 2003), 15 of 129 streams (12%) were acidified based on the criterion of BCS < 0 ??eq L-1, whereas 5% were acidified based on ANCG value < 0 ??eq L -1. The contribution of acidic deposition to stream acidification was greater than that of strongly acidic organic acids in each of the surveys by factors ranging from approximately 2 to 5, but was greatest during spring snowmelt and least during elevated base flow in August. During snowmelt, the percentage attributable to acidic deposition was 81%, whereas during the October 2003 survey, when dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were highest, this percentage was 66%. The total length of stream reaches estimated to be prone to acidification was 718 km out of a total of 1237 km of stream reaches that were assessed. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of an organic acid analog model in Adirondack, New York, surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhraei, H.; Driscoll, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    Natural waters include a variety of organic matter that differs in composition and functional groups. Dissolved organic matter is important but difficult to characterize acidic and metal binding (e.g., Al) functional groups in chemical equilibrium models. In this study data from Adirondack Lake Survey were used to calibrate an organic acid analog model in order to quantify the influence of organic acids on surface water chemistry. The study sites in the Adirondack region of New York have diverse levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), used as a surrogate for organic acids. DOC in 55 Adirondack surface waters varies from 180 μmol C/l (in Little Echo Pond) to 1263 μmol C/l (in Sunday Pond). To reduce the variability inherited in the large raw data set, suite of mean observations was constructed by grouping and averaging measured data into pH intervals of 0.05 pH units from pH 4.15 to 7.3. A chemical equilibrium model, which includes major solutes in natural waters, was linked to an optimization algorithm (genetic algorithm) to calibrate a triprotic organic analog model which includes proton and aluminum binding by adjusting the dissociation constants and site density of DOC. The object of fitting procedure was to simultaneously minimize the discrepancy between observed and simulated pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), organic monomeric aluminum and inorganic monomeric aluminum. A sensitivity analysis on calibrated values indicate that the speciation of the modeled solutes are most responsive to the dissociation constant of AlOrg= Al3+ + Org3- reaction (Org3- represents organic anion), the site density of DOC and the second H+ dissociation constant of the triprotic organic analog (i.e. H2Org- = 2H+ + Org3- reaction).

  5. Preorogenic history of the Adirondacks as an elsonian anorogenic caldera complex

    SciTech Connect

    McLelland, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Adirondack Highlands are characterized by the close association of a distinctive trinity of metaigneous rocks: (1) anorthosites, (2) mangeritic and quartz mangeritic gneisses that tend to envelop the anorthosites, and (3) alaskitic and trondjhemitic gneisses many of which represent metamorphosed volcanic material. All rocks within the province exhibit high concentrations of iron (FeO/FeO + MgO approx. 0.8), and both titaniferous and non-titaniferous iron oxide deposits occur. The mangeritic rocks are alkaline to peralkaline while the alaskitic gneisses are meta- to peraluminous. A/CNK, KN/C, as well as oxides vs SiO/sub 2/ plots yield patterns identical to those cited by J. L. Anderson (1983) as diagnostic of Proterozoic anorogenic plutonism. Within North American this plutonism corresponds to the Elsonian magmatic event with most ages falling between 1.5 - 1.3 b.y. This belt is characterized by high-level anorogenic bimodal magmatism developed in caldera complexes with zoned magma chambers and widespread rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs. Examples of this activity are found in the St. Francois Mountains, Missouri; the Wolf River batholith, Wisconsin; and the Nain Province. The Adirondacks lie along this trend and exhibit the same bulk chemistry and chemical variation as the other complexes. In addition they show enrichment in halogens (esp. F), REE, Zr, and other trace elements associated with calderas. Fayalite and ferroaugite are widely developed. These similarities strongly suggest that prior to the Grenville Orogeny, the Adirondacks consisted of bimodal caldera complexes which were part of the Elsonian anorogenic magmatism extending across North America.

  6. Empirical Relationships Between Watershed Attributes and Headwater Lake Chemistry in the Adirondack Region

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    Surface water acidification may be caused or influenced by both natural watershed processes and anthropogenic actions. Empirical models and observational data can be useful for identifying watershed attributes or processes that require further research or that should be considered in the development of process models. This study focuses on the Adirondack region of New York and has two purposes: to (1) develop empirical models that can be used to assess the chemical status of lakes for which no chemistry data exist and (2) determine on a regional scale watershed attributes that account for variability in lake pH and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). Headwater lakes, rather than lakes linked to upstream lakes, were selected for initial analysis. The Adirondacks Watershed Data Base (AWDB), part of the Acid Deposition Data Network maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), integrates data on physiography, bedrock, soils, land cover, wetlands, disturbances, beaver activity, land use, and atmospheric deposition with the water chemistry and morphology for the watersheds of 463 headwater lakes. The AWD8 facilitates both geographic display and statistical analysis of the data. The report, An Adirondack Watershed Data Base: Attribute and Mapping Information for Regional Acidic Deposition Studies (ORNL/TM--10144), describes the AWDB. Both bivariate (correlations and Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests) and multivariate analyses were performed. Fifty-seven watershed attributes were selected as input variables to multiple linear regression and discriminant analysis. For model development -200 lakes for which pH and ANC data exist were randomly subdivided into a specification and a verification data set. Several indices were used to select models for predicting lake pH (31 variables) and ANC (27 variables). Twenty-five variables are common to the pH and ANC models: four lake morphology, nine soil/geology, eight land cover, three disturbance, and one watershed aspect. An

  7. Sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jonathan C; Chopra, Swati; Schwartz, Alan R

    2016-03-01

    Sleep apnoea is a disorder characterised by repetitive pauses in breathing during sleep caused by airway occlusion (obstructive sleep apnoea) or altered control of breathing (central sleep apnoea). In this Clinical Year in Review, we summarise high-impact research from the past year pertaining to management, diagnosis and cardio-metabolic consequences of sleep apnoea.

  8. PIXE Analysis of Aerosol and Soil Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of aerosol and soil samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the aerosol samples near Piseco Lake and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The soil samples were also collected at Piseco Lake and pressed into cylindrical pellets for experimentation. PIXE analysis of the aerosol and soil samples were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. There are higher concentrations of sulfur at smaller particle sizes (0.25-1 μm), suggesting that it could be suspended in the air for days and originate from sources very far away. Other elements with significant concentrations peak at larger particle sizes (1-4 μm) and are found in the soil samples, suggesting that these elements could originate in the soil. The PIXE analysis will be described and the resulting data will be presented.

  9. PIXE Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Josh; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Safiq, Alexandrea; Smith, Jeremy; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2013-10-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced x-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the samples and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The PIXE experiments were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. X-Ray energy spectra were measured with a silicon drift detector and analyzed with GUPIX software to determine the elemental concentrations of the aerosols. A broad range of elements from silicon to zinc were detected with significant sulfur concentrations measured for particulate matter between 0.25 and 0.5 μm in size. The PIXE analysis will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

  10. The origin of garnet in the anorthosite-charnockite suite of the Adirondacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLelland, J.M.; Whitney, P.R.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed analysis of textural and chemical criteria in rocks of the anorthosite-charnockite suite of the Adirondack Highlands suggests that development of garnet in silica-saturated rocks of the suite occurs according to the reaction: {Mathematical expression}, where ?? is a function of the distribution of Fe and Mg between the several coexisting ferromagnesian phases. Depending upon the relative amounts of Fe and Mg present, quartz may be either a reactant or a product. Using an aluminum-fixed reference frame, this reaction can be restated in terms of a set of balanced partial reactions describing the processes occurring in spatially separated domains within the rock. The fact that garnet invariably replaces plagioclase as opposed to the other reactant phases indicates that the aluminum-fixed model is valid as a first approximation. This reaction is univariant and produces unzoned garnet. It differs from a similar equation proposed by de Waard (1965) for the origin of garnet in Adirondack metabasic rocks, i.e. 6 Orthopyroxene+2 Anorthite = Clinopyroxene+Garnet+2 Quartz, the principle difference being that iron oxides (ilmenite and/or magnetite) are essential reactant phases in the present reactions. The product assemblage (garnet+clinopyroxene+plagioclase ?? orthopyroxene ?? quartz) is characteristic of the clinopyroxene-almandine subfacies of the granulite facies. ?? 1977 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Changes in the chemistry of acidified Adirondack streams from the early 1980s to 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; Simonin, H.A.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Roy, K.M.; Capone, S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Lakes in the Adirondack region of New York have partially recovered in response to declining deposition, but information on stream recovery is limited. Here we report results of Adirondack stream monitoring from the early 1980s to 2008. Despite a 50% reduction in atmospheric deposition of sulfur, overall increases in pH of only 0.28 and ANC of 13 μeq L-1 were observed in 12 streams over 23 years, although greater changes did occur in streams with lower initial ANC, as expected. In the North Tributary of Buck Creek with high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, SO(4)(2-) concentrations decreased from 1999 to 2008 at a rate of 2.0 μmol L-1 y-1, whereas in the neighboring South Tributary with low DOC concentrations, the decrease was only 0.73 μmol L-1 y-1. Ca2+ leaching decreased in the North Tributary due to the SO(4)(2-) decrease, but this was partially offset by an increase in Ca2+ leaching from increased DOC concentrations.

  12. Eskers as an aid to the understanding of deglaciation in the Northern Adirondacks

    SciTech Connect

    King, G.S. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Eskers in the Northern Adirondack Mountains of New York State have been examined in order to gain a better understanding of their origin, their relationship to other glacial landforms, and to determine the relative timing of their formation. Ultimately, it is hoped that eskers can be used to construct a model of the former ice sheet for the region. Cross sections and longitudinal profiles were constructed to give a better understanding of esker form. Subsequent fieldwork was designed to confirm and compliment these morphometric analyses. The sedimentology of an esker and adjacent fan was logged and interpreted. The spatial relations between the eskers, fans, and delta complexes were identified. Results indicate that the eskers of the Northern Adirondack Mountains formed at different stages in the retreat of the ice sheet and are not related to an integrated subglacial drainage system. The presence of a lacustrine fan at the south end of the St. Regis Esker indicates that a glacial lake was present at the ice sheet margin and delimits an ice marginal position. The morphology and distribution of eskers may be useful as an indicator in the timing of continental deglaciation of northern New York State. Research for this project was funded by a University of Dayton Research Council Grant to D. Pair.

  13. Geochemical affinities of a Late Precambrian basaltic dike, Adirondack Lowlands, Northern New York

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, R.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Late Precambrian rifting and the opening of the Iapetus Ocean basin have produced a series of NE-trending basaltic dikes in the Adirondack Lowlands of New York. Twelve samples were taken from the largest of these dikes, a 14 km long body, in order to study the chemical variability along and across strike and to characterize the source region. The dike consists of an assemblage of plagioclase, Ti-rich clinopyroxene, magnetite/ilmenite and a hydrated phase that was probably olivine. All analyzed samples contain normative olivine, and most contain normative nepheline, indicative of alkalic affinities. Chemical variations are relatively minor, with generally as much variation occurring across strike (max. width 10m) as along strike. SiO[sub 2] varies from 43.9--45.0 wt%; TiO[sub 2]: 4.8--5.1 wt%; P[sub 2]O[sub 5]: 0.8--1.1 wt%; Ni: 55--79 ppm; Sr:P 300--600 ppm; Rb: 35--66 ppm; Y/Nb = 1.1; Zr/Nb = 8. Chondrite normalized REE patterns show strong LREE enrichment. Tectonic discrimination plots (Zr--Ti/100--Y[star]) are indicative of within plate magmatism, and plots of Y/nb vs. Zr/Nb suggest an enriched, OIB-type mantle plume source. Trace element characteristics suggest a genetic correlation with Late Precambrian, rift related magmas of the Ottawa Graben and of the eastern Adirondack Mountains and western Vermont.

  14. Interpretation of gravity anomalies in the northwest Adirondack lowlands, northern New York

    SciTech Connect

    Revetta, F.A.; O'Brian, B. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Twelve hundred gravity measurements were made in the Adirondack Highlands and northwest Adirondack Lowlands, New York between 44[degree]15 minutes and 44[degree]30 minutes N. Latitude and 75[degree]00 minutes W. Longitude. A Bouguer gravity map constructed from the gravity measurements includes the Carthage-Colton Mylonite Zone, a major structural boundary between the highlands and lowlands. The gravity map indicates the gravity contours trend parallel to the CCMZ along most of its length however in some areas the contours cross the boundary. No clear-cut relationships exists between the CCMZ and gravity contours. The Bouguer gravity map shows several prominent gravity anomalies which correlate with the geology seismicity and mineral deposits in the area. Gravity lows of 20 to 30 g.u. are centered over the Gouverneur, Hyde and Payne Lake Alaskite gneiss bodies. A gravity high of 20 g.u. occurs over the Pleasant Lake gabbro pluton. Gravity highs of 35 and 100 g.u. occur over the Sylvia Lake Zinc District and marble just north of the district. A gravity high at Russell, N.Y. coincides with a cluster of nine earthquake epicenters. Finally a steep gravity gradient separates high density rocks from lower density rocks along the Black Lake fault. Two-dimensional computer modeling of the geologic features is underway and quantitative models of the structures will be presented.

  15. Using Satellite Imagery to Assess Large-Scale Habitat Characteristics of Adirondack Park, New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClain, Bobbi J.; Porter, William F.

    2000-11-01

    Satellite imagery is a useful tool for large-scale habitat analysis; however, its limitations need to be tested. We tested these limitations by varying the methods of a habitat evaluation for white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) in the Adirondack Park, New York, USA, utilizing harvest data to create and validate the assessment models. We used two classified images, one with a large minimum mapping unit but high accuracy and one with no minimum mapping unit but slightly lower accuracy, to test the sensitivity of the evaluation to these differences. We tested the utility of two methods of assessment, habitat suitability index modeling, and pattern recognition modeling. We varied the scale at which the models were applied by using five separate sizes of analysis windows. Results showed that the presence of a large minimum mapping unit eliminates important details of the habitat. Window size is relatively unimportant if the data are averaged to a large resolution (i.e., township), but if the data are used at the smaller resolution, then the window size is an important consideration. In the Adirondacks, the proportion of hardwood and softwood in an area is most important to the spatial dynamics of deer populations. The low occurrence of open area in all parts of the park either limits the effect of this cover type on the population or limits our ability to detect the effect. The arrangement and interspersion of cover types were not significant to deer populations.

  16. Spatial patterns of mercury in biota of Adirondack, New York lakes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xue; Driscoll, Charles T; Montesdeoca, Mario; Evers, David; Duron, Melissa; Williams, Kate; Schoch, Nina; Kamman, Neil C

    2011-10-01

    We studied the spatial distribution patterns of mercury (Hg) in lake water, littoral sediments, zooplankton, crayfish, fish, and common loons in 44 lakes of the Adirondacks of New York State, USA, a region that has been characterized as a "biological Hg hotspot". Our study confirmed this pattern, finding that a substantial fraction of the lakes studied had fish and loon samples exceeding established criteria for human and wildlife health. Factors accounting for the spatial variability of Hg in lake water and biota were lake chemistry (pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), percent carbon in sediments), biology (taxa presence, trophic status) and landscape characteristics (land cover class, lake elevation). Hg concentrations in zooplankton, fish and common loons were negatively associated with the lake water acid-base status (pH, ANC). Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for methyl Hg (MeHg) increased from crayfish (mean log(10) BAF = 5.7), to zooplankton (5.9), to prey fish (6.2), to larger fish (6.3), to common loons (7.2). MeHg BAF values in zooplankton, crayfish, and fish (yellow perch equivalent) all increased with increasing lake elevation. Our findings support the hypothesis that bioaccumulation of MeHg at the base of the food chain is an important controller of Hg concentrations in taxa at higher trophic levels. The characteristics of Adirondack lake-watersheds (sensitivity to acidic deposition; significant forest and wetland land cover; and low nutrient inputs) contribute to elevated Hg concentrations in aquatic biota.

  17. Solar Eclipse Effect on Shelter Air Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Turner, R. W.; Prusa, J.; Bitzer, R. J.; Finley, S. V.

    1996-01-01

    Decreases in shelter temperature during eclipse events were quantified on the basis of observations, numerical model simulations, and complementary conceptual evaluations. Observations for the annular eclipse on 10 May 1994 over the United States are presented, and these provide insights into the temporal and spatial changes in the shelter temperature. The observations indicated near-surface temperature drops of as much as 6 C. Numerical model simulations for this eclipse event, which provide a complementary evaluation of the spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature drops, predict similar decreases. Interrelationships between the temperature drop, degree of solar irradiance reduction, and timing of the peak eclipse are also evaluated for late spring, summer, and winter sun conditions. These simulations suggest that for total eclipses the drops in shelter temperature in midlatitudes can be as high as 7 C for a spring morning eclipse.

  18. Origin of coronas in metagabbros of the Adirondack mts., N. Y

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, P.R.; McLelland, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    Metagabbros from two widely separated areas in the Adirondacks show development of coronas. In the Southern Adirondacks, these are cored by olivine which is enclosed in a shell of orthopyroxene that is partially, or completely, rimmed by symplectites consisting of clinopyroxene and spinel. Compositions of the corona phases have been determined by electron probe and are consistent with a mechanism involving three partial reactions, thus: (a) Olivine=Orthopyroxene+(Mg, Fe)++. (b) Plagioclase+(Mg, Fe)+++Ca++=Clinopyroxene+Spinel+Na+. (c) Plagioclase+(Mg, Fe)+++Na+=Spinel+more sodic plagioclase+Ca++. Reaction (a) occurs in the inner shell of the corona adjacent to olivine; reaction (b) in the outer shell; and (c) in the surrounding plagioclase, giving rise to the spinel clouding which is characteristic of the plagioclase in these rocks. Alumina and silica remain relatively immobile. These reactions, when balanced, can be generalized to account for the aluminous nature of the pyroxenes and for changing plagioclase composition. Summed together, the partial reactions are equivalent to: (d) Olivine + Anorthite = Aluminous orthopyroxene + Aluminous Clinopyroxene + Spinel (Kushiro and Yoder, 1966). In the Adirondack Highlands, coronas between olivine and plagioclase commonly have an outer shell of garnet replacing the clinopyroxene/spinel shell. The origin of the garnet can also be explained in terms of three partial reactions: (e) Orthopyroxene+Ca++=Clinopyroxene+(Mg, Fe)++. (f) Clinopyroxene+Spinel+Plagioclase+(Mg, Fe)++=Garnet+Ca+++Na+. (g) Plagioclase+(Mg, Fe)+++Na+=Spinel + more sodic plagioclase+Ca++. These occur in the inner and outer corona shell and the surrounding plagioclase, respectively, and involve the products of reactions (a)-(d). Alumina and silica are again relatively immobile. Balanced, and generalized to account for aluminous pyroxenes and variable An content of plagioclase, they are equivalent to: (h) Orthopyroxene+Anorthite+Spinel=Garnet (Green and

  19. Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight line. View to east. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Guard Tower, Florida Street at Aircraft Shelters Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  20. FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTHNORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTH-NORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Shelter, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  1. FEATURE 2, OPEN SIDE OF SHELTER, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 2, OPEN SIDE OF SHELTER, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Shelter, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  2. FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTHNORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST (with scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTH-NORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Shelter, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  3. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST END OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST WALLS - Big Dalton Dam, Shelter House, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. NORTHERLY VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHERLY VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST END OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE BUILDING - Big Dalton Dam, Shelter House, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. View of entry portal into bomb shelter. Wood blocking has ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of entry portal into bomb shelter. Wood blocking has been installed to prevent entry, view facing northwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Splinterproof Shelter, Seventh Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Interior view of entry stair into bomb shelter, taken from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of entry stair into bomb shelter, taken from below grade, view facing south - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Splinterproof Shelter, Seventh Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. View of entry portal into bomb shelter. Wood blocking has ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of entry portal into bomb shelter. Wood blocking has been installed to prevent entry, view facing north - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Splinterproof Shelter, Seventh Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing northwest - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  9. Closeup view of EPA Farm cattle shelter lamp, facing west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of EPA Farm cattle shelter lamp, facing west - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  10. View of EPA Farm cattle shelters (Building 1506 in background), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of EPA Farm cattle shelters (Building 15-06 in background), facing southeast - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  11. FIRE SAFETY UPGRADING FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS IN BUILDINGS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    building. Specifically, thermal barriers for window openings, automatic smoke detectors with manual response by fire fighting shelter personnel, and environmental seals for shelter areas are recommended as feasible upgrading remedies.

  12. Simulation of growth of Adirondack conifers in relation to global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Y.; Raynal, D.J. )

    1993-06-01

    Several conifer species grown in plantations in the southeastern Adirondack mountains of New York were chosen to model tree growth. In the models, annual xylem growth was decomposed into several components that reflect various intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Growth signals indicative of climatic effects were used to construct response functions using both multivariate analysis and Kalman filter methods. Two models were used to simulate tree growth response to future CO[sub 2]-induced climate change projected by GCMs. The comparable results of both models indicate that different conifer species have individualistic growth responses to future climatic change. The response behaviors of trees are affected greatly by local stand conditions. The results suggest possible changes in future growth and distributions of naturally occurring conifers in this region.

  13. Acid precipitation effects on algal productivity and biomass in Adirondack Lakes. Final completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrey, G.R.

    1982-12-01

    Relationships between phytoplankton communities and lake acidity in three Adirondack Mountain Lakes were studied at Woods Lake, Sagamore Lake (pH ca. 5.5), and Panther Lake (pH ca. 7.0). Numbers of phytoplankton species observed were Woods 45, Sagamore 55, and Panther 85, conforming to observations at many other sites that species numbers decrease with increasing acidity. The smaller plankton are relatively more important in the more acid lakes, Woods > Sagamore > Panther. This pattern could be determined by nutrient availability (lake acidification is suspected of leading to decreased availability of phosphorus). The amount of 14C-labelled dissolved photosynthate (14C-DOM), as a percent of total productivity, is ordered Woods > Sagamore > Panther.

  14. Selling to Industry for Sheltered Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Intended for staffs of sheltered workshops for handicapped individuals, the guide presents a plan for selling the workshop idea to industry, hints on meeting obstacles, and ideas for expanding and upgrading workshop contract promotion. Brief sections cover the following topics (example subtopics are in parentheses): finding work contract prospects…

  15. 25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A foster care facility authorized under tribal or state law to provide foster care, group care or protective residence; (2) A... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Shelter care. 11.1104 Section 11.1104 Indians BUREAU...

  16. 25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A foster care facility authorized under tribal or state law to provide foster care, group care or protective residence; (2) A... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shelter care. 11.1104 Section 11.1104 Indians BUREAU...

  17. 25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A foster care facility authorized under tribal or state law to provide foster care, group care or protective residence; (2) A... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shelter care. 11.1104 Section 11.1104 Indians BUREAU...

  18. 25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A foster care facility authorized under tribal or state law to provide foster care, group care or protective residence; (2) A... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shelter care. 11.1104 Section 11.1104 Indians BUREAU...

  19. 25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A foster care facility authorized under tribal or state law to provide foster care, group care or protective residence; (2) A... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shelter care. 11.1104 Section 11.1104 Indians BUREAU...

  20. Deep Space Storm Shelter Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Kathryn; Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Cerro, Jeffrey; Simon, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Missions outside of Earth's magnetic field are impeded by the presence of radiation from galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. To overcome this issue, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Radiation Works Storm Shelter (RadWorks) has been studying different radiation protective habitats to shield against the onset of solar particle event radiation. These habitats have the capability of protecting occupants by utilizing available materials such as food, water, brine, human waste, trash, and non-consumables to build short-term shelters. Protection comes from building a barrier with the materials that dampens the impact of the radiation on astronauts. The goal of this study is to develop a discrete event simulation, modeling a solar particle event and the building of a protective shelter. The main hallway location within a larger habitat similar to the International Space Station (ISS) is analyzed. The outputs from this model are: 1) the total area covered on the shelter by the different materials, 2) the amount of radiation the crew members receive, and 3) the amount of time for setting up the habitat during specific points in a mission given an event occurs.

  1. Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

  2. Sheltered Employment for Persons with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visier, Laurent

    1998-01-01

    Across nations, sheltered workshops for people with disabilities follow several models: therapeutic (protection vs. employee status), intermediate (disabled worker as "quasi-employee"), mixed/dual, and wage employment (protection and labor legislation). Impairment should present no insurmountable obstacle to integration into working life. (SK)

  3. Space Shelter. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    Based on a hypothetical situation that aliens have invaded Earth and humans must relocate to another planet, students design a shelter that can be built on another planet to insure their survival. Students research the characteristics of a planet of their choice and consider how to get to that planet from Earth, determine which five items that…

  4. Strategies for a Children's Shelter Reading Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanacore, Joseph

    1976-01-01

    A reading program was described for students who stay at the Suffolk Children's Shelter, located in Suffolk County, Long Island, New York. Its goals were to stimulate students, considered uncontrollable and incorrigible, to select their reading materials independently, to read those materials at comfortable rates, and to develop their reading…

  5. 13. View inside Building 802, the "Sleeping Quarters" looking down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View inside Building 802, the "Sleeping Quarters" looking down the west side, bunks on the left, escape hatch at rear, facing south. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  6. 12. View inside Building 802, the "Sleeping Quarters" looking down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View inside Building 802, the "Sleeping Quarters" looking down the east side, bunks on the right, facing south. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  7. A generalized garnet-forming reaction for metaigneous rocks in the Adirondacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLelland, J.M.; Whitney, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    A generalized reaction is presented to account for garnet formation in a variety of Adirondack metaigneous rocks. This reaction, which is the sum of five partial reactions written in aluminum-fixed frames of reference, is given by: 4(y+1+w)Anorthite+4 k(y+1+2 w)Olivine +4(1-k)(y+1+2 w)Fe-oxide+(8(y+1) -4 k(y+1+2 w))Orthopyroxene = 2(y+1)Garnet +2(y+1+2 w)Clinopyroxene+4 wSpinel where y is a function of plagioclase composition, k refers to the relative amounts of olivine and Fe-oxide participating in the reaction, and w is a measure of silicon mobility. When mass balanced for Mg and Fe, this reaction is found to be consistent with analyzed mineral compositions in a wide range of Adirondack metaigneous rocks. The reaction applies equally well whether the garnets were formed directly from the rectants given above or went through an intermadiate stage involving the formation of spinel, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene. The actual reactions which have produced garnet in both undersaturated and quartz-bearing rocks are special cases of the above general reaction. The most important special cases appear to be those in which the reactants include either olivine alone (k=1) or Fe-oxide alone (k=0). Silicon is relatively immobile (w =2) in olivine bearing, magnesium-rich rocks (k???1), and this correlates with the increased intensity in spinel clouding of plagioclase in these rocks. Silicon mobility apparently increases in the more iron-rich rocks, which also tend to contain clear or lightly clouded plagioclase. In all the rocks studied the most common composition of metamorphic plagioclase is close to An33 (i.e., y=1). Plagioclase of lower anorthite content may be too sodic to participate in garnet formation at the P-T conditions involved. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Impacts of acidification on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of the western Adirondack Mountains, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Lawrence, G.B.; Bode, R.W.; Simonin, H.A.; Roy, K.M.; Smith, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Limited stream chemistry and macroinvertebrate data indicate that acidic deposition has adversely affected benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in numerous headwater streams of the western Adirondack Mountains of New York. No studies, however, have quantified the effects that acidic deposition and acidification may have had on resident fish and macroinvertebrate communities in streams of the region. As part of the Western Adirondack Stream Survey, water chemistry from 200 streams was sampled five times and macroinvertebrate communities were surveyed once from a subset of 36 streams in the Oswegatchie and Black River Basins during 2003-2005 and evaluated to: (a) document the effects that chronic and episodic acidification have on macroinvertebrate communities across the region, (b) define the relations between acidification and the health of affected species assemblages, and (c) assess indicators and thresholds of biological effects. Concentrations of inorganic Al in 66% of the 200 streams periodically reached concentrations toxic to acid-tolerant biota. A new acid biological assessment profile (acidBAP) index for macroinvertebrates, derived from percent mayfly richness and percent acid-tolerant taxa, was strongly correlated (R2 values range from 0.58 to 0.76) with concentrations of inorganic Al, pH, ANC, and base cation surplus (BCS). The BCS and acidBAP index helped remove confounding influences of natural organic acidity and to redefine acidification-effect thresholds and biological-impact categories. AcidBAP scores indicated that macroinvertebrate communities were moderately or severely impacted by acidification in 44-56% of 36 study streams, however, additional data from randomly selected streams is needed to accurately estimate the true percentage of streams in which macroinvertebrate communities are adversely affected in this, or other, regions. As biologically relevant measures of impacts caused by acidification, both BCS and acidBAP may be useful

  9. Persistent mortality of brook trout in episodically acidified streams of the Southwestern Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Lawrence, G.; Simonin, H.

    2007-01-01

    Water chemistry, discharge, and mortality of caged brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis were characterized in six headwater streams in the southwestern Adirondack Mountains of New York during spring 2001-2003. Results were compared with mortality recorded during similar tests during 1984-1985, 1988-1990, and 1997 to assess contemporary relations between stream acidification and brook trout mortality, the effects of exposure duration on mortality, and the effects of decreased rates of acidic deposition on water quality and fish mortality. Water quality and mortality of caged, young-of-the-year brook trout were evaluated during 30-d exposure periods from mid-April to late May during the most recent tests. In 2001-2003, mortality ranged from 0% to 100% and varied among streams and years, depending on the timing of toxicity tests in relation to the annual snowmelt and on the ability of each watershed to neutralize acids and prevent acutely toxic concentrations of inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim) during high-flow events. Mortality rates in 2001-2003 tests were highly variable but similar to those observed during earlier tests. This similarity suggests that stream water quality in the southwestern Adirondack Mountains has not changed appreciably over the past 20 years. Concentrations of Alim greater than 2.0 and 4.0 ??mol/L were closely correlated with low and high mortality rates, respectively, and accounted for 83% of the variation in mortality. Two to four days of exposure to Alim concentrations greater than 4.0 ??mol/L resulted in 50-100% mortality. The extended periods (as long as 6 months) during which Alim concentrations exceeded 2.0 and 4.0 ??mol/L in one or more streams, combined with the low tolerance of many other fish species to acid and elevated Al concentrations, indicate a high potential for damage to fish communities in these and other poorly buffered streams of the Northeast. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1403-9 - Criteria-Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criteria-Shelter holes. 75.1403-9 Section 75... Criteria—Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes should be provided on track haulage roads at intervals of not more than 105 feet unless otherwise approved by the Coal Mine Safety District Manager(s). (b)...

  11. 24 CFR 576.53 - Use as an emergency shelter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use as an emergency shelter. 576.53... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM: STEWART B. McKINNEY HOMELESS ASSISTANCE ACT Program Requirements § 576.53 Use as an emergency shelter. (a)(1) Restrictions and...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1403-9 - Criteria-Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Shelter holes. 75.1403-9 Section 75... Criteria—Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes should be provided on track haulage roads at intervals of not more than 105 feet unless otherwise approved by the Coal Mine Safety District Manager(s). (b)...

  13. 24 CFR 576.53 - Use as an emergency shelter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use as an emergency shelter. 576.53... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM: STEWART B. McKINNEY HOMELESS ASSISTANCE ACT Program Requirements § 576.53 Use as an emergency shelter. (a)(1) Restrictions and...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1403-9 - Criteria-Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria-Shelter holes. 75.1403-9 Section 75... Criteria—Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes should be provided on track haulage roads at intervals of not more than 105 feet unless otherwise approved by the Coal Mine Safety District Manager(s). (b)...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1403-9 - Criteria-Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criteria-Shelter holes. 75.1403-9 Section 75... Criteria—Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes should be provided on track haulage roads at intervals of not more than 105 feet unless otherwise approved by the Coal Mine Safety District Manager(s). (b)...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1403-9 - Criteria-Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria-Shelter holes. 75.1403-9 Section 75... Criteria—Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes should be provided on track haulage roads at intervals of not more than 105 feet unless otherwise approved by the Coal Mine Safety District Manager(s). (b)...

  17. 9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.3 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  18. 9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.3 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  19. 9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.3 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  20. 9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.3 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  1. 9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.3 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  2. 24 CFR 576.403 - Shelter and housing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) carried out with ESG assistance must use Energy Star and WaterSense products and appliances. (2) Access... intended for day use only, the shelter must provide each program participant in the shelter with an... sufficient electrical sources to permit the safe use of electrical appliances in the shelter. (9)...

  3. Sleep Talking (Somniloquy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview & Facts Symptoms & Risk Factors Diagnosis & Treatment Sleep Hallucinations Overview & Facts Symptoms & Risk Factors Diagnosis & Treatment Exploding ... Sleep Behavior Disorder Sleep Paralysis Nightmares Bedwetting Sleep Hallucinations Exploding Head Syndrome Sleep Talking Sleep Talking – Overview ...

  4. How Effective Homelessness Prevention Impacts the Length of Shelter Spells.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sarena; Messeri, Peter; O'Flaherty, Brendan

    2014-03-01

    Homelessness prevention programs intervene with households apparently in imminent danger of becoming homeless, and try to keep them housed. If they are at least partially successful, how do they change the average shelter spell of households actually becoming homeless? We use data from 2003 to 2008 for Homebase, a New York City homelessness prevention program that studies have found to be effective in reducing shelter entries. Homebase made no difference in average shelter spells at the community level. This result, like many results about shelter spell length, is not easy to reconcile with the idea that shelter spell length is a reflection of the seriousness of underlying problems.

