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Sample records for adjacent bacon flat

  1. A look at Bacon Flat, Grant Canyon oil fields of Railroad Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.H. )

    1993-05-17

    The prolific wells at Grant Canyon, and the puzzling geology, have intrigued explorationists and promoters. Many a Nevada prospect has been touted as 'another Grand Canyon.' But what processes formed Grant Canyon, and can others be found Last August, Equitable Resources Energy Co,'s Balcron Oil Division spudded a well at Bacon Flat, a mile west of Grant Canyon. A one well field, Bacon Flat had been abandoned in 1988. But just 900 ft north of the field opener, Balcron's well tested oil at a rate or 5,400 b/d. It turns out that Bacon Flat and Grant Canyon fields have a common geological history and, in fact, share the same faulted horst. However, they formed by an unusual combination of events that may be unique to those fields. This paper describes the geologic history, well logging interpretations, structures, the Jebco C seismic line, a geologic cross section, and the author's conclusions.

  2. Geology and geothermal origin of Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat Oil Fields, Railroad Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B. ); Goff, F. ); Ross, J.R. ); Bortz, L.C. ); Bereskin, S.R. )

    1994-04-01

    Eastern Nevada's Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat oil fields show strong evidence of formation in a still-active, moderate-temperature geothermal system. Modern manifestations of this system include unusually elevated oil-reservoir temperature at shallow depth, 116-122[degrees]C at 1.1-1.6 km, and dilute Na-HCO[sub 3]Cl thermal waters directly associated with hot oil. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions indicate that these thermal waters are meteoric in origin, but were probably recharged prior to the Holocene (before 10 ka). The waters apparently ascended to oil-reservoir elevations after deep heating in response to the normal regional thermal gradient; there is no evidence for a modern magmatic heat source. The beginning of oil-reservoir evolution at both fields is recorded by late-stage, fracture-filling quartz in the vuggy, brecciated, Paleozoic dolostone reservoir rocks. Oil and aqueous solutions were trapped as fluid inclusions in the quartz at temperatures comparable to those now prevailing in the reservoirs. Present day and fluid-inclusion temperatures define essentially coincident isothermal profiles through and beneath the oil-reservoir interval, a phenomenon consistent with near-constant convective heat transfer since inception of the geothermal system. Some basin and range oil fields have arisen as valuable byproducts of actively circulating geothermal systems and blending this concept into current exploration stratigies could hasten discovery of the 100 mbbl fields many geologists believe remain to be found in this region. 100 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Investigation of high-temperature, igneous-related hydraulic fracturing as a reservoir control in the Blackburn and Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat oil fields, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Research in progress to evaluate natural, igenous-related hydrothermal fracturing as a reservoir control in two eastern Nevada oil fields has revealed evidence of a far more comprehensive role for moderate- to high-temperature hydrothermal systems in Basin-and-Range oil-reservoir evolution. Fluid-inclusion and petrographic studies have shown that (now) oil-bearing dolomite breccias of the Blackburn field (Pine Valley, Eureka County) were formed when overpressured, magmatically-heated, high-temperature (>350{degrees}C) hydrothermal brines explosively ruptured their host rocks; similar studies of texturally identical breccias of the Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat field (Railroad Valley, Nye County) so far do not support such an explosive origin. At Grant Canyon, however, hydrothermal, breccia-cementing quartz hosts primary oil, aqueous/oil, and aqueous fluid inclusions (homogenization temperature = 120{degrees}C) which document a direct geothermal connection for oil migration and entrapment. Moreover, at both Blackburn and Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat, the oil reservoirs are top- and side-sealed by hydrothermally altered Tertiary ignimbrites and epiclastic rocks. Contemporary geothermal activity is also apparent at grant Canyon/Bacon Flat, where subsurface water temperatures reach 171{degrees}C, and at Blackburn, above which a petroleum-providing hot spring issues at a temperature of 90{degrees}C. We suggest that in the Basin and Range province, hydrothermal systems may have: (1) matured oil from otherwise submature source rocks; (2) transported oil to ultimate entrapment sites by convection in moderate-to high-temperature fluids; and (3) sealed reservoir traps through hydrothermal alteration of overlying Tertiary caprocks. 69 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. INCREASING OIL RECOVERY THROUGH ADVANCED REPROCESSING OF 3D SEISMIC, GRANT CANYON AND BACON FLAT FIELDS, NYE COUNTY, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    Eric H. Johnson; Don E. French

    2001-06-01

    Makoil, Inc., of Orange, California, with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy has reprocessed and reinterpreted the 3D seismic survey of the Grant Canyon area, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada. The project was supported by Dept. of Energy Grant DE-FG26-00BC15257. The Grant Canyon survey covers an area of 11 square miles, and includes Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat oil fields. These fields have produced over 20 million barrels of oil since 1981, from debris slides of Devonian rocks that are beneath 3,500 to 5,000 ft of Tertiary syntectonic deposits that fill the basin of Railroad Valley. High-angle and low-angle normal faults complicate the trap geometry of the fields, and there is great variability in the acoustic characteristics of the overlying valley fill. These factors combine to create an area that is challenging to interpret from seismic reflection data. A 3D seismic survey acquired in 1992-93 by the operator of the fields has been used to identify development and wildcat locations with mixed success. Makoil believed that improved techniques of processing seismic data and additional well control could enhance the interpretation enough to improve the chances of success in the survey area. The project involved the acquisition of hardware and software for survey interpretation, survey reprocessing, and reinterpretation of the survey. SeisX, published by Paradigm Geophysical Ltd., was chosen as the interpretation software, and it was installed on a Dell Precision 610 computer work station with the Windows NT operating system. The hardware and software were selected based on cost, possible addition of compatible modeling software in the future, and the experience of consulting geophysicists in the Billings area. Installation of the software and integration of the hardware into the local office network was difficult at times but was accomplished with some technical support from Paradigm and Hewlett Packard, manufacturer of some of the network equipment. A

  5. Debunking Bacon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, Brian

    2014-06-01

    A legend, a man ahead of his time or an overrated insignificance? These three historical portrayals of Roger Bacon should be put to rest, argues Brian Clegg, who travels to Oxford to uncover the medieval philosopher's true identity.

  6. Hydrothermal systematics, alteration, and mineralization in the Grant Canyon, Bacon Flat, and Blackburn Oil Fields, Nevada - Intriguing Parallels with Carlin-Type gold deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Nevada's three known thermally active oil reservoirs-Blackburn, Bacon Flat, and Grand Canyon-share a surprisingly long list of essential attributes with the Carlin-type, low-grade, sediment-hosted gold deposits, particularly those of the Alligator Ridge mining district. Like these rich precious-metal ore bodies, the three fields (1) are hosted by Paleozoic carbonate and calcareous silici-clastic strata; (2) occur in structural or structural/stratigraphic traps sealed beneath shales or hydrothermally argillized and silicified tuffs and epiclastic debris, (3) have undergone intense fracturing and brecciation, as well as massive hydrothermal decalcification as major porosity-creating processes; (4) occupy rocks partly altered to or veined by the secondary-mineral assemblage quartz-kaolin-barite-pyrite-marcasite; (5) have a direct geothermal connection; (6) are enriched in the elements arsenic, antimony, mercury, thallium, and even contain significant traces of gold-up 50 ppb in altered Mississippian Chainmain Shale in the Blackburn field. Moreover, measured temperatures, as well as late-stage, fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures (T[sub h]) at the fields-all in the range 100-135[degrees]C-fall within the fluid-inclusion T[sub h] span of 90-165[degrees]C recorded for multiple Alligator Ridge deposits. Fracture-controlled live oil and oil-bearing fluid inclusions in some of the Alligator Ridge ores provide further evidence of genetic similarities with the oil reservoirs. The authors suggest that the three oil fields could represent either weakly mineralized analogs of the gold deposits or an incipient phase in their evolution ultimately leading to ore mineralization.

  7. Flocculation on a muddy intertidal flat in Willapa Bay, Washington, Part II: Observations of suspended particle size in a secondary channel and adjacent flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, P. S.; Newgard, J. P.; Law, B. A.; Milligan, T. G.

    2013-06-01

    During the last week of February and first week of March in 2010, instruments for measuring current speed and suspended particle size and concentration were placed in a secondary channel and on an adjacent intertidal mudflat at the southern end of Willapa Bay on the Pacific coast of Washington State. Observations show that during spring tides, flood-tide velocity pulses occurred in the channel as water rose above the level of the banks. These pulses resuspended flocs from the channel and advected them over the adjacent flat. During transport, there was some evidence of aggregation of resuspended flocs into larger flocs. As current speeds decreased after the flood pulses, flocs that had advected over the flat deposited quickly. Freshly deposited flocs were resuspended as water levels fell over the flat, with suspended concentrations peaking as water from the flat drained back into the channel. Flocs returning to the channel deposited as currents waned after the ebb pulse. In the channel, the more energetic ebb pulses were strong enough to cause floc breakup. Resuspension and transport of flocs were reduced significantly during neap tides. During periods with high winds, seabed stresses generated by waves limited the deposition of flocs on the seabed. These observations indicate that the floors and flanks of secondary channels as well as the flats surrounding them are the sites of floc deposition and, therefore, are the most likely locations for low-strength, high-water-content muds that contain large fractions of silt and clay. The observations also provide a mechanistic explanation for why deposition rates are typically observed to be reduced at higher elevations on tidal flats and on areas of the flats remote from secondary channels.

  8. Fire characterization and object thermal response for a large flat plate adjacent to a large JP-4 fuel fire

    SciTech Connect

    Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L.; Murray, D.

    1997-01-01

    A series of three 18.9 m diameter JP-4 pool fire experiments with a large (2.1 m X 4.6 m), flat plate calorimeter adjacent to the fuel pool were recently performed. The objectives of these experiments were to: (1) gain a better understanding of fire phenomenology, (2) provide empirical input parameter estimates for simplified, deterministic Risk Assessment Compatible Fire Models (RACFMs), (3) assist in continuing fire field model code validation and development, and (4) enhance the data base of fire temperature and heat flux to object distributions. Due to different wind conditions during each experiment, data were obtained for conditions where the plate was not engulfed, fully-engulfed and partially engulfed by the continuous flame zone. Results include the heat flux distribution to the plate and flame thermocouple temperatures in the vicinity of the plate and at two cross sections within the lower region of the continuous flame zone. The results emphasize the importance of radiative coupling (i.e. the cooling of the flames by a thermally massive object) and convective coupling (including object-induced turbulence and object/wind/flame interactions) in determining the heat flux from a fire to an object. The formation of a secondary flame zone on an object adjacent to a fire via convective coupling (which increases the heat flux by a factor of two) is shown to be possible when the object is located within a distance equal to the object width from the fire.

  9. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior. PMID:17623872

  10. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior.

  11. Poetic and Francis Bacon's Ambivalence toward Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribble, Paula Tompkins

    Just as rhetoric is a way of knowing, so is poetic, both of which, for Francis Bacon, produce false knowledge. But Bacon is not entirely negative. When the poetic elements of language are used in strategic and public communication, like the scholarly communication Bacon attempts to reform, poetic and rhetoric work together to create a plurality of…

  12. Francis Bacon and the Technology of Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Examines Francis Bacon's intentionally devised style for scientific writings and the theoretical basis of that style. Discusses his emphasis on a truly objective point of view, and his use of aphorisms to adapt to his audience. (HTH)

  13. Francis Bacon On Understanding, Reason and Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Karl R.

    1971-01-01

    Bacon's views of the faculties of understanding and reason are presented and explained in reference to Baconian rhetoric. Understanding, Rhetoric, Insinuative and Imaginative Reason are defined. (Author/MS)

  14. The regional structural setting of the 2008 Wells earthquake and Town Creek Flat Basin: implications for the Wells earthquake fault and adjacent structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Christopher S.; Colgan, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    The 2008 Wells earthquake occurred on a northeast-striking, southeast-dipping fault that is clearly delineated by the aftershock swarm to a depth of 10-12 km below sea level. However, Cenozoic rocks and structures around Wells primarily record east-west extension along north- to north-northeast-striking, west-dipping normal faults that formed during the middle Miocene. These faults are responsible for the strong eastward tilt of most basins and ranges in the area, including the Town Creek Flat basin (the location of the earthquake) and the adjacent Snake Mountains and western Windermere Hills. These older west-dipping faults are locally overprinted by a younger generation of east-dipping, high-angle normal faults that formed as early as the late Miocene and have remained active into the Quaternary. The most prominent of these east-dipping faults is the set of en-échelon, north-striking faults that bounds the east sides of the Ruby Mountains, East Humboldt Range, and Clover Hill (about 5 km southwest of Wells). The northeastern-most of these faults, the Clover Hill fault, projects northward along strike toward the Snake Mountains and the approximately located surface projection of the Wells earthquake fault as defined by aftershock locations. The Clover Hill fault also projects toward a previously unrecognized, east-facing Quaternary fault scarp and line of springs that appear to mark a significant east-dipping normal fault along the western edge of Town Creek Flat. Both western and eastern projections may be northern continuations of the Clover Hill fault. The Wells earthquake occurred along this east-dipping fault system. Two possible alternatives to rupture of a northern continuation of the Clover Hill fault are that the earthquake fault (1) is antithetic to an active west-dipping fault or (2) reactivated a Mesozoic thrust fault that dips east as a result of tilting by the west-dipping faults along the west side of the Snake Mountains. Both alternatives are

  15. Bacon Production: Evaluating Potential Processing and Management Practices to Improve Product Quality of Industrial Sliced Bacon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scramlin, Stacy Maurine

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine areas of improvement to bacon production. The first trial was conducted to determine differences in belly and bacon quality traits in pigs fed ractopamine (RAC) for various durations during finishing. A 2x3x2 factorial arrangement was used with barrows and gilts, fed RAC levels of 0.0, 5.0, or 7.4…

  16. 9 CFR 319.107 - Bacon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bacon. 319.107 Section 319.107 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  17. Francis Bacon and the classification of natural history.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the place of natural history within Bacon's divisions of the sciences in The Advancement of Learning (1605) and the later De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum (1623). It is shown that at various points in Bacon's divisions, natural history converges or overlaps with natural philosophy, and that, for Bacon, natural history and natural philosophy are not discrete disciplines. Furthermore, it is argued that Bacon's distinction between operative and speculative natural philosophy and the place of natural history within this distinction, are discontinuous with the later distinction between experimental and speculative philosophy that emerged in the methodology of the Fellows of the early Royal Society. PMID:22702164

  18. Francis Bacon and the classification of natural history.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the place of natural history within Bacon's divisions of the sciences in The Advancement of Learning (1605) and the later De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum (1623). It is shown that at various points in Bacon's divisions, natural history converges or overlaps with natural philosophy, and that, for Bacon, natural history and natural philosophy are not discrete disciplines. Furthermore, it is argued that Bacon's distinction between operative and speculative natural philosophy and the place of natural history within this distinction, are discontinuous with the later distinction between experimental and speculative philosophy that emerged in the methodology of the Fellows of the early Royal Society.

  19. "THE BACON" Not "the Bacon": How Children and Adults Understand Accented and Unaccented Noun Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Jennifer E.

    2008-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments examine whether adults and 4- and 5-year-old children use the presence or absence of accenting to guide their interpretation of noun phrases (e.g., "the bacon") with respect to the discourse context. Unaccented nouns tend to refer to contextually accessible referents, while accented variants tend to be used for less…

  20. Francis Bacon and the Historiography of Scientific Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zappen, James P.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews three twentieth-century interpretations of Francis Bacon's science and rhetoric: positivistic science and the plain style; institutionalized science and its more highly figured style; and democratic science. Presents the author's own interpretation, and concludes that each interpretation reflects different perceptions of the good of the…

  1. Barbara Thayer-Bacon on Knowers and the Known

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Barbara Thayer-Bacon (1999) objects to the minimum proficiency examinations that are mandated for school students in Ohio. Similar tests are required by, or are under consideration by, governments in many other parts of the world. Various writers have objected to one or other of these tests by arguing that they are crude, invalid, unreliable,…

  2. 45 CFR 1309.54 - Davis-Bacon Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... funds awarded under the Head Start program are subject to the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a et seq.) and the Regulations of the Department of Labor, 29 CFR part 5. The grantee must provide an...

  3. Nitrosamines in bacon: a case study of balancing risks.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, J W

    1984-01-01

    Nitrite has been used for centuries to preserve, color, and flavor meat. Today, about 10 billion pounds of cured meat products are produced annually, accounting for some one-tenth of the American food supply. Regulators became concerned about the safety of using nitrite in the early 1960s when studies showed the presence of carcinogenic nitrosamines in cured meat products. In the early 1970s, a study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology implicated nitrite itself as a carcinogen. As studies have raised concern over the safety of nitrite, regulators have had to weigh the potential risk from cancer against nitrite's proven role in protecting consumers from deadly food poisoning bacteria. Today there is little scientific support for the theory that nitrite is a direct carcinogen. To deal with the nitrosamine problem, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) lowered the permissible amount of nitrite in cured meats to that level considered necessary for botulism protection. Regulators, however, found it necessary to take additional steps with bacon because nitrosamines were found consistently in fried bacon samples. In addition to lowering the amount of nitrite that could be added to "pumped bacon" (cured by injecting liquid curing agents in the pork belly), USDA required the addition of nitrosamine inhibitors and began an intensive monitoring program in processing plants to ensure that fried bacon did not contain confirmable nitrosamines. The cooperative effort between Government and industry resulted in the virtual elimination of confirmable nitrosamines in pumped bacon by 1980. USDA is continuing its efforts to reduce nitrite in meats wherever possible. It is involved in active research programs in the Federal Government, academia, and industry.

  4. THE BACON not the bacon: How children and adults understand accented and unaccented noun phrases

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Jennifer E.

    2008-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments examine whether adults and 4 and 5 year old children use the presence or absence of accenting to guide their interpretation of noun phrases (e.g., the bacon) with respect to the discourse context. Unaccented nouns tend to refer to contextually accessible referents, while accented variants tend to be used for less accessible entities. Experiment 1 confirms that accenting is informative for adults, who show a bias toward previously-mentioned objects beginning 300 msec after the onset of unaccented nouns and pronouns. But contrary to findings in the literature, accented words produced no observable bias. In Experiment 2, 4 and 5 year olds were also biased toward previously-mentioned objects with unaccented nouns and pronouns. This builds on findings of limits on children’s on-line reference comprehension (Arnold, Brown-Schmidt, & Trueswell, in press), showing that children’s interpretation of unaccented nouns and pronouns is constrained in contexts with one single highly accessible object. PMID:18358460

  5. The Prehistory of Serendipity, from Bacon to Walpole.

    PubMed

    Silver, Sean

    2015-06-01

    During the past four decades there has developed a burgeoning literature on the concept of serendipity, the name for sudden insights or conceptual breakthroughs that occur by chance or accident. Studies repeatedly note that it was Horace Walpole, the eighteenth-century man of letters, who coined the word. None of them, however, notice that Walpole's term is itself indebted to a much older tradition, invoking a formula developed by Francis Bacon. Recovering the prehistory of the term suggests that "serendipity," rather than being a name for a special mode of discovery invented by Walpole, has all along accompanied empiricism as the name for an essential gap in its epistemology. Serendipity bears directly on the "induction problem," or what has more recently been called the "conceptual leap." Though Walpole gave it its current name, versions of the concept have all along isolated a critical gap in the method of the sciences inaugurated by Bacon. PMID:26353434

  6. The "Visual Shock" of Francis Bacon: an essay in neuroesthetics.

    PubMed

    Zeki, Semir; Ishizu, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the work of Francis Bacon in the context of his declared aim of giving a "visual shock."We explore what this means in terms of brain activity and what insights into the brain's visual perceptive system his work gives. We do so especially with reference to the representation of faces and bodies in the human visual brain. We discuss the evidence that shows that both these categories of stimuli have a very privileged status in visual perception, compared to the perception of other stimuli, including man-made artifacts such as houses, chairs, and cars. We show that viewing stimuli that depart significantly from a normal representation of faces and bodies entails a significant difference in the pattern of brain activation. We argue that Bacon succeeded in delivering his "visual shock" because he subverted the normal neural representation of faces and bodies, without at the same time subverting the representation of man-made artifacts. PMID:24339812

  7. Francis Bacon's natural history and civil history: a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer a comparative survey of Bacon's theory and practice of natural history and of civil history, particularly centered on their relationship to natural philosophy and human philosophy. I will try to show that the obvious differences concerning their subject matter encompass a number of less obvious methodological and philosophical assumptions which reveal a significant practical and conceptual convergence of the two fields. Causes or axioms are prescribed as the theoretical end-products of natural history, whereas precepts are envisaged as the speculative outcomes derived from perfect civil history. In spite of this difference, causes and precepts are thought to enable effective action in order to change the state of nature and of man, respectively. For that reason a number of common patterns are to be found in Bacon's theory and practice of natural and civil history. PMID:22702165

  8. The "Visual Shock" of Francis Bacon: an essay in neuroesthetics.

    PubMed

    Zeki, Semir; Ishizu, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the work of Francis Bacon in the context of his declared aim of giving a "visual shock."We explore what this means in terms of brain activity and what insights into the brain's visual perceptive system his work gives. We do so especially with reference to the representation of faces and bodies in the human visual brain. We discuss the evidence that shows that both these categories of stimuli have a very privileged status in visual perception, compared to the perception of other stimuli, including man-made artifacts such as houses, chairs, and cars. We show that viewing stimuli that depart significantly from a normal representation of faces and bodies entails a significant difference in the pattern of brain activation. We argue that Bacon succeeded in delivering his "visual shock" because he subverted the normal neural representation of faces and bodies, without at the same time subverting the representation of man-made artifacts.

  9. The Prehistory of Serendipity, from Bacon to Walpole.

    PubMed

    Silver, Sean

    2015-06-01

    During the past four decades there has developed a burgeoning literature on the concept of serendipity, the name for sudden insights or conceptual breakthroughs that occur by chance or accident. Studies repeatedly note that it was Horace Walpole, the eighteenth-century man of letters, who coined the word. None of them, however, notice that Walpole's term is itself indebted to a much older tradition, invoking a formula developed by Francis Bacon. Recovering the prehistory of the term suggests that "serendipity," rather than being a name for a special mode of discovery invented by Walpole, has all along accompanied empiricism as the name for an essential gap in its epistemology. Serendipity bears directly on the "induction problem," or what has more recently been called the "conceptual leap." Though Walpole gave it its current name, versions of the concept have all along isolated a critical gap in the method of the sciences inaugurated by Bacon.

  10. Long-term preservation of bacon by high energy electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, Kenneth W.; Simic, Michael G.

    Extra long-term storage of frozen, vacuum packed, cured bacon can be achieved by electronation, using 3 MeV electrons generated by an electron accelerator. A combination process consisting of low nitrite curing (40 ppm), smoking, vacuum packaging in Saran plastic, electronation (1-3 Mrad), and freezing (-10°C) allows storage for at least 2-1/2 years without any noticeable loss in quality, e.g., color, appearance, smell, or taste. This process also eliminates microbiological hazards associated with Salmonella and C. botulinum. Six Mrad tons/hour throughput of a 3 MeV 50 kw electron beam accelerator for standard sliced bacon packaging indicates a practical and economic commercial use for this combination process.

  11. Francis Bacon's natural history and civil history: a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer a comparative survey of Bacon's theory and practice of natural history and of civil history, particularly centered on their relationship to natural philosophy and human philosophy. I will try to show that the obvious differences concerning their subject matter encompass a number of less obvious methodological and philosophical assumptions which reveal a significant practical and conceptual convergence of the two fields. Causes or axioms are prescribed as the theoretical end-products of natural history, whereas precepts are envisaged as the speculative outcomes derived from perfect civil history. In spite of this difference, causes and precepts are thought to enable effective action in order to change the state of nature and of man, respectively. For that reason a number of common patterns are to be found in Bacon's theory and practice of natural and civil history.

  12. 20 CFR 672.545 - Are YouthBuild programs subject to the Davis-Bacon Act labor standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... regulations at 29 CFR parts 1, 3, and 5, including the requirements contained in the Davis-Bacon contract provisions set forth in 29 CFR 5.5. (b) YouthBuild participants are subject to Davis-Bacon Act labor standards when they perform Davis-Bacon-covered laborer or mechanic work, defined at 29 CFR 5.2, on...

  13. 20 CFR 672.545 - Are YouthBuild programs subject to the Davis-Bacon Act labor standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... regulations at 29 CFR parts 1, 3, and 5, including the requirements contained in the Davis-Bacon contract provisions set forth in 29 CFR 5.5. (b) YouthBuild participants are subject to Davis-Bacon Act labor standards when they perform Davis-Bacon-covered laborer or mechanic work, defined at 29 CFR 5.2, on...

  14. 20 CFR 672.545 - Are YouthBuild programs subject to the Davis-Bacon Act labor standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... regulations at 29 CFR parts 1, 3, and 5, including the requirements contained in the Davis-Bacon contract provisions set forth in 29 CFR 5.5. (b) YouthBuild participants are subject to Davis-Bacon Act labor standards when they perform Davis-Bacon-covered laborer or mechanic work, defined at 29 CFR 5.2, on...

  15. Thinking Constructively with Metaphors. A Review of Barbara J. Thayer-Bacon, Transforming Critical Thinking: Thinking Constructively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yob, Iris M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes Thayer-Bacon's book on metaphors and explores the role of metaphor in constructive thinking. Provides an in depth analysis of Thayer-Bacon's quilting bee metaphor and how it takes the organization, structures, entities, and forces of a literal quilting bee and applies them to the realm of learning. Concludes that Thayer-Bacon's…

  16. The mine and the furnace: Francis Bacon, Thomas Russell, and early Stuart mining culture.

    PubMed

    Pastorino, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Notwithstanding Francis Bacon's praise for the philosophical role of the mechanical arts, historians have often downplayed Bacon's connections with actual artisans and entrepreneurs. Addressing the specific context of mining culture, this study proposes a rather different picture. The analysis of a famous mining metaphor in The Advancement of Learning shows us how Bacon's project of reform of knowledge could find an apt correspondence in civic and entrepreneurial values of his time. Also, Bacon had interesting and so far unexplored links with the early modern English mining enterprises, like the Company of Mineral and Battery Works, ofwhich he was a shareholder. Moreover, Bacon's notes in a private notebook, Commentarius Solutus, and records of patents of invention, allow us to start grasping Bacon's connections with the metallurgist and entrepreneur Thomas Russell. Lastly, this paper argues that, to fully understand Bacon's links with the world of Stuart technicians and entrepreneurs, it is necessary to consider a different and insufficiently studied aspect of Bacon's interests, namely his work as patents referee while a Commissioner of Suits. PMID:20027760

  17. Historia and materia: the philosophical implications of Francis Bacon's natural history.

    PubMed

    Giglioni, Guido

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the philosophical implications underlying Bacon's views on historical knowledge, paying special attention to that variety of historical knowledge described by Bacon as "natural." More specifically, this article explores the interplay of history (historia) and fable (fabula). In the sphere of thought, fabula is the equivalent to materia in nature. Both are described by Bacon as being "versatile" and "pliant." In Bacon's system of knowledge, philosophy, as the domain of reason, starts from historiae and fabulae, once memory and the imagination have fulfilled their cognitive tasks. This means that, for Bacon, there is no such thing as a pure use of reason. He advocates a kind of reason that, precisely because it is involved with matter's inner motions (its "appetites," in Bacon's characteristic language), is constitutively 'impure'. The article shows how the terms historia and fabula cover key semantic areas in defining Bacon's philosophy: historia may mean "history" as well as "story,"fabula "myth" as well "story". In both cases, we can see significant oscillations from a stronger meaning (close to those of matter and nature) to a weaker one (connected to wit and imagination), as if the power of nature decreases moving from histories and myths to stories. On the other hand, there are cases in which Bacon seems to stick to a diachronic view of the meaning of fables and histories, such that the transition from myths to history, especially natural history, is described as a collective effort towards reality and enlightenment. PMID:22702166

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 14 - Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 14 Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts. (a) All work awarded under the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract is... thereby is not subject to the Davis-Bacon Act). Article 24 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract requires...

  19. 46 CFR Sec. 14 - Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 14 Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts. (a) All work awarded under the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract is... thereby is not subject to the Davis-Bacon Act). Article 24 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract requires...

  20. 46 CFR Sec. 14 - Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 14 Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts. (a) All work awarded under the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract is... thereby is not subject to the Davis-Bacon Act). Article 24 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract requires...

  1. 46 CFR Sec. 14 - Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 14 Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts. (a) All work awarded under the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract is... thereby is not subject to the Davis-Bacon Act). Article 24 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract requires...

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 14 - Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 14 Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts. (a) All work awarded under the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract is... thereby is not subject to the Davis-Bacon Act). Article 24 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract requires...

  3. Science and Rhetoric From Bacon to Hobbes; Responses to the Problem of Eloquence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zappen, James P.

    Decisive changes in the history of rhetoric occurred with the publication of Francis Bacon's "Advancement of Learning" and "De augmentis scientiarum" and "Leviathan" by Thomas Hobbes. Bacon and Hobbes responded to the problem of eloquence common to scientists in the early seventeenth century, which centered on three major philosophical-rhetorical…

  4. The mine and the furnace: Francis Bacon, Thomas Russell, and early Stuart mining culture.

    PubMed

    Pastorino, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Notwithstanding Francis Bacon's praise for the philosophical role of the mechanical arts, historians have often downplayed Bacon's connections with actual artisans and entrepreneurs. Addressing the specific context of mining culture, this study proposes a rather different picture. The analysis of a famous mining metaphor in The Advancement of Learning shows us how Bacon's project of reform of knowledge could find an apt correspondence in civic and entrepreneurial values of his time. Also, Bacon had interesting and so far unexplored links with the early modern English mining enterprises, like the Company of Mineral and Battery Works, ofwhich he was a shareholder. Moreover, Bacon's notes in a private notebook, Commentarius Solutus, and records of patents of invention, allow us to start grasping Bacon's connections with the metallurgist and entrepreneur Thomas Russell. Lastly, this paper argues that, to fully understand Bacon's links with the world of Stuart technicians and entrepreneurs, it is necessary to consider a different and insufficiently studied aspect of Bacon's interests, namely his work as patents referee while a Commissioner of Suits.

  5. Historia and materia: the philosophical implications of Francis Bacon's natural history.

    PubMed

    Giglioni, Guido

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the philosophical implications underlying Bacon's views on historical knowledge, paying special attention to that variety of historical knowledge described by Bacon as "natural." More specifically, this article explores the interplay of history (historia) and fable (fabula). In the sphere of thought, fabula is the equivalent to materia in nature. Both are described by Bacon as being "versatile" and "pliant." In Bacon's system of knowledge, philosophy, as the domain of reason, starts from historiae and fabulae, once memory and the imagination have fulfilled their cognitive tasks. This means that, for Bacon, there is no such thing as a pure use of reason. He advocates a kind of reason that, precisely because it is involved with matter's inner motions (its "appetites," in Bacon's characteristic language), is constitutively 'impure'. The article shows how the terms historia and fabula cover key semantic areas in defining Bacon's philosophy: historia may mean "history" as well as "story,"fabula "myth" as well "story". In both cases, we can see significant oscillations from a stronger meaning (close to those of matter and nature) to a weaker one (connected to wit and imagination), as if the power of nature decreases moving from histories and myths to stories. On the other hand, there are cases in which Bacon seems to stick to a diachronic view of the meaning of fables and histories, such that the transition from myths to history, especially natural history, is described as a collective effort towards reality and enlightenment.

  6. Francis Bacon's concept of objectivity and the idols of the mind.

    PubMed

    Zagorin, P

    2001-12-01

    This paper examines the concept of objectivity traceable in Francis Bacon's natural philosophy. After some historical background on this concept, it considers the question of whether it is not an anachronism to attribute such a concept to Bacon, since the word 'objectivity' is a later coinage and does not appear anywhere in his writings. The essay gives reasons for answering this question in the negative, and then criticizes the accounts given of Bacon's understanding of objectivity by Lorraine Daston and Julie Robin Solomon. It argues that this understanding is most directly and fully expressed in his discussion of the idols of the mind. In this connection, the paper notes Bacon's critical attitude to sixteenth-century scepticism and its relevance to the idea of objectivity implicit in his comments on the idols. In conclusion, the paper argues that Bacon was not a pure empiricist and describes the place assigned to theories and hypotheses in his natural philosophy. PMID:11831291

  7. Adelard of Bath and Roger Bacon: early English natural philosophers and scientists.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Jeremiah M

    2002-06-01

    The image of Roger Bacon as a 'modern' experimental scientist was propagated as historical truth in 19th century scientific historiography. Twentieth century criticisms attacked this tradition, arguing that Bacon was primarily a medieval philosopher with 'medieval' scientific interests. However, recent scholarship has provided a more careful and critical account of Bacon's science, and identifies his greatest achievement in terms of his successful attempt to assimilate the worlds of Greek and Islamic optics. It can be justly claimed that Roger Bacon was the first Western thinker in the middle ages to have mastered most of the Greek sources and the central Islamic source in optics. He made this scientific domain understandable for a Western Latin-reading audience. Yet, Bacon himself acknowledged Adelard of Bath, whose translations and commentary of Euclid's Elements set the foundations for a science of optics, as the true pioneer.

  8. Francis Bacon's concept of objectivity and the idols of the mind.

    PubMed

    Zagorin, P

    2001-12-01

    This paper examines the concept of objectivity traceable in Francis Bacon's natural philosophy. After some historical background on this concept, it considers the question of whether it is not an anachronism to attribute such a concept to Bacon, since the word 'objectivity' is a later coinage and does not appear anywhere in his writings. The essay gives reasons for answering this question in the negative, and then criticizes the accounts given of Bacon's understanding of objectivity by Lorraine Daston and Julie Robin Solomon. It argues that this understanding is most directly and fully expressed in his discussion of the idols of the mind. In this connection, the paper notes Bacon's critical attitude to sixteenth-century scepticism and its relevance to the idea of objectivity implicit in his comments on the idols. In conclusion, the paper argues that Bacon was not a pure empiricist and describes the place assigned to theories and hypotheses in his natural philosophy.

  9. The medical philosophy of Francis Bacon (1561-1626).

    PubMed

    Boss, J

    1978-01-01

    Francis Bacon's view of man is dualistic but, although he takes note of mental faculties, he makes the relation between mind and body, rather than the substance of mind, the basis for enquiry into mental processes and, more particularly, for the medically relevant study of mind. (He uses "mind" and "soul" as equivalent terms.) The healing of the body requires study of the body, and the ineffectiveness of physicians is due to their failure in this respect rather than to the body's complexity. To learn about the body requires clinical observation and recording, together with the comparison of bodies, experiments on living animals and attention to pathological changes. The aims of medicine should include not only the restoration of health but also the relief of suffering and they are not to be limited by putting aside a disease as incurable. To learn from treatment it must be fixed in its ordering with controlled and limited variation. Bacon has no separation of medicine from natural science; his philosophy of medicine is his general philosophy of the advancement of knowledge, but limited to a particular field of application. If medicine is separated from natural philosophy it is changed wholly or greatly into empiricism. PMID:353452

  10. The medical philosophy of Francis Bacon (1561-1626).

    PubMed

    Boss, J

    1978-01-01

    Francis Bacon's view of man is dualistic but, although he takes note of mental faculties, he makes the relation between mind and body, rather than the substance of mind, the basis for enquiry into mental processes and, more particularly, for the medically relevant study of mind. (He uses "mind" and "soul" as equivalent terms.) The healing of the body requires study of the body, and the ineffectiveness of physicians is due to their failure in this respect rather than to the body's complexity. To learn about the body requires clinical observation and recording, together with the comparison of bodies, experiments on living animals and attention to pathological changes. The aims of medicine should include not only the restoration of health but also the relief of suffering and they are not to be limited by putting aside a disease as incurable. To learn from treatment it must be fixed in its ordering with controlled and limited variation. Bacon has no separation of medicine from natural science; his philosophy of medicine is his general philosophy of the advancement of knowledge, but limited to a particular field of application. If medicine is separated from natural philosophy it is changed wholly or greatly into empiricism.

