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Sample records for adjacent benign tissues

  1. Comparison of microscopic vascularity in benign and malignant prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Bigler, S A; Deering, R E; Brawer, M K

    1993-02-01

    A variety of malignant neoplasms have been shown to induce capillary neovascularization, and in some cases the degree of vascularization appears to correlate with aggressive behavior and risk of metastasis. We hypothesized that carcinoma of the prostate also induces the formation of new capillaries, and we developed a method to quantify the relative density of microscopic vessels in carcinoma of the prostate compared with benign prostatic glandular tissue. The number of microvessel profiles in tissue sections was quantified by marking the vascular endothelial cells with antibodies to factor VIII-related antigen using standard immunohistochemistry techniques and comparing fields of adenocarcinoma with benign glandular tissue in 15 radical prostatectomy specimens. The analysis was facilitated by using the Optimas computerized image analysis system (Bioscan, Seattle, WA) with software written for this investigation. Fourteen of the 15 cases demonstrated significantly higher vascular density in the areas of carcinoma than in the benign tissues. Overall, the ratio of vessels per unit area in sections of carcinoma versus benign tissue was approximately double (ratio = 2.02; P < .001). In benign tissues the capillaries are restricted for the most part to the periglandular stroma immediately adjacent to the epithelium, whereas the distribution in carcinoma appears to be more random. The data demonstrate the increased density of capillaries in prostatic carcinoma when compared with benign prostate tissue. PMID:8432518

  2. Treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors using laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, Bogdan; Baciut, Mihaela; Crisan, Liana; Bran, Simion; Rotar, Horatiu; Dinu, Cristian; Moldovan, Iuliu; Baciut, Grigore

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the efficacy and indications of surgical laser therapy in the treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors compared to classic surgery. A controlled clinical study was conducted in a group of 93 patients presenting various forms of oral soft tissues benign tumors. These patients were examined pre-and postoperatively and the oral benign tumors were measured linearly and photographed. The surgery of laser-assisted biopsy excision of oral benign tumors was carried out using a diode laser device of 980 nm. In patients who received surgical laser treatment, therapeutic doses of laser to biostimulate the operated area were administered on the first day after the surgery. The interventions of conventional excision of oral soft tissues benign tumors consisted in removing them using scalpel. In patients who have received therapeutic doses of laser for biostimulation of the operated area, a faster healing of wound surfaces and tumor bed was observed during the first days after surgery. Two weeks after the surgical treatment, good healing without scarring or discomfort in the area of excision was documented. Surgical treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors with laser assisted postoperative therapy confirms the benefits of this surgical procedure. A faster healing process of the excision area due to laser biostimulation of low intensity has been observed in patients with surgical laser assisted treatment in the postoperative period.

  3. Fluorescence lifetime of normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandao, Mariana; Iwakura, Ricardo; Basilio, Fagne; Haleplian, Kaique; Ito, Amando; de Freitas, Luiz Carlos Conti; Bachmann, Luciano

    2015-06-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the standard technique to diagnose thyroid pathologies. However, this method results in a high percentage of inconclusive and false negatives. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to detect biochemical composition and tissue structure alterations could help to develop a portable, minimally invasive, and nondestructive method to assist during surgical procedures. This study aimed to use fluorescence lifetimes to differentiate healthy and benign tissues from malignant thyroid tissue. The thyroid tissue was excited at 298-300 nm and the fluorescence decay registered at 340 and 450 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes at 340 nm emission of 0.80±0.26 and 3.94±0.47 ns for healthy tissue; 0.90±0.24 and 4.05±0.46 ns for benign lesions; and 1.21±0.14 and 4.63±0.25 ns for malignant lesions. For 450 nm emissions, we obtain lifetimes of 0.25±0.18 and 3.99±0.39 ns for healthy tissue, 0.24±0.17 and 4.20±0.48 ns for benign lesions, 0.33±0.32 and 4.55±0.55 ns for malignant lesions. Employing analysis of variance, we differentiate malignant lesions from benign and healthy tissues. In addition, we use quadratic discriminant analysis to distinguish malignant from benign and healthy tissues with an accuracy of 76.1%, sensitivity of 74.7%, and specificity of 83.3%. These results indicate that time-resolved fluorescence can assist medical evaluation of thyroid pathologies during surgeries.

  4. Infrared microspectroscopic imaging of benign breast tumor tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, H.; Lasch, P.; Boese, M.; Haensch, W.

    2003-12-01

    We have applied infrared microspectroscopic imaging for the examination of benign breast tumor tissue sections. The IR spectra of the sections were obtained by classical point microscopy with a movable stage and via a microscope equipped with a focal plane array detector. The infrared microscopic data were analysed using functional group mapping techniques and cluster analysis. The output values of the two procedures were reassembled into infrared images of the tissues, and were compared with standard staining images of the corresponding tissue region. The comparative examination of identical tissue sections by the two IR approaches enabled us to assess potential problems associated with tissue microheterogeneity. It was found that in case of fibroadenoma, a benign lesion located in breast ducts, point microscopy with a spot size of ˜30 μm is a useful practical approach which minimizes the possibility of 'contamination' of the spectra because of spectral averaging of all tissue components present in the corresponding microareas. A comparison of the spectra of the benign breast tumor with those of a malignant ductal carcinoma in situ revealed that IR microspectroscopy has the potential to differentiate between these two breast tumor types.

  5. Fluorescence spectra of benign and malignant prostate tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, M. S.; Masilamani, V.; Atif, M.; Farhat, K.; Rabah, D.; Turki, M. R. Al

    2012-09-01

    In this study, fluorescence emission spectrum (FES), Stokes' shift spectrum (SSS), and reflectance spectrum (RS) of benign (N = 12) and malignant prostate tissues (N = 8) were investigated to discriminate the two types of tissues. The FES was done with the excitation at 325 nm only; SSS with Δλ = 70 and Δλ = 0, the latter being equivalent to reflectance spectra. Of the three modes of spectra, SSS with Δλ = 70 nm showed the best discrimination. There were four important bands, one at 280 nm (due to tryptophan); 320 nm (due to elastin & tryptophan); 355 and 385 (due to NADH) and 440 nm (due to flavin). From the relative intensities of these bands, three ratios were evaluated. Similarly another two ratios were obtained from reflectance spectra and one more from FES. Thus, there are 6 ratio parameters which represent the relative concentration of tryptophan, elastin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and flavin. A statistical analysis showed that benign and malignant tissues could be classified with accuracy greater than 90%. This report is only for in vitro analysis; but employing optical fiber, this can be extended to in vivo analysis too, so that benign tumor could be distinguished without surgery.

  6. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  7. [Comparative proteomic analysis of cancerous and adjacent normal lung tissues].

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Beom; Pi, Kyung Bae

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in industrialized countries. Unfortunately, most lung cancers are found too late for a cure, therefore early detection and treatment is very important. We have applied proteomic analysis by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting techniques for examination of cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous lung tissues from the same patient. The aim of the study was to find proteins, which could be used as biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of this disease. Indeed, we found differences in expression of several proteins, related to various cellular activities, such as, chaperoning (e.g., GRP96, GRP78, HSP27), metabolism and oxidation stress (e.g., L-fucose, GST), cytoskeleton (e.g., tubulin beta 2/3, beta actin), cell adhesion (e.g., annexin A5/3), binding proteins (e.g., 14-3-3 theta) and signal transduction. These changes may be important for progression of carcinogenesis; they may be used as the molecular-support for future diagnostic markers. PMID:21395069

  8. p53 alteration in morphologically normal/benign breast tissue in patients with triple-negative high-grade breast carcinomas: breast p53 signature?

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Stolla, Moritz; Ring, Brian Z; Yang, Qi; Laughlin, Todd S; Rothberg, Paul G; Skinner, Kristin; Hicks, David G

    2016-09-01

    p53 alterations have been identified in approximately 23% of breast carcinomas, particularly in hormone receptor-negative high-grade carcinomas. It is considered to be an early event in breast carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, the putative precursor lesion of high-grade breast carcinoma remains elusive. Breast excision specimens from 93 triple-negative high-grade invasive ductal carcinomas, 48 estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/progesterone receptor-positive/Her2-negative non-high-grade invasive ductal carcinomas, and 50 mammoplasty breasts were selected. At least 2 tissue blocks with tumor and adjacent benign tissue were sectioned and subjected to immunohistochemistry staining for p53. TP53 gene sequencing was performed on select tumors. Further immunohistochemistry staining for ER and Ki-67 was performed on consecutive sections of tissue with p53-positive normal/benign cells. Of the 93 high-grade carcinomas, 51 (55%) were positive for p53 alteration, whereas only 3 (6.25%) of the 48 non-high-grade carcinomas were p53 altered. Focal p53 positivity in adjacent normal/benign breast tissue was identified in 19 cases, and 18 of them also had p53 alteration in their carcinomas. Only 1 case had focal p53 staining in normal/benign tissue, but the tumor was negative for p53 alteration. No p53 staining positivity was identified in the mammoplasty specimens. The p53-stained normal/benign cells were ER negative and did not show an increase in the Ki-67 labeling index. These findings indicate that the p53 staining positivity in normal/benign breast tissue is not a random event. It could be considered as the "p53 signature" in breast and serve as an indicator for future potential risk of p53-positive high-grade breast carcinoma. PMID:27246177

  9. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S; Dipersio, John F; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  10. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  11. Beta-catenin is elevated in human benign prostatic hyperplasia specimens compared to histologically normal prostate tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Tyler M; Vezina, Chad M; Huang, Wei; Marker, Paul C; Peterson, Richard E; Ricke, William A

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is linked to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as incomplete bladder emptying, urinary frequency and urgency. Mechanisms responsible for BPH are not fully known. Here, we tested whether beta-catenin (CTNNB1) immunostaining intensity and distribution differ in human glandular BPH tissue specimens compared to normal prostate tissue. Multiplex immunostaining of CTNNB1, its putative transcriptional target gene lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF1), and the epithelial marker E-cadherin were examined in clinical human prostate specimens with or without histological BPH (pure epithelial or mixed stromal-epithelial nodules). BPH specimens were obtained from 24 men who experienced LUTS and underwent transurethral resection of the prostate surgery. Control specimens were tumor-adjacent histologically normal prostate tissue from 48 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. The resulting multispectral images were unmixed and optical densities recorded to quantify staining abundance, cellular (membranous, cytoplasmic, and nuclear) and tissue localization (stromal versus epithelial), and determination of percentage of CTNNB1-positive cells. The following CTNNB1 indices were significantly higher in BPH compared to normal prostate tissue: overall staining intensity, staining intensity in prostate stromal cell membranes, cytoplasm and nuclei, and prostate epithelial cell nuclei. The following LEF1 indices were significantly lower in BPH compared to tumor-adjacent normal prostate tissue: stromal LEF1 staining intensity, percentage of LEF1-positive stromal cells, and intensity of LEF1 staining in stromal cell membranes, cytoplasm, and nuclei. The percentage of stromal cells with CTNNB1+/LEF1- nuclei was higher and percentage of stromal cells with CTNNB1-/LEF1+ nuclei was lower in BPH compared to tumor-adjacent normal prostate tissues. These results support the hypothesis that CTNNB1 expression increases in specific BPH tissue

  12. Updates on the cytogenetics and molecular cytogenetics of benign and intermediate soft tissue tumors

    PubMed Central

    NISHIO, JUN

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissue tumors are classified according to their histological resemblance to normal adult tissues and can be grouped into the following categories based on metastatic potential: benign, intermediate (locally aggressive), intermediate (rarely metastasizing) and malignant. Over the past two decades, considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the genetic background of soft tissue tumors. Traditional laboratory techniques, such as cytogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), can be used for diagnostic purposes in soft tissue pathology practice. Moreover, cytogenetic and molecular studies are often necessary for prognostics and follow-up of soft tissue sarcoma patients. This review provides updated information on the applicability of laboratory genetic testing in the diagnosis of benign and intermediate soft tissue tumors. These tumors include nodular fasciitis, chondroid lipoma, collagenous fibroma (desmoplastic fibroblastoma), giant cell tumor of tendon sheath (GCTTS)/pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), angiofibroma of soft tissue, myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS) and ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT). PMID:23255885

  13. Accurate Characterization of Benign and Cancerous Breast Tissues: Aspecific Patient Studies using Piezoresistive Microcantilevers

    PubMed Central

    PANDYA, HARDIK J.; ROY, RAJARSHI; CHEN, WENJIN; CHEKMAREVA, MARINA A.; FORAN, DAVID J.; DESAI, JAYDEV P.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the largest detected cancer amongst women in the US. In this work, our team reports on the development of piezoresistive microcantilevers (PMCs) to investigate their potential use in the accurate detection and characterization of benign and diseased breast tissues by performing indentations on the micro-scale tissue specimens. The PMCs used in these experiments have been fabricated using laboratory-made silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate, which significantly reduces the fabrication costs. The PMCs are 260 μm long, 35 μm wide and 2 μm thick with resistivity of order 1.316 X 10−3 Ω-cm obtained by using boron diffusion technique. For indenting the tissue, we utilized 8 μm thick cylindrical SU-8 tip. The PMC was calibrated against a known AFM probe. Breast tissue cores from seven different specimens were indented using PMC to identify benign and cancerous tissue cores. Furthermore, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) of benign and cancerous specimens showed marked differences in the tissue morphology, which further validates our observed experimental data with the PMCs. While these patient aspecific feasibility studies clearly demonstrate the ability to discriminate between benign and cancerous breast tissues, further investigation is necessary to perform automated mechano-phenotyping (classification) of breast cancer: from onset to disease progression. PMID:25128621

  14. Evaluation of discoidin domain receptor-2 (DDR2) expression level in normal, benign, and malignant human prostate tissues

    PubMed Central

    Azemikhah, Mitra; Ashtiani, Hamidreza Ahmadi; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Rastegar, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Discoidin domain receptor (DDR) is a new member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. There are two isoforms of discoidin domain receptor (DDR), DDR1 and DDR2. These receptors play a major role in the adhesion, motility and cell proliferation. Due to the important role of DDR2 in the development of tumor extension, this receptor is pivotal in the field of carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA and protein expression of DDR2, in the malignant, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and normal tissues of patients with prostate cancer. In this study the gene and protein expression of DDR2 in adjacent normal (n=40), BPH (n=40), and malignant (n=40) prostate tissue were measured using real-time PCR and Western blotting. Then, the correlation of DDR2 gene and protein expression with prognostic factors such as age, tumor grade, tumor stage, lymph node involvement, and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration were evaluated. The relative mRNA and protein expression level of DDR2 in malignant and benign prostate tissue was significantly higher than those of adjacent normal tissues (P<0.01). This expression was found to increase approximately 3.5 and 2.1 fold for mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Spearman test indicated a significant correlation between DDR2 mRNA and protein expression with prognostic factors such as tumor grade, stage, lymph node involvement, and serum PSA concentration. However, significant correlation with age was not observed. These findings suggest that DDR2 is a cancer-related gene associated with the aggressive progression of prostate cancer patients. PMID:26600862

  15. Evaluation of discoidin domain receptor-2 (DDR2) expression level in normal, benign, and malignant human prostate tissues.

    PubMed

    Azemikhah, Mitra; Ashtiani, Hamidreza Ahmadi; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Rastegar, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Discoidin domain receptor (DDR) is a new member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. There are two isoforms of discoidin domain receptor (DDR), DDR1 and DDR2. These receptors play a major role in the adhesion, motility and cell proliferation. Due to the important role of DDR2 in the development of tumor extension, this receptor is pivotal in the field of carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA and protein expression of DDR2, in the malignant, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and normal tissues of patients with prostate cancer. In this study the gene and protein expression of DDR2 in adjacent normal (n=40), BPH (n=40), and malignant (n=40) prostate tissue were measured using real-time PCR and Western blotting. Then, the correlation of DDR2 gene and protein expression with prognostic factors such as age, tumor grade, tumor stage, lymph node involvement, and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration were evaluated. The relative mRNA and protein expression level of DDR2 in malignant and benign prostate tissue was significantly higher than those of adjacent normal tissues (P<0.01). This expression was found to increase approximately 3.5 and 2.1 fold for mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Spearman test indicated a significant correlation between DDR2 mRNA and protein expression with prognostic factors such as tumor grade, stage, lymph node involvement, and serum PSA concentration. However, significant correlation with age was not observed. These findings suggest that DDR2 is a cancer-related gene associated with the aggressive progression of prostate cancer patients. PMID:26600862

  16. Time resolved optical biopsy spectroscopy of normal, benign and malignant tissues from NADH and FAD changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masilamani, V.; Das, B. B.; Secor, J.; AlSalhi, M.; Amer, S. B.; Farhat, K.; Rabah, D.; Alfano, R. R.

    2012-01-01

    Histo pathological examination is the gold standard to discriminate between benign and malignant growth of tissue. But this is invasive and stressful. Hence many non invasive imaging techniques, such as CT, MRI, PET, etc are employed, each having certain advantages and disadvantages. In this context optical biopsy is a newly emerging technique, since it employs non-ionizing radiation like light or laser, which could be shined directly or launched through optical fiber to reach any part of the body. This paper reports results of time resolved emission spectra of 24 excised tissue sample (normal control=12; benign=4; malignant=8) of breast and prostate, employing a 390nm, 100 fs, Ti-Sapphire laser pulses. The fluorescence decay times were measured using streak camera and fitted for single and bi- exponential decays with reliability of 97%. Our results show the distinct difference between normal, benign and malignant tissues attributed changes of NADH and FAD levels.

  17. Tissue landscape alters adjacent cell fates during Drosophila egg development

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Lathiena; Weideman, Ann Marie; Peercy, Bradford; Starz-Gaiano, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular signaling molecules control many biological processes, but the influence of tissue architecture on the local concentrations of these factors is unclear. Here we examine this issue in the Drosophila egg chamber, where two anterior cells secrete Unpaired (Upd) to activate Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) signaling in the epithelium. High STAT signaling promotes cell motility. Genetic analysis shows that all cells near the Upd source can respond. However, using upright imaging, we show surprising asymmetries in STAT activation patterns, suggesting that some cells experience different Upd levels than predicted by their location. We develop a three-dimensional mathematical model to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of the activator. Simulations show that irregular tissue domains can produce asymmetric distributions of Upd, consistent with results in vivo. Mutant analysis substantiates this idea. We conclude that cellular landscape can heavily influence the effect of diffusible activators and should be more widely considered. PMID:26082073

  18. Effects of radiotherapy on uveal melanomas and adjacent tissues.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, C; Konstantinidis, L; Damato, B

    2013-02-01

    Most uveal melanomas are treated with radiotherapy. An adequate understanding of the effects of radiation on the tumour and the healthy ocular tissues is necessary. Ionizing radiation damages cell membranes, organelles, and DNA. Irradiated cells are lysed or undergo apoptosis, necrosis, and senescence. These effects occur in tumour cells and vascular endothelial cells, resulting in tumour shrinkage, ischaemia, infarction, exudation, and fibrosis, which can cause exudative maculopathy, serous retinal detachment, rubeosis, and neovascular glaucoma (ie, 'toxic tumour syndrome'). Such abnormalities must be distinguished from collateral damage to healthy ocular tissues that receive high doses of radiation, and these include radiation-induced retinopathy, optic neuropathy, choroidopathy, cataract, and scleral necrosis. Radiation retinopathy can be treated effectively with photodynamic therapy, anti-angiogenic agents, and intravitreal steroid injections. In some patients, optic neuropathy may improve with intravitreal steroids or anti-angiogenic agents. Neovascular glaucoma resolves with intra-cameral bevacizumab. Exudative retinal detachment can regress with intra-vitreal steroid injections. Cataract is treated in the usual manner. Scleral necrosis, if severe, may require grafting, possibly using a lamellar flap from the same eye. Depending on the bulk of the residual toxic tumour, treatment can consist of intra-vitreal steroids and/or anti-angiogenic agents, transpupillary thermotherapy or photodynamic therapy to the tumour, or surgical removal of the tumour by endo- or exo-resection. Measures aimed at preventing collateral damage include eccentric placement of ruthenium plaques or iodine seeds and delivery of a notched proton beam. The decision to treat a uveal melanoma with radiotherapy requires the ability to manage iatrogenic side effects and complications. PMID:23196647

  19. Effects of radiotherapy on uveal melanomas and adjacent tissues

    PubMed Central

    Groenewald, C; Konstantinidis, L; Damato, B

    2013-01-01

    Most uveal melanomas are treated with radiotherapy. An adequate understanding of the effects of radiation on the tumour and the healthy ocular tissues is necessary. Ionizing radiation damages cell membranes, organelles, and DNA. Irradiated cells are lysed or undergo apoptosis, necrosis, and senescence. These effects occur in tumour cells and vascular endothelial cells, resulting in tumour shrinkage, ischaemia, infarction, exudation, and fibrosis, which can cause exudative maculopathy, serous retinal detachment, rubeosis, and neovascular glaucoma (ie, ‘toxic tumour syndrome'). Such abnormalities must be distinguished from collateral damage to healthy ocular tissues that receive high doses of radiation, and these include radiation-induced retinopathy, optic neuropathy, choroidopathy, cataract, and scleral necrosis. Radiation retinopathy can be treated effectively with photodynamic therapy, anti-angiogenic agents, and intravitreal steroid injections. In some patients, optic neuropathy may improve with intravitreal steroids or anti-angiogenic agents. Neovascular glaucoma resolves with intra-cameral bevacizumab. Exudative retinal detachment can regress with intra-vitreal steroid injections. Cataract is treated in the usual manner. Scleral necrosis, if severe, may require grafting, possibly using a lamellar flap from the same eye. Depending on the bulk of the residual toxic tumour, treatment can consist of intra-vitreal steroids and/or anti-angiogenic agents, transpupillary thermotherapy or photodynamic therapy to the tumour, or surgical removal of the tumour by endo- or exo-resection. Measures aimed at preventing collateral damage include eccentric placement of ruthenium plaques or iodine seeds and delivery of a notched proton beam. The decision to treat a uveal melanoma with radiotherapy requires the ability to manage iatrogenic side effects and complications. PMID:23196647

  20. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining

    PubMed Central

    XUAN, JIAJIA; ZHANG, YUNFENG; ZHANG, XIUJUN; HU, FEN

    2015-01-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26137243

  1. Coexisiting adenoma and granuloma involving the right inferior parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mayank; Kandasamy, Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory lesions, particularly granulomas, involving adenoma of the parathyroid gland are rare. Ectopic thymic tissue is commonly associated with the thyroid and/or parathyroid gland due to their close embryonic relationship. We report a rare case of coexisting adenoma and granuloma of the parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue. PMID:24957592

  2. Phenomenological model of laser-tissue interaction with application to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangmin; Zhang, Nan; Shen, Yunhe; Burke, Dan; Konchada, Vamsi; Sweet, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Laser-tissue interaction is a multi-physics phenomenon not yet mathematically describable and computationally predictable. It is a challenge to model the laser-tissue interaction for real time laser Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) simulation which requires the laser-tissue interaction model to be computationally efficient and accurate. Under the consideration and enforcement of the thermodynamic first law and treating the laser-tissue interaction as a gray-box, utilizing the sensitivity analysis of some key parameters that will affect the laser intensity on the tissue surface with respect to the tissue vaporization rate, a phenomenological model of laser-tissue interaction is developed. The developed laser-tissue interaction model has been implemented for a laser BPH simulator and achieves real time performance (more than 30 frames per second). The model agrees well with the available experimental data. PMID:21335893

  3. The effect of Tookad-mediated photodynamic ablation of the prostate gland on adjacent tissues - in vivo study in a canine model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Dole, Kenneth C.; Barqawi, Al B.; Chen, Yang K.; Blanc, Dominique; Wilson, Brian C.; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad (pd-bacteriopheophorbide) was investigated as an alternative modality for treating prostate cancer. Photodynamic effects on the prostate gland and its adjacent tissues were evaluated in a canine model. Interstitial prostate PDT was performed by irradiating individual lobes with a cylindrical diffuser fiber at various drug/light doses. The sensitivity of the adjacent tissues to Tookad PDT was determined by directly irradiating the surface of the bladder, colon, abdominal muscle and pelvic plexus with a microlens fiber at various drug/light doses. The prostate and adjacent tissues were harvested one-week after the treatment and subjected to histopathological examination. PDT-induced prostate lesions were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis. The bladder, colon, abdominal muscle and pelvic plexus appeared to be sensitive to PDT although the Tookad PDT-induced responses in these tissues were minimal compared to that of the prostate gland at the same dose levels. Nevertheless, the protection of the adjacent tissues should be taken into consideration during the total prostate ablation process due to their sensitivity to PDT. The sensitivity of the prostatic urethra is worth further investigation. Direct intraurethral irradiation might provide an ideal means to determine the sensitivity of the prostatic urethra and might lead to transurethral PDT protocols for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:18046488

  4. Telomere length in hepatocellular carcinoma and paired adjacent non-tumor tissues by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujing; Shen, Jing; Ming-Whei; Lee, Yu Po-Huang; Santella, Regina M

    2007-12-01

    Telomere shortening limits the proliferative capacity of human cells, restrains the regenerative capacity of organ systems during chronic diseases and aging and also induces chromosomal instability as well as initiation of cancer. Previous studies demonstrated that telomeres are often significantly shorter in tumor tissue, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), compared to the surrounding tissue, but telomere length in HCC tissues was not correlated with several clinical parameters, such as age, sex, HBV or HCV infections and tumor size. In the present study, the telomere length ratio of 36 paired HCC, and their adjacent non-tumor tissues was measured by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). The mean telomere lengths (SD) for HCC and adjacent non-tumor tissues were 0.26 (0.10) and 0.47 (0.20) respectively (t = 6.22, P < 0.0001). There was a large difference in the distribution of subjects based on telomere length in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues. The number of tumors with telomere length shorter than 0.50 was much higher than that of adjacent non-tumor tissues; more than 90% of the tissues with telomere length > or = 0.50 were adjacent non-tumor tissues. The correlations between telomere length and aflatoxin B1- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts level, p53 mutations and p16 hypermethylation status were also tested, but no significant associations were found. The relationship between telomere length shortening, chemical carcinogen exposure, and genetic and epigenetic changes in hepatocarcinogenesis needs further investigation. PMID:18058461

  5. Trimodal spectra for high discrimination of benign and malignant prostate tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Salhi, Mohamad; Masilamani, Vadivel; Trinka, Vijmasi; Rabah, Danny; Al Turki, Mohammed R.