  5. Effects of Sheltering on Behavior and Fecal Corticosterone Level of Elderly Dogs.

    PubMed

    Uetake, Katsuji; Yang, Chu Han; Endo, Aki; Tanaka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the human population is aging rapidly, and the abandonment of dogs by the elderly people who have died or been hospitalized becomes a problem. It is hypothesized that elderly dogs have difficulty adapting to the novel circumstances when brought to an animal shelter. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess stress levels and demonstrate stress responses of elderly dogs just after admission to an animal shelter. As stress indicators, fecal corticosterone levels and changes in the ethogram of the dogs were investigated during the first week of admittance. Fecal corticosterone levels (mean ± SE) stayed high during the first week of residence, although they fell gently from the day after admittance (16650.1 ± 3769.7 ng/g) to the seventh day (12178.4 ± 2524.4 ng/g) (P < 0.001). The proportions of behavioral expressions changed as the days passed (P < 0.001). In particular, stereotypies decreased from 35.7% on the first day to 2.6% on the sixth day, and time spent sleeping increased from 0.0 to 42.7%. These results indicate that elderly dogs admitted to an animal shelter seem to behaviorally adapt themselves to their novel circumstances but might be stressed even on the seventh day of residence.

  6. Effects of Sheltering on Behavior and Fecal Corticosterone Level of Elderly Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Uetake, Katsuji; Yang, Chu Han; Endo, Aki; Tanaka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the human population is aging rapidly, and the abandonment of dogs by the elderly people who have died or been hospitalized becomes a problem. It is hypothesized that elderly dogs have difficulty adapting to the novel circumstances when brought to an animal shelter. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess stress levels and demonstrate stress responses of elderly dogs just after admission to an animal shelter. As stress indicators, fecal corticosterone levels and changes in the ethogram of the dogs were investigated during the first week of admittance. Fecal corticosterone levels (mean ± SE) stayed high during the first week of residence, although they fell gently from the day after admittance (16650.1 ± 3769.7 ng/g) to the seventh day (12178.4 ± 2524.4 ng/g) (P < 0.001). The proportions of behavioral expressions changed as the days passed (P < 0.001). In particular, stereotypies decreased from 35.7% on the first day to 2.6% on the sixth day, and time spent sleeping increased from 0.0 to 42.7%. These results indicate that elderly dogs admitted to an animal shelter seem to behaviorally adapt themselves to their novel circumstances but might be stressed even on the seventh day of residence. PMID:27917385

  7. Sleep Disturbances

    MedlinePlus

    ... middle of the night. Sleep in a cool dark place and use the bed only for sleeping ... in Parkinson's Navigating Employment, Insurance, Financial and Legal Matters PD Take Three: Tips from the Health Care ...

  8. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  9. Sleeping sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001362.htm Sleeping sickness To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleeping sickness is an infection caused by germs carried ...

  10. [Analysis of Factors on Clinical Application of Vehicle CT Shelter].

    PubMed

    Shuai, Wanjun; Chao, Yong; Liu, Shuai; Dong, Can; Gao, Huayong; Tan, Shulin; Niu, Fu

    2015-09-01

    To assure the clinical quality and requirement of CT shelter used in field environment, the factors related with the practical application were studied. The evaluation indicators of CT equipment were investigated. Based on the technical modification of vehicle shelter CT, the scanning conditions of shelter CT were analyzed. Moreover, the comparative study was done between shelter CT and common CT in hospitals. In result, in order to meet maneuverability application in the field, vehicle shelter CT was restrictive by the field conditions, traffic impacts and running requirement. The application of vehicle shelter CT was affected by the factors, such as mechanical stabilization, moving precision, power fluctuations and variations of temperature and humidity, etc. The results were helpful to improve the clinical quality of vehicle shelter CT and made a base for the quality control study in the future.

  11. Effects of acidic deposition and soil acidification on sugar maple trees in the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Timothy J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Bailey, Scott W.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Beier, Colin M.; Weathers, K.C.; McPherson, G.T.; Bishop, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    We documented the effects of acidic atmospheric deposition and soil acidification on the canopy health, basal area increment, and regeneration of sugar maple (SM) trees across the Adirondack region of New York State, in the northeastern United States, where SM are plentiful but not well studied and where widespread depletion of soil calcium (Ca) has been documented. Sugar maple is a dominant canopy species in the Adirondack Mountain ecoregion, and it has a high demand for Ca. Trees in this region growing on soils with poor acid–base chemistry (low exchangeable Ca and % base saturation [BS]) that receive relatively high levels of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition exhibited a near absence of SM seedling regeneration and lower crown vigor compared with study plots with relatively high exchangeable Ca and BS and lower levels of acidic deposition. Basal area increment averaged over the 20th century was correlated (p < 0.1) with acid–base chemistry of the Oa, A, and upper B soil horizons. A lack of Adirondack SM regeneration, reduced canopy condition, and possibly decreased basal area growth over recent decades are associated with low concentrations of nutrient base cations in this region that has undergone soil Ca depletion from acidic deposition.

  12. Effects of acidic deposition and soil acidification on sugar maple trees in the Adirondack Mountains, New York.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, T J; Lawrence, G B; Bailey, S W; McDonnell, T C; Beier, C M; Weathers, K C; McPherson, G T; Bishop, D A

    2013-11-19

    We documented the effects of acidic atmospheric deposition and soil acidification on the canopy health, basal area increment, and regeneration of sugar maple (SM) trees across the Adirondack region of New York State, in the northeastern United States, where SM are plentiful but not well studied and where widespread depletion of soil calcium (Ca) has been documented. Sugar maple is a dominant canopy species in the Adirondack Mountain ecoregion, and it has a high demand for Ca. Trees in this region growing on soils with poor acid-base chemistry (low exchangeable Ca and % base saturation [BS]) that receive relatively high levels of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition exhibited a near absence of SM seedling regeneration and lower crown vigor compared with study plots with relatively high exchangeable Ca and BS and lower levels of acidic deposition. Basal area increment averaged over the 20th century was correlated (p < 0.1) with acid-base chemistry of the Oa, A, and upper B soil horizons. A lack of Adirondack SM regeneration, reduced canopy condition, and possibly decreased basal area growth over recent decades are associated with low concentrations of nutrient base cations in this region that has undergone soil Ca depletion from acidic deposition.

  13. Radon in earth-sheltered structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    Radon concentration in the indoor air of six residential and three non-residential earth-sheltered buildings in eastern Colorado was monitored quarterly over a nine-month period using passive, integrating detectors. Average radon concentrations during the three-month sampling periods ranged from about 1 to 9 pCi/L, although one building, a poorly ventilated storage bunker, had concentrations as high as 39 pCi/L. These radon concentrations are somewhat greater than those typically reported for conventional buildings (around 1 pCi/L); but they are of the same order of magnitude as radon concentrations reported for energy-efficient buildings which are not earth-sheltered. ?? 1984.

  14. The role of PTSD and length of shelter stay in battered women's severity of re-abuse after leaving shelter.

    PubMed

    Perez, Sara; Johnson, Dawn M; Johnson, Nicole; Walter, Kristen H

    2012-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is associated with significant morbidity, including high rates of re-abuse even after women have taken steps to achieve safety. This study evaluated the roles of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and length of shelter stay in the severity of re-abuse in 103 IPV victims over a six month period after leaving a battered women's shelter. Results suggest that the length of shelter stay is inversely related to re-abuse severity after leaving shelter. Additionally, more severe PTSD symptoms upon shelter exit were associated with greater re-abuse severity after leaving shelter. Furthermore, additional study findings support prior research suggesting that the emotional numbing symptoms of PTSD are a significant risk factor for re-abuse among IPV victims after leaving shelter.

  15. Self-Healing, Inflatable, Rigidizable Shelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haight, Andrea; Gosau, Jan-Michael; Dixit, Anshu; Gleeson, Dan

    2012-01-01

    An inflatable, rigidizable shelter system was developed based on Rigi dization on Command (ROC) technology incorporating not only the requ ired low-stowage volume and lightweight character achieved from an i nflatable/rigidizable system, but also a self-healing foam system inc orporated between the rigidizable layers of the final structure to m inimize the damage caused by any punctures to the structure.

  16. Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Robert M

    2015-09-01

    Sleep deprivation occurs when inadequate sleep leads to decreased performance, inadequate alertness, and deterioration in health. It is incompletely understood why humans need sleep, although some theories include energy conservation, restoration, and information processing. Sleep deprivation has many deleterious health effects. Residency programs have enacted strict work restrictions because of medically related errors due to sleep deprivation. Because obstetrics is an unpredictable specialty with long irregular hours, enacting a hospitalist program enhances patient safety, decreases malpractice risk, and improves the physician's quality of life by allowing obstetricians to get sufficient rest.

  17. Barriers and facilitators to shelter utilization among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yoonsook; Narendorf, Sarah C; Santa Maria, Diane; Bezette-Flores, Noel

    2015-12-01

    Rates of shelter use among homeless youth are low compared to use of other supportive services, yet research on barriers to shelter use has been conducted in limited regions, specifically in West Coast or Midwest cities. Additionally, while studies have generally focused on barriers to shelter use, studies on what might facilitate shelter use are lacking. This study explores barriers and facilitators to shelter use among homeless young adults from a large city in the Southwest region. Focus groups were conducted with a diverse sample of 49 homeless young adults ages 18-24. Drawing on models of health service use, findings were categorized into two domains--attitudinal and access. Themes related to attitudinal barriers include stigma/shame and self-reliance/pride. Attitudinal facilitators include the desire to extricate themselves from street life and turn their lives in a new direction. Access-related themes include barriers such as a lack of shelters and services available to meet the needs of youth, adverse shelter conditions, staff attitudes that are not acceptable to youth, restrictive shelter rules, restrictive definitions of homelessness, and a desire to differentiate themselves from older homeless individuals. Certain characteristics or circumstances (e.g., being pregnant), having supportive others, and shelters' ability to connect them to other services emerged as access facilitators to shelter use. Implications for policymakers, service providers, and future research are discussed.

  18. Vulnerability evaluation of the keyworker blast shelter. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Slawson, T.R.

    1987-04-01

    The 100-man keyworker blast shelter that survived MINOR SCALE (a high explosive event) was retested using the High Explosive Simulation Technique (HEST) in August 1986. The test was conducted at White Sands Missile Range, N. Mex. The existing structure sustained minor damage (1/8-inch permanent midspan deflection) during MINOR SCALE at the predicted 75-psi peak overpressure level, and a retest was proposed to investigate the shelter's large deformation behavior. The shelter was tested using a 1-MT nuclear weapon simulation at 130- to 16-psi (depending on the duration of the simulation). The shelter survived the test with large plastic roof deformations ranging from 8 to 17 inches at roof midspan. The failure mode of the shelter roof was very ductile, and the shelter had adequate reserve capacity to withstand large deformations without catastrophic failure. Survivability of occupants and mechanical equipment at this overpressure was investigated. The mechanical equipment inside the shelter was fully functional after the test except for the roof-mounted fluorescent-light fixtures. In-structure shock was within acceptable limits for shelter occupants, and high-speed movies of the mannequin movement reinforced this conclusion. Based on this test result, it is concluded that the shelter performed as designed in the buried configuration under ideal backfill conditions. Additional scale-model tests validated the shelter design in the bermed configuration and in various backfill types.

  19. Long-Term Trends in Trace Metals Concentrations in Sediment in Lakes in Adirondack Park, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, A.; Judd, C. D.; Swami, K.; Ahmed, T.; Husain, L.

    2007-12-01

    The industrial Midwestern states consume large quantities of fossil fuel and emit large quantities of trace elements, SO2 and other chemicals. Owing to their long residence time these pollutants can be transported hundreds of miles downwind. These chemical species are removed from the atmosphere by wet and dry deposition and are ultimately deposited in lake sediments. Through the sedimentation process the pollution records can be stored for centuries. In this work we have attempted to retrieve the deposition of 25 trace elements for the past ~170 years by analyzing lake sediment cores from lakes located in the Adirondack Mountains. Sediment cores were collected from four lakes (Clear Pond, West Pine Pond, Bear Pond and Deer Pond) located in the Adirondack Park, NY. These lakes are at high altitude and some are inaccessible except by boat, and have minimum human activity (no motor boats, no camping and away from major roads). Coring was carried out by a gravity driven coring device. The cores were sectioned, weighed, freeze-dried, ground to a fine powder, and homogenized for analysis. The sediment cores were dated using 210Pb radioactive dating. The 137Cs activity was measured for an independent verification of 210Pb technique. Trace metals concentration were determined by microwave digestion method followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) analysis. The top sixteen sections of the West Pine Pond sediment core (representing from about 1835 to 2005) were analyzed for Sr, Ba, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Co, Ni, Cu, Ag,Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Be, Tl, and Pb. During pre industrial era the concentrations of Pb, Se and Tl were very low and constant. Pb showed a sharp increase in concentration after around 1880 and a sharp decrease in concentration after about 1990. The concentration of Se increased slowly after pre industrial era. The concentrations of about eight of these elements were determined in quarterly composites of daily aerosol

  20. Shelter upgrading manual: host area shelters. Revisions and additions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, C.; Gabrielsen, B.L.; Tansley, R.S.

    1981-05-01

    The Shelter Upgrading Manual: Host Area Shelters, which was originally developed under Contract No. DCPA01-78-C-0215, Work Unit 1127H, is in looseleaf form to permit removal of pertinent worksheets and charts for developing upgrading plans for a specific building and to permit the addition of new and replacement material as the work progresses. The manual is one of a series being developed in support of the civil defense concept of crisis relocation planning and is designed to be used by planners in host areas. It presents a methodology for evaluating floors, roofs, and openings and develops a variety of ways to provide the necessary structural upgrading for blast and fallout protection. The revisions included here are based on a testing program and are generally in the area of modified survival ratings. Additional new material on expedient shelters is included in an appendix.

  1. Daytime shelter use of individually kept horses during Swedish summer.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, E; Hopkins, R J; Blomgren, E; Ventorp, M; von Brömssen, C; Dahlborn, K

    2015-02-01

    In Sweden, no provision for summer shelter to protect horses from heat and insects is required, although access to shelter for horses kept outdoors 24 h during winter is a requirement. This study investigated horses' daytime shelter-seeking behavior in relation to weather conditions and insect activity during a 2-wk period in summer. Eight Warmblood riding horses had access to 2 shelters of different design to test which shelter design is preferred by horses. Furthermore, rectal and skin temperatures and insect-defensive behavior were measured to test whether horses would benefit from the provision of shade. The horses were kept alone in paddocks for 4 d. During 2 d, horses had access to 2 shelters: 1) open shelter with roof and uncovered sides and 2) closed shelter with roof, wind nets on 2 sides, and opaque plastic opposite the entrance. Weather conditions (ambient temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed) were recorded every 10 min. The number of insects (flies, mosquitos) was counted from insect traps placed in each shelter and outside. Behavior (shelter use, insect-defensive behavior, locomotion, grazing) was recorded at 5-min intervals between 0900 to 1200 h and 1300 to 1600 h and rectal and skin temperatures were measured at 0800 h, 1200 h, and 1600 h. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED and GLIMMIX procedure for Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Ambient temperature ranged from 16 to 25°C (average temperature humidity index 65.7 ± 1.4). Five horses preferred the closed shelter and were observed inside up to 2.5 h continuously. Greater wind speed decreased the likelihood of observing horses inside the shelter ( < 0.001), as did lower numbers of flies ( < 0.001). The insect-defensive behaviors, skin shiver and ear flick, were performed less frequently when horses were using the closed shelter ( < 0.001), indicating that they were less disturbed by insects. Thirty-minute shelter use had no effect on rectal and skin temperatures ( > 0

  2. Mammalian sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  3. Investigating the key indicators for evaluating post-disaster shelter.

    PubMed

    Nath, Ronita; Shannon, Harry; Kabali, Conrad; Oremus, Mark

    2016-09-22

    This study sought to identify the primary indicators for evaluating shelter assistance following natural disasters and then to develop a shelter evaluation instrument based on these indicators. Electronic databases and the 'grey' literature were scoured for publications with a relation to post-disaster shelter assistance. Indicators for evaluating such assistance were extracted from these publications. In total, 1,525 indicators were extracted from 181 publications. A preliminary evaluation instrument was designed from these 1,525 indicators. Shelter experts checked the instrument for face and content validity, and it was revised subsequently based on their input. The revised instrument comprises a version for use by shelter agencies (48 questions that assess 23 indicators) and a version for use by beneficiaries (52 questions that assess 22 indicators). The instrument can serve as a standardised tool to enable groups to gauge whether or not the shelter assistance that they supply meets the needs of disaster-affected populations.

  4. Long-term pCO2 trends in Adirondack Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seekell, David A.; Gudasz, Cristian

    2016-05-01

    Lakes are globally significant sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. However, there are few temporally resolved records of lake CO2 concentrations and long-term patterns are poorly characterized. We evaluated annual trends in the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) based on chemical measurements from 31 Adirondack Lakes taken monthly over an 18 year period. All lakes were supersaturated with CO2 and were sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. There were significant pCO2 trends in 29% of lakes. The median magnitude of significant positive trends was 32.1 µatm yr-1. Overall, 52% of lakes had pCO2 trends greater than those reported for the atmosphere and ocean. Significant trends in lake pCO2 were attributable to regional recovery from acid deposition and changing patterns of ice cover. These results illustrate that lake pCO2 can respond rapidly to environmental change, but the lack of significant trend in 71% of lakes indicates substantial lake-to-lake variation in magnitude of response.

  5. Evidence for multiple metamorphic events in the Adirondack Mountains, N. Y

    SciTech Connect

    McLelland, J.; Lochhead, A.; Vyhnal, C.

    1988-05-01

    Field evidence consisting of: (1) rotated, foliated xenoliths, (2) country rock foliation truncated by isoclinally folded igneous intrusions bearing granulite facies assemblages document one, or more, early dynamothermal event(s) of regional scale and high grade. Early metamorphism resulted in pronounced linear and planar fabric throughout the Adirondacks and preceded the emplacement of the anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite-alaskite (AMCA) suite which contains xenoliths of the metamorphosed rocks. Olivine metagabbros, believed to be approximately contemporaneous with the AMCA-suite, also crosscut and contain xenoliths of, strongly foliated metasediments. These intrusive rocks caused contact metamorphism in the metasediments which locally exhibit both anatectite and restite assemblages. Subsequently, this already complex framework underwent three phases of folding, including an early recumbent isoclinical event, and was metamorphosed to granulite facies P,T conditions. The age of the early metamorphism cannot yet be narrowly constrained, but isotopic results suggest that it may be as young as approx. 1200 Ma or older than approx. 1420 Ma. U-Pb zircon ages indicate emplacement of the AMCA-(metagabbro)-suite in the interval 1160-1130 Ma and place the peak of granulite facies metamorphism between 1070-1025 Ma. The anorogenic character of the AMCA-suite, and the occurrence of metadiabase dike swarms within it, are further evidence of the separate nature of the metamorphic events that precede and postdate AMCA emplacement.

  6. Juvenile Middle Proterozoic crust in the Adirondack Highlands, Grenville province, northeastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, J.S. ); McLelland, J.M. )

    1991-02-01

    Nd isotope data indicate that minimal amounts of significantly older crust have contributed to the genesis of the oldest (ca. 1.3-13.5 Ga) plutons in the Adirondack Highlands. These are magmatic arc tonalites with positive initial {epsilon}{sub Nd} values and Sm-Nd depleted mantle model ages (t{sub DM}) that are within 70 m.y. of the time of their crystallization. Granitoids of the anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite suite, dated at 1,156-1,134 Ma, as well as the 1,100-1,050 Ma plutons, associated with the Ottawan phase of the Grenvillian orogenic cycle, also have positive initial {epsilon}{sub Nd} values and t{sub DM} ages similar to the tonalites. Derivation of both groups of granitoids by crustal melting of the magmatic arc is consistent with the available isotopic and geochemical data. Juvenile late Middle Proterozoic crust that formed during or just prior to the Grenville cycle appears to dominate the southwestern Grenville province as well as the Grenville inliers to the south. In contrast, most of the contiguous Grenville province in Canada comprises largely reworked older crust.

  7. Acid precipitation effects on algal productivity and biomass in Adirondack Mountain lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrey, G.R.

    1982-12-01

    Relationships between phytoplankton communities and lake acidity in three Adirondack Mountain lakes were studied at Woods Lake (pH ca. 4.9), Sagamore Lake (pH ca. 5.5), and Panther Lake (pH ca. 7.0). Species numbers decrease with increasing acidity. Patterns of increasing biomass and productivity in Woods Lake may be atypical of similar oligotrophic lakes in that they develop rather slowly to maxima six weeks after ice-out, instead of occurring very close to ice-out. Contributions of netplankton, nannoplankton and ultraplankton to productivity per m/sup 2/ show that the smaller plankton are relatively more important in the more acid lakes. This pattern could be determined by nutrient availability (lake acidification is suspected of leading to decreased availability of phosphorus). This was consistent with a hypothesis that microbial heterotrophic activity is reduced with increasing acidity, but the smaller phytoplankton may be more leaky at low pH. 11 references, 2 tables.

  8. Phytoplankton limitation by phosphorus and zooplankton grazing in an acidic Adirondack lake

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, R.; Evans, G.L.; Pratt, N.C.

    1984-08-01

    Lakes which are believed to have been acidified by atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic substances are known for their unusually high water clarity and low nutrient concentrations. Some evidence indicates that alterations in predator/prey relationships, an indirect effect of acidification, bring about the increase in water clarity. Enclosures were used to study the effects of phosphorus addition and zooplankton removal on the phytoplankton of an acidic lake in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. Fertilized enclosures had significantly lower alkalinities and contained significantly more dissolved oxygen after the incubation period than did unfertilized enclosures. The P concentration remained at or near the limit of detection in the unfertilized enclosures. The phytoplankton population bloomed after the addition of 80 micro g/liter of phosphate as KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/. The response was measured by cell counts of the dominant phytoplankton. Chlamydomonas, and by changes in chlorophyll a concentration. About half the number of algal cells were present after the two week incubation when zooplankton were not removed, indicating that zooplankton herbivory can influence, but not totally control, the algal production. 46 references.

  9. Paleoecological investigation of recent lake acidification in the Adirondack Mountains, NY

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, D.F.; Binford, M.W.; Furlong, E.T.; Hites, R.A.; Mitchell, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Paleoecological analysis of the sediment record of 12 Adirondack lakes reveals that the 8 clearwater lakes with current pH<5.5 and alkalinity <10 microeq/l have acidified recently. The onset of the acidification occurred between 1920 and 1970. Loss of alkalinity, based on quantitative analysis of diatom assemblages, ranged from 2 to 35 microeq/l. The acidification trends are substantiated by several lines of evidence including stratigraphies of diatom, chrysophyte, chironomid, and cladoceran remains, Ca:Ti and Mn:Ti ratios, sequentially extracted forms of Al, and historical fish data. Acidification trends appear to be continuing in some lakes, despite reductions in atmospheric sulfur loading that began in the early 1970s. The primary cause of the acidification trend is clearly increased atmospheric deposition of strong acids derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. Natural processes and watershed disturbances cannot account for the changes in water chemistry that have occurred, but they may play a role. Sediment core profiles of Pb, Cu, V, Zn, S, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, magnetic particles, and coal and oil soot provide a clear record of increased atmospheric input of materials associated with the combustion of fossil fuels beginning in the late 1800s and early 1900s.

  10. Sedimentology of basal Potsdam sandstone in Adirondack border region, New York, southeastern Ontario, and southwestern Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    McRae, L.E.; Johnson, G.D.

    1986-05-01

    Field evidence supports the relatively widespread presence of nonmarine facies within the basal Potsdam formation of the Adirondack border areas of northern New York, southeastern Ontario, and southwestern Quebec. Detailed observations of areal extent, analysis of sedimentary structures and paleocurrent directions, and petrographic studies have been combined with the paleomagnetic determination of the temporal relationships of these strata to establish depositional patterns and facies trends within basal Potsdam units. Four distinct nonmarine lithofacies have been identified: massive matrix-supported conglomerate, stratified framework-supported conglomerate, conglomerate-arkose, and pebble conglomerate-arkose fining-upward sequences, interpreted to represent debris flows, proximal gravelly braided-stream deposits, intermediate to distal gravelly braided-stream deposits, and proximal sandy braided-stream deposits, respectively. Facies of eolian or possibly tidal, and shallow marine origin have also been identified at the base of the Potsdam sequence. Most basal Potsdam sediments are compositionally and texturally immature, derived directly from the crystalline detritus of the extensively weathered Precambrian surface and regoliths that may have locally developed on the craton. The desert-like environment of the Precambrian surface allowed for rapid transport and deposition of relatively unweathered sediments and the subsequent construction of a braided alluvial plain system. Field relations and evidence derived from consideration of the paleomagnetic properties in five localities of fine-grained alluvium suggest that terrestrial Potsdam deposition in the Early and Middle Cambrian largely preceded the marine transgression that deposited the thick, shallow marine units typifying most of the Potsdam sequence.

  11. U-Pb zircon geochronology and evolution of some Adirondack meta-igneous rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclelland, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    An update was presented of the recent U-Pb isotope geochronology and models for evolution of some of the meta-igneous rocks of the Adirondacks, New York. Uranium-lead zircon data from charnockites and mangerites and on baddeleyite from anorthosite suggest that the emplacement of these rocks into a stable crust took place in the range 1160 to 1130 Ma. Granulite facies metamorphism was approximately 1050 Ma as indicated by metamorphic zircon and sphene ages of the anorthosite and by development of magmatitic alaskitic gneiss. The concentric isotherms that are observed in this area are due to later doming. However, an older contact metamorphic aureole associated with anorthosite intrusion is observed where wollastonite develops in metacarbonates. Zenoliths found in the anorthosite indicate a metamorphic event prior to anorthosite emplacement. The most probable mechanism for anorthosite genesis is thought to be ponding of gabbroic magmas at the Moho. The emplacement of the anorogenic anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite suite was apparently bracketed by compressional orogenies.

  12. Chemistry and transport of soluble humic substances in forested watersheds of the Adirondack Park, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronan, C.S.; Aiken, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were conducted in conjunction with the Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS) to examine the chemistry and leaching patterns of soluble humic substances in forested watersheds of the Adirondack region. During the summer growing season, mean dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the ILWAS watersheds ranged from 21-32 mg C l-1 in O/A horizon leachates, from 5-7 mg C l-1 in B horizon leachates, from 2-4 mg C l-1 in groundwater solutions, from 6-8 mg C l-1 in first order streams, from 3-8 mg C l-1 in lake inlets, and from 2-7 mg C l-1 in lake outlets. During the winter, mean DOC concentrations dropped significantly in the upper soil profile. Soil solutions from mixed and coniferous stands contained as much as twice the DOC concentration of lysimeter samples from hardwood stands. Results of DOC fractionation analysis showed that hydrophobia and hydrophilic acids dominate the organic solute composition of natural waters in these watersheds. Charge balance and titration results indicated that the general acid-base characteristics of the dissolved humic mixture in these natural waters can be accounted for by a model organic acid having an averagepKa of 3.85, an average charge density of 4-5 ??eq mg-1 C at ambient pH, and a total of 6-7 meq COOH per gram carbon. ?? 1985.

  13. Development of LANDSAT Derived Forest Cover Information for Integration into Adirondack Park GIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, R. P.; Banta, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Based upon observed changes in timber harvest practices partially attributable to forest biomass removable for energy supply purposes, the Adirondack Park Agency began in 1979 a multi-year project to implement a digital geographic information system (GIS). An initial developmental task was an inventory of forest cover information and analysis of forest resource change and availability. While developing the GIS, a pilot project was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of LANDSAT derived land cover information for this purpose, and to explore the integration of LANDSAT data into the GIS. The prototype LANDSAT analysis project involved: (1) the use of both recent and historic data to derive land cover information for two dates; and (2) comparison of land cover over time to determine quantitative and geographic changes. The "recent data," 1978 full foliage data over portions of four LANDSAT scenes, was classified, using ground truth derived training samples in various forested and non-forested categories. Forested categories include the following: northern hardwoods, pine, spruce-fir, and pine plantation, while nonforested categories include wet-conifer, pasture, grassland, urban, exposed soil, agriculture, and water.

  14. Late Quaternary history of the southwestern St. Lawrence Lowlands and adjacent Adirondack Highlands

    SciTech Connect

    Pair, D.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The reconstruction of Late Wisconsinan ice retreat, proglacial lakes, and Champlain Sea history from the northwest Adirondack slope and adjacent St. Lawrence Lowlands is critical to the synthesis of a regional picture of deglacial events in the eastern Great Lakes region. Unfortunately, these same areas are well known for their limited exposures, landforms covered by thick forest, large tracts of land inaccessible to detailed field mapping, and the overall paucity of glacial materials preserved on upland surfaces. Despite these limitations, a model which utilizes multiple and field-truthed evidence has been used to designate areas where ice border deposits indicate a substantial recessional position. It employs the following criteria in this analysis: sedimentology and morphostratigraphy of morainal landform segments and related sediments; orientation and continuity of ice border drainage channels; and the relationship of ice borders and drainage systems to well documented local and regional water bodies which accompanied ice retreat. The results of this approach have provided a unique regional picture of deglaciation. Despite the inherent limitations of working in upland areas to reconstruct glacial events, detailed morphostratigraphic correlations based on multiple lines of evidence can yield important information. The positions of five former ice borders have been reconstructed from the available data. These ice margins correspond closely with those documented previously by others adjoining areas. This type of study, utilizing multiple and field-truthed lines of evidence, constitutes a tangible step towards understanding the nature and history of ice retreat along this portion of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  15. Hydraulic and biochemical gradients limit wetland mercury supply to an Adirondack stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Burns, Douglas A.; Harvey, Judson; Journey, Celeste; Brigham, Mark E.; Murray, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Net fluxes (change between upstream and downstream margins) for water, methylmercury (MeHg), total mercury (THg), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and chloride (Cl) were assessed twice in an Adirondack stream reach (Sixmile Brook, USA), to test the hypothesized importance of wetland-stream hydraulic and chemical gradients as fundamental controls on fluvial mercury (Hg) supply. The 500 m study reach represented less than 4% of total upstream basin area. During a snowmelt high-flow event in May 2009 surface water, DOC, and chloride fluxes increased by 7.1±1.3%, 8.0±1.3%, and 9.0±1.3%, respectively, within the reach, demonstrating that the adjacent wetlands are important sources of water and solutes to the stream. However, shallow groundwater Hg concentrations lower than in the surface water limited groundwater-surface water Hg exchange and no significant changes in Hg (filtered MeHg and THg) fluxes were observed within the reach despite the favorable hydraulic gradient. In August 2009, the lack of significant wetland-stream hydraulic gradient resulted in no net flux of water or solutes (MeHg, THg, DOC, or Cl) within the reach. The results are consistent with the wetland-Hg-source hypothesis and indicate that hydraulic and chemical gradient (direction and magnitude) interactions are fundamental controls on the supply of wetland Hg to the stream.

  16. Chemical variations within a metagabbro, N. W. Adirondack lowlands, N. Y

    SciTech Connect

    Von Derau, G.D. Jr.; Van Brocklin, M.F. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    A metagabbro located in the N.W. Adirondack lowlands has been examined in order to study the chemical changes that occur from the edge of the body into the core. Samples were collected from within a mine adit starting near the contact of the country rock and going into the metagabbro for a distance of 65 feet. The country rock contains an assemblage of alkali feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, biotite, apatite and magnetite. The metagabbro contains an assemblage of plagioclase, hornblende, clinopyroxene, biotite, quartz, sphene, apatite and opaques. Chemical data show a decrease of SiO[sub 2] and K[sub 2]O from the edge of the metagabbro towards the center, and an increase in CaO, Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3], MgO, TiO[sub 2], P[sub 2]O[sub 5], Ni, V, and Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3]. The Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], and Na[sub 2]O content remain nearly constant. Hand samples stained with sodium cobaltinitrite also reflect decreasing K[sub 2]O towards the core of the body. These chemical gradations may be due to metasomatism, assimilation of country rock or true compositional zoning during crystallization of an alkali-rich gabbro.

  17. Evaluation of the recovery of Adirondack acid lakes by chemical manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Depinto, J.V.; Edzwald, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    This study specifically addressed an evaluation of materials (calcium hydroxide and carbonate, agricultural limestone, fly ash, water treatment plant softening sludge, cement plant by-pass dust) for their neutralizing effectiveness and for establishing a neutral pH buffer system, and an evaluation of the effect of various lake recovery materials on algal growth. Laboratory continuous-flow microcosims were used as models to assess acid lake recovery. These models were filled with actual acid lake water over a layer of lake sediments, subjected to a given chemical treatment, and continuously fed water of selected quality (e.g., acid rain). A simulation of sediment-water-air kinetic interactions on a treated acid lake was obtained by careful monitoring of the microcosm chemical response. Agricultural limestone was determined to be the most appropriate material for acid lake recovery treatment based on its neutralizing properties, assessment of its potential impact on biota, its availability, and its relative cost: the results of this laboratory study suggest that full-scale recovery of an Adirondack acid lake is technically feasible. It is, however, recommended that an acid lake recovery field demonstration project be undertaken. 58 references, 36 figures, 29 tables.

  18. Relationships between surface sediment diatom assemblages and lakewater characteristics in Adirondack Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, D.F.