  11. Formation of N-nitrosamines in microwaved versus skillet-fried bacon containing nitrite.

    PubMed

    Miller, B J; Billedeau, S M; Miller, D W

    1989-05-01

    Differences in volatile N-nitrosamines (NNAs) found in nitrite-cured bacon cooked in an electric skillet and a microwave oven were determined. Samples of bacon were fried in an electric skillet at 171 and 206 degrees C and in a standard microwave oven (rated at 700 W full power) for 45 and 75 sec/slice. The level of NNAs were determined in the cooked bacon and fried-out fat by using gas chromatography-thermal energy analysis. Both N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) were detected in the fried-out bacon fat at levels up to 20.8 and 23.3 ng/g, respectively. The total NNAs (NDMA and NPYR) in the skillet-fried bacon was c. 11 ng/g for both the 171 and 206 degrees C fried samples. No NNAs were detected in the bacon or fried-out fat after cooking in a microwave oven for 45 sec/slice. However, excessive cooking of the bacon in a microwave oven (75 sec/slice) does produce levels of NPYR up to 5 ng/g. The minimum detectable level of NPYR was 2.08 ng/g and that of NDMA was 0.76 ng/g. These results indicated that the method of cooking meats containing nitrite could affect the level of NNAs in the cooked product, thereby affecting the level of human exposure to NNAs. PMID:2744660

  12. The intellect naturalized: Roger Bacon on the existence of corporeal species within the intellect.

    PubMed

    Raizman-Kedar, Yael

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I challenge the claim that Bacon considered the operation of species as limited to the physical and sensory levels and demonstrate that in his view, the very same species issued by physical objects operate within the intellect as well. I argue that in Bacon the concept of illumination plays a secondary role in the acquisition of knowledge, and that he regarded innate knowledge as dispositional and confused. What was left as the main channel through which knowledge is gained were species received through the senses. I argue that according to Bacon these species, representing their agents in essence, definition and operation, arrive in the intellect without undergoing a complete abstraction from matter and while still retaining the character of agents acting naturally. In this way Bacon sets the intellect as separate from the natural world not in any essential way, but rather as it were in degree, thus supplying a theoretical justification for the ability to access and know nature.

  13. 48 CFR 22.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 22.404 Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. The Department of Labor is...

  14. 48 CFR 22.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 22.404 Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. The Department of Labor is...

  15. Francis Bacon: constructing natural histories of the invisible.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Doina-Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The natural histories contained in Francis Bacon's Historia naturalis et experimentalis seem to differ from the model presented in De augmentis scientiarum and the Descriptio globi intellectualis in that they are focused on the defining properties of matter, its primary schematisms and the spirits. In this respect, they are highly speculative. In this paper I aim to describe the Historia naturalis et experimentalis as a text about matter theory, the histories of which are ascending from what is most evident to the senses to what is least accessible to them. Moreover, the Latin natural histories are parts of a methodological procedure in which the provisional rules and axioms obtained in one history can be used as theoretical assumptions for another history, thereby permitting one to delve ever more profoundly into the structure of nature. PMID:22702168

  16. Francis Bacon: constructing natural histories of the invisible.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Doina-Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The natural histories contained in Francis Bacon's Historia naturalis et experimentalis seem to differ from the model presented in De augmentis scientiarum and the Descriptio globi intellectualis in that they are focused on the defining properties of matter, its primary schematisms and the spirits. In this respect, they are highly speculative. In this paper I aim to describe the Historia naturalis et experimentalis as a text about matter theory, the histories of which are ascending from what is most evident to the senses to what is least accessible to them. Moreover, the Latin natural histories are parts of a methodological procedure in which the provisional rules and axioms obtained in one history can be used as theoretical assumptions for another history, thereby permitting one to delve ever more profoundly into the structure of nature.

  17. Fault-tolerant quantum computation with asymmetric Bacon-Shor codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Peter; Preskill, John

    2013-03-01

    We develop a scheme for fault-tolerant quantum computation based on asymmetric Bacon-Shor codes, which works effectively against highly biased noise dominated by dephasing. We find the optimal Bacon-Shor block size as a function of the noise strength and the noise bias, and estimate the logical error rate and overhead cost achieved by this optimal code. Our fault-tolerant gadgets, based on gate teleportation, are well suited for hardware platforms with geometrically local gates in two dimensions.

  18. Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Jalobeanu, Dana

    2012-01-01

    At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new. PMID:22702172

  19. Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Jalobeanu, Dana

    2012-01-01

    At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new.

  20. Flat minima.

    PubMed

    Hochreiter, S; Schmidhuber, J

    1997-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for finding low-complexity neural networks with high generalization capability. The algorithm searches for a "flat" minimum of the error function. A flat minimum is a large connected region in weight space where the error remains approximately constant. An MDL-based, Bayesian argument suggests that flat minima correspond to "simple" networks and low expected overfitting. The argument is based on a Gibbs algorithm variant and a novel way of splitting generalization error into underfitting and overfitting error. Unlike many previous approaches, ours does not require gaussian assumptions and does not depend on a "good" weight prior. Instead we have a prior over input-output functions, thus taking into account net architecture and training set. Although our algorithm requires the computation of second-order derivatives, it has backpropagation's order of complexity. Automatically, it effectively prunes units, weights, and input lines. Various experiments with feedforward and recurrent nets are described. In an application to stock market prediction, flat minimum search outperforms conventional backprop, weight decay, and "optimal brain surgeon/optimal brain damage".

  1. Charlie Flats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows a region of the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars, dubbed 'Charlie Flats.' This region is a rich science target for Opportunity because it contains a diverse assortment of small grains, pebbles and spherules, as well as both dark and light soil deposits. The area seen here measures approximately 0.6 meters (2 feet) across. The smallest grains visible in this image are only a few millimeters in size. The approximate true color image was acquired on Sol 20 of Opportunity's mission with panoramic camera filters red, green and blue. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view Charlie Flats Spectra The chart above shows examples of spectra, or light wave patterns, extracted from the region of the Meridiani Planum rock outcrop dubbed 'Charlie Flats,' a rich science target for the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The spectra were extracted from the similarly colored regions in the image on the left, taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The green circle identifies a bright, dust-like soil deposit. The red circle identifies a dark soil region. The yellow identifies a small, angular rock chip with a strong near-infrared band. The pink identifies a sphere-shaped pebble with a different strong near-infrared band. The cyan circle shows a dark, grayish pebble.

  2. Mathematical model of water transport in Bacon and alkaline matrix-type hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, P. R.; Easter, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Based on general mass continuity and diffusive transport equations, a mathematical model was developed that simulates the transport of water in Bacon and alkaline-matrix fuel cells. The derived model was validated by using it to analytically reproduce various Bacon and matrix-cell experimental water transport transients.

  3. The effect of skatole and androstenone on consumer response towards streaky bacon and pork belly roll.

    PubMed

    Aaslyng, Margit D; De Lichtenberg Broge, Eva Honnens; Brockhoff, Per B; Christensen, Rune Haubo

    2015-12-01

    Consumer liking was assessed for streaky bacon and pork belly roll from entire male pigs with an androstenone (AND) content of up to 9.4 ppm and a skatole (SKA) content of up to 0.92 ppm in the back fat and castrates. No clear effect of either AND or SKA was seen in consumer liking, although an insignificant tendency was seen for SKA. A sensory profile analysis showed that AND increased the boar taint of bacon, while both AND and SKA increased the boar taint of the pork belly roll. Consumer sensitivity towards AND and SKA did not affect liking of the meat products. The lack of effect of AND and SKA on consumer liking could be due to a masking effect of the spices and smoke. Three consecutive weeks' exposure to bacon did not change the liking score, irrespective of the AND and SKA content. This indicates that the consumers did not become more sensitive towards boar taint.

  4. N-Nitroso-3-hydroxypyrrolidine in fried bacon and fried out fat.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Libbey, L M; Scanlan, R A; Barbour, J

    1978-01-01

    N-Nitroso-3-hydroxypyrrolidine was extracted from fried bacon and fried-out fat with water:methanol (3:2). After elimination of residual nitrite with ammonium sulfamate, the nitrosamine was removed from the water:methanol by continuous extraction with dichloromethane. Identification was accomplished by conversion of N-nitroso-3-hydroxypyrrolidine to the trimethylsilyl derivative followed by separation on a capillary column and characterization by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Quantification and recovery studies were conducted without derivatization. Concentrated dichloromethane extracts were analyzed using a gas chromatographic-thermal energy analyzer system. Recovery of N-nitroso-3-hydroxypyrrolidine from fried bacon and fried-out fat was 62 and 63%, respectively. Five commercial samples of fried bacon contained 0.4-3.9 ppb, while the fried-out fat contained 0.3-2.2 ppb N-nitroso-3-hydroxypyrrolidine.

  5. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  6. [Francis Bacon on the origin and preservation of life: theory and experiments].

    PubMed

    Gemelli, Benedino

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses Bacon's views of life, as contained in De Sapientia Veterum, Historia vitae et mortis, and in a newly published manuscript, entitled De vijs mortis. Bacon saw the prolongation of life as one of the main goals of science and medicine, According to him, life is the result of the action of spirits on matter. In order to preserve life, it is necessary to investigate various kinds of generation, notably, those which occurr without seeds. The study of putrefaction is also crucial for the prolongation of life. PMID:15311430

  7. [The visual process as a theological analog of Roger Bacon's eye anatomy and physiology].

    PubMed

    Bergdolt, K

    1991-01-01

    The author presents Roger Bacon's conception of the anatomy and physiology of the human eye. The knowledge of ocular function is a precondition to understand the laws of the "perspectiva", the science of seeing. But Bacon doesn't stress perspective per se. The physical laws of light, which are to be analysed in geometrical forms, are analogous to those of the infusion of divine grace. Optics (in the Middle Ages synonymous with perspective) seemed to be the model by which God spread his grace to the world. To understand the physical laws of optics meant that one might gain insight into the nature of God.

  8. [Francis Bacon on the origin and preservation of life: theory and experiments].

    PubMed

    Gemelli, Benedino

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses Bacon's views of life, as contained in De Sapientia Veterum, Historia vitae et mortis, and in a newly published manuscript, entitled De vijs mortis. Bacon saw the prolongation of life as one of the main goals of science and medicine, According to him, life is the result of the action of spirits on matter. In order to preserve life, it is necessary to investigate various kinds of generation, notably, those which occurr without seeds. The study of putrefaction is also crucial for the prolongation of life.

  9. Effects of feeding high protein or conventional canola meal on dry cured and conventionally cured bacon.

    PubMed

    Little, K L; Bohrer, B M; Stein, H H; Boler, D D

    2015-05-01

    Objectives were to compare belly, bacon processing, bacon slice, and sensory characteristics from pigs fed high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). Soybean meal was replaced with 0 (control), 33, 66, or 100% of both types of canola meal. Left side bellies from 70 carcasses were randomly assigned to conventional or dry cure treatment and matching right side bellies were assigned the opposite treatment. Secondary objectives were to test the existence of bilateral symmetry on fresh belly characteristics and fatty acid profiles of right and left side bellies originating from the same carcass. Bellies from pigs fed CM-HP were slightly lighter and thinner than bellies from pigs fed CM-CV, yet bacon processing, bacon slice, and sensory characteristics were unaffected by dietary treatment and did not differ from the control. Furthermore, testing the existence of bilateral symmetry on fresh belly characteristics revealed that bellies originating from the right side of the carcasses were slightly (P≤0.05) wider, thicker, heavier and firmer than bellies from the left side of the carcass.

  10. Deciphering the language of nature: cryptography, secrecy, and alterity in Francis Bacon.

    PubMed

    Clody, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    The essay argues that Francis Bacon's considerations of parables and cryptography reflect larger interpretative concerns of his natural philosophic project. Bacon describes nature as having a language distinct from those of God and man, and, in so doing, establishes a central problem of his natural philosophy—namely, how can the language of nature be accessed through scientific representation? Ultimately, Bacon's solution relies on a theory of differential and duplicitous signs that conceal within them the hidden voice of nature, which is best recognized in the natural forms of efficient causality. The "alphabet of nature"—those tables of natural occurrences—consequently plays a central role in his program, as it renders nature's language susceptible to a process and decryption that mirrors the model of the bilateral cipher. It is argued that while the writing of Bacon's natural philosophy strives for literality, its investigative process preserves a space for alterity within scientific representation, that is made accessible to those with the interpretative key. PMID:22371983

  11. Bacon's Rebellion: A Unit of Study for Grade 5-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kent; Pearson, Jim

    This unit explores Virginia society between 1640 and 1680. By examining copies of original documents, students study the causes of Bacon's Rebellion in 1676. Although the rebellion was a failure, understanding the reasons for the conflict gives insight into colonial Virginia. Students learn that Virginia was initially a predominantly male society…

  12. 48 CFR 622.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 622.404 Section 622.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts...

  13. 48 CFR 422.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 422.404 Section 422.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  14. Francis Bacon's New Science: Rhetoric and the Transformative Power of Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckel, David

    The process of projecting textual models onto the phenomenal world began with the invention of writing and accelerated through the manuscript culture of classical antiquity and the Middle Ages into the age of print. In Francis Bacon's work, the book (a metaphor for the phenomenal world) adapted to the demands of the printed text and reflects the…

  15. 40 CFR 35.935-5 - Davis-Bacon and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Davis-Bacon and related statutes. 35.935-5 Section 35.935-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  16. 40 CFR 35.935-5 - Davis-Bacon and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Davis-Bacon and related statutes. 35.935-5 Section 35.935-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  17. 40 CFR 35.935-5 - Davis-Bacon and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Davis-Bacon and related statutes. 35.935-5 Section 35.935-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  18. 40 CFR 35.935-5 - Davis-Bacon and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Davis-Bacon and related statutes. 35.935-5 Section 35.935-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  19. 40 CFR 35.935-5 - Davis-Bacon and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Davis-Bacon and related statutes. 35.935-5 Section 35.935-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  20. 24 CFR 906.37 - Davis-Bacon and HUD wage rate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Davis-Bacon and HUD wage rate requirements. 906.37 Section 906.37 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC...

  1. 24 CFR 906.37 - Davis-Bacon and HUD wage rate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Rehabilitation, repairs, and accessibility modifications performed under an agreement or contract with the PHA or by the PHA, pursuant to § 906.7. Davis-Bacon or HUD-determined wage rates apply as follows: (i...-public housing units acquired by a PHA using Capital Funds that will be sold under a...

  2. 24 CFR 906.37 - Davis-Bacon and HUD wage rate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Rehabilitation, repairs, and accessibility modifications performed under an agreement or contract with the PHA or by the PHA, pursuant to § 906.7. Davis-Bacon or HUD-determined wage rates apply as follows: (i...-public housing units acquired by a PHA using Capital Funds that will be sold under a...

  3. 24 CFR 906.37 - Davis-Bacon and HUD wage rate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Rehabilitation, repairs, and accessibility modifications performed under an agreement or contract with the PHA or by the PHA, pursuant to § 906.7. Davis-Bacon or HUD-determined wage rates apply as follows: (i...-public housing units acquired by a PHA using Capital Funds that will be sold under a...

  4. 24 CFR 906.37 - Davis-Bacon and HUD wage rate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Rehabilitation, repairs, and accessibility modifications performed under an agreement or contract with the PHA or by the PHA, pursuant to § 906.7. Davis-Bacon or HUD-determined wage rates apply as follows: (i...-public housing units acquired by a PHA using Capital Funds that will be sold under a...

  5. 48 CFR 1422.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 1422.404 Section 1422.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  6. 48 CFR 1322.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determination. 1322.404 Section 1322.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  7. 48 CFR 422.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 422.404 Section 422.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  8. 48 CFR 1322.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determination. 1322.404 Section 1322.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  9. 48 CFR 1422.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 1422.404 Section 1422.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  10. 48 CFR 1422.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 1422.404 Section 1422.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  11. 48 CFR 622.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 622.404 Section 622.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts...

  12. 48 CFR 1322.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determination. 1322.404 Section 1322.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  13. 48 CFR 622.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 622.404 Section 622.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts...

  14. 48 CFR 422.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 422.404 Section 422.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  15. 48 CFR 622.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 622.404 Section 622.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts...

  16. 48 CFR 422.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 422.404 Section 422.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  17. 77 FR 29982 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...: A. Purpose Government contracting officers may include FAR clause 52.222-32, Davis-Bacon Act--Price... may reasonably require. The information is used by ] Government contracting officers to establish the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 76 FR 76438 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Davis-Bacon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... notice published in the Federal Register on August 8, 2011 (76 FR 48181). ] Interested parties are...; Davis-Bacon Certified Payroll ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is submitting the... Certified Payroll,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval for continued...

  19. The Culture of Science and the Rhetoric of Scientism: From Francis Bacon to the Darwin Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessl, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    The culture of modern science continues to establish its public identity by appealing to values and historical conceptions that reflect its appropriation of various religious ideals during its formative period, most especially in the rhetoric of Francis Bacon. These elements have persisted because they continue to achieve similar goals, but the…

  20. 10 CFR 455.112 - Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... provisions set forth in 29 CFR 5.5 and (b) A provision for payment of laborers and mechanics at the minimum...) as set forth in 29 CFR part 1. ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement. 455.112 Section...

  1. 10 CFR 455.112 - Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... provisions set forth in 29 CFR 5.5 and (b) A provision for payment of laborers and mechanics at the minimum...) as set forth in 29 CFR part 1. ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement. 455.112 Section...

  2. 10 CFR 455.112 - Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions set forth in 29 CFR 5.5 and (b) A provision for payment of laborers and mechanics at the minimum...) as set forth in 29 CFR part 1. ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement. 455.112 Section...

  3. 10 CFR 455.112 - Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... provisions set forth in 29 CFR 5.5 and (b) A provision for payment of laborers and mechanics at the minimum...) as set forth in 29 CFR part 1. ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement. 455.112 Section...

  4. 10 CFR 455.112 - Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... provisions set forth in 29 CFR 5.5 and (b) A provision for payment of laborers and mechanics at the minimum...) as set forth in 29 CFR part 1. ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement. 455.112 Section...

  5. Deciphering the language of nature: cryptography, secrecy, and alterity in Francis Bacon.

    PubMed

    Clody, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    The essay argues that Francis Bacon's considerations of parables and cryptography reflect larger interpretative concerns of his natural philosophic project. Bacon describes nature as having a language distinct from those of God and man, and, in so doing, establishes a central problem of his natural philosophy—namely, how can the language of nature be accessed through scientific representation? Ultimately, Bacon's solution relies on a theory of differential and duplicitous signs that conceal within them the hidden voice of nature, which is best recognized in the natural forms of efficient causality. The "alphabet of nature"—those tables of natural occurrences—consequently plays a central role in his program, as it renders nature's language susceptible to a process and decryption that mirrors the model of the bilateral cipher. It is argued that while the writing of Bacon's natural philosophy strives for literality, its investigative process preserves a space for alterity within scientific representation, that is made accessible to those with the interpretative key.

  6. Natural knowledge as a propaedeutic to self-betterment: Francis Bacon and the transformation of natural history.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, James A T

    2012-01-01

    This paper establishes the 'emblematic' use of natural history as a propaedeutic to self-betterment in the Renaissance; in particular, in the natural histories of Gessner and Topsell, but also in the works of Erasmus and Rabelais. Subsequently, it investigates how Francis Bacon's conception of natural history is envisaged in relation to them. The paper contends that, where humanist natural historians understood the use of natural knowledge as a preliminary to individual improvement, Bacon conceived self-betterment foremost as a means to Christian charity, or social-betterment. It thus examines the transformation of the moralizing aspect of Renaissance natural history in Bacon's conception of his Great Instauration. PMID:22702171

  7. Natural knowledge as a propaedeutic to self-betterment: Francis Bacon and the transformation of natural history.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, James A T

    2012-01-01

    This paper establishes the 'emblematic' use of natural history as a propaedeutic to self-betterment in the Renaissance; in particular, in the natural histories of Gessner and Topsell, but also in the works of Erasmus and Rabelais. Subsequently, it investigates how Francis Bacon's conception of natural history is envisaged in relation to them. The paper contends that, where humanist natural historians understood the use of natural knowledge as a preliminary to individual improvement, Bacon conceived self-betterment foremost as a means to Christian charity, or social-betterment. It thus examines the transformation of the moralizing aspect of Renaissance natural history in Bacon's conception of his Great Instauration.

  8. New method of verificating optical flat flatness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Li, Xueyuan; Han, Sen; Zhu, Jianrong; Guo, Zhenglai; Fu, Yuegang

    2014-11-01

    Optical flat is commonly used in optical testing instruments, flatness is the most important parameter of forming errors. As measurement criteria, optical flat flatness (OFF) index needs to have good precision. Current measurement in China is heavily dependent on the artificial visual interpretation, through discrete points to characterize the flatness. The efficiency and accuracy of this method can not meet the demand of industrial development. In order to improve the testing efficiency and accuracy of measurement, it is necessary to develop an optical flat verification system, which can obtain all surface information rapidly and efficiently, at the same time, in accordance with current national metrological verification procedures. This paper reviews current optical flat verification method and solves the problems existing in previous test, by using new method and its supporting software. Final results show that the new system can improve verification efficiency and accuracy, by comparing with JJG 28-2000 metrological verification procedures method.

  9. Effect of immunological castration management strategy on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions.

    PubMed

    Herrick, R T; Tavárez, M A; Harsh, B N; Mellencamp, M A; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of 1) immunological castration (Improvest, a gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate) management strategy (age at slaughter and time of slaughter after second dose) and 2) sex on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions. For Objective 1, immunological castration management strategies included 24-wk-old immunologically castrated (IC) barrows 4, 6, 8, or 10 wk after the second Improvest dose (ASD); 26-wk-old IC barrows 6 wk ASD; and 28-wk-old IC barrows 8 wk ASD ( = 63). Objective 2 ( = 97) included IC barrows, physically castrated (PC) barrows, and gilts slaughtered at 24, 26, and 28 wks of age. Bellies from 2 slaughter dates were manufactured into bacon under commercial conditions. Bacon slices were laid out on parchment paper, packaged in oxygen-permeable poly-vinyl-lined boxes, and frozen (-33°C) for 1, 4, 8, or 12 wk to simulate food service conditions. At the end of each storage period, bacon was evaluated for lipid oxidation, moisture and lipid content, and sensory characteristics. Data from both objectives were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS with belly as the experimental unit. For both objectives, as storage time increased, lipid oxidation of bacon increased ( < 0.01), regardless of management strategy or sex. Also, there was no sex or management strategy × week of frozen storage interaction for any traits evaluated ( ≥ 0.25). For Objective 1, lipid content of bacon from IC barrows increased as time of slaughter ASD increased ( < 0.05), regardless of age at slaughter. Additionally, there were no differences in sensory attributes of bacon across management strategies. For the evaluation of sex effects in Objective 2, lipid oxidation was greater ( < 0.05) in IC barrows compared with PC barrows but was not different than gilts ( > 0.05). After 12 wk of frozen storage, lipid oxidation values for IC barrows

  10. New Techniques for Augmenting Saliva Collection: Bacon Rules and Lozenge Drools

    PubMed Central

    Miočević, Olga; Warner, Melissa C.; Slowey, Paul D.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Saliva is a reliable, noninvasive, and cost-effective alternative to biomarkers measured in other biological fluids. Within certain populations, saliva sampling may be difficult because of insufficient saliva flow, which may compromise disease diagnosis or research integrity. Methods to improve flow rates (eg, administering citric acid, chewing gum, or collecting cotton) may compromise biomarker integrity, especially if the methods involve the presence of a collection aid in the oral cavity. Anecdotal strategies (eg, looking at pictures of food or imagining food) have not been evaluated to date. In this study, we evaluate whether 2 novel collection techniques improve saliva flow or interfere with assay of common biomarkers (ie, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, and testosterone). We evaluate an over-the-counter anhydrous crystalline maltose lozenge intended to increase saliva production for patients with xerostomia long after the lozenge dissolves. We then evaluate whether the smell of freshly cooked bacon stimulates a pavlovian-type reflex. Methods Saliva was collected from 27 healthy young adults (aged 20-34 years; 12 men) on a basal day and a lozenge day, providing 5 samples at 15-minute intervals. Twenty participants then returned for the bacon day condition, providing 2 saliva samples with an interval of 15 minutes between samples. Collection times required to generate 2 mL of saliva across collection strategies were recorded, and then saliva samples were assayed for cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, and testosterone. Findings Repeated analysis of variance measures revealed that both the lozenges and bacon significantly decreased collection time compared with the passive drool collection on the basal day. No significant effects were found related to the quantification of cortisol, testosterone, or dehydroepiandrosterone when comparing lozenge or bacon to the basal day. In addition, bivariate correlations revealed that concentrations from time

  11. From Bacon to Banks: the vision and the realities of pursuing science for the common good.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Rose-Mary

    2012-03-01

    Francis Bacon's call for philosophers to investigate nature and "join in consultation for the common good" is one example of a powerful vision that helped to shape modern science. His ideal clearly linked the experimental method with the production of beneficial effects that could be used both as "pledges of truth" and for "the comforts of life." When Bacon's program was implemented in the following generation, however, the tensions inherent in his vision became all too real. The history of the Royal Society of London, from its founding in 1660 to the 42-year presidency of Joseph Banks (1778-1820), shows how these tensions led to changes in the way in which both the experimental method and the ideal of the common good were understood. A more nuanced understanding of the problems involved in recent philosophical analyses of science in the public interest can be achieved by appreciating the complexity revealed from this historical perspective. PMID:22530484

  12. From Bacon to Banks: the vision and the realities of pursuing science for the common good.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Rose-Mary

    2012-03-01

    Francis Bacon's call for philosophers to investigate nature and "join in consultation for the common good" is one example of a powerful vision that helped to shape modern science. His ideal clearly linked the experimental method with the production of beneficial effects that could be used both as "pledges of truth" and for "the comforts of life." When Bacon's program was implemented in the following generation, however, the tensions inherent in his vision became all too real. The history of the Royal Society of London, from its founding in 1660 to the 42-year presidency of Joseph Banks (1778-1820), shows how these tensions led to changes in the way in which both the experimental method and the ideal of the common good were understood. A more nuanced understanding of the problems involved in recent philosophical analyses of science in the public interest can be achieved by appreciating the complexity revealed from this historical perspective.

  13. Radiolysis compounds in bacon and chicken. Final report 18 Sep 81-20 Sep 82

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, C. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The results of this study are in agreement with the precepts established in studies published previously on beef, chicken, ham, and pork. The radiolysis compounds from bacon, chicken, ham, and pork are comparable in identity and amounts to those found in irradiated beef for comparable compositions and irradiation parameters (temperature, dose, etc.). The results of this study support the conclusions drawn in the CORC report of 'commonality in chemistry, predictability of products, and extrapolation of results.' Consequently, the same conclusions can be drawn concerning the wholesomeness of irradiated bacon, chicken, ham, and pork as for other irradiated meat products of similar composition and irradiation parameters as reported in the FASEB report and its supplements (I and II) on irradiated beef.

  14. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R.

    1998-01-01

    A microgap flat panel display which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y "pixel" strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a "pixel" in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel.

  15. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.

    1998-12-08

    A microgap flat panel display is disclosed which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y ``pixel`` strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a ``pixel`` in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel. 6 figs.

  16. The Rule of Three for Prizes in Science and the Bold Triptychs of Francis Bacon.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joseph L

    2016-09-22

    For many scientific awards, such as Nobels and Laskers, the maximum number of recipients is three. This Rule of Three forces selection committees to make difficult decisions that increase the likelihood of singling out those individuals who open a new field and continue to lead it. The Rule of Three is reminiscent of art's three-panel triptych, a form that the modern master Francis Bacon used to distill complex stories in a bold way. PMID:27634320

  17. The Rule of Three for Prizes in Science and the Bold Triptychs of Francis Bacon.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joseph L

    2016-09-22

    For many scientific awards, such as Nobels and Laskers, the maximum number of recipients is three. This Rule of Three forces selection committees to make difficult decisions that increase the likelihood of singling out those individuals who open a new field and continue to lead it. The Rule of Three is reminiscent of art's three-panel triptych, a form that the modern master Francis Bacon used to distill complex stories in a bold way.

  18. Francis Bacon and the "Interpretation of Nature" in the late Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Serjeantson, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The "interpretation of nature" (interpretatio naturae) is the leading idea in Francis Bacon's natural philosophy. But by contrast with his ideas about method, induction, or experiment, the significance of the "interpretation of nature" has received very little scholarly attention. This essay tests the originality of Bacon's idea by means of a focused survey of existing forms of Renaissance natural knowledge-Aristotelian and anti-Aristotelian natural philosophy, Galenic and Paracelsian medicine, natural magic, physiognomy, natural history-before turning to consider the much more prominent place of "interpretation" in the fields of Renaissance logic, revealed and natural theology, and law. It finds that Bacon's application of the idea of "interpretation" to nature was highly original, but also that certain important aspects of his conception have analogies in Renaissance civil law. The essay concludes by exploring the implications of these findings for a recent body of scholarship in the history of the sciences that invokes the notion of the "interpretation of nature" to characterize pre-Baconian natural philosophy more generally. PMID:25665379

  19. Francis Bacon and the "Interpretation of Nature" in the late Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Serjeantson, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The "interpretation of nature" (interpretatio naturae) is the leading idea in Francis Bacon's natural philosophy. But by contrast with his ideas about method, induction, or experiment, the significance of the "interpretation of nature" has received very little scholarly attention. This essay tests the originality of Bacon's idea by means of a focused survey of existing forms of Renaissance natural knowledge-Aristotelian and anti-Aristotelian natural philosophy, Galenic and Paracelsian medicine, natural magic, physiognomy, natural history-before turning to consider the much more prominent place of "interpretation" in the fields of Renaissance logic, revealed and natural theology, and law. It finds that Bacon's application of the idea of "interpretation" to nature was highly original, but also that certain important aspects of his conception have analogies in Renaissance civil law. The essay concludes by exploring the implications of these findings for a recent body of scholarship in the history of the sciences that invokes the notion of the "interpretation of nature" to characterize pre-Baconian natural philosophy more generally.

  20. The effect of skatole and androstenone on consumer response towards streaky bacon and pork belly roll.

    PubMed

    Aaslyng, Margit D; De Lichtenberg Broge, Eva Honnens; Brockhoff, Per B; Christensen, Rune Haubo

    2015-12-01

    Consumer liking was assessed for streaky bacon and pork belly roll from entire male pigs with an androstenone (AND) content of up to 9.4 ppm and a skatole (SKA) content of up to 0.92 ppm in the back fat and castrates. No clear effect of either AND or SKA was seen in consumer liking, although an insignificant tendency was seen for SKA. A sensory profile analysis showed that AND increased the boar taint of bacon, while both AND and SKA increased the boar taint of the pork belly roll. Consumer sensitivity towards AND and SKA did not affect liking of the meat products. The lack of effect of AND and SKA on consumer liking could be due to a masking effect of the spices and smoke. Three consecutive weeks' exposure to bacon did not change the liking score, irrespective of the AND and SKA content. This indicates that the consumers did not become more sensitive towards boar taint. PMID:26186398

  1. The Alma-Bacon County Story: A Model for Rural America. Committee Print, 92nd Congress, 2nd Session, July 24, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nipp, Robert E.

    Designed to illustrate the revitalization process of a small rural community via use of the Model Cities Program, this case study of Alma-Bacon County, Georgia traces Alma-Bacon's: (1) historical background; (2) community development beginnings; (3) political development; (4) outstanding problems; and (5) development plans and accomplishments…

  2. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  3. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  4. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  5. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  6. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  7. 42 CFR 137.379 - Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? 137.379 Section 137.379 Public Health... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Other § 137.379 Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? Davis-Bacon...

  8. 42 CFR 137.379 - Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? Davis-Bacon Act... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? 137.379 Section 137.379 Public...

  9. 42 CFR 137.379 - Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? Davis-Bacon Act... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? 137.379 Section 137.379 Public...

  10. 42 CFR 137.378 - Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using their own funds or other non... Other § 137.378 Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed...-Bacon Act and wage rates do not apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

  11. 42 CFR 137.378 - Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using their own funds or other non... Other § 137.378 Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed...-Bacon Act and wage rates do not apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

  12. 42 CFR 137.379 - Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? Davis-Bacon Act... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? 137.379 Section 137.379 Public...

  13. 42 CFR 137.378 - Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using their own funds or other non... Other § 137.378 Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed...-Bacon Act and wage rates do not apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

  14. 42 CFR 137.378 - Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using their own funds or other non... Other § 137.378 Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed...-Bacon Act and wage rates do not apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

  15. 42 CFR 137.379 - Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? Davis-Bacon Act... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? 137.379 Section 137.379 Public...

  16. 42 CFR 137.378 - Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using their own funds or other non... Other § 137.378 Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed...-Bacon Act and wage rates do not apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

  17. MAMA NUV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Hugues

    2013-10-01

    This program is aimed at obtaining NUV-MAMA flat-field observations for the construction of pixel-to-pixel flats {p-flats} with a SNR of 100 per binned pixel. The flats are obtained with the DEUTERIUM-lamp and the MR grisms G230M. The actual choice of central wavelength and slit combination depends on the observed count level within each exposure.Note that STIS NUV-MAMA flats are taken every other cycles{i.e. during odd number cycles} in order to not drain the DEUTERIUMlamp lifetime.

  18. MAMA NUV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2011-10-01

    This program is aimed at obtaining NUV-MAMA flat-field observations for the construction of pixel-to-pixel flats {p-flats} with a SNR of 100 per binned pixel. The flats are obtained with the DEUTERIUM-lamp and the MR grisms G230M. The actual choice of central wavelength and slit combination depends on the observed count level within each exposure.Note that STIS NUV-MAMA flats are taken every other cycles{i.e. during odd number cycles} in order to not drain the DEUTERIUMlamp lifetime.

  19. Survival and death of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked bacon at three storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Taormina, P J; Dorsa, W J

    2010-08-01

    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked bacon cubes (a(w) 0.910 +/- 0.080), strips (a(w) 0.726 +/- 0.054), and bits (a(w) 0.620 +/- 0.038) was determined during a 25 week storage period at -20, 4.4, and 22 degrees C. Selective enrichment and subsequent enzyme-linked fluorescent antibody (ELFA) detection were used to asses survival on samples inoculated at ca. 1-log(10) CFU/g (LI). Samples inoculated at ca. 5.5-log(10) CFU/g (HI) were analyzed over time by direct plating on modified Oxford medium (MOX). The Baranyi model was fitted to the inactivation curves of HI samples using the DMFit program. At -20 degrees C, a decline of about 1-log(10) CFU/g occurred on all HI cooked bacon types by 14 weeks, although most LI samples remained positive by the ELFA detection method for 25 weeks. At 4.4 and 22 degrees C, some strips and bits LI samples were negative for the pathogen within 3 weeks, and >1.5 log(10) CFU/g reductions occurred on HI strips and bits by 8 weeks. Reductions on cubes at refrigeration and ambient temperature were ca. 0.5 log(10) CFU/g, and cubes remained positive on LI samples for 25 weeks. Rate parameter estimates indicated that the population declined fastest on strips and bits at 22 degrees C compared to all other product and temperature combinations. This study demonstrates that cooked bacon does not support the growth of L. monocytogenes and that the pathogen gradually dies off during storage. PMID:20510786

  20. Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J.E. Tiles and Peter Dear.

  1. Validation of bacon processing conditions to verify control of Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Peter J; Bartholomew, Gene W

    2005-09-01

    It is unclear how rapidly meat products, such as bacon, that have been heat treated but not fully cooked should be cooled to prevent the outgrowth of spore-forming bacterial pathogens and limit the growth of vegetative cells. Clostridium perfringens spores and vegetative cells and Staphylococcus aureus cells were inoculated into ground cured pork bellies with and without 1.25% liquid smoke. Bellies were subjected to the thermal profiles of industrial smoking to 48.9 degrees C (120 degrees F) and normal cooling of bacon (3 h) as well as a cooling phase of 15 h until the meat reached 7.2 degrees C (45 degrees F). A laboratory-scale bacon smoking and cooling operation was also performed. Under normal smoking and cooling thermal conditions, growth of C. perfringens in ground pork bellies was <1 log regardless of smoke. Increase of S. aureus was 2.38 log CFU/g but only 0.68 log CFU/g with smoke. When cooling spanned 15 h, both C. perfringens and S. aureus grew by a total of about 4 log. The addition of liquid smoke inhibited C. perfringens, but S. aureus still achieved a 3.97-log increase. Staphylococcal enterotoxins were detected in five of six samples cooled for 15 h without smoke but in none of the six samples of smoked bellies. In laboratory-scale smoking of whole belly pieces, initial C. perfringens populations of 2.23 +/- 0.25 log CFU/g were reduced during smoking to 0.99 +/- 0.50 log CFU/g and were 0.65 +/- 0.21 log CFU/g after 15 h of cooling. Populations of S. aureus were reduced from 2.00 +/- 0.74 to a final concentration of 0.74 +/- 0.53 log CFU/g after cooling. Contrary to findings in the ground pork belly system, the 15-h cooling of whole belly pieces did not permit growth of either pathogen. This study demonstrates that if smoked bacon is cooled from 48.9 to 7.2 degrees C (120 to 45 degrees F) within 15 h, a food safety hazard from either C. perfringens or S. aureus is not likely to occur. PMID:16161681

  2. Redefining the role of experiment in Bacon's natural history: how Baconian was Descartes before emerging from his cocoon?