    2011-02-01

    High false positives and over diagnosis is a major problem with management of prostate cancer. A non-invasive or a minimally invasive technique to accurately distinguish malignant prostate cancers from benign tumors will be extremely helpful to overcome this problem. In this paper, we had used three different fluorescence spectroscopy techniques viz., Fluorescence Emission Spectrum (FES), Stokes' Shift Spectrum (SSS) and Reflectance Spectrum (RS) to discriminate benign prostate tumor tissues (N=12) and malignant prostate cancer tissues (N=8). These fluorescence techniques were used to determine the relative concentration of naturally occurring biomolecules such as tryptophan, elastin, NADH and flavin which are found to be out of proportion in cancer tissues. Our studies show that combining all three techniques, benign and malignant prostate tissues could be classified with accuracy greater than 90%. This preliminary report is based on in vitro spectroscopy analysis. However, by employing fluorescence endoscopy techniques, this can be extended to in vivo analysis as well. This technique has the potential to identify malignant prostate tissues without surgery.

  6. High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for the treatment of benign obstructive endobronchial granulation tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Madu, Chika N. . E-mail: chikam@xrt.upenn.edu; Machuzak, Michael S.; Sterman, Daniel H.; Musani, Ali; Ahya, Vivek; McDonough, James; Metz, James M.

    2006-12-01

    Background: Severe airway obstruction can occur in the setting of benign granulation tissue forming at bronchial anastomotic sites after lung transplantation in up to 20% of patients. Many of these benign lesions respond to stent placement, laser ablation, or balloon bronchoplasty. However, in certain cases, proliferation of granulation tissue may persist despite all therapeutic attempts. This study describes a series of refractory patients treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for benign proliferation of granulation tissue, causing airway compromise. Methods and Materials: Between April 2002 and June 2005, 5 patients with significant airway compromise from recurrent granulation tissue were treated with HDR brachytherapy. All patients had previously failed to maintain a patent airway despite multiple bronchoscopic interventions. Treatment was delivered using an HDR brachytherapy afterloader with {sup 192}Ir. Dose prescription was to a depth of 1 cm. All patients were treated weekly, with total doses ranging from 10 Gy to 21 Gy in two to three fractions. Results: The median follow-up was 12 months. All patients experienced a reduction in therapeutic bronchoscopic procedures after HDR brachytherapy compared with the pretreatment period. With the exception of possible radiation-induced bronchitis in 1 patient, there were no other treatment related complications. At the time of this report, 2 patients have died and the other 3 are alive with marked symptomatic improvement and reduced bronchoscopic procedures. Conclusion: High-dose-rate brachytherapy is an effective treatment for benign proliferation of granulation tissue causing airway obstruction. The early response to therapy is encouraging and further follow-up is necessary to determine long-term durability and late effects.

  7. Distinguishing epigenetic features of preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to seminomas and nonseminomas

    PubMed Central

    Skvortsova, Yulia V.; Zinovyeva, Marina V.; Stukacheva, Elena A.; Klimov, Alexey; Tryakin, Alexey A.; Azhikina, Tatyana L.

    2016-01-01

    PIWI pathway proteins are expressed during spermatogenesis where they play a key role in germ cell development. Epigenetic loss of PIWI proteins expression was previously demonstrated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), implying their involvement in TGCT development. In this work, apart from studying only normal testis and TGCT samples, we also analyzed an intermediate stage, i.e. preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to TGCTs. Importantly, in this study, we minimized the contribution of patient-to-patient heterogeneity by using matched preneoplastic/TGCT samples. Surprisingly, expression of germ cell marker DDX4 suggests that spermatogenesis is retained in premalignant testis tissues adjacent to nonseminoma, but not those adjacent to seminoma. Moreover, this pattern is followed by expression of PIWI pathway genes, which impacts one of their functions: DNA methylation level over LINE-1 promoters is higher in preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to nonseminomas than those adjacent to seminomas. This finding might imply distinct routes for development of the two types of TGCTs and could be used as a novel diagnostic marker, possibly, noninvasively. Finally, we studied the role of CpG island methylation in expression of PIWI genes in patient samples and using in vitro experiments in cell line models: a more complex interrelation between DNA methylation and expression of the corresponding genes was revealed. PMID:26843623

  8. Distinguishing epigenetic features of preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to seminomas and nonseminomas.

    PubMed

    Gainetdinov, Ildar V; Kondratieva, Sofia A; Skvortsova, Yulia V; Zinovyeva, Marina V; Stukacheva, Elena A; Klimov, Alexey; Tryakin, Alexey A; Azhikina, Tatyana L

    2016-04-19

    PIWI pathway proteins are expressed during spermatogenesis where they play a key role in germ cell development. Epigenetic loss of PIWI proteins expression was previously demonstrated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), implying their involvement in TGCT development. In this work, apart from studying only normal testis and TGCT samples, we also analyzed an intermediate stage, i.e. preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to TGCTs. Importantly, in this study, we minimized the contribution of patient-to-patient heterogeneity by using matched preneoplastic/TGCT samples. Surprisingly, expression of germ cell marker DDX4 suggests that spermatogenesis is retained in premalignant testis tissues adjacent to nonseminoma, but not those adjacent to seminoma. Moreover, this pattern is followed by expression of PIWI pathway genes, which impacts one of their functions: DNA methylation level over LINE-1 promoters is higher in preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to nonseminomas than those adjacent to seminomas. This finding might imply distinct routes for development of the two types of TGCTs and could be used as a novel diagnostic marker, possibly, noninvasively. Finally, we studied the role of CpG island methylation in expression of PIWI genes in patient samples and using in vitro experiments in cell line models: a more complex interrelation between DNA methylation and expression of the corresponding genes was revealed. PMID:26843623

  9. Towards an Automated MEMS-based Characterization of Benign and Cancerous Breast Tissue using Bioimpedance Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Hardik J.; Kim, Hyun Tae; Roy, Rajarshi; Chen, Wenjin; Cong, Lei; Zhong, Hua; Foran, David J.; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) are desirable for use within medical diagnostics because of their capacity to manipulate and analyze biological materials at the microscale. Biosensors can be incorporated into portable lab-on-a-chip devices to quickly and reliably perform diagnostics procedure on laboratory and clinical samples. In this paper, electrical impedance-based measurements were used to distinguish between benign and cancerous breast tissues using microchips in a real-time and label-free manner. Two different microchips having inter-digited electrodes (10 µm width with 10 µm spacing and 10 µm width with 30 µm spacing) were used for measuring the impedance of breast tissues. The system employs Agilent E4980A precision impedance analyzer. The impedance magnitude and phase were collected over a frequency range of 100 Hz to 2 MHz. The benign group and cancer group showed clearly distinguishable impedance properties. At 200 kHz, the difference in impedance of benign and cancerous breast tissue was significantly higher (3110 Ω) in the case of microchips having 10 µm spacing compared to microchip having 30 µm spacing (568 Ω). PMID:25013305

  10. The Microbiome of Aseptically Collected Human Breast Tissue in Benign and Malignant Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hieken, Tina J.; Chen, Jun; Hoskin, Tanya L.; Walther-Antonio, Marina; Johnson, Stephen; Ramaker, Sheri; Xiao, Jian; Radisky, Derek C.; Knutson, Keith L.; Kalari, Krishna R.; Yao, Janet Z.; Baddour, Larry M.; Chia, Nicholas; Degnim, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    Globally breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women. The breast consists of epithelium, stroma and a mucosal immune system that make up a complex microenvironment. Growing awareness of the role of microbes in the microenvironment recently has led to a series of findings important for human health. The microbiome has been implicated in cancer development and progression at a variety of body sites including stomach, colon, liver, lung, and skin. In this study, we assessed breast tissue microbial signatures in intraoperatively obtained samples using 16S rDNA hypervariable tag sequencing. Our results indicate a distinct breast tissue microbiome that is different from the microbiota of breast skin tissue, breast skin swabs, and buccal swabs. Furthermore, we identify distinct microbial communities in breast tissues from women with cancer as compared to women with benign breast disease. Malignancy correlated with enrichment in taxa of lower abundance including the genera Fusobacterium, Atopobium, Gluconacetobacter, Hydrogenophaga and Lactobacillus. This work confirms the existence of a distinct breast microbiome and differences between the breast tissue microbiome in benign and malignant disease. These data provide a foundation for future investigation on the role of the breast microbiome in breast carcinogenesis and breast cancer prevention. PMID:27485780

  11. Spatial and temporal age-related spectral alterations in benign human breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theophilou, Georgios; Fogarty, Simon W.; Trevisan, Júlio; Strong, Rebecca J.; Heys, Kelly A.; Patel, Imran I.; Stringfellow, Helen F.; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Martin, Francis L.

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that cancers attributable to exogenous carcinogenic agents may appear decades after initiating exposures. Environmental factors including lifestyle and/or diet have been implicated in the aetiology of breast cancer. Breast tissue undergoes continuous molecular and morphological changes from the time of thelarche to menopause and thereafter. These alterations are both cyclical and longitudinal, and can be influenced by several environmental factors including exposure to oestrogens. Research into the latent period leading to breast carcinogenesis has been mostly limited to when hyperplastic lesions are present. Investigations to identify a biomarker of commitment to disease in normal breast tissue are hindered by the molecular and histological diversity of disease-free breast tissue. Benign tissue from reduction mammoplasties provides an opportunity to study biochemical differences between women of similar ages as well as alterations with advancing age. Herein, synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy was used to examine the terminal ductal lobular epithelium (TDLU) and, intra- and inter-lobular epithelium to identify spatial and temporal changes within these areas. Principal component analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis of mid-infrared spectra revealed unambiguous inter-individual as well as age-related differences in each histological compartment interrogated. Moreover, exploratory PCA of luminal and myoepithelial cells within the TDLU indicated the presence of specific cells, potentially stem cells. Understanding alterations within benign tissue may assist in the identification of alterations in latent pre-clinical stages of breast cancer.

  12. The Microbiome of Aseptically Collected Human Breast Tissue in Benign and Malignant Disease.

    PubMed

    Hieken, Tina J; Chen, Jun; Hoskin, Tanya L; Walther-Antonio, Marina; Johnson, Stephen; Ramaker, Sheri; Xiao, Jian; Radisky, Derek C; Knutson, Keith L; Kalari, Krishna R; Yao, Janet Z; Baddour, Larry M; Chia, Nicholas; Degnim, Amy C

    2016-01-01

    Globally breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women. The breast consists of epithelium, stroma and a mucosal immune system that make up a complex microenvironment. Growing awareness of the role of microbes in the microenvironment recently has led to a series of findings important for human health. The microbiome has been implicated in cancer development and progression at a variety of body sites including stomach, colon, liver, lung, and skin. In this study, we assessed breast tissue microbial signatures in intraoperatively obtained samples using 16S rDNA hypervariable tag sequencing. Our results indicate a distinct breast tissue microbiome that is different from the microbiota of breast skin tissue, breast skin swabs, and buccal swabs. Furthermore, we identify distinct microbial communities in breast tissues from women with cancer as compared to women with benign breast disease. Malignancy correlated with enrichment in taxa of lower abundance including the genera Fusobacterium, Atopobium, Gluconacetobacter, Hydrogenophaga and Lactobacillus. This work confirms the existence of a distinct breast microbiome and differences between the breast tissue microbiome in benign and malignant disease. These data provide a foundation for future investigation on the role of the breast microbiome in breast carcinogenesis and breast cancer prevention. PMID:27485780

  13. Optical characterization of normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissue: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brandao, M P; Iwakura, R; Basilio, F S; Haleplian, K; Ito, A S; de Freitas, L C Conti; Bachmann, L

    2015-03-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the standard technique to diagnose thyroid pathologies. However, this method has a high percentage of inconclusive and false-negative results for benign and malignant lesions. Hence, it is important to search for a new method to assist medical evaluation during these surgical procedures. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to detect biochemical composition and tissue structure alterations could help to develop a portable, minimally invasive, and non-destructive method to assist medical evaluation. In this study, we investigated 17 human thyroid samples by absorbance, fluorescence, excitation, and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. This initial investigation has demonstrated that thyroid fluorescence originates from many endogenous fluorophores and culminates in several bands. The fluorescence lifetimes of benign and malignant lesions were significantly different, as attested by analysis of variance using Tukey test with individual confidence level of 98.06%. Our results suggest that fluorescence lifetimes of benign and malignant lesions can potentially assist diagnosis. After further investigations, fluorescence methods could become a tool for the surgeon to identify differences between normal and pathological thyroid tissues. PMID:25731814

  14. Clinicopathological Profile of Benign Soft Tissue Tumours: A Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Western India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Chandak, Shruti; Ranjan, Amar; Patel, Mehul Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of soft tissue tumours, especially the frequency of benign tumours relative to malignant ones, is nearly impossible to determine accurately. Benign soft tissue tumours outnumber malignant tumours by a wide margin. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to look into the clinicopathological profile of benign soft tissue tumour in terms of hospital incidence of age, sex, site distribution and comparison of histological types of benign soft tissue tumours with other similar studies. Materials and Methods: The operated specimens or biopsy material of benign soft tissue tumours received from January, 2010 to July, 2010 in the Department of Histopathology of our hospital, were studied in detail. Age and sex incidence, site of lesion, clinical features, gross and microscopic appearance were carefully studied. Results: In our study, most common benign soft tissue tumour was lipoma (50.8%) followed by hemangioma (17.5%) which in turn was followed by neurofibroma, angiofibroma & schwannoma. Most common age group for benign soft tissue tumour were 31-40y (27.5%) followed by 21-30y (22.5%). Overall a male predominance was seen with 60.83% in males. The most common site of occurrence of benign soft tissue tumour overall was found to be trunk (25%), followed by upper extremities (21.7%), lower extremities (17.5%) and nose and nasopharynx (10.8%) in that order. Conclusion: With our study, we were able to reassess the clinical profile of soft tissue tumours and their different types with respect to age, sex, site distribution. PMID:25478344

  15. Differentially Expressed miRNAs in Tumor, Adjacent, and Normal Tissues of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fei; Li, Rui; Chen, Zhenzhu; Shen, Yanting; Lu, Jiafeng; Xie, Xueying; Ge, Qinyu

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the major type of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression profiles of miRNAs in adenocarcinoma (AC), one major subtype of NSCLC. In this study, the miRNAs were detected in normal, adjacent, and tumor tissues by next-generation sequencing. Then the expression levels of differential miRNAs were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In the results, 259, 401, and 389 miRNAs were detected in tumor, adjacent, and normal tissues of pooled AC samples, respectively. In addition, for the first time we have found that miR-21-5p and miR-196a-5p were gradually upregulated from normal to adjacent to tumor tissues; miR-218-5p was gradually downregulated with 2-fold or greater change in AC tissues. These 3 miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. Lastly, we predicted target genes of these 3 miRNAs and enriched the potential functions and regulatory pathways. The aberrant miR-21-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-218-5p may become biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma. This research may be useful for lung adenocarcinoma diagnosis and the study of pathology in lung cancer. PMID:27247934

  16. A Case of Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma with Multiple Metastasis to the Soft Tissue, Skeletal Muscle, Lung and Breast

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Ji Hoon; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Dae Cheol; Kim, Sung Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk Chan; Kim, Jae Seok

    2006-01-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is composed of well-differentiated smooth muscle cells and dense connective tissue. BML affects middle-aged women who have had previous hysterectomies due to a histologically benign-appearing uterine leiomyoma. We report here on a case of BML from the uterine leiomyoma in a 39-year-old woman that involved the soft tissues, skeletal muscles, lungs and breasts. She underwent a hysterectomy for the uterine leiomyoma, double oophorectomy for hormonal ablation and lung wedge resection to confirm the diagnosis. The microscopic findings of the breast and lung tumor were similar to those of the benign uterine leiomyoma. Therefore, we consider that these lesions were breast and pulmonary metastases of the uterine leiomyoma. We report here on a rare case of benign metastasizing uterine leiomyoma that involved the soft tissue, skeletal muscles, lungs and breasts, and we include a review of the relevant literature. PMID:17017672

  17. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of ovarian normal, benign, and malignant tissues: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamath, Sudha D.; Ray, Satadru; Mahato, Krishna K.

    2011-06-01

    Photoacoustic spectra of normal, benign, and malignant ovarian tissues are recorded using 325-nm pulsed laser excitation in vitro. A total of 102 (34 normal, 38 benign, and 30 malignant) spectra are obtained from 22 samples belonging to normal, benign, and malignant subjects. Applying multi-algorithm approach, comprised of methods such as, principal component analysis (PCA) based k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) analysis, artificial neural network (ANN) analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) analysis, classification of the data has been carried out. For PCA, first the calibration set is formed by pooling 45 spectra, 15 belonging to each of pathologically certified normal, benign, and malignant samples. PCA is then performed on the data matrix, comprised of the six spectral features extracted from each of 45 calibration samples, and three principal components (PCs) containing maximum diagnostic information are selected. The scores of the selected PCs are used to train the k-NN, ANN, and SVM classifiers. The ANN used is a classical multilayer feed forward network with back propagation algorithm for its training. For k-NN, the Euclidean distance based algorithm is used and for SVM, one-versus-rest multiclass kernel-radial basis function is used. The performance evaluation of the classification results are obtained by calculating statistical parameters like specificity and sensitivity. ANN and k-NN techniques showed identical performance with specificity and sensitivity values of 100 and 86.76%, whereas SVM had these values at 100 and 80.18%, respectively. In order to determine the relative diagnostic performance of the techniques, receiver operating characteristics analysis is also performed.

  18. Spatiotemporal morphometry of adjacent tissue layers with application to the study of sulcal formation.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Habas, Piotr A; Kim, Kio; Rousseau, François; Glenn, Orit A; Barkovich, A James; Studholme, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The process of brain growth involves the expansion of tissue at different rates at different points within the brain. As the layers within the developing brain evolve they can thicken or increase in area as the brain surface begins to fold. In this work we propose a new spatiotemporal formulation of tensor based volume morphometry that is derived in relation to tissue boundaries. This allows the study of the directional properties of tissue growth by separately characterizing the changes in area and thickness of the adjacent layers. The approach uses temporally weighted, local regression across a population of anatomies with different ages to model changes in components of the growth radial and tangential to the boundary between tissue layers. The formulation is applied to the study of sulcal formation from in-utero MR imaging of human fetal brain anatomy. Results show that the method detects differential growth of tissue layers adjacent to the cortical surface, particularly at sulcal locations, as early as 22 gestational weeks. PMID:21995063

  19. Sex steroid receptor expression and localization in benign prostatic hyperplasia varies with tissue compartment.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tristan M; Sehgal, Priyanka D; Drew, Sally A; Huang, Wei; Ricke, William A

    2013-01-01

    Androgens and estrogens, acting via their respective receptors, are important in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The goals of this study were to quantitatively characterize the tissue distribution and staining intensity of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), and assess cells expressing both AR and ERα, in human BPH compared to normal prostate. A tissue microarray composed of normal prostate and BPH tissue was used and multiplexed immunohistochemistry was performed to detect AR and ERα. We used a multispectral imaging platform for automated scanning, tissue and cell segmentation and marker quantification. BPH specimens had an increased number of epithelial and stromal cells and increased percentage of epithelium. In both stroma and epithelium, the mean nuclear area was decreased in BPH relative to normal prostate. AR expression and staining intensity in epithelial and stromal cells was significantly increased in BPH compared to normal prostate. ERα expression was increased in BPH epithelium. However, stromal ERα expression and staining intensity was decreased in BPH compared to normal prostate. Double positive (AR and ERα) epithelial cells were more prevalent in BPH, and fewer double negative (AR and ERα) stromal and epithelial negative cells were observed in BPH. These data underscore the importance of tissue layer localization and expression of steroid hormone receptors in the prostate. Understanding the tissue-specific hormone action of androgens and estrogens will lead to a better understanding of mechanisms of pathogenesis in the prostate and may lead to better treatment for BPH. PMID:23792768

  20. Sex steroid receptor expression and localization in benign prostatic hyperplasia varies with tissue compartment

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Tristan M.; Sehgal, Priyanka D.; Drew, Sally A.; Huang, Wei; Ricke, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Androgens and estrogens, acting via their respective receptors, are important in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The goal of this study was to quantitatively characterize the tissue distribution and staining intensity of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), and assess cells expressing both AR and ERα, in human BPH compared to normal prostate. A tissue microarray composed of normal prostate and BPH tissue was used and multiplexed immunohistochemistry was performed to detect AR and ERα. We used a multispectral imaging platform for automated scanning, tissue and cell segmentation and marker quantification. BPH specimens had an increased number of epithelial and stromal cells and increased percentage of epithelium. In both stroma and epithelium, the mean nuclear area was decreased in BPH relative to normal prostate. AR expression and staining intensity in epithelial and stromal cells was significantly increased in BPH compared to normal prostate. ERα expression was increased in BPH epithelium. However, stromal ERα expression and staining intensity was decreased in BPH compared to normal prostate. Double positive (AR & ERα) epithelial cells were more prevalent in BPH, and fewer double negative (AR & ERα) stromal and epithelial negative cells were observed in BPH. These data underscore the importance of tissue layer localization and expression of steroid hormone receptors in the prostate. Understanding the tissue-specific hormone action of androgens and estrogens will lead to a better understanding of mechanisms of pathogenesis in the prostate and may lead to better treatment for BPH. PMID:23792768

  1. Coordinated tissue-specific regulation of adjacent alternative 3′ splice sites in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ragle, James Matthew; Katzman, Sol; Akers, Taylor F.; Barberan-Soler, Sergio; Zahler, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Adjacent alternative 3′ splice sites, those separated by ≤18 nucleotides, provide a unique problem in the study of alternative splicing regulation; there is overlap of the cis-elements that define the adjacent sites. Identification of the intron's 3′ end depends upon sequence elements that define the branchpoint, polypyrimidine tract, and terminal AG dinucleotide. Starting with RNA-seq data from germline-enriched and somatic cell-enriched Caenorhabditis elegans samples, we identify hundreds of introns with adjacent alternative 3′ splice sites. We identify 203 events that undergo tissue-specific alternative splicing. For these, the regulation is monodirectional, with somatic cells preferring to splice at the distal 3′ splice site (furthest from the 5′ end of the intron) and germline cells showing a distinct shift toward usage of the adjacent proximal 3′ splice site (closer to the 5′ end of the intron). Splicing patterns in somatic cells follow C. elegans consensus rules of 3′ splice site definition; a short stretch of pyrimidines preceding an AG dinucleotide. Splicing in germline cells occurs at proximal 3′ splice sites that lack a preceding polypyrimidine tract, and in three instances the germline-specific site lacks the AG dinucleotide. We provide evidence that use of germline-specific proximal 3′ splice sites is conserved across Caenorhabditis species. We propose that there are differences between germline and somatic cells in the way that the basal splicing machinery functions to determine the intron terminus. PMID:25922281

  2. CRLX101 nanoparticles localize in human tumors and not in adjacent, nonneoplastic tissue after intravenous dosing

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew J.; Wiley, Devin T.; Zuckerman, Jonathan E.; Webster, Paul; Chao, Joseph; Lin, James; Yen, Yun; Davis, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle-based therapeutics are being used to treat patients with solid tumors. Whereas nanoparticles have been shown to preferentially accumulate in solid tumors of animal models, there is little evidence to prove that intact nanoparticles localize to solid tumors of humans when systemically administered. Here, tumor and adjacent, nonneoplastic tissue biopsies are obtained through endoscopic capture from patients with gastric, gastroesophageal, or esophageal cancer who are administered the nanoparticle CRLX101. Both the pre- and postdosing tissue samples adjacent to tumors show no definitive evidence of either the nanoparticle or its drug payload (camptothecin, CPT) contained within the nanoparticle. Similar results are obtained from the predosing tumor samples. However, in nine of nine patients that were evaluated, CPT is detected in the tumor tissue collected 24–48 h after CRLX101 administration. For five of these patients, evidence of the intact deposition of CRLX101 nanoparticles in the tumor tissue is obtained. Indications of CPT pharmacodynamics from tumor biomarkers such as carbonic anhydrase IX and topoisomerase I by immunohistochemistry show clear evidence of biological activity from the delivered CPT in the posttreatment tumors. PMID:27001839

  3. Benign soft-tissue lesions of the fingers: radiopathological correlation and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Oca Pernas, Roque; Prada González, Raquel; Santos Armentia, Eloísa; Hormaza Aguirre, Nerea; Tardáguila de la Fuente, Gonzalo; Trinidad López, Carmen; Delgado Sánchez-Gracián, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Soft-tissue lesions of the fingers are commonly found in daily clinical practice. A wide range of tumors and pseudotumors have been described in this location, and the majority of them are benign. Ganglion cysts are the most common entity, and the localized type of tenosynovial giant cell tumors are the most frequent solid condition. Both may be easily recognized owing to their typical clinical and radiological characteristics. However, categorization of the spectrum of soft-tissue lesions of the fingers remains limited, despite imaging development, and many patients undergo surgery before radiological or histological diagnosis. Clinical history, radiographic features, and ultrasound and magnetic resonance patterns may help in obtaining the correct diagnosis or reducing the list of differential diagnoses. Radiologists should be familiar with imaging findings so that they can determine the size, extension, and affected neighboring anatomical structures, and provide information that allows adequate presurgical counseling. PMID:25367671

  4. Adipose-Derived Stromal Vascular Fraction Differentially Expands Breast Progenitors in Tissue Adjacent to Tumors Compared to Healthy Breast Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sumanta; Laliberte, Mike; Blelloch, Sarah; Ratanshi, Imran; Safneck, Janice; Buchel, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autologous fat grafts supplemented with adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction are used in reconstructive and cosmetic breast procedures. Stromal vascular fraction contains adipose-derived stem cells that are thought to encourage wound healing, tissue regeneration, and graft retention. Although use of stromal vascular fraction has provided exciting perspectives for aesthetic procedures, no studies have yet been conducted to determine whether its cells contribute to breast tissue regeneration. The authors examined the effect of these cells on the expansion of human breast epithelial progenitors. Methods: From patients undergoing reconstructive breast surgery following mastectomies, abdominal fat, matching tissue adjacent to breast tumors, and the contralateral non–tumor-containing breast tissue were obtained. Ex vivo co-cultures using breast epithelial cells and the stromal vascular fraction cells were used to study the expansion potential of breast progenitors. Breast reduction samples were collected as a source of healthy breast cells. Results: The authors observed that progenitors present in healthy breast tissue or contralateral non–tumor-containing breast tissue showed significant and robust expansion in the presence of stromal vascular fraction (5.2- and 4.8-fold, respectively). Whereas the healthy progenitors expanded up to 3-fold without the stromal vascular fraction cells, the expansion of tissue adjacent to breast tumor progenitors required the presence of stromal vascular fraction cells, leading to a 7-fold expansion, which was significantly higher than the expansion of healthy progenitors with stromal vascular fraction. Conclusions: The use of stromal vascular fraction might be more beneficial to reconstructive operations following mastectomies compared with cosmetic corrections of the healthy breast. Future studies are required to examine the potential risk factors associated with its use. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance for the differentiation of benign and malignant breast tissues and axillary lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Fossel, E T; Brodsky, G; deLayre, J L; Wilson, R E

    1983-01-01

    We have utilized proton T1 (spin-lattice relaxation time) values of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance to study 110 tissue samples obtained from 11 mastectomy specimens. Samples of 1 cm3 from primary tumor sites, nipples, and other breast quadrants, as well as intact lymph nodes were studied and then histologically scored for the presence or absence of carcinoma and, if present, whether it was an isolated microscopic focus (micro). Of 54 samples of breast tissue, 12 contained carcinoma, 5 micro: of 45 lymph nodes, 15 contained metastatic carcinoma, 2 micro; of the 11 nipples, 2 had carcinoma, both micro. For the malignant samples (excluding micro) mean T1 value was 0.47 +/- 0.07 sec, (range 0.39-0.79 sec). For the 72 benign samples (excluding nipple) mean T1 value was 0.26 +/- 0.03 sec (range 0.14-0.36 sec). The 13 tumor-bearing nodes had a mean T1 value of 0.47 +/- 0.03 sec (range 0.40-0.63 sec); mean for the benign nodes was 0.26 +/- 0.007 sec (range 0.19-0.35 sec). The differences were highly significant in each case (p less than 0.001). For micro examples, T1 values were at malignancy threshold levels or just below, except for nipple tissues, where discrimination was poor. For the 20 other malignant samples, there was no correlation between T1 value and the per cent of sample containing malignancy. PMID:6625722

  6. Histopathological effects of intraoperative radiotherapy on pancreas and adjacent tissues: a postmortem analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, H.J.; Restrepo, C.; Kinsella, T.J.; Sindelar, W.F.