    1985-06-01

    Relationships between surface sediment diatom assemblages and lakewater characteristics were studied in 38 lakes in the Adirondack Mountains of northern New York. Most of the lakes are dilute, poorly buffered, and oligotrophic to mesotrophic. The diatom flora typical for circumneutral to acidic lakes. The purposes of this study were to identify the environmental factors most strongly related to the distributions of diatom taxa and the overall composition of diatom assemblages, and to derive equations to infer lakewater pH from diatom assemblage data. Relationships between diatom assemblages and environmental gradients were analyzed using reciprocal averaging ordination (RA). Correlations between Ra axis 1 and pH-related factors were strong. Correlations were weaker (but still statistically significant) with elevation, epilimnion temperature, and concentrations of SO/sub 4/, Cl, and Si. Total P, chlorophyll a, water color, and mean depth were not important in explaining differences among assemblages. Predictive equations were derived for inferring lakewater pH from diatom assemblage data. Agreement between predicted and measured pH was very good. These predictive relationships can be used to interpret stratigraphic diatom assemblages to reconstruct lake pH histories.

  19. Increases in dissolved organic carbon accelerate loss of toxic Al in Adirondack lakes recovering from acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Dukett, James E; Houck, Nathan; Snyder, Phillip; Capone, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing pH and decreasing Al in surface waters recovering from acidification have been accompanied by increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated organic acids that partially offset pH increases and complicate assessments of recovery from acidification. To better understand the processes of recovery, monthly chemistry from 42 lakes in the Adirondack region, NY, collected from 1994 to 2011, were used to (1) evaluate long-term changes in DOC and associated strongly acidic organic acids and (2) use the base-cation surplus (BCS) as a chemical index to assess the effects of increasing DOC concentrations on the Al chemistry of these lakes. Over the study period, the BCS increased (p < 0.01) and concentrations of toxic inorganic monomeric Al (IMAl) decreased (p < 0.01). The decreases in IMAl were greater than expected from the increases in the BCS. Higher DOC concentrations that increased organic complexation of Al resulted in a decrease in the IMAl fraction of total monomeric Al from 57% in 1994 to 23% in 2011. Increasing DOC concentrations have accelerated recovery in terms of decreasing toxic Al beyond that directly accomplished by reducing atmospheric deposition of strong mineral acids.

  20. American Sleep Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sleep Disorders Book Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Improving public health by increasing awareness about ... Members Username or Email Password Remember Me Register Sleep Blog Changing Bad Sleep Habits Asthma and Sleep ...

  1. COST ESTIMATES FOR PROVIDING BIOLOGICAL AGENT PROTECTION TO FALLOUT SHELTERS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CIVIL DEFENSE , SHELTERS , BIOLOGICAL WARFARE, DECONTAMINATION, COOLING AND VENTILATING EQUIPMENT, AIR FILTERS, BUILDINGS, UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES, CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERES, PRESSURE, CONSTRUCTION, FEASIBILITY STUDIES.

  2. Predicting shelter residence in women experiencing recent intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Galano, Maria M; Hunter, Erin C; Howell, Kathryn H; Miller, Laura E; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2013-04-01

    This study sought to determine factors associated with shelter residence in women with recent histories of intimate partner violence (IPV). The sample included 113 women, approximately half of whom resided in a shelter over the past year. Participating women provided demographic information and completed standardized measures of IPV, trauma, and depression. Ethnicity, income, housing stability, and mental health, but not violence exposure, differentiated the shelter and community groups. Trauma symptoms, housing instability, and ethnicity best predicted shelter residence. Future research should focus on determining what types of services and interventions will best address the unique needs of each population.

  3. OVERHILLS GOLF COURSE LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SPECTATOR SHELTER BACK UP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERHILLS GOLF COURSE LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SPECTATOR SHELTER BACK UP FAIRWAY #1 - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  4. SLEEP DEPRIVATION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report was confined to considering the effects of sleep deprivation , in man, with particular reference to studies of the resulting biochemical...have a limited value when taken separately: the biochemical and physiological changes that occur in response to sleep deprivation may depend...three separate heads: first, the biochemical changes resulting from sleep deprivation ; secondly, the physiological ones; and last, the changes in performance and behaviour. (Author)

  5. Application of Systems Analysis to Sheltered Workshops. Organization and Administration of Sheltered Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, William H.

    This paper discusses a set of concepts which have been developed for the analysis of the organization and administrative problems which confront sheltered workshops. The concept of systems analysis is introduced to examine the activities of the workshop and to indicate the manner in which the conceptual framework developed may be applied to…

  6. Teaching as Sheltering: A Metaphorical Analysis of Sheltered Instruction for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritzen, Anny

    2011-01-01

    The term "sheltered instruction" (SI) has become a widely used metaphor representing a common pedagogical intervention intended to help English language learners simultaneously gain English proficiency and academic content knowledge. While existing research places considerable emphasis on observable pedagogical techniques that characterize SI,…

  7. Acidification in the Adirondacks: defining the biota in trophic levels of 30 chemically diverse acid-impacted lakes.

    PubMed

    Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A; Boylen, Charles W; Eichler, Lawrence W; Harrison, James P; Sutherland, James W; Shaw, William; Daniels, Robert A; Charles, Donald F; Acker, Frank W; Sullivan, Timothy J; Momen, Bahram; Bukaveckas, Paul

    2010-08-01

    The Adirondack Mountains in New York State have a varied surficial geology and chemically diverse surface waters that are among the most impacted by acid deposition in the U.S. No single Adirondack investigation has been comprehensive in defining the effects of acidification on species diversity, from bacteria through fish, essential for understanding the full impact of acidification on biota. Baseline midsummer chemistry and community composition are presented for a group of chemically diverse Adirondack lakes. Species richness of all trophic levels except bacteria is significantly correlated with lake acid-base chemistry. The loss of taxa observed per unit pH was similar: bacterial genera (2.50), bacterial classes (1.43), phytoplankton (3.97), rotifers (3.56), crustaceans (1.75), macrophytes (3.96), and fish (3.72). Specific pH criteria were applied to the communities to define and identify acid-tolerant (pH<5.0), acid-resistant (pH 5.0-5.6), and acid-sensitive (pH>5.6) species which could serve as indicators. Acid-tolerant and acid-sensitive categories are at end-points along the pH scale, significantly different at P<0.05; the acid-resistant category is the range of pH between these end-points, where community changes continually occur as the ecosystem moves in one direction or another. The biota acid tolerance classification (batc) system described herein provides a clear distinction between the taxonomic groups identified in these subcategories and can be used to evaluate the impact of acid deposition on different trophic levels of biological communities.

  8. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols in the Adirondack Mountains using PIXE, SEM/EDX, and Micro-Raman spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vineyard, M. F.; LaBrake, S. M.; Ali, S. F.; Nadareski, B. J.; Safiq, A. D.; Smith, J. W.; Yoskowitz, J. T.

    2015-05-01

    We are making detailed measurements of the composition of atmospheric aerosols collected in the Adirondack Mountains as a function of particle size using proton-induced X-ray emission, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. These measurements provide valuable data to help identify the sources and understand the transport, transformation, and effects of airborne pollutants in upstate New York. Preliminary results indicate significant concentrations of sulfur in small particles that can travel great distances, and that this sulfur may be in the form of oxides that can contribute to acid rain.

  9. A New Twist on the Seasonality of Nitrate Retention and Release in Adirondack Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, G. B.; Ross, D. S.; Sutherland, J. W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.; Boylen, C.

    2004-12-01

    Release of nitrate to surface waters in the Northeast has a distinct seasonality that is generally explained by high retention from plant uptake during the growing season, and low retention during the non-growing season, when biological demand is low and soil- water flux is elevated in the absence of transpiration. In the Adirondack region of New York, the highest rates of release, which consistently occur during spring snowmelt, are considered to be the result of nitrate accumulation in the soil and snowpack over the winter. This explanation implies that plants out compete nitrifying bacteria for available ammonium during the growing season. Biweekly and automated high-flow sampling over five years in two tributaries of Buck Creek, in the western Adirondacks, however, has revealed inconsistencies with the conventional view of nitrate retention and release. Although low concentrations of nitrate were measured in stream water during the growing season, concentrations were lowest each year in mid October (near the completion of leaf drop) in the North tributary, and were either the lowest or second lowest each year in mid October in the South tributary. Furthermore, concentrations of nitrate in both watersheds remained elevated throughout the snowmelt periods despite sustained high flows. For example, the concentration in the South tributary on April 9th, 2001, (the initial stage of snowmelt) was 76 micromoles per liter, and on April 24th (following two of the three largest flow events over the 5 years of sampling), was 82 micromoles per liter. Flushing of nitrate stored in the soil over the winter would result in a peak concentration in the stream that would be followed by a rapid decrease. To explain these results we hypothesize a three-way competition that includes heterotrophic non-nitrifying bacteria, as well as plants and autotrophic nitrifying bacteria. Leaf drop in the fall provides a large input of labile carbon with a high C to N ratio (>20) that favors

  10. Research on Academic Literacy Development in Sheltered Instruction Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Deborah J.; Echevarria, Jana; Richards-Tutor, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an extended program of research in sheltered instruction and the effects on the academic literacy development of English language learners. It also highlights the challenges of scaling up an instructional intervention. The intervention was the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model, an approach that teaches…

  11. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... foster care facility approved by the tribe; (2) A detention home approved by the tribe; or (3) A private... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004... LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A...

  12. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... foster care facility approved by the tribe; (2) A detention home approved by the tribe; or (3) A private... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004... LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A...

  13. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... foster care facility approved by the tribe; (2) A detention home approved by the tribe; or (3) A private... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004... LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A...

  14. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... foster care facility approved by the tribe; (2) A detention home approved by the tribe; or (3) A private... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004... LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A...

  15. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... foster care facility approved by the tribe; (2) A detention home approved by the tribe; or (3) A private... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004... LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A...

  16. 26 CFR 53.4965-3 - Prohibited tax shelter transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-3 Section 53.4965-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Prohibited tax shelter transactions. (a) In general. Under section 4965(e), the term prohibited tax...

  17. Successful Transitions of Runaway/Homeless Youth from Shelter Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebbitt, Von E.; House, Laura E.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Pollio, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research indicates that runaway and homeless youth often achieve positive outcomes after shelter stays however few studies have examined how these outcomes are achieved. This study employs qualitative methods to explicate this phenomenon. Twenty-five providers and 21 youth from four shelters participated in this study. Youth were…

  18. Domestic Violence Shelters as Prevention Agents for HIV/AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rountree, Michele A.; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2008-01-01

    The article reports findings from a pilot study of 21 domestic violence shelters in a southwestern state in the United States. The survey instrument included descriptive information on shelter service delivery. Specifically, questions were asked about the practice of assessing a client's risk of HIV/AIDS, the provision of HIV/AIDS educational and…

  19. Implementing an Art Program for Children in a Homeless Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, Donalyn; MacGillivray, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative research study designed to analyze the implementation of an art program for children in a homeless shelter. Using a socio-cultural lens and the framework of resilience theory, teacher researchers implemented community-art programs for children residing in a family emergency shelter. Data collection included…

  20. 26 CFR 53.4965-3 - Prohibited tax shelter transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-3 Section 53.4965-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Prohibited tax shelter transactions. (a) In general. Under section 4965(e), the term prohibited tax...

  1. View to east northeast. Southwest operating shelters in foreground to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to east northeast. Southwest operating shelters in foreground to left. East-end operating shelters in distant background, to right center - St. Mary's Falls Canal, Soo Locks, Sabin Lock Subcomplex, St. Mary's River at Falls, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  2. 26 CFR 53.4965-3 - Prohibited tax shelter transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-3 Section 53.4965-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Prohibited tax shelter transactions. (a) In general. Under section 4965(e), the term prohibited tax...

  3. 26 CFR 53.4965-3 - Prohibited tax shelter transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prohibited tax shelter transactions. 53.4965-3 Section 53.4965-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Prohibited tax shelter transactions. (a) In general. Under section 4965(e), the term prohibited tax...

  4. Lessons Learned: A "Homeless Shelter Intervention" by a Medical Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Yasmin; Kunik, Mark; Coverdale, John; Shah, Asim; Primm, Annelle; Harris, Toi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored the process of implementing a medical student-initiated program designed to provide computerized mental health screening, referral, and education in a homeless shelter. Method: An educational program was designed to teach homeless shelter staff about psychiatric disorders and culturally-informed treatment…

  5. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHEAST VIEW OF THE SHELTER HOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST END OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE NORTHWEST SIDE OF THE BUILDING. THE PARAPET WALL IS SHOWN IN THE FOREGROUND - Big Dalton Dam, Shelter House, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. National Fallout Shelter Design Competition. Community Center. Awards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Award winning designs for dual-use fallout shelters are presented, representing contributions by the design professions toward development of the national defense resource. The focus and concept of the competition is described as the basis for judging. The nature of dual-use shelter is discussed, which contributes to understanding of the…

  7. Closing the Shop: Conversion from Sheltered to Integrated Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Stephen T.; Rogan, Patricia M.

    Designed as a hands-on guide for job development specialists, vocational rehabilitation professionals, and agency leaders and staff, this book provides an indepth analysis of the conversion process of Pioneer, a sheltered workshop in Syracuse, New York. The book moves from an examination of the historical roots of sheltered workshops in chapter 1…

  8. Ancestral sleep.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Moreno, Claudia; Lowden, Arne; Louzada, Fernando; Marqueze, Elaine; Levandovski, Rosa; Pilz, Luisa K; Valeggia, Claudia; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A; Czeisler, Charles A; Skene, Debra J; Duffy, Jeanne F; Roenneberg, Till

    2016-04-04

    While we do not yet understand all the functions of sleep, its critical role for normal physiology and behaviour is evident. Its amount and temporal pattern depend on species and condition. Humans sleep about a third of the day with the longest, consolidated episode during the night. The change in lifestyle from hunter-gatherers via agricultural communities to densely populated industrialized centres has certainly affected sleep, and a major concern in the medical community is the impact of insufficient sleep on health [1,2]. One of the causal mechanisms leading to insufficient sleep is altered exposure to the natural light-dark cycle. This includes the wide availability of electric light, attenuated exposure to daylight within buildings, and evening use of light-emitting devices, all of which decrease the strength of natural light-dark signals that entrain circadian systems [3].

  9. An empirical approach to modeling methylmercury concentrations in an Adirondack stream watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Douglas A.; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Wolock, David M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Riva-Murray, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Inverse empirical models can inform and improve more complex process-based models by quantifying the principal factors that control water quality variation. Here we developed a multiple regression model that explains 81% of the variation in filtered methylmercury (FMeHg) concentrations in Fishing Brook, a fourth-order stream in the Adirondack Mountains, New York, a known “hot spot” of Hg bioaccumulation. This model builds on previous observations that wetland-dominated riparian areas are the principal source of MeHg to this stream and were based on 43 samples collected during a 33 month period in 2007–2009. Explanatory variables include those that represent the effects of water temperature, streamflow, and modeled riparian water table depth on seasonal and annual patterns of FMeHg concentrations. An additional variable represents the effects of an upstream pond on decreasing FMeHg concentrations. Model results suggest that temperature-driven effects on net Hg methylation rates are the principal control on annual FMeHg concentration patterns. Additionally, streamflow dilutes FMeHg concentrations during the cold dormant season. The model further indicates that depth and persistence of the riparian water table as simulated by TOPMODEL are dominant controls on FMeHg concentration patterns during the warm growing season, especially evident when concentrations during the dry summer of 2007 were less than half of those in the wetter summers of 2008 and 2009. This modeling approach may help identify the principal factors that control variation in surface water FMeHg concentrations in other settings, which can guide the appropriate application of process-based models.

  10. Short-term responses of wetland vegetation after liming of an Adirondack watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Mackun, I.R.; Leopold, D.J.; Raynal, D.J. )

    1994-08-01

    Watershed liming has been suggested as a long-term mitigation strategy for lake acidity, particularly in areas subject to high levels of acidic deposition. However, virtually no information has been available on the impacts of liming on wetland vegetation. In 1989, 1100 Mg of limestone (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) were aerially applied to 48% (100 ha) of the Woods Lake watershed in the west-central Adirondack region of New York as part of the first comprehensive watershed liming study in North America. We inventoried wetland vegetation in 1.0-m[sup 2] plots before liming and during the subsequent 2 yr. Within this period liming influenced the cover, frequency, or importance values of only 6 of 64 wetland taxa. The cover of Sphagnum spp. and of the cespitose sedge Carex interior decreased in control relative to limed plots, and cover of the rhizomatous sedge Cladium mariscoides increased nearly threefold in limed areas. These two sedges, which are relatively tall, are characteristic of more calcareous habitats. Cover of the grass Muhlenbergia uniflora, cover and importance were adversely affected or inhibited by lime. It is unclear whether liming directly inhibited the growth of these three small-statured species, or whether the adverse effects of lime were mediated through shifts in competitive interactions with other species. The limited responses that we observed to liming, along with changes that occurred in control plots over the study period, may indicate that in the short term watershed liming was no more of a perturbation than the environmental factors responsible for natural annual variation in wetland communities.

  11. Homogeneous /sup 18/O enrichment of the Marcy Anorthosite Massif, Adirondack Mountains, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.; Valley, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Marcy Anorthosite Massif in the Adirondack Mountains, New York, is a composite intrusion that was metamorphosed to granulite facies at approx. 1.1 Ga. The massif is dominantly anorthosite but ranges from anorthosite (1-10% mafics) to oxide-rich pyroxenite layers (up to 98% mafics). In the St Regis Quad (SRQ) systematic variations in the percentage of mafics (POM) roughly parallel the foliation and increase toward the contacts (Davis, 1971). In 47 SRQ samples studied the POM varies from 2-25%; garnet ranges from 0-11%, pyroxene from <1-16% and oxides from <1-8%. Percent phenocrysts varies between 1-80. The Port Kent-Westport Unit (PKW) and an associated hybrid unit show significantly greater textural variability. The POM Varies from 1-50%; garnet ranges from 0-18%, pyroxene from 0-15%, oxides from 0-3% and phenocrysts vary from 0-80%. A total of 28 unaltered plagioclase phenocrysts have been analyzed for delta/sup 18/O: in 13 SRQ samples delta/sup 18/O = 9.0-9.8 (x=9.4. sigma=0.2) and in 15 samples from the PKW and hybrid units values of delta/sup 18/O=8.5-10.5 (x=9.5.sigma0.5). No correlations exist between the modal parameters and delta/sup 18/O. The results from SRQ demonstrate an extreme homogeneity suggesting for the first time a pristine magmatic character which is supported by the virtual absence of metasedimentary inclusions. This contrasts with PKW where inclusions are common and delta/sup 18/O values are more heterogeneous. Further analyses will evaluate the possibility of an anomalous source region as a cause of the /sup 18/O enrichment in the anorthosite.

  12. Geochemistry and origin of albite gneisses, northeastern Adirondack Mountains, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Philip R.; Olmsted, James F.

    1988-08-01

    Albite gneisses containing up to 8.7 percent Na2O and as little as 0.1% K2O comprise a significant part of the Proterozoic Lyon Mountain Gneiss in the Ausable Forks Quadrangle of the northeastern Adirondacks, New York State. Two distinct types of albite gneisses are present. One is a trondhjemitic leucogneiss (LAG) consisting principally of albite (Ab95 Ab98) and quartz with minor magnetite and, locally, minor amounts of amphibole or acmiterich pyroxene. LAG probably originated by metamorphism of a rhyolitie or rhyodacitic ash-flow tuff with A-type geochemical affinities, following post-depositional analcitization in a saline or saline-alkaline environment. The other type is a mafic albite gneiss (MAG) containing albite and pyroxene along with 0 45 percent quartz, minor amphibole, and titanite. MAG locally displays pinstripe banding and contains albite (Ab98) megacrysts up to 5 cm across. Its precursor may have been a sediment composed of diagenetic analcite or albite, dolomite, and quartz. Both types of albite gneiss are interlayered with granitic gneisses (LMG) of variable composition derived from less altered tuffs. A potassium-rich (up to 9.7% K2O) microcline gneiss facies may have had a protolith rich in diagenetic K feldspar. We propose that the albite gneisses and associated granitic gneisses are the granulite-facies metamorphic equivalent of a bimodal, dominantly felsic, volcanic suite with minor intercalated sediments, probably including evaporites. The volcanics were erupted in an anorogenic setting, such as an incipient or failed intracontinental rift. Deposition took place in a closed-basin, playa lake environment, where diagenetic alteration resulted in redistribution of the alkalis and strong oxidation.

  13. Charnockites and granites of the western Adirondacks, New York, USA: a differentiated A-type suite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    Granitic rocks in the west-central Adirondack Highlands of New York State include both relatively homogeneous charnockitic and hornblende granitic gneisses (CG), that occur in thick stratiform bodies and elliptical domes, and heterogeneous leucogneisses (LG), that commonly are interlayered with metasedimentary rocks. Major- and trace-element geochemical analyses were obtained for 115 samples, including both types of granitoids. Data for CG fail to show the presence of more than one distinct group based on composition. Most of the variance within the CG sample population is consistent with magmatic differentiation combined with incomplete separation of early crystals of alkali feldspar, plagioclase, and pyroxenes or amphibole from the residual liquid. Ti, Fe, Mg, Ca, P, Sr, Ba, and Zr decrease with increasing silica, while Rb and K increase. Within CG, the distinction between charnockitic (orthopyroxene-bearing) and granitic gneisses is correlated with bulk chemistry. The charnockites are consistently more mafic than the hornblende granitic gneisses, although forming a continuum with them. The leucogneisses, while generally more felsic than the charnockites and granitic gneisses, are otherwise geochemically similar to them. The data are consistent with the LG suite being an evolved extrusive equivalent of the intrusive CG suite. Both CG and LG suites are metaluminous to mildly peraluminous and display an A-type geochemical signature, enriched in Fe, K, Ce, Y, Nb, Zr, and Ga and depleted in Ca, Mg, and Sr relative to I- and S-type granites. Rare earth element patterns show moderate LREE enrichment and a negative Eu anomaly throughout the suite. The geochemical data suggest an origin by partial melting of biotite- and plagioclase-rich crustal rocks. Emplacement occurred in an anorogenic or post-collisional tectonic setting, probably at relatively shallow depths. Deformation and granulite-facies metamorphism with some partial melting followed during the Ottawan phase

  14. Hydrogeologic controls of surface-water chemistry in the Adirondack region of New York State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.; Driscoll, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    Relationships between surface-water discharge, water chemistry, and watershed geology were investigated to evaluate factors affecting the sensitivity of drainage waters in the Adirondack region of New York to acidification by atmospheric deposition. Instantaneous discharge per unit area was derived from relationships between flow and staff-gage readings at 10 drainage basins throughout the region. The average chemical composition of the waters was assessed from monthly samples collected from July 1982 through July 1984. The ratio of flow at the 50-percent exceedence level to the flow at the 95-percent exceedence level of flow duration was negatively correlated with mean values of alkalinity or acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), sum of basic cations (SBC), and dissolved silica, for basins containing predominantly aluminosilicate minerals and little or no carbonate-bearing minerals. Low ratios are indicative of systems in which flow is predominately derived from surface- and ground-water storage, whereas high ratios are characteristic of watersheds with variable flow that is largely derived from surface runoff. In an evaluation of two representative surface-water sites, concentrations of ANC, SBC, and dissolved silica, derived primarily from soil mineral weathering reactions. decreased with increasing flow. Furthermore, the ANC was highest at low flow when the percentage of streamflow derived from ground water was maximum. As flow increased, the ANC decreased because the contribution of dilute surface runoff and lateral flow through the shallow acidic soil horizons to total flow increased. Basins having relatively high ground-water contributions to total flow, in general, have large deposits of thick till or stratified drift. A major factor controlling the sensitivity of these streams and lakes to acidification is the relative contribution of ground water to total discharge. ?? 1987 Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  15. Geochemistry and origin of albite gneisses, northeastern Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, P.R.; Olmsted, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    Albite gneisses containing up to 8.7 percent Na2O and as little as 0.1% K2O comprise a significant part of the Proterozoic Lyon Mountain Gneiss in the Ausable Forks Quadrangle of the northeastern Adirondacks, New York State. Two distinct types of albite gneisses are present. One is a trondhjemitic leucogneiss (LAG) consisting principally of albite (Ab95-Ab98) and quartz with minor magnetite and, locally, minor amounts of amphibole or acmiterich pyroxene. LAG probably originated by metamorphism of a rhyolitie or rhyodacitic ash-flow tuff with A-type geochemical affinities, following post-depositional analcitization in a saline or saline-alkaline environment. The other type is a mafic albite gneiss (MAG) containing albite and pyroxene along with 0-45 percent quartz, minor amphibole, and titanite. MAG locally displays pinstripe banding and contains albite (Ab98) megacrysts up to 5 cm across. Its precursor may have been a sediment composed of diagenetic analcite or albite, dolomite, and quartz. Both types of albite gneiss are interlayered with granitic gneisses (LMG) of variable composition derived from less altered tuffs. A potassium-rich (up to 9.7% K2O) microcline gneiss facies may have had a protolith rich in diagenetic K feldspar. We propose that the albite gneisses and associated granitic gneisses are the granulite-facies metamorphic equivalent of a bimodal, dominantly felsic, volcanic suite with minor intercalated sediments, probably including evaporites. The volcanics were erupted in an anorogenic setting, such as an incipient or failed intracontinental rift. Deposition took place in a closed-basin, playa lake environment, where diagenetic alteration resulted in redistribution of the alkalis and strong oxidation. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Geologic controls on the sources of water to Lake George, Southeastern Adirondack Mountains of New York

    SciTech Connect

    Shuster, E.L.; LaFleur, R.G.; McCaffrey, R. . Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences); Boylen, C.W. . Rensselaer Fresh Water Inst.)

    1993-03-01

    Lake George is a long, deep, fault-bounded lake in the Adirondack Mountains, with relatively undeformed Paleozoic sediments in its valley floor and fractured high-grade meta-igneous and meta-sedimentary Proterozoic rocks in the drainage basins's upland. Overlying these rocks is a thin mantle of glacial deposits, consisting of sandy tills, kamic sands and glacio-lacustrine clays. Stratified ice-contact deposits and glacio-lacustrine deposits are generally restricted to the basins's lower elevations. The configuration of fractured bedrock and glacial overburden deposits of varying hydraulic conductivities suggests a variety of potential hydrogeologic flow routes, which can be generally categorized as reflect near-surface and deep groundwater flow systems. A hydrologic survey of the lake suggests that groundwater contributes approximately 20% to Lake George's annual hydrologic budget, with precipitation directly onto the lake's surface and tributary streamflow comprising the remaining 25% and 55%, respectively. Separating streamflow responses to precipitation by formal inversion into quick-, intermediate-, and slow-recession curves (originating from soils, unconsolidated surficial deposits, and fractured bedrock, respectively) suggests that as much as 40 to 50% of the tributary streamflow during the summer of 1988 originated from the slowest return route, a similar percentage has followed the intermediate route, and less than 10% of the streamflow originated as soil water ( runoff''). The flow-partitioning calculations typically suggest decay constants for these exponential recession curves on the order of 1, 10, and 100 days for the quick-, intermediate-, and slow-flow components to tributary streamflow, respectively.

  17. Medicines for sleep

    MedlinePlus

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... the-counter (OTC) sleeping pills contain antihistamines. These medicines are commonly used to treat allergies. While these ...

  18. Landscape level estimate of lands and waters impacted by road runoff in the Adirondack Park of New York State.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Sean A; Kelting, Daniel L

    2015-08-01

    Road runoff is understood to be a significant stressor in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, yet the effects of this stressor are poorly understood at large spatial scales. We developed an efficient method for estimating the spatial impact of road runoff on lands and waters over large geographic areas and then applied our methodology to the 2.4 million ha Adirondack Park in New York State. We used TauDEM hydrologic modeling and a series of ESRI GIS processes to delineate surface flow downslope of paved roads, illustrating the potential movement of pollutants originating from paved roads through the USGS 10 m DEM topography. We then estimated the land and surface water areas, number of water bodies, and total stream length potentially impacted by road runoff from paved roads. We found that as much as 11% of land area, 77% of surface water area, 1/3 of the water bodies, and 52% of stream length in the Adirondack Park may be impacted by road runoff. The high degree of hydrologic association between paved roads and the lands and waters of this region strongly suggests that the environmental impacts of road runoff should be evaluated along with other regional stressors currently being studied. Being able to estimate the spatial impact of road runoff is important for designing monitoring programs that can explicitly monitor this stressor while also providing opportunities to understand the interaction of multiple environmental stressors.

  19. Calcium Sulfate in Atacama Desert Basalt: A Possible Analog for Bright Material in Adirondack Basalt, Gusev Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Golden, D. C.; Amundson, R.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Ming, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    The Atacama Desert in northern Chile is one of the driest deserts on Earth (< 2mm/y). The hyper-arid conditions allow extraordinary accumulations of sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates in Atacama soils. Examining salt accumulations in the Atacama may assist understanding salt accumulations on Mars. Recent work examining sulfate soils on basalt parent material observed white material in the interior vesicles of surface basalt. This is strikingly similar to the bright-white material present in veins and vesicles of the Adirondack basalt rocks at Gusev Crater which are presumed to consist of S, Cl, and/or Br. The abundance of soil gypsum/anhydrite in the area of the Atacama basalt suggested that the white material consisted of calcium sulfate (Ca-SO4) which was later confirmed by SEM/EDS analysis. This work examines the Ca-SO4 of Atacama basalt in an effort to provide insight into the possible nature of the bright material in the Adirondack basalt of Gusev Crater. The objectives of this work are to (i) discuss variations in Ca-SO4 crystal morphology in the vesicles and (ii) examine the Ca-SO4 interaction(s) with the basalt interior.

  20. Sustainability and economics: The Adirondack Park experience, a forest economic-ecological model, and solar energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Jon David

    The long-term sustainability of human communities will depend on our relationship with regional environments, our maintenance of renewable resources, and our successful disengagement from nonrenewable energy dependence. This dissertation investigates sustainability at these three levels, following a critical analysis of sustainability and economics. At the regional environment level, the Adirondack Park of New York State is analyzed as a potential model of sustainable development. A set of initial and ongoing conditions are presented that both emerge from and support a model of sustainability in the Adirondacks. From these conditions, a clearer picture emerges of the definition of regional sustainability, consequences of its adoption, and lessons from its application. Next, an economic-ecological model of the northern hardwood forest ecosystem is developed. The model integrates economic theory and intertemporal ecological concepts, linking current harvest decisions with future forest growth, financial value, and ecosystem stability. The results indicate very different economic and ecological outcomes by varying opportunity cost and ecosystem recovery assumptions, and suggest a positive benefit to ecological recovery in the forest rotation decision of the profit maximizing manager. The last section investigates the motives, economics, and international development implications of renewable energy (specifically photovoltaic technology) in rural electrification and technology transfer, drawing on research in the Dominican Republic. The implications of subsidizing a photovoltaic market versus investing in basic research are explored.

  1. The reflectance and fluorescence properties of Adirondack mountain region lakes applied to the remote sensing of lake chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Vertucci, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study defines the feasibility of the remote monitoring of lake chemistry in the Adirondack Region of New York. The purpose of this thesis is to determine the relationship between the optical properties of lakes and their chemical constituents. The work is intended to derive useful relationships between lake chemistry and lake spectral properties so that lake chemistry can be estimated by remote means. Chemical constituents associated with lake acidification are of particular interest. Constituents of the water column which are known to directly affect lake optical properties (plant pigments, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and turbidity) correlated well with field reflectance measurements and allowed for a consistent prediction of the concentrations of these constituents using reflectance measurements. However, parameters associated with acidification (pH, alkalinity and aluminum concentrations) correlated poorly with reflectance measurements and no models for prediction of these constituents were possible. A relationship does exist between DOC and fluorescence intensity and also between lake pH, aluminum and DOC concentrations and spectral fluorescence and intensity. In the Adirondack Region, water column constituents which directly affect lake optical properties may e remotely estimated with reflectance measures while constituents correlated with DOC composition may be estimated by laser fluorsensing, including pH and aluminum.

  2. Comparison of MAGIC and Diatom paleolimnological model hindcasts of lakewater acidification in the Adirondack region of New York

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Bernert, J.A.; Eliers, J.M. ); Jenne, E.A. ); Cosby, B.J. . School of Forestry and Environmental Studies); Charles, D.F.; Selle, A.R. . Environmental Research Lab.)