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Laura; Giurgea, Mădălina

    2012-01-01

    In this article we argue that the views that Francis Bacon and René Descartes held about the role of experiments in the process of discovery are closer than previously accepted. Looking at the way experiments and the heuristics of experimentation are embedded in Bacon's posthumous History of Dense and Rare and Descartes' Discourses 8, 9, 10 of the Meteorology, we will show that experiments help the investigator both in solving specific problems that could not have otherwise been foreseen and in generating relevant information that advances the scope of the investigation. PMID:22702170

  3. Redefining the role of experiment in Bacon's natural history: how Baconian was Descartes before emerging from his cocoon?

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Laura; Giurgea, Mădălina

    2012-01-01

    In this article we argue that the views that Francis Bacon and René Descartes held about the role of experiments in the process of discovery are closer than previously accepted. Looking at the way experiments and the heuristics of experimentation are embedded in Bacon's posthumous History of Dense and Rare and Descartes' Discourses 8, 9, 10 of the Meteorology, we will show that experiments help the investigator both in solving specific problems that could not have otherwise been foreseen and in generating relevant information that advances the scope of the investigation.

  4. RAYWOOD FLAT ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Iverson, Stephen R.

    1984-01-01

    The Raywood Flat Roadless Areas are situated adjacent to the San Gorgonio Wilderness in the southeastern San Bernardino Mountains, southern California. Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies, together with an investigation of mines and prospects, indicate that there is little likelihood for the occurrence of metallic mineral or energy resources in the roadless areas. In the eastern part of the roadless areas, a geochemical survey shows slightly anomalous amounts of lead, copper, molybdenum, tin, and bismuth and suggests that there are small and scattered occurrences of these metals in the bedrock. The inferred mineral occurrences lack the characteristics associated with metal concentrations that would identify resources. Marble and other construction materials occur in the area.

  5. MAMA FUV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2012-10-01

    This program aims at obtaining FUV-MAMA flat-field observations to create a new p-flats with a SNR of 100 per {low resolution} pixel. The flats are obtained with the Krypton-lamp and the MR grating G140M, similarly to the cycle 17 and 18 programs. However the exact instrument setup {slit width and central wavelength} might change depending on the desired count level {which will be close to the internally allowed global rate limit}.

  6. Experimental Comparison of Efficiency of First Aid Dressings in Burning White Phosphorus on Bacon Model

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Wojciech; Surowiecka-Pastewka, Agnieszka; Biesaga, Magdalena; Gierczak, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of first aid dressings in extinguishing burning white phosphorous (WP), eliminating WP pieces from the surface, inhibiting re-ignition on the model (fresh bacon covered with military uniform), and preventing from late re-ignition caused by persistent WP pieces. Material/Methods Burning WP was extinguished with several dressings: tactical Military Dressing (WJ10), wet gauze, 2 hydrocolloids, and 3 prototypes of hydrocolloids developed by the authors. Results All examined dressings were effective in extinguishing WP provided that the entire area of the burning substance was completely covered. Moist gauze was especially effective in extinguishing WP, and also removed and absorbed the majority of the WP mass, preventing deeper penetration of WP particles. The immediate re-ignition was observed when all the remaining examined dressings were removed from the bacon. A stream of water was dangerous, as it splashed and transferred pieces of WP around. Conclusions Moist gauze placed on burning WP for approximately 3 min was most effective in extinguishing WP and removing most of the WP pieces. We recommend moist gauze, used once or twice, as the best primary means for WP elimination and preventing tissue penetration. As a dressing used for medical evacuation (MEDEVAC), or as a second step after complete removal of visible WP, innovative hydrocolloid or hydrogel dressings should be used. PMID:26264209

  7. The “Visual Shock” of Francis Bacon: an essay in neuroesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Zeki, Semir; Ishizu, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the work of Francis Bacon in the context of his declared aim of giving a “visual shock.”We explore what this means in terms of brain activity and what insights into the brain's visual perceptive system his work gives. We do so especially with reference to the representation of faces and bodies in the human visual brain. We discuss the evidence that shows that both these categories of stimuli have a very privileged status in visual perception, compared to the perception of other stimuli, including man-made artifacts such as houses, chairs, and cars. We show that viewing stimuli that depart significantly from a normal representation of faces and bodies entails a significant difference in the pattern of brain activation. We argue that Bacon succeeded in delivering his “visual shock” because he subverted the normal neural representation of faces and bodies, without at the same time subverting the representation of man-made artifacts. PMID:24339812

  8. Ultra preconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked bacon by a combination of SPE and DLLME.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofang; Zhou, Shu; Zhu, Quanfei; Ye, Yong; Chen, Huaixia

    2014-09-01

    A sample pretreatment method, solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SPE-DLLME), was established for the sensitive determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked bacon samples. In the SPE-DLLME process, three PAHs including naphthalene (Naph), phenanthrene (Phen) and pyrene (Pyr) were extracted from samples and transferred into C18 SPE cartridge. The target analytes were subsequently eluted with 1.2 ml of acetonitrile-dichloromethane (5:1, v/v) mixture solution. The eluent was injected directly into the 5.0 ml ultrapure water in the subsequent DLLME procedure. The sedimented phase was concentrated under a gentle nitrogen flow to 120.0 µl. Finally, the analytes in the extraction solvent were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a ultra-violet detector. Some important extraction parameters affecting the performance, such as the sample solution flow rate, breakthrough volume, salt addition as well as the type and volume of the elution solvent were optimized. The developed method provided an ultra enrichment factors for PAHs ranged from 3478 to 3824. The method was applied for the selective extraction and sensitive determination of PAHs in smoked bacon samples. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.05, 0.01, 0.02 μg kg(-1) for Naph, Phen, Pyr, respectively.

  9. Toward an epistemology of nano-technosciences: Probing technoscience from a historical perspective: on today's surprising prevalence and relevance of Francis Bacon.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jan C

    2011-12-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the attempts to clarify and classify the vague notion of "technosciences" from a historical perspective. A key question that is raised is as follows: Does Francis Bacon, one of the founding fathers of the modern age, provide a hitherto largely undiscovered programmatic position, which might facilitate a more profound understanding of technosciences? The paper argues that nearly everything we need today for an ontologically well-informed epistemology of technoscience can be found in the works of Bacon-this position will be called epistemological real-constructivism. Rather than realist or constructivist, empiricist or rationalist, Bacon's position can best be understood as real-constructivist since it challenges modern dichotomies. Reflection upon the contemporary relevance of Bacon could contribute to the expanding and critical discussion on technoscience. In the following I will reconstruct the term "technoscience". My finding is that at least four different understandings or types of the term "technoscience" co-exist. In a second step, I will analyze and elaborate on Bacon's epistemological position. I will identify central elements of the four different understandings in Bacon's work. Finally, I will conclude that the epistemology of technoscience is, indeed, very old-it is the epistemological position put forward by Bacon. PMID:22207829

  10. Toward an epistemology of nano-technosciences: Probing technoscience from a historical perspective: on today's surprising prevalence and relevance of Francis Bacon.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jan C

    2011-12-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the attempts to clarify and classify the vague notion of "technosciences" from a historical perspective. A key question that is raised is as follows: Does Francis Bacon, one of the founding fathers of the modern age, provide a hitherto largely undiscovered programmatic position, which might facilitate a more profound understanding of technosciences? The paper argues that nearly everything we need today for an ontologically well-informed epistemology of technoscience can be found in the works of Bacon-this position will be called epistemological real-constructivism. Rather than realist or constructivist, empiricist or rationalist, Bacon's position can best be understood as real-constructivist since it challenges modern dichotomies. Reflection upon the contemporary relevance of Bacon could contribute to the expanding and critical discussion on technoscience. In the following I will reconstruct the term "technoscience". My finding is that at least four different understandings or types of the term "technoscience" co-exist. In a second step, I will analyze and elaborate on Bacon's epistemological position. I will identify central elements of the four different understandings in Bacon's work. Finally, I will conclude that the epistemology of technoscience is, indeed, very old-it is the epistemological position put forward by Bacon.

  11. Flat Pack Toy Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces the concept of flat pack toys. Flat pack toys are designed using a template on a single sheet of letter-sized card stock paper. Before being cut out and built into a three-dimensional toy, they are scanned into the computer and uploaded to a website. With the template accessible from the website, anyone with…

  12. The effect of salt reduction on sensory quality and microbial growth in hotdog sausages, bacon, ham and salami.

    PubMed

    Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Vestergaard, Christian; Koch, Anette Granly

    2014-01-01

    Sodium chloride (NaCl) is a multi-functional ingredient used to inhibit microbial growth and to ensure good texture and taste in processed meat. This study showed how moderately (22-25%) and greatly (43-50%) reduction of NaCl affected yield, sensory quality and microbial growth in hotdog sausages, bacon, cooked cured ham and salami. In greatly reduced products, the yield was reduced by 8% in sausages and 6% in ham, whereas the yield in bacon and salami remained unaffected. The microbial growth was generally not affected by reducing the content of NaCl to 2.0% in sausages, 2.3% in bacon, 1.7% in ham and 6.3% in salami (aqueous phase). Salt taste, juiciness and texture were the sensory parameters most affected by the NaCl reduction. In sausages and ham, reduction from 2.2% to 1.7% and from 2.3% to 1.3% (w/w), respectively, did not alter the sensory properties. In contrast, the sensory properties of bacon and salami were significantly affected already after a moderately reduction.

  13. From Bacon to Bush (Vannevar, Not G. W.): Common Ground between Useful Knowledge and Red Brick Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storella, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    The theory about the power of useful knowledge to improve the human condition was published in Francis Bacon's "Novum organon" and his "New Atlantis" in the seventeenth century. The connection between useful knowledge and red brick institutions from University College in London to Framingham State College and MIT in…

  14. FLATs: Warming Up - continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the flat fields during the interval between the end of science observations and the exhaustion of cryogen and subsequent warming of the dewar to > 100K. These flats will provide a monitor for particulate comtamination {GROT} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. They will provide some measure of relative {flat field} and absolute QE variation as a function of temperature. When stars are visible they might provide a limited degree of focus determination.

  15. FLATs: Warming Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the flat fields during the interval between the end of science observations and the exhaustion of cryogen and subsequent warming of the dewar to > 100K. These flats will provide a monitor for particulate comtamination {GROT} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. They will provide some measure of relative {flat field} and absolute QE variation as a function of temperature. When stars are visible they might provide a limited degree of focus determination.

  16. Flat plate solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, M.

    1981-01-01

    The construction of an Indian Rs. 186 (US $20.33) flat-plate solar oven is described. Detailed drawings are provided and relevant information on cooking times and temperature for different foods is given.

  17. Images of trauma: pain, recognition, and disavowal in the works of Frida Kahlo and Francis Bacon.

    PubMed

    Bose, Joerg

    2005-01-01

    The role of art in the encounter with trauma and destructiveness is comparatively studied in the works of Frida Kahlo and Francis Bacon as examples of a direct and a more indirect way of dealing with such experiences. A creative product may function intrapsychically as a kind of messenger between dissociated self-states and consciousness, and it may also serve as a witnessing presence in a self-supporting and self-constituting way. Artistic work may thus be used by the artist for an expressive as well as for a protective purpose, as a means of sympathetic participation in painful experience, or as a medium for a view from the outside. The act itself of finding and of making expressive forms at the time of traumatic experience is a remarkable assertion of the human capability to synthesize and to counteract fragmenting dissociative processes. PMID:15953776

  18. Are we doing any good by doing really well? (Where's the Bacon?).

    PubMed

    Herbert, Donald

    2003-04-01

    Francis Bacon, who with Rene Decartes laid the intellectual foundations for Western science in the seventeenth century, asserted that the purpose of all knowledge is "action in the production of works for ... the relief of man's estate." We assess briefly several aspects of a few of the current efforts directed to the production of such "works" with respect to such "relief" as they may provide: cancer mortality, the medical literature, evidence-based medicine, clinical trials, observational databases and criteria for the promotion and tenure of the medical faculty. We suggest why each of these efforts appears to have failed to some degree and then propose some measures that may possibly serve as correctives. PMID:12722800

  19. Are we doing any good by doing really well? (Where's the Bacon?).

    PubMed

    Herbert, Donald

    2003-04-01

    Francis Bacon, who with Rene Decartes laid the intellectual foundations for Western science in the seventeenth century, asserted that the purpose of all knowledge is "action in the production of works for ... the relief of man's estate." We assess briefly several aspects of a few of the current efforts directed to the production of such "works" with respect to such "relief" as they may provide: cancer mortality, the medical literature, evidence-based medicine, clinical trials, observational databases and criteria for the promotion and tenure of the medical faculty. We suggest why each of these efforts appears to have failed to some degree and then propose some measures that may possibly serve as correctives.

  20. Images of trauma: pain, recognition, and disavowal in the works of Frida Kahlo and Francis Bacon.

    PubMed

    Bose, Joerg

    2005-01-01

    The role of art in the encounter with trauma and destructiveness is comparatively studied in the works of Frida Kahlo and Francis Bacon as examples of a direct and a more indirect way of dealing with such experiences. A creative product may function intrapsychically as a kind of messenger between dissociated self-states and consciousness, and it may also serve as a witnessing presence in a self-supporting and self-constituting way. Artistic work may thus be used by the artist for an expressive as well as for a protective purpose, as a means of sympathetic participation in painful experience, or as a medium for a view from the outside. The act itself of finding and of making expressive forms at the time of traumatic experience is a remarkable assertion of the human capability to synthesize and to counteract fragmenting dissociative processes.

  1. Simulated restaurant cook exposure to emissions of PAHs, mutagenic aldehydes, and particles from frying bacon.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming; Strandberg, Bo; Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Johansen, Arve; Svendsen, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the exposure of cooks to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), higher mutagenic aldehydes, total particles, and ultrafine particles during cooking. Experiments were performed by pan frying fresh and smoked bacon on both electric and gas stoves, and with the gas alone. Detailed analyses of PAHs were performed, with analyses of the levels of 32 different PAHs. A TSI-3939 scanning mobility particle sizer system was used to measure the ultrafine particles. The results showed that total PAHs were in the range of 270-300 ng/m(3) air. However, the smoked bacon experiment showed a somewhat different PAH pattern, whereby retene constituted about 10% of the total PAHs, which is a level similar to that of the abundant gas phase constituent phenanthrene. The reason for the elevated retene emissions is unknown. The total cancer risk, expressed as toxic equivalency factors, showed a somewhat higher risk on the electric stove (p < 0.05) compared with the gas stove. Levels of trans, trans-2,4-decadienal were between 34 and 54 μg/m(3) air. The level of total particles was between 2.2 and 4.2 mg/m(3). Frying on a gas stove caused a statistically significant higher amount of ultrafine particles compared with frying on an electric stove. Large variations in the mobility diameter at peak particle concentration were found (74.4 nm-153.5 nm). The highest mobility diameter was found for frying on an electric stove. The gas flame itself showed a maximum production of 19.5-nm-sized particles and could not be the explanation for the difference between frying on the gas stove and frying on the electric stove. No single indicator for the exposure to cooking fume could be selected. Each compound should be measured independently to provide a comprehensive characterization of the cooking exposure.

  2. Creation Of Constructed Tidal Flats Using Ocean Dredged Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Yi, B.; Lee, I.; Sung, K.

    2007-12-01

    The enforcement of London dumping convention (1972) and protocols (1996) which are comprehensive assessment system for ocean dumping wastes needs environmentally sound treatment and/or reuse of dredged sediment. Creation of constructed tidal flats using dredged sediments could be one of the useful alternatives among other dredged sediment treatments. In this study, the pilot-scale constructed tidal flats with 4 different mixing ratio of ocean dredged sediment were constructed in Nakdong river estuary, Korea. The reed was transplanted from the adjacent reed community after construction, and then the survival and growth rate of the planted reed was measured. Also the changes of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Ignition loss (IL), and the heterotrophic microbial numbers were monitored. The survival rate of the planted reed decreased as the mixing ratio of dredged sediment increased. The survival rate of reed in the constructed tidal flat with 100% dredged sediment was 54% while that in the tidal flat with 0% dredged sediment (original soil of Nakdong river estuary) was 90%. There was little difference of length and diameter of the reed shoot among the 4 different constructed tidal flats. 30% of COD and 9% of IL in the tidal flat with 100% dredged sediment decreased after 202 day, however, the consistent tendency in the change of COD and IL in the other tidal flats was not found possibly due to the open system. It was suggested that the construction of tidal flats using ocean dredged sediment can be possible considering the growth rate of transplanted reeds and the contaminated ocean dredged sediment might be biologically remediated considering the results of decrease of organic matter and increased heterotrophic microbial number in the tidal flat with 100% dredged sediment. However, the continuous monitoring on the vegetation and various environmental factors in the constructed tidal flats should be necessary to evaluate the success of creation of constructed flats using

  3. Kodiak seamount not flat-topped.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, E L; von Huene, R E

    1966-12-01

    Earlier surveys in the Aleutian Trench southeast of Kodiak Island, Alaska, indicated that Kodiak Seamount had a flat top and was a tablemount or guyot. This seamount is of special significance because it has been supposed that its surface was eroded at the same time as those of a line of guyots to the southeast. If so, its present position in the axis of the Aleutian Trench indicates that the line of guyots was formed before the trench. A two-part survey in 1965 showed that Kodiak Seamount is not flat-topped, and should be eliminated from the category of guyots. Reflection profiling records indicate that the seamount was formed before the adjacent sediments were deposited, and that the small trough, or moat, on the south side is a depositional feature probably formed by a scouring effect or by the acceleration of turbidity currents around the base of the mount.

  4. Kodiak seamount not flat-topped.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, E L; von Huene, R E

    1966-12-01

    Earlier surveys in the Aleutian Trench southeast of Kodiak Island, Alaska, indicated that Kodiak Seamount had a flat top and was a tablemount or guyot. This seamount is of special significance because it has been supposed that its surface was eroded at the same time as those of a line of guyots to the southeast. If so, its present position in the axis of the Aleutian Trench indicates that the line of guyots was formed before the trench. A two-part survey in 1965 showed that Kodiak Seamount is not flat-topped, and should be eliminated from the category of guyots. Reflection profiling records indicate that the seamount was formed before the adjacent sediments were deposited, and that the small trough, or moat, on the south side is a depositional feature probably formed by a scouring effect or by the acceleration of turbidity currents around the base of the mount. PMID:17770303

  5. The Interaction Between Lipoxygenase-Catalyzed Oxidation and Autoxidation in Dry-Cured Bacon and a Model System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingyang; Tang, Jing; Zhao, Jianying; Wu, Haizhou; Ditta, Yasir Allah; Zhang, Jianhao

    2015-12-01

    A model system was conducted to characterize the interaction between lipid autoxidation and enzyme-catalyzed oxidation in dry-cured bacon. This involved the use of a hydroxyl radical (HO•) generating system and the extraction and purification of lipoxygenases (LOX) from pork belly. The results showed that LOX activity rapidly (P < 0.05) increased during the curing of dry-cured bacon. This may be because of the hydroxyl-radical-mediated oxidation from LOX-Fe(2+) to LOX-Fe(3+), which activates LOX. In addition, experiments of the model system also showed that LOX activity could be inhibited by increasing the substrate concentration, although substrate type and concentration had no effect on autoxidation. Moreover, LOX enzyme-catalyzed oxidation and autoxidation could act synergistically to promote lipid oxidation irrespective of the substrate (linoleic or arachidonic acid). These results provide useful information for regulating lipid oxidation during the production of dry-cured pork products.

  6. Flat Top & rocky terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Flat Top, the rectangular rock at lower right, is part of a stretch of rocky terrain in this image, taken by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. Dust has accumulated on the top of Flat Top, but is not present on the sides due to the steep angles of the rock. This dust may have been placed by dust storms moving across the Martian surface. Flat Top has been studied using several different color filters on the IMP camera.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  7. Flat Focusing Mirror

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y. C.; Kicas, S.; Trull, J.; Peckus, M.; Cojocaru, C.; Vilaseca, R.; Drazdys, R.; Staliunas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits. PMID:25228358

  8. Holograms of Flat Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Grumiller, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The holographic principle has a concrete realization in the Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. If this principle is a true fact about quantum gravity then it must also hold beyond AdS/CFT. In this paper, we address specifically holographic field theory duals of gravitational theories in asymptotically flat spacetimes. We present some evidence of our recent conjecture that three-dimensional (3d) conformal Chern-Simons gravity (CSG) with flat space boundary conditions is dual to an extremal CFT.

  9. Is flat fair?

    SciTech Connect

    Bunzl, Martin

    2010-07-15

    Dynamic pricing holds out the promise of shifting peak demand as well as reducing overall demand. But it also raises thorny issues of fairness. All practical pricing systems involve tradeoffs between equity and efficiency. I examine the circumstances under which equity ought to be allowed to trump efficiency and whether or not this constitutes a defense of flat pricing. (author)

  10. Flat conductor cable applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the numerous applications of flat conductor cable (FCC) systems are briefly described. Both government and commercial uses were considered, with applications designated as either aerospace, military, or commercial. The number and variety of ways in which FCC is being applied and considered for future designs are illustrated.

  11. Multilayer flat electrical cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    Flat electrical cable is lightweight, flexible over wide temperature range, withstands continuous exposure to high levels of nuclear radiation, and can carry high currents with minimum of temperature rise. Its magnetic cleanliness is equal to or better than twisted pair of wires, and it can be terminated in conventional electrical connector.

  12. Four centuries on from Bacon: progress in building health research systems to improve health systems?

    PubMed

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    In 1627, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis described a utopian society in which an embryonic research system contributed to meeting the needs of the society. In this editorial, we use some of the aspirations described in New Atlantis to provide a context within which to consider recent progress in building health research systems to improve health systems and population health. In particular, we reflect on efforts to build research capacity, link research to policy, identify the wider impacts made by the science, and generally build fully functioning research systems to address the needs identified. In 2014, Health Research Policy and Systems has continued to publish one-off papers and article collections covering a range of these issues in both high income countries and low- and middle-income countries. Analysis of these contributions, in the context of some earlier ones, is brought together to identify achievements, challenges and possible ways forward. We show how 2014 is likely to be a pivotal year in the development of ways to assess the impact of health research on policies, practice, health systems, population health, and economic benefits.We demonstrate how the increasing focus on health research systems will contribute to realising the hopes expressed in the World Health Report, 2013, namely that all nations would take a systematic approach to evaluating the outputs and applications resulting from their research investment. PMID:25249030

  13. Four centuries on from Bacon: progress in building health research systems to improve health systems?

    PubMed

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2014-09-23

    In 1627, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis described a utopian society in which an embryonic research system contributed to meeting the needs of the society. In this editorial, we use some of the aspirations described in New Atlantis to provide a context within which to consider recent progress in building health research systems to improve health systems and population health. In particular, we reflect on efforts to build research capacity, link research to policy, identify the wider impacts made by the science, and generally build fully functioning research systems to address the needs identified. In 2014, Health Research Policy and Systems has continued to publish one-off papers and article collections covering a range of these issues in both high income countries and low- and middle-income countries. Analysis of these contributions, in the context of some earlier ones, is brought together to identify achievements, challenges and possible ways forward. We show how 2014 is likely to be a pivotal year in the development of ways to assess the impact of health research on policies, practice, health systems, population health, and economic benefits.We demonstrate how the increasing focus on health research systems will contribute to realising the hopes expressed in the World Health Report, 2013, namely that all nations would take a systematic approach to evaluating the outputs and applications resulting from their research investment.

  14. Extensometer, water-level, and lithologic data from Bacon and Bethel Islands in Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, September 1987 to August 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerr, Barry D.; Leighton, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Compaction, water-level, and lithologic data were collected at extensometer sites on Bacon and Bethel Islands, anchored at 436 and 536 feet below land surface, respectively. The data reported here are part of a study of the processes causing subsidence in the Sacramento?San Joaquin Delta. The depths were selected to ensure that they were well below the peat layer and the primary aquifer, which minimized the effects of peat loss and shallow ground-water withdrawal. Compaction and depth to ground water were measured monthly at Bacon Island from September 1987 through August 1993 and at Bethel Island from August 1988 through August 1993. After automatic digital data loggers were installed at Bacon Island in December 1988 and at Bethel Island in September 1989, hourly readings also were made. Calculated rates of compaction were 0.0015 and 0.0016 feet per year at Bacon and Bethel Islands, respectively. Cumulative compaction at the Bacon Island site from September 1987 to August 1993 was about 0.009 feet. Cumulative compaction at the Bethel Island site from August 1988 to August 1993 was about 0.008 feet.

  15. COS NUV Flat Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2011-10-01

    This program aims at obtaining COS NUV-MAMA flat-field observations for monitoring purpose only.The program uses the internal deuterium lamp and the MR grism G185M {at the central wavelengths 1835, 1850 and 1864 A}, as during thermal vacuum testing and SMOV4. The estimated SNR reached at the end of the program {13 hr integration during 10 orbits} is 20-25 per 3x3 pixel.

  16. Flat-plate heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, B. D.; Fleischman, G. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Flat plate (vapor chamber) heat pipes were made by enclosing metal wicking between two capillary grooved flat panels. These heat pipes provide a unique configuration and have good capacity and conductance capabilities in zero gravity. When these flat plate vapor chamber heat pipes are heated or cooled, the surfaces are essentially isothermal, varying only 3 to 5 C over the panel surface.

  17. Screening procedure for detection of volatile N-nitrosamines in cooked bacon by one-trap mineral oil vacuum distillation and thermal energy analyzer.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, E L; Vasco, G A; Legette, L; Malanoski, A

    1982-11-01

    A rapid screening procedure for the detection of volatile N-nitrosamines in fried bacon has been developed for the regulatory monitoring of bacon. This procedure uses vacuum mineral oil distillation of an alkaline sample. The distillate is collected in a prewet trap immersed in liquid nitrogen. After thawing, the distillate is transferred to a separator. The trap is rinsed with methylene chloride which is then used to extract the nitrosamines. The methylene chloride is dried with Na2SO4 and concentrated. A gas-liquid chromatograph coupled to a thermal energy analyzer is used to identify and quantitate the nitrosamines. Recoveries of 7 volatile N-nitrosamines added to 25 g fried bacon at the 10 ppb level (microgram/kg) ranged from 78 to 92%. PMID:7174574

  18. Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus sakei as bio-protective culture to eliminate Leuconostoc mesenteroides spoilage and improve the shelf life and sensorial characteristics of commercial cooked bacon.

    PubMed

    Comi, Giuseppe; Andyanto, Debbie; Manzano, Marisa; Iacumin, Lucilla

    2016-09-01

    Cooked bacon is a typical Italian meat product. After production, cooked bacon is stored at 4 ± 2 °C. During storage, the microorganisms that survived pasteurisation can grow and produce spoilage. For the first time, we studied the cause of the deterioration in spoiled cooked bacon compared to unspoiled samples. Moreover, the use of bio-protective cultures to improve the quality of the product and eliminate the risk of spoilage was tested. The results show that Leuconostoc mesenteroides is responsible for spoilage and produces a greening colour of the meat, slime and various compounds that result from the fermentation of sugars and the degradation of nitrogen compounds. Finally, Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis and Lactobacillus sakei were able to reduce the risk of Leuconostoc mesenteroides spoilage.

  19. Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus sakei as bio-protective culture to eliminate Leuconostoc mesenteroides spoilage and improve the shelf life and sensorial characteristics of commercial cooked bacon.

    PubMed

    Comi, Giuseppe; Andyanto, Debbie; Manzano, Marisa; Iacumin, Lucilla

    2016-09-01

    Cooked bacon is a typical Italian meat product. After production, cooked bacon is stored at 4 ± 2 °C. During storage, the microorganisms that survived pasteurisation can grow and produce spoilage. For the first time, we studied the cause of the deterioration in spoiled cooked bacon compared to unspoiled samples. Moreover, the use of bio-protective cultures to improve the quality of the product and eliminate the risk of spoilage was tested. The results show that Leuconostoc mesenteroides is responsible for spoilage and produces a greening colour of the meat, slime and various compounds that result from the fermentation of sugars and the degradation of nitrogen compounds. Finally, Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis and Lactobacillus sakei were able to reduce the risk of Leuconostoc mesenteroides spoilage. PMID:27217354

  20. Antioxidant enzyme activities are affected by salt content and temperature and influence muscle lipid oxidation during dry-salted bacon processing.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guofeng; He, Lichao; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Jianhao; Ma, Meihu

    2013-12-01

    Fresh pork bacon belly was used as material and manufactured into dry-salted bacon through salting and drying-ripening. During processing both oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme stability were evaluated by assessing peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and their correlations were also analysed. The results showed that all antioxidant enzyme activities decreased (p<0.05) until the end of process; GSH-Px was the most unstable one followed by catalase. Antioxidant enzyme activities were negatively correlated with TBARS (p<0.05), but the correlations were decreased with increasing process temperature. Salt showed inhibitory effect on all antioxidant enzyme activities and was concentration dependent. These results indicated that when process temperature and salt content were low at the same time during dry-salted bacon processing, antioxidant enzymes could effectively control lipid oxidation. PMID:23871020

  1. Flat conductor cable commercialization project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

    1977-01-01

    An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

  2. Investigating quality attributes and consumer acceptance of uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added commercial hams, bacons, and frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Sindelar, J J; Cordray, J C; Olson, D G; Sebranek, J G; Love, J A

    2007-10-01

    Increasing demands for natural, organic, and/or preservative-free foods have resulted in the consumer availability of uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added processed meat and poultry products. A comprehensive understanding about the quality and sensory attributes of commercially available uncured products is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if quality and sensory differences exist between uncured and cured meat products. Five different commercial brands (Brands A to E; 4 uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added, and 1 nitrite-added) of 3 product types (hams, frankfurters, and bacons) were obtained from retail supermarkets. The samples were evaluated for color, pigment content, pH, lipid oxidation, residual nitrate and nitrite content, and consumer acceptance. All brands from all product types evaluated, except for 1 bacon (Brand B), had cured color, aroma, and flavor attributes similar to the nitrite-added control (Brand E). All product types and brands contained residual nitrate and residual nitrite except for Brands B and D bacons (< 1 ppm nitrite). Lipid oxidation as measured by 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances revealed a large variation in the occurrence of lipid oxidation both between and within product types, with frankfurters reporting the highest levels. Color measurements indicated the majority of the brands within each product type were similar to the control. Consumer sensory ratings for surface/lean color, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptance determined that variation existed. Brand E (nitrite-added control) and 1 uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added brand for each product type were not different (P > 0.05) for overall acceptance and received higher scores (P < 0.05) than all other brands within each product type. PMID:17995620

  3. An evaluation of the deep reservoir conditions of the Bacon-Manito geothermal field, Philippines using well gas chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amore, Franco; Maniquis-Buenviaje, Marinela; Solis, Ramonito P.

    1993-01-28

    Gas chemistry from 28 wells complement water chemistry and physical data in developing a reservoir model for the Bacon-Manito geothermal project (BMGP), Philippines. Reservoir temperature, THSH, and steam fraction, y, are calculated or extrapolated from the grid defined by the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) and H2-H2S (HSH) gas equilibria reactions. A correction is made for H2 that is lost due to preferential partitioning into the vapor phase and the reequilibration of H2S after steam loss.

  4. Incidence, location and interrelationships between the sites of abscesses recorded in pigs at a bacon factory in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Huey, R J

    1996-05-25

    The position and incidence of all the abscesses detected during post mortem inspection of 75,130 bacon weight pigs were recorded. Abscesses were detected at one site only in 2.87 per cent of the carcases examined, and at more than one site in 0.26 per cent of the carcases. Tail biting was the cause of the infection in 61.7 per cent of all the carcases with lesions at more than one site. In almost all cases there was a statistically significant interrelationship between the visible abscesses at different sites. PMID:8761973

  5. Wedge and Flat Top

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Flat Top, the rectangular rock at right, is part of a stretch of rocky terrain in this image, taken by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. Dust has accumulated on the top of Flat Top, but is not present on the sides due to the steep angles of the rock. This dust may have been placed by dust storms moving across the Martian surface. The rock dubbed 'Wedge' is at left. The objects have been studied using several different color filters on the IMP camera.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  6. Is classical flat Kasner spacetime flat in quantum gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Parampreet

    2016-05-01

    Quantum nature of classical flat Kasner spacetime is studied using effective spacetime description in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We find that even though the spacetime curvature vanishes at the classical level, nontrivial quantum gravitational effects can arise. For the standard loop quantization of Bianchi-I spacetime, which uniquely yields universal bounds on expansion and shear scalars and results in a generic resolution of strong singularities, we find that a flat Kasner metric is not a physical solution of the effective spacetime description, except in a limit. The lack of a flat Kasner metric at the quantum level results from a novel feature of the loop quantum Bianchi-I spacetime: quantum geometry induces nonvanishing spacetime curvature components, making it not Ricci flat even when no matter is present. The noncurvature singularity of the classical flat Kasner spacetime is avoided, and the effective spacetime transits from a flat Kasner spacetime in asymptotic future, to a Minkowski spacetime in asymptotic past. Interestingly, for an alternate loop quantization which does not share some of the fine features of the standard quantization, flat Kasner spacetime with expected classical features exists. In this case, even with nontrivial quantum geometric effects, the spacetime curvature vanishes. These examples show that the character of even a flat classical vacuum spacetime can alter in a fundamental way in quantum gravity and is sensitive to the quantization procedure.

  7. Water and sediment transport of channel-flat systems in a mesotidal mudflat: Willapa Bay, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowacki, Daniel J.; Ogston, Andrea S.

    2013-06-01

    The muddy tidal flats of southern Willapa Bay, Washington are tidally dominated and receive little direct freshwater input. We use data from instruments deployed in channels of different size and on their adjacent flats to investigate the hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics of each morphological setting under a range of seasonal and meteorological conditions, including rain and wind events. Interaction between the morphology of the channel/flat complex and tidal water-level variations produces well-defined velocity pulses during both flooding and ebbing tides. These pulses represent about 27% of the total along-channel water transport and 35% of the suspended-sediment transport of the system. Maintenance of continuity produces the velocity pulse, and pulse magnitude is determined by tidal range. Wind alters the flow regime in channels and on the flat, enhancing over-flat ebb flow in this study location while decreasing ebb-pulse intensity. Wind speed was positively correlated with minimum suspended-sediment concentration. Precipitation falling directly on flats was found to erode flat sediment, which subsequently formed a temporary deposit in the adjacent channel. Residual along-channel water transport in channels and on nearby flats was flood dominant under all seasonal conditions sampled, and sediment flux was flood dominant during winter and spring deployments.

  8. Analysis of nitrosamines in cooked bacon by QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry with backflushing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrites are added as a preservative to a variety of cured meats, including bacon, to kill bacteria, extend shelf-life, and improve quality. During cooking, nitrites in the meat can be converted to carcinogenic nitrosamines (NAs), the formation of which are mitigated by the addition of anti-oxidant...

  9. Effects of plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol on lipid oxidation, microbiological characteristics, and biogenic amines formation in dry-cured bacons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of plant polyphenols (tea polyphenol, grape seed extract, and gingerol) and a-tocopherol on physicochemical parameters, microbiological counts, and biogenic amines were determined in dry-cured bacons at the end of ripening. Results showed that plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol significantly...

  10. SDO FlatSat Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amason, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is to understand and, ideally, predict the solar variations that influence life and society. It's instruments will measure the properties of the Sun and will take hifh definition images of the Sun every few seconds, all day every day. The FlatSat is a high fidelity electrical and functional representation of the SDO spacecraft bus. It is a high fidelity test bed for Integration & Test (I & T), flight software, and flight operations. For I & T purposes FlatSat will be a driver to development and dry run electrical integration procedures, STOL test procedures, page displays, and the command and telemetry database. FlatSat will also serve as a platform for flight software acceptance and systems testing for the flight software system component including the spacecraft main processors, power supply electronics, attitude control electronic, gimbal control electrons and the S-band communications card. FlatSat will also benefit the flight operations team through post-launch flight software code and table update development and verification and verification of new and updated flight operations products. This document highlights the benefits of FlatSat; describes the building of FlatSat; provides FlatSat facility requirements, access roles and responsibilities; and, and discusses FlatSat mechanical and electrical integration and functional testing.