    1988-02-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) has been utilized in the treatment of resectable and unresectable pancreatic carcinoma at the National Cancer Institute. Detailed autopsy analyses of the radiation effects on the pancreas and adjacent tissues were performed on 13 patients dying at various times following therapy. IORT can induce a progressive retroperitoneal fibrosis and fibrosis of the porta hepatis in patients with resectable pancreatic carcinoma. In unresectable pancreatic carcinoma, the major expression of intraoperative irradiation with external beam irradiation is a progressive fibrosis of the pancreas with vascular sclerosis, nerve degeneration, atrophy of acinar cells, and atypical changes in the ducts of the pancreas, as well as degenerative changes of the pancreatic tumor.

  7. Analysis of elemental concentration censored distributions in breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Góźdź, S.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.

    2007-07-01

    The total reflection X-ray fluorescence method was applied to study the trace element concentrations in human breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues taken from the women who were patients of Holycross Cancer Centre in Kielce (Poland). These investigations were mainly focused on the development of new possibilities of cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring. This systematic comparative study was based on relatively large (˜ 100) population studied, namely 26 samples of breast malignant and 68 samples of breast benign neoplasm tissues. The concentrations, being in the range from a few ppb to 0.1%, were determined for thirteen elements (from P to Pb). The results were carefully analysed to investigate the concentration distribution of trace elements in the studied samples. The measurements of concentration of trace elements by total reflection X-ray fluorescence were limited, however, by the detection limit of the method. It was observed that for more than 50% of elements determined, the concentrations were not measured in all samples. These incomplete measurements were treated within the statistical concept called left-random censoring and for the estimation of the mean value and median of censored concentration distributions, the Kaplan-Meier estimator was used. For comparison of concentrations in two populations, the log-rank test was applied, which allows to compare the censored total reflection X-ray fluorescence data. Found statistically significant differences are discussed in more details. It is noted that described data analysis procedures should be the standard tool to analyze the censored concentrations of trace elements analysed by X-ray fluorescence methods.

  8. Early Growth Response1and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression is Altered in Tumor Adjacent Prostate Tissue and Indicates Field Cancerization

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anna C.; Trujillo, Kristina A.; Phillips, Genevieve K.; Fleet, Trisha M.; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Severns, Virginia; Shah, Satyan K.; Davis, Michael S.; Smith, Anthony Y.; Griffith, Jeffrey K.; Fischer, Edgar G.; Bisoffi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Field cancerization denotes the occurrence of molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. In prostate cancer, identification of field cancerization has several potential clinical applications. However, prostate field cancerization remains ill defined. Our previous work has shown up-regulated mRNA of the transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1) and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) in tissues adjacent to prostate cancer. METHODS Immunofluorescence data were analyzed quantitatively by spectral imaging and linear unmixing to determine the protein expression levels of EGR-1 and FAS in human cancerous, histologically normal adjacent, and disease-free prostate tissues. RESULTS EGR-1 expression was elevated in both structurally intact tumor adjacent (1.6× on average) and in tumor (3.0× on average) tissues compared to disease-free tissues. In addition, the ratio of cytoplasmic versus nuclear EGR-1 expression was elevated in both tumor adjacent and tumor tissues. Similarly, FAS expression was elevated in both tumor adjacent (2.7× on average) and in tumor (2.5× on average) compared to disease-free tissues. CONCLUSIONS EGR-1 and FAS expression is similarly deregulated in tumor and structurally intact adjacent prostate tissues and defines field cancerization. In cases with high suspicion of prostate cancer but negative biopsy, identification of field cancerization could help clinicians target areas for repeat biopsy. Field cancerization at surgical margins on prostatectomy specimen should also be looked at as a predictor of cancer recurrence. EGR-1 and FAS could also serve as molecular targets for chemoprevention. PMID:22127986

  9. Hyperspectral microscopic analysis of normal, benign and carcinoma microarray tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggioni, Mauro; Davis, Gustave L.; Warner, Frederick J.; Geshwind, Frank B.; Coppi, Andreas C.; DeVerse, Richard A.; Coifman, Ronald R.

    2006-02-01

    We apply a unique micro-optoelectromechanical tuned light source and new algorithms to the hyper-spectral microscopic analysis of human colon biopsies. The tuned light prototype (Plain Sight Systems Inc.) transmits any combination of light frequencies, range 440nm 700nm, trans-illuminating H and E stained tissue sections of normal (N), benign adenoma (B) and malignant carcinoma (M) colon biopsies, through a Nikon Biophot microscope. Hyper-spectral photomicrographs, randomly collected 400X magnication, are obtained with a CCD camera (Sensovation) from 59 different patient biopsies (20 N, 19 B, 20 M) mounted as a microarray on a single glass slide. The spectra of each pixel are normalized and analyzed to discriminate among tissue features: gland nuclei, gland cytoplasm and lamina propria/lumens. Spectral features permit the automatic extraction of 3298 nuclei with classification as N, B or M. When nuclei are extracted from each of the 59 biopsies the average classification among N, B and M nuclei is 97.1%; classification of the biopsies, based on the average nuclei classification, is 100%. However, when the nuclei are extracted from a subset of biopsies, and the prediction is made on nuclei in the remaining biopsies, there is a marked decrement in performance to 60% across the 3 classes. Similarly the biopsy classification drops to 54%. In spite of these classification differences, which we believe are due to instrument and biopsy normalization issues, hyper-spectral analysis has the potential to achieve diagnostic efficiency needed for objective microscopic diagnosis.

  10. Retinoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in breast adipose tissue and serum of benign breast disease and breast cancer patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various retinoic acid (RA) isomers (all-trans, 13-cis, 11-cis, and 9-cis) as well as retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherol concentrations were determined in both serum and breast adipose tissue of 22 benign breast disease patients and 52 breast cancer patients categorized into 4 stages by malignancy....

  11. Differentiation of benign and malignant focal liver lesions: value of virtual touch tissue quantification of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography.

    PubMed

    Guo, Le-Hang; Wang, Shu-Jun; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Sun, Li-Ping; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Xu, Jun-Mei; Wu, Jian; Fu, Hui-Jun; Xu, Xiao-Hong

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of virtual tissue quantification (VTQ) of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant focal liver lesions (FLLs). Thus, a total of 134 FLLs in 134 patients were included. VTQ measurement was performed for each lesion in which the shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured. The difference in SWV and SWV ratio of FLL to surrounding liver between malignant and benign FLLs was evaluated, and the cutoff value was investigated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to evaluate the diagnostic performance. A total of 134 lesions including 55 (41.0%) malignant FLLs and 79 (59.0%) benign ones were analyzed. The SWV of malignant and benign FLLs was 2.95 ± 1.00 m/s and 1.69 ± 0.89 m/s, respectively. Significant difference in SWV was presented between malignant and benign FLLs (p < 0.001). The SWV ratio of each FLL to the surrounding liver parenchyma was 1.83 ± 1.32 for malignant and 1.26 ± 0.78 for benign FLLs (p < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve in distinguishing malignant from benign lesions was 0.824 for SWV and 0.660 for SWV ratio. The cutoff value for differential diagnosis was 2.13 m/s for SWV and 1.37 for SWV ratio. The associated sensitivity and specificity were 83.3 and 77.9% for SWV and 59.6 and 77.3% for SWV ratio, respectively. In conclusion, VTQ provides quantitative stiffness information of FLLs and is helpful in the differential diagnosis between malignant and benign FLLs, particularly for the patients who are not candidates for contrast-enhanced imaging such as CT, MRI or contrast-enhanced ultrasound. PMID:25691297

  12. Strain elastography features of epidermoid tumours in superficial soft tissue: differences from other benign soft-tissue tumours and malignant tumours

    PubMed Central

    Park, H J; Lee, S M; Kim, W T; Lee, S; Ahn, K S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated ultrasonographic features of superficial epidermoid tumour with a focus on strain elastography (SE) features that will help in the differential diagnosis of epidermoid tumour from other benign and malignant soft-tissue tumours. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated ultrasonographic and SE data of 103 surgically confirmed superficial soft-tissue tumours and tumour-like lesions: 29 cases of epidermoid tumour, 46 cases of other benign tumours and 28 cases of malignant tumour. SE and B-mode imaging were performed at the same time. SE characteristics were assigned into four grades (1–4) according to their elasticity. Interobserver agreement for the four SE scores between the two radiologists was analysed using kappa statistics. We classified each SE finding as a hard lesion (SE Score 3–4) or soft lesion (SE Score 1–2) and compared these findings using the χ2 test to identify whether a significant difference in mass hardness existed among epidermoid tumour, other benign tumour and malignant tumour. Results: Overall interobserver agreement according to the four SE scores was moderate (κ = 0.540), and overall agreement for the hardness [soft (Score 1–2) or hard (Score 3–4)] was almost perfect (κ = 0.825). Malignant tumours showed higher SE scores (3–4, hard nature) than did epidermoid tumour or other benign soft-tissue tumours. There were no differences in SE score between epidermoid tumour and other benign tumours. Conclusion: Superficial epidermoid tumour exhibits a softer nature than does malignant tumour but does not have a different SE pattern from other benign tumours. Advances in knowledge: SE features of epidermoid tumour might be helpful in differentiating from other benign and malignant tumours. PMID:25827206

  13. Optimization and comprehensive characterization of a faithful tissue culture model of the benign and malignant human prostate.

    PubMed

    Maund, Sophia Lisette; Nolley, Rosalie; Peehl, Donna Mae

    2014-02-01

    Few preclinical models accurately depict normal human prostate tissue or primary prostate cancer (PCa). In vitro systems typically lack complex cellular interactions among structured prostatic epithelia and a stromal microenvironment, and genetic and molecular fidelity are concerns in both in vitro and in vivo models. 'Tissue slice cultures' (TSCs) provide realistic preclinical models of diverse tissues and organs, but have not been fully developed or widely utilized for prostate studies. Problems encountered include degeneration of differentiated secretory cells, basal cell hyperplasia, and poor survival of PCa. Here, we optimized, characterized, and applied a TSC model of primary human PCa and benign prostate tissue that overcomes many deficiencies of current in vitro models. Tissue cores from fresh prostatectomy specimens were precision-cut at 300 μm and incubated in a rotary culture apparatus. The ability of varied culture conditions to faithfully maintain benign and cancer cell and tissue structure and function over time was evaluated by immunohistological and biochemical assays. After optimization of the culture system, molecular and cellular responses to androgen ablation and to piperlongumine (PL), purported to specifically reduce androgen signaling in PCa, were investigated. Optimized culture conditions successfully maintained the structural and functional fidelity of both benign and PCa TSCs for 5 days. TSCs exhibited androgen dependence, appropriately undergoing ductal degeneration, reduced proliferation, and decreased prostate-specific antigen expression upon androgen ablation. Further, TSCs revealed cancer-specific reduction of androgen receptor and increased apoptosis upon treatment with PL, validating data from cell lines. We demonstrate a TSC model that authentically recapitulates the structural, cellular, and genetic characteristics of the benign and malignant human prostate, androgen dependence of the native tissue, and cancer-specific response

  14. Benign form of congenital angulation of long bones associated with shortening of soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Haga, N; Manabe, N; Iizuka, T

    1998-01-01

    We report a benign form of congenital angulation of long bones associated with shortening of soft tissues. The patients were three males and four females including two siblings. The average age at first examination was 6 months (range, 1-17 months) and that at the time of follow-up was 7 years (range, 13 months-11 years). The characteristics were short-limb type short stature, congenital multiple angulation deformities of the long bones of both upper and lower extremities, with almost the same angulation directions for all the patients and improvement of the deformities with age. There was also accelerated skeletal maturation, lack of epi-metaphyseal lesions, skin dimples, limitation of the ankle joint dorsiflexion, and inconspicuousness of skin creases on the flexor side of the elbow and knee. This phenotype is not consistent with any of the bent bone dysplasia group. Caffey's report [Caffey J (1947). Am J Dis Child 74:543-5621 included two different subtypes of bent bones, round bowing and sharp angulation, and the latter are similar to this report. However, Caffey's cases lack limitation of ankle dorsiflexion and reduced skin creases. An autosomal recessive mode of inheritance could be present in this subtype. PMID:9546823

  15. Intraoperative diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tissues by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and support vector machine classification

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Peirong; Zhang, Weitao; Zhao, Hongmei; Lei, Yutao; Cui, Long; Wang, Wei; Li, Qingbo; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Yuanfu; Xu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has shown its unique advantages in distinguishing cancerous tissue from normal one. The aim of this study was to establish a quick and accurate diagnostic method of FTIR spectroscopy to differentiate malignancies from benign breast tissues intraoperatively. Materials and methods: In this study, a total of 100 breast tissue samples obtained from 100 patients were taken on surgery. All tissue samples were scanned for spectra intraoperatively before being processed for histopathological diagnosis. Standard normal variate (SNV) method was adopted to reduce scatter effects. Support vector machine (SVM) classification was used to discriminate spectra between malignant and benign breast tissues. Leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) was used to evaluate the discrimination. Results: According to histopathological examination, 50 cases were diagnosed as fibroadenoma and 50 cases as invasive ductal carcinoma. The results of SVM algorithm showed that the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate of this method are 90.0%, 98.0% and 94.0%, respectively. Conclusions: FTIR spectroscopy technique in combination with SVM classification could be an accurate, rapid and objective tool to differentiate malignant from benign tumors during operation. Our studies establish the feasibility of FTIR spectroscopy with chemometrics method to guide surgeons during the surgery as an effective supplement for pathological diagnosis on frozen section. PMID:25785083

  16. Electrospun type 1 collagen matrices preserving native ultrastructure using benign binary solvent for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Elamparithi, Anuradha; Punnoose, Alan M; Kuruvilla, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Electrospinning is a well-established technique that uses a high electric field to fabricate ultrafine fibrous scaffolds from both natural and synthetic polymers to mimic the cellular microenvironment. Collagen is one of the most preferred biopolymers, due to its widespread occurrence in nature and its biocompatibility. Electrospinning of collagen alone has been reported, with fluoroalcohols such as hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and trifluoroethanol (TFE), but the resultant collagen lost its characteristic ultrastructural integrity of D-periodicity 67 nm banding, confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the fluoroalcohols used were toxic to the environment. In this study, we describe the use of glacial acetic acid and DMSO to dissolve collagen and generate electrospun nanofibers of collagen type 1, which is non-toxic and economical. TEM analysis revealed the characteristic feature of native collagen triple helical repeats, showing 67 nm D-periodicity banding pattern and confirming that the ultrastructural integrity of the collagen was maintained. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed fiber diameters in the range of 200-1100 nm. Biocompatibility of the three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds was established by MTT assays using rat skeletal myoblasts (L6 cell line) and confocal microscopic analysis of immunofluorescent-stained sections of collagen scaffolds for muscle-specific markers such as desmin and actin. Primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCM) seeded onto the collagen scaffolds were able to maintain their contractile function for a period of 17 days and also expressed higher levels of desmin when compared with 2D cultures. We report for the first time that collagen type 1 can be electrospun without blending with copolymers using the novel benign solvent combination, and the method can be potentially explored for applications in tissue engineering. PMID:25960178

  17. Distinctive Glycerophospholipid Profiles of Human Seminoma and Adjacent Normal Tissues by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterson, Timothy A.; Dill, Allison L.; Eberlin, Livia S.; Mattarozzi, Monica; Cheng, Liang; Beck, Stephen D. W.; Bianchi, Federica; Cooks, R. Graham

    2011-08-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) has been successfully used to discriminate between normal and cancerous human tissue from different anatomical sites. On the basis of this, DESI-MS imaging was used to characterize human seminoma and adjacent normal tissue. Seminoma and adjacent normal paired human tissue sections (40 tissues) from 15 patients undergoing radical orchiectomy were flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and sectioned to 15 μm thickness and thaw mounted to glass slides. The entire sample was two-dimensionally analyzed by the charged solvent spray to form a molecular image of the biological tissue. DESI-MS images were compared with formalin-fixed, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides of the same material. Increased signal intensity was detected for two seminolipids [seminolipid (16:0/16:0) and seminolipid (30:0)] in the normal tubule testis tissue; these compounds were undetectable in seminoma tissue, as well as from the surrounding fat, muscle, and blood vessels. A glycerophosphoinositol [PI(18:0/20:4)] was also found at increased intensity in the normal testes tubule tissue when compared with seminoma tissue. Ascorbic acid (i.e., vitamin C) was found at increased amounts in seminoma tissue when compared with normal tissue. DESI-MS analysis was successfully used to visualize the location of several types of molecules across human seminoma and normal tissues. Discrimination between seminoma and adjacent normal testes tubules was achieved on the basis of the spatial distributions and varying intensities of particular lipid species as well as ascorbic acid. The increased presence of ascorbic acid within seminoma compared with normal seminiferous tubules was previously unknown.

  18. A Rodent Model to Evaluate the Tissue Response to a Biological Scaffold When Adjacent to a Synthetic Material.

    PubMed

    Dearth, Christopher L; Keane, Timothy J; Scott, Jeffrey R; Daly, Kerry A; Badylak, Stephen F

    2015-10-01

    The use of biologic scaffold materials adjacent to synthetic meshes is commonplace. A prevalent clinical example is two-staged breast reconstruction, where biologic scaffolds are used to provide support and coverage for the inferior aspect of the synthetic expander. However, limited data exist regarding either the kinetics of biologic scaffold integration or the host tissue response to the biologic scaffold materials used for this application or other applications in which such scaffold materials are used. The present study evaluated the temporal host response to a biological scaffold when placed adjacent to a synthetic material. Evaluation criteria included quantification of material contracture and characterization of the host cell response and tissue remodeling events. Results show a decreased thickness of the collagenous tissue layer at biologic scaffold/silicone interface compared to the abdominal wall/silicone interface during the 12-week experimental time course. All test materials were readily incorporated into surrounding host tissue. PMID:26176992

  19. Tookad-mediated photodynamic effects on the prostate and its adjacent tissues: in vivo study in canine models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Luck, David; Beckers, Jill; Blanc, Dominique; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2005-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with a vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad (pd-bacteriopheophorbide), was investigated as an alternative treatment modality for prostate cancer. Tookad photodynamic effects on the prostate and its adjacent tissues were evaluated in canine models. Interstitial prostate PDT was performed by irradiating individual lobes with a diode laser (763 nm) and 1-cm cylindrical diffuser fibers at various light doses to activate the IV administered photosensitizer Tookad (1 - 2 mg/kg). The sensitivity of the adjacent tissues to Tookad-PDT was determined by superficially irradiating the surfaces of the bladder, colon, abdominal muscle and pelvic plexus with a microlens fiber at various drug/light doses. PDT effect on the prostatic urethra was evaluated by transurethral irradiation. The prostate and adjacent tissues were harvested one-week after the treatment and subjected to histopathologic examination. At one-week post interstitial prostate PDT, the animals recovered well with little or no urethral complications. PDT induced prostate lesions were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis. The bladder, colon, abdominal muscle and pelvic plexus, appeared to also be sensitive to Tookad-PDT at light dose levels greater than 40 Jcm2. Urethral mucosa appeared less sensitive to Tookad-PDT. In conclusion, Tookad-mediated PDT demonstrates very strong vascular effects and can provide an effective alternative for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Protection of the adjacent tissues should be taken into consideration in the total prostate ablation process due to their sensitivity to the Tookad-mediated PDT.

  20. A thermal monitoring sheet with low influence from adjacent waterbolus for tissue surface thermometry during clinical hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo F; Stauffer, Paul R

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a complete thermal analysis of a novel conformal surface thermometer design with directional sensitivity for real-time temperature monitoring during hyperthermia treatments of large superficial cancer. The thermal monitoring sheet (TMS) discussed in this paper consists of a 2-D array of fiberoptic sensors embedded between two layers of flexible, low-loss, and thermally conductive printed circuit board (PCB) film. Heat transfer across all interfaces from the tissue surface through multiple layers of insulating dielectrics surrounding the small buried temperature sensor and into an adjacent temperature-regulated water coupling bolus was studied using 3-D thermal simulation software. Theoretical analyses were carried out to identify the most effective differential TMS probe configuration possible with commercially available flexible PCB materials and to compare their thermal responses with omnidirectional probes commonly used in clinical hyperthermia. A TMS sensor design that employs 0.0508-mm Kapton MTB and 0.2032-mm Kapton HN flexible polyimide films is proposed for tissue surface thermometry with low influence from the adjacent waterbolus. Comparison of the thermal simulations with clinical probes indicates the new differential TMS probe design to outperform in terms of both transient response and steady-state accuracy in selectively reading the tissue surface temperature, while decreasing the overall thermal barrier of the probe between the coupling waterbolus and tissue surface. PMID:18838365

  1. A Thermal Monitoring Sheet with Low Influence from Adjacent Waterbolus for Tissue Surface Thermometry during Clinical Hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, K.; Maccarini, P.F.; Stauffer, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a complete thermal analysis of a novel conformal surface thermometer design with directional sensitivity for real time temperature monitoring during hyperthermia treatments of large superficial cancer. The thermal monitoring sheet (TMS) discussed in this paper consists of a two-dimensional array of fiberoptic sensors embedded between two layers of flexible, low loss and thermally conductive printed circuit board (PCB) film. Heat transfer across all interfaces from the tissue surface through multiple layers of insulating dielectrics surrounding the small buried temperature sensor and into an adjacent temperature regulated water coupling bolus was studied using 3D thermal simulation software. Theoretical analyses were carried out to identify the most effective differential TMS probe configuration possible with commercially available flexible PCB materials, and to compare their thermal responses with omni-directional probes commonly used in clinical hyperthermia. A TMS sensor design that employs 0.0508m Kapton MTB® and 0.2032 mm Kapton HN® flexible polyimide films is proposed for tissue surface thermometry with low influence from the adjacent waterbolus. Comparison of the thermal simulations with clinical probes indicate the new differential TMS probe design to outperform in terms of both transient response and steady state accuracy in selectively reading the tissue surface temperature, while decreasing the overall thermal barrier of the probe between the coupling waterbolus and tissue surface. PMID:18838365

  2. The landscape of somatic mutations in protein coding genes in apparently benign human tissues carries signatures of relaxed purifying selection.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vinod Kumar; DeGregori, James; De, Subhajyoti

    2016-03-18

    Mutations acquired during development and aging lead to inter- and intra-tissue genetic variations. Evidence linking such mutations to complex traits and diseases is rising. We detected somatic mutations in protein-coding regions in 140 benign tissue samples representing nine tissue-types (bladder, breast, liver, lung, prostate, stomach, thyroid, head and neck) and paired blood from 70 donors. A total of 80% of the samples had 2-39 mutations detectable at tissue-level resolution. Factors such as age and smoking were associated with increased burden of detectable mutations, and tissues carried signatures of distinct mutagenic processes such as oxidative DNA damage and transcription-coupled repair. Using mutational signatures, we predicted that majority of the mutations in blood originated in hematopoietic stem and early progenitor cells. Missense to silent mutations ratio and the persistence of potentially damaging mutations in expressed genes carried signatures of relaxed purifying selection. Our findings have relevance for etiology, diagnosis and treatment of diseases including cancer. PMID:26883632

  3. The landscape of somatic mutations in protein coding genes in apparently benign human tissues carries signatures of relaxed purifying selection

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Vinod Kumar; DeGregori, James; De, Subhajyoti

    2016-01-01

    Mutations acquired during development and aging lead to inter- and intra-tissue genetic variations. Evidence linking such mutations to complex traits and diseases is rising. We detected somatic mutations in protein-coding regions in 140 benign tissue samples representing nine tissue-types (bladder, breast, liver, lung, prostate, stomach, thyroid, head and neck) and paired blood from 70 donors. A total of 80% of the samples had 2–39 mutations detectable at tissue-level resolution. Factors such as age and smoking were associated with increased burden of detectable mutations, and tissues carried signatures of distinct mutagenic processes such as oxidative DNA damage and transcription-coupled repair. Using mutational signatures, we predicted that majority of the mutations in blood originated in hematopoietic stem and early progenitor cells. Missense to silent mutations ratio and the persistence of potentially damaging mutations in expressed genes carried signatures of relaxed purifying selection. Our findings have relevance for etiology, diagnosis and treatment of diseases including cancer. PMID:26883632

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuanfang; Li, Chao; Lin, Duo; Huang, Zufang; Pan, Jianji; Chen, Guannan; Lin, Juqiang; Liu, Nenrong; Yu, Yun; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of applying silver nano-particle based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to discriminate different types of human thyroid tissues. SERS measurements were performed on three groups of tissue samples including thyroid cancers (n = 32), nodular goiters (n = 20) and normal thyroid tissues (n = 25). Tentative assignments of the measured tissue SERS spectra suggest interesting cancer specific biomolecular differences. The principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) together with the leave-one-out, cross-validated technique yielded diagnostic sensitivities of 92%, 75% and 87.5%; and specificities of 82.6%, 89.4% and 84.4%, respectively, for differentiation among normal, nodular and malignant thyroid tissue samples. This work demonstrates that tissue SERS spectroscopy associated with multivariate analysis diagnostic algorithms has great potential for detection of thyroid cancer at the molecular level.