    1991-03-01

    Thirty-three lakes that had been statistically selected as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's Eastern Lake Survey and Direct Delayed Response Project (DDRP) were used to compare the MAGIC (watershed) and Diatom (paleolimnological) models. The study lakes represented a well-defined group of Adirondack lakes, each larger than 4 ha in area and having acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) <400 {mu}eq L{sup {minus}1}. The study first compared current and pre-industrial (before 1850) pH and ANC estimates from Diatom and MAGIC as they were calibrated in the preceding Paleocological Investigation of Recent Lake Acidification (PIRLA) and DDRP studies, respectively. Initially, the comparison of hindcasts of pre-industrial chemistry was confounded by seasonal and methodological differences in lake chemistry data used in calibration of the model. Although certain differences proved to be of little significance for comparison, MAGIC did predict significantly higher pre-industrial ANC and pH values than did Diatom, using calibrations in the preceding studies. Both models suggest acidification of low ANC Adirondack region lakes since preindustrial times, but differ primarily in that MAGIC inferred greater acidification and that acidification has occurred in all lakes in the comparison, whereas Diatom inferred that acidification has been restricted to low ANC lakes (

  3. Efficacy of environmental DNA to detect and quantify Brook Trout populations in headwater streams of the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Sporn, Lee Ann; George, Scott D.; Ball, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis is rapidly evolving as a tool for monitoring the distributions of aquatic species. Detection of species’ populations in streams may be challenging because the persistence time for intact DNA fragments is unknown and because eDNA is diluted and dispersed by dynamic hydrological processes. During 2015, the DNA of Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis was analyzed from water samples collected at 40 streams across the Adirondack region of upstate New York, where Brook Trout populations were recently quantified. Study objectives were to evaluate different sampling methods and the ability of eDNA to accurately predict the presence and abundance of resident Brook Trout populations. Results from three-pass electrofishing surveys indicated that Brook Trout were absent from 10 sites and were present in low (<100 fish/0.1 ha), moderate (100–300 fish/0.1 ha), and high (>300 fish/0.1 ha) densities at 9, 11, and 10 sites, respectively. The eDNA results correctly predicted the presence and confirmed the absence of Brook Trout at 85.0–92.5% of the study sites; eDNA also explained 44% of the variability in Brook Trout population density and 24% of the variability in biomass. These findings indicate that eDNA surveys will enable researchers to effectively characterize the presence and abundance of Brook Trout and other species’ populations in headwater streams across the Adirondack region and elsewhere.

  4. Long-term trends in breeding birds in an old-growth Adirondack forest and the surrounding region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNulty, S.A.; Droege, S.; Masters, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Breeding bird populations were sampled between 1954 and 1963, and 1990 and 2000 in an old-growth forest, the Natural Area of Huntington Wildlife Forest (HWF), in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. Trends were compared with data from regional North American Breeding Bird Surveys (BBS) and from a forest plot at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Trends for 22 species in the HWF Natural Area were negative, eight were positive, and one was zero; 20 were significant. Fifteen of 17 long-distance migrants declined, whereas 7 of 14 short-distance migrants and permanent residents declined. Most (74%) HWF Natural Area species, despite differences in sampling periods and local habitat features, matched in sign of trend when compared to Adirondack BBS routes, 61% matched northeastern BBS routes, and 71% matched eastern United States BBS routes, while 66% matched Hubbard Brook species. The agreement in population trends suggests that forest interior birds, especially long-distance migrants, are affected more by regional than local factors. The analysis indicated that bird trends generated from BBS routes may not be as biased toward roads as previously suggested.

  5. Troubled sleep

    PubMed Central

    Haig, David

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted sleep is probably the most common complaint of parents with a new baby. Night waking increases in the second half of the first year of infant life and is more pronounced for breastfed infants. Sleep-related phenotypes of infants with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes suggest that imprinted genes of paternal origin promote greater wakefulness whereas imprinted genes of maternal origin favor more consolidated sleep. All these observations are consistent with a hypothesis that waking at night to suckle is an adaptation of infants to extend their mothers’ lactational amenorrhea, thus delaying the birth of a younger sib and enhancing infant survival. PMID:24610432

  6. USE OF A LUMPED MODEL (MAGIC) TO BOUND THE ESTIMATION OF POTENTIAL FUTURE EFFECTS OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN DEPOSITION ON LAKE CHEMISTRY IN THE ADIRONDACK MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leaching of atmospherically deposited nitrogen from forested watersheds can acidify lakes and streams. Using a modified version of the Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments, we made computer simulations of such effects for 36 lake catchments in the Adirondack Mount...

  7. Target loads of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition for protection of acid sensitive aquatic resources in the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, T.J.; Cosby, B.J.; Driscoll, C.T.; McDonnell, T.C.; Herlihy, A.T.; Burns, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic watershed acid-base chemistry model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC) was used to calculate target loads (TLs) of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition expected to be protective of aquatic health in lakes in the Adirondack ecoregion of New York. The TLs were calculated for two future dates (2050 and 2100) and three levels of protection against lake acidification (acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of 0, 20, and 50 eq L -1). Regional sulfur and nitrogen deposition estimates were combined with TLs to calculate exceedances. Target load results, and associated exceedances, were extrapolated to the regional population of Adirondack lakes. About 30% of Adirondack lakes had simulated TL of sulfur deposition less than 50 meq m -2 yr to protect lake ANC to 50 eq L -1. About 600 Adirondack lakes receive ambient sulfur deposition that is above this TL, in some cases by more than a factor of 2. Some critical criteria threshold values were simulated to be unobtainable in some lakes even if sulfur deposition was to be decreased to zero and held at zero until the specified endpoint year. We also summarize important lessons for the use of target loads in the management of acid-impacted aquatic ecosystems, such as those in North America, Europe, and Asia. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Open space suitability analysis for emergency shelter after an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhorn, J.; Khazai, B.

    2014-06-01

    In an emergency situation shelter space is crucial for people affected by natural hazards. Emergency planners in disaster relief and mass care can greatly benefit from a sound methodology that identifies suitable shelter areas and sites where shelter services need to be improved. A methodology to rank suitability of open spaces for contingency planning and placement of shelter in the immediate aftermath of a disaster is introduced. The Open Space Suitability Index (OSSI) uses the combination of two different measures: a qualitative evaluation criterion for the suitability and manageability of open spaces to be used as shelter sites, and a second quantitative criterion using a capacitated accessibility analysis based on network analysis. For the qualitative assessment, implementation issues, environmental considerations, and basic utility supply are the main categories to rank candidate shelter sites. Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to reveal spatial patterns of shelter demand. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed on the basis of a case study in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC). According to the results, out of 410 open spaces under investigation, 12.2% have to be considered not suitable (Category D and E) while 10.7% are Category A and 17.6% are Category B. Almost two third (59.5%) are fairly suitable (Category C).

  9. Open space suitability analysis for emergency shelter after an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhorn, J.; Khazai, B.

    2015-04-01

    In an emergency situation shelter space is crucial for people affected by natural hazards. Emergency planners in disaster relief and mass care can greatly benefit from a sound methodology that identifies suitable shelter areas and sites where shelter services need to be improved. A methodology to rank suitability of open spaces for contingency planning and placement of shelter in the immediate aftermath of a disaster is introduced. The Open Space Suitability Index uses the combination of two different measures: a qualitative evaluation criterion for the suitability and manageability of open spaces to be used as shelter sites and another quantitative criterion using a capacitated accessibility analysis based on network analysis. For the qualitative assessment implementation issues, environmental considerations and basic utility supply are the main categories to rank candidate shelter sites. A geographic information system is used to reveal spatial patterns of shelter demand. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed on the basis of an earthquake hazard case study in the Kathmandu Metropolitan City. According to the results, out of 410 open spaces under investigation, 12.2% have to be considered not suitable (Category D and E) while 10.7% are Category A and 17.6% are Category B. Almost two-thirds (59.55%) are fairly suitable (Category C).

  10. Acoustics of fish shelters: frequency response and gain properties.

    PubMed

    Lugli, Marco

    2012-11-01

    Many teleosts emit sounds from cavities beneath stones and other types of submerged objects, yet the acoustical properties of fish shelters are virtually unexplored. This study examines the gain properties of shelters commonly used by Mediterranean gobies as hiding places and/or nest sites in the field (flat stones, shells belonging to five bivalve species), or within aquarium tanks (tunnel-shaped plastic covers, concrete blocks, concrete cylinder pipe, halves of terracotta flower pots). All shelters were acoustically stimulated using a small underwater buzzer, placed inside or around the shelter to mimic a fish calling from the nest site, and different types of driving stimuli (white noise, pure tones, and artificial pulse trains). Results showed the presence of significant amplitude gain (3-18 dB) at frequencies in the range 100-150 Hz in all types of natural shelters but one (Mytilus), terracotta flower pots, and concrete blocks. Gain was higher for stones and artificial shelters than for shells. Gain peak amplitude increased with the weight of stones and shells. Conclusions were verified by performing analogous acoustical tests on flat stones in the stream. Results draw attention to the use of suitable shelters for proper recording of sounds produced by fishes kept within laboratory aquaria.

  11. National Sleep Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Macedonian Malay Maltese Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swahili Swedish Thai Turkish ... About Us “National Sleep Foundation” is a registered trademark of the National Sleep Foundation. sleep.org Sleep ...

  12. Healthy Sleep Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... to locate sleep centers in your area. Search radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in ... to locate sleep centers in your area. Search radius: Email Print Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Sleep Apnea ...

  13. Problems sleeping during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleeping References Balserak BI, Lee KA. Sleep and sleep disorders associated with pregnancy. In: Kryger M, Roth T, ... Elsevier; 2017:chap 156. Ibrahim S, Foldvary-Shaefer N. Sleep disorders in pregnancy: implications, evaluation, and treatment. Neurologic Clinics . ...

  14. Sleep Apnea (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Obstructive Sleep Apnea KidsHealth > For Parents > Obstructive Sleep Apnea Print ... kids and teens can develop it, too. About Sleep Apnea Sleep apnea happens when a person stops ...

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  16. Pediatric sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... During sleep, all of the muscles in the body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep ...

  17. Sleeping during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sleeping During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleeping During Pregnancy ... have trouble getting enough deep, uninterrupted sleep. Why Sleeping Can Be Difficult The first and most pressing ...

  18. American Sleep Apnea Association

    MedlinePlus

    American Sleep Apnea Association Learn About the CPAP Assistance Program About ASAA News about ASAA Who we are Leadership Team Supporting the ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep disorders Personal stories Treat Test Yourself ...

  19. Exercise & Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... helps kids. Photo: iStock 6 "Bests" About Kids' Exercise At least one hour of physical activity a ...

  20. Common and emerging infectious diseases in the animal shelter.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, P A; Murphy, B G

    2014-03-01

    The beneficial role that animal shelters play is unquestionable. An estimated 3 to 4 million animals are cared for or placed in homes each year, and most shelters promote public health and support responsible pet ownership. It is, nonetheless, inevitable that shelters are prime examples of anthropogenic biological instability: even well-run shelters often house transient, displaced, and mixed populations of animals. Many of these animals have received minimal to no prior health care, and some have a history of scavenging or predation to survive. Overcrowding and poor shelter conditions further magnify these inherent risks to create individual, intraspecies, and interspecies stress and provide an environment conducive to exposure to numerous potentially collaborative pathogens. All of these factors can contribute to the evolution and emergence of new pathogens or to alterations in virulence of endemic pathogens. While it is not possible to effectively anticipate the timing or the pathogen type in emergence events, their sites of origin are less enigmatic, and pathologists and diagnosticians who work with sheltered animal populations have recognized several such events in the past decade. This article first considers the contribution of the shelter environment to canine and feline disease. This is followed by summaries of recent research on the pathogenesis of common shelter pathogens, as well as research that has led to the discovery of novel or emerging diseases and the methods that are used for their diagnosis and discovery. For the infectious agents that commonly affect sheltered dogs and cats, including canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, Streptococcus spp, parvoviruses, feline herpesvirus, feline caliciviruses, and feline infectious peritonitis virus, we present familiar as well as newly recognized lesions associated with infection. Preliminary studies on recently discovered viruses like canine circovirus, canine bocavirus, and feline norovirus

  1. Electroencephalographic studies of sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. B.; Agnew, H. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Various experimental studies on sleep are described. The following areas are discussed: (1) effect of altered day length on sleep, (2) effect of a partial loss of sleep on subsequent nocturnal sleep; (3) effect of rigid control over sleep-wake-up times; (4) sleep and wakefulness in a time-free environment; (5) distribution of spindles during a full night of sleep; and (6) effect on sleep and performance of swiftly changing shifts of work.

  2. Sleep in Othello

    PubMed Central

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep. Citation: Dimsdale JE. Sleep in Othello. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):280-281. PMID:19960651

  3. Mature and old-growth riparian forests: structure, dynamics, and effects on Adirondack stream habitats.

    PubMed

    Keeton, William S; Kraft, Clifford E; Warren, Dana R

    2007-04-01

    Riparian forests regulate linkages between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, yet relationships among riparian forest development, stand structure, and stream habitats are poorly understood in many temperate deciduous forest systems. Our research has (1) described structural attributes associated with old-growth riparian forests and (2) assessed linkages between these characteristics and in-stream habitat structure. The 19 study sites were located along predominantly first- and second-order streams in northern hardwood-conifer forests in the Adirondack Mountains of New York (U.S.A.). Sites were classified as mature forest (6 sites), mature with remnant old-growth trees (3 sites), and old-growth (10 sites). Forest-structure attributes were measured over stream channels and at varying distances from each bank. In-stream habitat features such as large woody debris (LWD), pools, and boulders were measured in each stream reach. Forest structure was examined in relation to stand age using multivariate techniques, ANOVA, and linear regression. We investigated linkages between forest structure and stream characteristics using similar methods, preceded by information-theoretic modeling (AIC). Old-growth riparian forest structure is more complex than that found in mature forests and exhibits significantly greater accumulations of aboveground tree biomass, both living and dead. In-stream LWD volumes were significantly (alpha = 0.05) greater at old-growth sites (200 m3/ha) compared to mature sites (34 m3/ha) and were strongly related to the basal area of adjacent forests. In-stream large-log densities correlated strongly with debris-dam densities. AIC models that included large-log density, debris-dam density, boulder density, and bankfull width had the most support for predicting pool density. There were higher proportions of LWD-formed pools relative to boulder-formed pools at old-growth sites as compared to mature sites. Old-growth riparian forests provide in

  4. Assessing the Congregate Disaster Shelter: Using Shelter Facility Assessment Data for Evaluating Potential Hazards to Occupants During Disasters.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Miguel A; Garcia, Stephanie; Chowdhury, Muhammad A B; Malilay, Josephine; Perea, Nancy; Williams, O Dale

    Disaster shelter assessments are environmental health assessments conducted during disaster situations to evaluate the living environment of shelters for hygiene, sanitation, and safety conditions. We conducted a secondary data analysis of shelter assessment records available (n = 108) on ice storms, floods, and tornado events from 1 state jurisdiction. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze results of environmental health deficiencies found in the facilities. The greater numbers of environmental health deficiencies were associated with sanitation (26%), facility physical issues (19%), and food areas (17%). Most deficiencies were reported following ice storms, tornadoes, and flood events. This report describes the first analysis of environmental health deficiencies found in disaster shelters across a spectrum of disaster events. Although the number of records analyzed for this project was small and results may not be generalizable, this new insight into the living environment in shelter facilities offers the first analysis of deficiencies of the shelter operation and living environment that have great potential to affect the safety and health of shelter occupants.

  5. 26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions... Taxes § 53.4965-7 Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. (a) Entity-level taxes—(1) In general... prohibited tax shelter transactions. (i) Prohibited tax shelter transactions other than subsequently...

  6. 26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions... Taxes § 53.4965-7 Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. (a) Entity-level taxes—(1) In general... prohibited tax shelter transactions. (i) Prohibited tax shelter transactions other than subsequently...

  7. 26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions... Taxes § 53.4965-7 Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. (a) Entity-level taxes—(1) In general... prohibited tax shelter transactions. (i) Prohibited tax shelter transactions other than subsequently...

  8. 26 CFR 53.4965-7 - Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions... Taxes § 53.4965-7 Taxes on prohibited tax shelter transactions. (a) Entity-level taxes—(1) In general... prohibited tax shelter transactions. (i) Prohibited tax shelter transactions other than subsequently...

  9. Trends in summer chemistry linked to productivity in lakes recovering from acid deposition in the Adirondack region of New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Momen, B.; Lawrence, G.B.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A.; Sutherland, J.W.; Eichler, L.W.; Harrison, J.P.; Boylen, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Adirondack Effects Assessment Program (AEAP) to evaluate and monitor the status of biological communities in lakes in the Adirondack region of New York that have been adversely affected by acid deposition. This program includes chemical analysis of 30 lakes, sampled two to three times each summer. Results of trends analysis for lake chemistry and chlorophyll a (chlor a) are presented for 1994 to 2003, and a general comparison is made with recent results of the Adirondack Long-Term Monitoring (ALTM) Program, which included chemical analysis of all but two of these lakes (plus an additional 24 lakes) monthly, year-round for 1992-2004. Increases in pH were found in 25 of the 30 AEAP lakes (P < 0.05) and increases in acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) were found in 12 of the 30 lakes (P < 0.05). Concentrations of both SO 42- and Mg 2+ decreased in 11 lakes (P < 0.05), whereas concentrations of NO 3- decreased in 20 lakes (P < 0.05). Concentrations of NH 4+ decreased in 10 lakes at a significance level of P < 0.05 and in three other lakes based on P < 0.1. Concentrations of inorganic and organic monomeric aluminum generally were below the reporting limit of 1.5 ??mol L-1, but decreases were detected in four and five lakes, respectively (P < 0.1). Concentrations of chlor a increased in seven lakes at a significance level of P < 0.05 and two lakes at a significance level of P < 0.1. A significant inverse correlation was also found between chlor a and NO 3- concentrations in nine lakes at a significance level of P < 0.05 and two lakes at a significance level of P < 0.1. Results of AEAP analysis of lake chemistry were similar to those of the ALTM Program, although decreases in SO 42- concentrations were more evident in the year-round ALTM record. Overall, the results suggest (a) a degree of chemical recovery from acidification during the summer, (b) an increase in phytoplankton productivity, and (c) a decreasing trend in

  10. Sensitivity of Stream Methyl Hg Concentrations to Environmental Change in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, D. A.; Riva-Murray, K.; Nystrom, E.; Millard, G.; Driscoll, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Adirondacks of New York have high levels of mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation as demonstrated by a region-wide fish consumption advisory for children and women who may become pregnant. The source of this Hg is atmospheric deposition that originates from regional, continental, and global emissions. Soils in the region have large Hg stores equivalent to several decades of atmospheric deposition suggesting that the processes controlling Hg transport from soils to surface waters may greatly affect Hg concentrations and loads in surface waters. Furthermore, Hg can be converted to its neuro-toxic methyl form (MeHg), particularly in riparian and wetland soils where biogeochemical conditions favor net methylation. We measured MeHg concentrations during 33 months at Fishing Brook, a 65 km2 catchment in the upper Hudson River basin in the Adirondacks. Seasonal variation in stream MeHg concentrations was more than tenfold, consistent with temperature-driven variation in net methylation rates in soils and sediment. These data also indicate greater than twofold annual variation in stream MeHg concentrations among the three monitored growing seasons. The driest growing season had the lowest MeHg concentrations, and these values were greater during the two wetter growing seasons. We hypothesize that contact of the riparian water table with abundant organic matter and MeHg stored in the shallowest soil horizons is a dominant control on MeHg transport to the stream. An empirical model was developed that accounted for 81% of the variation in stream MeHg concentrations. Water temperature and the length of time the simulated riparian water table remained in the shallow soil were key predictive variables, highlighting the sensitivity of MeHg to climatic variation. Future changes in other factors such as Hg emissions and deposition and acid deposition will likely also influence stream MeHg concentrations and loads. For example, lime application to an Adirondack stream to increase pH and

  11. The Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine Shelter Program.

    PubMed

    Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake

    2015-04-24

    The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association's Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education.

  12. 15. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST WALLS OF CREW SHELTER LOCATED BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST WALLS OF CREW SHELTER LOCATED BETWEEN THE PURSUIT PLANE BAYS OF AR-9. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. Facilitating a Collaborative Partnership with a Homeless Shelter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Marsha D.; Weyer, Mary E.

    2002-01-01

    Nursing faculty initiated a partnership with a homeless shelter through which nursing students experienced community nursing and health promotion. Lessons learned from partnership development included the importance of ongoing dialogue and negotiation and clarification of expectations and responsibilities. (SK)

  14. 4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER IN AR-8. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. 214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN BUS STOP WIDENING, 1932. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  16. 37. Threequarter view of building 161, fallout shelter, showing building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Three-quarter view of building 161, fallout shelter, showing building 104, mess hall in background, looking southeast - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  17. 31. Threequarter view of front of building 161, fallout shelter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Three-quarter view of front of building 161, fallout shelter taken from top of water storage mound, looking northwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  18. 38. Overall view showing building 161, fallout shelter on far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Overall view showing building 161, fallout shelter on far right, and building 102, officers quarters and enlisted men barracks on far left, looking east - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  19. 14. INSIDE VIEW OF BOMB SHELTER WITH AIR COMPRESSOR Everett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INSIDE VIEW OF BOMB SHELTER WITH AIR COMPRESSOR Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Efficacy of bomb shelters: with lessons from the Hamburg firestorm.

    PubMed

    Lucas, K A; Orient, J M; Robinson, A; Maccabee, H; Morris, P; Looney, G; Klinghoffer, M

    1990-07-01

    Shelters for protection against the effects of nuclear weapons are often stated to be useless, largely because of firestorms. Recent models purport to show that nuclear weapons are more likely to cause firestorms than previously thought. These controversial models are based on uncertain assumptions, which are difficult or impossible to test. Regardless of the predictive validity of fire models, conclusions about the ability of shelters to protect their occupants against firestorms, if they occur, are based primarily on historical experience. A review of the original data from the Hamburg firestorm shows that almost all persons in adequate shelters survived, contradicting a currently prevailing belief that all died. The results of the strategic bombing during World War II and of nuclear weapons tests show that a considerable level of population protection can be achieved through attention to proper shelter design.

  1. View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, from building 746 parking lot across Walnut Avenue; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. Efficacy of bomb shelters: With lessons from the Hamburg firestorm

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, K.A.; Orient, J.M.; Robinson, A.; Maccabee, H.; Morris, P.; Looney, G.; Klinghoffer, M. )

    1990-07-01

    Shelters for protection against the effects of nuclear weapons are often stated to be useless, largely because of firestorms. Recent models purport to show that nuclear weapons are more likely to cause firestorms than previously thought. These controversial models are based on uncertain assumptions, which are difficult or impossible to test. Regardless of the predictive validity of fire models, conclusions about the ability of shelters to protect their occupants against firestorms, if they occur, are based primarily on historical experience. A review of the original data from the Hamburg firestorm shows that almost all persons in adequate shelters survived, contradicting a currently prevailing belief that all died. The results of the strategic bombing during World War II and of nuclear weapons tests show that a considerable level of population protection can be achieved through attention to proper shelter design.

  3. 50. Stream gaging station in steelpipe well and shelter, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Stream gaging station in steel-pipe well and shelter, looking west. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  4. 6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  5. STAIRWAY FROM THE PROMENADE TO THE BASEMENT SHOWING SHELTER SIGNAGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STAIRWAY FROM THE PROMENADE TO THE BASEMENT SHOWING SHELTER SIGNAGE. VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Theater, Hornet Avenue between Enterprise & Pokomoke Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Blast response of a hardened Army ISO shelter

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, R.W.; Lush, A.; Crenshaw, W.L.

    1982-09-01

    A prototype shelter was designed to withstand a blast loading corresponding to a 10.0 psi (68.9 kPa) incident overpressure. The hardened shelter was then constructed, instrumented and subjected to a simulated nuclear blast loading. Test results demonstrated that a design featuring shear stiffened sandwich panels with aluminum face materials could withstand a nominal 10.0 psi incident shock loading.

  7. A bus stop shelter evaluated from the user's perspective.

    PubMed

    Ely, Vera Helena Moro Bins; de Oliveira, Jonara Machado; Logsdon, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the current bus stop shelter model used in Florianópolis, Brazil, through a functional analysis--focused in the relationship between the shelter, the users and their activities--and also to analyse users' perceptions. The methodology consisted of exploratory visits, anthropometric analysis, observation and interviews. The exploratory visit intended to survey the physical characteristics of the shelter (dimensions, materials, colors, displayed information) and its position on the sidewalk. The anthropometric analysis was made to verify whether the dimensions of the shelters were adequate to users' needs. The observation provided data for the analysis of users' behavior, which involved a biomechanical study of their postures, an ownership/occupancy analysis in terms of territoriality and studies about spatial requirements of interpersonal relations (proxemics). The interviews helped to analyze how the user perceives the quality of some of the main functions of the shelter: to provide physical and psychological comfort and to display information about the public transportation system. As a result, the overall conclusion is that shelters do not meet users' needs. Recommendations are provided in order to improve physical and psychological comfort and to display relevant information about the transportation system.

  8. Blast testing of expedient shelters in model scale

    SciTech Connect

    Esparza, E.D.

    1986-08-01

    A research program was conducted to evaluate the blast resistance of expedient fallout shelters designed for the civilian population in the event of a nuclear attack. As part of this research, model-size shelters of six different designs were tested in a shock tunnel at average overpressure levels of 2.8, 4.6, and 8.8 psi. Measurements of the external blast pressures and internal pressure leakage into the model shelters were made. The expedient shelters tested utilize, in general, shallow soil excavation, load-bearing members of timber or doors, and soil-covered roofs. Replica model sizes were selected so that the shock tunnel load durations were long enough to test in the quasi-static load realm. Some of the shelter designs survived at every overpressure level very well, while other tests items suffered structural failures in almost every case. This paper presents a brief description of the experiments, including some details of the shelters, of the model fabrication and pressure measurement system, and a summary of the results.

  9. Protecting red oak seedlings with tree shelters in northwestern Pennsylvania. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.S.

    1993-10-01

    The report examines the growth and survival of planted and natural red oak seedlings and seedlings from planted acorns within translucent tan tree shelters, fences, and unprotected controls under a shelterwood seed-cut stand. Seedlings planted within tree shelters and fences were inside tree shelters. Natural seedlings grew very little and their height inside and outside of tree shelters did not differ. Recommendations based on these results should improve results from the use of tree shelters.

  10. Implications for Ecosystem Services of Watershed Processes that affect the Transport and Transformations of Mercury in an Adirondack Stream Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, D. A.; Riva-Murray, K.; Bradley, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a potent neurotoxin that can affect the health of humans and wildlife through the ingestion of methyl Hg. Mercury contamination of ecosystems originates from human activities such as mining, coal burning and other industrial emissions, and the use of Hg-containing products. Natural sources such as volcanic and geothermal emissions and the weathering of Hg-bearing minerals also contribute to Hg contamination, but are believed to be minor sources in most ecosystems. Various ecosystem disturbances including fires, forest harvesting, and the submergence of land by impoundment may also contribute to Hg ecosystem contamination by mobilizing stores that have previously originated from the sources described above. Mercury from a mix of regional and global emissions sources is transported in the atmosphere to remote landscapes that are distant from local emissions sources. The Adirondacks of New York State is a forested, mountainous region characterized by abundant lakes and streams, and is distant from local emissions sources. Recreational fishing, wildlife viewing, hiking, and hunting are valued ecosystem services in this region. Here, we report on the relevance to ecosystem services of findings based on five years of Hg data collection of stream water, groundwater, invertebrates, and fish in the upper Hudson River basin in the central part of the Adirondack region. The New York State Dept. of Health has issued fish consumption advisories for the entire Adirondacks based on elevated levels previously measured in lakes and rivers of this region. Our work seeks improved understanding and models of the landscape sources and watershed processes that control the transformation of Hg to its methyl form (MeHg), the transport of MeHg to streams, and bioaccumulation of MeHg in aquatic food webs. Mean annual atmospheric Hg deposition was 6.3 μg/m2/yr during 2007-09, compared to mean annual filtered total Hg stream yields of 1.66 μg/m2/yr and filtered MeHg stream

  11. Association between a shelter-neuter-return program and cat health at a large municipal animal shelter.

    PubMed

    Edinboro, Charlotte H; Watson, Heather N; Fairbrother, Anne

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of a shelter-neuter-return (SNR) program on cat admissions and health at a large municipal animal shelter in Northern California. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 117,383 cats for which data were recorded in the San Jose Animal Care Center database between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2013. PROCEDURES Shelter records were analyzed for trends in cat demographic data, shelter intake and outcome types, and prevalence of upper respiratory infection (URI) over the 8-year period and before and after initiation of an SNR program on March 8, 2010. RESULTS Number of cats admitted to the shelter each year decreased significantly over 8 years; beginning in 2010, duration of stay decreased. Proportion of cats euthanized decreased from 66.6% (28,976/43,517) in the pre-SNR period to 34.9% (11,999/34,380) in the post-SNR period, whereas prevalence of URI increased from 5.5% to 6.8%, and median duration of shelter stay decreased from 6 to 5 days for cats < 4 months of age and from 8 to 6 days for older cats. With implementation of the SNR program and a new treatment policy for cats with URI, more cats received treatment with less medication, yielding cost savings. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Initiation of the SNR program was associated with a decreased number of cats admitted to the shelter and a lower proportion euthanized. With increased resources to care for cats with URI and changes in the URI treatment protocol, fewer cats were euthanized for URI and more cats were treated at lower cost and with a briefer shelter stay.

  12. Specific ultra-violet absorbance as an indicator measurement of merucry sources in an Adirondack River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Douglas A.; Aiken, George R.; Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste; Schelker, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The Adirondack region of New York has been identified as a hot spot where high methylmercury concentrations are found in surface waters and biota, yet mercury (Hg) concentrations vary widely in this region. We collected stream and groundwater samples for Hg and organic carbon analyses across the upper Hudson River, a 493 km2 basin in the central Adirondacks to evaluate and model the sources of variation in filtered total Hg (FTHg) concentrations. Variability in FTHg concentrations during the growing seasons (May-Oct) of 2007-2009 in Fishing Brook, a 66-km2 sub-basin, was better explained by specific ultra-violet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), a measure of organic carbon aromaticity, than by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, a commonly used Hg indicator. SUVA254 was a stronger predictor of FTHg concentrations during the growing season than during the dormant season. Multiple linear regression models that included SUVA254 values and DOC concentrations could explain 75 % of the variation in FTHg concentrations on an annual basis and 84 % during the growing season. A multiple linear regression landscape modeling approach applied to 27 synoptic sites across the upper Hudson basin found that higher SUVA254 values are associated with gentler slopes, and greater riparian area, and lower SUVA254 values are associated with an increasing influence of open water. We hypothesize that the strong Hg?SUVA254 relation in this basin reflects distinct patterns of FTHg and SUVA254 that are characteristic of source areas that control the mobilization of Hg to surface waters, and that the seasonal influence of these source areas varies in this heterogeneous basin landscape.

  13. Economic impacts of adoption and fundraising strategies in animal shelters.

    PubMed

    Lord, Emily; Olynk Widmar, Nicole; Litster, Annette

    2014-03-01

    The adoption strategies used in animal shelters can have a large impact on the total number of adoptions and donations that take place. Reducing adoption fees during peak kitten or puppy season is one way to reduce inventories and increase the number of open spaces to save more lives, but does not necessarily increase the financial well-being of the shelter if the per-animal costs exceed the revenues generated. We developed a stochastic model to simulate the expected costs, revenues, and net income of a hypothetical animal shelter for various alternative management strategies, based on US conditions. A total of 8 scenarios were developed and compared to the base-case scenario (BC). In the model, scenarios which decreased or waived adoption fees caused total costs to increase due to the escalating costs associated with increasing the total number and density of animals housed. This effect was especially pronounced when adoptions were free. When the return on money invested in additional fundraising was predetermined to be 'good' (rather than 'fair' or 'poor'), net shelter income did exceed costs - but even 'fair' return increased net shelter income compared to the BC. Of the eight scenarios compared to BC, the mean monthly net income was significantly different from that in the BC in all eight scenarios (p<0.01). In contrast, variances were different (p<0.01) in five of the eight scenarios (and the uncertainty that comes with high variance would make planning difficult for shelter managers); however, the variance in net income did not differ from the BC for any of the scenarios investigating returns to additional spending on promotion and fundraising. In these scenarios, because the extra cost involved is relatively low compared to the other scenarios, the potential risk of a reduction in net shelter revenue is reduced. When shelters are aware of the positive and negative impacts of various adoption strategies on mean net income and variation in net income, shelter

  14. Neuroimmunologic aspects of sleep and sleep loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, N. L.; Szuba, M. P.; Staab, J. P.; Evans, D. L.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    The complex and intimate interactions between the sleep and immune systems have been the focus of study for several years. Immune factors, particularly the interleukins, regulate sleep and in turn are altered by sleep and sleep deprivation. The sleep-wake cycle likewise regulates normal functioning of the immune system. Although a large number of studies have focused on the relationship between the immune system and sleep, relatively few studies have examined the effects of sleep deprivation on immune parameters. Studies of sleep deprivation's effects are important for several reasons. First, in the 21st century, various societal pressures require humans to work longer and sleep less. Sleep deprivation is becoming an occupational hazard in many industries. Second, to garner a greater understanding of the regulatory effects of sleep on the immune system, one must understand the consequences of sleep deprivation on the immune system. Significant detrimental effects on immune functioning can be seen after a few days of total sleep deprivation or even several days of partial sleep deprivation. Interestingly, not all of the changes in immune physiology that occur as a result of sleep deprivation appear to be negative. Numerous medical disorders involving the immune system are associated with changes in the sleep-wake physiology--either being caused by sleep dysfunction or being exacerbated by sleep disruption. These disorders include infectious diseases, fibromyalgia, cancers, and major depressive disorder. In this article, we will describe the relationships between sleep physiology and the immune system, in states of health and disease. Interspersed will be proposals for future research that may illuminate the clinical relevance of the relationships between sleeping, sleep loss and immune function in humans. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  15. Effect of whole catchment liming on the episodic acidification of two adirondack streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, R.M.; Burns, Douglas A.; Blette, V.L.; Driscoll, C.T.