  11. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  12. CESAR at Poker Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsiev, D.; Slanger, T. G.; Hedin, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Compact Echelle Spectrograph for Aeronomic Research (CESAR) has been sited at Poker Flat Research Range since November 2013, collecting data over two seasons of the nightglow and the aurora. CESAR has operated with a field of view of seven degrees in the zenith direction, with a resolution of 5000, although a resolution three times greater is available. So far, data collection times have been in the range of 20 minutes, while the wavelength range used has been 500-1050 nm. Detailed studies of a number of optical features have been carried out. 1) It is demonstrated that the v = 2 level of the O2(b) state is best studied by using the weak b-X 2-1 band near 697 nm, it being free of auroral contamination. 2) Similarly, the best uncontaminated feature of the N2+ Meinel system is the complex A-X 0-1 band, which has been accurately simulated for the first time [Dubowsky and McCall, private communication, 2014]. 3) The N(2P-2D) quartet of lines near 1040 nm is an important auroral feature, being the N-atom equivalent of the oxygen green line. These lines are uncontaminated in many of our spectra. For lower altitude auroral excitation, there may be some overlap with the N2 First Positive 0-0 band [Pendleton et al, 1989]. 4) Time series on the O+(2P-2D) lines near 732-733 nm have been studied, showing variable background emission in this region depending on auroral type. Information on OH Meinel band lines is available throughout the region studied, and there is substantial evidence from sky spectra (Keck, VLT) that the attempt to extract kinetic temperatures from OH intensity distributions is strongly influenced by non-LTE effects [Cosby and Slanger, 2007; Noll et al, 2014].

  13. Flat-space chiral gravity.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Arjun; Detournay, Stéphane; Grumiller, Daniel

    2012-10-12

    We provide the first evidence for a holographic correspondence between a gravitational theory in flat space and a specific unitary field theory in one dimension lower. The gravitational theory is a flat-space limit of topologically massive gravity in three dimensions at a Chern-Simons level of k=1. The field theory is a chiral two-dimensional conformal field theory with a central charge of c=24. PMID:23102291

  14. Hydrologic conditions in the Wheatland Flats area, Platte County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crist, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The area includes about 260 square miles in central Platte County that consists of Wheatland Flats and a border region. Wheatland Flats is an area of about 100 square miles that is bounded by Chugwater Creek on the east, the Laramie River on the north, and Sybille Creek on the west. The southern boundary is approximately the southernmost limit of alluvial terrace deposits. Surface water diverted from the Laramie River along with ground water from wells is used to irrigate about 57,000 acres most of which are on and adjacent to Wheatland Flats. More than 200 wells are used for irrigation, industrial, and municipal supplies. The wells are completed in an upper aquifer consisting primarily of shallow alluvial deposits of Quaternary age and a lower aquifer, the Arikaree Formation of early Miocene age. Net water-level decline after approximately 20 years (1958-60 to 1979) generally is less than 10 feet in each aquifer , although declines of as much as 13 feet have occurred in the Airkaree Formation at specific locations. A digital model was used to simulate hydrologic conditions in the Wheatland Flats area. The model indicated that ground-water discharge to streams decreased by 10 percent from 1971 to 1978. Stream-discharge measurements are not available to verify the loss. However, it is reasonable to assume, on the basis of hydraulic-head decline in the aquifers, that there has been some ground-water contribution to the stream. (USGS)

  15. Half-flat quantum hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Compeán, Hugo; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Santos-Silva, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    By wrapping D3-branes over 3-cycles on a half-flat manifold, we construct an effective supersymmetric black hole in the N=2 low-energy theory in four dimensions. Specifically, we find that the torsion cycles present in a half-flat compactification, corresponding to the mirror symmetric image of electric Neveu-Schwarz flux on a Calabi-Yau manifold, manifest in the half-flat black hole as quantum hair. We compute the electric and magnetic charges related to the quantum hair and also the mass contribution to the effective black hole. We find that by wrapping a number of D3-branes equal to the order of the discrete group associated to the torsional part of the half-flat homology, the effective charge and mass terms vanish. We compute the variation of entropy and the corresponding temperature associated with the loss of quantum hair. We also comment on the equivalence between canceling Freed-Witten anomaly and the assumption of self-duality for the 5-form field strength. Finally from a K-theoretical perspective, we compute the presence of discrete Ramond-Ramond charge of D-branes wrapping torsional cycles in a half-flat manifold.

  16. Proteolysis and sensory properties of dry-cured bacon as affected by the partial substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haizhou; Zhang, Yingyang; Long, Men; Tang, Jing; Yu, Xiang; Wang, Jiamei; Zhang, Jianhao

    2014-03-01

    Quadriceps femoris muscle samples (48) from 24 pigs were processed into dry-cured bacon. This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of sodium chloride (NaCl) with potassium chloride (KCl) on proteolysis and sensory properties of dry-cured bacon. Three salt treatments were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (60% NaCl, 40% KCl), and III (30% NaCl, 70% KCl). No significant differences were observed among treatments in the proteolysis, which was reflected by SDS-PAGE, proteolysis index, amino acid nitrogen, and peptide nitrogen contents. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the moisture content between control and treatment II, whereas the moisture content in treatment III was significantly higher (p<0.05) in comparison with control (treatment I). The sensory analysis indicated that it was possible to reduce NaCl by 40% without adverse effects on sensory properties, but 70% replacement of NaCl with KCl resulted in bacon with less hardness and saltiness and higher (p<0.05) juiciness and bitterness.

  17. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  18. The Fallacies of Flatness: Thomas Friedman's "The World Is Flat"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight; Roberts, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Thomas Friedman's best-selling "The World is Flat" has exerted much influence in the west by providing both an accessible analysis of globalization and its economic and social effects, and a powerful cultural metaphor for globalization. In this review, we more closely examine Friedman's notion of the social contract, the moral center of his…

  19. Effects of the porcine IGF2 intron 3-G3072A mutation on carcass cutability, meat quality, and bacon processing.

    PubMed

    Clark, D L; Bohrer, B M; Tavárez, M A; Boler, D D; Beever, J E; Dilger, A C

    2014-12-01

    A SNP in a regulatory region of intron 3 within the porcine IGF2 gene (IGF2-G3072A) is associated with increased lean deposition and decreased fat deposition in pigs with paternal A alleles (APat) compared with pigs with paternal G alleles (GPat). However, data regarding fresh and processed meat quality characteristics of pigs with different alleles for this polymorphism are limited. A single heterozygote (AG) boar was bred to homozygous (AA) commercial Yorkshire-cross sows producing F1 barrows and gilts with either GPat or APat. Two farrowing groups of barrows and gilts were group housed, provided ad libitum access to a diet that met or exceeded NRC nutrient recommendations throughout production, and slaughtered at 176 d (±4 d) of age. Fresh LM quality and estimated percent fat-free lean measurements were taken on the left side of carcasses, while carcass cutouts were completed with right sides. Fresh belly and bacon processing traits were characterized for only block 1 pigs. Pig was treated as the experimental unit for all analyses. Ending live weight and HCW were not affected by IGF2 allele; however, 10th rib backfat thickness was 0.41 cm less (P=0.01), loin eye area was 4.0 cm2 greater (P=0.01), and predicted fat-free lean was over 2 percentage units greater (P<0.01) in APat pigs compared with GPat pigs. Furthermore, boneless lean cuts from the shoulder, loin, and ham were heavier (P<0.05) in APat pigs compared with GPat pigs. Minolta L* value was 2.36 units greater (P=0.03) but cooking loss was 1.82 percentage units greater (P<0.01) in APat pigs compared with GPat pigs. Additionally, despite reductions in subcutaneous fat, extractable intramuscular lipid from the LM was 0.64 percentage units greater (P=0.02) in APat pigs compared with GPat pigs. Bellies were 7.17 mm thinner (P=0.01), had 7.27 cm less flop distance (P=0.05), and tended to have 1.34 units greater iodine value (P=0.09) in APat pigs compared with GPat pigs. While not statistically different (P=0

  20. Selected hydrologic data for the Bonneville Salt Flats and Pilot Valley, western Utah, 1991-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, James L.; Brothers, W.C.; Gerner, L.J.; Muir, P.S.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains hydrologic data collected during 1991-93 in the Bonneville Salt Flats and Pilot Valley study area of western Utah. These data were collected in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, as part of a study to investigate possible salt loss from the Bonneville Salt Flats. The Bonneville Salt Flats and adjacent Pilot Valley are located in the western part of the Great Salt Lake Desert in Utah, near the Nevada border. The Bonneville Salt Flats playa has a thick, perennial salt crust and the Pilot Valley playa has a thin, ephemeral salt crust. Well-completion data, including well depth and screened intervals, are presented in this report for selected shallow and deep monitoring wells. Water-level measurements are reported with corresponding specfic-gravity and temperature measurements. Results of chemical analyses are reported for brine collected from wells and pore fluids extracted from cores.

  1. Automatic Flatness Control of Cold Rolling Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbe, Yoshiharu; Sekiguchi, Kunio

    One of the subjects of cold rolling is a flatness of the rolled strip. Conventionally, measured strip flatness was approximated by polynomial (2th, 4th, 6th) equation across the entire strip width. This made it difficult to deal with desired loose edge or any desired flatness across the entire strip width. Also conventional flatness control was done for the entire strip width, so if there is a different flatness error among drive side and work side, conventional flatness control can not control properly. We propose independent strip flatness control among drive side and work side, and also automatic flatness control (AFC) system with arbitrary desired strip flatness. Also some applied results to cold mill are shown.

  2. MINARETS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, N. King; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Minarets Wilderness and adjacent areas in the central Sierra Nevada, California was conducted. The results of the survey indicate that the study area has a substantiated resource potential for small deposits of copper, silver, zinc, lead, and iron, and a probable mineral-resource potential for molybdenum. No energy-resource potential was identified in the study.

  3. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  4. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  5. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  6. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  7. Hydrodynamics and sediment suspension in shallow tidal channels intersecting a tidal flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieterse, Aline; Puleo, Jack A.; McKenna, Thomas E.

    2016-05-01

    A field study was conducted on a tidal flat intersected by small tidal channels (depth <0.1 m, width <2 m) within a tidal marsh. Data were collected in the channels, and on the adjacent tidal flat that encompasses approximately 1600 m2 in planform area. Hydrodynamic processes and sediment suspension between the channels and adjacent flat were compared. Shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy were computed from high frequency velocity measurements. Maximum water depth at the field site varied from 0.11 m during the lowest neap high tide to 0.58 m during a storm event. In the channel intersecting the tidal flat, the shear stress, turbulence and along-channel velocity were ebb dominant; e.g. 0.33 m/s peak velocity for ebb compared to 0.19 m/s peak velocity for flood. Distinct pulses in velocity occurred when the water level was near the tidal flat level. The velocity pulse during flood tide occurred at a higher water level than during ebb tide. No corresponding velocity pulse on the tidal flat was observed. Sediment concentrations peaked at the beginning and end of each tidal cycle, and often had a secondary peak close to high tide, assumed to be related to sediment advection. The influence of wind waves on bed shear stress and sediment suspension was negligible. Water levels were elevated during a storm event such that the tidal flat remained inundated for 4 tidal cycles. The water did not drain from the tidal flat into the channels during the storm, and no velocity pulses occurred. Along-channel velocities, turbulent kinetic energy, and shear stresses were therefore smaller in the channels during storm conditions than during non-storm conditions.

  8. Land claim and loss of tidal flats in the Yangtze Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Dong, Jinwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Zhang, Min; Tian, Bo; Zhou, Yunxuan; Li, Bo; Ma, Zhijun

    2016-04-01

    Tidal flats play a critical role in supporting biodiversity and in providing ecosystem services but are rapidly disappearing because of human activities. The Yangtze Estuary is one of the world’s largest alluvial estuaries and is adjacent to the most developed economic zone in China. Using the Yangtze Estuary as a study region, we developed an automatic algorithm to estimate tidal flat areas based on the Land Surface Water Index and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. The total area of tidal flats in the Yangtze Estuary has decreased by 36% over the past three decades, including a 38% reduction in saltmarshes and a 31% reduction in barren mudflats. Meanwhile, land claim has accumulated to 1077 km2, a value that exceeds the area of the remaining tidal flats. We divided the Yangtze Estuary into Shanghai and Jiangsu areas, which differ in riverine sediment supply and tidal flat management patterns. Although land claim has accelerated in both areas, the decline in tidal flat area has been much greater in Jiangsu than in Shanghai because of abundant supplies of sediment and artificial siltation in the latter area. The results highlight the need for better coastal planning and management based on tidal flat dynamics.

  9. Land claim and loss of tidal flats in the Yangtze Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Dong, Jinwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Zhang, Min; Tian, Bo; Zhou, Yunxuan; Li, Bo; Ma, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Tidal flats play a critical role in supporting biodiversity and in providing ecosystem services but are rapidly disappearing because of human activities. The Yangtze Estuary is one of the world’s largest alluvial estuaries and is adjacent to the most developed economic zone in China. Using the Yangtze Estuary as a study region, we developed an automatic algorithm to estimate tidal flat areas based on the Land Surface Water Index and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. The total area of tidal flats in the Yangtze Estuary has decreased by 36% over the past three decades, including a 38% reduction in saltmarshes and a 31% reduction in barren mudflats. Meanwhile, land claim has accumulated to 1077 km2, a value that exceeds the area of the remaining tidal flats. We divided the Yangtze Estuary into Shanghai and Jiangsu areas, which differ in riverine sediment supply and tidal flat management patterns. Although land claim has accelerated in both areas, the decline in tidal flat area has been much greater in Jiangsu than in Shanghai because of abundant supplies of sediment and artificial siltation in the latter area. The results highlight the need for better coastal planning and management based on tidal flat dynamics. PMID:27035525

  10. Factors Controlling Tidal Flat Morphology in South San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearman, J. A.; Foxgrover, A.; Friedrichs, C.; Jaffe, B.

    2006-12-01

    Since the 1850's, the San Francisco Bay has been subjected to a wide array of human-induced change. From the time of the first US Coast and Geodetic Survey bathymetric surveys in 1858, the saltmarshes and mudflats of South San Francisco Bay (SSFB) have decreased in area by 80% and 40%, respectively. Much of the saltmarsh loss was due to salt pond leveeing, while mudflat loss can be related to lack of sediment input, wind-wave erosion, and sea level rise. Plans for marsh restoration include breaching of salt pond levees with the goal of restoring the 15,100 acres of acquired ponds to tidal marsh the largest such restoration in the western US. The effect this would have upon the adjacent mudflats is unclear. In this analysis, the tidal flats of SSFB are broken into geographically similar regions and multiple cross-sections are drawn from mean high water to below mean lower low water at close intervals, allowing for a mean tidal flat bathymetric profile to be determined for each segment and for each time period 1858, 1898, 1931, 1956, 1983, 2005. Eigenfunction analysis is used to separate the spatial and temporal changes in profile shape into the dominant components of variability, allowing evaluation of the behavior of mudflats relative to spatially and temporally-varying forcings. The components of bathymetric variability derived from objective statistical analysis are compared to theoretical models for tidal flat profiles as a function of waves, tides and sediment supply. Theoretical models predict that wave-dominated or sediment-starved flats tend to have concave-upwards bathymetric profiles, whereas tide-dominated or accretionary flats tend to have convex-upwards bathymetric profiles. Initial results from an analysis of the 1980's bathymetry data suggest the South Bay mudflats can be broken into three morphologically distinct sections: 1) concave-up, erosional mudflats in the Eastern zone, which is most subject to wind waves; 2) convex-up, accretionary flats in

  11. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  12. Graphene folding on flat substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yadong; Ke, Changhong; Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-10-28

    We present a combined experimental-theoretical study of graphene folding on flat substrates. The structure and deformation of the folded graphene sheet are experimentally characterized by atomic force microscopy. The local graphene folding behaviors are interpreted based on nonlinear continuum mechanics modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Our study on self-folding of a trilayer graphene sheet reports a bending stiffness of about 6.57 eV, which is about four times the reported values for monolayer graphene. Our results reveal that an intriguing free sliding phenomenon occurs at the interlayer van der Waals interfaces during the graphene folding process. This work demonstrates that it is a plausible venue to quantify the bending stiffness of graphene based on its self-folding conformation on flat substrates. The findings reported in this work are useful to a better understanding of the mechanical properties of graphene and in the pursuit of its applications.

  13. Parallel spinors on flat manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, Michał

    2006-05-01

    Let p(M) be the dimension of the vector space of parallel spinors on a closed spin manifold M. We prove that every finite group G is the holonomy group of a closed flat spin manifold M(G) such that p(M(G))>0. If the holonomy group Hol(M) of M is cyclic, then we give an explicit formula for p(M) another than that given in [R.J. Miatello, R.A. Podesta, The spectrum of twisted Dirac operators on compact flat manifolds, Trans. Am. Math. Soc., in press]. We answer the question when p(M)>0 if Hol(M) is a cyclic group of prime order or dim⁡M≤4.

  14. Warped Ricci-flat reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgáin, E. Ó.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Vázquez-Poritz, J. F.; Yavartanoo, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-08-01

    We present a simple class of warped-product vacuum (Ricci-flat) solutions to ten- and eleven-dimensional supergravity, where the internal space is flat and noncompact and the warp factor supports de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacua, in addition to trivial Minkowski vacua with compact internal spaces. We outline the construction of consistent Kaluza-Klein reductions and show that, although our vacuum solutions are nonsupersymmetric, these are closely related to the bosonic part of well-known maximally supersymmetric reductions on spheres. We comment on the stability of our solutions, noting that (A)dS3 vacua pass routine stability tests.

  15. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOEpatents

    Hollands, K. G. Terry; Sibbitt, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  16. Fluctuations along supersymmetric flat directions during inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enqvist, Kari; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Rigopoulos, Gerasimos

    2012-01-01

    We consider a set of scalar fields, consisting of a single flat direction and one or several non-flat directions. We take our cue from the MSSM, considering separately D-flat and F-flat directions, but our results apply to any supersymmetric scenario containing flat directions. We study the field fluctuations during pure de Sitter inflation, following the evolution of the infrared modes by numerically solving the appropriate Langevin equations. We demonstrate that for the Standard Model U(1)Y, SU(2)L or SU(3)c gauge couplings, as well as for large enough Yukawa couplings, the fluctuations along the non-flat directions effectively block the fluctuations along the flat directions. The usual expected behaviour langlephi2rangleproptoN, with N the number of e-folds, may be strongly violated, depending on the coupling strengths. As a consequence, those cosmological considerations, which are derived assuming that during inflation flat directions fluctuate freely, should be revised.

  17. Flat heat pipe design, construction, and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Voegler, G.; Boughey, B.; Cerza, M.; Lindler, K.W.

    1999-08-02

    This paper details the design, construction and partial analysis of a low temperature flat heat pipe in order to determine the feasibility of implementing flat heat pipes into thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems.

  18. Flat panel planar optic display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1994-11-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  19. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Olencz, J.

    1995-12-31

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as {open_quotes}materials in-process{close_quotes} to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes.

  20. Flat space physics from holography

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael

    2004-02-06

    We point out that aspects of quantum mechanics can be derived from the holographic principle, using only a perturbative limit of classical general relativity. In flat space, the covariant entropy bound reduces to the Bekenstein bound. The latter does not contain Newton's constant and cannot operate via gravitational backreaction. Instead, it is protected by--and in this sense, predicts--the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

  1. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Sung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  2. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Chul

    2015-01-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  3. Photomosaics and logs of trenches on the San Andreas Fault at Arano Flat near Watsonville, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fumal, Thomas E.; Heingartner, Gordon F.; Samrad, Laura; Dawson, Timothy E.; Hamilton, John C.; Baldwin, John N.

    2004-01-01

    We present photomosaics and logs of the walls of trenches excavated for a paleoseismic study at Arano Flat, one of two sites along the San Andreas fault in the Santa Cruz Mountains on the Kelley-Thompson Ranch. At this location, the fault consists of a narrow zone along the northeast side of a low ridge adjacent to a possible sag pond and extends about 60-70 meters across a broad alluvial flat. This site was a part of Rancho Salsipuedes beginning in 1834 and was purchased by the present owner’s family in 1851.

  4. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  5. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  6. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  7. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  8. Flat mites of the world - Edition 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Flat Mites of the World has an interactive key, fact sheets, descriptions, and images to aid in the identification of flat mites (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae) worldwide. The tool will help identify 36 genera of flat mites, including specific diagnostics for 13 species of...

  9. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  10. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion.

  11. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  12. Dynamics of peat accumulation and marl flat formation in a calcareous fen, midwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miner, J.J.; Ketterling, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    The age and sequence of peat accumulation were investigated at a calcareous fen in northeastern Illinois, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify the processes that form and sustain marl flats, which are areas of marl or tufa substrate within the fen that contain numerous rare plant species. Geomorphic, stratigraphic, and radiocarbon evidence was used to establish the processes and chronology of peat accumulation and erosion adjacent to each marl flat. The age of the base of the peat deposit varies greatly throughout the fen, ranging from 14,679 calibrated years before present (cal. years BP) to nearly modern, indicating that colonization of the sand and gravel substrate by peat occurred throughout the period from the Late Pleistocene to present. Adjacent to one marl flat, trends in basal peat age and thickness show that peat accumulation has progressed laterally inward from both sides, suggesting that the marl flat has been infilling with peat progressively by accumulation at the margins since at least 5,370 cal. years BP or longer. A second marl flat in the fen is surrounded by older, thick peat of differing ages on either edge and is bounded by fresh scarps, indicating that the marl flat currently is expanding laterally by erosion into the preexisting peat blanket. These two examples suggest a continuously repeating process, where erosion of the accumulated peat blanket forms a marl flat, which is later covered by peat accumulation. Trends in basal peat age elsewhere in the fen suggest that other marl flats may have existed in the past that have been completely infilled with peat. This study suggests that marl flat formation is a natural process that has been occurring for millennia, continuously creating habitat for the rare plant species that occupy marl flats. There is no evidence that the marl flats at this site are indicative of anthropogenic disturbance, so that management options for these areas are limited to maintaining the quality and quantity

  13. An extension to flat band ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulacsi, M.; Kovacs, G.; Gulacsi, Z.

    2014-11-01

    From flat band ferromagnetism, we learned that the lowest energy half-filled flat band gives always ferromagnetism if the localized Wannier states on the flat band satisfy the connectivity condition. If the connectivity conditions are not satisfied, ferromagnetism does not appear. We show that this is not always the case namely, we show that ferromagnetism due to flat bands can appear even if the connectivity condition does not hold due to a peculiar behavior of the band situated just above the flat band.

  14. Investigation of pellicle influence on reticle flatness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Christopher; Racette, Kenneth; Barrett, Monica

    2005-06-01

    In lithography systems, the need for increased resolution requires larger numerical apertures and shorter illumination wavelengths. Both of these requirements cause a reduction in the system"s depth of focus resulting in the need for flatter photomasks with specifications under 0.5 micron. Currently the mask blank substrates are measured after polishing, and all subsequent process steps are assumed to have little or no impact on the final mask flatness. With today"s ever tightening flatness requirements, this assumption can no longer be taken for granted. This paper investigates the distortions seen at the reticle surface induced by the mounting of a standard optical pellicle frame to the photomask and relates these distortions to the pellicle frame flatness. The experiment involves using a set of mask blanks that are better than 0.5 micron flatness with similar form errors before attaching the pellicle. Two groups of pellicles are used to create two distinct frame flatness populations: one set assumed to be within specification as purchased; and a second set of pellicles that are intentionally distorted. Mask flatness is compared before and after mounting the pellicles, and all frames are measured for flatness. Correlation between the frame flatness and form to the measured distortion on the reticle surface are made and discussed, and a practical guideline for selecting an appropriate blank flatness and pellicle flatness to achieve the desired reticle flatness is suggested.

  15. Flat Subduction and Dynamic Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Dávila, F. M.; Eakin, C. M.; Crameri, F.

    2014-12-01

    Mantle dynamics manifests at the surface via the horizontal motions of plates and the vertical deflections that influence topography and the non-hydrostatic geoid. The pioneering work of Mitrovica et al. (1989) and Gurnis (1990) on this dynamic topography revolutionized our understanding of sedimentary basin formation, sea level changes and continental flooding. The temporal evolution of subduction can explain the migration of basins and even the drainage reversal of the Amazon (Shephard et al., 2012; Eakin et al., 2014). Until recently, flat subduction has been seen as enhancing downward deflection of the overriding plate and increasing flooding. However, this interpretation depends crucially on the details of the morphology and density structure of the slab, which controls the loci and amplitude of the deflection. We tend to ignore morphological details in mantle dynamics because flow can smooth out short wavelength variations. We have shown instead that details matter! Using South America as a natural laboratory because of the large changes in morphology of the Nazca slab along strike, we show that downward deflection of the overriding plate and hence basin formation, do not occur over flat segments but at the leading edge, where slabs plunge back into the mantle. This is true in both Argentina and Peru. The temporal evolution from a 'normally' dipplng slab to a flat slab leads to uplift over flat segments rather than enhanced subsidence. Critical for this result is the use of a detailed morphological model of the present-day Nazca slab with a spatial resolution of 50-100 km and based on relocated seismicity and magnetotelluric results. The density structure of the slab, due to age and the presence of overthickened crust from aseismic ridge subduction is essential. Overthickened crust leads to buoyant slabs. We reproduce formation and deposition of the Acres-Solimoes basin and the evolution of the Amazon drainage basin in Peru as well as the Mar Chiquita

  16. Closing Rocky Flats by 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Tuor, N. R.; Schubert, A. L.

    2002-02-26

    Safely accelerating the closure of Rocky Flats to 2006 is a goal shared by many: the State of Colorado, the communities surrounding the site, the U.S. Congress, the Department of Energy, Kaiser-Hill and its team of subcontractors, the site's employees, and taxpayers across the country. On June 30, 2000, Kaiser-Hill (KH) submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE), KH's plan to achieve closure of Rocky Flats by December 15, 2006, for a remaining cost of $3.96 billion (February 1, 2000, to December 15, 2006). The Closure Project Baseline (CPB) is the detailed project plan for accomplishing this ambitious closure goal. This paper will provide a status report on the progress being made toward the closure goal. This paper will: provide a summary of the closure contract completion criteria; give the current cost and schedule variance of the project and the status of key activities; detail important accomplishments of the past year; and discuss the challenges ahead.

  17. Influence of dietary oils and protein level on pork quality. 2. Effects on properties of fat and processing characteristics of bacon and frankfurter-style sausages.

    PubMed

    Teye, G A; Wood, J D; Whittington, F M; Stewart, A; Sheard, P R

    2006-05-01

    Palm kernel oil (PKO) and palm oil (PO) are used in tropical countries as cheaper substitutes for conventional feed sources such as soya bean oil (SBO) but little is known about their effects on meat quality. This study, therefore, evaluated the effects of these three dietary oils on the fatty acid composition (FA) of pork fat and the qualities of belly bacon and frankfurter sausage. The 3×2 factorial design also included high and low dietary protein. Total cooking loss, water loss and fat losses were determined in frankfurter sausages at chopping temperatures from 2 to 24°C. PKO resulted in a poor P:S ratio (0.34) and a relatively hard fat (slip point 32.8°C), but resulted in bacon with a higher tensile cohesive force and more high quality slices, judged subjectively. PO had a fatty acid composition closer to the SBO control, a better P:S ratio than PKO (0.48) and softer fat. There was a trend for total cooking losses and fat losses to be higher in PKO compared with PO and SBO at all chopping temperatures, suggesting that the firmest, most saturated fat (PKO) was least suitable for frankfurter production. The low protein diet increased the concentration of saturated fatty acids and increased fat firmness but its effect on fatty acid composition and other properties were less marked than those of oil type.

  18. Effects of time after a second dose of immunization against GnRF (Improvest) independent of age at slaughter on commercial bacon slicing characteristics of immunologically castrated barrows.

    PubMed

    Tavárez, M A; Bohrer, B M; Herrick, R T; Mellencamp, M A; Matulis, R J; Ellis, M; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of time after a second dose of anti-GnRF immunization on fresh belly characteristics and slicing yields of immunologically castrated (IC) barrows, physically castrated (PC) barrows and gilts slaughtered at 24 weeks of age. The second dose was staggered so that IC barrows were slaughtered at 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks after the second dose. Fresh belly characteristics (N=141) were collected at slaughter and bacon was manufactured commercially. The main effects in the model were treatment and the random effects of block and block within replication. Thickness, flop distance, and lipid content increased (L; P<0.04) and iodine value tended to decrease (L; P=0.08) with time after the second dose in IC barrows. Slicing yields increased with time after the second dose (L; P<0.01), but were similar (P=0.11) among sexes. Increasing time of slaughter after second anti-GnRF dose improves fresh belly and bacon slicing characteristics in IC barrows. PMID:26401629

  19. Stochastic approach to flat direction during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takesako, Tomohiro E-mail: takesako@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2012-08-01

    We revisit the time evolution of a flat and non-flat direction system during inflation. In order to take into account quantum noises in the analysis, we base on stochastic formalism and solve coupled Langevin equations numerically. We focus on a class of models in which tree-level Hubble-induced mass is not generated. Although the non-flat directions can block the growth of the flat direction's variance in principle, the blocking effects are suppressed by the effective masses of the non-flat directions. We find that the fate of the flat direction during inflation is determined by one-loop radiative corrections and non-renormalizable terms as usually considered, if we remove the zero-point fluctuation from the noise terms.

  20. Effects of plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol on lipid oxidation, residual nitrites, biogenic amines, and N-nitrosamines formation during ripening and storage of dry-cured bacon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of plant polyphenols (green tea polyphenols (GTP) and grape seed extract (GSE) and a-tocopherol on physicochemical parameters, lipid oxidation, residual nitrite, microbiological counts, biogenic amines, and N-nitrosamines were determined in bacons during dry-curing and storage. Results show ...

  1. Spirit's View from 'Engineering Flats'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    This 360-degree view from a site dubbed 'Engineering Flats' combines several frames taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the rover's 182nd martian day, or sol (July 7, 2004). Spirit had driven to this spot in the 'Columbia Hills' for four sols of engineering work on its right front wheel and a recalibration of positioning accuracy for tools on its robotic arm. The wheel tracks just beyond the rover's shadow indicate where Spirit had spent the preceding three weeks examining rocks in and near 'Hank's Hollow.' The view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  2. Flat laminated microbial mat communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, Jonathan; Stolz, John F.

    2009-10-01

    Flat laminated microbial mats are complex microbial ecosystems that inhabit a wide range of environments (e.g., caves, iron springs, thermal springs and pools, salt marshes, hypersaline ponds and lagoons, methane and petroleum seeps, sea mounts, deep sea vents, arctic dry valleys). Their community structure is defined by physical (e.g., light quantity and quality, temperature, density and pressure) and chemical (e.g., oxygen, oxidation/reduction potential, salinity, pH, available electron acceptors and donors, chemical species) parameters as well as species interactions. The main primary producers may be photoautotrophs (e.g., cyanobacteria, purple phototrophs, green phototrophs) or chemolithoautophs (e.g., colorless sulfur oxidizing bacteria). Anaerobic phototrophy may predominate in organic rich environments that support high rates of respiration. These communities are dynamic systems exhibiting both spatial and temporal heterogeneity. They are characterized by steep gradients with microenvironments on the submillimeter scale. Diel oscillations in the physical-chemical profile (e.g., oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, pH) and species distribution are typical for phototroph-dominated communities. Flat laminated microbial mats are often sites of robust biogeochemical cycling. In addition to well-established modes of metabolism for phototrophy (oxygenic and non-oxygenic), respiration (both aerobic and anaerobic), and fermentation, novel energetic pathways have been discovered (e.g., nitrate reduction couple to the oxidation of ammonia, sulfur, or arsenite). The application of culture-independent techniques (e.g., 16S rRNA clonal libraries, metagenomics), continue to expand our understanding of species composition and metabolic functions of these complex ecosystems.

  3. Flat conductor cable design, manufacture, and installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.; Hankins, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Pertinent information for hardware selection, design, manufacture, and quality control necessary for flat conductor cable interconnecting harness application is presented. Comparisons are made between round wire cable and flat conductor cable. The flat conductor cable interconnecting harness systems show major cost, weight, and space savings, plus increased system performance and reliability. The design application section includes electrical characteristics, harness design and development, and a full treatise on EMC considerations. Manufacturing and quality control sections pertain primarily to the developed conductor-contact connector system and special flat conductor cable to round wire cable transitions.

  4. Exchange coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, H.; Csaba, G.; Bernstein, G. H.; Porod, W.

    2016-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate exchange-coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets. Our results show that two neighboring nanomagnets that are each antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled to a common ferromagnetic bottom layer can be brought into strong ferromagnetic interaction. Simulations show that interlayer exchange coupling effectively promotes ferromagnetic alignment between the two nanomagnets, as opposed to antiferromagnetic alignment due to dipole-coupling. In order to experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme, we fabricated arrays of pairs of elongated, single-domain nanomagnets. Magnetic force microscopy measurements show that most of the pairs are ferromagnetically ordered. The results are in agreement with micromagnetic simulations. The presented scheme can achieve coupling strengths that are significantly stronger than dipole coupling, potentially enabling far-reaching applications in Nanomagnet Logic, spin-wave devices and three-dimensional storage and computing.

  5. Boundary Layers of Air Adjacent to Cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Park S.

    1974-01-01

    Using existing heat transfer data, a relatively simple expression was developed for estimating the effective thickness of the boundary layer of air surrounding cylinders. For wind velocities from 10 to 1000 cm/second, the calculated boundary-layer thickness agreed with that determined for water vapor diffusion from a moistened cylindrical surface 2 cm in diameter. It correctly predicted the resistance for water vapor movement across the boundary layers adjacent to the (cylindrical) inflorescence stems of Xanthorrhoea australis R. Br. and Scirpus validus Vahl and the leaves of Allium cepa L. The boundary-layer thickness decreased as the turbulence intensity increased. For a turbulence intensity representative of field conditions (0.5) and for νwindd between 200 and 30,000 cm2/second (where νwind is the mean wind velocity and d is the cylinder diameter), the effective boundary-layer thickness in centimeters was equal to [Formula: see text]. PMID:16658855

  6. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  11. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mud flats. 230.42 Section 230.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1... are inundated, wind and wave action may resuspend bottom sediments. Coastal mud flats are exposed...

  12. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mud flats. 230.42 Section 230.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1... are inundated, wind and wave action may resuspend bottom sediments. Coastal mud flats are exposed...

  13. Fluctuations along supersymmetric flat directions during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Enqvist, Kari; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Rigopoulos, Gerasimos E-mail: daniel.figueroa@helsinki.fi

    2012-01-01

    We consider a set of scalar fields, consisting of a single flat direction and one or several non-flat directions. We take our cue from the MSSM, considering separately D-flat and F-flat directions, but our results apply to any supersymmetric scenario containing flat directions. We study the field fluctuations during pure de Sitter inflation, following the evolution of the infrared modes by numerically solving the appropriate Langevin equations. We demonstrate that for the Standard Model U(1){sub Y}, SU(2){sub L} or SU(3){sub c} gauge couplings, as well as for large enough Yukawa couplings, the fluctuations along the non-flat directions effectively block the fluctuations along the flat directions. The usual expected behaviour (φ{sup 2})∝N, with N the number of e-folds, may be strongly violated, depending on the coupling strengths. As a consequence, those cosmological considerations, which are derived assuming that during inflation flat directions fluctuate freely, should be revised.

  14. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter FlatSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of FlatSat as a platform for use during flight integration and testing (I&T) of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Included in the presentations are requirements for the facility, a diagram of the LRO FlatSat lab, and discussion of the operational documentation, facility scheduling, and issues and lessons learned.

  15. How is WFPC flat field made

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, J.-C.; Ritchie, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm developed by the WFPC IDT to generate flat fields from Earth streak exposures is now implemented in STSDAS. We explain in detail how this algorithm works and possible deficiencies. We also present two associated tools which can be used to modify the flat field obtained from the standard procedure.

  16. The flat antenna - Now a reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Daniel R.

    1989-09-01

    A practical, high-performance, low-cost, consumer-oriented flat antenna is described. Advantages of the flat antenna include a thin profile which is less obtrusive than a parabolic dish, features less expensive shipping and installation costs due to its light weight, has the ability to squint the beam, and has improved aperture control for sidelobe suppression. R&D focuses on development of monolithic microwave integrated circuts which will be embedded into the array, thus adding the potential features of amenability to integrated electronics (which will improve noise performance and avoid the necessity of appending an external low-noise converter), and electronic steerability to the list of flat antenna advantages. The basic construction of the flat panel and the intended market for the first flat antennas and the subsequent effect on product design are discussed. Initial market results in Japan, and planned development of European and American markets are discussed.

  17. Nonperturbative decay of supersymmetric flat directions

    SciTech Connect

    Guemruekcueoglu, A. Emir; Peloso, Marco; Sexton, Matthew; Olive, Keith A.

    2008-09-15

    We compute the nonperturbative decay of supersymmetric flat directions due to their D-term potential. Flat directions can develop large vacuum expectation values during inflation, and, if they are long-lived, this can strongly affect the reheating and thermalization stages after the inflation. We study a generic system of two U(1) or SU(2) flat directions which are cosmologically evolving after inflation. After proper gauge fixing, we show that the excitations of the fields around this background can undergo exponential amplification, at the expense of the energy density of the flat directions. We compute this effect for several values of the masses and the initial vacuum expectation values of the two flat directions, through a combination of analytical methods and extensive numerical simulations.