  5. Classification of spatial textures in benign and cancerous glandular tissues by stereology and stochastic geometry using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Mattfeldt, T; Gottfried, H; Schmidt, V; Kestler, H A

    2000-05-01

    Stereology and stochastic geometry can be used as auxiliary tools for diagnostic purposes in tumour pathology. Whether first-order parameters or stochastic-geometric functions are more important for the classification of the texture of biological tissues is not known. In the present study, volume and surface area per unit reference volume, the pair correlation function and the centred quadratic contact density function of epithelium were estimated in three case series of benign and malignant lesions of glandular tissues. The information provided by the latter functions was summarized by the total absolute areas between the estimated curves and their horizontal reference lines. These areas are considered as indicators of deviation of the tissue texture from a completely uncorrelated volume process and from the Boolean model with convex grains, respectively. We used both areas and the first-order parameters for the classification of cases using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Learning vector quantization and multilayer feedforward networks with backpropagation were applied as neural paradigms. Applications included distinction between mastopathy and mammary cancer (40 cases), between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic cancer (70 cases) and between chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (60 cases). The same data sets were also classified with linear discriminant analysis. The stereological estimates in combination with ANNs or discriminant analysis provided high accuracy in the classification of individual cases. The question of which category of estimator is the most informative cannot be answered globally, but must be explored empirically for each specific data set. Using learning vector quantization, better results could often be obtained than by multilayer feedforward networks with backpropagation. PMID:10810010

  6. Tissue temperature control using a water-cooled applicator: implications for transurethral laser-induced thermotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Sturesson, C; Andersson-Engels, S

    1997-03-01

    A prototype to a water-cooled applicator to be used in transurethral laser-induced thermotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia was developed. The flexible applicator was made of Teflon tubes except for the distal outer part which was made of glass, providing a transparent medium for laser radiation and enabling efficient cooling of the surrounding tissue. For heating, laser light from a Nd:YAG laser emitting at 1064 nm, which was coupled into an optical fiber with an institutionally made diffusing tip, was used. Cooling was performed by flushing water through the applicator. By using a mathematical model it was possible to connect the temperature rise of the water in the applicator to the maximum tissue temperature. Tissue light absorption was calculated using Monte Carlo simulations and the heat conduction equation was solved numerically using a finite-difference technique. Experiments on porcine liver in vitro showed that the maximum tissue temperature could be estimated with an average accuracy of 0.4 degree C by measuring the difference in outlet and inlet applicator water temperature and using the thermal model. The results presented suggest that the described method for temperature control can be used during laser prostatectomy to maximize the lesion size while preventing carbonization. PMID:9089598

  7. Hypomethylation of DNA from Benign and Malignant Human Colon Neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goelz, Susan E.; Vogelstein, Bert; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Feinberg, Andrew P.

    1985-04-01

    The methylation state of DNA from human colon tissue displaying neoplastic growth was determined by means of restriction endonuclease analysis. When compared to DNA from adjacent normal tissue, DNA from both benign colon polyps and malignant carcinomas was substantially hypomethylated. With the use of probes for growth hormone, γ -globin, α -chorionic gonadotropin, and γ -crystallin, methylation changes were detected in all 23 neoplastic growths examined. Benign polyps were hypomethylated to a degree similar to that in malignant tissue. These results indicate that hypomethylation is a consistent biochemical characteristic of human colonic tumors and is an alteration in the DNA that precedes malignancy.

  8. Clinical evaluation of expanded mesh connective tissue graft in the treatment for multiple adjacent gingival recessions in the esthetic zone

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, M.; Shivakumar, B.; Meenapriya, B.; Anitha, V.; Ashwath, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple approaches have been used to replace lost, damaged or diseased gingival tissues. The connective tissue graft (CTG) procedure is the golden standard method for root coverage. Although multiple sites often need grafting, the palatal mucosa supplies only a limited area of grafting material. To overcome this limitation, expanded mesh graft provides a method whereby a graft can be stretched to cover a large area. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and the predictability of expanded mesh CTG (e-MCTG) in the treatment of adjacent multiple gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients aged 20–50 years contributed to 55 sites, each site falling into at least three adjacent Miller's Class 1 or Class 2 gingival recession. The CTG obtained from the palatal mucosa was expanded to cover the recipient bed, which was 1.5 times larger than the graft. Clinical measurements were recorded at baseline and 3 months, 12 months postoperatively. Results: A mean coverage of 1.96 mm ± 0.66 mm and 2.22 mm ± 0.68 mm was obtained at the end of 3rd and 12th month, respectively. Twelve months after surgery a statistically significant increase in CAL (2.2 mm ± 0.68 mm, P < 0.001) and increasing WKT (1.75 ± 0.78, P < 0.001) were obtained. In 80% of the treated sites, 100% root coverage was achieved (mean 93.5%). Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that multiple adjacent recessions were treated by using e-MCTG technique can be applied and highly predictable root coverage can be achieved. PMID:26321829

  9. Embryonic expression of endogenous retroviral RNAs in somatic tissues adjacent to the Oikopleura germline

    PubMed Central

    Henriet, Simon; Sumic, Sara; Doufoundou-Guilengui, Carlette; Jensen, Marit Flo; Grandmougin, Camille; Fal, Kateryna; Thompson, Eric; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Chourrout, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Selective pressure to maintain small genome size implies control of transposable elements, and most old classes of retrotransposons are indeed absent from the very compact genome of the tunicate Oikopleura dioica. Nonetheless, two families of retrotransposons are present, including the Tor elements. The gene organization within Tor elements is similar to that of LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses. In addition to gag and pol, many Tor elements carry a third gene encoding viral envelope-like proteins (Env) that may mediate infection. We show that the Tor family contains distinct classes of elements. In some classes, env mRNA is transcribed from the 5′LTR as in retroviruses. In others, env is transcribed from an additional promoter located downstream of the 5′LTR. Tor Env proteins are membrane-associated glycoproteins which exhibit some features of viral membrane fusion proteins. Whereas some elements are expressed in the adult testis, many others are specifically expressed in embryonic somatic cells adjacent to primordial germ cells. Such embryonic expression depends on determinants present in the Tor elements and not on their surrounding genomic environment. Our study shows that unusual modes of transcription and expression close to the germline may contribute to the proliferation of Tor elements. PMID:25779047

  10. Analysis of Gene Expression Profiling in Meningioma: Deregulated Signaling Pathways Associated with Meningioma and EGFL6 Overexpression in Benign Meningioma Tissue and Serum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuanchun; Gong, Ye; Wang, Daijun; Xie, Qing; Zheng, Mingzhe; Zhou, Yu; Li, Qin; Yang, Zhen; Tang, Hailiang; Li, Yiming; Hu, Renming; Chen, Xiancheng; Mao, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of meningioma are not fully elucidated. In this study, we established differential gene expression profiles between meningiomas and brain arachnoidal tissue by using Affymetrix GeneChip Human U133 Plus 2.0 Array. KEGG pathway analysis demonstrated that PI3K/Akt and TGFβ signaling pathways were up-regulated in fibroblastic meningioma, and focal adhesion and ECM-receptor interaction pathways were activated in anaplastic meningioma. EGFL6 was one of the most up-regulated genes in fibroblastic meningioma by microarray analysis. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that benign meningiomas had significantly higher levels of EGFL6 mRNA than brain arachnoidal tissue and atypical and anaplastic meningiomas (P<0.001). EGFL6 gene was also highly expressed in ovarian cancer, but expressed lowly in other investigated tumors. ELISA analysis showed that patients with benign meningiomas and ovarian cancers had the highest serum levels of EGFL6 (mean concentration: 672 pg/ml for benign meningiomas, and 616 pg/ml for ovarian cancers). Healthy people and patients with other tumors, however, had low levels of serum EGFL6. In conclusion, we proposed that activation of PI3K/Akt and integrin-mediated signaling pathways was involved in the pathogenesis of benign and anaplastic meningiomas, respectively. We also presented evidence that EGFL6 was overexpressed in benign meningioma tissues and serum. PMID:23285163

  11. Fluorescent biopsy of biological tissues in differentiation of benign and malignant tumors of prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifoniuk, L. I.; Ushenko, Yu. A.; Sidor, M. I.; Minzer, O. P.; Gritsyuk, M. V.; Novakovskaya, O. Y.

    2014-08-01

    The work consists of investigation results of diagnostic efficiency of a new azimuthally stable Mueller-matrix method of analysis of laser autofluorescence coordinate distributions of biological tissues histological sections. A new model of generalized optical anisotropy of biological tissues protein networks is proposed in order to define the processes of laser autofluorescence. The influence of complex mechanisms of both phase anisotropy (linear birefringence and optical activity) and linear (circular) dichroism is taken into account. The interconnections between the azimuthally stable Mueller-matrix elements characterizing laser autofluorescence and different mechanisms of optical anisotropy are determined. The statistic analysis of coordinate distributions of such Mueller-matrix rotation invariants is proposed. Thereupon the quantitative criteria (statistic moments of the 1st to the 4th order) of differentiation of histological sections of uterus wall tumor - group 1 (dysplasia) and group 2 (adenocarcinoma) are estimated.

  12. Lead in tissues of woodchucks fed crown vetch growing adjacent to a highway

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.W.; Ridgely, S.L.; Blue, J.T.; Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Woodchucks (Marmota monax) were fed crown vetch (Coronilla varia) growing along a major highway that was harvested in 1979, before unleaded gas was widely used, and again in 1985. Crown vetch, harvested 300 m from the nearest road, was fed as the control. The crops were fed as 50% dry weight of the diet for 58 d. The concentrations of lead in the control, 1979 crop, and 1985 crop were, respectively, 0.74, 50.65, and 6.78 ppm dry weight. The average +/- SE) concentrations (ppm, dry weight) of lead found in the tissues of the control, 1979, and 1985 dietary-treatment animals were, respectively, kidney, 0.36 +/- 0.05, 5.78 +/- 0.72, and 0.79 +/- 0.09; liver, 0.09 +/- 0.01, 4.71 +/- 0.17, and 0.46 +/- 0.06; muscle, 0.07 +/- 0.01, 0.14 +/- 0.02, and 0.07 +/- 0.00; blood, 0.09 +/- 0.02, 2.17 +/- 0.13, and 0.31 +/- 0.05; and bone, 1.27 +/- 0.25, 47.52 +/- 7.05, and 3.71 +/- 0.65. No significant differences (p greater than 0.05) between dietary treatments were found in the general hematological analyses of the woodchucks. The ecological significance of these findings is discussed.

  13. Role of endocrine disrupting chemicals in the occurrence of benign uterine leiomyomata: special emphasis on AhR tissue levels.

    PubMed

    Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Khorasani, Hoda; Keihan, Heideh; Sadeghipour, Alireza; Mehdizadeh, Abolfazl

    2012-01-01

    Although benign uterine leiomyomata (LMA) is the most common reproductive tumor in premenopausal women, its etiology is largely unknown. We aimed in the present study to demonstrate the potential role of environmental factors with estrogenic activity in tumor etiology by focusing on the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) which mediates the effects of many environmental endocrine disruptors and contributes to the loss of normal ovarian function in polluted environments. This case-control study aimed to compare the interactions between AhR and lifestyle factors in a clinical setting for the first time among 138 newly diagnosed LMA patients and 138 normal controls who lived in Tehran and Mashhad, respectively, during the last 10 years. To conduct immunohistochemical studies using appropriate monoclonal antibodies, 30 cases were selected retrospectively from 2009-2011 from the pathology departments of two university hospitals in Tehran. Although the levels of sex steroid receptors were similar in adjacent myometrium and uterine leiomyomas of all cases, AhR was significantly overexpressed (p=0.034, OR=1.667) in uterine LMA and this overexpression was correlated with living in Tehran [(p=0.04, OR=16 (1.216-210.58)], smoking[P=0.04, OR=2.085 (1.29-3.371)], living near polycyclic aromative hydrocarbon producing companies [p=0.007, OR=2.22 (1.256-3.926)] and eating grilled meat [p=0.042, OR=1.28 (1.92-3.842)]. Our study contributes to the understanding of the effects of EDCs on AhR levels as well as women's health and points out possible risk factors for the development and growth of uterine LMA. It seems that the development of LMA could be the result of interactions between hormonal and environmental factors. PMID:23317198

  14. Differential expression of ANXA1 in benign human gastrointestinal tissues and cancers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Annexin-1 contributes to the pathological consequence and sequelae of most serious human diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Although diverse roles in carcinogenesis have been postulated, its role in human gastrointestinal cancers still remains controversial. Methods The mRNA and protein expression profiles of ANXA1 were studied in human esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, colorectal, liver, and bile duct cancers using Real-Time PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Gain/loss-of-function by pcDNA3.1-ANXA1 and ANXA1-shRNA was performed in gastric cancer cells. Results ANXA1 was widely expressed in adult gastrointestinal tissue. All methods showed that ANXA1 was down-regulated in esophageal, gastric, and bile duct cancers, but up-regulated in pancreatic cancer. Forced ANXA1 expression in gastric cancer cells leads to cell growth inhibition and concomitantly modulates COX-2 expression. We confirm loss of ANXA1 and overexpression of COX-2 in clinical gastric cancer, suggesting that the anti-proliferative function of ANXA1 against COX-2 production might be lost. Conclusions ANXA1 expression is “tumor-specific” and might play a multifaceted role in cancer development and progression. ANXA1 was widely expressed in normal gastrointestinal epithelium, suggesting its role in the maintenance of cellular boundaries. Furthermore, ANXA1 regulates GC cell viability via the COX-2 pathway. PMID:25038797

  15. Gut microbiome compositional and functional differences between tumor and non-tumor adjacent tissues from cohorts from the US and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Allali, Imane; Delgado, Susana; Marron, Pablo Isidro; Astudillo, Aurora; Yeh, Jen Jen; Ghazal, Hassan; Amzazi, Saaïd; Keku, Temitope; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the US and Spain. The molecular mechanisms involved in the etiology of CRC are not yet elucidated due in part to the complexity of the human gut microbiota. In this study, we compared the microbiome composition of 90 tumor and matching adjacent tissue (adjacent) from cohorts from the US and Spain by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing in order to determine the impact of the geographic origin on the CRC microbiome. Data showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher Phylogenetic Diversity (PD) for the US (PD Adjacent = 26.3 ± 5.3, PD Tumor = 23.3 ± 6.2) compared to the Spanish cohort (PD Adjacent = 18.9 ± 5.9, PD Tumor = 18.7 ± 6.6) while no significant differences in bacterial diversity were observed between tumor and adjacent tissues for individuals from the same country. Adjacent tissues from the Spanish cohort were enriched in Firmicutes (SP = 43.9% and US = 22.2%, P = 0.0001) and Actinobacteria (SP = 1.6% and US = 0.5%, P = 0.0018) compared to US adjacent tissues, while adjacent tissues from the US had significantly higher abundances of Fusobacteria (US = 8.1% and SP = 1.5%, P = 0.0023) and Sinergistetes (US = 0.3% and SP = 0.1%, P = 0.0097). Comparisons between tumor and adjacent tissues in each cohort identified the genus Eikenella significantly over represented in US tumors (T = 0.024% and A = 0%, P = 0.03), and the genera Fusobacterium (T = 10.4% and A = 1.5%, P = <0.0001), Bulleida (T = 0.36% and A = 0.09%, P = 0.02), Gemella (T = 1.46% and A = 0.19%, P = 0.03), Parvimonas (T = 3.14% and A = 0.86%, P = 0.03), Campylobacter (T = 0.15% and A = 0.008%, P = 0.047), and Streptococcus (T = 2.84% and A = 2.19%, P = 0.05) significantly over represented in Spanish tumors. Predicted metagenome functional content from 16S rRNA surveys showed that bacterial motility proteins and proteins involved in flagellar assembly were over represented in adjacent tissues

  16. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Panis, C.; Victorino, V. J.; Herrera, A. C. S. A.; Cecchini, A. L.; Simão, A. N. C.; Tomita, L. Y.; Cecchini, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide. PMID:26697139

  17. Discovery and verification of protein differences between Er positive/Her2/neu negative breast tumor tissue and matched adjacent normal breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Lindsay-Rae B; Byers, Tim; Allen, Jenna; Finlayson, Christina; Helmke, Steve M; Hokanson, John E; Hunsucker, Stephen W; Murphy, James R; Newell, Keri; Queensland, Kelly M; Singh, Meenakshi; Wischmeyer, Paul E; Duncan, Mark W; Elias, Anthony

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to quantify and identify differences in protein levels between tumor and adjacent normal breast tissue from the same breast in 18 women with stage I/II ER positive/Her2/neu negative invasive breast cancer. Eighteen separate difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) gels were run (1 gel per patient). Relative quantification was based on DIGE analysis. After excision and tryptic digestion, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and peptide mass mapping were used to identify protein spots. Two hundred and forty-three spots were differentially abundant between normal and cancer tissues. Fifty spots were identified: 41 were over abundant and nine were less abundant in cancers than in normal breast tissue. Western blotting provided independent confirmation for three of the most biologically and statistically interesting proteins. All 18 gels were replicated by another technician and 32% of the differentially abundant proteins were verified by the duplicate analysis. Follow-up studies are now examining these proteins as biomarkers in blood. PMID:20087651

  18. Assessment of the effects of ultrasound-mediated glucose on permeability of normal, benign, and cancerous human lung tissues with the Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Huajiang; Wu, Guoyong; Guo, Zhouyi; Yang, Hongqin; He, Yonghong; Xie, Shusen; Guo, Xiao

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultrasound-mediated analyte diffusion on permeability of normal, benign, and cancerous human lung tissue in vitro and to find more effective sonophoretic (SP) delivery in combination with the optical clearing agents (OCAs) method to distinguish normal and diseased lung tissues. The permeability coefficients of SP in combination with OCAs diffusion in lung tissue were measured with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). 30% glucose and SP with a frequency of 1 MHz and an intensity of 0.80 W/cm2 over a 3 cm probe was simultaneously applied for 15 min. Experimental results show that the mean permeability coefficients of 30% glucose/SP were found to be (2.01±0.21)×10-5 cm/s from normal lung (NL) tissue, (2.75±0.28)×10-5 cm/s from lung benign granulomatosis (LBG) tissue, (4.53±0.49)×10-5 cm/s from lung adenocarcinoma tumor (LAT) tissue, and (5.81±0.62)×10-5 cm/s from lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) tissue, respectively. The permeability coefficients of 30% glucose/SP increase approximately 36.8%, 125.4%, and 189.1% for the LBG, LAT, and LSCC tissue compared with that for the NL tissue, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in permeability coefficients of 30% glucose/SP between LBG and NL tissue (p<0.05), between LAT and NL tissue (p<0.05), and between LSCC and NL tissue (p<0.05). The results suggest that the OCT functional imaging technique to combine an ultrasound-OCAs combination method could become a powerful tool in early diagnosis and monitoring of changed microstructure of pathologic human lung tissue.

  19. Label-Free LC-MSe in Tissue and Serum Reveals Protein Networks Underlying Differences between Benign and Malignant Serous Ovarian Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wegdam, Wouter; Argmann, Carmen A.; Kramer, Gertjan; Vissers, Johannes P.; Buist, Marrije R.; Kenter, Gemma G.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; Meijer, Danielle; Moerland, Perry D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify proteins and (molecular/biological) pathways associated with differences between benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors. Experimental Procedures Serum of six patients with a serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary was collected before treatment, with a control group consisting of six matched patients with a serous cystadenoma. In addition to the serum, homogeneous regions of cells exhibiting uniform histology were isolated from benign and cancerous tissue by laser microdissection. We subsequently employed label-free liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSe) to identify proteins in these serum and tissues samples. Analyses of differential expression between samples were performed using Bioconductor packages and in-house scripts in the statistical software package R. Hierarchical clustering and pathway enrichment analyses were performed, as well as network enrichment and interactome analysis using MetaCore. Results In total, we identified 20 and 71 proteins that were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant serum and tissue samples, respectively. The differentially expressed protein sets in serum and tissue largely differed with only 2 proteins in common. MetaCore network analysis, however inferred GCR-alpha and Sp1 as common transcriptional regulators. Interactome analysis highlighted 14-3-3 zeta/delta, 14-3-3 beta/alpha, Alpha-actinin 4, HSP60, and PCBP1 as critical proteins in the tumor proteome signature based on their relative overconnectivity. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001084. Discussion Our analysis identified proteins with both novel and previously known associations to ovarian cancer biology. Despite the small overlap between differentially expressed protein sets in serum and tissue, APOA1 and Serotransferrin were significantly lower expressed in both serum and cancer tissue samples, suggesting a tissue-derived effect in serum. Pathway and subsequent

  20. Higher FOXP3-TSDR demethylation rates in adjacent normal tissues in patients with colon cancer were associated with worse survival

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The influence of natural regulatory T cells (nTregs) on the patients with colon cancer is unclear. Demethylated status of the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR) of the FOXP3 gene was reported to be a potential biomarker for the identification of nTregs. Methods The demethylation rate of the TSDR (TSDR-DMR) was calculated by using methylation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (MS-qPCR) assay. The expression of TSDR-DMR and FOXP3 mRNA was investigated in various colorectal cancer cell lines. A total of 130 colon carcinoma samples were utilized to study the DMR at tumor sites (DMRT) and adjacent normal tissue (DMRN). The correlations between DMRs and clinicopathological variables of patients with colon cancer were studied. Results The TSDR-DMRs varied dramatically among nTregs (97.920 ± 0.466%) and iTregs (3.917 ± 0.750%). Significantly, DMRT (3.296 ± 0.213%) was higher than DMRN (1.605 ± 0.146%) (n = 130, p = 0.000). Higher DMRN levels were found in female patients (p = 0.001) and those with distant metastases (p = 0.017), and were also associated with worse recurrence-free survival in non-stage IV patients (low vs. high, p = 0.022). However, further Cox multivariate analysis revealed that the FOXP3-TSDR status does not have prognostic value. Conclusion MS-qPCR assays of FOXP3-TSDR can efficiently distinguish nTregs from non-nTregs. Abnormal recruitment of nTregs occurs in the local tumor microenvironment. Infiltration of tissue-resident nTregs may have a negative role in anti-tumor effects in patients with colon cancer; however, this role is limited and complicated. PMID:24938080

  1. Dynamic OCT monitoring and quantification of light penetration enhancement for normal, benign and cancerous human lung tissues at different concentrations of glycerol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Shu-wen; Jin, Ying; Yu, Hui; Wu, Guo-yong

    2013-10-01

    We have evaluated the dynamic effects of the analyte diffusion on the 1/e light penetration depths of normal, benign and cancerous human lung tissue in vitro, as well as have monitored and quantified the dynamic change in the light penetration depths of the mentioned human lung tissue after application of 25 % and 50 % glycerol solution, respectively. The light penetration depths of the analyte diffusion in the lung tissue are measured using the Fourierdomain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). Experimental results show that the application of glycerol as a chemical agent can significantly enhance light penetration depths into the human normal lung (NL), lung benign granulomatosis (LBG) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) tissue. In-depth transport of the glycerol molecules in the NL, LBG and LSCC tissue at a lower glycerol concentration (25 %) are faster than those at a higher glycerol concentration (50 %), and the 1/e light penetration depths at a lower glycerol concentration (25 %) are smaller than those at a higher glycerol concentration (50 %), respectively. Their differences in the maximal 1/e light penetration depths of the NL, LBG and LSCC tissue at a higher and a lower glycerol concentrations were only 8.8 %, 6.8 % and 4.7 %, respectively.