    1996-01-01

    During the fall of 1989 7.7Mg/ha of calcium carbonate was applied on two tributary catchments (40 ha and 60 ha) to Woods Lake, a small (25 ha) acidic headwater lake in the western Adirondack region of New York. Stream-water chemistry in both catchment tributaries responded immediately. Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) increased by more than 200 ??eq/L in one of the streams and more than 1000 ??eq/L in the other, from pre-liming values which ranged from -25 to +40 ??eq/L. The increase in ANC was primarily due to increases in dissolved Ca2+ concentrations. Most of the initial response of the streams was due to the dissolution of calcite that fell directly into the stream channels and adjacent wetlands. A small beaver impoundment and associated wetlands were probably responsible for the greater response observed in one of the streams. After the liming of subcatchmentIV (60 ha), Ca2+ concentrations increased with increasing stream discharge in the stream during fall rain events, suggesting a contribution from calcite dissolved within the soil and transported to the stream by surface runoff or shallow interflow. Concentrations of other ions not associated with the calcite (e.g. Na+) decreased during fall rain events, presumably due to mixing of solute-rich base flow with more dilute shallow interflow. The strong relation between changes in Ca2+ and changes in NO3- concentrations during spring snowmelt, (r2 = 0.93, slope = 0.96, on an equivalent basis) suggests that both solutes had a common source in the organic horizon of the soil. Increases in NO3- concentrations during snowmelt were balanced by increases in Ca2+ that was released either directly from the calcite or from exchange sites, mitigating episodic acidification of the stream. However, high ambient NO3- concentrations and relatively low ambient Ca2+ concentrations in the stream during the spring caused the stream to become acidic despite the CaCO3 treatment. In stream WO2 (40ha), Ca2+ concentrations were much

  16. Historical Trends of Trace Metals in Lake Sediments From Adirondack Park, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swami, K.; Judd, C. D.; Khan, A. J.; Bari, A.; Ahmed, T.; Husain, L.

    2009-05-01

    Burning of fossil fuel and many industrial operations emit large quantities of trace metals bearing aerosols along with other pollutants into the atmosphere. The pollutants can be transported thousands of kilometers downwind from their source. They are ultimately removed from the atmosphere by wet and dry deposition. Lake sediments can be used to provide a record of the environmental changes that have occurred in the past. In this study we determined the concentrations of trace metals from two lake sediment cores collected from Clear Pond and West Pine Pond, located in the Adirondack Park region in upstate New York. These lakes were chosen as they are remote and have minimum local sources of pollution. The cores were sliced into thin sections, dried and weighed. The sediment cores were dated using the 210Pb technique. The top sixteen sections of the West Pine Pond and Clear Pond sediment represented deposits from about 1821 to 2005, and around 1880 to 2007, respectively. A microwave digestion procedure was used to separate trace metals from organic matter and silicates. The trace element concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). These samples were analyzed for As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Co, Ni, Cu, Ag, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Be, Hg, Tl, and Pb. The lithophilic elements Ba, Sr, Al, Ti, K, Na, Ca, Mg and Sr showed little increase over the entire period studied in both lakes. Vanadium and Cr showed little increase in the West Pine Pond core (1.2 and 1.4 times the preindustrial level, resp.), but increased more (1.7 and 2.0, resp.) in the Clear Pond core. The elements As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Co, Ni, Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, Hg, Tl, V and Pb showed significant increases due to anthropogenic inputs. Lead showed the greatest increase over the preindustrial baseline concentration, a 12-fold increase in Clear Pond and 24-fold in West Pine Pond. Large increases were also seen in Se and Hg ranging from (2.4 to 10

  17. A MODEL BUILDING CODE ARTICLE ON FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INCLUSION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR FALLOUT SHELTER CONSTRUCTION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    A MODEL BUILDING CODE FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS WAS DRAWN UP FOR INCLUSION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES. DISCUSSION IS GIVEN OF FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RESPECT TO--(1) NUCLEAR RADIATION, (2) NATIONAL POLICIES, AND (3) COMMUNITY PLANNING. FALLOUT SHELTER REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIELDING, SPACE, VENTILATION, CONSTRUCTION, AND SERVICES SUCH AS ELECTRICAL…

  18. Sheltering in buildings from large-scale outdoor releases

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.R.; Price, P.N.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2004-06-01

    Intentional or accidental large-scale airborne toxic release (e.g. terrorist attacks or industrial accidents) can cause severe harm to nearby communities. Under these circumstances, taking shelter in buildings can be an effective emergency response strategy. Some examples where shelter-in-place was successful at preventing injuries and casualties have been documented [1, 2]. As public education and preparedness are vital to ensure the success of an emergency response, many agencies have prepared documents advising the public on what to do during and after sheltering [3, 4, 5]. In this document, we will focus on the role buildings play in providing protection to occupants. The conclusions to this article are: (1) Under most circumstances, shelter-in-place is an effective response against large-scale outdoor releases. This is particularly true for release of short duration (a few hours or less) and chemicals that exhibit non-linear dose-response characteristics. (2) The building envelope not only restricts the outdoor-indoor air exchange, but can also filter some biological or even chemical agents. Once indoors, the toxic materials can deposit or sorb onto indoor surfaces. All these processes contribute to the effectiveness of shelter-in-place. (3) Tightening of building envelope and improved filtration can enhance the protection offered by buildings. Common mechanical ventilation system present in most commercial buildings, however, should be turned off and dampers closed when sheltering from an outdoor release. (4) After the passing of the outdoor plume, some residuals will remain indoors. It is therefore important to terminate shelter-in-place to minimize exposure to the toxic materials.

  19. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... of other risk factors linked to a higher risk of heart disease. The conditions that make up metabolic syndrome include high blood pressure, abnormal cholesterol, high blood sugar and an increased waist circumference. Complications with medications and surgery. Obstructive sleep apnea ...

  20. [Sleep: regulation and phenomenology].

    PubMed

    Vecchierini, M-F

    2013-12-01

    This article describes the two-process model of sleep regulation. The 24-hour sleep-wake cycle is regulated by a homeostatic process and an endogenous, 2 oscillators, circadian process, under the influence of external synchronisers. These two processes are partially independent but influence each other, as shown in the two-sleep-process auto-regulation model. A reciprocal inhibition model of two interconnected neuronal groups, "SP on" and "SP off", explains the regular recurrence of paradoxical sleep. Sleep studies have primarily depended on observation of the subject and have determined the optimal conditions for sleep (position, external conditions, sleep duration and need) and have studied the consequences of sleep deprivation or modifications of sleep schedules. Then, electrophysiological recordings permitted the classification of sleep stages according to the observed EEG patterns. The course of a night's sleep is reported on a "hypnogram". The adult subject falls asleep in non-REM sleep (N1), then sleep deepens progressively to stages N2 and N3 with the appearance of spindles and slow waves (N2). Slow waves become more numerous in stage N3. Every 90minutes REM sleep recurs, with muscle atonia and rapid eye movements. These adult sleep patterns develop progressively during the 2 first years of life as total sleep duration decreases, with the reduction of diurnal sleep and of REM sleep. Around 2 to 4 months, spindles and K complexes appear on the EEG, with the differentiation of light and deep sleep with, however, a predominance of slow wave sleep.

  1. A monitor for continuous measurement of temperature, pH, and conductance of wet precipitation: Preliminary results from the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnsson, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a continuous wet-only precipitation monitor designed by the U.S. Geological Survey to record variations in rainfall temperature, pH, and specific conductance at 1-min intervals over the course of storms. Initial sampling in the Adirondack Mountains showed that rainfall acidity varied over the course of summer storms, with low initial pH values increasing as storm intensity increased.This report describes a continuous wet-only precipitation monitor designed by the U.S. Geological Survey to record variations in rainfall temperature, pH, and specific conductance at 1-min intervals over the course of storms. Initial sampling in the Adirondack Mountains showed that rainfall acidity varied over the course of summer storms, with low initial pH values increasing as storm intensity increased.

  2. Lied Animal Shelter Animal campus Renewable Energy Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Randy Spitzmesser, AIA

    2005-11-22

    The Animal Shelter campus plan includes a new adoption center coupled with a dog adoption park, a wellness/veterinary technician education center, a show arena, and an addition to the existing shelter that will accommodate all animal control and sheltering for the Las Vegas Valley. The new facility will provide a sophisticated and innovative presentation of the animals to be adopted in an attempt to improve the public's perception of shelter animals. Additionally, the Regional Animal Campus will be a ''green building'', embodying a design intent on balancing environmental responsiveness, resource efficiency and cultural and community sensitivity. Designing an energy-efficient building helps reduce pollution from burning fossil fuels, reduce disturbance of natural habitats for the harvesting of resources and minimizes global warming. The project will be a leader in the use of renewable energy by relying on photovoltaic panels, wind turbines, and solar collectors to produce a portion of the project's energy needs The building will operate more efficiently in comparison to a typical shelter through the use of monitoring and specialized cooling/heating equipment. Windows bringing in natural daylight will reduce the center's demand for electricity.

  3. House to house, shelter to shelter: experiences of black women seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patty R; Laughon, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Locating safe and affordable housing is a vital step for women who decide to leave their abuser. Without housing, many women, particularly those who live in poverty, are forced to remain in abusive relationships, accept inadequate or unsafe housing, or become homeless (Menard, 2001; Moses, 2010). Women who choose to leave their abusers are faced with multiple barriers in establishing their independence such as limited financial resources, mental illness, and the lack of affordable housing (Botein & Hetling, 2010), putting them at risk of revictimization. This pilot study explores the narratives of Black mothers currently residing at an emergency intimate partner violence shelter to discover their experiences in seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships with a focus on housing instability and mental health. Utilizing a qualitative descriptive design, four major themes emerged: (a) unstable/insecure housing over time, (b) limited support,

  4. Organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wernette, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.

  5. Characteristics of women who do and do not receive onsite shelter services from domestic violence programs.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Susan F; Lundy, Marta

    2011-08-01

    Shelter services are an essential means of providing help to women who are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV), but not all victims receive shelter. This article reports the results of a secondary analysis of statewide data from women using IPV services, comparing victims who did and did not obtain shelter. The demographic characteristics, abuse experiences, and service patterns of these survivors are examined. A model predicting characteristics associated with the likelihood of shelter receipt indicates that women who obtain shelter are more vulnerable and obtain more services than women who do not obtain shelter. The implications of these results are discussed.

  6. Sleep studies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    During a sleep study the sleep cycles and stages of sleep are monitored. Electrodes are placed to monitor continuous recordings of brain waves, electrical activity of muscles, eye movement, respiratory ...

  7. Isolated sleep paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep paralysis - isolated; Parasomnia - isolated sleep paralysis ... Episodes of isolated sleep paralysis last from a few seconds to 1 or 2 minutes. During these episodes the person is unable to move or ...

  8. Polysomnography (Sleep Study)

    MedlinePlus

    ... begins with a sleep stage called non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. During this stage, your brain waves, ... your brain activity picks up again, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep begins. Most dreaming occurs during REM ...

  9. Sleep and Your Preschooler

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sleep and Your Preschooler KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleep and ... child chattering away, playing through the entire naptime. Sleeping Problems Preschoolers may have nightmares or night terrors , ...

  10. [Housing of dogs and cats in animal shelters].

    PubMed

    Rusch, T

    1999-04-01

    The results of an examination of 10 animal shelters was, that anyone was unical. The everyday and fundamental problems in administration, housing animals and animal care were the same: Most of them employ laity, which do their job with a lot of commitment but without knowledge. Therefore they come into conflict with the demands of animal protection. Veterinary surgeons, responsible authorities and communities are strongly asked to take steps against the situation. The reason for the fact, that such steps are missed, is, that there is no guideline or recommendation available for these persons, which handles animal shelters relative to "animal justice" and the right housing of animals. The results of the survey helps to make a guideline for animal home owners and builders, veterinary surgeons, veterinary authorities and communities, which gives suggestions to build, equip and run animal shelters for cats and dogs responsible regarding the individual circumstances and in the best way for animals.

  11. Direct estimation of the cost effectiveness of tornado shelters.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Kevin M; Sutter, Daniel

    2006-08-01

    This article estimates the cost effectiveness of tornado shelters using the annual probability of a tornado and new data on fatalities per building struck by a tornado. This approach differs from recent estimates of the cost effectiveness of tornado shelters in Reference 1 that use historical casualties. Historical casualties combine both tornado risk and resident action. If residents of tornado-prone states take greater precautions, observed fatalities might not be much higher than in states with lower risk. Estimation using the tornado probability avoids this potential bias. Despite the very different method used, the estimates are 68 million US dollars in permanent homes and 6.0 million US dollars in mobile homes in Oklahoma using a 3% real discount rate, within about 10% of estimates based on historical fatalities. The findings suggest that shelters provide cost-effective protection for mobile homes in the most tornado-prone states but not for permanent homes.

  12. Emergency shelter care utilization in child welfare: Who goes to shelter care? How long do they stay?

    PubMed

    Leon, Scott C; Jhe Bai, Grace; Fuller, Anne K; Busching, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Emergency shelter care for children entering foster care is widely used as a temporary first placement, despite its contraindications. However, little research has examined predictors of utilization (e.g., entry into care, length of stay in care). A sample of 123 children (ages 6-13) entering foster care was studied to explore the variables associated with an initial placement in shelter care versus kinship care and variables associated with children staying less than 30 days in the shelter versus 30 days or longer. After applying a classification tree analysis (CTA via Optimal Data Analysis), results indicated that variables across the child's ecology--specifically the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem--were associated with increased emergency shelter utilization, including older age, entering as a dependency case, more relatives and fictive kin with barriers to involvement in the child's life, and the child welfare agency serving the child. These results suggest that although emergency shelter care utilization may be determined by a complex interaction of variables across the child's ecology, policy and programmatic attention to some of these risk factors might be effective in limiting utilization so that children can enter care with a more long-term, family-based placement.

  13. Smoking policy change at a homeless shelter: attitudes and effects.

    PubMed

    Businelle, Michael S; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E; Rios, Debra M; Cuate, Erica L; Savoy, Elaine J; Ma, Ping; Baggett, Travis P; Reingle, Jennifer; Reitzel, Lorraine R

    2015-01-01

    Homeless adults are exposed to more smokers and smoke in response to environmental tobacco cues more than other socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Addressing the culture of smoking in homeless shelters through policy initiatives may support cessation and improve health in this vulnerable and understudied population. This study examined support for and expected/actual effects of a smoking ban at a homeless shelter. A 2-wave cross-sectional study with an embedded cohort was conducted in the summer of 2013 two weeks before (wave 1) and two months after (wave 2) a partial outdoor smoking ban was implemented. A total of 394 homeless adults were surveyed (i.e., wave 1 [n=155]; wave 2 [n=150]; and 89 additional participants completed both waves). On average, participants were 43 years old, primarily African American (63%), male (72%), and had been homeless for the previous 12 months (median). Most participants were smokers (76%) smoking 12 cigarettes per day on average. Most participants supported the creation of a large smoke-free zone on the shelter campus, but there was less support for a shelter-wide smoking ban. Average cigarettes smoked per day did not differ between study waves. However, participants who completed both study waves experienced a reduction in expired carbon monoxide at wave 2 (W1=18.2 vs. W2=15.8 parts per million, p=.02). Expected effects of the partial ban were similar to actual effects. Partial outdoor smoking bans may be well supported by homeless shelter residents and may have a positive impact on shelter resident health.

  14. Rock shelters in Gorges Valley, Mount Kenya Afroalpine area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Barendregt, R. W.; Churcher, C. S.; Spence, John R.

    Two rock shelters were located during the course of a field survey of important Quaternary sections on Mount Kenya. Located in dense riverine vegetation, in and around a sequence of end moraines, in the Ericaceous zone on the mountain, they appear to contain the remains of relatively recent ephemeral occupation by transient hunters. The origin of the shelters, their relationship to multiple glaciation on the mountain, and the remains of fragments and bones found in associated hearths are described and discussed. Fragments of wood and bone from a pigeon or dove? ( Streptopelia sp.) and from a small artiodactyl mammal (? Cephalophus grimmia) were recovered, some from within hearths.

  15. Sleep Pharmacogenetics: Personalized Sleep-Wake Therapy.

    PubMed

    Holst, Sebastian C; Valomon, Amandine; Landolt, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Research spanning (genetically engineered) animal models, healthy volunteers, and sleep-disordered patients has identified the neurotransmitters and neuromodulators dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, histamine, hypocretin, melatonin, glutamate, acetylcholine, γ-amino-butyric acid, and adenosine as important players in the regulation and maintenance of sleep-wake-dependent changes in neuronal activity and the sleep-wake continuum. Dysregulation of these neurochemical systems leads to sleep-wake disorders. Most currently available pharmacological treatments are symptomatic rather than causal, and their beneficial and adverse effects are often variable and in part genetically determined. To evaluate opportunities for evidence-based personalized medicine with present and future sleep-wake therapeutics, we review here the impact of known genetic variants affecting exposure of and sensitivity to drugs targeting the neurochemistry of sleep-wake regulation and the pathophysiology of sleep-wake disturbances. Many functional polymorphisms modify drug response phenotypes relevant for sleep. To corroborate the importance of these and newly identified variants for personalized sleep-wake therapy, human sleep pharmacogenetics should be complemented with pharmacogenomic investigations, research about sleep-wake-dependent pharmacological actions, and studies in mice lacking specific genes. These strategies, together with future knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms affecting sleep-wake physiology and treatment outcomes, may lead to potent and safe novel therapies for the increasing number of sleep-disordered patients (e.g., in aged populations).

  16. Long-term recovery of lakes in the Adirondack region of New York to decreases in acidic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Kristin; Driscoll, Charles; Lynch, Jason; Newcomb, Dani; Roy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    After years of adverse impacts to the acid-sensitive ecosystems of the eastern United States, the Acid Rain Program and Nitrogen Budget Program were developed to control sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions through market-based cap and trade systems. We used data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program's National Trends Network (NTN) and the U.S. EPA Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) program to evaluate the response of lake-watersheds in the Adirondack region of New York to changes in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides resulting from the Acid Rain Program and the Nitrogen Budget Program. TIME is a long-term monitoring program designed to sample statistically selected subpopulations of lakes and streams across the eastern U.S. to quantify regional trends in surface water chemistry due to changes in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in wet sulfate deposition for the TIME lake-watersheds from 1991 to 2007 (-1.04 meq m -2-yr) generally corresponded with decreases in estimated lake sulfate flux (-1.46 ± 0.72 meq m -2-yr), suggesting declines in lake sulfate were largely driven by decreases in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in lake sulfate and to a lesser extent nitrate have generally coincided with increases in acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) resulting in shifts in lakes among ANC sensitivity classes. The percentage of acidic Adirondack lakes (ANC <0 μeq L -1) decreased from 15.5% (284 lakes) to 8.3% (152 lakes) since the implementation of the Acid Rain Program and the Nitrogen Budget Program. Two measures of ANC were considered in our analysis: ANC determined directly by Gran plot analysis (ANC G) and ANC calculated by major ion chemistry (ANC calc = CB - CA). While these two metrics should theoretically show similar responses, ANC calc (+2.03 μeq L -1-yr) increased at more than twice the rate as ANC G (+0.76 μeq L -1-yr). This discrepancy has important implications for assessments of lake recovery

  17. Mercury Inputs, Outputs, Cycling, and Ambient Concentrations under the Forest Canopy in the Adirondacks of New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, H.; Holsen, T.

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated mercury inputs, outputs, cycling, and the interactions between deposition, emissions and atmospheric conditions in the Huntington Forest of the Adirondacks, New York. Continuous speciated mercury concentrations of gaseous elemental Hg (GEM), reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), and particulate Bound Hg (PBM) were made from June 2006 to May 2007. The average concentrations of GEM, RGM, and PBM were 1.4 ± 0.4 ng m-3, 1.8 ± 2.2 pg m-3, and 3.2 ± 3.7 pg m-3, respectively. A hybrid receptor modeling technique (potential source contribution function (PSCF)) was used with the speciated Hg concentrations to identify possible Hg sources. Major Hg sources that have a potential to contribute high Hg concentrations observed in the Adirondacks were found to be Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, Texas, Indiana, and Missouri. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) total Hg concentration in throughfall (Dec. 2004 to Dec. 2006) (6.6 ng L-1) was higher than in precipitation (4.9 ng L-1), while the total cumulative Hg flux in throughfall (12.0 µg m-2) was similar to precipitation (11.6 µg m-2). The emission flux of GEM from the forest floor measured using a polycarbonate dynamic flux chamber (DFC) was highest in spring, and summer, and lowest in winter. The yearly estimated Hg inputs into the forest canopy include throughfall (6.5 g m-2 year-1), litterfall (18.3 g m-2 year-1), and dry deposition during leaf-off periods (0.4g m-2 year-1). The yearly estimated Hg outputs from the forest canopy include emission from the forest floor (7.0g m-2 year-1), soil water (0.6 g m-2 year-1), and Hg loss via evaporation or overland flow during snow melt (1.0 g m-2 year-1). Litterfall represented the most significant input of Hg to this forest ecosystem. Based on this mass balance, 16.6 g m-2 of Hg is accumulating in the forest floor every year.

  18. 45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and... SERVICES CORPORATION SUBGRANTS AND MEMBERSHIP FEES OR DUES § 1627.7 Tax sheltered annuities, retirement..., retirement account, or pension fund....

  19. 45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and... SERVICES CORPORATION SUBGRANTS AND MEMBERSHIP FEES OR DUES § 1627.7 Tax sheltered annuities, retirement..., retirement account, or pension fund....

  20. 45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and... SERVICES CORPORATION SUBGRANTS AND MEMBERSHIP FEES OR DUES § 1627.7 Tax sheltered annuities, retirement..., retirement account, or pension fund....

  1. 45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and... SERVICES CORPORATION SUBGRANTS AND MEMBERSHIP FEES OR DUES § 1627.7 Tax sheltered annuities, retirement..., retirement account, or pension fund....

  2. 45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and... SERVICES CORPORATION SUBGRANTS AND MEMBERSHIP FEES OR DUES § 1627.7 Tax sheltered annuities, retirement..., retirement account, or pension fund....

  3. Sleep: A Health Imperative

    PubMed Central

    Luyster, Faith S.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Walsh, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic sleep deficiency, defined as a state of inadequate or mistimed sleep, is a growing and underappreciated determinant of health status. Sleep deprivation contributes to a number of molecular, immune, and neural changes that play a role in disease development, independent of primary sleep disorders. These changes in biological processes in response to chronic sleep deficiency may serve as etiological factors for the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and, ultimately, a shortened lifespan. Sleep deprivation also results in significant impairments in cognitive and motor performance which increase the risk of motor vehicle crashes and work-related injuries and fatal accidents. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society have developed this statement to communicate to national health stakeholders the current knowledge which ties sufficient sleep and circadian alignment in adults to health. Citation: Luyster FS; Strollo PJ; Zee PC; Walsh JK. Sleep: a health imperative. SLEEP 2012;35(6):727-734. PMID:22654183

  4. College residential sleep environment.

    PubMed

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Hartley, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    College students regularly report increased sleep disturbances as well as concomitant reductions in performance (e.g., academic grades) upon entering college. Sleep hygiene refers to healthy sleep practices that are commonly used as first interventions in sleep disturbances. One widely used practice of this sort involves arranging the sleep environment to minimize disturbances from excessive noise and light at bedtime. Communal sleep situations such as those in college residence halls do not easily support this intervention. Following several focus groups, a questionnaire was designed to gather self-reported information on sleep disturbances in a college population. The present study used The Young Adult Sleep Environment Inventory (YASEI) and sleep logs to investigate the sleep environment of college students living in residential halls. A summary of responses indicated that noise and light are significant sleep disturbances in these environments. Recommendations are presented related to these findings.

  5. Sleep problems in children.

    PubMed

    Baweja, R; Calhoun, S; Baweja, R; Singareddy, R

    2013-10-01

    Sleep complaints and sleep disorders are common during childhood and adolescence. The impact of not getting enough sleep may affect children's' physical health as well emotional, cognitive and social development. Insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, parasomnias and sleep disturbances associated with medical and psychiatric disorders are some of the commonly encountered sleep disorders in this age group. Changes in sleep architecture and the amount of sleep requirement associated with each stage of development should be considered during an evaluation of sleep disorders in children. Behavioral treatments should be used initially wherever possible especially considering that most pharmacologic agents used to treat pediatric sleep disorders are off-label. In this review we address the most common sleep problems in children/adolescents as they relate to prevalence, presentation and symptoms, evaluation and management.

  6. Genetics of Sleep and Sleep disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Amita; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Sleep remains one of the least understood phenomena in biology – even its role in synaptic plasticity remains debatable. Since sleep was recognized to be regulated genetically, intense research has launched on two fronts: the development of model organisms for deciphering the molecular mechanisms of sleep and attempts to identify genetic underpinnings of human sleep disorders. In this Review, we describe how unbiased, high-throughput screens in model organisms are uncovering sleep regulatory mechanisms and how pathways, such as the circadian clock network and specific neurotransmitter signals, have conserved effects on sleep from Drosophila to humans. At the same time, genome-wide association (GWA) studies have uncovered ~14 loci increasing susceptibility to sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy and restless leg syndrome. To conclude, we discuss how these different strategies will be critical to unambiguously defining the function of sleep. PMID:21784243

  7. Blast tests of expedient shelters in the Misers Bluff event. Final report, February 1978-January 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Kearny, C.H.; Chester, C.V.; York, E.N.

    1980-01-01

    Expedient shelters were blast-tested by a conventional explosion equivalent to a 0.2 KT nuclear explosion. The estimated survivabilities in a large nuclear explosion are: (1) improved Small-Pole Shelter, 345 kPa (50 psi); (228) triangular entryway and blastdoor made of poles, 173 kPa (25 psi); (3) Chinese A-Frame Pole Shelter, 48 kPa (7 psi); and (4) lightly shored Pole-Covered Trench Shelters, 103 kPa (15 psi).

  8. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  9. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  10. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Anguilla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Anguilla to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the…

  11. Shelter Deployment at Former Army Camp Tuto, Greenland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-29

    thermal liner rolled up into a cylinder shaped bundle (Figure 5) that was no more than 6 in. larger in diameter than the shelter rolled up without a... Liner pre-installation ....................................................................................................... 4 2.3 Weather-station...4 The sleeved-pin assembly pushed through a liner grommet and the installed liner

  12. Models of Shelter Management Training and Delivery Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-31

    33 d. Feedback ..... .................... ... 33 B. The Audience for Shelter Management Training ... ....... 34 1. Procedures and...knowledge. Eliciting the performance. Practice of performance. Providing feedback Quality control assessing performance. Enhancing retention and trans...operations: input, transformation, output, and feedback /adjustment (Banathy, 1977). These operations may be defined as follows: 9 Input consists of

  13. Candidate new rotavirus species in sheltered dogs, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Mihalov-Kovács, Eszter; Gellért, Ákos; Marton, Szilvia; Farkas, Szilvia L; Fehér, Enikő; Oldal, Miklós; Jakab, Ferenc; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián

    2015-04-01

    We identified unusual rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from sheltered dogs in Hungary by viral metagenomics. The novel rotavirus species displayed limited genome sequence homology to representatives of the 8 rotavirus species, A-H, and qualifies as a candidate new rotavirus species that we tentatively named Rotavirus I.

  14. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Grenada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools, located in Grenada, to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the input…

  15. STUDY OF SHOCK ISOLATION METHODS FOR CIVIL DEFENCE SHELTERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    defense shelters for protection of personnel and equipment against ground shock effects from nuclear weapons. The report includes a comprehensive review of...The results are presented of a study devoted to the establishment of basic criteria and shock isolation techniques applicable to hardened civil

  16. 9. Photocopy of sketch from Elliott, Clifford A., 'Shelters and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of sketch from Elliott, Clifford A., 'Shelters and Stations on Pacific Electric's Interurban Lines', Electric Railway Journal, V. 53, No. 15, April 12, 1919, p. 733 - Lynwood Pacific Electric Railway Depot, 11453 Long Beach Boulevard, Lynwood, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Conceptions and Practices of Educators at Child Sheltering Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrêa, Laiane da Silva; Cavalcante, Lília Iêda Chaves; Magalhães, Celina Maria Colino; Reis, Daniela Castro dos

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil there are at least 2.247 shelters for children and adolescents, and of these 5% are in the North Region. The conceptions of development exert influence on the care practices adopted and vice versa, both being mutually altered by the institutional environment. This study investigated the association between the conceptions of child…

  18. Lunar surface operations. Volume 1: Lunar surface emergency shelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    The lunar surface emergency shelter (LSES) is designed to provide survival-level accommodations for up to four astronauts for a maximum of five days. It would be used by astronauts who were caught out in the open during a large solar event. The habitable section consists of an aluminum pressure shell with an inner diameter of 6 ft. and a length of 12.2 ft. Access is through a 4 in. thick aluminum airlock door mounted at the rear of the shelter. Shielding is provided by a 14.9 in. thick layer of lunar regolith contained within a second, outer aluminum shell. This provides protection against a 200 MeV event, based on a 15 REM maximum dose. The shelter is self-contained with a maximum range of 1000 km. Power is supplied by a primary fuel cell which occupies 70.7 cu ft. of the interior volume. Mobility is achieved by towing the shelter behind existing lunar vehicles. It was assumed that a fully operational, independent lunar base was available to provide communication support and tools for set-up and maintenance. Transportation to the moon would be provided by the proposed heavy lift launch vehicle. Major design considerations for the LSES were safety, reliability, and minimal use of earth materials.

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF EXPEDIENT SHELTERING IN PLACE IN A RESIDENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of expedient sheltering in place in a residence for protection against airborne hazards, as outlined in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) guidance to the public. An improved method was developed to determi...

  20. National Call for Organizational Change from Sheltered to Integrated Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, Patricia; Rinne, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose in this article is to contend that organizational change from sheltered to integrated employment is not only possible but necessary, and a federal Employment First agenda must be advanced. Findings are reported from interviews with senior managers from 10 organizations that have shifted their service delivery to community employment,…

  1. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Dominica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Dominica to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the…

  2. Design of a Corrosion Detection System for a Shelter Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Directorate Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center And Thomas C. Null Avnik Defense Solutions, Inc. 7262 Governors West...and long term storage; this paper will focus on monitoring of the S-280 shelter. Since the US Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and

  3. The Bullfrog in the Bomb Shelter and Other Backyard Beasties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funderburk, David O.

    1991-01-01

    Motivated by the discovery of a bullfrog in an abandoned fallout shelter in the backyard of his parents' newly acquired farmhouse, the author challenges the reader to look for other "backyard beasties" in their own environment for help in gaining an understanding of how, when, and why interactions take place as a method of acquiring…

  4. College-Level Sheltered Instruction: Revisiting the Issue of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoblock, Natalia; Youngquist, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Finding an effective instruction mode for ESL students in the US educational system has not been an easy task. The country's secondary and tertiary institutions continue to struggle to meet the needs of their large non-native student populations. The article revisits the debate whether sheltered instruction is an effective model to follow. In our…

  5. Effect of shelter porosity on downwind flow characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosek, Š.; Kellnerová, R.; Jurčáková, K.; Jaňour, Z.; Chaloupecká, H.; Jakubcová, M.

    2016-03-01

    Previous wind-tunnel studies were focused mainly on lonely standing windbreaks or wind fences with respect to their wind velocity reduction efficiency and effective shelter distance. In presented wind-tunnel study, we investigated the effects of a three different fence porosities (0.5, 0.25 and 0) embodied in a shelter-like building for coal convey by means of two-component Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA). The turbulent flow characteristics behind the fences were compared with those performed without the fence. For characterization of the fence effectiveness we used following quantities: wind-speed and turbulence kinetic energy reduction, and time fractions of the turbulent coherent structures associated with the sediment transport (sweeps and outward interactions). Results from mentioned quantities revealed that for the case of embodied fence the shelter construction has significant impact on the flow characteristics behind. The fence of the 0.5 porosity has been indicated as the most shelter effective considering the studied quantities.

  6. 24 CFR 576.403 - Shelter and housing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) carried out with ESG assistance must use Energy Star and WaterSense products and appliances. (2) Access... sufficient electrical sources to permit the safe use of electrical appliances in the shelter. (9) Food... the safe use of electrical appliances in the structure. (8) Food preparation. All food...

  7. 24 CFR 576.403 - Shelter and housing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) carried out with ESG assistance must use Energy Star and WaterSense products and appliances. (2) Access... sufficient electrical sources to permit the safe use of electrical appliances in the shelter. (9) Food... the safe use of electrical appliances in the structure. (8) Food preparation. All food...

  8. Implications of Inservice Training Requests from Sheltered Workshop Paraprofessionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeau, Gerard P.