  18. Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Stange, A W; Furman, F J; Hilmas, D E

    1996-10-01

    The Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP), initiated in June 1991, was designed to provide medical surveillance for current and former employees exposed to beryllium. The BHSP identifies individuals who have developed beryllium sensitivity using the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). A detailed medical evaluation to determine the prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is offered to individuals identified as beryllium sensitized or to those who have chest X-ray changes suggestive of CBD. The BHSP has identified 27 cases of CBD and another 74 cases of beryllium sensitization out of 4268 individuals tested. The distribution of BeLPT values for normal, sensitized, and CBD-identified individuals is described. Based on the information collected during the first 3 1/3 years of the BHSP, the BeLPT is the most effective means for the early identification of beryllium-sensitized individuals and to identify individuals who may have CBD. The need for BeLPT retesting is demonstrated through the identification of beryllium sensitization in individuals who previously tested normal. Posterior/anterior chest X-rays were not effective in the identification of CBD. PMID:8933045

  19. Flat optics with designer metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nanfang; Capasso, Federico

    2014-02-01

    Conventional optical components such as lenses, waveplates and holograms rely on light propagation over distances much larger than the wavelength to shape wavefronts. In this way substantial changes of the amplitude, phase or polarization of light waves are gradually accumulated along the optical path. This Review focuses on recent developments on flat, ultrathin optical components dubbed 'metasurfaces' that produce abrupt changes over the scale of the free-space wavelength in the phase, amplitude and/or polarization of a light beam. Metasurfaces are generally created by assembling arrays of miniature, anisotropic light scatterers (that is, resonators such as optical antennas). The spacing between antennas and their dimensions are much smaller than the wavelength. As a result the metasurfaces, on account of Huygens principle, are able to mould optical wavefronts into arbitrary shapes with subwavelength resolution by introducing spatial variations in the optical response of the light scatterers. Such gradient metasurfaces go beyond the well-established technology of frequency selective surfaces made of periodic structures and are extending to new spectral regions the functionalities of conventional microwave and millimetre-wave transmit-arrays and reflect-arrays. Metasurfaces can also be created by using ultrathin films of materials with large optical losses. By using the controllable abrupt phase shifts associated with reflection or transmission of light waves at the interface between lossy materials, such metasurfaces operate like optically thin cavities that strongly modify the light spectrum. Technology opportunities in various spectral regions and their potential advantages in replacing existing optical components are discussed.

  20. Plutonium excretion in urine of residents living near the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S A; Whicker, F W; Reuss, S K; Whicker, R D; Chapman, P L; Krahenbuhl, M P

    1999-04-01

    An assessment of current levels of 239Pu in individuals living near the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site was conducted. Long-term residents of areas adjacent to the Site, as well as people living well beyond any expected influence of the site, provided urine samples, which were analyzed by fission track analysis for the levels of 239Pu. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site vicinity participants were selected for maximum possible exposure to environmental plutonium by virtue of residence location, length of residence, age, and outdoor lifestyle. The mean 239Pu excretion rate in urine estimated for the entire Rocky Flats group was 1.1 microBq d(-1), in contrast to that estimated for the background group (0.85 microBq d(-1)). The estimated median 239Pu excretion rate for the Rocky Flats group was 1.1 microBq d(-1), compared to 0.54 microBq d(-1) for the background group. Both parametric and non-parametric tests indicated that these differences were not statistically significant (alpha = 0.05). Measured levels of 239Pu in urine from the Rocky Flats group were low and well within the range of reported "background" values, indicating small doses and low health risks. The fission track analysis technique may not be sufficiently accurate or precise to allow definitive comparisons between two groups of subjects with near-background levels of 239Pu in urine. PMID:10086597

  1. Effects of slaughter time post-second injection on carcass cutting yields and bacon characteristics of immunologically castrated male pigs.

    PubMed

    Boler, D D; Killefer, J; Meeuwse, D M; King, V L; McKeith, F K; Dilger, A C

    2012-01-01

    Body weights of finishing pigs can be variable within a finishing barn near the time of slaughter; therefore, it is common to market pigs over a period of time. This allows lighter pigs more time to gain BW and approach a desired end point. Use of immunological castration late in life to control boar taint, as an alternative to physical castration early in life, increases cutting yields of finishing male pigs compared with physical castrates. Because of common marketing strategies, it is important for advantages in cutting yields to span a broad spectrum of slaughter ages and BW. The primary objectives in this study were to evaluate carcass cutting yields, pork quality, belly quality, and bacon processing characteristics of immunologically castrated (IC) male pigs fed a moderate level of distillers dried grains with solubles and slaughtered at either 4 wk (early slaughter group) or 6 wk (late slaughter group) post-second injection. A total of 156 male pigs (physical castrates or IC males) were selected from a population of 1,200 finishing pigs. Data were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS as a split-split plot design. Body weights of IC males were 3.60 kg heavier (P = 0.03) than physical castrates when slaughtered at 4 wk post-second injection and 7.52 kg heavier (P < 0.0001) than physical castrates when slaughtered at 6 wk post-second injection. Because of a lack of interaction (P > 0.05) between sex and time of slaughter post-second injection, some response variables were pooled. Hot carcass weights were not different (P = 0.57) between physical castrates (91.98 kg) and IC males (92.52 kg). There was a 2.77 percentage unit decrease (P < 0.001) in dressing percentage of IC males (71.78%) compared with physical castrates (74.55%). Lean cutting yields of IC males were 2.62 percentage units greater (P < 0.0001) than physical castrates and carcass cutting yields were 2.27 percentage units greater (P < 0.0001) for IC males when compared with physical castrates

  2. Of Bacon and Bananas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffioti, Carol Lee

    1977-01-01

    Exercises in sketching a scene of words, focusing, describing elemental structure (using comparison, contrast, analogy, and antithesis), and sketching and writing about still-life arrangements can heighten students' awareness of sense impressions and lead to improved writing skills. (TJ)

  3. Particle detection on flat surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Donck, Jacques; Snel, Rob; Stortelder, Jetske; Abutan, Alfred; Oostrom, Sjoerd; van Reek, Sander; van der Zwan, Bert; van der Walle, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Since 2006 EUV Lithographic tools have been available for testing purposes giving a boost to the development of fab infrastructure for EUV masks. The absence of a pellicle makes the EUV reticles extremely vulnerable to particles. Therefore, the fab infrastructure for masks must meet very strict particle requirements. It is expected that all new equipment must be qualified on particles before it can be put into operation. This qualification requirement increases the need for a low cost method for particle detection on mask substrates. TNO developed its fourth generation particle scanner, the Rapid Nano. This scanner is capable of detecting nanometer sized particles on flat surfaces. The particle detection is based on dark field imaging techniques and fast image processing. The tool was designed for detection of a single added particle in a handling experiment over a reticle sized substrate. Therefore, the Rapid Nano is very suitable for the validation of particle cleanliness of equipment. During the measurement, the substrate is protected against particle contamination by placing it in a protective environment. This environment shields the substrate from all possible contamination source in the Nano Rapid (stages, elevator, cabling). The imaging takes place through a window in the protective cover. The geometry of the protective environment enables large flexibility in substrate shape and size. Particles can be detected on substrates varying from 152 x 152 mm mask substrates to wafers up to 200 mm. PSL particles of 50 nm were detected with signal noise ratio of 26. Larger particles had higher signal noise ratios. By individually linking particles in two measurements the addition of particles can be detected. These results show that the Rapid Nano is capable of detecting particles of 50 nm and larger of a full reticle substrate.

  4. Deep resistivity structure of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asch, Theodore H.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sampson, Jay A.; Wallin, Erin L.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area adjacent to a nuclear test. Ground water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, supported by the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) stations at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in that area. The primary purpose was to refine the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (late Devonian - Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale) in the Yucca Flat area. The MT and AMT data have been released in separate USGS Open File Reports. The Nevada Test Site magnetotelluric data interpretation presented in this report includes the results of detailed two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity modeling for each profile (including alternative interpretations) and gross inferences on the three dimensional (3 D) character of the geology beneath each station. The character, thickness, and lateral extent of the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation that comprise the Upper Clastic Confining Unit are generally well determined in the upper 5 km. Inferences can be made regarding the presence of the Lower Clastic Confining Unit at depths below 5 km. Large fault

  5. Deep Resistivity Structure of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore H. Asch, Brian D. Rodriguez; Jay A. Sampson; Erin L. Wallin; and Jackie M. Williams.

    2006-09-18

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area adjacent to a nuclear test. Ground water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, supported by the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) stations at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in that area. The primary purpose was to refine the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (late Devonian – Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale) in the Yucca Flat area. The MT and AMT data have been released in separate USGS Open File Reports. The Nevada Test Site magnetotelluric data interpretation presented in this report includes the results of detailed two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity modeling for each profile (including alternative interpretations) and gross inferences on the three dimensional (3 D) character of the geology beneath each station. The character, thickness, and lateral extent of the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation that comprise the Upper Clastic Confining Unit are generally well determined in the upper 5 km. Inferences can be made regarding the presence of the Lower Clastic Confining Unit at depths below 5 km. Large

  6. Rocky Flats ash test procedure (sludge stabilization)

    SciTech Connect

    Winstead, M.L.

    1995-09-14

    Rocky Flats Ash items have been identified as the next set of materials to be stabilized. This test is being run to determine charge sizes and soak times to completely stabilize the Rocky Flats Ash items. The information gathered will be used to generate the heating rampup cycle for stabilization. This test will also gain information on the effects of the glovebox atmosphere (moisture) on the stabilized material. This document provides instructions for testing Rocky Flats Ash in the HC-21C muffle furnace process.

  7. Flatness Control Using Roll Coolant Based on Predicted Flatness Variation in Cold Rolling Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohmae, Yukihiro; Okamura, Yoshihide

    Flatness control for cold rolling mills is one of the important technologies for improving of product quality and productivity. In particular, poor flatness leads to strip tearing in the extreme case and, moreover, it significantly reduces productivity. Therefore, various flatness control system has been developed. The main actuators for flatness control are classified into two types; one is mechanical equipment such as roll bender, the other is roll coolant, which controls thermal expansion of roll. Flatness variation such as center buckle or edge wave is mainly controlled by mechanical actuator which has high response characteristics. On another front, flatness variation of local zone can be controlled by roll coolant although one's response is lower than the response of mechanical actuator. For accomplishing good flatness accuracy in cold rolling mills, it is important to improve the performance of coolant control moreover. In this paper, a new coolant control method based on flatness variation model is described. In proposed method, the state of coolant spray on or off is selected to minimize the flatness deviation by using predicted flatness variation. The effectiveness of developed system has been demonstrated by application in actual plant.

  8. The manufacture of flat conductor cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1974-01-01

    The major techniques are described for fabricating flat conductor cable (FCC). Various types of FCC, including unshielded, shielded, power, and signal, in both existing and conceptual constructions, are covered.

  9. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extremely low tides and inundated at high tides with the water table at or near the surface of the substrate... dewater the mud flat or disrupt periodic inundation, resulting in an increase in the rate of erosion...

  10. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... extremely low tides and inundated at high tides with the water table at or near the surface of the substrate... dewater the mud flat or disrupt periodic inundation, resulting in an increase in the rate of erosion...

  11. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... extremely low tides and inundated at high tides with the water table at or near the surface of the substrate... dewater the mud flat or disrupt periodic inundation, resulting in an increase in the rate of erosion...

  12. Rocky Flats Ash test procedure (sludge stabilization)

    SciTech Connect

    Funston, G.A.

    1995-06-14

    Rocky Flats Ash items have been identified as the next set of materials to be stabilized. This test is being run to determine charge sizes and soak times to completely stabilize the Rocky Flats Ash items. The information gathered will be used to generate the heating rampup cycle for stabilization. The test will provide information to determine charge sizes, soak times and mesh screen sizes (if available at time of test) for stabilization of Rocky Flats Ash items to be processed in the HC-21C Muffle Furnace Process. Once the charge size and soak times have been established, a program for the temperature controller of the HC-21C Muffle Furnace process will be generated for processing Rocky Flats Ash.

  13. Flat-package DIP handling tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelou, E.; Fraser, R.

    1977-01-01

    Device, using magnetic attraction, can facilitate handling of integrated-circuit flat packages and prevent contamination and bent leads. Tool lifts packages by their cases and releases them by operation of manual plunger.

  14. High-energy-density flat flexible capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. D.; Zelik, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Manufacturing technique produces flat flexible capacitors of energy density greater than 0.1 J/g. Exposure of some of metalized surface of each layer provides sufficient film surface to ensure good electrical connection to each layer of capacitor.

  15. Combined load test apparatus for flat panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWithey, Robert R.; Martin, Carl J., Jr.; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    1992-04-01

    Future hypersonic aircraft such as the National Aero-Space Plane and a high speed civil transport will require the design and use of efficient, highly-loaded, flat structural panels to achieve mission requirements. These panels will be subjected to severe combinations of in-plane mechanical distributed loads (i.e., normal loads in two perpendicular directions plus a shear load), in addition to pressure and thermal loads. A testing apparatus is provided for applying uniform combined in-plane stresses to a flat panel containing an interior test area. Actuators cause two sets of load rods to apply loads to the edge of the flat panel. The first set applies loads which are perpendicular to and independent of the loads applied by the second set. The loads are applied according to a cosine load distribution to obtain a uniform stress field within the test area. The flat panel may be rotated with respect to the applied loads to obtain a wide range of combined stresses in the test area. Movement outside the plane of the flat panel may be selectively prevented by connecting the flat panel to a restraining disk by support rods. The support rods then define the test area. A thermal load may be applied to one side of the flat panel and a pressure load may be applied to the other side. The novelty of this method is found in providing a testing apparatus which allows mechanical, thermal and pressure loads to be applied simultaneously to a flat panel for testing purposes.

  16. Flat panel ferroelectric electron emission display system

    DOEpatents

    Sampayan, S.E.; Orvis, W.J.; Caporaso, G.J.; Wieskamp, T.F.

    1996-04-16

    A device is disclosed which can produce a bright, raster scanned or non-raster scanned image from a flat panel. Unlike many flat panel technologies, this device does not require ambient light or auxiliary illumination for viewing the image. Rather, this device relies on electrons emitted from a ferroelectric emitter impinging on a phosphor. This device takes advantage of a new electron emitter technology which emits electrons with significant kinetic energy and beam current density. 6 figs.

  17. Flat panel ferroelectric electron emission display system

    DOEpatents

    Sampayan, Stephen E.; Orvis, William J.; Caporaso, George J.; Wieskamp, Ted F.

    1996-01-01

    A device which can produce a bright, raster scanned or non-raster scanned image from a flat panel. Unlike many flat panel technologies, this device does not require ambient light or auxiliary illumination for viewing the image. Rather, this device relies on electrons emitted from a ferroelectric emitter impinging on a phosphor. This device takes advantage of a new electron emitter technology which emits electrons with significant kinetic energy and beam current density.

  18. High performance flat plate solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.; Reynolds, R.

    1976-01-01

    The potential use of porous construction is presented to achieve efficient heat removal from a power producing solid and is applied to solar air heaters. Analytical solutions are given for the temperature distribution within a gas-cooled porous flat plate having its surface exposed to the sun's energy. The extracted thermal energy is calculated for two different types of plate transparency. Results show the great improvement in performance obtained with porous flat plate collectors as compared with analogous nonporous types.

  19. Topological properties of flat electroencephalography's state space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ken, Tan Lit; Ahmad, Tahir bin; Mohd, Mohd Sham bin; Ngien, Su Kong; Suwa, Tohru; Meng, Ong Sie

    2016-02-01

    Neuroinverse problem are often associated with complex neuronal activity. It involves locating problematic cell which is highly challenging. While epileptic foci localization is possible with the aid of EEG signals, it relies greatly on the ability to extract hidden information or pattern within EEG signals. Flat EEG being an enhancement of EEG is a way of viewing electroencephalograph on the real plane. In the perspective of dynamical systems, Flat EEG is equivalent to epileptic seizure hence, making it a great platform to study epileptic seizure. Throughout the years, various mathematical tools have been applied on Flat EEG to extract hidden information that is hardly noticeable by traditional visual inspection. While these tools have given worthy results, the journey towards understanding seizure process completely is yet to be succeeded. Since the underlying structure of Flat EEG is dynamic and is deemed to contain wealthy information regarding brainstorm, it would certainly be appealing to explore in depth its structures. To better understand the complex seizure process, this paper studies the event of epileptic seizure via Flat EEG in a more general framework by means of topology, particularly, on the state space where the event of Flat EEG lies.

  20. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters.

    Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about

  1. Flat H Frangible Joint Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diegelman, Thomas E.; Hinkel, Todd J.; Benjamin, Andrew; Rochon, Brian V.; Brown, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Space vehicle staging and separation events require pyrotechnic devices. They are single-use mechanisms that cannot be tested, nor can failure-tolerant performance be demonstrated in actual flight articles prior to flight use. This necessitates the implementation of a robust design and test approach coupled with a fully redundant, failure-tolerant explosive mechanism to ensure that the system functions even in the event of a single failure. Historically, NASA has followed the single failure-tolerant (SFT) design philosophy for all human-rated spacecraft, including the Space Shuttle Program. Following the end of this program, aerospace companies proposed building the next generation human-rated vehicles with off-the-shelf, non-redundant, zero-failure-tolerant (ZFT) separation systems. Currently, spacecraft and launch vehicle providers for both the Orion and Commercial Crew Programs (CCPs) plan to deviate from the heritage safety approach and NASA's SFT human rating requirements. Both programs' partners have base-lined ZFT frangible joints for vehicle staging and fairing separation. These joints are commercially available from pyrotechnic vendors. Non-human-rated missions have flown them numerous times. The joints are relatively easy to integrate structurally within the spacecraft. In addition, the separation event is debris free, and the resultant pyro shock is lower than that of other design solutions. It is, however, a serious deficiency to lack failure tolerance. When used for critical applications on human-rated vehicles, a single failure could potentially lead to loss of crew (LOC) or loss of mission (LOM)). The Engineering and Safety & Mission Assurance directorates within the NASA Johnson Space Center took action to address this safety issue by initiating a project to develop a fully redundant, SFT frangible joint design, known as the Flat H. Critical to the ability to retrofit on launch vehicles being developed, the SFT mechanisms must fit within the same

  2. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  3. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Delayed Acquisition of Non-Adjacent Vocalic Distributional Regularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The ability to compute non-adjacent regularities is key in the acquisition of a new language. In the domain of phonology/phonotactics, sensitivity to non-adjacent regularities between consonants has been found to appear between 7 and 10 months. The present study focuses on the emergence of a posterior-anterior (PA) bias, a regularity involving two…

  5. Three-Dimensional Shear Wave Velocity Structure of the Peru Flat Slab Subduction Segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic Antonijevic, S.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies focused on flat slab subduction segments in central Chile (L. S. Wagner, 2006) and Alaska (B. R. Hacker and G. A. Aber, 2012) suggest significant differences in seismic velocity structures, and hence, composition in the mantle wedge between flat and normal "steep" subducting slabs. Instead of finding the low velocities and high Vp/Vs ratios common in normal subduction zones, these studies find low Vp, high Vs, and very low Vp/Vs above flat slabs. This may indicate the presence of dry, cold material in the mantle wedge. In order to investigate the seismic velocities of the upper mantle above the Peruvian flat segment, we have inverted for 2D Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps using data from the currently deployed 40 station PULSE seismic network and some adjacent stations from the CAUGHT seismic network. We then used the sensitivity of surface waves to shear wave velocity structure with depth to develop a 3D shear wave velocity model. This model will allow us to determine the nature of the mantle lithosphere above the flat slab, and how this may have influenced the development of local topography. For example, dry conditions (high Vs velocities) above the flat slab would imply greater strength of this material, possibly making it capable of causing further inland overthrusting, while wet conditions (low Vs) would imply weaker material. This could provide some insight into the ongoing debate over whether the Fitzcarrald arch (along the northern most flank of the Altiplano) could be a topographical response to the subducted Nazca ridge hundred kilometers away from the trench (N. Espurt, 2012, P. Baby, 2005, V. A. Ramos, 2012) or not (J. Martinod, 2005, M. Wipf, 2008, T. Gerya, 2008).

  6. Effect of tidal flat on the thermal effluent dispersion from a power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, Tetsuo; Sugimatsu, Koichi; Shibaki, Hidenori; Shin, Hong-Ryeol; Kim, Hong-Sun

    2005-03-01

    The effect of a tidal flat on the dispersion of thermal effluent from the nuclear power plant at YongGwang (5.8 × 106 kW) along the west coast of Korea was investigated using intensive field observations and three-dimensional numerical simulations. The calculated sea surface temperature distribution reproduces well the observed one with a root mean square error of 0.53°C. A water column on the tidal flat area received a heat influx of 168 W m-2 on 17 April 2003 and transported the received heat to the adjacent coastal water at low water. The total heat supply from the tidal flat area to the coastal water was 6.6 × 1010 W, and was larger by about 1 order of magnitude than that from the power plant of 7.0 × 109 W on 17 April 2003, which was a fine day at spring tide. This fact shows that the effect of the tidal flat on the thermal effluent from the power plant is very large.

  7. Characteristics of Fault Zones in Volcanic Rocks Near Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Sweetkind; Ronald M. Drake II

    2007-11-27

    During 2005 and 2006, the USGS conducted geological studies of fault zones at surface outcrops at the Nevada Test Site. The objectives of these studies were to characterize fault geometry, identify the presence of fault splays, and understand the width and internal architecture of fault zones. Geologic investigations were conducted at surface exposures in upland areas adjacent to Yucca Flat, a basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site; these data serve as control points for the interpretation of the subsurface data collected at Yucca Flat by other USGS scientists. Fault zones in volcanic rocks near Yucca Flat differ in character and width as a result of differences in the degree of welding and alteration of the protolith, and amount of fault offset. Fault-related damage zones tend to scale with fault offset; damage zones associated with large-offset faults (>100 m) are many tens of meters wide, whereas damage zones associated with smaller-offset faults are generally a only a meter or two wide. Zeolitically-altered tuff develops moderate-sized damage zones whereas vitric nonwelded, bedded and airfall tuff have very minor damage zones, often consisting of the fault zone itself as a deformation band, with minor fault effect to the surrounding rock mass. These differences in fault geometry and fault zone architecture in surface analog sites can serve as a guide toward interpretation of high-resolution subsurface geophysical results from Yucca Flat.

  8. Characteristics of Fault Zones in Volcanic Rocks Near Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Drake II, Ronald M.

    2007-01-01

    During 2005 and 2006, the USGS conducted geological studies of fault zones at surface outcrops at the Nevada Test Site. The objectives of these studies were to characterize fault geometry, identify the presence of fault splays, and understand the width and internal architecture of fault zones. Geologic investigations were conducted at surface exposures in upland areas adjacent to Yucca Flat, a basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site; these data serve as control points for the interpretation of the subsurface data collected at Yucca Flat by other USGS scientists. Fault zones in volcanic rocks near Yucca Flat differ in character and width as a result of differences in the degree of welding and alteration of the protolith, and amount of fault offset. Fault-related damage zones tend to scale with fault offset; damage zones associated with large-offset faults (>100 m) are many tens of meters wide, whereas damage zones associated with smaller-offset faults are generally a only a meter or two wide. Zeolitically-altered tuff develops moderate-sized damage zones whereas vitric nonwelded, bedded and airfall tuff have very minor damage zones, often consisting of the fault zone itself as a deformation band, with minor fault effect to the surrounding rock mass. These differences in fault geometry and fault zone architecture in surface analog sites can serve as a guide toward interpretation of high-resolution subsurface geophysical results from Yucca Flat.

  9. Design of a photovoltaic central power station: flat-plate array

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using fixed flat-panel arrays has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes high-efficiency photovoltaic modules using dendritic web cells. The modules are arranged in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic output is connected to the existing 115 kV utility switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  10. Rocky Flats Compliance Program; Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) (OTD) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. The primary objective of the Office of Technology Development, Rocky Flats Compliance Program (RFCP), is to develop altemative treatment technologies for mixed low-level waste (wastes containing both hazardous and radioactive components) to use in bringing the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) into compliance with Federal and state regulations and agreements. Approximately 48,000 cubic feet of untreated low-level mixed waste, for which treatment has not been specified, are stored at the RFP. The cleanup of the Rocky Flats site is driven by agreements between DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Under these agreements, a Comprehensive Treatment and Management Plan (CTMP) was drafted to outline the mechanisms by which RFP will achieve compliance with the regulations and agreements. This document describes DOE`s strategy to treat low-level mixed waste to meet Land Disposal Restrictions and sets specific milestones related to the regulatory aspects of technology development. These milestones detail schedules for the development of technologies to treat all of the mixed wastes at the RFP. Under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the CTMP has been incorporated into Rocky Flats Plant Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP). The CSTP will become the Rocky Flats Plant site Treatment Plan in 1995 and will supersede the CTMP.

  11. Cosmic strings from supersymmetric flat directions

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Yanou; Morrissey, David E.; Martin, Stephen P.; Wells, James D.

    2008-02-15

    Flat directions are a generic feature of the scalar potential in supersymmetric gauge field theories. They can arise, for example, from D-terms associated with an extra Abelian gauge symmetry. Even when supersymmetry is broken softly, there often remain directions in the scalar field space along which the potential is almost flat. Upon breaking a gauge symmetry along one of these almost-flat directions, cosmic strings may form. Relative to the standard cosmic string picture based on the Abelian Higgs model, these flat-direction cosmic strings have the extreme type-I properties of a thin gauge core surrounded by a much wider scalar field profile. We perform a comprehensive study of the microscopic, macroscopic, and observational characteristics of this class of strings. We find many differences from the standard string scenario, including stable higher winding-mode strings, the dynamical formation of higher mode strings from lower ones, and a resultant multitension scaling string network in the early universe. These strings are only moderately constrained by current observations, and their gravitational wave signatures may be detectable at future gravity wave detectors. Furthermore, there is the interesting but speculative prospect that the decays of cosmic string loops in the early universe could be a source of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays or nonthermal dark matter. We also compare the observational signatures of flat-direction cosmic strings with those of ordinary cosmic strings as well as (p,q) cosmic strings motivated by superstring theory.

  12. Band flatness optimization through complex analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching Hua; Arovas, Daniel P.; Thomale, Ronny

    2016-04-01

    Narrow-band electron systems are particularly likely to exhibit correlated many-body phases driven by interaction effects. Examples include magnetic materials, heavy-fermion systems, and topological phases such as fractional quantum Hall states and their lattice-based cousins, the fractional Chern insulators (FCIs). Here we discuss the problem of designing models with optimal band flatness, subject to constraints on the range of electron hopping. In particular, we show how the imaginary gap, which serves as a proxy for band flatness, can be optimized by appealing to Rouché's theorem, a familiar result from complex analysis. This leads to an explicit construction which we illustrate through its application to two-band FCI models with nontrivial topology (i.e., nonzero Chern numbers). We show how the imaginary-gap perspective leads to an elegant geometric picture of how topological properties can obstruct band flatness in systems with finite-range hopping.

  13. Bubble nucleation for flat potential barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Lars Gerhard; Steinhardt, Paul Joseph

    1989-05-01

    We have studied false vacuum decay for effective potentials in which the false vacuum is separated from the true vacuum by a ``flat'' potential barrier. By flat, we mean that, near the top of the barrier, the potential varies quartically, rather than quadratically with the field (to leading order). We have discovered several new types of bubble solutions. One type reduces in the flat space-time limit to the mathematical solution introduced by Lee and Weinberg to describe ``tunneling without barriers.'' Based on our analysis, though, we propose a significantly different interpretation of the curved space solution. We numerically study these solutions (plus the Hawking-Moss solution) for a toy model to examine how the dominant tunneling mode may change as a function of parameters. We propose a variant of the new inflationary scenario based on these results.

  14. Solid waste recycling programs at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Millette, R.L.; Blackman, T.E.; Shepard, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Flats (RFP) recycling programs for solid waste materials have been in place for over ten years. Within the last three years, the programs were centralized under the direction of the Rocky Flats Waste Minimization department, with the assistance of various plant organizations (e.g., Trucking, Building Services, Regulated Waste Operations, property Utilization and Disposal and Security). Waste Minimization designs collection and transportation systems for recyclable materials and evaluates recycling markets for opportunities to add new commodities to the existing programs. The Waste Minimization department also promotes employee participation in the Rocky Flats Recycling Programs, and collects all recycling data for publication. A description of the program status as of January 1994 is given.

  15. High temperature solder device for flat cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haehner, Carl L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature solder device for flat cables includes a microwelder, an anvil which acts as a heat sink and supports a flexible flat ribbon cable that is to be connected to a multiple pin connector. The microwelder is made from a modified commercially available resistance welding machine such as the Split Tip Electrode microwelder by Weltek, which consists of two separate electrode halves with a removable dielectric spacer in between. The microwelder is not used to weld the items together, but to provide a controlled compressive force on, and energy pulse to, a solder preform placed between a pin of the connector and a conductor of the flexible flat ribbon cable. When the microwelder is operated, an electric pulse will flow down one electrode, through the solder preform and back up the other electrode. This pulse of electrical energy will cause the solder preform to heat up and melt, joining the pin and conductor.

  16. Issues evaluation process at Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.C.

    1992-04-16

    This report describes the issues evaluation process for Rocky Flats Plant as established in July 1990. The issues evaluation process was initiated February 27, 1990 with a Charter and Process Overview for short-term implementation. The purpose of the process was to determine the projects required for completion before the Phased Resumption of Plutonium Operations. To determine which projects were required, the issues evaluation process and emphasized risk mitigation, based on a ranking system. The purpose of this report is to document the early design of the issues evaluation process to record the methodologies used that continue as the basis for the ongoing Issues Management Program at Rocky Flats Plant.

  17. Flat phase of quantum polymerized membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coquand, O.; Mouhanna, D.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the flat phase of quantum polymerized phantom membranes by means of a nonperturbative renormalization group approach. We first implement this formalism for general quantum polymerized membranes and derive the flow equations that encompass both quantum and thermal fluctuations. We then deduce and analyze the flow equations relevant to study the flat phase and discuss their salient features: quantum to classical crossover and, in each of these regimes, strong to weak coupling crossover. We finally illustrate these features in the context of free-standing graphene physics.

  18. Plutonium concentrations in lichens of Rocky Flats environs

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.S.; Ibrahim, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    Xanthoparmelia spp. lichens were used to study the spatial distribution of plutonium concentrations in nonvascular plants surrounding the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons facility with respect to distance, direction, age, and washing. Plutonium concentrations in lichens were inversely related to distance from the initial contamination site with a directional component which corroborated wind-borne transport as the primary means of dispersion. Ultrasonic washing and the relative age of the lichen proved to be significant only at p = 0.21 and p = 0.96, respectively. Isotopic ratios of {sup 239,240}Pu to {sup 238}Pu were highly variable at low activities but remained consistent at 62.6 for samples with high total plutonium activity. Correlation of Xanthoparmelia spp. lichen {sup 239,240}Pu concentrations to surface soil concentrations showed a direct relationship (r = 0.767; p < 0.001). The correlation was supported by soil retention studies which revealed a lichen soil content ranging from 11 to 18% on a dry mass basis with a possible particle size selectivity in the different concentration ratios adjacent to and away from the initial contamination site. Results suggest that further study into the in situ biomonitoring of surface soil by Xanthoparmelia spp. lichens is promising. 38 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Plutonium concentrations in lichens of Rocky Flats environs.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R S; Ibrahim, S A

    1995-03-01

    Xanthoparmelia spp. lichens were used to study the spatial distribution of plutonium concentrations in nonvascular plants surrounding the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons facility with respect to distance, direction, age, and washing. Plutonium concentrations in lichens were inversely related to distance from the initial contamination site with a directional component which corroborated wind-borne transport as the primary means of dispersion. Ultrasonic washing and the relative age of the lichen proved to be significant only at p = 0.21 and p = 0.96, respectively. Isotopic ratios of 239,240Pu to 238Pu were highly variable at low activities but remained consistent at 62.6 for samples with high total plutonium activity. Correlation of Xanthoparmelia spp. lichen 239,240Pu concentrations to surface soil concentrations showed a direct relationship (r = 0.767; p < 0.001). The correlation was supported by soil retention studies which revealed a lichen soil content ranging from 11 to 18% on a dry mass basis with a possible particle size selectivity in the different concentration ratios adjacent to and away from the initial contamination site. Results suggest that further study into the in situ biomonitoring of surface soil by Xanthoparmelia spp. lichens is promising. PMID:7860301

  20. Plutonium concentrations in lichens of Rocky Flats environs.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R S; Ibrahim, S A

    1995-03-01

    Xanthoparmelia spp. lichens were used to study the spatial distribution of plutonium concentrations in nonvascular plants surrounding the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons facility with respect to distance, direction, age, and washing. Plutonium concentrations in lichens were inversely related to distance from the initial contamination site with a directional component which corroborated wind-borne transport as the primary means of dispersion. Ultrasonic washing and the relative age of the lichen proved to be significant only at p = 0.21 and p = 0.96, respectively. Isotopic ratios of 239,240Pu to 238Pu were highly variable at low activities but remained consistent at 62.6 for samples with high total plutonium activity. Correlation of Xanthoparmelia spp. lichen 239,240Pu concentrations to surface soil concentrations showed a direct relationship (r = 0.767; p < 0.001). The correlation was supported by soil retention studies which revealed a lichen soil content ranging from 11 to 18% on a dry mass basis with a possible particle size selectivity in the different concentration ratios adjacent to and away from the initial contamination site. Results suggest that further study into the in situ biomonitoring of surface soil by Xanthoparmelia spp. lichens is promising.

  1. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  2. 14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen he designed and installed in the Congdon Canal, facing southeast. Photo dates ca. late 1920's. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  3. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  4. View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips (Facility Nos. S375 & S376) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat House, Hornet Avenue at Independence Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  7. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  8. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature. PMID:27437018

  9. 2. DETAIL OF CONTROL GATE ADJACENT TO LIFT LOCK NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF CONTROL GATE ADJACENT TO LIFT LOCK NO. 7; THIS CONTROL GATE IS A 1980s RECONSTRUCTION. - Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lift Lock No. 7 & Control Gate, East side of DuPage River, Channahon, Will County, IL

  10. 33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY WITH CONCRETE CULVERT LEADING NORTH OUT OF RAVINE TOWARD JOHNSTON MEMORIAL SITE. VIEW NW. - Shiloh National Military Park Tour Roads, Shiloh, Hardin County, TN

  11. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 28. TOP VIEW OF CIRCUIT BREAKER ADJACENT TO BRIDGE, CATENARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. TOP VIEW OF CIRCUIT BREAKER ADJACENT TO BRIDGE, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  15. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  16. GENERAL VIEW OF WAREHOUSE ADJACENT TO BATCH PLANT, LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF WAREHOUSE ADJACENT TO BATCH PLANT, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM DREY STREET PLANT, INSIDE WELCOME WALL - Chambers Window Glass Company, Warehouse & Shipping, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  17. 10. SLATE PATIO ADJACENT TO SOUTH PORCH OF HOUSE, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SLATE PATIO ADJACENT TO SOUTH PORCH OF HOUSE, FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF REAR PORCH. SHED IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Butt Valley Dam, Gate Tender's House, Butt Valley Reservoir Road, Caribou, Plumas County, CA

  18. Detail of fire alarm boxes located adjacent to the entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of fire alarm boxes located adjacent to the entrance of the northwest wing - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  20. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 2. THREEQUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-QUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS AND NORTHWEST APPROACH SPANS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Red River Bridge, Spanning Red River at U.S. Highway 82, Garland, Miller County, AR

  2. 31. VAL, DETAIL OF LOADING PLATFORM ADJACENT TO LAUNCHER BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VAL, DETAIL OF LOADING PLATFORM ADJACENT TO LAUNCHER BRIDGE LOOKING WEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with soundproof walls and pedestal flooring - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  4. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  5. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  6. Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example is located between Buildings 26 and 27. Facing northeast - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Adjacent Segment Disease Perspective and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra-Pozo, Fanor M.; Deusdara, Renato A. M.; Benzel, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease has become a common topic in spine surgery circles because of the significant increase in fusion surgery in recent years and the development of motion preservation technologies that theoretically should lead to a decrease in this pathology. The purpose of this review is to organize the evidence available in the current literature on this subject. Methods For this literature review, a search was conducted in PubMed with the following keywords: adjacent segment degeneration and disease. Selection, review, and analysis of the literature were completed according to level of evidence. Results The PubMed search identified 850 articles, from which 41 articles were selected and reviewed. The incidence of adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine is close to 3% without a significant statistical difference between surgical techniques (fusion vs arthroplasty). Authors report the incidence of adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine to range from 2% to 14%. Damage to the posterior ligamentous complex and sagittal imbalances are important risk factors for both degeneration and disease. Conclusion Insufficient evidence exists at this point to support the idea that total disc arthroplasty is superior to fusion procedures in minimizing the incidence of adjacent segment disease. The etiology is most likely multifactorial but it is becoming abundantly clear that adjacent segment disease is not caused by motion segment fusion alone. Fusion plus the presence of abnormal end-fusion alignment appears to be a major factor in creating end-fusion stresses that result in adjacent segment degeneration and subsequent disease. The data presented cast further doubt on previously established rationales for total disc arthroplasty, at least with regard to the effect of total disc arthroplasty on adjacent segment degeneration pathology. PMID:24688337

  8. 8. Asymptotically Flat and Regular Cauchy Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dain, Sergio

    I describe the construction of a large class of asymptotically flat initial data with non-vanishing mass and angular momentum for which the metric and the extrinsic curvature have asymptotic expansions at space-like infinity in terms of powers of a radial coordinate. I emphasize the motivations and the main ideas behind the proofs.