  2. Dynamic OCT monitoring and quantification of light penetration enhancement for normal, benign and cancerous human lung tissues at different concentrations of glycerol

    SciTech Connect

    Shu-wen Tan; Ying Jin; Hui Yu; Guo-yong Wu

    2013-10-31

    We have evaluated the dynamic effects of the analyte diffusion on the 1/e light penetration depths of normal, benign and cancerous human lung tissue in vitro, as well as have monitored and quantified the dynamic change in the light penetration depths of the mentioned human lung tissue after application of 25 % and 50 % glycerol solution, respectively. The light penetration depths of the analyte diffusion in the lung tissue are measured using the Fourierdomain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). Experimental results show that the application of glycerol as a chemical agent can significantly enhance light penetration depths into the human normal lung (NL), lung benign granulomatosis (LBG) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) tissue. In-depth transport of the glycerol molecules in the NL, LBG and LSCC tissue at a lower glycerol concentration (25 %) are faster than those at a higher glycerol concentration (50 %), and the 1/e light penetration depths at a lower glycerol concentration (25 %) are smaller than those at a higher glycerol concentration (50 %), respectively. Their differences in the maximal 1/e light penetration depths of the NL, LBG and LSCC tissue at a higher and a lower glycerol concentrations were only 8.8 %, 6.8 % and 4.7 %, respectively. (biophotonics)

  3. Prostate Field Cancerization: Deregulated Expression of Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 1 (MIC-1) and Platelet Derived Growth Factor A (PDGF-A) in Tumor Adjacent Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anna C.; Shoshan, Dor S.; Fischer, Edgar G.; Trujillo, Kristina A.; Bisoffi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Prostate field cancerization denotes molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Such alterations include deregulated protein expression, as we have previously shown for the key transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1) and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS). Here we add the two secreted factors macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1) and platelet derived growth factor A (PDGF-A) to the growing list of protein markers of prostate field cancerization. Expression of MIC-1 and PDGF-A was measured quantitatively by immunofluorescence and comprehensively analyzed using two methods of signal capture and several groupings of data generated in human cancerous (n = 25), histologically normal adjacent (n = 22), and disease-free (n = 6) prostate tissues. A total of 208 digitized images were analyzed. MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in tumor tissues were elevated 7.1x to 23.4x and 1.7x to 3.7x compared to disease-free tissues, respectively (p<0.0001 to p = 0.08 and p<0.01 to p = 0.23, respectively). In support of field cancerization, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in adjacent tissues were elevated 7.4x to 38.4x and 1.4x to 2.7x, respectively (p<0.0001 to p<0.05 and p<0.05 to p = 0.51, respectively). Also, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression were similar in tumor and adjacent tissues (0.3x to 1.0x; p<0.001 to p = 0.98 for MIC-1; 0.9x to 2.6x; p<0.01 to p = 1.00 for PDGF-A). All analyses indicated a high level of inter- and intra-tissue heterogeneity across all types of tissues (mean coefficient of variation of 86.0%). Our data shows that MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression is elevated in both prostate tumors and structurally intact adjacent tissues when compared to disease-free specimens, defining field cancerization. These secreted factors could promote tumorigenesis in histologically normal tissues and lead to tumor multifocality. Among several clinical applications, they could also be exploited as indicators of disease in false negative

  4. Exophytic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Blaschko, Sarah D; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2011-08-01

    A 60-year-old man had incidental finding of a multilobular 8 × 7 × 7-cm mass identified posterior to the urinary bladder in continuity with the prostate. The man's prostate-specific antigen was 1.87, and he denied any lower urinary tract symptoms. A transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy demonstrated benign prostatic tissue. A computed tomography-guided needle aspiration demonstrated a benign epithelium-lined cyst, likely prostatic in origin. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a proliferation of prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. Although prostatic hyperplasia is usually restricted to the prostate gland, hyperplastic nodules occasionally protrude outside the prostate and rarely form exophytic pelvic masses. PMID:20869104

  5. Identification of reliable reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in oral squamous cell carcinomas compared to adjacent normal tissues in the F344 rat model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xinjian; McCormick, David L

    2016-08-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) induced in F344 rats by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) demonstrate considerable phenotypic similarity to human oral cancers and the model has been widely used for carcinogenesis and chemoprevention studies. Molecular characterization of this model needs reliable reference genes (RGs) to avoid false- positive and -negative results for proper interpretation of gene expression data between tumor and adjacent normal tissues. Microarray analysis of 11 pairs of OSCC and site-matched phenotypically normal oral tissues from 4-NQO-treated rats identified 10 stably expressed genes in OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues (p>0.5, CV<15%) that could serve as potential RGs in this model. The commonly used 27 RGs in the rat were also analyzed based on microarray data and most of them were found unsuitable for RGs in this model. Traditional RGs such as ACTB and GAPDH were significantly altered in OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues (p<0.01, n=11); however, the Hsp90ab1 was ranked as the best RG candidate and the combination of Hsp90ab1 and HPRT1 was identified by NormFinder to be a superior reference for gene normalization among the commonly used RGs. This result was also validated by RT-PCR based on the selected top RG candidate pool. These data suggest that there are no common RGs suitable for different models and RG(s) should be identified before gene expression analysis. We successfully identified Hsp90ab1 as a stable RG in 4-NQO-induced OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues in F344 rats. The combination of two stably expressed genes may be a better option for gene normalization in tissue samples. PMID:27375172

  6. The evaluation of tissue mass loss in the incision line of prostate with benign hyperplasia performed using holmium laser and cutting electrode

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, Mariusz; Jesionek–Kupnicka, Dorota; Lipinski, Piotr; Różański, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to compare the changes in the incision line of prostatic adenoma using a monopolar cutting electrode and holmium laser, as well as the assessment of associated tissue mass and volume loss of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Material and methods The material used in this study consisted of 74 preparations of prostatic adenoma obtained via open retropubic adenomectomy, with an average volume of 120.7 ml. The material obtained cut in vitro before fixation in formaldehyde. One lobe was cut using holmium laser, the other using a monopolar cutting electrode. After the incision was made, tissue mass and volume loss were evaluated. Thermocoagulation changes in the incision line were examinedunder light microscope. Results In the case of the holmium laser incision, the average tissue mass loss was 1.73 g, tissue volume loss 3.57 ml and the depth of thermocoagulation was 1.17 mm. When the monopolar cutting electrode was used average tissue mass loss was 0.807 g, tissue volume loss 2.48 ml and the depth of thermocoagulation was 0.19 mm. Conclusions Where holmium laser was used, it was observed that the layer of tissue with thermocoagulation changes was deeper than in the case of the monopolar cutting electrode. Moreover, it was noticed that holmium laser caused bigger tissue mass and volume loss than the cutting electrode. PMID:25247088

  7. Immunohistochemical quantification of the cobalamin transport protein, cell surface receptor and Ki-67 in naturally occurring canine and feline malignant tumors and in adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Sysel, Annette M.; Valli, Victor E.; Bauer, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells have an obligate need for cobalamin (vitamin B12) to enable DNA synthesis necessary for cellular replication. This study quantified the immunohistochemical expression of the cobalamin transport protein (transcobalamin II; TCII), cell surface receptor (transcobalamin II-R; TCII-R) and proliferation protein (Ki-67) in naturally occurring canine and feline malignant tumors, and compared these results to expression in corresponding adjacent normal tissues. All malignant tumor tissues stained positively for TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 proteins; expression varied both within and between tumor types. Expression of TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 was significantly higher in malignant tumor tissues than in corresponding adjacent normal tissues in both species. There was a strong correlation between TCII and TCII-R expression, and a modest correlation between TCII-R and Ki-67 expression in both species; a modest association between TCII and Ki-67 expression was present in canine tissues only. These results demonstrate a quantifiable, synchronous up-regulation of TCII and TCII-R expression by proliferating canine and feline malignant tumors. The potential to utilize these proteins as biomarkers to identify neoplastic tissues, streamline therapeutic options, evaluate response to anti-tumor therapy and monitor for recurrent disease has important implications in the advancement of cancer management for both human and companion animal patients. PMID:25633912

  8. Lipid Profiles of Canine Invasive Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder and Adjacent Normal Tissue by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Allison L.; Ifa, Demian R.; Manicke, Nicholas E.; Costa, Anthony B.; Ramos-Vara, José A.; Knapp, Deborah W.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) was used in an imaging mode to interrogate the lipid profiles of thin tissue sections of canine spontaneous invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder (a model of human invasive bladder cancer) as well as adjacent normal tissue from four different dogs. The glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids that appear as intense signals in both the negative ion and positive ion modes were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) product ion scans using collision-induced dissociation. Differences in the relative distributions of the lipid species were present between the tumor and adjacent normal tissue in both the negative and positive ion modes. DESI-MS images showing the spatial distributions of particular glycerophospholipids, sphinoglipids and free fatty acids in both the negative and positive ion modes were compared to serial tissue sections that were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Increased absolute and relative intensities for at least five different glycerophospholipids and three free fatty acids in the negative ion mode and at least four different lipid species in the positive ion mode were seen in the tumor region of the samples in all four dogs. In addition, one sphingolipid species exhibited increased signal intensity in the positive ion mode in normal tissue relative to the diseased tissue. Principal component analysis (PCA) was also used to generate unsupervised statistical images from the negative ion mode data and these images are in excellent agreement with the DESI images obtained from the selected ions and also the H&E stained tissue PMID:19810710

  9. Expression of protein kinase A regulatory subunits in benign and malignant human thyroid tissues: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Del Gobbo, Alessandro; Peverelli, Erika; Treppiedi, Donatella; Lania, Andrea; Mantovani, Giovanna; Ferrero, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms and prognostic implications of the protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway in human tumors, with special emphasis on the malignant thyroid. The PKA signaling pathway is differentially activated by the expression of regulatory subunits 1 (R1) and 2 (R2), whose levels change during development, differentiation, and neoplastic transformation. Following the identification of gene mutations within the PKA regulatory subunit R1A (PRKAR1A) that cause Carney complex-associated neoplasms, several investigators have studied PRKAR1A expression in sporadic thyroid tumors. The PKA regulatory subunit R2B (PRKAR2B) is highly expressed in benign, as well as in malignant differentiated and undifferentiated lesions. PRKAR1A is highly expressed in follicular adenomas and malignant lesions with a statistically significant gradient between benign and malignant tumors; however, it is not expressed in hyperplastic nodules. Although the importance of PKA in human malignancy outcomes is not completely understood, PRKAR1A expression correlates with tumor dimension in malignant lesions. Additional studies are needed to determine whether a relationship exists between PKA subunit expression and clinical outcomes, particularly in undifferentiated tumors. In conclusion, the R1A subunit might be a good molecular candidate for the targeted treatment of malignant thyroid tumors. PMID:27321957

  10. Examination of CK2α and NF-κB p65 expression in human benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Qaiser, Fatima; Trembley, Janeen H; Sadiq, Sarah; Muhammad, Iqbal; Younis, Rubina; Hashmi, Shoaib Naiyar; Murtaza, Badar; Rector, Thomas S; Naveed, Abdul Khaliq; Ahmed, Khalil

    2016-09-01

    Protein kinase CK2 plays a critical role in cell growth, proliferation, and suppression of cell death. CK2 is overexpressed, especially in the nuclear compartment, in the majority of cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). CK2-mediated activation of transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 is a key step in cellular proliferation, resulting in translocation of NF-κB p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. As CK2 expression and activity are also elevated in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), we sought to increase the knowledge of CK2 function in benign and malignant prostate by examination of the relationships between nuclear CK2 and nuclear NF-κB p65 protein expression. The expression level and localization of CK2α and NF-κB p65 proteins in PCa and BPH tissue specimens was determined. Nuclear CK2α and NF-κB p65 protein levels are significantly higher in PCa compared with BPH, and these proteins are positively correlated with each other in both diseases. Nuclear NF-κB p65 levels correlated with Ki-67 or with cytoplasmic NF-κB p65 expression in BPH, but not in PCa. The findings provide information that combined analysis of CK2α and NF-κB p65 expression in prostate specimens relates to the disease status. Increased nuclear NF-κB p65 expression levels in PCa specifically related to nuclear CK2α levels, indicating a possible CK2-dependent relationship in malignancy. In contrast, nuclear NF-κB p65 protein levels related to both Ki-67 and cytoplasmic NF-κB p65 levels exclusively in BPH, suggesting a potential separate impact for NF-κB p65 function in proliferation for benign disease as opposed to malignant disease. PMID:27435858

  11. Development and Feasibility Testing of Image-Guided Minimally Invasive Tissue for Diagnosis Treatment of Benign and Malignant Breast Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffrey, Stefanie S.

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Robert Mah and Dr. Stefanie Jeffrey worked on the development of the NASA Smart Probe in its application as a device to measure and interpret physiologic and image-based parameters of breast tissue. To date the following has been achieved: 1 . Choice of candidate sensors to be tested in breast tissue. 2. Preliminary designs for probe tip, specifically use of different tip shapes, cutting edges, and sensor configuration. 3. Design of sonographic guidance system. 4. Design of data extraction and analysis tool using scanned information of images of the breast tissue to provide a higher dimension of information for breast tissue characterization and interpretation. 5. Initial ex-vivo (fruit and tofu) and in-vivo (rodent) testing to confirm unique substance and tissue characterization by the Smart Probe software.

  12. Quantitative expression analysis and study of the novel human kallikrein-related peptidase 14 gene (KLK14) in malignant and benign breast tissues.

    PubMed

    Papachristopoulou, Georgia; Avgeris, Margaritis; Charlaftis, Antonios; Scorilas, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Human kallikrein-related peptidase 14 gene (KLK14) is regulated by androgens and progestins. This gene is expressed in the central nervous system and endocrine tissues such as the breast, prostate and ovary. The differential KLK14 mRNA expression levels are related to several human neoplasias, among them breast cancer. The aim of this study was to analyse the KLK14 expression in breast tissues and to investigate its differential diagnostic and prognostic value in the mammary carcinomas. For this purpose, we isolated total RNA from 70 malignant and 33 benign specimens. After testing RNA quality, we synthesised cDNA by reverse transcription and applied a highly sensitive quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) method for KLK14 mRNA quantification using the SYBR Green® chemistry. HPRT1 was used as a reference gene and the BT20 breast cancer cell line as a calibrator. Relative quantification analysis was performed using the comparative CT method 2-ΔΔCT. KLK14 expression was detected in both types of breast tumours. However, a statistically significant increase of the KLK14 mRNA level was observed in the malignant, compared to the benign tumour samples (p<0.001), highlighting its value in discriminating these breast lesions. Elevated KLK14 expression profiles were associated with higher tumour grade (p=0.043) and size (p=0.007) in cancerous samples. Furthermore, KLK14 mRNA expression showed negative correlation in a statistically significant manner with estrogen receptor status (p=0.024). In accordance with logistic regression models (p=0.012) and receiver-operating-characteristics analysis (p<0.001), KLK14 gene expression could be evaluated as a putative independent diagnostic biomarker in breast tumour biopsies. PMID:21057706

  13. 18F Sodium Fluoride PET/CT in Patients with Prostate Cancer: Quantification of Normal Tissues, Benign Degenerative Lesions, and Malignant Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Oldan, Jorge D.; Hawkins, A. Stewart; Chin, Bennett B.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the range and variability of normal, benign degenerative, and malignant 18F sodium fluoride (18F NaF) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) uptake is important in influencing clinical interpretation. Further, it is essential for the development of realistic semiautomated quantification techniques and simulation models. The purpose of this study is to determine the range of these values in a clinically relevant patient population with prostate cancer. 18F NaF PET/CT scans were analyzed in patients with prostate cancer (n = 47) referred for evaluation of bone metastases. Mean and maximum standardized uptake values [SUVs (SUVmean and SUVmax)] were made in normal background regions (n = 470) including soft tissues (liver, aorta, bladder, adipose, brain, and paraspinal muscle) and osseous structures (T12 vertebral body, femoral diaphyseal cortex, femoral head medullary space, and ribs). Degenerative joint disease (DJD; n = 281) and bone metastases (n = 159) were identified and quantified by an experienced reader using all scan information including coregistered CT. For normal bone regions, the highest 18F NaF PET SUVmean occurred in T12 (6.8 ± 1.4) and it also showed the lowest coefficient of variation (cv = 21%). For normal soft tissues, paraspinal muscles showed very low SUVmean (0.70 ± 0.11) and also showed the lowest variability (cv = 16%). Average SUVmean in metastatic lesions is higher than uptake in benign degenerative lesions but values showed a wide variance and overlapping values (16.3 ± 13 vs 11.1 ± 3.8; P < 0.00001). The normal 18F NaF PET uptake values for prostate cancer patients in normal background, benign degenerative disease, and osseous metastases are comparable to those reported for a general population with a wide variety of diagnoses. These normal ranges, specifically for prostate cancer patients, will aid in clinical interpretation and also help to establish the basis of normal limits in a semiautomated data

  14. (18)F Sodium Fluoride PET/CT in Patients with Prostate Cancer: Quantification of Normal Tissues, Benign Degenerative Lesions, and Malignant Lesions.

    PubMed

    Oldan, Jorge D; Hawkins, A Stewart; Chin, Bennett B

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the range and variability of normal, benign degenerative, and malignant (18)F sodium fluoride ((18)F NaF) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) uptake is important in influencing clinical interpretation. Further, it is essential for the development of realistic semiautomated quantification techniques and simulation models. The purpose of this study is to determine the range of these values in a clinically relevant patient population with prostate cancer. (18)F NaF PET/CT scans were analyzed in patients with prostate cancer (n = 47) referred for evaluation of bone metastases. Mean and maximum standardized uptake values [SUVs (SUVmean and SUVmax)] were made in normal background regions (n = 470) including soft tissues (liver, aorta, bladder, adipose, brain, and paraspinal muscle) and osseous structures (T12 vertebral body, femoral diaphyseal cortex, femoral head medullary space, and ribs). Degenerative joint disease (DJD; n = 281) and bone metastases (n = 159) were identified and quantified by an experienced reader using all scan information including coregistered CT. For normal bone regions, the highest (18)F NaF PET SUVmean occurred in T12 (6.8 ± 1.4) and it also showed the lowest coefficient of variation (cv = 21%). For normal soft tissues, paraspinal muscles showed very low SUVmean (0.70 ± 0.11) and also showed the lowest variability (cv = 16%). Average SUVmean in metastatic lesions is higher than uptake in benign degenerative lesions but values showed a wide variance and overlapping values (16.3 ± 13 vs 11.1 ± 3.8; P < 0.00001). The normal (18)F NaF PET uptake values for prostate cancer patients in normal background, benign degenerative disease, and osseous metastases are comparable to those reported for a general population with a wide variety of diagnoses. These normal ranges, specifically for prostate cancer patients, will aid in clinical interpretation and also help to establish the basis of normal limits in a

  15. Metal debris concentrations in soft tissues adjacent to loosened femoral stems is higher in uncemented than cemented implants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are still many questions related to aseptic femoral stem loosening. Systemic and local immune responses to the implanted “foreign body” is one of the reasons for loosening. The purpose of the study was to measure metal ion concentration (Ti, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, Al) around loosened femoral stems and compare their levels around uncemented and cemented implants. Methods This paper reports 50 hips operated for isolated stem loosening, in 50 patients at the mean age of 57 years (from 21 to 87). There were 25 cemented (Co,Cr29,Mo,Ni) and 25 uncemented (Ti, Al) stems. The mean follow-up from primary hip replacement to revision was 10.1 years (from 0.5 to 17). During the procedure, scar tissue around the stem was taken for analysis of metal ions. Results The concentrations of titanium and aluminium in soft tissues around uncemented loosened stems were higher than cemented ones (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 respectively). However, no statistically significant differences were observed between both types of stems in terms of ions of the metal of which cemented implants had been made of (Co, Cr, Mo, Ni). Conclusions In soft tissue around a loosened stem, the concentrations of metal ions from implants are much higher in case of uncemented stems than of cemented ones. Metal ions from vitalium femoral heads were found around uncemented stems in similar values to cemented streams. PMID:25098913

  16. Quantitative analysis of the reconstruction errors of the currently popular algorithm of magnetic resonance electrical property tomography at the interfaces of adjacent tissues.

    PubMed

    Duan, Song; Xu, Chao; Deng, Guanhua; Wang, Jiajia; Liu, Feng; Xin, Sherman Xuegang

    2016-06-01

    This work quantitatively analyzed the reconstruction errors (REs) of electrical property (EP) images using a currently popular algorithm of magnetic resonance electrical property tomography (MREPT), which occurred along the tissue interfaces. Transmitted magnetic fields B1+ were acquired at 3 T using a birdcage coil loaded with a phantom consisting of various adjacent tissues. Homogeneous Helmholtz was employed to calculate the EP maps by Laplacian computation of central differences. The maps of absolute REs (aREs) and relative REs (rREs) were calculated. The maximum and mean rREs, in addition to rRE distributions at the interfaces, were presented. Reconstructed EP maps showed various REs along different interface boundaries. Among all the investigated tissue interfaces, the kidney-fat interface presented the maximum mean rREs for both conductivity and relative permittivity. The minimum mean rRE of conductivity was observed at the spleen-muscle interface, and the minimum mean rRE of relative permittivity was detected along the lung-heart interface. The mean rREs ranged from 0.3986 to 36.11 for conductivity and 0.2218 to 11.96 for relative permittivity. Overall, this research indicates that different REs occur at various tissue boundaries, as shown by the currently popular algorithm of MREPT. Thus, REs should be considered when applying MREPT to reconstruct the EP distributions inside the human body. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27037715

  17. Increased Expression of Herpes Virus-Encoded hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H9-5p in Cancer-Containing Prostate Tissue Compared to That in Benign Prostate Hyperplasia Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Shinn, Helen Ki; Yan, Chunri; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Sang Tae; Kim, Won Tae; Lee, Ok-Jun; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Kim, Jayoung; Cha, Eun-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Previously, we reported the presence of virus-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) in the urine of prostate cancer (CaP) patients. In this study, we investigated the expression of two herpes virus-encoded miRNAs in prostate tissue. Methods: A total of 175 tissue samples from noncancerous benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 248 tissue samples from patients with CaP and BPH, and 50 samples from noncancerous surrounding tissues from these same patients were analyzed for the expression of two herpes virus-encoded miRNAs by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunocytochemistry using nanoparticles as molecular beacons. Results: Real-time reverse transcription-PCR results revealed significantly higher expression of hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miRH9- 5p in surrounding noncancerous and CaP tissues than that in BPH tissue (each comparison, P<0.001). Of note, these miRNA were expressed equivalently in the CaP tissues and surrounding noncancerous tissues. Moreover, immunocytochemistry clearly demonstrated a significant enrichment of both hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H9 beacon-labeled cells in CaP and surrounding noncancerous tissue compared to that in BPH tissue (each comparison, P<0.05 for hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2- miR-H9). Conclusions: These results suggest that increased expression of hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H95p might be associated with tumorigenesis in the prostate. Further studies will be required to elucidate the role of these miRNAs with respect to CaP and herpes viral infections. PMID:27377944

  18. Expression of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), their receptors and IGF binding protein-3 in normal, benign and malignant smooth muscle tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Van der Ven, L. T.; Roholl, P. J.; Gloudemans, T.; Van Buul-Offers, S. C.; Welters, M. J.; Bladergroen, B. A.; Faber, J. A.; Sussenbach, J. S.; Den Otter, W.

    1997-01-01

    To assess the role of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in growth and transformation of normal (myometrium) and tumorous smooth muscle cell (SMC) tissues, in situ hybridization (ISH) analysis for insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) mRNAs was combined with detection of IGF peptides, their receptors and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). mRNAs for both IGFs were detected in smooth muscle cells in normal, benign and malignant SMC tissues, together with the IGF peptides, both IGF receptors and IGFBP-3. This suggests an autocrine role for both IGFs. Leiomyomas had higher IGF-I peptide levels and higher levels of type I IGF receptors than myometrium, supporting the idea that IGFs play a role in the growth and transformation of these tumours. Low-grade leiomyosarcomas contained more IGF-II mRNAs than myometrium and leiomyoma, fewer type II IGF/mannose 6-phosphate receptors and less IGFBP-3 than myometrium and, in addition, fewer IGF-I mRNAs and type I IGF receptors than leiomyoma. Intermediate- and high-grade leiomyosarcomas had intermediate levels of IGF-II mRNAs and peptide, ranging between those in myometrium and low-grade leiomyosarcomas. Thus, growth and transformation of leiomyosarcomas may be regulated by IGF-II, although more markedly in low-grade than in high-grade leiomyosarcomas. In conclusion, the various categories of SMC tissues are associated with a distinct expression pattern of the IGF system. This suggests that each category of SMC tumours arises as a distinct entity and that there is no progression of transformation in these tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:9184179

  19. Elevated expression of HIF-lα in actively growing prostate tissues is associated with clinical features of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Shuai; Wu, Haihu; Bi, Dongbin; Ding, Kejia; Lu, Jiaju

    2016-01-01

    Background Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common diseases in middle-age or older men. Increasing evidence has shown that BPH is associated with hypoxia microenvironment. Methods We retrospectively collected patient data and tissue samples from fetal prostates(FP), normal prostates(NP), intra-acinar of BPH, peri-acinar of BPH, prostate cancers and sarcomas of prostate. The expression of HIF-1α, as well as VEGF was visualized by immunohistochemistry and statistically analyzed with clinical parameters. Results Expression of HIF-lα was observed in intra-acinar of BPH (69.5%), prostate cancer (85.7%) and all FPs, while NP and peri-acinar of BPH tissues were all stained negative. HIF-lα levels in FPs and the malignant tumors were higher than BPH tissues(p < 0.05), and the expression of HIF-lα in intra-acinar of BPH was higher than NP and peri-acinar of BPH (p < 0.05). The expression of HIF-lα was correlated with the weight of intra-acinar of prostate (p < 0.05). And patients with prostate weight larger that 72.45g were prone to have HIF-lα moderate-positive expression, according to the ROC curve (AUC = 0.734, 95%CI = 0.630-0.838). Moreover, the risk of acute urine retention (AUR) for HIF-lα moderate-positive patients increased significantly (OR=5.517, 95%CI = 2.434-12.504). Conclusions HIF-lα expression is increased in highly proliferative prostate tissues and correlated with the weight of intra-acinar prostate. Moreover, HIF-lα is also an independent risk factor for AUR occurrence in BPH patients. PMID:26919249

  20. Potential of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Characterization of Malignant, Benign, and Healthy Breast Tissues and Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Uma; Sah, Rani G.; Agarwal, Khushbu; Parshad, Rajinder; Seenu, Vurthaluru; Mathur, Sandeep R.; Hari, Smriti; Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R.