    1981-01-01

    Letters were sent to 27 directors of sheltered workshops serving the developmentally disabled requesting their suggestions for topics considered relevant for the inservice training of direct line staff. The area of concern most frequently selected and rated as highest priority by direct line staff was ways to deal with the low-functioning client.…

  9. 66. VIEW OF DELUGE CHANNEL; NORTH FACE OF THEODOLITE SHELTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. VIEW OF DELUGE CHANNEL; NORTH FACE OF THEODOLITE SHELTER (BLDG. 788); TELEVISION CAMERA TOWER; CAMERA TOWER FROM SOUTH END OF LAUNCH DECK - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. Assessing the Physical and Architectural Features of Sheltered Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Lemke, Sonne

    1980-01-01

    The Physical and Architectural Features Checklist (PAF) measures physical resources of sheltered care settings in terms of nine derived dimensions. Data show that facilities which have more physical resources are seen as attractive by outside observers and pleasant by residents. Cost is not related to any PAF dimension. (Author)

  11. DIRECTORY OF SHELTERED WORKSHOPS SERVING THE EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GADLIN, WALTER; AND OTHERS

    A NATIONWIDE QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEYED 490 SHELTERED WORKSHOPS SERVING THE EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED. LISTINGS BY STATES OF SUCH CENTERS PROVIDE ADDRESSES, REFERRAL SOURCES, AGE RANGE OF CLIENTS, YEAR PROGRAMS BEGAN, NUMBER OF PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED CLIENTS DAILY, NUMBER OF EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CLIENTS DAILY, AND TYPES OF EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED.…

  12. DESIGN FOR A CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE SHELTER

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Criteria and plans for a 100-man shotcrete shelter are presented which will provide protection against an overpressure of 100 psi and concomitant...effects from nuclear weapons. Shotcrete is recommended because of the economic advantages gained from using a single lightweight form as opposed to the

  13. Developing Academic Language in English Language Learners through Sheltered Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Deborah J.; Fidelman, Carolyn G.; Louguit, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a study examining the effects of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) model instruction on the academic language performance of middle and high school English language learners. The SIOP model is an approach for teaching content curriculum to students learning through a new language. Teachers employ techniques…

  14. 75 FR 46844 - Excise Taxes on Prohibited Tax Shelter Transactions and Related Disclosure Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 53 and 54 RIN 1545-BG18 Excise Taxes on Prohibited Tax Shelter... Shelter Transactions; Requirement of Return and Time for Filing; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue...-level and manager-level excise taxes with respect to prohibited tax shelter transactions to which...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to tax shelter... Returns and Records § 301.6111-1T Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration. The following questions and answers relate to the tax shelter registration requirements of section 6111 of...

  16. 78 FR 16862 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB: Emergency Shelter Grants Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB: Emergency Shelter... titled, Emergency Shelter Grants Program and changed to match the new program name created through the.... This notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposed: Emergency Shelter Grants...

  17. 50 CFR 26.26 - Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shelter. 26.26 Section 26.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter. A permit is not required for access to any national wildlife area for temporary shelter or temporary protection in the event of emergency conditions....

  18. For Youth, by Youth: A Third Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    This past winter, the third student-run homeless shelter in the United States came into being. Two recent Harvard graduates, Sam Greenberg and Sarah Rosenkrantz, who had volunteered at the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter as college students, saw a need within the Boston and Cambridge communities for a homeless shelter serving young adults. Drawing…

  19. Shelter and Service Receipt for Victims of Domestic Violence in Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Susan F.; Lundy, Marta; George, Christine C.; Crabtree-Nelson, Sonya

    2010-01-01

    There is little empirical research about the services victims of violence in shelters receive and when, yet such information would increase our understanding of their unmet service needs especially after they leave shelter. This article utilizes data from a randomly selected sample of individuals in shelter to examine their service trajectories.…

  20. 75 FR 38700 - Excise Taxes on Prohibited Tax Shelter Transactions and Related Disclosure Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ..., 53, 54, 301 and 602 [TD 9492] RIN 1545-BG18 Excise Taxes on Prohibited Tax Shelter Transactions and Related Disclosure Requirements; Disclosure Requirements With Respect to Prohibited Tax Shelter...-level and manager-level excise taxes with respect to prohibited tax shelter transactions to which...

  1. 77 FR 40626 - RP9580.210, Personal Assistance Services in Shelters Fact Sheet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency RP9580.210, Personal Assistance Services in Shelters Fact... Sheet RP9580.210, Personal Assistance Services in Shelters. The purpose of this new fact sheet is to... shelters under the Category B, Emergency Protective Measures provision of FEMA's Public Assistance...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to tax shelter... Returns and Records § 301.6111-1T Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration. The following questions and answers relate to the tax shelter registration requirements of section 6111 of...

  3. 26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to tax shelter... Returns and Records § 301.6111-1T Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration. The following questions and answers relate to the tax shelter registration requirements of section 6111 of...

  4. 50 CFR 26.26 - Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shelter. 26.26 Section 26.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter. A permit is not required for access to any national wildlife area for temporary shelter or temporary protection in the event of emergency conditions....

  5. 50 CFR 26.26 - Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shelter. 26.26 Section 26.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter. A permit is not required for access to any national wildlife area for temporary shelter or temporary protection in the event of emergency conditions....

  6. 50 CFR 26.26 - Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shelter. 26.26 Section 26.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter. A permit is not required for access to any national wildlife area for temporary shelter or temporary protection in the event of emergency conditions....

  7. 50 CFR 26.26 - Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shelter. 26.26 Section 26.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exception for entry for use of emergency shelter. A permit is not required for access to any national wildlife area for temporary shelter or temporary protection in the event of emergency conditions....

  8. Impacts of Acidification and Potential Recovery on the Expected Value of Recreational Fisheries in Adirondack Lakes (USA).

    PubMed

    Caputo, Jesse; Beier, Colin M; Fakhraei, Habibollah; Driscoll, Charles T

    2017-01-03

    We estimated the potential economic value of recreational fisheries in lakes altered by acid pollution in the Adirondack Mountains (USA). We found that the expected value of recreational fisheries has been diminished because of acid deposition but may improve as lakes recover from acidification under low emissions scenarios combined with fish stocking. Fishery value increased with lake pH, from a low of $4.41 angler day(-1) in lakes with pH < 4.5, to a high of $38.40 angler day(-1) in lakes with pH > 6.5 that were stocked with trout species. Stocking increased the expected fishery value by an average of $11.50 angler day(-1) across the entire pH range of the lakes studied. Simulating the future long-term trajectory of a subset of lakes, we found that pH and expected fishery value increased over time in all future emissions scenarios. Differences in estimated value among pollution reduction scenarios were small (<$1 angler day(-1)) compared to fish stocking scenarios (>$4 angler day(-1)). Our work provides a basis for assessing the costs and benefits of emissions reductions and management efforts that can hasten recovery of the economic and cultural benefits of ecosystems degraded by chronic pollution.

  9. Origin of biotite-hornblende-garnet coronas between oxides and plagioclase in olivine metagabbros, Adirondack region, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, P.R.; McLelland, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Complex multivariant reactions involving Fe-Ti oxide minerals, plagioclase and olivine have produced coronas of biotite, hornblende and garnet between ilmenite and plagioclase in Adirondack olivine metagabbros. Both the biotite (6-10% TiO2) and the hornblende (3-6% TiO2) are exceptionally Titanium-rich. The garnet is nearly identical in composition to the garnet in coronas around olivine in the same rocks. The coronas form in two stages: (a) Plagioclase+Fe-Ti Oxides+Olivine+water =Hornblende+Spinel+Orthopyroxene??Biotite +more-sodic Plagioclase (b) Hornblende+Orthopyroxene??Spinel+Plagioclase =Garnet+Clinopyroxene+more-sodic Plagioclase The Orthopyroxene and part of the clinopyroxene form adjacent to olivine. Both reactions are linked by exchange of Mg2+ and Fe2+ with the reactions forming pyroxene and garnet coronas around olivine in the same rocks. The reactions occur under granulite fades metamorphic conditions, either during isobaric cooling or with increasing pressure at high temperature. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Compositional controls on spinel clouding and garnet formation in plagioclase of olivine metagabbros, Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLelland, J.M.; Whitney, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Olivine metagabbros from the Adirondacks usually contain both clear and spinel-clouded plagioclase, as well as garnet. The latter occurs primarily as the outer rim of coronas surrounding olivine and pyroxene, and less commonly as lamellae or isolated grains within plagioclase. The formation of garnet and metamorphic spinel is dependent upon the anorthite content of the plagioclase. Plagioclase more sodic than An38??2 does not exhibit spinel clouding, and garnet rarely occurs in contact with plagioclase more albitic than An36??4. As a result of these compositional controls, the distribution of spinel and garnet mimics and visually enhances original igneous zoning in plagioclase. Most features of the arrangement of clear (unclouded) plagioclase, including the shells or moats of clear plagioclase which frequently occur inside the garnet rims of coronas, can be explained on the basis of igneous zoning. The form and distribution of the clear zones may also be affected by the metamorphic reactions which have produced the coronas, and by redistribution of plagioclase in response to local volume changes during metamorphism. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Sleep and Infant Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Balsam, Peter D.; Fifer, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Human neonates spend the majority of their time sleeping. Despite the limited waking hours available for environmental exploration, the first few months of life are a time of rapid learning about the environment. The organization of neonate sleep differs qualitatively from adult sleep, and the unique characteristics of neonatal sleep may promote…

  12. Sleeping with an Android

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Sleep quality and duration are strong indicators of an individual’s health and quality of lifebut they are difficult to track in everyday life. Mobile apps such as Sleep as Android leverage smartphone sensors to track sleep patterns and make recommendations to improve sleeping habits. PMID:28293622

  13. A pollinators' eye view of a shelter mimicry system

    PubMed Central

    Vereecken, Nicolas J.; Dorchin, Achik; Dafni, Amots; Hötling, Susann; Schulz, Stefan; Watts, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims ‘Human-red’ flowers are traditionally considered to be rather unpopular with bees, yet some allogamous species in the section Oncocyclus (genus Iris, Iridaceae) have evolved specialized interactions with their pollinators, a narrow taxonomic range of male solitary bees. The dark-red, tubular flowers of these irises are nectarless but provide protective shelters (i.e. a non-nutritive form of reward) primarily to male solitary bees (Apidae, Eucerini) that pollinate the flowers while looking for a shelter. An earlier study on orchids suggested that species pollinated predominantly by male solitary bees produce significantly larger amounts and larger numbers of different n-alkenes (unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons). Whether or not this also applies to the Oncocyclus irises and whether pollinators are attracted by specific colours or scents of these flowers is unknown. Methods Using Iris atropurpurea, recording of pollinator preferences for shelters with different spatial parameters was combined with analyses of floral colours (by spectrophotometry) and scents (by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) to test the hypotheses that (a) pollinators significantly prefer floral tunnels facing the rising sun (floral heat-reward hypothesis), and that (b) flowers pollinated predominantly by male solitary bees produce significantly larger amounts and larger numbers of unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons (n-alkenes) in their floral scent (preadaptation to sexual-deception hypothesis). Key Results Male bees do not significantly prefer shelters facing the rising sun or with the presence of high absolute/relative amounts and numbers of n-alkenes in the floral scent. Conclusions The results suggest that the flowers of I. atropurpurea probably evolved by pollinator-mediated selection acting primarily on floral colours to mimic large achromatic (‘bee-black’) protective shelters used preferentially by male solitary bees, and that pollinator visits are

  14. Sleep and Stroke.

    PubMed

    Mims, Kimberly Nicole; Kirsch, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Evidence increasingly suggests sleep disorders are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular events, including stroke. Strong data correlate untreated sleep apnea with poorer stroke outcomes and more recent evidence implicates sleep disruption as a possible etiology for increased cerebrovascular events. Also, sleep duration may affect incidence of cardiovascular events. In addition, sleep-disordered breathing, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and parasomnias can occur as a result of cerebrovascular events. Treatment of sleep disorders improve sleep-related symptoms and may also improve stroke recovery and risk of future events.

  15. Movement disorders and sleep.

    PubMed

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H

    2012-11-01

    This article summarizes what is currently known about sleep disturbances in several movement disorders including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, parkinsonism, dystonia, Huntington disease, myoclonus, and ataxias. There is an association between movement disorders and sleep. In some cases the prevalence of sleep disorders is much higher in patients with movement disorder, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. In other cases, sleep difficulties worsen the involuntary movements. In many cases the medications used to treat patients with movement disorder disturb sleep or cause daytime sleepiness. The importance of discussing sleep issues in patients with movement disorders cannot be underestimated.

  16. Sleep disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Oyiengo, Dennis; Louis, Mariam; Hott, Beth; Bourjeily, Ghada

    2014-09-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in pregnancy and may be influenced by a multitude of factors. Pregnancy physiology may predispose to sleep disruption but may also result in worsening of some underlying sleep disorders, and the de novo development of others. Apart from sleep disordered breathing, the impact of sleep disorders on pregnancy, fetal, and neonatal outcomes is poorly understood. In this article, we review the literature and discuss available data pertaining to the most common sleep disorders in perinatal women. These include restless legs syndrome, insomnia, circadian pattern disturbances, narcolepsy, and sleep-disordered breathing.

  17. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  18. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-09

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer.

  19. Occupational Sleep Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Philip; Drake, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms significantly impact almost all aspects of human behavior and are therefore relevant to occupational sleep medicine, which is focused predominantly around workplace productivity, safety, and health. In this article, 5 main factors that influence occupational functioning are reviewed: (1) sleep deprivation, (2) disordered sleep, (3) circadian rhythms, (4) common medical illnesses that affect sleep and sleepiness, and (5) medications that affect sleep and sleepiness. Consequences of disturbed sleep and sleepiness are also reviewed, including cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor functioning and drowsy driving.

  20. Sleep disorders during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pien, Grace W; Schwab, Richard J

    2004-11-01

    This paper reviews the topic of sleep disorders in pregnant women. We describe changes in sleep architecture and sleep pattern during pregnancy, discuss the impact of the physical and biochemical changes of pregnancy on sleep in pregnant women and examine whether maternal-fetal outcomes may be adversely affected in women with disordered sleep. The literature on common sleep disorders affecting pregnant women, including insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing and restless legs syndrome, is reviewed and recommendations are made for the management of these disorders during pregnancy.

  1. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary In Italy, dog shelters are overcrowded because the rate of dog adoption is lower than that of abandonment. A project called “RandAgiamo” was implemented in a rescue shelter in central Italy. RandAgiamo provides training, socialization and advertising of adult shelter dogs. Official data of the Umbria regional health authorities from the year 2014 showed a higher rate of adoption in shelters involved in the project. RandAgiamo dogs had triple odds of being adopted compared to others housed in shelters of the same province. The increase in adoption rate can be beneficial for both dog welfare and shelter management. Abstract Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this “no-kill policy” has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project “RandAgiamo” implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs’ adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs’ visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (p < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs’ welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  2. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy.

  3. Sleeping sickness.

    PubMed

    Malvy, D; Chappuis, F

    2011-07-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne disease that flourishes in impoverished, rural parts of sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei and is transmitted by tsetse flies of the genus Glossina. The majority of cases are caused by T. b. gambiense, which gives rise to the chronic, anthroponotic endemic disease in Western and Central Africa. Infection with T. b. rhodesiense leads to the acute, zoonotic form of Eastern and Southern Africa. The parasites live and multiply extracellularly in the blood and tissue fluids of their human host. They have elaborated a variety of strategies for invading hosts, to escape the immune system and to take advantage of host growth factors. HAT is a challenging and deadly disease owing to its complex epidemiology and clinical presentation and, if left untreated, can result in high death rates. As one of the most neglected tropical diseases, HAT is characterized by the limited availability of safe and cost-effective control tools. No vaccine against HAT is available, and the toxicity of existing old and cumbersome drugs precludes the adoption of control strategies based on preventive chemotherapy. As a result, the keystones of interventions against sleeping sickness are active and passive case-finding for early detection of cases followed by treatment, vector control and animal reservoir management. New methods to diagnose and treat patients and to control transmission by the tsetse fly are needed to achieve the goal of global elimination of the disease.

  4. Evaluation of shelter ventilation by model tests. Option 2. Final report, August 1983-September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnakumar, C.K.; Schafer, C.K.; Henninger, R.H.; Fields, S.F.

    1984-09-01

    Wind tunnel tests were carried out using models of fallout shelters to determine correlations between shelter ventilation rate, area and distribution of wall openings, wind speed and its direction relative to the orientation of the shelter. Models of bermed shelters with five different opening configurations were used. A simple correlation was formulated between the shelter ventilation rate, the total area of windward openings, the ratio of leeward to windward opening areas and the velocity of the approach wind. Results were compared with those projected from available correlations for general type buildings. Originator provided keywords include: Flow visualization and Relative wind angle.

  5. Assessing the Relationship Between the Perceived Shelter Environment and Mental Health Among Homeless Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Beharie, Nisha; Lennon, Mary Clare; McKay, Mary McKernan

    2015-01-01

    Little attention has been given to how the environment of homeless shelters may impact the mental health of their residents. This study addresses this gap in the literature and presents a cross-sectional analysis of 209 caregivers nested within 10 family shelters across New York City. Multivariate regression was employed using hierarchical modeling to test the association between two shelter related variables (ie, the perceived social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules) and the mental health status of the caregiver residents. Less favorable perceptions of the social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules were both found to be associated with poorer mental health after controlling for demographic covariates as well as time in the shelter and first time in the shelter. These findings highlight the potential impact of the perceived social environment of shelters and methods of governance of shelters on the mental health of caregiver residents. In addition, the findings support the notion that interventions such as trauma informed care could potentially aid in addressing the mental health challenges that residents face. PMID:26332928

  6. Training veterinary students in shelter medicine: a service-learning community-classroom technique.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Brenda J; Gruen, Margaret E

    2014-01-01

    Shelter medicine is a rapidly developing field of great importance, and shelters themselves provide abundant training opportunities for veterinary medical students. Students trained in shelter medicine have opportunities to practice zoonotic and species-specific infectious disease control, behavioral evaluation and management, primary care, animal welfare, ethics, and public policy issues. A range of sheltering systems now exists, from brick-and-mortar facilities to networks of foster homes with no centralized facility. Exposure to a single shelter setting may not allow students to understand the full range of sheltering systems that exist; a community-classroom approach introduces students to a diverse array of sheltering systems while providing practical experience. This article presents the details and results of a series of 2-week elective clinical rotations with a focus on field and service learning in animal shelters. The overall aim was to provide opportunities that familiarized students with sheltering systems and delivered primary-care training. Other priorities included increasing awareness of public health concerns and equipping students to evaluate shelters on design, operating protocols, infectious disease control, animal enrichment, and community outreach. Students were required to participate in rounds and complete a project that addressed a need recognized by them during the rotation. This article includes costs associated with the rotation, a blueprint for how the rotation was carried out at our institution, and details of shelters visited and animals treated, including a breakdown of treatments provided. Also discussed are the student projects and student feedback on this valuable clinical experience.

  7. Assessing the Relationship Between the Perceived Shelter Environment and Mental Health Among Homeless Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Beharie, Nisha; Lennon, Mary Clare; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Little attention has been given to how the environment of homeless shelters may impact the mental health of their residents. This study addresses this gap in the literature and presents a cross-sectional analysis of 209 caregivers nested within 10 family shelters across New York City. Multivariate regression was employed using hierarchical modeling to test the association between two shelter related variables (ie, the perceived social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules) and the mental health status of the caregiver residents. Less favorable perceptions of the social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules were both found to be associated with poorer mental health after controlling for demographic covariates as well as time in the shelter and first time in the shelter. These findings highlight the potential impact of the perceived social environment of shelters and methods of governance of shelters on the mental health of caregiver residents. In addition, the findings support the notion that interventions such as trauma informed care could potentially aid in addressing the mental health challenges that residents face.

  8. Civil defense shelters: a state-of-the-art assessment - 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chester, C.V.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1986-12-01

    The literature on the design, construction, testing, and cost of blast and fallout shelters was reviewed, and a bibliography of over 1000 documents was assembled. It was found that nuclear weapon effects and shelter design are well understood. The principal technical barrier to construction of permanent shelters is cost. Single-purpose blast shelters cost in the high hundreds to low thousands of dollars per space, depending on size, hardness, location, and whether the shelter is part of new construction or retrofit. The risk area population requiring blast protection is approximately 160 million. The very-low-cost options open to the U.S. Government, with its present civil defense budget, remain: (1) maintain the inventory on fallout shelter and identify space with some blast protection potential; (2) plan for crisis upgrading to improve existing space in a crisis, and (3) plan for construction of expedient shelter in a crisis. Fallout shelters might be mandated in appropriate new construction outside risk areas at little cost to the government. Options in the mid-range of expense, a few tens to a few hundreds of dollars per space include: (1) requiring modified limestone-mining practices, where appropriate, to generate useable shelter space near cities; (2) encouraging the construction of earth-sheltered housing and other buildings, and (3) requiring and/or subsidizing the construction of dual-use basement shelter in new construction.

  9. Parasite control in Canadian companion animal shelters and a cost-comparison of anthelmintics

    PubMed Central

    Schurer, Janna M.; McKenzie, Christina; Dowling, Patricia M.; Bouchard, Emilie; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Animal shelters have limited resources and must accommodate large numbers of animals at unpredictable intake rates. These dogs and cats are often parasitized, which can adversely affect the health of animals and expose shelter workers and adoptive owners to zoonoses. We analyzed survey responses from rural (n = 32) and urban (n = 50) companion animal shelters across Canada, and compared the wholesale cost of commercially available anthelmintics to identify cost-effective methods of managing parasites within shelters. Almost all shelters employed nematocides (98% to 99%), but cestocides and ectoparasiticides were used less frequently. Shelters identified cost as an important consideration in choosing to perform fecal diagnostic testing and administer anthelmintics, and this motivated many shelters to selectively perform testing (66%) or never to test (32%), and to use drugs extralabel (80%). PMID:26345387

  10. Ventilation of Animal Shelters in Wildland Fire Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bova, A. S.; Bohrer, G.; Dickinson, M. B.

    2009-12-01

    The effects of wildland fires on cavity-nesting birds and bats, as well as fossorial mammals and burrow-using reptiles, are of considerable interest to the fire management community. However, relatively little is known about the degree of protection afforded by various animal shelters in wildland fire events. We present results from our ongoing investigation, utilizing NIST’s Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and experimental data, of the effectiveness of common shelter configurations in protecting animals from combustion products. We compare two sets of simulations with observed experimental results. In the first set, wind tunnel experiments on single-entry room ventilation by Larsen and Heiselberg (2008) were simulated in a large domain resolved into 10 cm cubic cells. The set of 24 simulations comprised all combinations of incident wind speeds of 1,3 and 5 m/s; angles of attack of 0, 45, 90 and 180 degrees from the horizontal normal to the entrance; and temperature differences of 0 and 10 degrees C between the building interior and exterior. Simulation results were in good agreement with experimental data, thus providing a validation of FDS code for further ventilation experiments. In the second set, a cubic simulation domain of ~1m on edge and resolved into 1 cm cubic cells, was set up to represent the experiments by Ar et al. (2004) of wind-induced ventilation of woodpecker cavities. As in the experiments, we simulated wind parallel and perpendicular to the cavity entrance with different mean forcing velocities, and monitored the rates of evacuation of a neutral-buoyancy tracer from the cavity. Simulated ventilation rates in many, though not all, cases fell within the range of experimental data. Reasons for these differences, which include vagueness in the experimental setup, will be discussed. Our simulations provide a tool to estimate the viability of an animal in a shelter as a function of the shelter geometry and the fire intensity. In addition to the above

  11. Identifying Evacuees' Demand of Tsunami Shelters using Agent Based Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, E.; Adriano, B.; Koshimura, S.; Imamura, F.; Kuroiwa, J.; Yamazaki, F.; Zavala, C.; Estrada, M.

    2012-12-01

    Amongst the lessons learned in tsunami events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Great Tohoku Japan earthquake is that sometimes nature exceeds structural countermeasures like seawalls, breakwaters or tsunami gates. In such situations it is a challenging task for people in plain areas to find sheltering places. The vertical evacuation to multistory buildings is one alternative to provide areas for sheltering in a complex environment of evacuation. However, if the spatial distribution and the available capacity of these structures are not well displayed, conditions of evacuee over-demand or under-demand might be observed in several structures. In this study, we present the integration of the tsunami numerical modeling and the agent based simulation of evacuation as the method to estimate the sheltering demand of evacuees in an emergent behavior approach. The case study is set in La Punta district in Peru. Here, we used in the tsunami simulation a seismic source of slip distribution model (Pulido et.al. ,2011; Chlieh et.al, 2011) for a possible future tsunami scenario in the central Andes. We modeled three alternatives of evacuation. First, the horizontal evacuation scenario was analyzed to support the necessity of the sheltering-in-place option for the district. Second, the vertical evacuation scenario and third, the combination of vertical and horizontal evacuation scenarios of pedestrians and vehicles were conducted. In the last two alternatives, the demand of evacuees were measured at each official tsunami evacuation building and compared to the sheltering capacity of the structure. Results showed that out of twenty tsunami evacuation buildings, thirteen resulted with over-demands and seven were still with available space. Also it is confirmed that in this case the horizontal evacuation might lead to a high number of casualties due to the traffic congestion at the neck of the district. Finally the vertical evacuation would be a suitable solution for this area

  12. Metabolic consequences of sleep and sleep loss

    PubMed Central

    Van Cauter, Eve; Spiegel, Karine; Tasali, Esra; Leproult, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Reduced sleep duration and quality appear to be endemic in modern society. Curtailment of the bedtime period to minimum tolerability is thought to be efficient and harmless by many. It has been known for several decades that sleep is a major modulator of hormonal release, glucose regulation and cardiovascular function. In particular, slow wave sleep (SWS), thought to be the most restorative sleep stage, is associated with decreased heart rate, blood pressure, sympathetic nervous activity and cerebral glucose utilization, compared with wakefulness. During SWS, the anabolic growth hormone is released while the stress hormone cortisol is inhibited. In recent years, laboratory and epidemiologic evidence have converged to indicate that sleep loss may be a novel risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. The increased risk of obesity is possibly linked to the effect of sleep loss on hormones that play a major role in the central control of appetite and energy expenditure, such as leptin and ghrelin. Reduced leptin and increased ghrelin levels correlate with increases in subjective hunger when individuals are sleep restricted rather than well rested. Given the evidence, sleep curtailment appears to be an important, yet modifiable, risk factor for the metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity. The marked decrease in average sleep duration in the last 50 years coinciding with the increased prevalence of obesity, together with the observed adverse effects of recurrent partial sleep deprivation on metabolism and hormonal processes, may have important implications for public health. PMID:18929315

  13. Metabolic consequences of sleep and sleep loss.

    PubMed

    Van Cauter, Eve; Spiegel, Karine; Tasali, Esra; Leproult, Rachel

    2008-09-01

    Reduced sleep duration and quality appear to be endemic in modern society. Curtailment of the bedtime period to minimum tolerability is thought to be efficient and harmless by many. It has been known for several decades that sleep is a major modulator of hormonal release, glucose regulation and cardiovascular function. In particular, slow wave sleep (SWS), thought to be the most restorative sleep stage, is associated with decreased heart rate, blood pressure, sympathetic nervous activity and cerebral glucose utilization, compared with wakefulness. During SWS, the anabolic growth hormone is released while the stress hormone cortisol is inhibited. In recent years, laboratory and epidemiologic evidence have converged to indicate that sleep loss may be a novel risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. The increased risk of obesity is possibly linked to the effect of sleep loss on hormones that play a major role in the central control of appetite and energy expenditure, such as leptin and ghrelin. Reduced leptin and increased ghrelin levels correlate with increases in subjective hunger when individuals are sleep restricted rather than well rested. Given the evidence, sleep curtailment appears to be an important, yet modifiable, risk factor for the metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity. The marked decrease in average sleep duration in the last 50 years coinciding with the increased prevalence of obesity, together with the observed adverse effects of recurrent partial sleep deprivation on metabolism and hormonal processes, may have important implications for public health.

  14. 26 CFR 53.4965-4 - Definition of tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... tax shelter transaction. 53.4965-4 Section 53.4965-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4965-4 Definition of tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter... prohibited tax shelter transaction if the entity— (1) Facilitates a prohibited tax shelter transaction...

  15. 26 CFR 53.4965-4 - Definition of tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... tax shelter transaction. 53.4965-4 Section 53.4965-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4965-4 Definition of tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter... prohibited tax shelter transaction if the entity— (1) Facilitates a prohibited tax shelter transaction...

  16. 26 CFR 53.4965-4 - Definition of tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... tax shelter transaction. 53.4965-4 Section 53.4965-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4965-4 Definition of tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter... prohibited tax shelter transaction if the entity— (1) Facilitates a prohibited tax shelter transaction...

  17. 26 CFR 53.4965-4 - Definition of tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... tax shelter transaction. 53.4965-4 Section 53.4965-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... TAXES Second Tier Excise Taxes § 53.4965-4 Definition of tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter... prohibited tax shelter transaction if the entity— (1) Facilitates a prohibited tax shelter transaction...

  18. How Is Sleep Apnea Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics CPAP High Blood Pressure Overweight and Obesity Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency Sleep Studies Send a link to ... For more information, go to the Health Topics Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency article.) If treatment and enough sleep ...

  19. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed.

  20. Sleep and the Endocrine System.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed.

  1. Sleep to grow smart?

    PubMed

    Volk, Carina; Huber, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is undisputable an essential part of our life, if we do not sleep enough we feel the consequences the next day. The importance of sleep for healthy brain functioning has been well studied in adults, but less is known for the role of sleep in the paediatric age. Childhood and adolescence is a critical phase for brain development. The increased need for sleep during this developmental phase fosters the growing recognition for a central role of sleep during development. In this review we summarize the findings that demonstrate a close relationship between sleep and brain maturation, discuss the consequences of insufficient sleep during childhood and adolescence and outline initial attempts that have been made in order to improve sleep in this age range.

  2. Patterns of sleep behaviour.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the electroencephalogram as the critical measurement procedure for sleep research, and survey of major findings that have emerged in the last decade on the presence of sleep within the twenty-four-hour cycle. Specifically, intrasleep processes, frequency of stage changes, sequence of stage events, sleep stage amounts, temporal patterns of sleep, and stability of intrasleep pattern in both man and lower animals are reviewed, along with some circadian aspects of sleep, temporal factors, and number of sleep episodes. It is felt that it is particularly critical to take the presence of sleep into account whenever performance is considered. When it is recognized that responsive performance is extremely limited during sleep, it is easy to visualize the extent to which performance is controlled by sleep itself.

  3. [Neurological sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Khatami, Ramin

    2014-11-01

    Neurological sleep disorders are common in the general population and may have a strong impact on quality of life. General practitioners play a key role in recognizing and managing sleep disorders in the general population. They should therefore be familiar with the most important neurological sleep disorders. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most prevalent and important neurological sleep disorders, including Restless legs syndrome (with and without periodic limb movements in sleep), narcolepsy, NREM- and REM-sleep parasomnias and the complex relationship between sleep and epilepsies. Although narcolepsy is considered as a rare disease, recent discoveries in narcolepsy research provided insight in the function of brain circuitries involved in sleep wake regulation. REM sleep behavioral parasomnia (RBD) is increasingly recognized to represent an early manifestation of neurodegenerative disorders, in particular evolving synucleinopathies. Early diagnosis may thus open new perspectives for developing novel treatment options by targeting neuroprotective substances.

  4. Sleep: a health imperative.

    PubMed

    Luyster, Faith S; Strollo, Patrick J; Zee, Phyllis C; Walsh, James K

    2012-06-01

    Chronic sleep deficiency, defined as a state of inadequate or mistimed sleep, is a growing and underappreciated determinant of health status. Sleep deprivation contributes to a number of molecular, immune, and neural changes that play a role in disease development, independent of primary sleep disorders. These changes in biological processes in response to chronic sleep deficiency may serve as etiological factors for the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and, ultimately, a shortened lifespan. Sleep deprivation also results in significant impairments in cognitive and motor performance which increase the risk of motor vehicle crashes and work-related injuries and fatal accidents. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society have developed this statement to communicate to national health stakeholders the current knowledge which ties sufficient sleep and circadian alignment in adults to health.

  5. Parenting and infant sleep.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Avi; Tikotzky, Liat; Scher, Anat

    2010-04-01

    Infant sleep undergoes dramatic evolution during the first year of life. This process is driven by underlying biological forces but is highly dependent on environmental cues including parental influences. In this review the links between infant sleep and parental behaviors, cognitions, emotions and relationships as well as psychopathology are examined within the context of a transactional model. Parental behaviors, particularly those related to bedtime interactions and soothing routines, are closely related to infant sleep. Increased parental involvement is associated with more fragmented sleep. Intervention based on modifying parental behaviors and cognitions have direct effect on infant sleep. It appears that parental personality, psychopathology and related cognitions and emotions contribute to parental sleep-related behaviors and ultimately influence infant sleep. However, the links are bidirectional and dynamic so that poor infant sleep may influence parental behaviors and poor infant sleep appears to be a family stressor and a risk factor for maternal depression.

  6. The fence experiment — a first evaluation of shelter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Alfredo; Bechmann, Andreas; Conti, Davide; Angelou, Nikolas; Mann, Jakob

    2016-09-01

    We present a preliminary evaluation of shelter models of different degrees of complexity using full-scale lidar measurements of the shelter on a vertical plane behind and orthogonal to a fence. Model results accounting for the distribution of the relative wind direction within the observed direction interval are in better agreement with the observations than those that correspond to the simulation at the center of the direction interval, particularly in the far-wake region, for six vertical levels up to two fence heights. Generally, the CFD results are in better agreement with the observations than those from two engineering-like obstacle models but the latter two follow well the behavior of the observations in the far-wake region.

  7. [Infections with endoparasites in dogs in Dutch animal shelters].