  9. Promoting Employability in a "Flat" World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Polly

    2008-01-01

    T. L. Friedman (2005) described a "flat" world platform where competition and collaboration take place in real time among people all over the planet. Implications exist for people to assume responsibility for managing their own careers and ensuring their own security in a global economy. This article addresses those challenges from both the…

  10. Conformally flat polytropes for anisotropic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, L.; Di Prisco, A.; Barreto, W.; Ospino, J.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze in detail conformally flat spherically symmetric fluid distributions, satisfying a polytropic equation of state. Among the two possible families of relativistic polytropes, only one contains models which satisfy all the required physical conditions. The ensuing configurations are necessarily anisotropic and show interesting physical properties. Prospective applications of the presented models to the study of super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs, are discussed.

  11. Mass Distributions Implying Flat Galactic Rotation Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeports, David

    2010-01-01

    The rotational speeds of stars in the disc of a spiral galaxy are virtually independent of the distances of the stars from the centre of the galaxy. In common parlance, the stellar speed versus distance plot known as a galactic rotation curve is by observation typically nearly flat. This observation provides strong evidence that most galactic…

  12. Fully methylated, atomically flat (111) silicon surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidélis, A.; Ozanam, F.; Chazalviel, J.-N.

    2000-01-01

    The atomically flat hydrogenated (111) silicon surface has been methylated by anodization in a Grignard reagent and the surface obtained characterized by infrared spectroscopy. 100% substitution of the hydrogen atoms by methyl groups is observed. The resulting surface exhibits preserved ordering and superior chemical stability.

  13. Neal Lane: Science in a Flat World

    SciTech Connect

    Neal Lane

    2006-09-12

    Lane discusses the changes that have taken place in the world since World War II that have made it "flatter," referring to Thomas L. Friedman's book, The World is Flat. Friedman's main premise is that inexpensive telecommunications is bringing about unhampered international competition, the demise of economic stability, and a trend toward outsourcing services, such as computer programming, engineering and science research.

  14. Neal Lane: Science in a Flat World

    ScienceCinema

    Neal Lane

    2016-07-12

    Lane discusses the changes that have taken place in the world since World War II that have made it "flatter," referring to Thomas L. Friedman's book, The World is Flat. Friedman's main premise is that inexpensive telecommunications is bringing about unhampered international competition, the demise of economic stability, and a trend toward outsourcing services, such as computer programming, engineering and science research.

  15. Carbonate tidal flat in mixed carbonate-siliciclastic clore formation (upper chesterian) in Southern Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Abegg, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    The upper Chesterian Clore Formation consists primarily of delta-front sandstones of the Tygett Sandstone Member and interbedded offshore mud-rich carbonates and prodelta shales of the Cora and Ford Station Limestone Members. The basal Ford Station limestone in south-central Illinois contains a carbonate sequence 1.0 m thick marked by (1) laminated pelletal lime mudstones, (2) bird's-eye structures containing internal sediment, (3) vertical burrows, (4) horizontal shrinkage cracks, (5) autoclastic brecciation, (6) root. tubes, and (7) calciphers. These features indicate tidal-flat deposition. Other examples of peritidal carbonate deposition are unknown in the Chesterian of the Illinois basin. Tidal-flat strata overlie 1.9 m of interbedded shale and lime mudstones containing linguloid brachiopods, pectin bivalves, and ostracods. The lime mudstones and shales are interpreted as shallow-subtidal, restricted-shelf deposits overlying crevasse-splay deposits of the upper Tygett sandstone. Carbonate tidal-flat deposition in the upper Chesterian of the Illinois basin is an exception to the generally accepted model of nearshore terrigenous and offshore carbonate sedimentation. Delta switching is the most plausible explanation for development of the Clore tidal flat. Following deposition of the deltaic Tygett sandstone, peritidal carbonate deposition occurred in the basal Ford Station limestone when terrigenous sedimentation was deflected westward, as indicated by thin delta-front sandstones in the basal Ford Station limestone in southwestern Illinois. The tidal flat developed locally because south-central Illinois was the region of maximum progradation of the Tygett delta and because upper Tygett crevasse-splay deposits compacted less than adjacent shales.

  16. Net ecosystem production, calcification and CO2 fluxes on a reef flat in Northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Cybelle M.; Souza, Marcelo F. L.; Silva, Ananda M.

    2015-12-01

    The carbon cycle in coral reefs is usually dominated by the organic carbon metabolism and precipitation-dissolution of CaCO3, processes that control the CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in seawater and the CO2 fluxes through the air-sea interface. In order to characterize these processes and the carbonate system, four sampling surveys were conducted at the reef flat of Coroa Vermelha during low tide (exposed flat). Net ecosystem production (NEP), net precipitation-dissolution of CaCO3 (G) and CO2 fluxes across the air-water interface were calculated. The reef presented net autotrophy and calcification at daytime low tide. The NEP ranged from -8.7 to 31.6 mmol C m-2 h-1 and calcification from -13.1 to 26.0 mmol C m-2 h-1. The highest calcification rates occurred in August 2007, coinciding with the greater NEP rates. The daytime CO2 fluxes varied from -9.7 to 22.6 μmol CO2 m-2 h-1, but reached up to 13,900 μmol CO2 m-2 h-1 during nighttime. Carbon dioxide influx to seawater was predominant in the reef flat during low tide. The regions adjacent to the reef showed a supersaturation of CO2, acting as a source of CO2 to the atmosphere (from -22.8 to -2.6 mol CO2 m-2 h-1) in the reef flat during ebbing tide. Nighttime gas release to the atmosphere indicates a net CO2 release from the Coroa Vermelha reef flat within 24 h, and that these fluxes can be important to carbon budget in coral reefs.

  17. Analysis of adjacent segment reoperation after lumbar total disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Rainey, Scott; Blumenthal, Scott L.; Zigler, Jack E.; Guyer, Richard D.; Ohnmeiss, Donna D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Fusion has long been used for treating chronic back pain unresponsive to nonoperative care. However, potential development of adjacent segment degeneration resulting in reoperation is a concern. Total disc replacement (TDR) has been proposed as a method for addressing back pain and preventing or reducing adjacent segment degeneration. The purpose of the study was to determine the reoperation rate at the segment adjacent to a level implanted with a lumbar TDR and to analyze the pre-TDR condition of the adjacent segment. Methods This study was based on a retrospective review of charts and radiographs from a consecutive series of 1000 TDR patients to identify those who underwent reoperation because of adjacent segment degeneration. Some of the patients were part of randomized studies comparing TDR with fusion. Adjacent segment reoperation data were also collected from 67 patients who were randomized to fusion in those studies. The condition of the adjacent segment before the index surgery was compared with its condition before reoperation based on radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography. Results Of the 1000 TDR patients, 20 (2.0%) underwent reoperation. The mean length of time from arthroplasty to reoperation was 28.3 months (range, 0.5–85 months). Of the adjacent segments evaluated on preoperative MRI, 38.8% were normal, 38.8% were moderately diseased, and 22.2% were classified as having severe degeneration. None of these levels had a different grading at the time of reoperation compared with the pre-TDR MRI study. Reoperation for adjacent segment degeneration was performed in 4.5% of the fusion patients. Conclusions The 2.0% rate of adjacent segment degeneration resulting in reoperation in this study is similar to the 2.0% to 2.8% range in other studies and lower than the published rates of 7% to 18% after lumbar fusion. By carefully assessing the presence of pre-existing degenerative changes before performing arthroplasty

  18. Exposure tool chuck flatness study and effects on lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee-Roy, Moitreyee; Tan, Cher-Huan; Tan, Yong K.; Samudra, Ganesh S.

    2001-04-01

    The flatness of the chuck on the stepper or scanner is critical to obtain good patterning performance especially in the sub quarter micron regime. In this study an attempt has been made to u7nderstand the flatness signature of the chuck by measuring the flatness of a super flat wafer in two different notch orientations and subtracting the signatures. If the chuck or the wafer were ideally flat then there would be no different in flatness signatures between the two orientations. However in practice difference was found as neither the chuck nor the wafer is perfectly flat. This difference could be used to obtain an understanding about the flatness signature on the scanner chuck itself. This signature could be used by equipment manufacturers as an additional method to measure chuck flatness so that only superior chucks are used for equipment that are being made for sub quarter micron lithography. The second part of this study consisted of finding out the effect of this flatness on the resulting CD on wafers. Wafers, with different flatness signatures, were exposed at different orientations and the CD variations were evaluated. All wafers showed improvements in the orientation of better flatness. For some wafers the improvements was significant but for others the result was close to the CD variation due to rework. This could be attributed to the inherent signatures on the wafers and how abrupt the change in flatness was. The wafer deformation factor was not analyzed for brevity as this would make the problem far more complex.

  19. Heat transfer enhancement downstream of vortex generators on a flat plate

    SciTech Connect

    Turk, A.Y.

    1984-01-01

    This investigation was conducted in order to better understand the augmentation of forced convective heat transfer when a single row of counter-rotating vortex blades is attached to a flat surface. The major emphasis of the work is to study the way in which vortex generators augment the heat transfer coefficient of an initially-laminar boundary layer over a flat, constant heat flux surface exposed to favorable free stream pressure gradients. Particular emphasis is placed on the relationship between the geometry of vortex generators and the augmentation of local and overall heat transfer coefficients. The behavior of the boundary layer downstream of vortex generators is partially explored. This dissertation includes results of an experimental investigation that indicates the amount of heat transfer enhancement depends on the vortex blade height and arrangement on the plate surface. The local enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient was increased up to 300% over that for a plain flat plate mainly because of high turbulence produced over the region adjacent to the plate surface, resulting in increased mixing of the slower fluid near the plate surface with the free stream. A set of guidelines for the design of more efficient surface with vortex generators was proposed.

  20. Prognostic atmospheric and dispersion modeling in the vicinity of Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, J.D.

    1995-04-01

    A multiscale four-dimensional data assimilation technique is incorporated into a mesoscale model and evaluated using meteorological and tracer data collected during the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) field experiment in the winter of 1991. The mesoscale model is used to predict the interaction of synoptically-driven flows and small-scale circulations influenced by terrain along the Front Range in Colorado in the vicinity of the Rocky Flats Plant for four nocturnal periods during the ASCOT field experiment. Data assimilation is used to create dynamically consistent analysis fields based on the mesoscale forecasts and the special asynoptic data taken during this experiment. The wind and turbulence quantities produced by the mesoscale model are then used to determine the dispersion of a tracer released from the Rocky Flats Plant for each evening. The mesoscale model is able to qualitatively predict the mesobeta-scale drainage flows from the Front Range into the South Platte River basin; however, the largest forecast errors occurred in a region immediately adjacent to the foothills. As expected, the current data assimilation technique reduced the overall errors in the atmospheric and dispersion calculations while the model generated realistic small-scale circulations not resolved by the data. Still, the model did not capture the shallow surface drainage flows just east of the Rocky Flats Plant for two of the evenings during the field experiment.

  1. Emergent universe in spatially flat cosmological model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kaituo; Yu, Hongwei; Wu, Puxun E-mail: wpx0227@gmail.com

    2014-01-01

    The scenario of an emergent universe provides a promising resolution to the big bang singularity in universes with positive or negative spatial curvature. It however remains unclear whether the scenario can be successfully implemented in a spatially flat universe which seems to be favored by present cosmological observations. In this paper, we study the stability of Einstein static state solutions in a spatially flat Shtanov-Sahni braneworld scenario. With a negative dark radiation term included and assuming a scalar field as the only matter energy component, we find that the universe can stay at an Einstein static state past eternally and then evolve to an inflation phase naturally as the scalar field climbs up its potential slowly. In addition, we also propose a concrete potential of the scalar field that realizes this scenario.

  2. Towards a flat 45%-efficient concentrator module

    SciTech Connect

    Mohedano, Rubén Hernandez, Maikel; Vilaplana, Juan; Chaves, Julio; Sorgato, S.; Falicoff, Waqidi; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo

    2015-09-28

    The so-called CCS{sup 4}FK is an ultra-flat photovoltaic system of high concentration and high efficiency, with potential to convert, ideally, the equivalent of a 45% of direct solar radiation into electricity by optimizing the usage of sun spectrum and by collecting part of the diffuse radiation, as a flat plate does. LPI has recently finished a design based on this concept and is now developing a prototype based on this technology, thanks to the support of FUNDACION REPSOL-Fondo de Emprendedores, which promotes entrepreneur projects in different areas linked to energy. This works shows some details of the actual design and preliminary potential performance expected, according to accurate spectral simulations.

  3. Archival of Poker Flat MST radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddle, A. C.; Balsley, B. B.; Gage, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    The Poker Flat MST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere) radar has operated from early 1979 to 1985. The data recorded during that time resides on some 1100 magnetic tapes. A second set containing only the derived parameters of velocity, width and signal to noise of the primary echo at each height, plus the noise spectra, occupies another 250 tapes. While processing to generate the compressed data set does correct some known errors, no attempt has been made to identify or remove spurious echoes. Because the Poker Flat data set is such a unique and valuable resource, a proposal is made to archive the data in forms more useful for analysis. The archived data set would contain only the parameters for significant echoes with contamination from airplanes, unwanted ionospheric returns, frequently aliased Doppler signals and other sources removed. The archived set should be as good or better than the example shown and may occupy only 25 to 50 tapes.

  4. Towards a flat 45%-efficient concentrator module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Hernandez, Maikel; Vilaplana, Juan; Chaves, Julio; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Sorgato, S.; Falicoff, Waqidi

    2015-09-01

    The so-called CCS4FK is an ultra-flat photovoltaic system of high concentration and high efficiency, with potential to convert, ideally, the equivalent of a 45% of direct solar radiation into electricity by optimizing the usage of sun spectrum and by collecting part of the diffuse radiation, as a flat plate does. LPI has recently finished a design based on this concept and is now developing a prototype based on this technology, thanks to the support of FUNDACION REPSOL-Fondo de Emprendedores, which promotes entrepreneur projects in different areas linked to energy. This works shows some details of the actual design and preliminary potential performance expected, according to accurate spectral simulations.

  5. Spherical aberration in electrically thin flat lenses.

    PubMed

    Ruphuy, Miguel; Ramahi, Omar M

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the spherical aberration of a new generation of lenses made of flat electrically thin inhomogeneous media. For such lenses, spherical aberration is analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively, and comparison is made to the classical gradient index rod. Both flat thin and thick lenses are made of gradient index materials, but the physical mechanisms and design equations are different. Using full-wave three-dimensional numerical simulation, we evaluate the spherical aberrations using the Maréchal criterion and show that the thin lens gives significantly better performance than the thick lens (rod). Additionally, based on ray tracing formulation, third-order analysis for longitudinal aberration and optical path difference are presented, showing strong overall performance of thin lenses in comparison to classical rod lenses. PMID:27505651

  6. Rocky Flats cleanup receives new deadline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-30

    The Rocky Flats nuclear weapon plant near Denver narrowly missed a court-ordered shutdown of virtually all cleanup activities when it failed to meet an Aug. 22 deadline for a state permit to store mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes on site. US District Court Judge Lewis Babcock granted a 90-day stay of contempt charges against the US Dept. of Energy, but left open the possibility of civil penalties under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. DOE's problems stem from a lawsuit the Sierra Club won two years ago in which Babcock gave Rocky Flats until Aug. 22 to obtain a RCRA permit or interim status from Colorado to store 600 cu yd of mixed wastes. If DOE failed to do so, the court said it could not generate further hazardous wastes at the site.

  7. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-10-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  8. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-06-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  9. 10. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam under construction. Cement ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam under construction. Cement storage shed is at center right. Photographer unknown, September 1924. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 20. OUTLET (FOREGROUND) AND WEIR (BACKGROUND) OF DEER FLAT CALDWELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. OUTLET (FOREGROUND) AND WEIR (BACKGROUND) OF DEER FLAT CALDWELL CANAL ON DOWNSTREAM FACE OF UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  11. 29. HEADWORKS OF DEER FLAT LOW LINE CANAL ON LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. HEADWORKS OF DEER FLAT LOW LINE CANAL ON LOWER EMBANKMENT, SHOWING IDAHO-SHAPED ROCKS FLANKING ENTRANCE TO BRIDGE. VIEW TO EAST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  12. 16. DETAIL OF OUTLET OF DEER FLAT NAMPA CANAL ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF OUTLET OF DEER FLAT NAMPA CANAL ON DOWNSTREAM FACE OF UPPER EMBANKMENT (NOTE TWO FILLED-IN PORTALS). VIEW TO EAST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  13. Boat Deck, Cabin Deck, Bridge Deck, Flat House Top, Stage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Boat Deck, Cabin Deck, Bridge Deck, Flat House Top, Stage Top, Mast House Top, Upper Deck, Flat House Tops, Forecastle Deck, Main Deck - American Racer, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  14. 2. General view of Mormon Flat looking upstream. Construction activity ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General view of Mormon Flat looking upstream. Construction activity is visible at center right. Photographer unknown, September 30, 1923. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 6. Intake of flume under construction at Mormon Flat. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Intake of flume under construction at Mormon Flat. Photographer unknown, October 2, 1923. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Phosphors for flat panel emissive displays

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.T.; Walko, R.J.; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1995-07-01

    An overview of emissive display technologies is presented. Display types briefly described include: cathode ray tubes (CRTs), field emission displays (FEDs), electroluminescent displays (ELDs), and plasma display panels (PDPs). The critical role of phosphors in further development of the latter three flat panel emissive display technologies is outlined. The need for stable, efficient red, green, and blue phosphors for RGB fall color displays is emphasized.

  17. Pressurized-Flat-Interface Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, F. E.; Howell, H. R.; Winkler, R. V.

    1990-01-01

    High thermal conductance obtained without leakage between loops. Heat-exchanger interface enables efficient transfer of heat between two working fluids without allowing fluids to intermingle. Interface thin, flat, and easy to integrate into thermal system. Possible application in chemical or pharmaceutical manufacturing when even trace contamination of process stream with water or other coolant ruins product. Reduces costs when highly corrosive fluids must be cooled or heated.

  18. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V.

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology.

  19. Modified Spot Welder Solders Flat Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haehner, Carl L.

    1992-01-01

    Soldering device, essentially modified spot welder, melts high-melting-temperature solders without damaging plastic insulation on flat electrical cables. Solder preform rests on exposed conductor of cable, under connector pin. Electrodes press pin/preform/conductor sandwich together and supply pulse of current to melt preform, bonding pin to conductor. Anvil acts as support and heat sink. Device used to solder flexible ribbon cables to subminiature pin connectors.

  20. Status Update: Closing Rocky Flats by 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Tuor, N.; Schubert, A.

    2003-02-25

    Safely closing Rocky Flats by December 2006 is a goal shared by many: the State of Colorado, the communities surrounding the site, the U.S. Congress, the Department of Energy (DOE), Kaiser-Hill and its team of subcontractors, the site's employees and taxpayers across the country. This paper will: provide a status of the Closure Project to date; describe important accomplishments of the past year; describe some of the closure-enhancing technologies enabling acceleration; and discuss the remaining challenges ahead.

  1. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, M. G.; Heasler, P. G.; Hoover, K. A.; Rynes, N. J.; Thiessen, R. L.; Alfaro, J. L.

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures.

  2. Superfluidity in topologically nontrivial flat bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peotta, Sebastiano; Törmä, Päivi

    2015-11-01

    Topological invariants built from the periodic Bloch functions characterize new phases of matter, such as topological insulators and topological superconductors. The most important topological invariant is the Chern number that explains the quantized conductance of the quantum Hall effect. Here we provide a general result for the superfluid weight Ds of a multiband superconductor that is applicable to topologically nontrivial bands with nonzero Chern number C. We find that the integral over the Brillouin-zone of the quantum metric, an invariant calculated from the Bloch functions, gives the superfluid weight in a flat band, with the bound Ds>=|C|. Thus, even a flat band can carry finite superfluid current, provided the Chern number is nonzero. As an example, we provide Ds for the time-reversal invariant attractive Harper-Hubbard model that can be experimentally tested in ultracold gases. In general, our results establish that a topologically nontrivial flat band is a promising concept for increasing the critical temperature of the superconducting transition.

  3. Superfluidity in topologically nontrivial flat bands.

    PubMed

    Peotta, Sebastiano; Törmä, Päivi

    2015-11-20

    Topological invariants built from the periodic Bloch functions characterize new phases of matter, such as topological insulators and topological superconductors. The most important topological invariant is the Chern number that explains the quantized conductance of the quantum Hall effect. Here we provide a general result for the superfluid weight Ds of a multiband superconductor that is applicable to topologically nontrivial bands with nonzero Chern number C. We find that the integral over the Brillouin-zone of the quantum metric, an invariant calculated from the Bloch functions, gives the superfluid weight in a flat band, with the bound Ds⩾|C|. Thus, even a flat band can carry finite superfluid current, provided the Chern number is nonzero. As an example, we provide Ds for the time-reversal invariant attractive Harper-Hubbard model that can be experimentally tested in ultracold gases. In general, our results establish that a topologically nontrivial flat band is a promising concept for increasing the critical temperature of the superconducting transition.

  4. Superfluidity in topologically nontrivial flat bands

    PubMed Central

    Peotta, Sebastiano; Törmä, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Topological invariants built from the periodic Bloch functions characterize new phases of matter, such as topological insulators and topological superconductors. The most important topological invariant is the Chern number that explains the quantized conductance of the quantum Hall effect. Here we provide a general result for the superfluid weight Ds of a multiband superconductor that is applicable to topologically nontrivial bands with nonzero Chern number C. We find that the integral over the Brillouin-zone of the quantum metric, an invariant calculated from the Bloch functions, gives the superfluid weight in a flat band, with the bound Ds⩾|C|. Thus, even a flat band can carry finite superfluid current, provided the Chern number is nonzero. As an example, we provide Ds for the time-reversal invariant attractive Harper–Hubbard model that can be experimentally tested in ultracold gases. In general, our results establish that a topologically nontrivial flat band is a promising concept for increasing the critical temperature of the superconducting transition. PMID:26586543

  5. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, W. S.; Guerini, S.; Diniz, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons.

  6. Quantum deformations of the flat space superstring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachoł, Anna; van Tongeren, Stijn J.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a quantum deformation of the Green-Schwarz superstring on flat space, arising as a contraction limit of the corresponding deformation of AdS5×S5 . This contraction limit turns out to be equivalent to a previously studied limit that yields the so-called mirror model—the model obtained from the light cone gauge fixed AdS5×S5 string by a double Wick rotation. Reversing this logic, the AdS5×S5 superstring is the double Wick rotation of a quantum deformation of the flat space superstring. This quantum deformed flat space string realizes symmetries of the timelike κ -Poincaré type and is T dual to dS5×H5, indicating interesting relations between symmetry algebras under T duality. Our results directly extend to AdS2×S2×T6 and AdS3×S3×T4 and beyond string theory to many (semi)symmetric space coset sigma models, such as a deformation of the four-dimensional Minkowski sigma model with timelike κ -Poincaré symmetry. We also discuss possible null and spacelike deformations.

  7. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, W. S.; Guerini, S.; Diniz, E. M.

    2015-11-14

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons.

  8. Gravitational multisoliton solutions on flat space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu

    2016-02-01

    It is well known that, for even n , the n -soliton solution on the Minkowski seed, constructed using the inverse-scattering method (ISM) of Belinski and Zakharov (BZ), is the multi-Kerr-NUT solution. We show that, for odd n , the natural seed to use is the Euclidean space with two manifest translational symmetries, and the n -soliton solution is the accelerating multi-Kerr-NUT solution. We thus define the n -soliton solution on flat space for any positive integer n . It admits both Lorentzian and Euclidean sections. In the latter section, we find that a number, say m , of solitons can be eliminated in a nontrivial way by appropriately fixing their corresponding so-called BZ parameters. The resulting solutions, which may split into separate classes, are collectively denoted as [n -m ]-soliton solutions on flat space. We then carry out a systematic study of the n - and [n -m ]-soliton solutions on flat space. This includes, in particular, an explicit presentation of their ISM construction, an analysis of their local geometries, and a classification of all separate classes of solutions they form. We also show how even-soliton solutions on the seeds of the collinearly centered Gibbons-Hawking and Taub-NUT arise from these solutions.

  9. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A. ); Rynes, N.J. ); Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L. )

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A.; Rynes, N.J.; Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA`s characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL`s RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. On the Adjacent Eccentric Distance Sum Index of Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hui; Cao, Shujuan

    2015-01-01

    For a given graph G, ε(v) and deg(v) denote the eccentricity and the degree of the vertex v in G, respectively. The adjacent eccentric distance sum index of a graph G is defined as ξsv(G)=∑v∈V(G)ε(v)D(v)deg(v), where D(v)=∑u∈V(G)d(u,v) is the sum of all distances from the vertex v. In this paper we derive some bounds for the adjacent eccentric distance sum index in terms of some graph parameters, such as independence number, covering number, vertex connectivity, chromatic number, diameter and some other graph topological indices. PMID:26091095

  12. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Jason D; Lee, Monica D; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  13. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Monica D.; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  14. Nonlinear spin wave coupling in adjacent magnonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have experimentally studied the coupling of spin waves in the adjacent magnonic crystals. Space- and time-resolved Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy is used to demonstrate the frequency and intensity dependent spin-wave energy exchange between the side-coupled magnonic crystals. The experiments and the numerical simulation of spin wave propagation in the coupled periodic structures show that the nonlinear phase shift of spin wave in the adjacent magnonic crystals leads to the nonlinear switching regime at the frequencies near the forbidden magnonic gap. The proposed side-coupled magnonic crystals represent a significant advance towards the all-magnonic signal processing in the integrated magnonic circuits.

  15. View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old Wawona Road near location of photograph HAER CA-148-17. Note road cuts, alignment, and tunnels. Devils Dance Floor at left distance. Looking northwest - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  16. Was there a Laramide "flat slab"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Slab-continent interactions drive most non-collisional orogenies; this has led us to usually anticipate that temporal changes or spatial variations in orogenic style are related to changes in the slab, most especially in the slab's dip. This is most dramatically evident for orogenies in the foreland, well away from the trench, such as the Laramide orogeny. However, the physical means of connecting slab geometry to crustal deformation remain obscure. Dickinson and Snyder (1978) and Bird (1984) laid out a conceptually elegant means of creating foreland deformation from shear between a slab and overriding continental lithosphere, but such strong shear removed all of the continental lithosphere in the western U.S. when included in a numerical simulation of flat slab subduction (Bird, 1988), a removal in conflict with observations of volcanic rocks and xenoliths in many locations. Relying on an increase in edge normal stresses results, for the Laramide, in requiring the little-deformed Colorado Plateau to either be unusually strong or to have risen rapidly enough and high enough to balance edge stresses with body forces. Early deformation in the Plateau rules out unusual strength, and the accumulation and preservation of Late Cretaceous near-sea level sedimentary rocks makes profound uplift unlikely (though not impossible). Relying on comparisons with the Sierras Pampeanas is also fraught with problems: the Sierras are not separated from the Andean fold-and-thrust belt by several hundred kilometers of little-deformed crust, nor were they buried under kilometers of marine muds as were large parts of the Laramide foreland. We have instead suggested that some unusual interactions of an obliquely subducting plate with a thick Archean continental root might provide a better explanation than a truly flat slab (Jones et al., 2011). From this, and given that several flat-slab segments today are not associated with foreland orogenesis and noting that direct evidence for truly

  17. 4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side of bridge, taken from river level. Note entire east side and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  18. 12. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM THE PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM THE PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO THE STEEL PLANT OFFICES. BAR AND BILLET MILLS AND, IN THE DISTANCE, THE BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES MAY BE SEEN. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  19. 8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking south. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  20. 10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead setting. Note laced vertical compression members, latticed portal strut, decorative strut bracing, and lightness of diagonal and lateral tension members. View to southeast through southeast portal from truss mid-span. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  1. 11. Interior detail, Boiler Room, fire door to the adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior detail, Boiler Room, fire door to the adjacent Blacksmith Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to southwest (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  2. 1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN BUILDING (BASSIN'S RESTAURANT) (HABS No. DC-357), 501-511 14TH STREET (THE LOCKER ROOM) HABS No. DC-356) ON CORNER, AND MUNSEY BUILDING (HABS No. DC-358) - William J. Stone Building, 1345 E Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  9. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  10. 4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN BUILDING PERIODS 1 AND 3. NOTE REUSED WOOD STRIP NAILED TO BUILDING PERIOD 1 POST INSCRIBED 'ST. LEONARD'. THERE ARE NO NAIL HOLES IN THE PERIOD 3 POST, THE FARRING STRIPS ADJUST FOR CLADDING - Charles' Gift, State Routes 2 & 4, Lusby, Calvert County, MD

  11. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  12. 12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  13. LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

  14. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  15. Flat RF coils in static field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Stork, H; Gädke, A; Nestle, N; Fujara, F

    2009-10-01

    The use of flat RF coils allows considerable gains in the sensitivity of static field gradient (SFG) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. In this article, this effect is studied theoretically as well as experimentally. Additionally, the flat coil geometry has been studied theoretically depending on magnetic field gradient, pulse sequence and amplifier power. Moreover, detecting the signal directly from the free induction decay (FID) turned out to be quite attractive for STRAFI-like microimaging experiments, especially when using flat coils. In addition to wound rectangular flat coils also spiral flat coils have been developed which can be manufactured by photolithography from printed circuit boards.

  16. Flat space (higher spin) gravity with chemical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, Michael; Grumiller, Daniel; Riegler, Max; Rosseel, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce flat space spin-3 gravity in the presence of chemical potentials and discuss some applications to flat space cosmology solutions, their entropy, free energy and flat space orbifold singularity resolution. Our results include flat space Einstein gravity with chemical potentials as special case. We discover novel types of phase transitions between flat space cosmologies with spin-3 hair and show that the branch that continuously connects to spin-2 gravity becomes thermodynamically unstable for sufficiently large temperature or spin-3 chemical potential.

  17. Preliminary hydrogeologic investigation of the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site, Fleming County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zehner, Harold H.

    1979-01-01

    Burial trenches at the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site , Fleming County, Ky., cover an area of about 0.03 square mile, and are located on a plateau, about 300 to 400 feet above surrounding valleys. Although surface-water characteristics are known, little information is available regarding the ground-water hydrology of the Maxey Flats area. If transport of radionuclides from the burial site were to occur, water would probably be the principal mechanism of transport by natural means. Most base flow in streams around the burial site is from valley alluvium, and from the mantle of regolith, colluvium, and soil partially covering adjacent hills. Very little base flow is due to ground-water flow from bedrock. Most water in springs is from the mantle, rather than from bedrock. Rock units underlying the Maxey Flats area are, in descending order, the Nancy and Farmers Members of the Borden Formation, Sunbury, Bedford, and Ohio Shales, and upper part of the Crab Orchard Formation. These units are mostly shales, except for the Farmers Member, which is mostly sandstone. Total thickness of the rocks is about 320 feet. All radioactive wastes are buried in the Nancy Member. Most ground-water movement in bedrock probably occurs in fractures. The ground-water system at Maxey Flats is probably unconfined, and recharge occurs by (a) infiltration of rainfall into the mantle, and (b) vertical, unsaturated flow from the saturated regolith on hilltops to saturated zones in the Farmers Member and Ohio Shale. Data are insufficient to determine if saturated zones exist in other rock units. The upper part of the Crab Orchard Formation is probably a hydrologic boundary, with little ground-water flow through the formation. (USGS)

  18. Absolute flatness testing of skip-flat interferometry by matrix analysis in polar coordinates.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhi-Gang; Yin, Lu; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Ri-Hong

    2016-03-20

    A new method utilizing matrix analysis in polar coordinates has been presented for absolute testing of skip-flat interferometry. The retrieval of the absolute profile mainly includes three steps: (1) transform the wavefront maps of the two cavity measurements into data in polar coordinates; (2) retrieve the profile of the reflective flat in polar coordinates by matrix analysis; and (3) transform the profile of the reflective flat back into data in Cartesian coordinates and retrieve the profile of the sample. Simulation of synthetic surface data has been provided, showing the capability of the approach to achieve an accuracy of the order of 0.01 nm RMS. The absolute profile can be retrieved by a set of closed mathematical formulas without polynomial fitting of wavefront maps or the iterative evaluation of an error function, making the new method more efficient for absolute testing.

  19. Flat conductor cable for electrical packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Flat conductor cable (FCC) is relatively new, highly promising means for electrical packaging and system integration. FCC offers numerous desirable traits (weight, volume and cost savings, flexibility, high reliability, predictable and repeatable electrical characteristics) which make it extremely attractive as a packaging medium. FCC, today, finds wide application in everything from integration of lunar equipment to the packaging of electronics in nuclear submarines. Described are cable construction and means of termination, applicable specifications and standards, and total FCC systems. A list of additional sources of data is also included for more intensive study.

  20. Holographic renormalization of asymptotically flat gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Miok; Mann, Robert B.

    2012-12-01

    We compute the boundary stress tensor associated with Mann-Marolf counterterm in asymptotically flat and static spacetime for a cylindrical boundary surface as r → ∞, andfindthattheformoftheboundarystresstensoristhesameasthehyperbolic boundary case in 4 dimensions, but has additional terms in more than 4 dimensions. We find that these additional terms are impotent and do not contribute to conserved charges. We also check the conservation of the boundary stress tensor D a T ab = 0, and apply our result to the ( n + 3)-dimensional static black hole solution. As a result, we show that the stress boundary tensor with the Mann-Marolf counterterm works well for standard boundary surfaces.

  1. Geotechnical risk analysis by flat dilatometer (DMT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Sara; Monaco, Paola

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades we have assisted at a massive migration from laboratory testing to in situ testing, to the point that, today, in situ testing is often the major part of a geotechnical investigation. The State of the Art indicates that direct-push in situ tests, such as the Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and the Flat Dilatometer Test (DMT), are fast and convenient in situ tests for routine site investigation. In most cases the DMT estimated parameters, in particular the undrained shear strength su and the constrained modulus M, are used with the common design methods of Geotechnical Engineering for evaluating bearing capacity, settlements etc. The paper focuses on the prediction of settlements of shallow foundations, that is probably the No. 1 application of the DMT, especially in sands, where undisturbed samples cannot be retrieved, and on the risk associated with their design. A compilation of documented case histories that compare DMT-predicted vs observed settlements, was collected by Monaco et al. (2006), indicating that, in general, the constrained modulus M can be considered a reasonable "operative modulus" (relevant to foundations in "working conditions") for settlement predictions based on the traditional linear elastic approach. Indeed, the use of a site investigation method, such as DMT, that improve the accuracy of design parameters, reduces risk, and the design can then center on the site's true soil variability without parasitic test variability. In this respect, Failmezger et al. (1999, 2015) suggested to introduce Beta probability distribution, that provides a realistic and useful description of variability for geotechnical design problems. The paper estimates Beta probability distribution in research sites where DMT tests and observed settlements are available. References Failmezger, R.A., Rom, D., Ziegler, S.R. (1999). "SPT? A better approach of characterizing residual soils using other in-situ tests", Behavioral Characterics of Residual Soils, B

  2. WFC3 SS IR Internal Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    2012-10-01

    Part of side switch activities.Flat field ramps will be acquired through each of the IR channel's 15 filters. Sample sequences and exposure times are dictated by the Tungsten lamp flux levels observed in Thermal Vacuum testing. The order in which the filters are used within each Visit and from Visit to Visit was optimized to allow the observations to fit within 30 minute orbits, and also in order to investigate and track any persistence effects resulting from the varying illumination levels on the IR detector.ID: WF20

  3. Ice Particle Impacts on a Flat Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Ruggeri, Charles; Struk, Peter M.; Pereira, Mike; Revilock, Duane; Kreeger, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted at the Ballistic Laboratory of NASA Glenn Research Center to study the impact of ice particles on a stationary flat surface target set at 45 degrees with respect to the direction of motion of the impinging particle (Figure 1). The experiment is part of NASA efforts to study the physics involved in engine power-loss events due to ice-crystal ingestion and ice accretion formation inside engines. These events can occur when aircraft encounter high-altitude convective weather.