    2016-01-01

    The role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the diagnosis of breast cancer and its association with molecular biomarkers was investigated in 259 patients with breast cancer, 67 with benign pathology, and 54 healthy volunteers using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 1.5 T. In 59 breast cancer patients, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCEMRI) was also acquired. Mean ADC of malignant lesions was significantly lower (1.02 ± 0.17 × 10−3 mm2/s) compared to benign (1.57 ± 0.26 × 10−3 mm2/s) and healthy (1.78 ± 0.13 × 10−3 mm2/s) breast tissues. A cutoff ADC value of 1.23 × 10−3 mm2/s (sensitivity 92.5%; specificity 91.1%; area under the curve 0.96) to differentiate malignant from benign diseases was arrived by receiver operating curve analysis. In 10/59 breast cancer patients, indeterminate DCE curve was seen, while their ADC value was indicative of malignancy, implying the potential of the addition of DWI in increasing the specificity of DCEMRI data. Further, the association of ADC with tumor volume, stage, hormonal receptors [estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor (HER2)], and menopausal status was investigated. A significant difference was seen in tumor volume between breast cancer patients of stages IIA and IIIA, IIB and IIIA, and IIB and III (B + C), respectively (P < 0.05). Patients with early breast cancer (n = 52) had significantly lower ADC and tumor volume than those with locally advanced breast cancer (n = 207). No association was found in ADC and tumor volume with the menopausal status. Breast cancers with ER−, PR−, and triple-negative (TN) status showed a significantly larger tumor volume compared to ER+, PR+, and non-triple-negative (nTN) cancers, respectively. Also, TN tumors showed a significantly higher ADC compared to ER+, PR+, and nTN cancers. Patients with ER− and TN cancers were younger than those with ER+ and nTN cancers

  1. Potential of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Characterization of Malignant, Benign, and Healthy Breast Tissues and Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Uma; Sah, Rani G; Agarwal, Khushbu; Parshad, Rajinder; Seenu, Vurthaluru; Mathur, Sandeep R; Hari, Smriti; Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R

    2016-01-01

    The role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the diagnosis of breast cancer and its association with molecular biomarkers was investigated in 259 patients with breast cancer, 67 with benign pathology, and 54 healthy volunteers using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 1.5 T. In 59 breast cancer patients, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCEMRI) was also acquired. Mean ADC of malignant lesions was significantly lower (1.02 ± 0.17 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) compared to benign (1.57 ± 0.26 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) and healthy (1.78 ± 0.13 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) breast tissues. A cutoff ADC value of 1.23 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s (sensitivity 92.5%; specificity 91.1%; area under the curve 0.96) to differentiate malignant from benign diseases was arrived by receiver operating curve analysis. In 10/59 breast cancer patients, indeterminate DCE curve was seen, while their ADC value was indicative of malignancy, implying the potential of the addition of DWI in increasing the specificity of DCEMRI data. Further, the association of ADC with tumor volume, stage, hormonal receptors [estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor (HER2)], and menopausal status was investigated. A significant difference was seen in tumor volume between breast cancer patients of stages IIA and IIIA, IIB and IIIA, and IIB and III (B + C), respectively (P < 0.05). Patients with early breast cancer (n = 52) had significantly lower ADC and tumor volume than those with locally advanced breast cancer (n = 207). No association was found in ADC and tumor volume with the menopausal status. Breast cancers with ER-, PR-, and triple-negative (TN) status showed a significantly larger tumor volume compared to ER+, PR+, and non-triple-negative (nTN) cancers, respectively. Also, TN tumors showed a significantly higher ADC compared to ER+, PR+, and nTN cancers. Patients with ER- and TN cancers were younger than those with ER+ and n

  2. Osteochondroma of the hip with adjacent bursal chondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Gould, Elaine S; Baker, Kevin S; Huang, Mingqian; Khan, Fazel; Hoda, Syed

    2014-12-01

    It is well established that irregular bursae can form adjacent to an osteochondroma (bursa exostotica) as a result of mechanical irritation and that these bursae can be complicated by inflammation, hemorrhage, or infection. Bursal chondromatosis is a rare complication, with only seven published cases in the literature according to our searches. We present the case of a 53-year-old female who presented with slowly progressive left hip/thigh pain and was found to have an osteochondroma arising from the lesser trochanter with numerous ossified bodies in the adjacent soft tissues. MRI demonstrated osteochondral bodies in a fluid-filled bursa adjacent to the osteochondroma, with several of the bodies noted to be fairly displaced from the osteochondroma cartilaginous cap. At surgery, the osteochondroma was removed and numerous bodies of varying sizes were excised, some of which were noted to be adherent to the bursal lining and others that were separated/distant from the cartilage cap. The question arises as to whether this process represents bursal chondromatosis resulting from benign neoplasia of cells lining the abnormal bursa, "cartilage shedding" from the osteochondromatous cap, or both. The purpose in presenting this case is to introduce a rare complication of an osteochondroma, demonstrate that soft tissue calcification and osteochondral densities displaced from an underlying osteochondroma are not always the result of sarcomatous degeneration, and provide support for the theory that cells lining a bursa in a nonphysiologic location can undergo benign neoplasia with subsequent formation of osteochondral bodies. PMID:25001874

  3. Comparison of heavy metal concentrations in tissues of red foxes from adjacent urban, suburban, and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Dip, R; Stieger, C; Deplazes, P; Hegglin, D; Müller, U; Dafflon, O; Koch, H; Naegeli, H

    2001-05-01

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a representative of the canid family with wide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere and Australia. The increasing utilization of urbanized habitats by red foxes prompted us to test whether this species may be used to monitor the presence of anthropogenic pollutants in cities or suburbs. For that purpose, we compared the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) in foxes from urban, suburban, and rural areas within the municipality of Zürich (Switzerland). The kidney and liver of suburban and rural foxes contained the highest Cd concentrations, whereas urban foxes contained the highest Pb levels. In the kidney of suburban foxes, Cd concentrations increased from a median value of 0.73 mg/kg in juvenile animals to 1.82 mg/kg in adults. Similarly, the liver of suburban foxes contained increasing Cd levels from a median of 0.21 mg/kg in juvenile animals to 0.94 mg/kg in adults. An age-dependent storage of Cd was also found in foxes from the rural surroundings, but no such accumulation occurred in urban foxes from the city center, where even adult animals contained very low Cd levels. Conversely, foxes from the urban center were characterized by elevated Pb concentrations during the first 2 years of life, but this transient Pb accumulation was absent in suburban or rural animals. The liver of juvenile foxes contained a median Pb concentration of 0.99 mg/kg in the city compared to only 0.47 and 0.37 mg/kg in the suburban and rural area, respectively. Thus, we found that animals from separate environmental compartments contain different patterns of tissue residues, implying that red foxes may serve as a bioindicator species to detect certain toxic hazards in urbanized habitats. PMID:11525499

  4. Human lung and bladder carcinoma tumors as compared to their adjacent normal tissue have elevated AP-1 activity associated with the retinoblastoma gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Linardopoulos, S; Papadakis, E; Delakas, D; Theodosiou, V; Cranidis, A; Spandidos, D A

    1993-01-01

    Examination of the nucleotide sequence of the retinoblastoma (Rb) promoter revealed the presence of a DNA region highly homologous to the recognition site for the cellular transcription factor AP-1. A pair of complementary oligonucleotides containing the AP-1 site was synthesized and used in gel retardation assays to determine the role of the AP-1 protein in the regulation of the Rb gene expression. Using nuclear extracts from Hela cells as well as from lung and bladder tumors, we found specific binding of the AP-1 protein to this oligonucleotide. This binding is elevated in Hela cells, in 10/13 lung and 3/8 bladder tumors as compared to adjacent normal tissue. These results suggest that AP-1 could be implicated in Rb gene transcriptional regulation through its interaction with the AP-1 binding site of the Rb gene promoter. PMID:8476221

  5. The cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter sequence alters the level and patterns of activity of adjacent tissue- and organ-specific gene promoters.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuelian; Deng, Wei; Luo, Keming; Duan, Hui; Chen, Yongqin; McAvoy, Richard; Song, Shuiqing; Pei, Yan; Li, Yi

    2007-08-01

    Here we report the effect of the 35S promoter sequence on activities of the tissue- and organ-specific gene promoters in tobacco plants. In the absence of the 35S promoter sequence the AAP2 promoter is active only in vascular tissues as indicated by expression of the AAP2:GUS gene. With the 35S promoter sequence in the same T-plasmid, transgenic plants exhibit twofold to fivefold increase in AAP2 promoter activity and the promoter becomes active in all tissue types. Transgenic plants hosting the ovary-specific AGL5:iaaM gene (iaaM coding an auxin biosynthetic gene) showed a wild-type phenotype except production of seedless fruits, whereas plants hosting the AGL5:iaaM gene along with the 35S promoter sequence showed drastic morphological alterations. RT-PCR analysis confirms that the phenotype was caused by activation of the AGL5:iaaM gene in non-ovary organs including roots, stems and flowers. When the pollen-, ovule- and early embryo-specific PAB5:barnase gene (barnase coding a RNase gene) was transformed, the presence of 35S promoter sequence drastically reduced transformation efficiencies. However, the transformation efficiencies were restored in the absence of 35S promoter, indicating that the 35S promoter might activate the expression of PAB5:barnase in non-reproductive organs such as calli and shoot primordia. Furthermore, if the 35S promoter sequence was replaced with the NOS promoter sequence, no alteration in AAP2, AGL5 or PAB5 promoter activities was observed. Our results demonstrate that the 35S promoter sequence can convert an adjacent tissue- and organ-specific gene promoter into a globally active promoter. PMID:17340093

  6. What Is a Soft Tissue Sarcoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in between fibrosarcoma and benign tumors such as fibromas and superficial fibromatosis. They tend to grow slowly ... These include: Elastofibromas, benign tumor of fibrous tissue Fibromas, benign tumor of fibrous tissue Fibrous histiocytomas, benign ...

  7. Elevated expression levels of androgen receptors and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in 30 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma compared with adjacent tissues as predictors of cancer invasion and staging

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YAN; SHEN, YUCHENG; CAO, BIN; YAN, AITING; JI, HAOMING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential roles of the androgen receptor (AR) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and whether their expression could be used as a predictor of the invasion and stage of cancer. The expression levels of AR, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HCC tissues and tissues adjacent to the tumor were measured by immunohistochemical staining assay. The expression rates of AR, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the HCC tissue were 76.67, 73.33 and 76.67%, respectively, all of which were significantly higher than those in the tissues adjacent to the tumor. The expression of these proteins represents the local invasion and stage. AR, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression levels in HCC tissues have the potential to be employed as predictors of the progression of local cancer invasion and the tumor stage. PMID:25667651

  8. Benign familial hyperphosphatasemia

    SciTech Connect

    Siraganian, P.A.; Mulvihill, J.J.; Mulivor, R.A.; Miller, R.W. )

    1989-03-03

    Elevated alkaline phosphatase activity in serum suggests bone or liver disease or a neoplasm but can also indicate pregnancy or another benign condition. A family with benign hyperphosphatasemia was studied to elucidate the genetics and enzyme defect. Serum total alkaline phosphatase activity was greater than the population mean in all six family members, and more than 7 SDs above the mean in two of four offspring. Monoclonal antibodies to three alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes, intestinal, placental, and tissue nonspecific demonstrated markedly increased intestinal alkaline phosphatase levels in all family members and significantly elevated liver/bone/kidney activity in the two offspring. Guanidine hydrochloride denaturation of the liver/bone/kidney component showed high alkaline phosphatase activity from liver in both siblings and from bone in one. The mode of inheritance in this family is obscure, but a complex regulation of the products of two different alkaline phosphatase genes seems likely. Steps toward diagnosis are suggested. Early recognition of this benign biochemical abnormality should help to avoid unnecessary diagnostic tests.

  9. Cholesterol and benign prostate disease.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R

    2011-01-01

    The origins of benign prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), are poorly understood. Patients suffering from benign prostatic symptoms report a substantially reduced quality of life, and the relationship between benign prostate conditions and prostate cancer is uncertain. Epidemiologic data for BPH and CP/CPPS are limited, however an apparent association between BPH symptoms and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been consistently reported. The prostate synthesizes and stores large amounts of cholesterol and prostate tissues may be particularly sensitive to perturbations in cholesterol metabolism. Hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for CVD, is also a risk factor for BPH. Animal model and clinical trial findings suggest that agents that inhibit cholesterol absorption from the intestine, such as the class of compounds known as polyene macrolides, can reduce prostate gland size and improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Observational studies indicate that cholesterol-lowering drugs reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while prostate cancer cell growth and survival pathways depend in part on cholesterol-sensitive biochemical mechanisms. Here we review the evidence that cholesterol metabolism plays a role in the incidence of benign prostate disease and we highlight possible therapeutic approaches based on this concept. PMID:21862201

  10. Mesothelioma - benign-fibrous

    MedlinePlus

    Mesothelioma - benign; Mesothelioma - fibrous; Pleural fibroma; Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura ... other reasons. Other tests that may show benign mesothelioma include: CT scan of the chest Open lung ...

  11. Expression of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Tissue in Ovarian Teratomas and the Importance of Multimodal Management as Illustrated by a BRAF-Positive Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Erin F.; Hughes, Marybeth; Merino, Maria J.; Reynolds, James C.; Davis, Jeremy L.; Cochran, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    Background The most common type of ovarian germ cell tumor is the teratoma. Thyroid tissue, both benign and malignant, may be a component of an ovarian teratoma. Here we review this topic and illustrate major features by presenting multimodal management of a patient with BRAF-positive disseminated follicular thyroid cancer arising in an ovarian teratoma. Summary Malignant thyroid tissue is often difficult to distinguish from benign thyroid tissue arising in ovarian teratomas. Preoperatively, an elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) level, laboratory or clinical evidence of hyperthyroidism, or ultrasonography appearance of “struma pearl” should prompt referral to oncologist for surgical management of a possibly malignant ovarian teratoma. Postoperatively, tumor tissue should be referred to pathologists experienced with differentiating benign from malignant struma ovarii. Once diagnosed, treatment of this rare condition should be handled by a team of specialists with combined treatment modalities. We cared for woman with disseminated thyroid cancer arising in an ovarian teratoma whose history illustrates the complexity of managing ovarian teratomas with malignant thyroid tissue. At age 33 she had an intraoperative rupture of an ovarian cyst, thought to be struma ovarii. During her next pregnancy, pelvic masses were noted; biopsies revealed well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant. She was euthyroid, but had elevated serum Tg levels. Surgical staging demonstrated widely metastatic intraabdominal dissemination. A thyroidectomy revealed no malignancy. A post-131I treatment scan revealed diffuse uptake throughout the abdomen. She then developed abdominal pain and, on computed tomography, was found to have multiple intraabdominal foci of disease. Serum Tg was 264 ng/mL while on L-thyroxine for hypothyroidism and to obtain thyrotropin suppression. A 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan showed no pathological uptake. The tumor was

  12. Noninvasive, label-free, three-dimensional imaging of melanoma with confocal photothermal microscopy: Differentiate malignant melanoma from benign tumor tissue

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinping; Wang, Nan; Tsurui, Hiromichi; Kato, Masashi; Iida, Machiko; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers. Melanoma accounts for less than 2% of skin cancer cases but causes a large majority of skin cancer deaths. Early detection of malignant melanoma remains the key factor in saving lives. However, the melanoma diagnosis is still clinically challenging. Here, we developed a confocal photothermal microscope for noninvasive, label-free, three-dimensional imaging of melanoma. The axial resolution of confocal photothermal microscope is ~3 times higher than that of commonly used photothermal microscope. Three-dimensional microscopic distribution of melanin in pigmented lesions of mouse skin is obtained directly with this setup. Classic morphometric and fractal analysis of sixteen 3D images (eight for benign melanoma and eight for malignant) showed a capability of pathology of melanoma: melanin density and size become larger during the melanoma growth, and the melanin distribution also becomes more chaotic and unregulated. The results suggested new options for monitoring the melanoma growth and also for the melanoma diagnosis. PMID:27445171

  13. Noninvasive, label-free, three-dimensional imaging of melanoma with confocal photothermal microscopy: Differentiate malignant melanoma from benign tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    He, Jinping; Wang, Nan; Tsurui, Hiromichi; Kato, Masashi; Iida, Machiko; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers. Melanoma accounts for less than 2% of skin cancer cases but causes a large majority of skin cancer deaths. Early detection of malignant melanoma remains the key factor in saving lives. However, the melanoma diagnosis is still clinically challenging. Here, we developed a confocal photothermal microscope for noninvasive, label-free, three-dimensional imaging of melanoma. The axial resolution of confocal photothermal microscope is ~3 times higher than that of commonly used photothermal microscope. Three-dimensional microscopic distribution of melanin in pigmented lesions of mouse skin is obtained directly with this setup. Classic morphometric and fractal analysis of sixteen 3D images (eight for benign melanoma and eight for malignant) showed a capability of pathology of melanoma: melanin density and size become larger during the melanoma growth, and the melanin distribution also becomes more chaotic and unregulated. The results suggested new options for monitoring the melanoma growth and also for the melanoma diagnosis. PMID:27445171

  14. Noninvasive, label-free, three-dimensional imaging of melanoma with confocal photothermal microscopy: Differentiate malignant melanoma from benign tumor tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jinping; Wang, Nan; Tsurui, Hiromichi; Kato, Masashi; Iida, Machiko; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2016-07-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers. Melanoma accounts for less than 2% of skin cancer cases but causes a large majority of skin cancer deaths. Early detection of malignant melanoma remains the key factor in saving lives. However, the melanoma diagnosis is still clinically challenging. Here, we developed a confocal photothermal microscope for noninvasive, label-free, three-dimensional imaging of melanoma. The axial resolution of confocal photothermal microscope is ~3 times higher than that of commonly used photothermal microscope. Three-dimensional microscopic distribution of melanin in pigmented lesions of mouse skin is obtained directly with this setup. Classic morphometric and fractal analysis of sixteen 3D images (eight for benign melanoma and eight for malignant) showed a capability of pathology of melanoma: melanin density and size become larger during the melanoma growth, and the melanin distribution also becomes more chaotic and unregulated. The results suggested new options for monitoring the melanoma growth and also for the melanoma diagnosis.

  15. The Occurrence of Fetal Microchimeric Cells in Endometrial Tissues Is a Very Common Phenomenon in Benign Uterine Disorders, and the Lower Prevalence of Fetal Microchimerism Is Associated with Better Uterine Cancer Prognoses

    PubMed Central

    Kotlabova, Katerina; Pirkova, Petra; Libalova, Pavla; Vernerova, Zdenka; Svoboda, Bohuslav; Kucera, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    This is the first study carried out to describe the role of fetal microchimerism (FM) in the pathogenesis of uterine cancer. The prevalence and concentration of male fetal microchimeric cells (FMCs) were examined in endometrial tissues in relation to subtypes of uterine cancer, and the histological grade and stage of the tumor. FM occurrence was analyzed in relation to risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, age at cancer diagnosis, and patient pregnancy history. The prevalence and concentration of FMCs were examined in endometrial tissues using real-time polymerase chain reaction, SRY and β-globin sequences as markers for male fetal FMCs and total DNA. The studied group involved 47 type 1 endometrial cancers, 28 type 2 endometrial cancers, and 41 benign uterine diseases. While the prevalence of FM was decreased only in type 1 endometrial cancer, compared with benign uterine disorders (38.3% vs.70.7%; odds ratio [OR]=0.257, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.105 to 0.628, p=0.003), FMC concentrations did not differ within examined groups. The lower FM prevalence was detected in low-grade (grade 1 and grade 2) endometrioid cancer (38.3% vs. 70.7%, OR=0.256, 95% CI: 0.105 to 0.627, p=0.003) and in FIGO 1 tumors (40.7% vs. 70.7%, OR=0.285, 95% CI: 0.120 to 0.675, p=0.004). No correlation between FM prevalence or FMC concentrations and risk factors was demonstrated. A lower prevalence of male FM seemed to be associated with better prognoses in uterine cancer based on tumor subtype, histological grade, and stage of the tumor. PMID:24283364

  16. Expression of p53, p21(CIP1/WAF1) and eIF4E in the adjacent tissues of oral squamous cell carcinoma: establishing the molecular boundary and a cancer progression model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Li, Bo; Xu, Bo; Han, Bo; Xia, Hui; Chen, Qian-Ming; Li, Long-Jiang

    2015-09-01

    The present study evaluated the expression of key molecules and the status of DNA in both oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and adjacent tissues to establish a molecular surgical boundary and provide a cancer progression model. Biopsy samples from 50 OSCC patients were divided into T (cancer), P1 (0-0.5 cm), P2 (0.5-1 cm), P3 (1-1.5 cm) and P4 (1.5-2 cm) groups based on the distances from the visible boundary of the primary focus. Twenty samples of normal mucosa were used as controls. We used immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry to evaluate p53, p21(CIP1/WAF1), eIF4E and Ki-67 expression and to determine DNA status, respectively. Sub-mucosal invasion was present in the P1 and P2 groups as determined by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Mutant p53 expression decreased gradually from cancerous to normal mucosae, whereas p21(CIP1/WAF1) expression displayed an opposite trend. eIF4E expression decreased from cancerous to normal mucosae. Ki-67 expression, the heteroploidy ratio, S-phase fraction and proliferative index decreased gradually with the distance from the tumour centre. Based on these results, we suggest that the resection boundary in OSCC surgery should be beyond 2 cm from the tumour. Additionally, the adjacent tissues of the primary focus could be used as a model for assessing cancer progression. PMID:25835715

  17. The differentiation of malignant and benign human breast tissue at surgical margins and biopsy using x-ray interaction data and Bayesian classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mersov, A.; Mersov, G.; Al-Ebraheem, A.; Cornacchi, S.; Gohla, G.; Lovrics, P.; Farquharson, M. J.

    2014-02-01

    Worldwide, about 1.3 million women are diagnosed with breast cancer annually with an estimated 465,000 deaths. Accordingly, there is a need for high accuracy and speed in diagnosis of lesions suspected of being cancerous. This study assesses the interaction data collected from low energy x-rays within breast tissue samples. Trace element concentrations are assessed using x-ray fluorescence, as well as electron density, and molecular structure which are examined using incoherent and coherent scatter, respectively. Our work to date has shown that such data can provide a quantitative measure of certain tissue characterising parameters and hence, through appropriate modelling, could be used to classify samples for uses such as surgical margin detection and biopsy examination. The parameters used in this study for comparing the normal and tumour tissue sample populations are: levels of elements Ca, Cu, Fe, Br, Zn, Rb, K; the area, FWHM and amplitude from peaks fitted to the coherent scatter profile that are associated with fat, fibre and water content; the ratio of the Compton and coherent scatter peak area, FWHM and amplitude from the incoherent scatter profile. The novelty of the approach to this work lies in the fact that the classification process does not rely on one source of data but combines several measurements, the data from which in this application are modelled using a method based on Bayesian classification. The reliability of the classifications was assessed by its application to diagnostically known data that was not itself included in the thresholds determination. The results of the classification of over 70 breast tissue samples will be presented in this study. Bayesian modelling was carried out using selected significant parameters for classification resulting in 71% of normal tissue samples (n=35) and 66% of tumour tissue samples (n=35) being correctly classified when using all the samples. Bayesian classification using the same variables on all

  18. Epigenetic clustering of lung adenocarcinomas based on DNA methylation profiles in adjacent lung tissue: Its correlation with smoking history and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takashi; Arai, Eri; Kohno, Takashi; Takahashi, Yoriko; Miyata, Sayaka; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Soejima, Kenzo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Kanai, Yae

    2014-07-15

    The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of DNA methylation alterations during lung carcinogenesis. Infinium assay was performed using 139 paired samples of non-cancerous lung tissue (N) and tumorous tissue (T) from a learning cohort of patients with lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs). Fifty paired N and T samples from a validation cohort were also analyzed. DNA methylation alterations on 1,928 probes occurred in N samples relative to normal lung tissue from patients without primary lung tumors, and were inherited by, or strengthened in, T samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using DNA methylation levels in N samples on all 26,447 probes subclustered patients into Cluster I (n = 32), Cluster II (n = 35) and Cluster III (n = 72). LADCs in Cluster I developed from the inflammatory background in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in heavy smokers and were locally invasive. Most patients in Cluster II were non-smokers and had a favorable outcome. LADCs in Cluster III developed in light smokers were most aggressive (frequently showing lymphatic and blood vessel invasion, lymph node metastasis and an advanced pathological stage), and had a poor outcome. DNA methylation levels of hallmark genes for each cluster, such as IRX2, HOXD8, SPARCL1, RGS5 and EI24, were again correlated with clinicopathological characteristics in the validation cohort. DNA methylation profiles reflecting carcinogenetic factors such as smoking and COPD appear to be established in non-cancerous lung tissue from patients with LADCs and may determine the aggressiveness of tumors developing in individual patients, and thus patient outcome. PMID:24921089

  19. Epigenetic clustering of lung adenocarcinomas based on DNA methylation profiles in adjacent lung tissue: Its correlation with smoking history and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takashi; Arai, Eri; Kohno, Takashi; Takahashi, Yoriko; Miyata, Sayaka; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Soejima, Kenzo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Kanai, Yae

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of DNA methylation alterations during lung carcinogenesis. Infinium assay was performed using 139 paired samples of non-cancerous lung tissue (N) and tumorous tissue (T) from a learning cohort of patients with lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs). Fifty paired N and T samples from a validation cohort were also analyzed. DNA methylation alterations on 1,928 probes occurred in N samples relative to normal lung tissue from patients without primary lung tumors, and were inherited by, or strengthened in, T samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using DNA methylation levels in N samples on all 26,447 probes subclustered patients into Cluster I (n = 32), Cluster II (n = 35) and Cluster III (n = 72). LADCs in Cluster I developed from the inflammatory background in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in heavy smokers and were locally invasive. Most patients in Cluster II were non-smokers and had a favorable outcome. LADCs in Cluster III developed in light smokers were most aggressive (frequently showing lymphatic and blood vessel invasion, lymph node metastasis and an advanced pathological stage), and had a poor outcome. DNA methylation levels of hallmark genes for each cluster, such as IRX2, HOXD8, SPARCL1, RGS5 and EI24, were again correlated with clinicopathological characteristics in the validation cohort. DNA methylation profiles reflecting carcinogenetic factors such as smoking and COPD appear to be established in non-cancerous lung tissue from patients with LADCs and may determine the aggressiveness of tumors developing in individual patients, and thus patient outcome. PMID:24921089

  20. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www. ...

  1. The Benign Hamburger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peaslee, Graham; Lantz, Juliette M.; Walczak, Mary M.

    1998-01-01

    Uses a case study of food poisoning from hamburgers at the fictitious Jill-at-the-Grill to teach the nuclear science behind food irradiation. Includes case teaching notes on the benign hamburger. (ASK)

  2. Benign positional vertigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical practice guideline: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2008;139(5 Suppl 4):S47-S81. ... BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015: ...

  3. Thyroid carcinoma masquerading as a solitary benign hyperfunctioning nodule

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, M.P.; Fellmeth, B.; Salhany, K.E.; Patton, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    Focal hot nodules on iodine thyroid images are associated with an exceedingly low incidence of malignancy. Most previously reported hot carcinomas represent the coexistence of small malignancies in or adjacent to a benign hot lesion. Described here is a 3-cm papillary carcinoma that fulfilled the criteria for benignancy on Tc-99m and I-123 imaging. Coincidental carcinoma within a benign lesion was excluded by detailed scintigraphic-pathologic correlation of the tumor. The implications of this case on the management of the solitary hot nodule are discussed and the literature reviewed.

  4. TE = 32 ms vs TE = 100 ms echo‐time 1H‐magnetic resonance spectroscopy in prostate cancer: Tumor metabolite depiction and absolute concentrations in tumors and adjacent tissues

    PubMed Central

    Basharat, Meer; Morgan, Veronica A.; Parker, Chris; Dearnaley, David; deSouza, Nandita M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the depiction of metabolite signals in short and long echo time (TE) prostate cancer spectra at 3T, and to quantify their concentrations in tumors of different stage and grade, and tissues adjacent to tumor. Materials and Methods First, single‐voxel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) spectra were acquired from voxels consisting entirely of tumor, as defined on T 2‐weighted and diffusion‐weighted (DW)‐MRI and from a biopsy‐positive octant, at TEs of 32 msec and 100 msec in 26 prostate cancer patients. Then, in a separate cohort of 26 patients, single‐voxel TE = 32 msec MR spectroscopy (MRS) was performed over a partial‐tumor region and a matching, contralateral normal‐appearing region, defined similarly. Metabolite depiction was compared between TEs using Cramér‐Rao lower bounds (CRLB), and absolute metabolite concentrations were calculated from TE = 32 msec spectra referenced to unsuppressed water spectra. Results Citrate and spermine resonances in tumor were better depicted (had significantly lower CRLB) at TE = 32 msec, while the choline resonance was better depicted at TE = 100 msec. Citrate and spermine concentrations were significantly lower in patients of more advanced stage, significantly lower in Gleason grade 3+4 than 3+3 tumors, and significantly lower than expected from the tumor fraction in partial‐tumor voxels (by 14 mM and 4 mM, respectively, P < 0.05). Conclusion Citrate and spermine resonances are better depicted at short TE than long TE in tumors. Reduction in these concentrations is related to increasing tumor stage and grade in vivo, while reductions in the normal‐appearing tissues immediately adjacent to tumor likely reflect tumor field effects. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015;42:1086–1093. PMID:26258905

  5. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  6. Malignancy and the benign lymphoepithelial lesion.