    PubMed

    le Nobel, W E; Robben, S R; Döpfer, D; Hendrikx, W M; Boersema, J H; Fransen, F; Eysker, M

    2004-01-15

    Faecal samples from 224 dogs from 23 animal shelters in the Netherlands were examined for endoparasites. In total 20.5% of the faecal sample were positive for helminth and/or protozoa infections. Eggs of Toxocara canis were found in 8.5% of the faecal samples. Other endoparasites found were Toxascaris leonina (0.5%), Trichuris vulpis (4.9%), Uncinaria stenocephala (2.2%), Dipylidium caninum (1.3%), Taenia spp. (0.5%), Cystoïsospora canis (1.3%), and C. ohioensis (1.3%). Dogs younger than 1 year and stray dogs showed the highest prevalence of infection. T. vulpis was found more often in dogs from shelters with a high cleaning frequency.

  8. Evaluation of Shelter Ventilation by Model Tests. Option 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    HUMUERS, 7449 N. Natchez Ave. FEMPL Work Unit 12.171 Niles, Illinois 60648 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS IL REPORT DATE Federal Emergency...lights could be controlled through a voltage regulator. These lights 2-1 GARD ELEVATION VIEW Earth Berm Wndow 3’ x 3’ Winindow Interior of Shelter 32...Nationale 1 36 Rue J. B. Esch Luxembourg (Grand-Duche) Ministero dell Interno 1 Director General Protectione Civile Rome, Italy Civile Emergency Planning

  9. EMP Design and Test Guidelines for Systems in Mobile Shelters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    interfaces and should come together at only one point in the total system. The inner skin of the shelter is usually aluminum and serves as the...incorporated. Producibility considerations may require tests. A very thin alumi- num skin can provide adequate panel shielding but cannot be mated to other...I circuit test. V)It Figure 44ePowertor Synchronous pulserFiure 44ower P test setup. Is Gerwator YOUT ve |vs Figure 45. Power test 3-+ sync Rording

  10. Architecture Earth-Sheltered Buildings. Design Manual 1.4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    Bioclimat kpproach to Architectural Regionalismj Princeton, New Jersey, Princetk .niversity Press, 1963. " 7) 3. Givoni, B., Man, Climate and...AD-A 140 831 NAVFAC DM-1.4MARCH 1984 T OF ARCHITECTURE EARTH-SHELTERED BUILDINGS DESIGN MANUAL 1.4 Reproduced From Best Available Copy ~9J)O,3...design are included for the following disciplines: Planniing, Landscape Design, Life-Cycle Analysis, Architectural , Structural, Mechanical (criteria

  11. PIONEER: A Robot for Structural Assessment of the Chornobyl Shelter

    SciTech Connect

    Catalan, Michael A. ); Thompson, Bruce R.; Dan G. Cacuci

    2001-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored the design and fabrication of a radiation-hardened mobile diagnostic robot dubbed Pioneer. Pioneer was designed to operate in the most hazardous locations within the Chornobyl Shelter. Pioneer was delivered to the Ukraine in the spring of 1999. Initial system training and cold testing was performed after delivery.

  12. Design concepts for pressurized lunar shelters utilizing indigenous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Happel, John Amin; Willam, Kaspar; Shing, Benson

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to design a pressurized shelter build of indigenous lunar material. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: lunar conditions which impact design; secondary factors; review of previously proposed concepts; cross section of assembly facility; rationale for indigenous materials; indigenous material choices; cast basalt properties; design variables; design 1, cylindrical segments; construction sequence; design 2, arch-slabs with post-tensioned ring girders; and future research.

  13. Hazard Mitigation Potential of Earth-Sheltered Residences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    433-451 (1974). z ai’man, G ., R. Duncan, and J. Holbeck, Innovations and Organizations, New York: ~ John Wiley, 1973. Ziebarth, Allan M., Personal...Press Zaltman, G ., Duncan,E. Holbeck,J., Innovations and Organizationa [ 1973.] New York: John Wiley 3. Policy Isplementation PardachE., Ine...AA/3• 3C7 Hazard Mitigation Potential of UIYIONEarth-Sheltered Residecriot CARBIDE C. V. Chester H. B. Shapira G . A. Gristy M. Schw~eitzer S. A

  14. [Insomnia and sleep apnea].

    PubMed

    Bayon, V; Léger, D

    2014-02-01

    The presence of insomnia in patients with sleep apnea seems paradoxical as excessive sleepiness is one of the major symptoms of sleep apnea. However, recent research has shown that about half of patients with sleep disorder breathing experience insomnia. Moreover, patients complaining of insomnia or non-restorative sleep may also present with moderate to severe sleep apnea syndromes. Thus, in recent years, clinicians have become more aware of the possible association between insomnia and sleep apnea. This article reviews data published on different aspects of this co-occurrence.

  15. Sleep-related headaches.

    PubMed

    Rains, Jeanetta C; Poceta, J Steven

    2012-11-01

    Irrespective of diagnosis, chronic daily, morning, or "awakening" headache patterns are soft signs of a sleep disorder. Sleep apnea headache may emerge de novo or may present as an exacerbation of cluster, migraine, tension-type, or other headache. Insomnia is the most prevalent sleep disorder in chronic migraine and tension-type headache, and increases risk for depression and anxiety. Sleep disturbance (e.g., sleep loss, oversleeping, schedule shift) is an acute headache trigger for migraine and tension-type headache. Snoring and sleep disturbance are independent risk factors for progression from episodic to chronic headache.

  16. Childhood epilepsy and sleep

    PubMed Central

    Al-Biltagi, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and epilepsy are two well recognized conditions that interact with each other in a complex bi-directional way. Some types of epilepsies have increased activity during sleep disturbing it; while sleep deprivation aggravates epilepsy due to decreased seizure threshold. Epilepsy can deteriorate the sleep-related disorders and at the same time; the parasomnias can worsen the epilepsy. The secretion of sleep-related hormones can also be affected by the occurrence of seizures and supplementation of epileptic patients with some of these sleep-related hormones may have a beneficial role in controlling epilepsy. PMID:25254184

  17. Middle Proterozoic emplacement and deformation of metanorthosite and related rocks in the northeastern Marcy massif, Adirondack Mountains, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Fakundiny, R.H. ); Muller, P.D. . Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Geologic mapping in the Elizabethtown and Mount Marcy 15 foot quadrangles in the northeastern Adirondack Mountains has shown that Middle Proterozoic anorthosite suite rocks of the Marcy massif were intruded in at least two temporally distinguishable episodes separated by a period of localized ductile shearing. Strain was concentrated in a 100 m to > 1 km thick zone consisting mainly of metamorphosed gabbroic anorthosite, ferrodiorite, and ferrosyenite gneiss with subordinate granite gneiss, calc-silicate gneiss, amphibolite, and marble. This zone of flat to steeply-dipping layered gneisses, designated the Elizabethtown ductile deformation zone (EDDZ) for exposures along Rt 9 south of Elizabethtown, appears to extend from Lake Champlain on the east to at least Lake Placid on the west. Its upper boundary is most clearly evident where it occurs in olivine metagabbro bodies of Jay and Iron Mountain. Massive metagabbro is sheared and recrystallized into amphibolite gneiss. The lower boundary of the zone is more difficult to map, but commonly lies within contaminated metamorphosed gabbroic anorthosite and ferrodiorite gneiss that characterize the margins of the massif in the area. Rocks of the EDDZ display pervasive mesoscopic S and LS fabrics, but exhibit totally recrystallized microtextures. Kinematic indicators such as winged porphyroclasts and S-C fabrics are sporadically developed and provide a regionally ambiguous sense of shear. The authors favor a regional extension origin for the fabrics. Mineral assemblages defining the EDDZ fabrics are consistent with granulite facies conditions during shear-zone development and suggest a lower crustal position. Mapping suggests that the younger anorthosite intrusions were mainly domical and generated a chaotic contact zone typified by block structure and dikes of ferrodiorite, ferromonzonite, and ferrosyenite.

  18. Geochemical studies of mafic and other low silica, Precambrian intrusive rocks in the Adirondack lowlands, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Antibus, J.; Carl, J.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Mafic metaigneous rocks in the Adirondack Lowlands include gabbros, amphibolites and diorites that are associated with, and hard to distinguish from, a host of dark colored, low-silica, alkali feldspar-bearing rocks that include syenogabbros, syenites and monzonites. All rocks intrude metasedimentary and metavolcanic host rocks and occur as isolated, pre- to syn-metamorphic bodies, generally with elongate, sheet-like form. Some occur within or marginal to deformation zones. Lacking are the massive igneous complexes of the Highlands where anorthosites, charnockites and mangerites comprise a common field association. Amphibolites vary from mappable sheets that are hundreds of meters thick to thin (<1 m) layers within the host gneisses. Gabbros and diorites vary from circular to oval-shaped bodies, generally <2 km across, that may be infolded with the host rocks. Pervasive shear in Lowland granitic rocks (Hyde School Gneiss) that resulted in major sheath folds, as proposed by Tewksbury, extends into the mafic bodies whose margins show strong gneissic textures and grain size reduction, but the cores are less deformed. The Balmat gabbro varies inwardly and systematically from monzonitic to gabbroic composition in decreasing Si, Na, K, Rb, Zr and Ba, and in increasing Ca, Mg, Fe, Ti, P, Sr, Cr, V and Ni content. Y/Nb ratios remain constant at 3-4. Among explanations of assimilation and metasomatism, the authors tentatively prefer an hypothesis of exclusion of alkali material during crystallization of mafic magma. Calc alkali and low potassium tholeiites are indicated in plots of the Balmat and other mafic bodies on Ti/100-Zr-Yx3 and Ti-Zr discrimination diagrams, although there is much scatter of data. Within-plate basalts are lacking, and ocean floor basalts are indicated for some amphibolites.

  19. Sleep physiology and sleep disorders in childhood

    PubMed Central

    El Shakankiry, Hanan M

    2011-01-01

    Sleep has long been considered as a passive phenomenon, but it is now clear that it is a period of intense brain activity involving higher cortical functions. Overall, sleep affects every aspect of a child’s development, particularly higher cognitive functions. Sleep concerns are ranked as the fifth leading concern of parents. Close to one third of all children suffer from sleep disorders, the prevalence of which is increased in certain pediatric populations, such as children with special needs, children with psychiatric or medical diagnoses and children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders. The paper reviews sleep physiology and the impact, classification, and management of sleep disorders in the pediatric age group. PMID:23616721

  20. Sleep and sleep disorders in Don Quixote.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; de Riquer, Martín

    2004-01-01

    In Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes presents Don Quixote as an amazing character of the 17th century who suffers from delusions and illusions, believing himself to be a medieval knight errant. Besides this neuropsychiatric condition, Cervantes included masterful descriptions of several sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep deprivation, disruptive loud snoring and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. In addition, he described the occurrence of physiological, vivid dreams and habitual, post-prandial sleepiness--the siesta. Cervantes' concept of sleep as a passive state where all cerebral activities are almost absent is in conflict with his description of abnormal behaviours during sleep and vivid, fantastic dreams. His concept of sleep was shared by his contemporary, Shakespeare, and could have been influenced by the reading of the classical Spanish book of psychiatry Examen de Ingenios (1575).

  1. [Actigraphy in sleep medicine and sleep research].

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yoshiyuki; Matsuda, Mika; Chiba, Shigeru

    2009-08-01

    Actigraphy is a method that utilizes a miniaturized computerized wristwatch-like device to monitor and collect data generated by body movements over extended periods of time. It allows estimation of sleep and wakefulness based on motor activity. It provides a noninvasive, objective, and longitudinal method for the diagnostic and post-treatment evaluation of patients with sleep disorders in the ambulatory setting. It has been used for researchers to study sleep disturbances in a variety of populations, most frequently for the evaluation of insomnia, paradoxical insomnia, and circadian rhythm sleep disorders. In addition, it is particularly useful in populations where polysomnography would be difficult to record, such as in patients with dementia and delirium. Actigraphy should be extensively carried out in sleep medicine as well as sleep research.

  2. Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. III: Commercial Districts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2007-12-28

    In the event of a toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) is an emergency response option available to protect public health. This paper is the last in a three-part series that examines the effectiveness of SIP at reducing adverse health effects in communities. We model a hypothetical chemical release in an urban area, and consider SIP effectiveness in protecting occupants of commercial buildings. Building air infiltration rates are predicted from empirical data using an existing model. We consider the distribution of building air infiltration rates both with mechanical ventilation systems turned off and with the systems operating. We also consider the effects of chemical sorption to indoor surfaces and nonlinear chemical dose-response relationships. We find that commercial buildings provide effective shelter when ventilation systems are off, but that any delay in turning off ventilation systems can greatly reduce SIP effectiveness. Using a two-zone model, we find that there can be substantial benefit by taking shelter in the inner parts of a building that do not experience direct air exchange with the outdoors. Air infiltration rates vary substantially among buildings and this variation is important in quantifying effectiveness for emergency response. Community-wide health metrics, introduced in the previous papers in this series, can be applied in pre-event planning and to guide real-time emergency response.

  3. Effectiveness of sheltering in buildings and vehicles for plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, R.J.

    1990-07-30

    The purpose of this paper is to collect and present current knowledge relevant to the protection offered by sheltering against exposure to plutonium particles released to the atmosphere during accidents. For those many contaminants for which effects are linear with the airborne concentration, it is convenient to define a Dose Reduction Factor (DRF). In the past, the DRF has been defined as the ratio of the radiological dose that may be incurred within the shelter to that in the outdoors. As such, it includes the dose through shine from plumes aloft and from material deposited on the surface. For this paper, which is concerned only with the inhalation pathway, the DRF is the ratio of the time-integrated concentration inside the shelter to that outdoors. It is important to note that the range over which effects are linear with concentration may be limited for many contaminants. Examples are when concentrations produce effects that are irreversible, or when concentrations are below effects threshold levels. 71 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Agent-based evacuation simulation for spatial allocation assessment of urban shelters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia; Wen, Jiahong; Jiang, Yong

    2015-12-01

    The construction of urban shelters is one of the most important work in urban planning and disaster prevention. The spatial allocation assessment is a fundamental pre-step for spatial location-allocation of urban shelters. This paper introduces a new method which makes use of agent-based technology to implement evacuation simulation so as to conduct dynamic spatial allocation assessment of urban shelters. The method can not only accomplish traditional geospatial evaluation for urban shelters, but also simulate the evacuation process of the residents to shelters. The advantage of utilizing this method lies into three aspects: (1) the evacuation time of each citizen from a residential building to the shelter can be estimated more reasonably; (2) the total evacuation time of all the residents in a region is able to be obtained; (3) the road congestions in evacuation in sheltering can be detected so as to take precautionary measures to prevent potential risks. In this study, three types of agents are designed: shelter agents, government agents and resident agents. Shelter agents select specified land uses as shelter candidates for different disasters. Government agents delimitate the service area of each shelter, in other words, regulate which shelter a person should take, in accordance with the administrative boundaries and road distance between the person's position and the location of the shelter. Resident agents have a series of attributes, such as ages, positions, walking speeds, and so on. They also have several behaviors, such as reducing speed when walking in the crowd, helping old people and children, and so on. Integrating these three types of agents which are correlated with each other, evacuation procedures can be simulated and dynamic allocation assessment of shelters will be achieved. A case study in Jing'an District, Shanghai, China, was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. A scenario of earthquake disaster which occurs in nighttime

  5. Evaluation of shelter ventilation by model tests, option 1 - below ground shelters. Final report Sep 82-Dec 83

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnakumar, C.K.; Koh, J.B.; Fields, S.F.; Henninger, R.H.

    1983-12-01

    Wind-induced ventilation rates that could be achieved in a 100-man below-ground shelter with simple designs of passive flow enhancement devices (FEDs) were estimated by scale model tests in a low-speed wind tunnel. Air volume flow rates through the model were determined by using bubble flow tracers and motion photography. Test results indicate that adequate ventilation can be achieved in the type of shelter considered by the use of FEDs even at relatively low wind speeds. The study also generated guidelines for the relatively low speeds. The study also generated guidelines for the design of FEDs and their placement around stairway openings. In addition, estimates of reductions in ventilation rates due to an obstruction upstream of the windward FED and due to a decrease in the area of wall openings were made.

  6. Dynamic test of a corrugated steel keyworker blast shelter MISTY PICTURE. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, R.L.; Slawson, T.R.; Harris, A.L.

    1987-11-01

    The 18-man blast shelter was tested dynamically on May 14, 1987 in the MISTY PICTURE event at White Sands Missile Range, NM. The main section of the shelter was fabricated from a 9-foot-diameter, 27.5-foot-long section of 10-gage, galvanized, corrugated steel culvert. The shelter included a vertical entryway and air intake and exhaust stacks. The shelter design was found to be conservative during a previous 50-psi validation test, and some constructibility problems were encountered with the entryway-to-shelter connections. This test was conducted to validate the modifications made to the shelter design. The modifications were made to reduce construction costs and improve constructibility. Primary modifications included: replacing the stiffened endwalls with lighter-weight unstiffened plates, connecting the entryway to an endwall rather than to the main section of the shelter, and the inclusion of an emergency exit. The structure was located at the anticipated 200-psi peak overpressure level. Post-test inspection revealed that the main section of the shelter suffered very little damage during the test. Due to the failure of the emergency exit cover plate, it was necessary to determine if enough pressure entered the shelter to affect its structural response. This test also investigated the shock environment inside the shelter.

  7. Sleep disturbances in Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Askenasy, J J M

    2003-02-01

    The present article is meant to suggest an approach to the guidelines for the therapy of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.The factors affecting the quality of life in PD patients are depression, sleep disturbances and dependence. A large review of the literature on sleep disturbances in PD patients, provided the basis for the following classification of the sleep-arousal disturbances in PD patients. We suggest a model based on 3 steps in the treatment of sleep disturbances in PD patients. This model allowing the patient, the spouse or the caregiver a quiet sleep at night, may postpone the retirement and the institutionalization of the PD patient. I. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders based on detailed anamnesis of the patient and of the spouse or of the caregiver. One week recording on a symptom diary (log) by the patient or the caregiver. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders co morbidities. Selection of the most appropriate sleep test among: polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), multiple wake latency test (MWLT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, actigraphy or video-PSG. II. The nonspecific therapeutic approach consists in: a) Checking the sleep effect on motor performance, is it beneficial, worse or neutral. b) Psycho-physical assistance. c) Dopaminergic adjustment is necessary owing to the progression of the nigrostriatal degeneration and the increased sensitivity of the terminals, which alter the normal modulator mechanisms of the motor centers in PD patients. Among the many neurotransmitters of the nigro-striatal pathway one can distinguish two with a major influence on REM and NonREM sleep. REM sleep corresponds to an increased cholinergic receptor activity and a decreased dopaminergic activity. This is the reason why REM sleep deprivation by suppressing cholinergic receptor activity ameliorates PD motor symptoms. L-Dopa and its agonists by suppressing cholinergic receptors suppress REM sleep. The permanent adjustment

  8. [Estimation of shelter forest area in Three-North Shelter Forest Program region based on multi-sensor remote sensing data].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao; Zhu, Jiao-jun

    2013-08-01

    The Three-North Shelter Forest Program is a key forestry ecological project in China. The quantity and spatial distribution of the shelter forest in the program affect the ecological environment of the entire Three-North region. In this paper, multi-sensor remote sensing data were used to scientifically, objectively and comprehensively estimate the quantity and spatial distribution pattern of the shelter forest in this region in 1978-2008. Firstly, the Landsat TM images (30 m in resolution) were adopted to extract the shelter forest data in this region in 2008. Then, based on random sampling techniques, the calibration formulae for the shelter forest area in different precipitation climate regions estimated by the SPOT5 (2.5 m in resolution) and Landsat TM were constructed. By using the above-mentioned results, the shelter forest area in the Three-North region in 2008 was estimated. In 2008, the total area of the shelter forest (canopy density of arbor shelter forest was >0.3, coverage of shrub shelter forest was > 40%, and accuracy was about 85%) in this region was 328360.03 km2, with 116244.55 km2 in Northeast China, 42981.32 km2 in North China, 76767.05 km2 in Loess Plateau, and 92367.11 km2 in Mongolia-Xinjiang Region. According to the classification of shelter forest types, the areas of coniferous forest, broadleaved forest, mixed broadleaf-conifer forest and shrubland were 62614.74, 121628.51, 22144.09 and 121972.69 km2, respectively.

  9. Sleep Disorders (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... about getting enough sleep. You learn to change negative thoughts and beliefs about sleep into positive thoughts ... problems, such as anxiety or depression . Loss of social support . Alcohol use (drinking). Side effects of medicines. Conditions ...

  10. Sleep in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Vigeta, Sônia Maria Garcia; Hachul, Helena; Tufik, Sergio; de Oliveira, Eleonora Menicucci

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that most influence the perception of sleep quality in postmenopausal women. We used the methodological strategy of the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD), which is based on a theoretical framework of social representations theory. We obtained the data by interviewing 22 postmenopausal Brazilian women who were experiencing insomnia. The women gave accounts of their difficulties with sleep; a variety of dimensions were identified within the data. The onset of sleep disorders might have occurred during childhood or in situations considered to be stressful, and were not necessarily associated with menopause. We found that hormonal alterations occurring during menopause, psychosocial factors, and sleep-breathing disorders triggered occasional sleep disturbances during this time of life. Participants were aware of the consequences of sleep deprivation. In addition, inadequate sleep hygiene habits figured prominently as determinants in the persistence of sleep disturbances.

  11. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... to locate sleep centers in your area. Search radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in ... to locate sleep centers in your area. Search radius: Treatment & Therapy CPAP Titration Study This type of ...

  12. Sleep and Aging: Insomnia

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Sleep and Aging Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint ... us | Customer Support | site map National Institute on Aging | U.S. National Library of Medicine | National Institutes of ...

  13. Aging changes in sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004018.htm Aging changes in sleep To use the sharing features ... cycle is repeated several times during the night. AGING CHANGES With aging, sleep patterns tend to change. ...

  14. Teenagers and sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000872.htm Teenagers and sleep To use the sharing features on this page, ... need. What Makes it Hard for Teens to Sleep? Several factors make it hard for teens to ...

  15. Sleep and Human Aging.

    PubMed

    Mander, Bryce A; Winer, Joseph R; Walker, Matthew P

    2017-04-05

    Older adults do not sleep as well as younger adults. Why? What alterations in sleep quantity and quality occur as we age, and are there functional consequences? What are the underlying neural mechanisms that explain age-related sleep disruption? This review tackles these questions. First, we describe canonical changes in human sleep quantity and quality in cognitively normal older adults. Second, we explore the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that may account for these human sleep alterations. Third, we consider the functional consequences of age-related sleep disruption, focusing on memory impairment as an exemplar. We conclude with a discussion of a still-debated question: do older adults simply need less sleep, or rather, are they unable to generate the sleep that they still need?

  16. Sleep and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sleep-wake process and our circadian biologic clock -- regulate our sleep. They program our bodies to ... on the time spent awake. Our circadian biologic clock is a 24-hour body rhythm affected by ...

  17. Sleep and Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... 12-Month-Old Bed-Sharing All About Sleep Sleep and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Communication and Your Newborn Medical Care and Your Newborn Your Newborn's Growth Choosing Safe Baby Products: Cribs Flat Head Syndrome ( ...

  18. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  19. Sleep and Health

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep and Health (0:36) Dr. Orfeu Buxton describes how animal and human studies suggest that adequate sleep is crucial for a long and healthy life. choose settings to watch video: Windows Media Player - high | low ...

  20. Sleep and Infant Learning.

    PubMed

    Tarullo, Amanda R; Balsam, Peter D; Fifer, William P

    2011-01-01

    Human neonates spend the majority of their time sleeping. Despite the limited waking hours available for environmental exploration, the first few months of life are a time of rapid learning about the environment. The organization of neonate sleep differs qualitatively from adult sleep, and the unique characteristics of neonatal sleep may promote learning. Sleep contributes to infant learning in multiple ways. First, sleep facilitates neural maturation, thereby preparing infants to process and explore the environment in increasingly sophisticated ways. Second, sleep plays a role in memory consolidation of material presented while the infant was awake. Finally, emerging evidence indicates that infants process sensory stimuli and learn about contingencies in their environment even while asleep. As infants make the transition from reflexive to cortically mediated control, learned responses to physiological challenges during sleep may be critical adaptations to promote infant survival.

  1. Identifying Common Patterns in Diverse Systems: Effects of Exurban Development on Birds of the Adirondack Park and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glennon, Michale J.; Kretser, Heidi E.; Hilty, Jodi A.

    2015-02-01

    We examined the impacts of exurban development on bird communities in Essex County, New York and Madison County, Montana by comparing differences in abundance of songbirds between subdivisions and control sites in both regions. We hypothesized that impacts to bird communities would be greater in the relatively homogeneous, closed canopy Adirondack forest of northern New York State than they would be in the more naturally heterogeneous grasslands interspersed with trees and shrubs of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We examined birds in five functional groups expected to be responsive to exurban development, and determined relative abundance within subdivisions and control sites across these two distinct regions. We found little support for our hypothesis. For birds in the area-sensitive, low nesting, and Neotropical migrant functional groups, relative abundance was lower in subdivisions in the Adirondacks and in Madison County, while relative abundance of edge specialists was greater in subdivisions in both regions. The direction and magnitude of change in the avian communities between subdivisions and controls was similar in both regions for all guilds except microhabitat specialists. These similarities across diverse ecosystems suggest that the ecological context of the encompassing region may be less important than other elements in shaping avian communities in exurban systems. This finding suggests that humans and their specific behaviors and activities in exurban areas may be underappreciated but potentially important drivers of change in these regions.

  2. Identifying common patterns in diverse systems: effects of exurban development on birds of the Adirondack Park and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA.

    PubMed

    Glennon, Michale J; Kretser, Heidi E; Hilty, Jodi A

    2015-02-01

    We examined the impacts of exurban development on bird communities in Essex County, New York and Madison County, Montana by comparing differences in abundance of songbirds between subdivisions and control sites in both regions. We hypothesized that impacts to bird communities would be greater in the relatively homogeneous, closed canopy Adirondack forest of northern New York State than they would be in the more naturally heterogeneous grasslands interspersed with trees and shrubs of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We examined birds in five functional groups expected to be responsive to exurban development, and determined relative abundance within subdivisions and control sites across these two distinct regions. We found little support for our hypothesis. For birds in the area-sensitive, low nesting, and Neotropical migrant functional groups, relative abundance was lower in subdivisions in the Adirondacks and in Madison County, while relative abundance of edge specialists was greater in subdivisions in both regions. The direction and magnitude of change in the avian communities between subdivisions and controls was similar in both regions for all guilds except microhabitat specialists. These similarities across diverse ecosystems suggest that the ecological context of the encompassing region may be less important than other elements in shaping avian communities in exurban systems. This finding suggests that humans and their specific behaviors and activities in exurban areas may be underappreciated but potentially important drivers of change in these regions.

  3. Pediatric Sleep Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sulman, Cecille G.

    2014-01-01

    Adenotonsillectomy is the most common surgery performed for sleep disordered breathing with good outcomes. Children with obesity, craniofacial disorders, and neurologic impairment are at risk for persistent sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy. Techniques exist to address obstructive lesions of the palate, tongue base, or craniofacial skeleton in children with persistent sleep apnea. Children with obstructive sleep apnea have a higher rate of peri-operative complications. PMID:24926473

  4. Pediatric sleep pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Pelayo, Rafael; Yuen, Kin

    2012-10-01

    This article reviews common sleep disorders in children and pharmacologic options for them. Discussions of pediatric sleep pharmacology typically focus on treatment of insomnia. Although insomnia is a major concern in this population, other conditions of concern in children are presented, such as narcolepsy, parasomnias, restless legs syndrome, and sleep apnea.

  5. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... use the bed only for sleep Discourage watching television during periods of wakefulness Medications for sleep changes In some cases, non-drug approaches fail to work or the sleep changes are accompanied by disruptive nighttime behaviors. For those individuals who do require medication, experts ...

  6. Physiology of Sleep.

    PubMed

    Carley, David W; Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF Far from a simple absence of wakefulness, sleep is an active, regulated, and metabolically distinct state, essential for health and well-being. In this article, the authors review the fundamental anatomy and physiology of sleep and its regulation, with an eye toward interactions between sleep and metabolism.

  7. Sleep, sleepiness and yawning.

    PubMed

    Giganti, F; Zilli, I; Aboudan, S; Salzarulo, P

    2010-01-01

    This chapter will discuss the relationship between yawning, sleep onset, awakening and sleepiness. Models concerning wake-sleep regulation will be discussed in relation to yawning. Yawning close to sleep, before and after, will be examined in several conditions and populations. Also, the time course of yawning and sleepiness assessed by subjective estimates will be described.

  8. Sleep and Your Preschooler

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sleep and Your Preschooler KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleep and Your Preschooler A A A What's in ... Preschoolers need about 11 to 12 hours of sleep each day, which can include a nap. There's ...

  9. Sleep and your health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Get Enough Sleep There are many reasons why sleep is in such short supply. Busy schedules. Evening activities, whether it is ... inflammation, two things that can damage your heart. Obesity . When you do not get enough rest from sleep, you are more prone to overeat. It is ...

  10. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye movement) sleep. These stages progress in a cycle from stage 1 to REM sleep, then the cycle starts over again with stage 1 ( see figure ... minutes after we fall asleep. A complete sleep cycle takes 90 to 110 minutes on average. The ...

  11. Sensitivity analysis to aid shelter management decisions: how does altering expenditure affect operational viability?

    PubMed

    Widmar, Nicole Olynk; Lord, Emily; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Streamlining purchasing in nonhuman animal shelters can provide multiple financial benefits. Streamlining shelter inputs and thus reducing shelter costs can include trading paid labor and management for fewer, more involved volunteers or purchasing large quantities of medical supplies from fewer vendors to take advantage of bulk-purchasing discounts. Beyond direct savings, time and energy spent on purchasing and inventory control can be reduced through careful management. Although cost-cutting measures may seem attractive, shelter managers are cautioned to consider the potential unintended consequences of short-term cost reduction measures that could limit revenues or increase costs in the future. This analysis illustrates an example of the impact of cost reductions in specific expense categories and the impact on shelter net revenue, as well as the share of expenses across categories. An in-depth discussion of labor and purchasing cost-reducing strategies in the real world of animal shelter management is provided.

  12. Genetic Dissociation of Daily Sleep and Sleep Following Thermogenetic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dubowy, Christine; Moravcevic, Katarina; Yue, Zhifeng; Wan, Joy Y.; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep rebound—the increase in sleep that follows sleep deprivation—is a hallmark of homeostatic sleep regulation that is conserved across the animal kingdom. However, both the mechanisms that underlie sleep rebound and its relationship to habitual daily sleep remain unclear. To address this, we developed an efficient thermogenetic method of inducing sleep deprivation in Drosophila that produces a substantial rebound, and applied the newly developed method to assess sleep rebound in a screen of 1,741 mutated lines. We used data generated by this screen to identify lines with reduced sleep rebound following thermogenetic sleep deprivation, and to probe the relationship between habitual sleep amount and sleep following thermogenetic sleep deprivation in Drosophila. Methods: To develop a thermogenetic method of sleep deprivation suitable for screening, we thermogenetically stimulated different populations of wake-promoting neurons labeled by Gal4 drivers. Sleep rebound following thermogenetically-induced wakefulness varies across the different sets of wake-promoting neurons that were stimulated, from very little to quite substantial. Thermogenetic activation of neurons marked by the c584-Gal4 driver produces both strong sleep loss and a substantial rebound that is more consistent within genotypes than rebound following mechanical or caffeine-induced sleep deprivation. We therefore used this driver to induce sleep deprivation in a screen of 1,741 mutagenized lines generated by the Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. Flies were subjected to 9 h of sleep deprivation during the dark period and released from sleep deprivation 3 h before lights-on. Recovery was measured over the 15 h following sleep deprivation. Following identification of lines with reduced sleep rebound, we characterized baseline sleep and sleep depth before and after sleep deprivation for these hits. Results: We identified two lines that consistently exhibit a blunted increase in the

  13. Method of and means for passively cooling a shelter containing a heat source

    SciTech Connect

    Rambach, C.

    1981-10-06

    The passive cooling of a shelter containing a heat source is achieved by utilizing a thermal liquid in an accumulator, a first heat transfer loop for thermosiphonically transferring heat from the interior of the shelter to the liquid in the accumulator when the liquid is cooler than the interior of the shelter, and a second heat transfer loop for thermosiphonically transferring heat from the liquid in the accumulator to the environment when the latter is cooler than the liquid in the accumulator.

  14. Sleep and psychoneuroimmunology.

    PubMed

    Opp, Mark R

    2006-08-01

    Personal experience indicates we sleep differently when sick. Data reviewed demonstrate the extent to which sleep is altered during the course of infection of host organisms by several classes of pathogens. One important unanswered question is whether or not the alterations in sleep during infection are of functional relevance. That is, does the way we sleep when sick facilitate or impede recovery? One retrospective, preclinical study suggests that sleep changes during infection are of functional relevance. Toth and colleagues [102] analyzed sleep responses of rabbits to three different microbial infections. Those rabbits that exhibited robust increases in NREM sleep were more likely to survive than those that exhibited long periods of NREM sleep suppression. These tantalizing data suggest that the precise alterations in sleep through the course of infection are important determinants of morbidity and mortality. Data from healthy subjects demonstrate a role for at least two cytokines in the regulation of spontaneous, physiologic NREM sleep. A second critical yet unanswered question is whether or not cytokines mediate infection-induced alterations in sleep. The hypothesis that cytokines mediate infection-induced alterations in sleep is logical based on observations of the impact of infection on levels of cytokines in the peripheral immune system and in the brain. No attempts have been made to intervene with cytokine systems in brain during the course of infection to determine if there is an impact on infection-induced alterations in sleep. Although substantial progress has been made in elucidating the myriad mechanisms by which cytokines regulate and modulate sleep, much remains to be determined with respect to mechanistic and functional aspects of infection-induced alterations in sleep.