  4. Bi-coolant flat plate solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, W. Y.; Green, L. L.

    The feasibility study of a flat plate solar collector which heats air and water concurrently or separately was carried out. Air flows above the collector absorber plate, while water flows in tubes soldered or brazed beneath the plate. The collector efficiencies computed for the flow of both air and water are compared with those for the flow of a single coolant. The results show that the bi-coolant collector efficiency computed for the entire year in Buffalo, New York is higher than the single-coolant collector efficiency, although the efficiency of the water collector is higher during the warmer months.

  5. Neutrinos from flat-spectrum radio quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannheim, K.; Stanev, T.; Biermann, P. L.

    1992-01-01

    The GRO observation (Hartman et al., 1992) of a very strong flux of gamma rays with an energy index close to 2 from the distant quasar 3C279 and other extragalactic flat-spectrum radio sources is in very good agreement with models that advocate the important role of very high energy protons and nuclei in the energy transport in AGN. Protons and nuclei cool by interactions on the nonthermal fields in the nuclear jet of the AGN and generate gamma ray and neutrino fluxes. Ultra high energy neutrinos could be observed with sensitive air shower experiments in outbursts as powerful as the one seen by GRO.

  6. Geometrical Wake of a Smooth Flat Collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC

    2011-09-09

    A transverse geometrical wake generated by a beam passing through a smooth flat collimator with a gradually varying gap between the upper and lower walls is considered. Based on generalization of the approach recently developed for a smooth circular taper we reduce the electromagnetic problem of the impedance calculation to the solution of two much simpler static problems - a magnetostatic and an electrostatic ones. The solution shows that in the limit of not very large frequencies, the impedance increases with the ratio h/d where h is the width and d is the distance between the collimating jaws. Numerical results are presented for the NLC Post Linac collimator.

  7. Repackaging Rocky Flats Legacy Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect

    McTaggart, Jerri Lynne

    2008-01-15

    Repackaging legacy Transuranic (TRU), Transuranic Mixed (TRM), Low Level Waste (LLW), and Low Level Mixed (LLM) waste requires good characterization skills and the ability to adapt to less than ideal conditions. Repackaging legacy waste in a facility that is not undergoing Decontamination and Decommission (D and D) is optimum. However, repackaging any waste in a D and D facility, under cold and dark conditions, can be difficult. Cold and dark conditions are when the heating and air conditioning are no longer in service and the lighting consists of strands of lights hung throughout each of the rooms. Working under these conditions adds an additional level of stress and danger that must be addressed. The use of glovebags was very useful at Rocky Flats during the D and D of many buildings. Glovebags can be adapted for many different types of wastes and unusual conditions. Repackaging of legacy TRU waste, in a D and D facility, can be accomplished safely and cost effectively with the use of glovebags. In conclusion: the use of glovebags to repackage legacy TRU, TRM, LLW, or LLM waste was done safely and cost effectively at Rocky Flats. The cost of using glovebags was minimal. Glovebags are easily adaptable to whatever the waste configuration is. The use of glovebags, for repackaging of Legacy waste, allows D and D efforts to stay on schedule and on task. Without the use of glovebags, additional gloveboxes would have been required at Rocky Flats. Larger items, such as the HEPA filters, would have required the construction of a new large item repackaging glovebox. Repackaging in glovebags allows the freedom to either locate the glovebag by the waste or locate the glovebag in a place that least impacts D and D efforts. The use of glovebags allowed numerous configurations of waste to be repackaged without the use of gloveboxes. During the D and D of the Rocky Flats facility, which was in a cold and dark stage, D and D work was not impacted by the repackaging activity

  8. Euler angles as torsional flat spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trejo-Mandujano, Hector A.

    In this work we use general tensor calculus to compare the geodesic equation of motion and Newton's first law for force-free classical systems that are described by an arbitrary number of generalized coordinates in spaces with and without torsion. We choose as objects of study the flat torsional Euler angle metric spaces for rigid rotators. We tested the equivalence of the two motion equations using computational software that allowed algebraic manipulation. The main result is that the equivalence only holds for torsion-free spaces, and for isotropic force-free rotators. We present analytical calculations for the isotropic case and computational results for the general case.

  9. Cosmic string scaling in flat space

    SciTech Connect

    Vanchurin, Vitaly; Olum, Ken; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2005-09-15

    We investigate the evolution of infinite strings as a part of a complete cosmic string network in flat space. We perform a simulation of the network which uses functional forms for the string position and thus is exact to the limits of computer arithmetic. Our results confirm that the wiggles on the strings obey a scaling law described by universal power spectrum. The average distance between long strings also scales accurately with the time. These results suggest that small-scale structure will also scale in an expanding universe, even in the absence of gravitational damping.

  10. Lorenz gauge quantization in conformally flat spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresswell, Jesse C.; Vollick, Dan N.

    2015-04-01

    Recently it was shown that Dirac's method of quantizing constrained dynamical systems can be used to impose the Lorenz gauge condition in a four-dimensional cosmological spacetime. In this paper we use Dirac's method to impose the Lorenz gauge condition in a general four-dimensional conformally flat spacetime and find that there is no particle production. We show that in cosmological spacetimes with dimension D ≠4 there will be particle production when the scale factor changes, and we calculate the particle production due to a sudden change.

  11. Conformal gravity and the flatness problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannheim, Philip D.

    1992-01-01

    The radiation and matter-dominated cosmologies associated with fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity, a theory which is currently being explored as a candidate alternative to the standard second-order Einstein theory, are presented. The theory naturally yields an open though nonetheless recollapsing universe which can even oscillate indefinitely, which appears to possess no flatness problem, which has a cosmology which could potentially be created out of nothing, which is singularity free, and which does not appear to require any cosmological dark matter.

  12. Evolution of multidimensional flat anisotropic cosmological models

    SciTech Connect

    Beloborodov, A. ); Demianski, M. Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics , Universita di Roma I, La Sapienza, Rome ); Ivanov, P.; Polnarev, A.G. )

    1993-07-15

    We study the dynamics of a flat multidimensional anisotropic cosmological model filled with an anisotropic fluidlike medium. By an appropriate choice of variables, the dynamical equations reduce to a two-dimensional dynamical system. We present a detailed analysis of the time evolution of this system and the conditions of the existence of spacetime singularities. We investigate the conditions under which violent, exponential, and power-law inflation is possible. We show that dimensional reduction cannot proceed by anti-inflation (rapid contraction of internal space). Our model indicates that it is very difficult to achieve dimensional reduction by classical means.

  13. Pond fractals in a tidal flat.

    PubMed

    Cael, B B; Lambert, Bennett; Bisson, Kelsey

    2015-11-01

    Studies over the past decade have reported power-law distributions for the areas of terrestrial lakes and Arctic melt ponds, as well as fractal relationships between their areas and coastlines. Here we report similar fractal structure of ponds in a tidal flat, thereby extending the spatial and temporal scales on which such phenomena have been observed in geophysical systems. Images taken during low tide of a tidal flat in Damariscotta, Maine, reveal a well-resolved power-law distribution of pond sizes over three orders of magnitude with a consistent fractal area-perimeter relationship. The data are consistent with the predictions of percolation theory for unscreened perimeters and scale-free cluster size distributions and are robust to alterations of the image processing procedure. The small spatial and temporal scales of these data suggest this easily observable system may serve as a useful model for investigating the evolution of pond geometries, while emphasizing the generality of fractal behavior in geophysical surfaces. PMID:26651668

  14. Asymptotically flat space–times: an enigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Ezra T.

    2016-07-01

    We begin by emphasizing that we are dealing with standard Einstein or Einstein–Maxwell theory—absolutely no new physics has been inserted. The fresh item is that the well-known asymptotically flat solutions of the Einstein–Maxwell theory are transformed to a new coordinate system with surprising and (seemingly) inexplicable results. We begin with the standard description of (Null) asymptotically flat space–times described in conventional Bondi-coordinates. After transforming the variables (mainly the asymptotic Weyl tensor components) to a very special set of Newman-Unti (NU) coordinates, we find a series of relations totally mimicking standard Newtonian classical mechanics and Maxwell theory. The surprising and troubling aspect of these relations is that the associated motion and radiation does not take place in physical space–time. Instead these relations takes place in an unusual inherited complex four-dimensional manifold referred to as H-space that has no immediate relationship with space–time. In fact these relations appear in two such spaces, H-space and its dual space \\bar{H}.

  15. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S.; Rivera, M.A.

    1993-03-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes.

  16. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S. . Rocky Flats Plant); Rivera, M.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes.

  17. Risk, media, and stigma at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.; Peters, E.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.

    1998-12-01

    Public responses to nuclear technologies are often strongly negative. Events, such as accidents or evidence of unsafe conditions at nuclear facilities, receive extensive and dramatic coverage by the news media. These news stories affect public perceptions of nuclear risks and the geographic areas near nuclear facilities. One result of these perceptions, avoidance behavior, is a form of technological stigma that leads to losses in property values near nuclear facilities. The social amplification of risk is a conceptual framework that attempts to explain how stigma is created through media transmission of information about hazardous places and public perceptions and decisions. This paper examines stigma associated with the US Department of energy`s Rocky Flats facility, a major production plant in the nation`s nuclear weapons complex, located near Denver, Colorado. This study, based upon newspaper analyses and a survey of Denver area residents, finds that the social amplification theory provides a reasonable framework for understanding the events and public responses that took place in regard to Rocky Flats during a 6-year period, beginning with an FBI raid of the facility in 1989.

  18. Asymptotically flat space-times: an enigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Ezra T.

    2016-07-01

    We begin by emphasizing that we are dealing with standard Einstein or Einstein-Maxwell theory—absolutely no new physics has been inserted. The fresh item is that the well-known asymptotically flat solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell theory are transformed to a new coordinate system with surprising and (seemingly) inexplicable results. We begin with the standard description of (Null) asymptotically flat space-times described in conventional Bondi-coordinates. After transforming the variables (mainly the asymptotic Weyl tensor components) to a very special set of Newman-Unti (NU) coordinates, we find a series of relations totally mimicking standard Newtonian classical mechanics and Maxwell theory. The surprising and troubling aspect of these relations is that the associated motion and radiation does not take place in physical space-time. Instead these relations takes place in an unusual inherited complex four-dimensional manifold referred to as H-space that has no immediate relationship with space-time. In fact these relations appear in two such spaces, H-space and its dual space \\bar{H}.

  19. Pond fractals in a tidal flat.

    PubMed

    Cael, B B; Lambert, Bennett; Bisson, Kelsey

    2015-11-01

    Studies over the past decade have reported power-law distributions for the areas of terrestrial lakes and Arctic melt ponds, as well as fractal relationships between their areas and coastlines. Here we report similar fractal structure of ponds in a tidal flat, thereby extending the spatial and temporal scales on which such phenomena have been observed in geophysical systems. Images taken during low tide of a tidal flat in Damariscotta, Maine, reveal a well-resolved power-law distribution of pond sizes over three orders of magnitude with a consistent fractal area-perimeter relationship. The data are consistent with the predictions of percolation theory for unscreened perimeters and scale-free cluster size distributions and are robust to alterations of the image processing procedure. The small spatial and temporal scales of these data suggest this easily observable system may serve as a useful model for investigating the evolution of pond geometries, while emphasizing the generality of fractal behavior in geophysical surfaces.

  20. Microhollow electrode discharge flat panel displays

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenbach, K.H.; Tessnow, T.; Peterkin, F.E.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1997-12-31

    Microhollow electrode discharges, discharges between thin metal foils with submillimeter gap and submillimeter holes in cathode and anode, show three distinct modes of operation: (a) at low currents the predischarge mode, a glow discharge between the outer faces of the hollow electrodes, (b) at higher current a phase with increased ionization due to ``pendulum`` electrons in the cathode hole, and (c) at even higher current an abnormal glow discharge between the edges of cathode and anode hole. A fourth discharge mode, the so-called partial discharge seems to occur at high gas pressure at pressure times hole diameter values exceeding 10 Torr cm. Experiments in a 0.2 mm diameter hollow electrode geometry with Xe and Ar at atmospheric pressure have shown that the discharges emit excimer radiation. Control of these discharges which have a sustaining voltage of several hundred volts allows their use in flat panel displays. A second mode of operation which allows one to form addressable flat panel displays is the predischarge mode. It could be shown that with a third electrode close to the cathode, but outside the anode-cathode gap, the intensity of the discharge could be linearly varied by varying the voltage at the third electrode in a range below 100 V. The predischarges have a resistive behavior (positive slope of current-voltage characteristics) which allows one to place them in parallel without individual ballast and without segmentation of anode and cathode. This has been demonstrated in a small device with nine addressable microhollow cathode discharges.

  1. Spectra of Flat Top & nearby soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The first color panorama returned by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after Mars Pathfinder's landing included several larger, gray rocks, bright red dust on a flat-topped rock and the ground between the rocks, and darker red soil exposed where Pathfinder's landing dislodged a small rock. The rock dubbed 'Flat Top' is at the low center of the images. The less red color and low reflectance of the rocks is consistent with the iron minerals found in igneous rocks, whereas the fine, bright drift has a spectrum indicative of a weathering product. The strength of the bend, or 'kink', in the spectrum is related to the abundance and particle size of specific crustalline, ferric weathering products. In the false color image, the blue areas have a weak kink and are relatively unweathered, whereas the red areas' strong kink indicates an abundance of ferric iron minerals.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  2. New adjacent Bis-tetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Rong; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chou, Chi-Jung; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2003-03-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two new Annonaceous acetogenins, annocatacin A ( 1). and annocatacin B ( 2). from the seeds and the leaves, respectively, of Annona muricata. Compounds 1 and 2 are the first examples where the adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran ring system is located at C-15. The new structures were elucidated and characterized by spectral and chemical methods. Both Annonaceous acetogenins 1 and 2 showed significant in vitro cytotoxicity toward the human hepatoma cell lines, Hep G2 and 2,2,15, and were compared with the known adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, neoannonin ( 3). desacetyluvaricin ( 4). bullatacin ( 5). asimicin ( 6). annoglaucin ( 7). squamocin ( 8). and rollimusin ( 9).

  3. 38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER. THIS UNIT GENERATED A MAGNETIC PULSE WHICH WAS TRANSMITTED TO THE COLLECTION PLATES IN THE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. THESE PERIODIC PULSES VIBRATE THE PLATES AND CAUSE PRECIPITATED ARTICLES OF SMOKE AND FLY ASH TO FALL TO THE BOTTOM OF THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  4. 20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent to Test Cell 9 in Component Test Laboratory (T-27), looking west. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  5. Osmium complex binding to mismatched methylcytosine: effect of adjacent bases.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Akiko; Tainaka, Kazuki; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of osmium complex formation at 5-methylcytosine in mismatched DNA duplexes. Osmium complexation was not observed in fully matched duplexes, whereas the complexation site and efficiency in mismatched duplexes depended on the 5'-neighboring base of the 5-methylcytosine. In particular, when the base adjacent to the 5' side of the mismatched base pair was thymine, a unique side reaction was observed. However, the mismatched base pairs did not influence the selectivity of osmium complexation with methylated DNA.

  6. Jaw position uncertainty and adjacent fields in breast cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hedin, Emma; Bäck, Anna; Chakarova, Roumiana

    2015-11-08

    Locoregional treatment of breast cancer involves adjacent, half blocked fields matched at isocenter. The objective of this work is to study the dosimetric effects of the uncertainties in jaw positioning for such a case, and how a treatment planning protocol including adjacent field overlap of 1 mm affects the dose distribution. A representative treatment plan, involving 6 and 15 photon beams, for a patient treated at our hospital is chosen. Monte Carlo method (EGSnrc/BEAMnrc) is used to simulate the treatment. Uncertainties in jaw positioning of ± 1 mm are addressed, which implies extremes in reality of 2 mm field gap/overlap when planning adjacent fields without overlap and 1 mm gap or 3 mm overlap for a planning protocol with 1 mm overlap. Dosimetric parameters for PTV, lung and body are analyzed. Treatment planning protocol with 1 mm overlap of the adjacent fields does not considerably counteract possible underdosage of the target in the case studied. PTV-V95% is for example reduced from 95% for perfectly aligned fields to 90% and 91% for 2 mm and 1 mm gap, respectively. However, the risk of overdosage in PTV and in healthy soft tissue is increased when following the protocol with 1 mm overlap. A 3 mm overlap compared to 2 mm overlap results in an increase in maximum dose to PTV, PTV-D2%, from 113% to 121%. V120% for 'Body-PTV' is also increased from 5 cm(3) to 14 cm(3). A treatment planning protocol with 1 mm overlap does not considerably improve the coverage of PTV in the case of erroneous jaw positions causing gap between fields, but increases the overdosage in PTV and doses to healthy tissue, in the case of overlapping fields, for the case investigated.

  7. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  8. Mutual Diffusional Interference Between Adjacent Stomata of a Leaf 1

    PubMed Central

    Cook, G. D.; Viskanta, R.

    1968-01-01

    The mutual diffusional interference between adjacent stomata in laminar flow over a leaf is shown to play a decisive role in determining overall transpiration. The magnitude of this interference varies with the interaction of the vapor diffusional shells forming above each stoma and the air flow over the leaf. The interference decreases with increasing incident radiation and wind velocity. The effect of interference on the stomatal resistance to diffusion plays a major role in the overall variations in transpiration. PMID:16656876

  9. Fouling assemblages on offshore wind power plants and adjacent substrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsson, Dan; Malm, Torleif

    2008-09-01

    A significant expansion of offshore wind power is expected in the near future, with thousands of turbines in coastal waters, and various aspects of how this may influence the coastal ecology including disturbance effects from noise, shadows, electromagnetic fields, and changed hydrological conditions are accordingly of concern. Further, wind power plants constitute habitats for a number of organisms, and may locally alter assemblage composition and biomass of invertebrates, algae and fish. In this study, fouling assemblages on offshore wind turbines were compared to adjacent hard substrate. Influences of the structures on the seabed were also investigated. The turbines differed significantly from adjacent boulders in terms of assemblage composition of epibiota and motile invertebrates. Species number and Shannon-Wiener diversity were, also, significantly lower on the wind power plants. It was also indicated that the turbines might have affected assemblages of invertebrates and algae on adjacent boulders. Off shore wind power plant offer atypical substrates for fouling assemblages in terms of orientation, depth range, structure, and surface texture. Some potential ecological implications of the addition of these non-natural habitats for coastal ecology are discussed.

  10. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  11. Water-surface elevation controls on sediment-transport dynamics in channel-flat environments of intertidal flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowacki, D. J.; Ogston, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    Tidal flats are thought to have a balanced sediment budget between export through channels and import via more diffuse processes over flat boundaries. However, little has been done to understand the mechanisms of sediment transport between channels and flats that span multiple morphological and temporal scales. The muddy flats of southeastern Willapa Bay, Washington, are tidally dominated and receive relatively little direct freshwater influence. We use data from instrumented tripods in representative channel and flat pairs of different orders to a) better understand sediment dynamics in each morphological setting, b) investigate whether sediment fluxes are balanced between channels and flats, and c) determine the importance of channel order on these sediment dynamics. Data from intensive field efforts as well as longer-term deployments help to inform how the hydrodynamic regimes of each environment serve to export or retain sediment and to further characterize the total sediment budget of intertidal flats. Results from two month-long deployments in winter 2009-2010 show channels of all orders in southeastern Willapa Bay were flood dominated. This was driven by longer durations of and sustained higher velocities during flooding tides, and suggests that larger circulation patterns were active within the tidal flat complex. The deployment periods were characterized by a range of meteorological conditions, including rain and several wind events. The wind events were correlated with increased flood dominance of water and sediment transport. Near-bed observations of velocity and suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) give insight to processes active when water levels are shallow over the flat. These processes are important in determining the net flux of water and sediment of the system. High-resolution water-column velocity and backscatter profiles reveal complex sediment-flux dynamics between channel and flat environments. Pulses of velocity and SSC were observed in

  12. Holography of 3D asymptotically flat black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fareghbal, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Morteza

    2015-04-01

    We study the asymptotically flat rotating hairy black hole solution of a three-dimensional gravity theory which is given by taking the flat-space limit (zero cosmological constant limit) of new massive gravity. We propose that the dual field theory of the flat-space limit of new massive gravity can be described by a contracted conformal field theory which is invariant under the action of the BMS3 group. Using the flat/contracted conformal field theory correspondence, we construct a stress tensor which yields the conserved charges of the asymptotically flat black hole solution. We check that our expressions of the mass and angular momentum fit with the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Furthermore, by taking the appropriate limit of the Cardy formula in the parent conformal field theory, we find a Cardy-like formula which reproduces the Wald's entropy of the 3D asymptotically flat black hole.

  13. COMANCHE-BIG SOUTH, NEOTA-FLAT TOP, AND NEVER SUMMER WILDERNESS STUDY AREAS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, R.C.; Patten, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource assessment was made of three wilderness study areas adjacent to the north and west sides of Rocky Mountain National Park in north-central Colorado. Gold, silver, and uranium prospects in major faults near the Comanche-Big South wilderness study area suggest the possibility that these commodities may also occur along numerous similar faults within the study area, but the lack of evidence for mineralized rock at the surface suggests little chance for deposits along these structures. The Neota-Flat Top wilderness study area shows no evidence of being mineralized and little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral resources. The Never Summer wilderness study area has strong geologic, geochemical, and geophysical evidence indicating probable resource potential for molydenum deposits. The nature of the geologic terrain precludes the occurrence of organic fuels.

  14. On asymptotic flatness and Lorentz charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Dehouck, François; Virmani, Amitabh

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we establish two results concerning four-dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes at spatial infinity. First, we show that the six conserved Lorentz charges are encoded in two unique, distinct, but mutually dual symmetric divergence-free tensors that we construct from the equations of motion. Second, we show that the integrability of Einstein's equations in the asymptotic expansion is sufficient to establish the equivalence between counter-term charges defined from the variational principle and charges defined by Ashtekar and Hansen. These results clarify earlier constructions of conserved charges in the hyperboloid representation of spatial infinity. In showing this, the parity condition on the mass aspect is not needed. Along the way in establishing these results, we prove two lemmas on tensor fields on three-dimensional de Sitter spacetime stated by Ashtekar-Hansen and Beig-Schmidt and state and prove three additional lemmas. A la mémoire de notre ami et professeur Laurent Houart.

  15. Topological flat bands from dipolar spin systems.

    PubMed

    Yao, N Y; Laumann, C R; Gorshkov, A V; Bennett, S D; Demler, E; Zoller, P; Lukin, M D

    2012-12-28

    We propose and analyze a physical system that naturally admits two-dimensional topological nearly flat bands. Our approach utilizes an array of three-level dipoles (effective S=1 spins) driven by inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields. The dipolar interactions produce arbitrary uniform background gauge fields for an effective collection of conserved hard-core bosons, namely, the dressed spin flips. These gauge fields result in topological band structures, whose band gap can be larger than the corresponding bandwidth. Exact diagonalization of the full interacting Hamiltonian at half-filling reveals the existence of superfluid, crystalline, and supersolid phases. An experimental realization using either ultracold polar molecules or spins in the solid state is considered.

  16. Incompressible Polaritons in a Flat Band.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Matteo; van Nieuwenburg, Evert P L; Blatter, Gianni; Huber, Sebastian D; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    We study the interplay of geometric frustration and interactions in a nonequilibrium photonic lattice system exhibiting a polariton flat band as described by a variant of the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model. We show how to engineer strong photonic correlations in such a driven, dissipative system by quenching the kinetic energy through frustration. This produces an incompressible state of photons characterized by short-ranged crystalline order with period doubling. The latter manifests itself in strong spatial correlations, i.e., on-site and nearest-neighbor antibunching combined with extended density-wave oscillations at larger distances. We propose a state-of-the-art circuit QED realization of our system, which is tunable in situ.

  17. Incompressible Polaritons in a Flat Band.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Matteo; van Nieuwenburg, Evert P L; Blatter, Gianni; Huber, Sebastian D; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    We study the interplay of geometric frustration and interactions in a nonequilibrium photonic lattice system exhibiting a polariton flat band as described by a variant of the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model. We show how to engineer strong photonic correlations in such a driven, dissipative system by quenching the kinetic energy through frustration. This produces an incompressible state of photons characterized by short-ranged crystalline order with period doubling. The latter manifests itself in strong spatial correlations, i.e., on-site and nearest-neighbor antibunching combined with extended density-wave oscillations at larger distances. We propose a state-of-the-art circuit QED realization of our system, which is tunable in situ. PMID:26551811

  18. A FLINN Station at Pinon Flat Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr; Wyatt, Frank

    1997-01-01

    The main objectives are: (1) To develop Pinon Flat Observatory (PFO) as a prototype 'integrated' FLINN station: one from which many types of data are collected, combined, and made available to the DOSE program to enhance studies of local and regional strains; (2) To develop the theoretical framework and methods to integrate the various types of auxiliary data which are to be collected by NASA at space-geodetic sites of the FLINN network, with the aim of learning as much as possible about the nature of earth deformation; (3) To develop procedures for the efficient and useful storage and retrieval of such auxiliary data so that they may be efficiently utilized by DOSE investigators; (4) To investigate the stability of ground monumentation now used in space-geodetic measurements, including the field testing of existing and new monument designs.

  19. Incompressible Polaritons in a Flat Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Matteo; van Nieuwenburg, Evert P. L.; Blatter, Gianni; Huber, Sebastian D.; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    We study the interplay of geometric frustration and interactions in a nonequilibrium photonic lattice system exhibiting a polariton flat band as described by a variant of the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model. We show how to engineer strong photonic correlations in such a driven, dissipative system by quenching the kinetic energy through frustration. This produces an incompressible state of photons characterized by short-ranged crystalline order with period doubling. The latter manifests itself in strong spatial correlations, i.e., on-site and nearest-neighbor antibunching combined with extended density-wave oscillations at larger distances. We propose a state-of-the-art circuit QED realization of our system, which is tunable in situ.

  20. Surface factors influencing burnout on flat heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ramilison, J.M.; Sadasivan, P.; Lienhard, J.H. )

    1992-02-01

    Ever since Kutateladze (1951) and Zuber (1958) proposed hydrodynamic descriptions of the burnout heat flux, q{sub max}, confusion has marked the scope of their agreed-upon equation. The problem stems from Kutateladze's original correlation. The mischief in all of this is that Zuber's sketches and other aspects of his derivation suggested that he was deriving an expression applicable to a flat heater. In fact, Zuber operated under the premise - later disproved by many investigators - that the geometry did not affect burnout. His comparison of his prediction with Kutateladze's correlation did not reflect a lack of care. It reflected the conviction that geometry did not matter. As one looks more closely, surface conditions become more important than once thought. The objective of this paper is to take into account the influence of the condition of the heater surface in recreating a correlation of q{sub max} for horizontal heaters.

  1. Loop Quantum Gravity and Asymptotically Flat Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnsdorf, Matthias

    2002-12-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in the field of non-perturbative (loop) quantum gravity in the last decade or so and it is now a rigorously defined kinematical theory (c.f. [5] for a review and references). We are now at the stage where physical applications of loop quantum gravity can be studied and used to provide checks for the consistency of the quantisation programme. Equally, old fundamental problems of canonical quantum gravity such as the problem of time or the interpretation of quantum cosmology need to be reevaluated seriously. These issues can be addressed most profitably in the asymptotically flat sector of quantum gravity. Indeed, it is likely that we should obtain a quantum theory for this special case even if it is not possible to quantise full general relativity. The purpose of this summary is to advertise the extension of loop quantum gravity to this sector that was developed in [1]...

  2. Conceptual Hierarchies in a Flat Attractor Network

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Christopher M.; Cree, George S.; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The structure of people’s conceptual knowledge of concrete nouns has traditionally been viewed as hierarchical (Collins & Quillian, 1969). For example, superordinate concepts (vegetable) are assumed to reside at a higher level than basic-level concepts (carrot). A feature-based attractor network with a single layer of semantic features developed representations of both basic-level and superordinate concepts. No hierarchical structure was built into the network. In Experiment and Simulation 1, the graded structure of categories (typicality ratings) is accounted for by the flat attractor-network. Experiment and Simulation 2 show that, as with basic-level concepts, such a network predicts feature verification latencies for superordinate concepts (vegetable ). In Experiment and Simulation 3, counterintuitive results regarding the temporal dynamics of similarity in semantic priming are explained by the model. By treating both types of concepts the same in terms of representation, learning, and computations, the model provides new insights into semantic memory. PMID:19543434

  3. Flat connection, conformal field theory and quantum group

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mitsuhiro.

    1989-07-01

    General framework of linear first order differential equation for four-point conformal block is studied by using flat connection. Integrability and SL{sub 2} invariance restrict possible form of flat connection. Under a special ansatz classical Yang-Baxter equation appears as an integrability condition and the WZW model turns to be unique conformal field theory in that case. Monodromy property of conformal block can be easily determined by the flat connection. 11 refs.

  4. Physiological Demands of Flat Horse Racing Jockeys.

    PubMed

    Cullen, SarahJane; OʼLoughlin, Gillian; McGoldrick, Adrian; Smyth, Barry; May, Gregory; Warrington, Giles D

    2015-11-01

    The physiological demands of jockeys during competition remain largely unknown, thereby creating challenges when attempting to prescribe sport-specific nutrition and training guidelines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological demands and energy requirements of jockeys during flat racing. Oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and heart rate (HR) were assessed in 18 male trainee jockeys during a race simulation trial on a mechanical horse racing simulator for the typical time duration to cover a common flat race distance of 1,400 m. In addition, 8 male apprentice jockeys participated in a competitive race, over distances ranging from 1,200 to 1,600 m, during which HR and respiratory rate (RR) were assessed. All participants performed a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test. During the simulated race, peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 was 42.74 ± 5.6 ml·kg·min (75 ± 11% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) and below the mean ventilatory threshold (81 ± 5% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) reported in the maximal incremental cycle test. Peak HR was 161 ± 16 b·min (86 ± 7% of HRpeak). Energy expenditure was estimated as 92.5 ± 18.8 kJ with an associated value of 9.4 metabolic equivalents. During the competitive race trial, peak HR reached 189 ± 5 b·min (103 ± 4% of HRpeak) and peak RR was 50 ± 7 breaths per minute. Results suggest that horse racing is a physically demanding sport, requiring jockeys to perform close to their physiological limit to be successful. These findings may provide a useful insight when developing sport-specific nutrition and training strategies to optimally equip and prepare jockeys physically for the physiological demands of horse racing. PMID:25932980

  5. Rocky Flats Closure Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, P.C.; Skokan, B.

    2007-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Closure Project has completed the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, remediating environmental media and closing the Rocky Flats Site (Site). The project cost approximately $4.1 B and included the decommissioning of over 700 structures including 5 major plutonium facilities and 5 major uranium facilities, shipping over 14,600 cubic meters of transuranic and 565,000 cubic meters of low level radioactive waste, and remediating a 385-acre industrial area and the surrounding land. Actual costs were collected for a large variety of closure activities. These costs can be correlated with metrics associated with the facilities and environmental media to capture cost factors from the project that could be applicable to a variety of other closure projects both within and outside of the Department of Energy's weapons complex. The paper covers four general topics: the process to correlate the actual costs and metrics, an example of the correlated data for one large sub-project, a discussion of the results, and the additional activities that are planned to correlate and make this data available to the public. The process to collect and arrange the project control data of the Closure Project relied on the actual Closure Project cost information. It was used to correlate these actual costs with the metrics for the physical work, such as building area or waste generated, to support the development of parametric cost factors. The example provides cost factors for the Industrial Sites Project. The discussion addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the data, followed by a section identifying future activities to improve and extend the analyses and integrate it within the Department's Environmental Cost Analysis System. (authors)

  6. ELECTROLUMINESCENT MATERIAL FOR FLAT PANEL DISPLAY

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.B.

    2000-11-13

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was to develop a new-generation electroluminescent (EL) material for flat panel displays and related applications by using unique and complementary research capabilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and OSRAM Sylvania, Inc. The goal was to produce an EL material with a luminance 10 times greater than conventional EL phosphors. An EL material with this increased luminance would have immediate applications for flat panel display devices (e.g., backlighting for liquid-crystal diodes) and for EL lamp technology. OSRAM Sylvania proposed that increased EL phosphor luminance could be obtained by creating composite EL materials capable of alignment under an applied electric field and capable of concentrating the applied electric field. Oak Ridge National Laboratory used pulsed laser deposition as a method for making these composite EL materials. The materials were evaluated for electroluminescence at laboratory facilities at OSRAM Sylvania, Inc. Many composite structures were thus made and evaluated, and it was observed that a composite structure based on alternating layers of a ferroelectric and a phosphor yielded electroluminescence. An enabling step that was not initially proposed but was conceived during the cooperative effort was found to be crucial to the success of the composite structure. The CRADA period expired before we were able to make quantitative measurements of the luminance and efficiency of the composite EL material. Future cooperative work, outside the scope of the CRADA, will focus on making these measurements and will result in the production of a prototype composite EL device.

  7. Flat conductor cable connectors with individually sealed contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Information is presented on flat conductor cable connectors, a series with individually sealed contacts. Data are concerned with connector historical development, design requirements, and testing and costs.

  8. Fate of supersymmetric flat directions and their role in reheating

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Peloso, Marco

    2006-11-15

    We consider the role of supersymmetric flat directions in reheating the Universe after inflation. One or more flat directions can develop large vevs during inflation, which can potentially affect reheating by slowing down scattering processes among inflaton decay products or by coming to dominate the energy density of the Universe. Both effects occur only if flat directions are sufficiently long-lived. The computation of their perturbative decay rate, and a simple estimate of their nonperturbative decay have led to the conclusion that this is indeed the case. In contrast, we show that flat directions can decay quickly through nonperturbative channels in realistic models. The mass matrix for minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) excitations around flat directions has nondiagonal entries, which vary with the phase of the (complex) flat directions. The quasiperiodic motion of the flat directions results in a strong parametric resonance, leading to the rapid depletion of the flat direction within its first few rotations. This may preclude any significant role for the flat directions in reheating the Universe after inflation in models in which the inflaton decays perturbatively.

  9. Adjacent channel interference degradation with minimum shift keyed modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemer, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Computer simulation results for degradation in signal-to-noise ratio for various values of bit error probability are given for minimum shift-keyed-type signaling in the presence of adjacent channel interference. A serial modulator structure which utilizes spectral shaping is characterized in terms of envelope deviation and bandwidth efficiency. This serial generation technique is convenient for implementation at high data rates and results in signal spectra with lower sidelobe levels than conventional minimum shift-keyed modulation at the expense of moderate envelope deviation. Because of the lower sidelobe levels, the resulting spectra allow denser channel packing than does ideal MSK.

  10. Synthesis of a Molecule with Four Different Adjacent Pnictogens.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Alexander; Schulz, Axel; Villinger, Alexander

    2016-08-22

    The synthesis of a molecule containing four adjacent different pnictogens was attempted by conversion of a Group 15 allyl analogue anion [Mes*NAsPMes*](-) (Mes*=2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenyl) with antimony(III) chloride. A suitable precursor is Mes*N(H)AsPMes* (1) for which several syntheses were investigated. The anions afforded by deprotonation of Mes*N(H)AsPMes* were found to be labile and, therefore, salts could not be isolated. However, the in situ generated anions could be quenched with SbCl3 , yielding Mes*N(SbCl2 )AsPMes* (4). PMID:27377437

  11. CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

  12. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  13. Retroperitoneal multilocular bronchogenic cyst adjacent to adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Yang, S W; Linton, J A; Ryu, S J; Shin, D H; Park, C S

    1999-10-01

    Bronchogenic cysts are generally found in the mediastinum, particularly posterior to the carina, but they rarely occur in such unusual sites as the skin, subcutaneous tissue, pericardium, and even the retroperitoneum. A 30-year-old Korean man underwent surgery to remove a cystic adrenal mass incidentally discovered during routine physical checkup. At surgery, it proved to be a multilocular cyst located in the retroperitoneum adjacent to the left adrenal gland. Microscopically, the cyst was lined by respiratory epithelium over connective tissue with submucous glands, cartilage and smooth muscle, thereby histologically confirming bronchogenic cyst. This is the first reported case of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst in an adult without other congenital anomalies in Korea.