    PubMed

    Batsakis, J G; Bernacki, E G; Rice, D H; Stebler, M E

    1975-02-01

    The benign lymphoepithelial lesion of salivary glands is now considered the histological hallmark of a variety of clinical and pathological disorders affecting salivary tissues. Malignancy arising in the lesion is uncommon, but may take origin in either the epithelial or lymphoreticular components. Lymphomas and pseudolymphomas associated with salivary gland lymphoepithelial lesions have been predominately extra-salivary and strongly correlated with Sjögren's syndrome. Epithelial malignancy has not been associated with autoimmunity and with few exceptions has been of the anaplastic type. This report presents two patients with intra-salivary lymphomas arising in a benign lymphoepithelial lesion of salivary glands and a patient with anaplastic carcinoma arising in the epithelial islands of the lesion. The fourth patient manifested pseudolymphomatous lymphoreticular hyperplasia in lung and submandibular gland and illustrates the possible multiple organ involvement that may occur in patients with benign lymphoepithelial lesion, even without clinical evidence of concommitant autoimmune disorders. PMID:1172885

  7. Benign Essential Blepharospasm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Organizations Column1 Column2 Benign Essential Blepharospasm Research Foundation 637 North 7th Street Suite 102 P.O. ... 832-0788 Fax: 409-832-0890 Dystonia Medical Research Foundation 1 East Wacker Drive Suite 2810 Chicago, IL ...

  8. Benign bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Gilday, D L; Ash, J M

    1976-01-01

    There is little information in the literature concerning the role of bone scanning in benign bone neoplasms except for sporadic reports. Since the advent of 99mTc-polyphosphate, bone imaging has proven feasible and useful in locating the cause of bone pain, such as in osteoid osteomas, which are not always radiologically apparent, and in evaluating whether or not a radiologic lesion is indeed benign and solitary. Blood-pool images are particularly important in neoplastic disease, since the absence of hyperemia in the immediate postinjection period favors the diagnosis of a benign neoplasm, as does low-grade uptake on the delayed study. The scan, including pinhole magnification images, is especially valuable in diagnosing lesions in the spine and pelvis, which are poorly seen radiologically. We have studied various types of benign bone tumors, including simple and aneurysmal bone cysts, fibrous cortical defects, and nonossifying fibromas, all of which had minimal or no increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical, unless traumatized. Although osteochondromas and enchondromas showed varied accumulation of activity, the scan was useful in differentiating these from sarcomatous lesions. All osteoid osteomas demonstrated marked activity, and could be accurately located preoperatively, as could the extent of fibrous dysplasia. The bone scan in the reticuloses also showed abnormal accumulation of activity, and aided in arriving at the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic bone lesions. PMID:1082170

  9. Benign Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Human Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Morozov, Alexei; Downey, Robert J.; Healey, John; Moreira, Andre L.; Lou, Emil; Leung, Roland; Edgar, Mark; Singer, Samuel; LaQuaglia, Michael; Maki, Robert G.; Moore, Malcolm A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Recent evidence suggests that at least some sarcomas arise through aberrant differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), but MSCs have never been isolated directly from human sarcoma specimens. Experimental Design We examined human sarcoma cell lines and primary adherent cultures derived from human sarcoma surgical samples for features of MSCs. We further characterized primary cultures as either benign or malignant by the presence of tumor-defining genetic lesions and tumor formation in immunocompromised mice. Results We show that a dedifferentiated liposarcoma cell line DDLS8817 demonstrates fat, bone and cartilage trilineage differentiation potential characteristic of MSCs. Primary sarcoma cultures have the morphology, surface immunophenotype and differentiation potential characteristic of MSCs. Surprisingly, many of these cultures are benign as they do not form tumors in mice and lack sarcoma-defining genetic lesions. Consistent with the recently proposed pericyte origin of MSCs in normal human tissues, sarcoma-derived benign MSCs express markers of pericytes and cooperate with endothelial cells in tube formation assays. In human sarcoma specimens, a subset of CD146-positive microvascular pericytes express CD105, an MSC marker, while malignant cells largely do not. In an in vitro co-culture model, sarcoma-derived benign MSCs as well as normal human pericytes markedly stimulate the growth of sarcoma cell lines. Conclusions Sarcoma-derived benign MSCs/pericytes represent a previously undescribed stromal cell type in sarcoma which may contribute to tumor formation. PMID:21138865

  10. Fish-eye sign in scintigraphy of benign thyroid nodule

    SciTech Connect

    Vaqueiro, M.; Gharib, H.; Wahner, H.W.

    1985-11-01

    An unusual scintigraphic appearance of a benign adenomatous nodule in the thyroid is described which showed a central core of functional tissue surrounded by a rim of nonfunctioning tissue and degenerative changes. The descriptive term fish-eye sign is proposed. The characterization of tissue by scintigraphy prior to fine needle aspiration may be helpful in its interpretation.

  11. A novel benign solution for collagen processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoult, Olivier

    Collagen is the main protein constituting the extracellular matrix (ECM) of tissues in the body (skin, cartilage, blood vessels...). It exists many types of collagen, this work studies only fibrillar collagen (e.g. collagen type I contained in the skin) that exhibits a triple helical structure composed of 3 alpha-helical collagen chains. This particular and defined hierarchical structure is essential to the biological and mechanical properties of the collagen. Processing collagen into scaffolds to mimic the ECM is crucial for successful tissue engineering. Recently collagen was processed into fibrous and porous scaffold using electrospinning process. However the solvent (HFIP) used for electrospinning is extremely toxic for the user and expensive. This work shows that HFIP can be replaced by a benign mixture composed of water, salt and alcohol. Yet only three alcohols (methanol, ethanol and iso-propanol) enable the dissolution of large quantity of collagen in the benign mixture, with a wide range of alcohol to buffer ratio, and conserve the collagen hierarchical structure at least as well as the HFIP. Collagen can be electrospun from the benign mixture into sub-micron fibers with concentrations as low as 6 wt-% for a wide range of alcohol to buffer ratio, with at least 10wt-% of salt, and any of the three alcohols. Specific conditions yield nano size fibers. After processing from HFIP or a benign mixture, collagen is water soluble and needs to be chemically crosslink for tissue engineering application. Post-crosslinking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) results in the loss of the scaffold fibrous aspect and porosity, hence it is useless for tissue engineering. Such issue could be prevented by incorporating the crosslinker into the mixture prior to electrospinning. When EDC is used alone, collagen forms a gel in the mixture within minutes, preventing electrospinning. The addition of N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) in excess to EDC

  12. Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M; Moss, Joel

    2016-09-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare and poorly characterized disease affecting primarily premenopausal women. Asymptomatic patients are often diagnosed incidentally by radiographs or other lung-imaging procedures performed for other indications, and the diagnosis is eventually confirmed by biopsy. Patients with BML are usually treated pharmacologically with antiestrogen therapies or surgically with oophorectomy or hysterectomy. Antiestrogen therapy is typically efficacious and, in general, most patients have a favorable prognosis. Asymptomatic patients with a confirmed diagnosis of BML, may be followed conservatively without treatment. PMID:27514603

  13. Benign follicular tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Tellechea, Oscar; Cardoso, José Carlos; Reis, José Pedro; Ramos, Leonor; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Coutinho, Inês; Baptista, António Poiares

    2015-01-01

    Benign follicular tumors comprise a large and heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a common histogenesis and display morphological features resembling one or several portions of the normal hair follicle, or recapitulate part of its embryological development. Most cases present it as clinically nondescript single lesions and essentially of dermatological relevance. Occasionally, however, these lesions be multiple and represent a cutaneous marker of complex syndromes associated with an increased risk of visceral neoplasms. In this article, the authors present the microscopic structure of the normal hair follicle as a basis to understand the type and level of differentiation of the various follicular tumors. The main clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of benign follicular tumors are then discussed, including dilated pore of Winer, pilar sheath acanthoma, trichoadenoma, trichilemmoma, infundibuloma, proliferating trichilemmal cyst/tumor, trichoblastoma and its variants, pilomatricoma, trichodiscoma/fibrofolliculoma, neurofollicular hamartoma and trichofolliculoma. In addition, the main syndromes presenting with multiple follicular tumors are also discussed, namely Cowden, Birt-Hogg-Dubé, Rombo and Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndromes, as well as multiple tumors of follicular infundibulum (infundibulomatosis) and multiple trichoepitheliomas. Although the diagnosis of follicular tumors relies on histological examination, we highlight the importance of their knowledge for the clinician, especially when in presence of patients with multiple lesions that may be the cutaneous marker of a cancer-prone syndrome. The dermatologist is therefore in a privileged position to recognize these lesions, which is extremely important to provide further propedeutic, appropriate referral and genetic counseling for these patients. PMID:26734858

  14. [Benign endobronchial tumors].

    PubMed

    Nikhtianov, Kh

    1980-01-01

    Endobronchial localizations of benign neoplasms are met with in 24.5 per cent of the cases. Right lung localizations are more frequent. More than half of them are broadly based (57.5 per cent). In most of the cases it is a matter of nonepithelial tumours of which a greater intensity is displayed by hamartomas /7/, vascular /4/ and neurogenic /3/ neoformations. The size of endobronchial tumours varies from 1 to 10 cm. Cases measuring 1-3 cm are the most numerous. Those of the "iceberg" type appear to be larger. The size per se has a relative importance for the clinical picture. Endobronchial tumours exhibit a clear cut clinical picture, and run a clinical course in three stages, determined by the degree of bronchial obturation and longstanding of the condition. The most common symptoms are coughing /80.7 per cent/, expectoration /50.0 per cent/, rales /57.6 per cent/, dullness /38.4 per cent/ and lacking respiration /38.4 per cent/. The nosological entity by itself is less conclusive for the clinical course. The X-ray data have orientation and by no means decisive significance for the diagnosis. The "crab pincers" sign in the bronchial lumen during bronchography has a definite importance. Bronchoscopy in conjunction with biopsy is a dependable method of preoperative diagnosing. It contributes greatly to the nosological diagnosis. Even nowadays, the diagnosis of endobronchial tumours is difficult. A rather exact diagnosis can be made intraoperatively, whereas the most accurate diagnosis is established only after histological study. The treatment of endobronchial benign neoplasms is operative. The number of medium /lobectomies/ and extensive /pulmonectomies/ pulmonary resections is considerable. In case of early diagnosis and intervention, sparing resection is the naturally indicated size of operation - mainly resection and plasty of the bronchi without lobectomy. The advantages of circular resection are substantial. Reconstructive operations of "clarinet" and

  15. Inverted papillomas and benign nonneoplastic lesions of the nasal cavity

    PubMed Central

    Casiano, Roy R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Benign lesions of the nasal cavity represent a diverse group of pathologies. Furthermore, each of these disorders may present differently in any given patient as pain and discomfort, epistaxis, headaches, vision changes, or nasal obstruction. Although these nasal masses are benign, many of them have a significant capacity for local tissue destruction and symptomatology secondary to this destruction. Advances in office-based endoscopic nasendoscopy have equipped the otolaryngologist with a safe, inexpensive, and rapid means of directly visualizing lesions within the nasal cavity and the initiation of appropriate treatment. Methods: The purpose of this study is to review the diagnosis, management, and controversies of many of the most common benign lesions of the nasal cavity encountered by the primary care physician or otolaryngologist. Results: This includes discussion of inverted papilloma (IP), juvenile angiofibroma, squamous papilloma, pyogenic granuloma, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, schwannoma, benign fibro-osseous lesions, and other benign lesions of the nasal cavity, with particular emphasis on IP and juvenile angiofibroma. Conclusion: A diverse array of benign lesions occur within the nasal cavity and paranasal cavities. Despite their inability to metastasize, many of these lesions have significant capability for local tissue destruction and recurrence. PMID:22487294

  16. Optical discrimination between malignant and benign breast lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarto, Giovanna; Pifferi, Antonio; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Ieva, Francesca; Paganoni, Anna Maria; Abbate, Francesca; Cassano, Enrico; Taroni, Paola

    2015-07-01

    Time domain multi-wavelength (635 to 1060 nm) optical mammography was performed on 82 subjects with breast lesions (45 malignant and 38 benign lesions). A perturbative approach based on the high-order calculation of the pathlength of photons inside the lesion was applied to estimate differences between lesion and average healthy tissue of the same breast in terms of: i) absorption properties, and ii) concentration of the major tissue constituents (oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipid and collagen). The absorption difference Δμa between lesion and healthy tissue is significantly different for malignant vs. benign lesions at all wavelengths. Logistic regression fitted to the absorption data identifies 975 nm as the key wavelength to discriminate malignant from benign lesions. When the difference in tissue composition between lesion and healthy tissue is considered, malignant lesions are characterized by significantly higher collagen content than benign lesions. Also the best model for the discrimination of malignant lesions obtained applying regression logistic to tissue composition is based only on collagen. Including demographic information into the model improves its specificity.

  17. Benign small bowel tumor.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J M; Melvin, D B; Gray, G; Thorbjarnarson, B

    1975-01-01

    The clinical record and histologic sections of 84 cases of benign small bowel tumor are reviewed. Manifestations of systemic diseases, congenital anomalies, and lesions of either the ileocecal valve or periampullary region were excluded. In the same time span there were 96 small bowel malignancies. Clinical presentation, pathologic findings, management and result are compared to the collected published experience of about 2000 cases. There were 36 leiomyomas, 22 lipomas, 9 angiomas, 6 neurofibromas and 4 fibromas. Thirty-six men and 48 women were affected; the majority in their fifth and sixth decade. Seventy-eight were operative and 6 autopsy diagnoses. The most common symptom was obstruction (42%) followed by hemorrhage (34%) and pain (22%), relative frequency differing for the various specific tumors. There were rarely significant physical findings. A diagnosis of small bowel tumor was made radiologically in 30 patients. Because of the nonspecificity of other signs and symptoms, an acute awareness of the possibility of small bowel tumor is mandatory for preoperative anticipation of the diagnosis. Local resection was performed in all with no deaths or significant postoperative complications. PMID:1078626

  18. Benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Forde, James C; Thomas, Dominique Dana Marie; Laor, Leanna; Hossack, Tania; Woo, Henry H; Te, Alexis E; Kaplan, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which causes lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), is a common diagnosis among the ageing male population with increasing prevalence. Many risks factors, both modifiable and non-modifiable, can increase the risk of development and progression of BPH and LUTS. The symptoms can be obstructive (resulting in urinary hesitancy, weak stream, straining or prolonged voiding) or irritative (resulting in increased urinary frequency and urgency, nocturia, urge incontinence and reduced voiding volumes), or can affect the patient after micturition (for example, postvoid dribble or incomplete emptying). BPH occurs when both stromal and epithelial cells of the prostate in the transitional zone proliferate by processes that are thought to be influenced by inflammation and sex hormones, causing prostate enlargement. Patients with LUTS undergo several key diagnostic investigations before being diagnosed with BPH. Treatment options for men with BPH start at watchful waiting and progress through medical to surgical interventions. For the majority of patients, the starting point on the treatment pathway will be dictated by their symptoms and degree of bother. PMID:27147135

  19. Baritosis: a benign pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Doig, A T

    1976-01-01

    Baritosis is one of the benign pneumoconioses in which inhaled particulate matter lies in the lungs for years without producing symptoms, abnormal physical signs, incapacity for work, interference with lung function, or liability to develop pulmonary or bronchial infections or other thoracic disease. Owing to the high radio-opacity of barium, the discrete shadows in the chest radiograph are extremely dense. Even in the most well-marked cases with extreme profusion of the opacities, massive shadows do not occur. When exposure to barium dust ceases the opacities begin slowly to disappear. Nine cases of baritosis occurring in a small factory in which barytes was crushed, graded, and milled are described. Two of the cases occurred after only 18 and 21 month's exposure, and 9 of the 10 men employed for more than one and a half years had baritosis. Five of the affected men examined at intervals since their exposure to barytes ceased in 1964 showed marked clearing of their radiological abnormalities. Images PMID:1257935

  20. MRI manifestations of soft-tissue haemangiomas and accompanying reactive bone changes

    PubMed Central

    Pourbagher, A; Pourbagher, M A; Karan, B; Ozkoc, G

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Soft tissue haemangiomas are common benign vascular lesions that can be accompanied by reactive changes in the adjacent bone structure. This study aimed to discuss the MRI features of soft-tissue haemangiomas with an emphasis on changes in bone. Methods The radiographic and MRI findings of 23 patients (9 males, 14 females; mean age 25 years; age range 2–46 years) with soft-tissue haemangiomas were analysed retrospectively. MR images were evaluated for location of the lesion, size, configuration, signal features, contrast patterns, proximity to adjacent bone and changes in the accompanying bone. Excisional biopsy was performed in 15 patients. Results Radiographs demonstrated phleboliths in 8 patients (34%) and reactive bone changes in 4 (19%). On MRI, T1 weighted images showed that most of the lesions were isointense or isohyperintense, as compared with muscle tissue; however, on T2 weighted images all lesions appeared as hyperintense. Following intravenous gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) administration, homogeneous enhancement was observed in 3 lesions and heterogeneous enhancement was seen in 19. No enhancement was observed in one patient. Bone atrophy adjacent to the lesion was observed in four patients. Conclusion MRI is the most valuable means of diagnosing deep soft-tissue haemangiomas. Bone changes can accompany deeply situated haemangiomas; in four of our patients, we found atrophy of the bone adjacent to the lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature regarding atrophy of the bone adjacent to a lesion. PMID:21123304

  1. Differential vitamin D 24-hydroxylase/CYP24A1 gene promoter methylation in endothelium from benign and malignant human prostate

    PubMed Central

    Karpf, Adam R; Omilian, Angela R; Bshara, Wiam; Tian, Lili; Tangrea, Michael A; Morrison, Carl D; Johnson, Candace S

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations occur in tumor-associated vessels in the tumor microenvironment. Methylation of the CYP24A1 gene promoter differs in endothelial cells isolated from tumors and non-tumor microenvironments in mice. The epigenetic makeup of endothelial cells of human tumor-associated vasculature is unknown due to difficulty of isolating endothelial cells populations from a heterogeneous tissue microenvironment. To ascertain CYP24A1 promoter methylation in tumor-associated endothelium, we utilized laser microdissection guided by CD31 immunohistochemistry to procure endothelial cells from human prostate tumor specimens. Prostate tissues were obtained following robotic radical prostatectomy from men with clinically localized prostate cancer. Adjacent histologically benign prostate tissues were used to compare endothelium from benign versus tumor microenvironments. Sodium bisulfite sequencing of CYP24A1 promoter region showed that the average CYP24A1 promoter methylation in the endothelium was 20% from the tumor microenvironment compared with 8.2% in the benign microenvironment (p < 0.05). A 2-fold to 17-fold increase in CYP24A1 promoter methylation was observed in the prostate tumor endothelium compared with the matched benign prostate endothelium in four patient samples, while CYP24A1 promoter methylation remained unchanged in two patient samples. In addition, there is no correlation of the level of CYP24A1 promoter methylation in prostate tumor-associated endothelium with that of epithelium/stroma. This study demonstrates that the CYP24A1 promoter is methylated in tumor-associated endothelium, indicating that epigenetic alterations in CYP24A1 may play a role in determining the phenotype of tumor-associated vasculature in the prostate tumor microenvironment. PMID:21725204

  2. [Surgical therapy of benign thyroid gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Mann, B; Buhr, H J

    1998-01-01

    Operations due to benign thyroid diseases are one of the most common elective surgical procedures performed in Germany. In the majority of cases, the preoperative determination of the serum thyrotropin concentration and an ultrasound of the thyroid region are sufficient preoperative investigations. In cases of thyroid functional disorders a scintigram should be additionally performed. Indications for operation in nodular goiter are local, mechanical compression, suspicion of malignancy and focal or disseminated autonomy. In Graves' disease the indication for operation is usually recurrent hyperthyroidism after medical treatment. In endemic nodular goiter the morphology of the nodular thyroid tissue is the guideline for resection; i.e. all nodules have to be removed. In Graves' disease the function of the remaining thyroid tissue is essential. The standardized subtotal resection with remaining tissue around the hilus, which frequently barries nodules, should be avoided. Instead a selective resection which takes the individual morphology and function of the diseased thyroid tissue into account should be favorized. With this operative technique the surgeon will have frequently direct contact with the recurrent nerve and the parathyroids. It is documented, that intraoperative visualisation of the recurrent nerve decreases not only the rate of permanent nerve damages but increases as well the completeness of resection. Additionally, ligation of the inferior thyroid artery decreases the incidence of residual or recurrent disease without enlarging the risk of postoperative parathyroiprive hypocalcemia. An individual follow-up with iodine and/or thyroxine replacement therapy is an indispensable component of the surgical therapeutic approach. The target of thyroxine substitution in patients after resection due to benign thyroid diseases is a physiologic serum thyrotropin concentration (0.3 to 4.0 mU/l). PMID:9542021

  3. Environmentally Benign Stab Detonators

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A E

    2006-07-07

    The coupling of energetic metallic multilayers (a.k.a. flash metal) with energetic sol-gel synthesis and processing is an entirely new approach to forming energetic devices for several DoD and DOE needs. They are also practical and commercially viable manufacturing techniques. Improved occupational safety and health, performance, reliability, reproducibility, and environmentally acceptable processing can be achieved using these methodologies and materials. The development and fielding of this technology will enhance mission readiness and reduce the costs, environmental risks and the necessity of resolving environmental concerns related to maintaining military readiness while simultaneously enhancing safety and health. Without sacrificing current performance, we will formulate new impact initiated device (IID) compositions to replace materials from the current composition that pose significant environmental, health, and safety problems associated with functions such as synthesis, material receipt, storage, handling, processing into the composition, reaction products from testing, and safe disposal. To do this, we will advance the use of nanocomposite preparation via the use of multilayer flash metal and sol-gel technologies and apply it to new small IIDs. This work will also serve to demonstrate that these technologies and resultant materials are relevant and practical to a variety of energetic needs of DoD and DOE. The goal will be to produce an IID whose composition is acceptable by OSHA, EPA, the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Resource Recovery Act, etc. standards, without sacrificing current performance. The development of environmentally benign stab detonators and igniters will result in the removal of hazardous and toxic components associated with their manufacturing, handling, and use. This will lead to improved worker safety during manufacturing as well as reduced exposure of Service personnel during their storage and or use in operations. The

  4. The rare benign liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Skalicky, T; Treska, V; Liska, V; Sutnar, A; Molacek, J; Mirka, H; Ferda, J; Ohlidalova, K

    2007-01-01

    As opposed to malignant secondary tumors, metastases of the colorectal carcinoma are benign tumors of the liver that are quite rare in the Czech Republic. From the 55 patients operated on since 2000 at our department for benign liver tumors, the most frequent are haemangiomas, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hepatocelular adenoma. Only 7.3% of them form a different histological type of a tumor than this most frequently occurring trio of tumors. The authors describe three cases of rather rare liver tumors with benign behavior that have the potential of becoming malignant. It concerns mucin producing biliary tumors, which correspond to the pancreatic intraductal papillary mucin tumor, hepatic cystadenoma with ovarian stroma and a liver hamartoma in an adult patient (Ref 13). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:17694811

  5. Benign mucous membrane pemphigoid with advanced periodontal involvement: diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Lilly, J P; Spivey, J D; Fotos, P G

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes a case of benign mucous membrane pemphigoid which affected the periodontal tissues and complicated ocular prosthesis placement. The clinical findings, diagnostic criteria, and therapeutic management of this disorder are reviewed. PMID:7473017

  6. Benign prenatal hypophosphatasia: a treatable disease not to be missed.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Michigami, Toshimi; Tachikawa, Kanako; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2014-03-01

    Prenatal bowing of the long bones is often associated with severe bone dysplasias. We report a child who presented marked bowing of the long bones at birth but showed a relatively benign postnatal course with spontaneous improvement of bowing. The fetal imaging showed normal skeletal mineralization and normal chest and abdominal circumferences despite the limb bowing and shortening. Decreased serum alkaline phosphatase activity and elevated urine phosphoethanolamine was biochemically evident, and compound heterozygous mutations in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene were identified, which confirmed the diagnosis of a benign form of prenatal hypophosphatasia. Benign prenatal hypophosphatasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of congenital bowing of the long bones. PMID:24145968

  7. Diagnosing Common Benign Skin Tumors.

    PubMed

    Higgins, James C; Maher, Michael H; Douglas, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    Patients will experience a wide range of skin growths and changes over their lifetime. Family physicians should be able to distinguish potentially malignant from benign skin tumors. Most lesions can be diagnosed on the basis of history and clinical examination. Lesions that are suspicious for malignancy, those with changing characteristics, symptomatic lesions, and those that cause cosmetic problems may warrant medical therapy, a simple office procedure (e.g., excision, cryosurgery, laser ablation), or referral. Acrochordons are extremely common, small, and typically pedunculated benign neoplasms. Simple scissor or shave excision, electrodesiccation, or cryosurgery can be used for treatment. Sebaceous hyperplasia presents as asymptomatic, discrete, soft, pale yellow, shiny bumps on the forehead or cheeks, or near hair follicles. Except for cosmesis, they have no clinical significance. Lipomas are soft, flesh-colored nodules that are easily moveable under the overlying skin. Keratoacanthomas are rapidly growing, squamoproliferative benign tumors that resemble squamous cell carcinomas. Early simple excision is recommended. Pyogenic granuloma is a rapidly growing nodule that bleeds easily. Treatment includes laser ablation or shave excision with electrodesiccation of the base. Dermatofibromas are an idiopathic benign proliferation of fibroblasts. No treatment is required unless there is a change in size or color, bleeding, or irritation from trauma. Epidermal inclusion cysts can be treated by simple excision with removal of the cyst and cyst wall. Seborrheic keratoses and cherry angiomas generally do not require treatment. PMID:26447443

  8. Pathogenesis of benign adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Vezzosi, Delphine; Bertherat, Jérôme; Groussin, Lionel