  15. Sleep, Health, and Society.

    PubMed

    Grandner, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    Biological needs for sleep are met by engaging in behaviors that are largely influenced by the environment, social norms and demands, and societal influences and pressures. Insufficient sleep duration and sleep disorders such as insomnia and sleep apnea are highly prevalent in the US population. This article outlines some of these downstream factors, including cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk, neurocognitive dysfunction, and mortality, as well as societal factors such as age, sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomics. This review also discusses societal factors related to sleep, such as globalization, health disparities, public policy, public safety, and changing patterns of use of technology.

  16. Civil Defense Home Shelters: a Viable Defense Strategy for the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    These figures assume some warning, but mainly a duck-and-cover level of defense. The number of deaths and injuries can be reduced with civil defense shelters . Civil...cost when compared to single-use shelters. In Civil Defense Shelters : A State-of-the-Art Assessment, Chester and Zimmerman say: Slightly altering new...usually listed in the white pages of most phone books. Additionally, the research of C.V. Chester and G.P. Zimmerman titled, " Civil Defense Shelters - A

  17. Civil defense shelters: A state-of-the-art assessment, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Chester, C.V.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1987-02-01

    The literature on the design, construction, testing, and cost of blast and fallout shelters was reviewed, and a bibliography of over 1000 documents was assembled. It was found that nuclear weapon effects and shelter design are well understood. An important barrier to construction of permanent shelters is cost. Single-purpose shelters cost in the high hundreds to low thousands of dollars per occupant (or per space), depending on size, hardness, location, and whether the shelter is part of new construction or retrofit. Multiplied by a risk area population of approximately 160 million, the cost of a blast shelter construction program would rival that of a major strategic weapon system. Options in the mid-range of expense, a few tens to a few hundreds of dollars per space include (1) requiring modified limestone mining practices, where appropriate, to generate usable shelter space near cities; (2) encouraging the construction of earth-sheltered housing and other buildings; and (3) requiring and/or subsidizing the construction of dual-use basement shelter in new construction. A program using this approach would require an annual expenditure of approximately 1% of the annual defense budget for 10 or more years. 950 refs., 68 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-08-14

    Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this 'no-kill policy' has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project "RandAgiamo" implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs' adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs' visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs' welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities.

  19. 'Do-it-yourself' fallout/blast shelter evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, P.T.; Baker, W.E.; Esparza, E.D.; Westine, P.S.; Blaylock, N.W.

    1984-03-01

    Expedient fallout shelters recommended to the general public were evaluated for their potential to provide safety to occupants during nuclear blast. The blast threat was in the 2 to 50 psi overpressure range from a 1 megaton (MT) yield weapon. Research included a literature search for expedient shelter designs and evaluations of the designs to certify their ability to protect occupants. Shelters were evaluated systematically by first analyzing each design for expected failure loads. Next, scale model tests were planned and conducted in the Fort Cronkhite shock tunnel. Structural responses and blast pressures were recorded in a series of twelve experiments involving 96 structural response models. Two rigid models were included in each test to measure internal blast pressure leakage. Probabilities of survival were determined for each of the shelters tested. Expected failure mechanisms were identified for each of the eight U.S. shelters. One shelter, tilt-up doors and earth, was eliminated from consideration because of uncertainties for the associated permanent structure. Failure loads of the remaining seven shelters were determined through analysis. Analyses included failure by overturning/translation, trench collapse, or roof collapse. A car-over-trench shelter was evaluated solely through analysis. The threshold for human tolerance to blast pressures (lung damage) was calculated as 8 psi with a 99 percent survival rate at 28 psi. Thresholds for trench wall stability were calculated based on material strengths and shelter geometries.

  20. Differences in competitive ability for the occupancy of shelters in triatomines.

    PubMed

    Zacharias, C A; Minoli, S A; Manrique, G

    2017-02-01

    Triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) are nocturnal blood-sucking insects. During daylight hours they remain in an akinetic state inside their shelters, whereas at dusk they become active and move outside. When they are outside their shelters during the photophase, triatomines are vulnerable to diurnal predators and the period just before dawn is critical to their survival. This work analyses the existence of competitive interactions involved in the occupancy of shelters by triatomines. Behavioural assays were performed in which nymphs of different stages, nutritional status or species were released in an experimental arena containing a space-limited artificial shelter. The proportions of individuals occupying the shelter during the photophase were quantified to estimate the competitive abilities of each stage and species. Intraspecific comparisons showed higher levels of shelter occupancy for fourth over fifth instars and fed over unfed nymphs of Triatoma infestans. Interspecific comparisons showed higher rates of shelter occupancy for Triatoma sordida in comparison with T. infestans, and for T. infestans over Rhodnius prolixus. Arrival order was also relevant to determining shelter occupancy levels: early arrival was advantageous in comparison with later arrival. The study of intra- and interspecific competitive interactions for shelter occupancy provides relevant information about colonization and recolonization processes in the natural environments of triatomines.

  1. The effects of liming an Adirondack lake watershed on downstream water chemistry: Effects of liming on stream chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Douglas A.

    1996-01-01

    Calcite treatment of chronically acidic lakes has improved fish habitat, but the effects on downstream water quality have not previously been examined. In this study, the spatial and temporal effects of watershed CaCO3 treatment on the chemistry of a lake outlet stream in the Adirondack Mountains of New York were examined. Before CaCO3 treatment, the stream was chronically acidic. During spring snowmelt before treatment, pH and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) in the outlet stream declined, and NO3- and inorganic monomeric aluminum (AlIM) concentrations increased sharply. During that summer, SO42- and NO3- concentrations decreased downstream, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and ANC increased, in association with the seasonal increase in decomposition of organic matter and the attendant SO42--reduction process. A charge-balance ANC calculation closely matched measured downstream changes in ANC in the summer and indicated that SO42- reduction was the major process contributing to summer increases in ANC. Increases in Ca2+ concentration and ANC began immediately after CaCO3 application, and within 3 months, exceeded their pretreatment values by more than 130 ??eq/L. Within 2 months after treatment, downstream decreases in Ca2+ concentration, ANC, and pH, were noted. Stream mass balances between the lake and the sampling site 1.5 km downstream revealed that the transport of all chemical constituents was dominated by conservative mixing with tributaries and ground water; however, non-conservative processes resulted in significant Ca2+ losses during the 13-month period after CaCO3 treatment. Comparison of substrate samples from the buffered outlet stream with those from its untreated tributaries showed that the percentage of cation-exchange sites occupied by Ca2+, as well as non-exchangeable Ca, were higher in the outlet-stream substrate than in tributary-stream substrate. Mass-balance data for Ca2+, H+, AlIM, and DOC revealed net downstream losses of

  2. Sleep in the Military

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Shih, Regina A.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Geyer, Lily; Fisher, Michael P.; Griffin, Beth Ann; Haas, Ann C.; Kurz, Jeremy; Steinberg, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sleep disturbances are a common reaction to stress and are linked to a host of physical and mental health problems. Given the unprecedented demands placed on U.S. military forces since 2001, there has been growing concern about the prevalence and consequences of sleep problems for servicemembers. Sleep problems often follow a chronic course, persisting long after servicemembers return home from combat deployments, with consequences for their reintegration and the readiness and resiliency of the force. Therefore, it is critical to understand the role of sleep problems in servicemembers’ health and functioning and the policies and programs available to promote healthy sleep. This study provides the first comprehensive review of sleep-related policies and programs across the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), along with a set of actionable recommendations for DoD, commanders, researchers, and medical professionals who treat U.S. servicemembers. The two-year multimethod study also examined the rates and correlates of sleep problems among post-deployed servicemembers, finding negative effects on mental health, daytime impairment, and perceived operational readiness. The research reviewed evidence-based interventions to treat sleep disturbances among servicemembers and veterans and exposed several individual- and system-level barriers to achieving healthy sleep. Implementing evidence-based treatments is just one step toward improving sleep across the force; as the research recommendations highlight, it is equally important that policies and programs also focus on preventing sleep problems and their consequences. PMID:28083395

  3. [Sleep duration and metabolism].

    PubMed

    Viot-Blanc, V

    2015-12-01

    Sleep duration has gradually diminished during the last decade while obesity and type 2 diabetes have become epidemics. Experimental sleep curtailment leads to increased appetite, hormonal disturbances and, especially, insulin resistance. Numerous epidemiological studies have therefore examined whether habitual short sleep is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A large majority of cross-sectional studies have confirmed an association between short, and also long sleep duration and obesity in adults more than in the elderly. Short sleep is strongly associated to obesity in children and adolescents. Prospective studies, including studies in children, are not conclusive with regard to the effect of short sleep on the incidence of obesity. Both short and long sleep durations are associated with diabetes, but only short sleep duration seems predictive of future diabetes. Insomnia seems to be a strong contributor to short sleep duration but the association of insomnia with obesity is not clear. Insomnia is associated with type 2 diabetes and also predictive of a higher incidence. Other studies have shown that short sleep duration and insomnia are associated with, and sometime predictive of, other components of the metabolic syndrome, especially hypertension and the risk of coronary disease. The treatment of short sleep duration and insomnia with regard to their effects on the metabolic syndrome merits further study.

  4. Sleep and Sleep Problems: From Birth to 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Mond, Courtney; Mindell, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is an important aspect of a child's early development and is essential to family well-being. During their first 3 years, infants and toddlers spend more than 50% of their lives sleeping. However, concerns about sleep and sleep problems are among the most common issues brought to the attention of pediatricians. Although sleep is one of the…

  5. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND SLEEP

    PubMed Central

    Krystal, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Psychiatric disorders and sleep are related in important ways. In contrast to the longstanding view of this relationship which viewed sleep problems as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there is growing experimental evidence that the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sleep is complex and includes bi-directional causation. In this article we provide the evidence that supports this point of view, reviewing the data on the sleep disturbances seen in patients with psychiatric disorders but also reviewing the data on the impact of sleep disturbances on psychiatric conditions. Although much has been learned about the psychiatric disorders-sleep relationship, additional research is needed to better understand these relationships. This work promises to improve our ability to understand both of these phenomena and to allow us to better treat the many patients with sleep disorders and with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23099143

  6. American Academy of Sleep Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... A-STEP equips students with the knowledge and skills they need to excel in the profession of sleep technology. Sleep Education SleepEducation.org provides patients and the general public with comprehensive, accurate information about healthy sleep and sleep disorders, along with ...

  7. Sleep from an Islamic perspective

    PubMed Central

    BaHammam, Ahmed S.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry. PMID:21977062

  8. Sleep from an Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Bahammam, Ahmed S

    2011-10-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry.

  9. A Storm's Approach; Hurricane Shelter Training in a Digital Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyarsky, Andrew; Burden, David; Gronstedt, Anders; Jinman, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    New York City's Office of Emergency Management (OEM) originally ran hundreds of classroom based courses, where they brought together civil servants to learn how to run a Hurricane Shelter (HS). This approach was found to be costly, time consuming and lacked any sense of an impending disaster and need for emergency response. In partnership with the City of New York University School of Professional studies, Gronstedt Group and Daden Limited, the OEM wanted to create a simulation that overcame these issues, providing users with a more immersive and realistic approach at a lower cost. The HS simulation was built in the virtual world Second Life (SL). Virtual worlds are a genre of online communities that often take the form of a computer-based simulated environments, through which users can interact with one another and use or create objects. Using this technology allowed managers to apply their knowledge in both classroom and remote learning environments. The shelter simulation is operational 24/7, guiding users through a 4 1/2 hour narrative from start to finish. This paper will describe the rationale for the project, the technical approach taken - particularly the use of a web based authoring tool to create and manage the immersive simulation, and the results from operational use.

  10. Estimating Sediment Mass Fluxes on Surfaces Sheltered by Live Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Benjamin; Voegeli, Christian; Horender, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    We present a simple model based on already existing and widely used equations for estimating particle mass fluxes on surfaces sheltered by live vegetation. Wind-tunnel measurements of vertical profiles of mass flux in three different dense live plant canopies, and as a function of the spatially averaged skin friction velocity {u_{τ }}' , provide the baseline set of data. For the bare-sand surface, the total mass flux Q shows the typical b({u_τ }' - {u_{τ t}}')^{3 } increase with increasing skin friction velocity {u_{τ }}' , where b is a constant and {u_{τ t}}' is the threshold at the onset of particle erosion. Similar relations, however, with different values for b and {u_{τ t}}' compared to the bare-sand surface were found for experiments with 5.25 and 24.5 plants m^{-2} and can be explained by the spatial variations of u_{τ } for the canopy cases. Based on the resulting parameters b and {u_{τ t}}' , which are found to be functions of the roughness density λ , we present a final simple relation Q(λ , {u_{τ }}') used for estimating the total mass flux for surfaces sheltered by live vegetation.

  11. Oblique, Stratified Winds about a Shelter Fence. Part I: Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John D.

    2004-08-01

    Wind statistics were measured using cup and sonic anemometers, placed upwind and downwind from a porous plastic windbreak fence (height h = 1.25 m, length Y = 114 m, resistance coefficient kr0 = 2.4, and porosity p = 0.45) standing on otherwise uniform land (short grass with roughness length z0 1.9 cm). Intercomparison with collocated two-dimensional sonic anemometers suggested that, except in strongly stratified winds, cup anemometers (distance constant 1.5 m), subjected to a uniform overspeeding correction (here 10%), provide a reasonably accurate transect of the mean wind across the disturbed flow region. The measurements, binned with respect to mean wind direction and stratification, establish that the resistance coefficient of a windbreak of this type implies the maximum (or “potential”) mean wind reduction, a potential that is realized in neutral, perpendicular flow and for which a semiempirical formula is derived. Obliquity of the approaching wind reduces actual shelter effectiveness below the potential value, as was already known. However, a systematic influence of stratification could only be discriminated in winds that were not too far (say, within about ±30°) from perpendicular, under which conditions both stable and unstable stratification reduced shelter effectiveness. The “quiet zone,” in which velocity standard deviations (σu, σ) are reduced relative to the approach flow, was found to extend farther downwind for the normal velocity component (u) than for the parallel component ().


  12. Predicting emergency evacuation and sheltering behavior: a structured analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Dombroski, Matt; Fischhoff, Baruch; Fischbeck, Paul

    2006-12-01

    We offer a general approach to predicting public compliance with emergency recommendations. It begins with a formal risk assessment of an anticipated emergency, whose parameters include factors potentially affecting and affected by behavior, as identified by social science research. Standard procedures are used to elicit scientific experts' judgments regarding these behaviors and dependencies, in the context of an emergency scenario. Their judgments are used to refine the model and scenario, enabling local emergency coordinators to predict the behavior of citizens in their area. The approach is illustrated with a case study involving a radiological dispersion device (RDD) exploded in downtown Pittsburgh, PA. Both groups of experts (national and local) predicted approximately 80-90% compliance with an order to evacuate workplaces and 60-70% compliance with an order to shelter in place at home. They predicted 10% lower compliance for people asked to shelter at the office or to evacuate their homes. They predicted 10% lower compliance should the media be skeptical, rather than supportive. They also identified preparatory policies that could improve public compliance by 20-30%. We consider the implications of these results for improving emergency risk assessment models and for anticipating and improving preparedness for disasters, using Hurricane Katrina as a further case in point.

  13. Relations Between Toddler Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Temperament.

    PubMed

    Molfese, Victoria J; Rudasill, Kathleen M; Prokasky, Amanda; Champagne, Carly; Holmes, Molly; Molfese, Dennis L; Bates, John E

    2015-01-01

    Two sources of information (parent-reported sleep diaries and actigraph records) were used to investigate how toddler sleep characteristics (bed time/sleep onset, wake time/sleep offset, total nighttime sleep, and total sleep time) are related to sleep problems and temperament. There were 64 toddler participants in the study. Consistent with studies of older children, parent reports differed from actigraph-based records. The findings that parent-reported and actigraph-recorded sleep characteristics varied as a function of parent report of toddler sleep problems and temperament add needed information on toddler sleep. Such information may contribute to improving parents' awareness of their child's sleep characteristics and correlates of problem sleep.

  14. A "Sleep 101" Program for College Students Improves Sleep Hygiene Knowledge and Reduces Maladaptive Beliefs about Sleep.

    PubMed

    Kloss, Jacqueline D; Nash, Christina O; Walsh, Colleen M; Culnan, Elizabeth; Horsey, Sarah; Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Sensitizing young adults about sleep hygiene knowledge and helpful sleep attitudes may have the potential to instill long-lasting healthy sleep practices. Towards these ends, evaluation of psychoeducational program "Sleep 101" tailored to college students was undertaken. Following two weeks of sleep-log recordings, participants were randomly assigned to a Sleep 101 (experimental) condition or a sleep monitoring (control) condition. The Sleep 101 condition was comprised of two 90-minute workshops aimed to educate students about healthy sleep practices, helpful thoughts about sleep, and ways to improve sleep. The sleep monitoring group received a sleep hygiene handout and completed sleep logs for the study duration. Sleep 101 participants endorsed fewer maladaptive beliefs and attitudes about sleep, increased sleep hygiene knowledge, and reduced sleep onset latency compared to the sleep monitoring participants. Brief psychoeducational courses may be a cost-effective way to alleviate current, and/or prevent future, sleep problems in young adults.

  15. Sleep, Cognition and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Porter, Verna R; Buxton, William G; Avidan, Alon Y

    2015-12-01

    The older patient population is growing rapidly around the world and in the USA. Almost half of seniors over age 65 who live at home are dissatisfied with their sleep, and nearly two-thirds of those residing in nursing home facilities suffer from sleep disorders. Chronic and pervasive sleep complaints and disturbances are frequently associated with excessive daytime sleepiness and may result in impaired cognition, diminished intellect, poor memory, confusion, and psychomotor retardation all of which may be misinterpreted as dementia. The key sleep disorders impacting patients with dementia include insomnia, hypersomnolence, circadian rhythm misalignment, sleep disordered breathing, motor disturbances of sleep such as periodic leg movement disorder of sleep and restless leg syndrome, and parasomnias, mostly in the form of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is a pre-clinical marker for a class of neurodegenerative diseases, the "synucleinopathies", and requires formal polysomnographic evaluation. Untreated sleep disorders may exacerbate cognitive and behavioral symptoms in patients with dementia and are a source of considerable stress for bed partners and family members. When left untreated, sleep disturbances may also increase the risk of injury at night, compromise health-related quality of life, and precipitate and accelerate social and economic burdens for caregivers.

  16. [Placebo analgesia and sleep].

    PubMed

    Chouchou, F; Lavigne, G-J

    2014-10-01

    The placebo response is a psychobiological phenomenon for clinical benefits following the administration of an inert substance whatever its form. This phenomenon can be attributed to a wide range of neurobiological processes, such as expectations of relief, the Pavlovian conditioning and learning, emotional regulation, and reward mechanisms, which are themselves under the influence of processes that take place during sleep. The study of placebo analgesia in healthy from a placebo conditioning associated with analgesic suggestions has highlighted a relationship between sleep, expectations of relief and placebo analgesia: when the induction is persuasive before sleep, expectations of relief modulate placebo response the next morning and paradoxical sleep correlates negatively with both expectations and the placebo response. When the analgesic experience before sleep is less persuasive, expectations of relief are still present but no longer interact with placebo analgesia while paradoxical sleep no longer correlates with the analgesic placebo response. Sleep-processes especially during paradoxical sleep seem to influence the relationship between expectations of relief and placebo analgesia. In this review, we describe the relationship between sleep and placebo analgesia, the mechanisms involved in the placebo response (e.g., conditioning, learning, memory, reward) and their potential link with sleep that could make it a special time for the building placebo response.

  17. Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Dimitri; Doghramji, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Sleep disorders are becoming more prevalent. There is an overlap of symptoms related to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and many psychiatric conditions. Complaints of excessive sleepiness, insomnia, cognitive dysfunction, and depressive symptoms can be related to both disease states. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive disruption of sleep by cessation of breathing and was first described in the 19th century by bedside observation during sleep. Physicians observed this cessation of breathing while the patient slept and postulated that these episodes were responsible for subsequent complaints of sleepiness. OSAS can coexist with major depressive disorder, exacerbate depressive symptoms, or be responsible for a large part of the symptom complex of depression. Additionally, in schizophrenia, sleep apnea may develop as a result of chronic neuroleptic treatment and its effect on gains in body weight, a major risk factor for the development of OSAS. It is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of sleep apnea, namely excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, and witnessed apneas. Recognition of the existence of sleep apnea, prompt referral to a sleep specialist, and ultimately treatment of an underlying sleep disorder, such as OSAS, can ameliorate symptoms of psychiatric disease. PMID:20975818

  18. Sleep-related violence.

    PubMed

    Moldofsky, H; Gilbert, R; Lue, F A; MacLean, A W

    1995-11-01

    We hypothesized that sleep-related violent behavior associated with parasomnias occurs as the result of a diathesis and is precipitated by stressors and mediated by disturbed nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep physiology. Sixty-four consecutive adult patients (mean age 30 years) who were investigated for sleepwalking or sleep terrors were categorized according to clinical history into three groups: serious violence during sleep to other people or to property or self (n = 26); harmful, but not destructive behavior (n = 12); and nonviolent behavior (n = 26). Log linear analysis showed that a diathesis (childhood parasomnia and/or family history of parasomnia) and a stressor (psychologic distress, substance abuse and sleep schedule disorder) predicted the presence of sleepwalking or night terror. Serious violent acts were more likely to occur with males (p < 0.004) who showed sleep schedule disorder (p < 0.03). Both harmful and serious violent sleep behavior occurred with drug abuse (p < 0.009). In comparison to all other groups, those who were violent to other people were males who experienced more stressors (p < 0.02), drank excessive caffeinated beverages, abused drugs (p < 0.03) and showed less stage 4 sleep (p < 0.02) and less alpha (7.5-11 Hz) electroencephalogram NREM sleep (p < 0.02) on polysomnography. Being male and having < 2% stage 4 sleep provided 89% sensitivity, 80% specificity and 81% diagnostic accuracy for individuals who were violent to others. The forensic implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Sleep and vascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Plante, Gérard E

    2006-10-01

    It is not surprising that cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure and coronary insufficiency can give rise to varying degrees of sleep impairment; it is less readily appreciated that certain physiologic events occurring during sleep-as well as long-term unsatisfactory sleep-may cause or increase the risk of cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, stroke, and cardiac arrythmias. Heart rate abnormalities during sleep in normotensive subjects predict later cardiovascular disease, and their early identification alerts the physician to undertake preventive measures. Maneuvers, such as induction of hypoxia, can elicit abnormal blood pressure responses during sleep, and such responses have been used to identify impending cardiovascular problems that could become therapeutic targets. The spontaneously hypertensive rat has been used to examine the effect of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity on the heart under a variety of experimental conditions, including quiet and paradoxical sleep. The results have disclosed significant differences between the responses of spontaneously hypertensive rats and normal rats to SNS stimulation. Exploration of other pathophysiologic pathways affected by exposure to light and dark, including those responsive to the cyclic production of melatonin, will improve our understanding of the effect of disruptions of the circadian cycle on cardiovascular function. There is growing evidence that melatonin can influence important processes such as fluid, nitrogen, and acid-base balance. Human subjects whose nocturnal arterial blood pressure fails to show the "normal" decrement during sleep ("nondippers") are also prone to sleep poorly, exhibit increased SNS activity during sleep, and have an increased risk of total and cardiovascular disease mortality. Chronic sleep deficit is now known to be a risk factor for obesity and may contribute to the visceral form of obesity that underlies the metabolic syndrome

  20. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ju; Lee, Jung Hie; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review circadian rhythm sleep disorders, including underlying causes, diagnostic considerations, and typical treatments. Methods Literature review and discussion of specific cases. Results Survey studies 1,2 suggest that up to 3% of the adult population suffers from a circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD). However, these sleep disorders are often confused with insomnia, and an estimated 10% of adult and 16% of adolescent sleep disorders patients may have a CRSD 3-6. While some CRSD (such as jet lag) can be self-limiting, others when untreated can lead to adverse medical, psychological, and social consequences. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders classifies CRSD as dyssomnias, with six subtypes: Advanced Sleep Phase Type, Delayed Sleep Phase Type, Irregular Sleep Wake Type, Free Running Type, Jet Lag Type, and Shift Work Type. The primary clinical characteristic of all CRSD is an inability to fall asleep and wake at the desired time. It is believed that CRSD arise from a problem with the internal biological clock (circadian timing system) and/or misalignment between the circadian timing system and the external 24-hour environment. This misalignment can be the result of biological and/or behavioral factors. CRSD can be confused with other sleep or medical disorders. Conclusions Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a distinct class of sleep disorders characterized by a mismatch between the desired timing of sleep and the ability to fall asleep and remain asleep. If untreated, CRSD can lead to insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, with negative medical, psychological, and social consequences. It is important for physicians to recognize potential circadian rhythm sleep disorders so that appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and referral can be made. PMID:25368503

  1. Interrelationships Among Length of Stay in a Domestic Violence Shelter, Help Received, and Outcomes Achieved.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Cris M; Virden, Tyler

    2017-04-10

    Survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) have a variety of reasons for turning to domestic violence shelter programs. Some are seeking temporary respite and immediate safety while others are seeking longer term assistance to heal from their trauma and begin new lives. In line with these differing needs, some survivors only stay in shelter for a few days, while others may need to stay for months or even years. The current study involved secondary data analysis of an 8-state study that collected information from survivors shortly after they arrived in shelter and shortly before exit. The relationships between length of shelter stay and survivors' needs, help received, and outcomes achieved were examined. As hypothesized, length of stay was related to the number of needs reported by survivors at shelter entry, as well as the type of needs identified. Length of stay did not relate to outcomes achieved nor overall satisfaction with help received, supporting the argument that many shelter staff work from an empowering, survivor-driven philosophy to meet the myriad needs of shelter residents, and that the help they provide leads to positive outcomes. These findings substantiate the assertion that domestic violence shelters are critical resources that address far more than immediate safety needs of IPV survivors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Criteria for Determining the Effectiveness of Shelter Programs for Battered Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Gwendolyn Morrison

    According to the California State Department of Justice there were 182,000 reported cases of domestic violence in 1988 that required police intervention. This descriptive study, an explorative evaluation survey, examined 47 shelter programs in California to determine what components are essential to a shelter's effectiveness in facilitating…

  3. ADEQUATE SHELTERS AND QUICK REACTIONS TO WARNING: A KEY TO CIVIL DEFENSE.

    PubMed

    LYNCH, F X

    1963-11-08

    Case histories collected by investigators in Japan during 1945 illustrate both the effectiveness of shelters and the dangers inherent in apathy of the population, which suffered needless casualties by ignoring air raid warnintgs. Adequate shelters and immediate response to warnings are essential to survival in nuclear attack.

  4. Using Multiple Perspectives in Observations of Diverse Classrooms: The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echevarria, Jana; Short, Deborah J.

    This paper introduces a research-based model of sheltered instruction that promotes teaching practices that make teachers more effective in promoting the learning of limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. The model is instantiated in an observation instrument, the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP). The SIOP may be used as part…

  5. 5 CFR 591.219 - How does OPM compute shelter price indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? 591.219 Section 591.219 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE...-Of-Living Allowances § 591.219 How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? (a) In addition to...

  6. 77 FR 13695 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel IN THE SHELTER; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel IN THE SHELTER... the vessel IN THE SHELTER is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``The vessel is a 38 foot...

  7. 5 CFR 591.219 - How does OPM compute shelter price indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? 591.219 Section 591.219 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE...-Of-Living Allowances § 591.219 How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? (a) In addition to...

  8. Perspectives on US Domestic Violence Emergency Shelters: What Do Young Adolescent Residents and Their Mothers Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanmugam, Amy

    2011-01-01

    As part of a larger qualitative study using Life Story methods, an ethnically diverse, purposive sample (n = 27) of young adolescents (ages 12-14) and their mothers residing in four US domestic violence emergency shelters were interviewed about their perspectives of shelter life. Youth reported aspects they liked, most often expressing that they…

  9. Dimensions and Correlates of Client Satisfaction: An Evaluation of a Shelter for Runaway and Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiro, Shimon E.; Dekel, Rachel; Peled, Einat

    2009-01-01

    Client satisfaction surveys give clients a voice in the planning and management of services. While their use is quite widespread, they have hardly at all been used in the evaluation of shelters for homeless youths. In this article, the authors present findings of a client satisfaction survey conducted among residents of a shelter for homeless…

  10. The Voices of Black and White Rural Battered Women in Domestic Violence Shelters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Few, April L.

    2005-01-01

    Very little research has examined the experiences of Black and White rural battered women. In this exploratory study of 88 participants, 30 rural battered women who sought assistance from domestic violence shelters in southwest Virginia were interviewed. Black and White rural women's experiences in the shelters, helpseeking, and perceived social…

  11. Questions and Answers Regarding Actions to Take When Ending Shelter-in-Place

    SciTech Connect

    Shumpert, B.

    2003-12-30

    Shelter-in-place has found increasing acceptance as an effective protective action option for communities participating in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program. Studies have confirmed that it can provide optimum protection under certain accident conditions. However, emergency managers and planners, as well as the public, continue to be troubled by the need to end sheltering when the plume has passed in order to avoid sustained exposure to the small amount of agent that has penetrated the shelter. One of the concerns posed by this necessity is uncertainty regarding what hazards will then be faced in the environment outside the shelter and what actions can be taken to avoid those hazards. This report attempts to address those uncertainties. It recognizes that there is an extremely low probability that the environment outside the shelter will be contaminated with chemical agent residue. However, as people comply with an official recommendation to leave their shelters, they probably can't be certain that the environment is free from contamination. Therefore, this report identifies and explains specific and simple actions they can take to avoid the possibility of exposure to chemical agent hazards outside their shelters. It addresses such issues as the actions people should take upon ending shelter-in-place, what clothing they should wear, how they should handle animals, and what they should do about food in their homes and produce in their gardens.

  12. 5 CFR 591.219 - How does OPM compute shelter price indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? 591.219 Section 591.219 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE...-Of-Living Allowances § 591.219 How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? (a) In addition to...

  13. Libraries, Churches, and Schools: The Literate Lives of Mothers and Children in a Homeless Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGillivray, Laurie; Ardell, Amy Lassiter; Curwen, Margaret Sauceda

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the question, "How do mothers and children in a homeless shelter interact with literacy?" We drew on the theoretical framework of social literacy practices in which cultural context is foregrounded. Data for this qualitative study included participant observation in one homeless shelter and interviews with one…

  14. 5 CFR 591.219 - How does OPM compute shelter price indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? 591.219 Section 591.219 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE...-Of-Living Allowances § 591.219 How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? (a) In addition to...

  15. The Quality of Life of "Street Children" Accommodated at Three Shelters in Pretoria: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiti, Vuyisile

    2006-01-01

    This research project is an exploratory study that aims to describe and examine the state and nature of the quality of life of street children accommodated at three shelters. A non-probability sample of 48 street children at three shelters was purposively selected. An interview schedule was constructed and administered to gather data. The…

  16. 5 CFR 591.219 - How does OPM compute shelter price indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? 591.219 Section 591.219 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE...-Of-Living Allowances § 591.219 How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? (a) In addition to...

  17. Investigation of Millennial Students' Responses to a Shelter-in-Place Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas C.; Frick, Melodie H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated millennial students' responses to an armed gunman threat and shelter-in-place warnings that occurred on a university campus. Using descriptive statistics and quantitative analysis, several significant differences were found for students' responses for sheltering-in-place and engaging in protective behaviors. Baxter Magolda'…

  18. Control of Pest Species: Tree shelters help protect seedlings from nutria (Louisiana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Boykin, R.

    1991-01-01

    Various methods of nutria preventative techniques were tested in attempts to curb the loss of seedlings due to nutria capturing. The results of testing possibly indicate that tree shelters have real potential for use in forest restoration projects on sites with moderate nutria populations. Tree shelters may even prove effective on sites with high nutria populations, as long as alternative food supplies are available.

  19. Civil defense home shelters: A viable defense strategy for the 1990s. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, V.J.

    1990-09-01

    This study investigated the question 'Why are fallout shelters not a part of U.S. national defense strategy and policy ' Initial research determined that the U.S. has the technology to design and build shelters, they are effective protection from radioactive fallout, and nuclear agression against the U.S. remains a potential national threat. The research examined the physical threats posed by nuclear weapons, followed by a brief description of fallout shelters and their ability to shield against fallout radiation in terms of the ration of time in shelter to amount of exposure. Several opposing arguments from opponents and proponents of a national fallout shelter program were categorized and expressed within U.S. National Security Strategy, military, economic, and political terms. The principal argument against a national fallout shelter program, including home fallout shelters, is the momentum of over 30 years of successful deterrence. On the other hand, the relatively simple technology, the affordability, and the potential for saving millions of lives in low-risk areas that would otherwise be lost should deterrence fail, argue strongly in favor of a national home fallout shelter system.

  20. No evidence of shelter providing a metabolic advantage to the false clown anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris.

    PubMed

    Kegler, P; Kunzmann, A; Bröhl, S; Herbert, N A

    2013-02-01

    There was no evidence that shelter conveyed a metabolic advantage to the false clown anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris in terms of standard and routine rates of oxygen uptake. The metabolic and fitness benefit of shelter might not, therefore, be widespread among all fish species.