  14. Seismicity and state of stress in the central and southern Peruvian flat slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Abhash; Wagner, Lara S.; Beck, Susan L.; Long, Maureen D.; Zandt, George; Young, Bissett; Tavera, Hernando; Minaya, Estella

    2016-05-01

    We have determined the Wadati-Benioff Zone seismicity and state of stress of the subducting Nazca slab beneath central and southern Peru using data from three recently deployed local seismic networks. Our relocated hypocenters are consistent with a flat slab geometry that is shallowest near the Nazca Ridge, and changes from steep to normal without tearing to the south. These locations also indicate numerous abrupt along-strike changes in seismicity, most notably an absence of seismicity along the projected location of subducting Nazca Ridge. This stands in stark contrast to the very high seismicity observed along the Juan Fernandez ridge beneath central Chile where, a similar flat slab geometry is observed. We interpret this as indicative of an absence of water in the mantle beneath the overthickened crust of the Nazca Ridge. This may provide important new constraints on the conditions required to produce intermediate depth seismicity. Our focal mechanisms and stress tensor inversions indicate dominantly down-dip extension, consistent with slab pull, with minor variations that are likely due to the variable slab geometry and stress from adjacent regions. We observe significantly greater variability in the P-axis orientations and maximum compressive stress directions. The along strike change in the orientation of maximum compressive stress is likely related to slab bending and unbending south of the Nazca Ridge.

  15. The effects of external beam irradiation on the growth of flat bones in children: Modeling a dose-volume effect

    SciTech Connect

    Krasin, Matthew J. . E-mail: mathew.krasin@stjude.org; Xiong Xiaoping; Wu Shengjie; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: To model the effects of external beam irradiation on the developing flat bones of pediatric patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for tumors involving the musculoskeletal system. Methods and Materials: Patients with image-guided RT plans including areas adjacent to facial or pelvic flat bones underwent retrospective contouring of nontumor involved flat bones ipsilateral and contralateral to the treatment side. Radiation dose-volume information and bone volume data (initial and the most recent follow-up) were analyzed in 15 paired flat bones from 10 patients (ages 1.0-17.0 years). The models to predict bone growth after completion of RT (v {sub post}) were based on initial bone volume (v {sub pre}), the patient's age, time to follow-up (t), and the dose-volume parameter (v{sub Int35+} ). Results: We developed a dose effects model as follows: Log (v{sub post} / v{sub pre} ) = {beta}{sub time}t + {beta}{sub agegroup}t + {beta}{sub dose}t v{sub Int35} . The dose-volume parameter v{sub Int35} predicted significantly for alterations in growth in younger patients, but not for older patients. The predictability of the fitted model for relative change in bone growth improved in the younger age group with the addition of the dose-volume term v{sub Int35} (correlation coefficient of r = 0.5510 to r = 0.6760 with the addition v{sub Int35} ). Conclusions: Our model accurately predicted flat bone growth and is notable for the inclusion of radiation dose-volume information, which is now available in the image-guided RT era. Further refinement of this model in a prospective patient population is underway.

  16. Flat bones and sutures formation in the human cranial vault during prenatal development and infancy: A computational model.

    PubMed

    Burgos-Flórez, F J; Gavilán-Alfonso, M E; Garzón-Alvarado, D A

    2016-03-21

    The processes of flat bones growth, sutures formation and interdigitation in the human calvaria are controlled by a complex interaction between genetic, biochemical and environmental factors that regulate bone formation and resorption during prenatal development and infancy. Despite previous experimental evidence accounting for the role of the main biochemical factors acting on these processes, the underlying mechanisms controlling them are still unknown. Therefore, we propose a mathematical model of the processes of flat bone and suture formation, taking into account several biological events. First, we model the growth of the flat bones and the formation of sutures and fontanels as a reaction diffusion system between two proteins: TGF-β2 and TGF-β3. The former is expressed by osteoblasts and allows adjacent mesenchymal cells differentiation on the bone fronts of each flat bone. The latter is expressed by mesenchymal cells at the sutures and inhibits their differentiation into osteoblasts at the bone fronts. Suture interdigitation is modelled using a system of reaction diffusion equations that develops spatio-temporal patterns of bone formation and resorption by means of two molecules (Wnt and Sclerostin) which control mesenchymal cells differentiation into osteoblasts at these sites. The results of the computer simulations predict flat bone growth from ossification centers, sutures and fontanels formation as well as bone formation and resorption events along the sutures, giving rise to interdigitated patterns. These stages were modelled and solved by the finite elements method. The simulation results agree with the morphological characteristics of calvarial bones and sutures throughout human prenatal development and infancy.

  17. Historical volcanoes of Armenia and adjacent areas: What is revisited?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakhanian, A.; Jrbashyan, R.; Trifonov, V.; Philip, H.; Arakelian, S.; Avagyan, A.; Baghdassaryan, H.; Davtian, V.

    2006-07-01

    The validity of some data in Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62] that are revisited by R. Haroutiunian is considered. A conclusion is made that the revisions suggested by Haroutiunian concern unessential parts of the content of work by Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62]. This article presents new evidence and re-proves the earlier conclusions that are disputed or revised by R. Haroutiunian.

  18. Stress Wave Interaction Between Two Adjacent Blast Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Changping; Johansson, Daniel; Nyberg, Ulf; Beyglou, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Rock fragmentation by blasting is determined by the level and state of stress in the rock mass subjected to blasting. With the application of electronic detonators, some researchers stated that it is possible to achieve improved fragmentation through stress wave superposition with very short delay times. This hypothesis was studied through theoretical analysis in the paper. First, the stress in rock mass induced by a single-hole shot was analyzed with the assumptions of infinite velocity of detonation and infinite charge length. Based on the stress analysis of a single-hole shot, the stress history and tensile stress distribution between two adjacent holes were presented for cases of simultaneous initiation and 1 ms delayed initiation via stress superposition. The results indicated that the stress wave interaction is local around the collision point. Then, the tensile stress distribution at the extended line of two adjacent blast holes was analyzed for a case of 2 ms delay. The analytical results showed that the tensile stress on the extended line increases due to the stress wave superposition under the assumption that the influence of neighboring blast hole on the stress wave propagation can be neglected. However, the numerical results indicated that this assumption is unreasonable and yields contrary results. The feasibility of improving fragmentation via stress wave interaction with precise initiation was also discussed. The analysis in this paper does not support that the interaction of stress waves improves the fragmentation.

  19. Adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection.

    PubMed

    Ying, Binbin

    2012-03-01

    Mucocele forms because of salivary gland mucous extravasation or retention and is usually related to trauma in the area of the lower lip. It is a common benign lesion in the oral region. Although there are many conservative treatments such as the creation of a pouch (marsupialization), freezing (cryosurgery), micromarsupialization, and CO2 laser vaporization, surgical resection is the most commonly used means. Generally speaking, an elliptic incision was made to fully enucleate the lesion along with the overlying mucosa and the affected glands, then direct suturing is adequate. However, in some cases, direct suturing could cause lower lip deformity, and adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection might be quite necessary. Based on our experience, adjacent mucosal flaps could be used when lesions were close to or even break through the vermilion border or their diameters were much more than 1 cm. A-T advancement flaps and transposition flaps were the mostly applied ones. Follow-up showed that all patients realized primary healing after 1 week postoperatively with satisfactory lower lip appearance, and there was no sign of increasing incidence of relapse. PMID:22421867

  20. Bacterial community structure in the Sulu Sea and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Nishimura, Masahiko; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    The deep waters of the Sulu Sea are characterized by relatively high and constant water temperatures and low oxygen concentrations. To examine the effect of these characteristics on the bacterial community structure, the culture-independent molecular method was applied to samples from the Sulu Sea and the adjacent areas. DNA was extracted from environmental samples, and the analysis was carried out on PCR-amplified 16S rDNA; fragments were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis. Stations in the Sulu Sea and the adjacent areas showed much more prominent vertical stratification of bacterial community structures than horizontal variation. As predominant sequences, cyanobacteria and α-proteobacteria at 10 m depth, δ-proteobacteria at 100 m depth, and green nonsulfur bacteria below 1000 m depth were detected in all sampling areas. High temperatures and low oxygen concentrations are thought to be minor factors in controlling community structure; the quantity and quality of organic materials supplied by the sinking particles, and hydrostatic pressure are believed to be important.

  1. Performance of Electroluminescent Flats for Precision Light Curve Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avril, Ryan L.; Oberst, T. E.

    2014-01-01

    We measure of the quality of flat field frames (flats) taken using an electroluminescent (EL) panel versus both dome and sky flats for purposes of calibrating visual CCD images. Classic dome and sky flats can both suffer from overall gradients and local irregularities. EL panel flats have recently grown in popularity as a third alternative, based partly on their potential to be free of such defects. We assess the flats based on their contributions to the RMS noise of long-duration light curves constructed via differential aperture photometry. The noise levels explored range from ~ 1 - few mmag, as needed for the ground-based detection of transiting planets. The target and reference stars are deliberately permitted to drift across the CCD in order to probe pixel-to-pixel variations. Both the filter and focus are varied during the tests - the former to probe color variation in the flats, and the latter because defocusing tends to average out pixel-to-pixel variations that the flats are intended to remove. All tests were performed at the Westminster College Observatory (WCO), which belongs to the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT)-North follow-up network.

  2. The Discourses of OERs: How "Flat" Is This World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Andreia Inamorato

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 2000) as a tool for identifying the various discourses that can be found in the provision of open educational resources. The argument will be built upon the concept of a "flat world", a powerful metaphor used by Friedman in his famous book "The World is Flat" (2005). The discussion will…

  3. 75 FR 12981 - Eligibility for Commercial Flats Failing Deflection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... May 2009 was published in the Federal Register (74 FR 15380-15384) on April 6, 2009. The final rule included new deflection standards, previously applicable only to automation flats, for all commercial flat... should be eligible for full-service IMb pricing. If automation prices are denied, pieces that...

  4. The Flat Tax: Implications for Financing Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossmiller, Richard A.

    The campaign for the 1996 Republican presidential election focused attention on proposals to replace the current federal income tax system with a flat tax. This booklet examines the ramifications of a flat tax for local school funding. Section 1 outlines the criteria for evaluating proposed taxes and the purposes of tax systems. The second section…

  5. Handbook of Structural Stability Part I: Buckling of Flat Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerard, George; Becker, Herbert

    1957-01-01

    The various factors governing buckling of flat plates are critically reviewed and the results are summarized in a comprehensive series of charts and tables. Numerical values are presented for buckling coefficients of flat plates with various boundary conditions and applied loadings. The effects of plasticity are incorporated in non dimensional buckling charts utilizing the three-parameter description of stress-strain curves.

  6. Collation of quarterly reports on air flat plate collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The solar 2 air flat plate collectors are described. The development and fabrication of a prototype air flat plate collector subsystem containing 320 square feet of collector area are described. Three instrumented panels were completely assembled with glazing and insulation. Manufacture of the last seven prototype collectors was completed in October 1977.

  7. 12. VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING WEST. AFTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING WEST. AFTER 38 YEARS, WEAPONS PRODUCTION CEASED IN 1989. IN 1992, THE PLANT MISSION CHANGED FROM WEAPONS PRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN UP AND RESTORATION. BY 1995, THE SITE HAD BEGUN TO BE DISMANTLED (6/27/95). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  8. The World Is Not Flat: Can People Reorient Using Slope?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardi, Daniele; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of spatial representation generally focus on flat environments and visual input. However, the world is not flat, and slopes are part of most natural environments. In a series of 4 experiments, we examined whether humans can use a slope as a source of allocentric, directional information for reorientation. A target was hidden in a corner of…

  9. 29. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING SOUTH. IN 1983, THE PERIMETER SECURITY ZONE SURROUNDING THE PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS WAS COMPLETED. IT CONSISTED OF A DOUBLE PERIMETER FENCE, CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISIONS, ALARMS, AND AN UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY (7/29/83). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  10. 22. Close up view of Mormon Flat Dam, original power ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Close up view of Mormon Flat Dam, original power house and HEFU upgrades. Spillway lip, at center, is part of the approach road. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. Buffalo Flat Service 115-KV Transmission Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1987-07-01

    The US Air Force has sited a radar transmitter at Buffalo Flat, near Christmas Valley, Oregon. This report discusses the environmental impacts of providing the electrical service for the installation. A 115 kV power transmission line will be built between LaPine and Buffalo Flat. Route alternatives as well as design alternatives are discussed. (ACR)

  12. Tom Friedman on Education in the "Flat World"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Administrator, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In his best-selling book, "The World Is Flat," Thomas Friedman describes that the real world is becoming "flat." He describes how 10 forces are "flattening" the 21st century--making it easier for people in India, China and around the world to compete with Americans and others who had triumphed the century before. This article presents an interview…

  13. The Psycholinguistics of Literacy in a Flat World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horning, Alice S.

    2009-01-01

    If Friedman is right that the world is "flat," we need to understand the linguistic implications of that claim. In this increasingly flat world, classical critical literacy is both urgently needed and poorly understood from a linguistic perspective. Three claims based on research on reading can improve both the understanding of the common…

  14. 23. The Salt River, downstream, from atop Mormon Flat Dam. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. The Salt River, downstream, from atop Mormon Flat Dam. HEFU generator deck is at center bottom. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 17. Mormon Flat power plant under construction. Notice location of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Mormon Flat power plant under construction. Notice location of spillway gates. Needle valves at lower left are for bypass. Photographer unknown, March 1926. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Flat spectrum multicomponent radio sources - Cosmic conspiracy or geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pacholczyk, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Compact radio sources which do not exhibit currently large flux density variations, are often characterized by spectra nearly flat over a wide range of wavelengths. Cotton et al. (1980) recently reported the results of the VLBI multifrequency interferometric and total flux density observations of a typical representative of the flat spectrum class of sources, a BL Lacertae object PKS 0735+178. If 0735+178 is indeed representative of flat spectrum sources, then some mechanism causing the component production and energy loss to be balanced must be operative among this type of radio source to maintain a flat spectrum over at least certain periods of time. This effect is referred to as 'cosmic conspiracy'. It is suggested that the flatness of spectra of this class of radio sources may be related to a specific symmetry in the radio structure, namely, to a predominantly linear, one-dimensional evolution of radio radiating material, rather than spherical, three-dimensional evolution.

  17. A simple model for Geyser Flat, Whakarewarewa

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, G.J.; Young, R.M.; McGavin, P.N. )

    1992-04-01

    The work presented in this paper is based on records of geyser activity and other data collected at Geyser Flat, Whakarewarewa, New Zealand. The data is used to used to construct a simple quasi-steady mass, heat, and chemical balance model to account for the interactions between the three geysers Pohutu, Prince of Wales Feathers, Waikorohihi, and the non-eruptive Te Horu cauldron. This model has provided order of magnitude estimates for mass and energy flows, and geyser cavern properties. The importance of the west-south-west wind component on the Te Horu waterlevel is established from the data. Te Horu waterlevels are also shown to correlate significantly with geyser performance. High waterlevels are connected with regular geyser behavior, while low waterlevels are associated with rapid irregular eruptions. Cavern temperatures of 118{degrees} C, 107{degrees} C and 109{degrees} C are inferred from the observed full column plume heights of 20, 8 and 8 meters from Pohutu, Prince of Wales Feathers, and Waikorohihi respectively.

  18. Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dan

    2008-11-03

    The Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is a 12,718 acre complex located in Douglas County, Washington. Four distinct management units make up the area: Bridgeport, Chester Butte, Dormaier and Sagebrush Flat. The four Units are located across a wide geographic area within Douglas County. The Units are situated roughly along a north/south line from Bridgeport in the north to the Douglas/Grant county line in the south, 60 miles away. The wildlife area was established to conserve and enhance shrubsteppe habitat for the benefit shrubsteppe obligate and dependent wildlife species. In particular, the Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is managed to promote the recovery of three state-listed species: Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (threatened), greater sage grouse (threatened) and the pygmy rabbit (endangered). The US Fish and Wildlife Service also list the pygmy rabbit as endangered. Wildlife area staff seeded 250 acres of old agricultural fields located on the Sagebrush Flat, Dormaier and Chester Butte units. This has been a three project to reestablish high quality shrubsteppe habitat on fields that had either been abandoned (Dormaier) or were dominated by non-native grasses. A mix of 17 native grasses and forbs, most of which were locally collected and grown, was used. First year maintenance included spot spraying Dalmatian toadflax on all sites and mowing annual weeds to reduce competition. Photo points were established and will be integral to long term monitoring and evaluation. Additional monitoring and evaluation will come from existing vegetation transects. This year weed control efforts included spot treatment of noxious weeds, particularly Dalmatian toadflax, in previously restored fields on the Bridgeport Unit (150 acres). Spot treatment also took place within fields scheduled for restoration (40 acres) and in areas where toadflax infestations are small and relatively easily contained. Where toadflax is so widespread that chemical treatment would be impractical, we use the

  19. The Critical Mass Laboratory at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, Robert E

    2003-10-15

    The Critical Mass Laboratory (CML) at Rocky Flats northwest of Denver, Colorado, was built in 1964 and commissioned to conduct nuclear experiments on January 28, 1965. It was built to attain more accurate and precise experimental data to ensure nuclear criticality safety at the plant than were previously possible. Prior to its construction, safety data were obtained from long extrapolations of subcritical data (called in situ experiments), calculated parameters from reactor engineering 'models', and a few other imprecise methods. About 1700 critical and critical-approach experiments involving several chemical forms of enriched uranium and plutonium were performed between then and 1988. These experiments included single units and arrays of fissile materials, reflected and 'bare' systems, and configurations with various degrees of moderation, as well as some containing strong neutron absorbers. In 1989, a raid by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) caused the plant as a whole to focus on 'resumption' instead of further criticality safety experiments. Though either not recognized or not admitted for a few years, that FBI raid did sound the death knell for the CML. The plant's optimistic goal of resumption evolved to one of deactivation, decommissioning, and plantwide demolition during the 1990s. The once-proud CML facility was finally demolished in April of 2002.

  20. Seismic hazard analysis at Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.K.

    1993-10-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis is being conducted for the DOE Rocky Flats Plant, Jefferson County, Colorado. This is part of the overall review of the seismic exposure to facilities being conducted by DOE. The study has four major elements. (1) The historical seismicity in Colorado is being reviewed and synthesized to estimate historical rates of earthquake activity in the region of the site. (2) The geologic and tectonic evidence in Colorado and along the Front Range is being reviewed to determine appropriate seismic zones, potentially active faults, and constraints on fault slip rates. (3) Earthquake ground motion equations are being derived based on seismological knowledge of the earth`s crust. Site specific soil amplification factors are also being developed using on-site shear wave velocity measurements. (4) The probability of exceedence of various seismic ground motion levels is being calculated based on the inputs developed on tectonic sources, faults, ground motion, and soil amplification. Deterministic ground motion estimates are also being made. This study is a state-of-the-art analysis of seismic hazard. It incorporates uncertainties in the major aspects governing seismic hazard, and has a documented basis founded on solid data interpretations for the ranges of inputs used. The results will be a valid basis on which to evaluate plant structures, equipment, and components for seismic effects.

  1. Military market for flat panel displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1997-07-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of primary military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, color capability and night vision imaging system capability. A select grouping of funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted cockpit kits, and form-fit-function upgrades are taken into account. It is the intent of this paper to provide an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a timely reference to insure meeting DoD requirements for flat-panel displays on schedule and in a cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct view displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 157,000. Helmet/head mounted displays will add substantially to this total. The vanishing vendor syndrome for older display technologies is becoming a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently just leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil-commercial markets.

  2. Crosslinking of gels to flat surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandoolaeghe, Wendy Leigh; Müller-Nedebock, Kristian

    2002-03-01

    The formation and properties of a polymer gel on and at a surface are investigated. Most treatments of a polymer network formed at a surface have been limited to scaling theory. In the present investigation it is proposed to probe the physics of the system by means of a mathematical description of the random crosslinking. Firstly, the partition function for a system comprising a gel formed at a flat wall is presented. This is done by adapting an existing model of network formation (R.T. Deam, S.F. Edwards, phPhil. Trans. R. Soc. London A. Math. Phys. Sciences, 280, (1976)). The model of Deam and Edwards, with polymer-polymer crosslinks, is extended to incorporate a surface and polymer-surface crosslinks. In prefatory calculations, the Green's function approach without the so-called phreplica-trick, is applied to simpler, related models, such as parallel plates and confining boxes. Within the framework of replica theory, statistical averages and physical properties of the system such as the elasticity coefficient may be computed.

  3. Friedmann Propulsion in an Flat Holographic Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Because of inversion symmetries in holographic systems, the spatial compression of lower-dimensional holographic memory leads to an expansion of the holographic image and vice versa (scaling duality), where the geometric mean between the small quantum memory and cosmic image scale defines the inversion scale, the unit scale to normalize the global holographic currents of momentum exchange. Assigning to the cosmic image (bulk) a 4d, to the quantum memory (baryon) a 2d, and to the inversion scale a 3d spherical topology, the cosmic critical density in the flat FRW cosmic test model corresponds to 1 memory unit (baryon). Otherwise, if we expect expansion driven by 3d Einstein gravity on all scales, we get the well known cosmic ``dark matter'' deficit of 96% or 0.04 baryons per unit volume. The cosmic deficit or quantum excess is assigned by Gauss law to the topological ratio 4d bulk surface S3 to 2d quantum surface S1, which dilutes gravity or the mass density by the dimensionless factor 0.04~S3/2/S13 = 1/(8π) leading to a theoretical Hubble parameter of 73.2 kms-1 Mpc-1. Regarding propulsion based on fractional linear transforms mapping the quantum compression by inversion to a cosmic expansion, the anisotropic transform resembles the Alcubierre mechanism if expansion is behind and the compression ahead of the spaceship.

  4. Flat Surface Damage Detection System (FSDDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Gibson, Tracy; Lane, John; Medelius, Pedro; Snyder, Sarah; Ciarlariello, Dan; Parks, Steve; Carrejo, Danny; Rojdev, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The Flat Surface Damage Detection system (FSDDS} is a sensory system that is capable of detecting impact damages to surfaces utilizing a novel sensor system. This system will provide the ability to monitor the integrity of an inflatable habitat during in situ system health monitoring. The system consists of three main custom designed subsystems: the multi-layer sensing panel, the embedded monitoring system, and the graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI LABVIEW software uses a custom developed damage detection algorithm to determine the damage location based on the sequence of broken sensing lines. It estimates the damage size, the maximum depth, and plots the damage location on a graph. Successfully demonstrated as a stand alone technology during 2011 D-RATS. Software modification also allowed for communication with HDU avionics crew display which was demonstrated remotely (KSC to JSC} during 2012 integration testing. Integrated FSDDS system and stand alone multi-panel systems were demonstrated remotely and at JSC, Mission Operations Test using Space Network Research Federation (SNRF} network in 2012. FY13, FSDDS multi-panel integration with JSC and SNRF network Technology can allow for integration with other complementary damage detection systems.

  5. Time constants of flat superconducting cables

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, S.; Yamamoto, J.

    1997-06-01

    The frequency dependence of coupling losses is calculated for flat superconducting cables, including the electromagnetic coupling between different current loops on the cable. It is shown that there are two characteristic time constants for both parallel and transverse coupling losses. The values of these time constants {tau}{sub 0} and {tau}{sub 1} are calculated by introducing effective inductances for the current loops. In both cases, {tau}{sub 1} is considerably smaller than {tau}{sub 0}. As the most important methods of determining {tau}{sub 0} from AC losses - namely, the limiting slope of loss/cycle at zero frequency and the position of the maximum loss/cycle vs. frequency - estimate {tau}{sub 0} and {tau}{sub 1}, respectively, the results are important for practical measurements and evaluation of time constants from AC losses. At larger frequencies, the losses are more likely to those in normal conductors (skin effect). The calculation schemes can be applied to cables with closely wound strands (like the cable-in-conduit conductors), too. However, several other effects should be considered being different and/or more important with respect to other cable types (demagnetization factor of strands and cables, larger regions near the cable edges, smaller number of strands and subcables, etc.).

  6. Chemically patterned flat stamps for microcontact printing.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Ruben B A; Burdinski, Dirk; Huskens, Jurriaan; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Reinhoudt, David N; Poelsema, Bene

    2005-07-27

    Locally oxidized patterns on flat poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamps for microcontact printing were used as a platform for the transfer of a hydrophilic fluorescent ink to a glass substrate. The contrast was found to be limited. These locally oxidized patterns were conversely used as barriers for the transfer of hydrophobic n-octadecanethiol. In this case a good contrast was obtained, but the pattern was found to be susceptible to defects (cracks) in the barrier layer. Local stamp surface oxidation and subsequent modification with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane, for use as a barrier in the transfer of n-octadecanethiol, 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid, and octanethiol, resulted in remarkably good contrast and stable patterns. The improved ink transfer control is ascribed to the reduction of undesired surface spreading and a superior mechanical stability of the stamp pattern. This new approach substantially expands the applicability of microcontact printing and provides a tool for the faithful reproduction of even extremely low filling ratio patterns.

  7. Beam uniformity of flat top lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chao; Cramer, Larry; Danielson, Don; Norby, James

    2015-03-01

    Many beams that output from standard commercial lasers are multi-mode, with each mode having a different shape and width. They show an overall non-homogeneous energy distribution across the spot size. There may be satellite structures, halos and other deviations from beam uniformity. However, many scientific, industrial and medical applications require flat top spatial energy distribution, high uniformity in the plateau region, and complete absence of hot spots. Reliable standard methods for the evaluation of beam quality are of great importance. Standard methods are required for correct characterization of the laser for its intended application and for tight quality control in laser manufacturing. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published standard procedures and definitions for this purpose. These procedures have not been widely adopted by commercial laser manufacturers. This is due to the fact that they are unreliable because an unrepresentative single-pixel value can seriously distort the result. We hereby propose a metric of beam uniformity, a way of beam profile visualization, procedures to automatically detect hot spots and beam structures, and application examples in our high energy laser production.

  8. Wide-angle flat field telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallam, K. L.; Howell, B. J.; Wilson, M. E.

    1986-01-01

    Described is an unobscured three mirror wide angle telescopic imaging system comprised of an input baffle which provides a 20 deg (Y axis) x 30 deg (X axis) field of view, a primary mirror having a convex spherical surface, a secondary mirror having a concave ellipsoidal reflecting surface, a tertiary mirror having a concave spherical reflecting surface. The mirrors comprise mirror elements which are offset segments of parent mirrors whose axes and vertices commonly lie on the system's optical axis. An iris diaphragm forming an aperture stop is located between the secondary and tertiary mirror with its center also being coincident with the optical axis and being further located at the beam waist of input light beams reflected from the primary and secondary mirror surfaces. At the system focus following the tertiary mirror is located a flat detector which may be, for example, a TV imaging tube or a photographic film. When desirable, a spectral transmission filter is placed in front of the detector in close proximity thereto.

  9. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  10. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  11. Scolopendromorpha of New Guinea and adjacent islands (Myriapoda, Chilopoda).

    PubMed

    Schileyko, Arkady A; Stoev, Pavel E

    2016-01-01

    The centipede fauna of the second largest island in the world, New Guinea, and its adjacent islands, is poorly known, with most information deriving from the first half of the 20th century. Here we present new data on the order Scolopendromorpha based on material collected in the area in the last 40 years, mainly by Bulgarian and Latvian zoologists. The collections comprise eleven species of six genera and three families. The diagnosis of Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) is emended in the light of the recent findings. The old and doubtful record of Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844 from New Guinea is referred to S. subspinipes Leach, 1815 and the species is here excluded from the present day list of New Guinean scolopendromorphs. Cryptops nepalensis Lewis, 1999 is here recorded from New Guinea for the first time. An annotated list and an identification key to the scolopendromorphs of the studied region are presented. PMID:27515618

  12. Geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Dilamarter, R.C.

    1982-07-01

    The geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas in Indiana, Illinois and Tennessee is presented as a background for interpreters evaluating the present land surface using remotely sensed imagery. Eight physiographic units were analyzed and are briefly discussed with reference to topography and surface deposits. Great diversity was found to be characteristic of the region, the result of different structural influences and geomorphic processes. The landscape bears the marks of fluvial, glacial, eolian, lacustrine and karstic environments, so a regional geomorphic history was compiled from the literature as an aid to understanding the land surface. Three smaller zones in Kentucky were analyzed in greater detail regarding topography and geomorphic development because of their potential importance in subsurface exploration.

  13. Configuration optimization of dampers for adjacent buildings under seismic excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigdeli, Kasra; Hare, Warren; Tesfamariam, Solomon

    2012-12-01

    Passive coupling of adjacent structures is known to be an effective method to reduce undesirable vibrations and structural pounding effects. Past results have shown that reducing the number of dampers can considerably decrease the cost of implementation and does not significantly decrease the efficiency of the system. The main objective of this study was to find the optimal arrangement of a limited number of dampers to minimize interstorey drift. Five approaches to solving the resulting bi-level optimization problem are introduced and examined (exhaustive search, inserting dampers, inserting floors, locations of maximum relative velocity and a genetic algorithm) and the numerical efficiency of each method is examined. The results reveal that the inserting damper method is the most efficient and reliable method, particularly for tall structures. It was also found that increasing the number of dampers does not necessarily increase the efficiency of the system. In fact, increasing the number of dampers can exacerbate the dynamic response of the system.

  14. Reconnaissance geologic map of Kodiak Island and adjacent islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2013-01-01

    Kodiak Island and its adjacent islands, located on the west side of the Gulf of Alaska, contain one of the largest areas of exposure of the flysch and melange of the Chugach terrane of southern Alaska. However, in the past 25 years, only detailed mapping covering small areas in the archipelago has been done. This map and its associated digital files (Wilson and others, 2005) present the best available mapping compiled in an integrated fashion. The map and associated digital files represent part of a systematic effort to release geologic map data for the United States in a uniform manner. The geologic data have been compiled from a wide variety of sources, ranging from state and regional geologic maps to large-scale field mapping. The map data are presented for use at a nominal scale of 1:500,000, although individual datasets (see Wilson and others, 2005) may contain data suitable for use at larger scales.

  15. 38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. AT THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A MOVABLE TIRE BENDER FOR SHAPING ELI WINDMILL WHEEL RIMS. AT THE CENTER IS A FLOOR-MOUNTED CIRCA 1900 SNAG GRINDER OF THE TYPE USED FOR SMOOTHING ROUGH CASTINGS. ON THE WHEELED WORK STATION IS A SUNNEN BUSHING GRINDER, BEHIND WHICH IS A TRIPOD CHAIN VICE. IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND IS A WOODEN CHEST OF DRAWERS WHICH CONTAINS A 'RAG DRAWER' STILL FILLED WITH CLOTH RAGS PLACED IN THE FACTORY BUILDING AT THE INSISTENCE OF LOUISE (MRS. ARTHUR) KREGEL FOR THE CONVENIENCE AND CLEANLINESS OF WORKERS. IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND IS A CIRCA 1900 CROSS-CUTOFF CIRCULAR SAW. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  16. Air bubble-shock wave interaction adjacent to gelantine surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, P. A.; Tomita, Y.; Onodera, O.; Takayama, K.; Sanada, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kitayama, O.

    1990-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and an air bubble-adjacent to a gelatine surface is investigated in order to simulate human tissue damage resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Using high speed cine photography it is found that a shock wave of strength 11 MPa causes 1-3 mm diameter bubbles to produce high velocity microjets with penetration rates of approximately 110 m/s and penetration depths approximately equal to twice the initial bubble diameter. Theoretical considerations for liquid impact on soft solid of similar density indicate that microjet velocities will be twice the penetration rate, i.e. 220 m/s in the present case. Such events are the probable cause of observed renal tissue damage.

  17. An engineered dimeric protein pore that spans adjacent lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Mantri, Shiksha; Sapra, K. Tanuj; Cheley, Stephen; Sharp, Thomas H.; Bayley, Hagan

    2013-01-01

    The bottom-up construction of artificial tissues is an underexplored area of synthetic biology. An important challenge is communication between constituent compartments of the engineered tissue and between the engineered tissue and additional compartments, including extracellular fluids, further engineered tissue and living cells. Here we present a dimeric transmembrane pore that can span two adjacent lipid bilayers and thereby allow aqueous compartments to communicate. Two heptameric staphylococcal α-hemolysin (αHL) pores were covalently linked in an aligned cap-to-cap orientation. The structure of the dimer, (α7)2, was confirmed by biochemical analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single-channel electrical recording. We show that one of two β barrels of (α7)2 can insert into the lipid bilayer of a small unilamellar vesicle, while the other spans a planar lipid bilayer. (α7)2 pores spanning two bilayers were also observed by TEM. PMID:23591892

  18. Effect of Fluoridated Sealants on Adjacent Tooth Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Cagetti, M.G.; Carta, G.; Cocco, F.; Sale, S.; Congiu, G.; Mura, A.; Strohmenger, L.; Lingström, P.; Campus, G.

    2014-01-01

    A double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed in 6- to 7-yr-old schoolchildren to evaluate, in a 30-mo period, whether the caries increment on the distal surface of the second primary molars adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with fluoride release compounds would be lower with respect to those adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with a nonfluoridated sealant. In sum, 2,776 subjects were enrolled and randomly divided into 3 groups receiving sealants on sound first molars: high-viscosity glass ionomer cement (GIC group); resin-based sealant with fluoride (fluoride-RB group); and a resin-based sealant without fluoride (RB group). Caries (D1 – D3 level) was recorded on the distal surface of the second primary molar, considered the unit of analysis including only sound surfaces at the baseline. At baseline, no differences in caries prevalence were recorded in the 3 groups regarding the considered surfaces. At follow-up, the prevalence of an affected unit of analysis was statistically lower (p = .03) in the GIC and fluoride-RB groups (p = .04). In the GIC group, fewer new caries were observed in the unit of analysis respect to the other 2 groups. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.68; p < .01) for GIC vs. RB and 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.53, 1.04; p = .005) for fluoride-RB vs. RB. Caries incidence was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status (IRR = 1.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.42; p = .05). Dental sealant high-viscosity GIC and fluoride-RB demonstrated protection against dental caries, and there was evidence that these materials afforded additional protection for the tooth nearest to the sealed tooth (clinical trial registration NCT01588210). PMID:24846910

  19. Subduction initiation adjacent to a relic island arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, W.; Gurnis, M.

    2013-12-01

    Although plate tectonics is well established, how subduction initiates over tectonic history has remained obscure. It has been proposed that passive margins may be a possible place for subduction initiation, but there is no obvious Cenozoic example of such a scenario, including along the passive margins of the Atlantic Ocean. With a computational method that follows the deformation of a visco-elasto-plastic medium, here we show that a favourable locale for subduction initiation is the juxtaposition of an old oceanic plate adjacent to a young, but relic arc. Significant density anomalies leading to subduction initiation arise from two major factors. One is the compositional difference between the relic arc crust and the oceanic lithospheric mantle; the other is the thermal difference due to the age offset between the two plates. With such a setup, we observe spontaneous subduction initiation if the oceanic crust is significantly weakened by pore fluid pressure. If the oceanic crust is relatively strong, a small amount of plate convergence is required to induce subduction. The evidence that Izu-Bonin-Mariana and Tonga-Kermedec subduction zones both initiate adjacent to a relic island arc support our conclusions. The initiation of both subduction zones at 51-52 Ma with commensurate compression on their respective overriding plates support a causal link between both subduction initiation events through a change in Pacific Plate motion. Our results provide an explanation for the rarity of subduction initiation at the passive margins. The continental lithosphere is typically old and cold. Consequently, the thermal effects cancel the compositional buoyancy contrast between the continental crust and the oceanic lithospheric mantle, making subduction initiation difficult at passive margins.

  20. Prevention of enamel demineralization adjacent to glass ionomer filling materials.

    PubMed

    Forss, H; Seppä, L

    1990-04-01

    In order to study the release of fluoride and prevention of enamel demineralization by different filling materials, standardized cavities were prepared in 80 extracted human molars. The cavities were filled as follows: 1. Fuji II F; 2. Ketac-Fil; 3. Ketac-Silver; 4. Silar. Twenty molars were used as controls (no filling). Enamel slabs with the fillings were subjected to 9 days of demineralization (30 min daily) and remineralization (artificial saliva, replaced daily). Fluoride release in the saliva was determined on days 1, 3, 5, and 9. Enamel fluoride content adjacent to the cavities was determined initially and after the de-remineralization using the acid etch technique. On day 1, the largest amount of fluoride in the saliva was released by Fuji, but on day 9 the largest amount was released by Ketac-Fil. Ketac-Silver released significantly less fluoride than Fuji and Ketac-Fil. The average initial fluoride content of enamel was 2200 ppm. After the test period, fluoride contents adjusted for biopsy depth were 1822, 1690, 1693, 1337, and 888 ppm in groups 1-5, respectively. The amounts of phosphorus dissolved by the second acid etch were 28.9 (SE 2.6), 30.2 (2.0), 34.4 (2.8), 44.1 (2.7), and 42.2 (2.4) micrograms, respectively. Softening of surface enamel during the test period was clearly reduced in teeth filled with Fuji and Ketac-Fil. The results show that glass ionomer materials release considerable amounts of fluoride and prevent demineralization of the adjacent enamel in vitro. Fuji and Ketac-Fil seem to be more effective than Ketac-Silver.