    2010-12-01

    Most adrenocortical tumors (ACT) are benign unilateral adrenocortical adenomas, often discovered incidentally. Exceptionally, ACT are bilateral. However bilateral ACT have been very helpful to progress in the pathophysiology of ACT. Although most ACT are of sporadic origin, they may also be part of syndromic and/or hereditary disorders. The identification of the genetics of familial diseases associated with benign ACT has been helpful to define somatic alterations in sporadic ACT: for example, identification of PRKAR1A mutations in Carney complex or alterations of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Coli. Components of the cAMP signaling pathway-for example, adrenocorticotropic-hormone receptors and other membrane receptors, Gs protein, phosphodiesterases and protein kinase A-can be altered to various degrees in benign cortisol-secreting ACT. These progress have been important for the understanding of the pathogenesis of benign ACT, but already have profound implications for clinical management, for example in unraveling the genetic origin of disease in some patients with ACT. They also have therapeutic consequences, and should help to develop new therapeutic options. PMID:21115158

  9. The Conundrum of Genetic "Drivers" in Benign Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shumei; Lippman, Scott M; Flaherty, Keith T; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2016-08-01

    Advances in deep genomic sequencing have identified a spectrum of cancer-specific passenger and driver aberrations. Clones with driver anomalies are believed to be positively selected during carcinogenesis. Accumulating evidence, however, shows that genomic alterations, such as those inBRAF,RAS,EGFR,HER2,FGFR3,PIK3CA,TP53,CDKN2A, andNF1/2, all of which are considered hallmark drivers of specific cancers, can also be identified in benign and premalignant conditions, occasionally at frequencies higher than in their malignant counterparts. Targeting these genomic drivers can produce dramatic responses in advanced cancer, but the effects on their benign counterparts are less clear. This benign-malignant phenomenon is well illustrated in studies ofBRAFV600E mutations, which are paradoxically more frequent in benign nevi (∼80%) than in dysplastic nevi (∼60%) or melanoma (∼40%-45%). Similarly, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 is more commonly overexpressed in ductal carcinoma in situ (∼27%-56%) when compared with invasive breast cancer (∼11%-20%).FGFR3mutations in bladder cancer also decrease with tumor grade (low-grade tumors, ∼61%; high-grade, ∼11%). "Driver" mutations also occur in nonmalignant settings:TP53mutations in synovial tissue from rheumatoid arthritis andFGFR3mutations in seborrheic keratosis. The latter observations suggest that the oncogenicity of these alterations may be tissue context-dependent. The conversion of benign conditions to premalignant disease may involve other genetic events and/or epigenetic reprogramming. Putative driver mutations can also be germline and associated with increased cancer risk (eg, germlineRASorTP53alterations), but germlineFGFR3orNF2abnormalities do not predispose to malignancy. We discuss the enigma of genetic "drivers" in benign and premalignant conditions and the implications for prevention strategies and theories of tumorigenesis. PMID:27059373

  10. The Conundrum of Genetic “Drivers” in Benign Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Keith T.; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2016-01-01

    Advances in deep genomic sequencing have identified a spectrum of cancer-specific passenger and driver aberrations. Clones with driver anomalies are believed to be positively selected during carcinogenesis. Accumulating evidence, however, shows that genomic alterations, such as those in BRAF, RAS, EGFR, HER2, FGFR3, PIK3CA, TP53, CDKN2A, and NF1/2, all of which are considered hallmark drivers of specific cancers, can also be identified in benign and premalignant conditions, occasionally at frequencies higher than in their malignant counterparts. Targeting these genomic drivers can produce dramatic responses in advanced cancer, but the effects on their benign counterparts are less clear. This benign-malignant phenomenon is well illustrated in studies of BRAF V600E mutations, which are paradoxically more frequent in benign nevi (∼80%) than in dysplastic nevi (∼60%) or melanoma (∼40%-45%). Similarly, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 is more commonly overexpressed in ductal carcinoma in situ (∼27%-56%) when compared with invasive breast cancer (∼11%-20%). FGFR3 mutations in bladder cancer also decrease with tumor grade (low-grade tumors, ∼61%; high-grade, ∼11%). “Driver” mutations also occur in nonmalignant settings: TP53 mutations in synovial tissue from rheumatoid arthritis and FGFR3 mutations in seborrheic keratosis. The latter observations suggest that the oncogenicity of these alterations may be tissue context–dependent. The conversion of benign conditions to premalignant disease may involve other genetic events and/or epigenetic reprogramming. Putative driver mutations can also be germline and associated with increased cancer risk (eg, germline RAS or TP53 alterations), but germline FGFR3 or NF2 abnormalities do not predispose to malignancy. We discuss the enigma of genetic “drivers” in benign and premalignant conditions and the implications for prevention strategies and theories of tumorigenesis. PMID:27059373

  11. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  12. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  13. Caveolin-1 overexpression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Nazhvani, Ali Dehghani; Azizi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Caveolin-1, a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, is supposed to have different regulatory roles as promoter or suppressor in many human cancers. However, no published study concerned its expression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of Cav-1 in the most common benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and evaluate its correlation with proliferation activity. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and Ki67 were evaluated in 49 samples, including 11 normal salivary glands, 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 13 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCC), and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). The expression of Cav-1 was seen in 18 % of normal salivary glands and 85 % of tumors. The immunoreaction in the tumors was significantly higher than normal tissues (P = 0.001), but the difference between benign and malignant tumors was not significant (P = 0.07). Expression of Cav-1 was correlated with Ki67 labeling index in PAs, but not in malignant tumors. Cav-1 expression was not in association with tumor size and stage. Overexpression of Cav-1 was found in salivary gland tumors in comparison with normal tissues, but no significant difference was observed between benign and malignant tumors. Cav-1 was inversely correlated with proliferation in PA. Therefore, this marker may participate in tumorigenesis of salivary gland tumors and may be a potential biomarker for cancer treatments. PMID:26323261

  14. Diode Laser Excision of Oral Benign Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Ena; Sareen, Mohit; Dhaka, Payal; Baghla, Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lasers have made tremendous progress in the field of dentistry and have turned out to be crucial in oral surgery as collateral approach for soft tissue surgery. This rapid progress can be attributed to the fact that lasers allow efficient execution of soft tissue procedures with excellent hemostasis and field visibility. When matched to scalpel, electrocautery or high frequency devices, lasers offer maximum postoperative patient comfort. Methods: Four patients agreed to undergo surgical removal of benign lesions of the oral cavity. 810 nm diode lasers were used in continuous wave mode for excisional biopsy. The specimens were sent for histopathological examination and patients were assessed on intraoperative and postoperative complications. Results: Diode laser surgery was rapid, bloodless and well accepted by patients and led to complete resolution of the lesions. The excised specimen proved adequate for histopathological examination. Hemostasis was achieved immediately after the procedure with minimal postoperative problems, discomfort and scarring. Conclusion: We conclude that diode lasers are rapidly becoming the standard of care in contemporary dental practice and can be employed in procedures requiring excisional biopsy of oral soft tissue lesions with minimal problems in histopathological diagnosis. PMID:26464781

  15. A rare benign ovarian tumour.

    PubMed

    Palmeiro, Marta Morna; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Loureiro, Ana Luisa; Esteves, Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumour (SST) of the ovary is an extremely rare and benign ovarian neoplasm, accounting for 6% of the sex cord stromal ovarian tumours subtype. Usually, it is found during the second and third decades of life. Patients commonly present with pelvic pain, a palpable pelvic mass or menstrual irregularity. We report a case of a 20-year-old woman reporting of mild pelvic pain, with normal laboratory data. On imaging examinations, a large right adnexal tumour was found, with features suggesting an ovarian sex cord tumour. The patient underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy, diagnosing a SST of the ovary. This paper also reviews the literature, and emphasises the typical pathological and imaging characteristics of these rare benign ovarian lesions, and their impact, in a conservative surgery. PMID:26933186

  16. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. PMID:26614702

  17. CT of soft-tissue neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weekes, R.G.; McLeod, R.A.; Reiman, H.M.; Pritchard, D.J.

    1985-02-01

    The computed tomographic scans (CT) of 84 patients with untreated soft-tissue neoplasms were studied, 75 with primary and nine with secondary lesions. Each scan was evaluated using several criteria: homogeneity and density, presence and type of calcification, presence of bony destruction, involvement of multiple muscle groups, definition of adjacent fat, border definition, and vessel or nerve involvement. CT demonstrated the lesion in all 84 patients and showed excellent anatomic detail in 64 of the 75 patients with primary neoplasms. The CT findings were characteristic enough to suggest the histology of the neoplasm in only 13 lesions (nine lipomas, three hemangiomas, one neurofibroma). No malignant neoplasm had CT characteristics specific enough to differentiate it from any other malignant tumor. However, malignant neoplasms could be differentiated from benign neoplasms in 88% of the cases.

  18. Role of metallic stents in benign esophageal stricture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Chan Sup

    2012-10-01

    Simple esophageal strictures, which are focal, straight, and large in diameter, usually require 1 - 3 dilation sessions to relieve symptoms. However, complex strictures, which are long, tortuous, or associated with a severely compromised luminal diameter, are usually more difficult to treat with conventional bougie or balloon dilation techniques, and often have high recurrence rates. Although the permanent placement of self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) has been used to manage refractory benign esophageal strictures, this procedure is associated with additional problems, such as stricture from tissue hyperplasia, stent migration, and fistula formation. Thus, several new types of stents have been developed, including temporary SEMS, self-expandable plastic stents (SEPS), and biodegradable stents. The use of these new products has produced varied results. Temporary SEMS that have been used to relieve benign esophageal conditions have caused granulation tissue at both ends of the stent because of contact between the mucosa and the exposed metal components of the stent, thus hindering stent removal. We examined the tissue response to two new types of SEMS, a flange-type and a straighttype, each coated with a silicone membrane on the outside of the metal mesh. These two SEMS were evaluated individually and compared with a conventional control stent in animal experiments. Although the newly designed stents resulted in reduced tissue hyperplasia, and were thus more easily separated from the esophageal tissue, some degree of tissue hyperplasia did occur. We suggest that newly designed DES (drug-eluting stents) may provide an alternative tool to manage refractory benign esophageal stricture.

  19. Spectral CT imaging of intranodular hemorrhage in cases with challenging benign thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zheng, Xiangpeng; Gao, Feng; Xiao, Li; Hua, Yanqing

    2016-04-01

    While conventional ultrasound and laboratory testing can differentiate most thyroid conditions and malignancies, spectral dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) provides molecular data potentially useful in differential diagnosis of small, complex, and partially obscured hemorrhaged nodules with recent bleeding. To demonstrate that Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) analysis of DECT data differentiates challenging benign thyroid nodule conditions in patients with intranodular hemorrhages. A retrospective study was conducted of 30 intranodular hemorrhage patients from 2010 to 2013, including 18 that underwent surgery and provided thyroid tissues for prospective histological analysis. Iodine and water content were determined in patient CT scans and ex vivo tissue specimen scans by reconstruction of raw CT data at 65 keV (optimal contrast). Slope of spectral curve (λ HU), effective atomic number (Z eff), and final pathological diagnosis were recorded. Iodine content, water content, Z eff, and λ HU significantly varied by region (intranodular hemorrhage, solid thyroid nodule, and adjacent margins) in patients and tissue specimens (P < 0.05). Intranodular hemorrhage exhibited elevated water concentrations (~1100 mg/mL), suggesting a practical threshold of 1075 mg/mL for differentiating intra-plaque hemorrhage and solid nodular regions. Spectral CT provided diagnostic information in 14 thyroid adenomas and four goiters (histologically confirmed in donor specimens), and eight thyroid adenomas and four nodular goiters based on clinical diagnosis. Diagnostically useful regional characteristic of intranodular hemorrhage in the thyroid was visualized via spectral CT employing material decomposition, potentially yielding additional molecular data about complex lesion characteristics no apparent in conventional imaging or laboratory methods. PMID:26612322

  20. Iatrogenic Seeding of Tumor Cells in Thigh Soft Tissue Upon Surgical Removal of Intracranial Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Maddah, Ghodratollah; Shabahang, Hossein; Zehi, Vahid; Sharifi Sistani, Nouriyeh; Mashhadi Nejad, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Meningioma is a benign and slowly-growing tumor that is responsible for 20% of brain neoplasms. It can be accompanied by some genetic disorders such as neurofibromatosis type 2 and is more common among women. As a space occupying lesion, it produces a wide range of signs and symptoms by compressing the adjacent and underlying tissues in the brain. Trauma and viruses are possible etiologies for meningioma. The ideal treatment of benign meningioma is surgical resection. Case Presentation: In this case report, we present a middle-aged man with a seeding metastasis of the cranial meningioma (after its removal) in the left thigh. During the removal operation, fascia lata had been used to repair the dura mater and the skin defect was repaired primarily. Conclusion: We believe that the occurrence of meningioma at the site of incision in the thigh is related to using the same surgical instruments for the removal of the brain tumor. PMID:27303610

  1. [Radiotherapy of benign intracranial tumors].

    PubMed

    Delannes, M; Latorzeff, I; Chand, M E; Huchet, A; Dupin, C; Colin, P

    2016-09-01

    Most of the benign intracranial tumors are meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, and glomus tumors. Some of them grow very slowly, and can be observed without specific treatment, especially if they are asymptomatic. Symptomatic or growing tumors are treated by surgery, which is the reference treatment. When surgery is not possible, due to the location of the lesion, or general conditions, radiotherapy can be applied, as it is if there is a postoperative growing residual tumor, or a local relapse. Indications have to be discussed in polydisciplinary meetings, with precise evaluation of the benefit and risks of the treatments. The techniques to be used are the most modern ones, as multimodal imaging and image-guided radiation therapy. Stereotactic treatments, using fractionated or single doses depending on the size or the location of the tumors, are commonly realized, to avoid as much a possible the occurrence of late side effects. PMID:27523417

  2. Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eric H; Larson, Jeffrey A; Andriole, Gerald L

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) commonly affect older men. Age-related changes associated with metabolic disturbances, changes in hormone balance, and chronic inflammation may cause BPH development. The diagnosis of BPH hinges on a thorough medical history and focused physical examination, with attention to other conditions that may be causing LUTS. Digital rectal examination and urinalysis should be performed. Other testing may be considered depending on presentation of symptoms, including prostate-specific antigen, serum creatinine, urine cytology, imaging, cystourethroscopy, post-void residual, and pressure-flow studies. Many medical and surgical treatment options exist. Surgery should be reserved for patients who either have failed medical management or have complications from BPH, such as recurrent urinary tract infections, refractory urinary retention, bladder stones, or renal insufficiency as a result of obstructive uropathy. PMID:26331999

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Guneyli, Serkan; Ward, Emily; Thomas, Stephen; Yousuf, Ambereen Nehal; Trilisky, Igor; Peng, Yahui; Antic, Tatjana; Oto, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition in middle-aged and older men and negatively affects the quality of life. An ultrasound classification for BPH based on a previous pathologic classification was reported, and the types of BPH were classified according to different enlargement locations in the prostate. Afterwards, this classification was demonstrated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The classification of BPH is important, as patients with different types of BPH can have different symptoms and treatment options. BPH types on MRI are as follows: type 0, an equal to or less than 25 cm3 prostate showing little or no zonal enlargements; type 1, bilateral transition zone (TZ) enlargement; type 2, retrourethral enlargement; type 3, bilateral TZ and retrourethral enlargement; type 4, pedunculated enlargement; type 5, pedunculated with bilateral TZ and/or retrourethral enlargement; type 6, subtrigonal or ectopic enlargement; type 7, other combinations of enlargements. We retrospectively evaluated MRI images of BPH patients who were histologically diagnosed and presented the different types of BPH on MRI. MRI, with its advantage of multiplanar imaging and superior soft tissue contrast resolution, can be used in BPH patients for differentiation of BPH from prostate cancer, estimation of zonal and entire prostatic volumes, determination of the stromal/glandular ratio, detection of the enlargement locations, and classification of BPH types which may be potentially helpful in choosing the optimal treatment. PMID:27015442

  4. [Interstitial laser coagulation of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Muschter, R; Hessel, S; Hofstetter, A; Keiditsch, E; Rothenberger, K H; Schneede, P; Frank, F

    1993-07-01

    We report on the new method of interstitial laser coagulation for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The procedure is based on the interstitial application of Nd:YAG laser irradiation, delivered through a new light guide system. Such light applicators coagulate constant tissue volumes in a homogeneous manner, as proven by in vitro studies in different tissues, including surgically removed prostate adenoma. The extent of the coagulation is determined by laser power and irradiation time. At 5 W, for example, and during a 10-min period, this zone reached a diameter of up to 20 mm. Temperatures generated in the process were over 100 degrees C, as measured by time/space resolution. These results were confirmed by in vivo studies in canine prostates. In the course of 7 weeks, the coagulated areas formed scars with degeneration and fibrosis, accompanied by marked shrinking. Neighbouring organs were not affected. The method was successfully transferred to clinical practice. The application of the light guides to the lateral lobes was performed percutaneously from the perineum under transrectal ultrasound guidance. The median lobe was punctured transurethrally under direct vision. Twenty-seven patients with an average age of 67.7 years were treated between July 1991 and March 1992. At the time of evaluation 15 patients had a follow-up of more than 2 months. They experienced a mean increase of peak flow rate from 6.6 to 15.2 ml/s and a mean decrease of residual volume from 206 to 38 ml. This was accompanied by a marked lessening of symptoms. The average prostate weight decreased from 63 to 44 g. Sexually active patients did not experience retrograde ejaculation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7690498

  5. Evaluation of thyroid tissue by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, C. S. B.; Bitar, R. A.; Santos, A. B. O.; Kulcsar, M. A. V.; Friguglietti, C. U. M.; Martinho, H. S.; da Costa, R. B.; Martin, A. A.

    2010-02-01

    adjacent tissue) and papillary carcinoma, the index of correct classification was 64.9%, and the classification between benign tissues (goitre and follicular adenoma) and malignant tissues (papillary and follicular carcinomas), the index was 72.5%.

  6. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  7. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  8. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  9. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  10. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Monica D.; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  11. Benign hereditary chorea: an update.

    PubMed

    Inzelberg, Rivka; Weinberger, Moran; Gak, Eva

    2011-06-01

    Benign hereditary chorea (BHC, MIM 118700) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder manifesting with chorea in conjunction with hypothyroidism and respiratory problems, a triad also named "brain-lung-thyroid syndrome". BHC is characterized by childhood onset with minimal or no progression into adult life and normal cognitive function. The genetic basis of BHC has been partially resolved, when mutations in the TTF1 gene on chromosome 14q13 encoding the thyroid transcription factor-1 have been identified in a number of BHC patients, suggesting that aberration of TTF1 transcriptional function or haploinsufficiency is associated with this disorder. TTF1 (also known as TITF1, TEBP or NKX2-1), belonging to the NKX2 homeodomain transcription factor family, has been implicated in several important molecular pathways essential for brain, thyroid and lung morphogenesis. Clinical evaluation of TTF1 gene mutations carrier patients exposed the involvement of each of the triad's components characterized by heterogeneity between index cases and even within families. This review highlights the current updates on expanded clinical aspects of BHC, imaging and treatment experience, its genetic markers, proposed molecular mechanisms, animal models and link to cancer. PMID:21292530

  12. Management of Benign Biliary Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Laasch, Hans-Ulrich; Martin, Derrick F.

    2002-12-15

    Benign biliary strictures are most commonly a consequence of injury at laparoscopic cholecystectomy or fibrosis after biliary-enteric anastomosis. These strictures are notoriously difficult to treat and traditionally are managed by resection and fashioning of acholedocho- or hepato-jejunostomy. Promising results are being achieved with newer minimally invasive techniques using endoscopic or percutaneous dilatation and/or stenting and these are likely to play an increasing role in the management. Even low-grade biliary obstruction carries the risks of stone formation, ascending cholangitis and hepatic cirrhosis and it is important to identify and treat this group of patients. There is currently no consensus on which patient should have what type of procedure, and the full range of techniques may not be available in all hospitals. Careful assessment of the risks and likely benefits have to be made on an individual basis. This article reviews the current literature and discusses the options available. The techniques of endoscopic and percutaneous dilatation and stenting are described with evaluation of the likely success and complication rates and compared to the gold standard of biliary-enteric anastomosis.

  13. Intracranial benign fibrous histiocytoma mimicking parasagittal meningioma: report of two cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baoshi; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Yanwei; You, Gan; Wang, Jiangfei; Wang, Junmei; Jiang, Zhongli; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Primary benign fibrous histiocytoma involving the central nervous system is an exceedingly rare tumor with most cases originating from the dura or parenchymal tissue. Diagnosis of primary benign fibrous histiocytoma is difficult due to its confusing histopathological characteristics. Two cases of primary intracranial benign fibrous histiocytoma mimicking parasagittal meningioma are presented in this report. Both tumors were gross totally resected and the patients showed no evidence of recurrence at follow-up of 12 months. The clinical features and prognosis of this rare tumor that were reported previously in the literature were also reviewed. Histopathological examination coupled with immunohistochemical staining is proved to be the convincing diagnostic method for the primary benign fibrous histiocytoma. Surgical resection is the recommendation for the therapy of the tumor. PMID:26617915

  14. Endoscopic management of benign tracheobronchial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui; Ding, Xin; Wei, Dong; Cheng, Peng; Su, Xiaomei; Liu, Huanyi; Zhang, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Even though benign tracheobronchial tumors are quite rare, they still can induce airway obstruction, result in suffocation, and need emergent management to remove the obstructing lesions and make the respiratory tracts unobstructed. Although the preferred therapy is surgery, it is still difficult to deal with the tumors in some cases, and the complications of surgery are common. Therefore, bronchoscopic managements, such as Nd: YAG laser, electrocautery, APC and Cryotherapy, are very important to treat benign tracheobronchial tumors and can cure most of them. The efficacy of therapeutic endoscopy for the treatment of patients with benign airways obstruction has been established. However, in order to maximally eradicate the benign tumors with minimal damage to patients, the success of bronchoscopic managements for the treatment strongly depends on the diligent identification of the various factors, including the location, size, shape of tumor, and the age, status, cardio respiratory function of patients, and full comprehension of the limits and potential of each particular technique. Because the advantages and disadvantages of above mentioned interventional methods, single method can not solve all clinical issues. Therefore, in order to remove benign tracheobronchial tumors completely, and reduce the incidence of recurrence as far as possible, many doctors combine several methods of them to treat complicated benign tracheobronchial tumors. This article reviews the core principles and techniques available to the bronchoscope managing benign tracheobronchial tumors. PMID:22263100

  15. Asymptomatic peritoneal carcinomatosis originating from benign cystic peritoneal mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Iacoponi, S; Calleja, J; Hernandez, G; de la Cuesta, R Sainz

    2015-01-01

    Benign multicystic mesothelioma is a rare tumour that originates from the abdominal peritoneum with a predisposition to the pelvic peritoneum. It typically affects women of reproductive age. There have been less than 200 cases of this rare neoplasia reported to date. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman who was referred to our centre because of the detection of a peritoneal carcinomatosis during a gynaecological exam. A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. The findings included multiple cysts appearing as ‘a bunch of grapes’ occupying the omentum. Biopsies were taken during the surgery and the results showed benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma. Benign multicystic mesothelioma can simulate other conditions, such as malignant ovarian tumours or cystic lymphangioma. It is often diagnosed accidentally during surgery performed for another reason. The diagnosis is interoperative, observing multicystic structures grouped as a ‘bunch of grapes’ containing clear fluid with thin walls made of connective tissue. Immunohistochemistry confirmed mesothelial origin. Surgery is considered the treatment of choice and is based on the removal of the cysts from the abdominal cavity. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy can be considered as a primary treatment in patients with recurrences or even as a part of primary treatment associated with surgery. Survival at 5 years is 100% and invasive or malignant progression is extraordinary. The treatment approach should be multidisciplinary, and the patient should be referred to a referral centre. PMID:26715942

  16. Soft tissue hemangioma with osseous extension: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Alexander; Olivieri, Brandon; Feinberg, Daniel; Betancourt, Michel; Bockelman, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Soft tissue hemangiomas are commonly encountered lesions, accounting for 7-10 % of all benign soft tissue masses (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010). While the literature describes the great majority of hemangiomas as asymptomatic and discovered only as incidental findings, they do have the potential to induce reactive changes in neighboring structures (Pastushyn et al. Surg Neurol 50(6):535-47, 1998). When these variants occur in close proximity to bone, they may elicit a number of well-documented reactive changes in osseous tissue (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010; DeFilippo et al. Skelet Radiol 25(2):174-7, 1996; Ly et al. AJR Am J Roentgenol 180(6):1695-700, 2003; Sung et al. Skelet Radiol 27(4):205-10, 1998). However, instances of direct extension into bone by soft tissue hemangiomas--that is, infiltration of the mass's vascular components into nearby osseous tissue--are currently undocumented in the literature. In these cases, imaging plays an important role in differentiating hemangiomas from malignant lesions (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010; Sung et al. Skelet Radiol 27(4):205-10, 1998; Pourbagher, Br J Radiol 84(1008):1100-8, 2011). In this article, we present such a case that involved the sacral spine. Imaging revealed a soft tissue mass with direct extension of vascular components into osseous tissue of the adjacent sacral vertebrae. Biopsy and subsequent histopathologic examination led to definitive diagnosis of soft tissue hemangioma. While MRI is widely regarded as the gold standard imaging modality for evaluating hemangiomas, in this report we describe how CT can aid in narrowing the differential diagnosis when one encounters a vascular lesion with adjacent osseous changes. Furthermore, we review the literature as it pertains to the imaging of soft tissue hemangiomas that occur in proximity to osseous tissue, as well as correlate this case to current theories on the pathogenesis of hemangiomas

  17. Benign Lymphoid Hyperplasia Presenting as Bilateral Scleral Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Cumba, Ricardo J.; Vazquez-Botet, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of transient lymphoid hyperplasia presenting as bilateral nodular scleral mass in a young male patient. Design. Observational case report. Methods. Chart review. Causes of scleritis were considered and excluded based on detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Results. Excisional biopsy of scleral lesions indicated lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a polyclonal population of T and B cells consistent with a benign reactive process. Conclusions. Chronic exposure of the ocular adnexa to many allergens and irritants may lead to activation of the inflammatory cascade. In severely allergic patients activation may be exponential and elicit an immune-mediated response resulting in a transient lymphoid reactive process. PMID:26421203

  18. Adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection.

    PubMed

    Ying, Binbin

    2012-03-01

    Mucocele forms because of salivary gland mucous extravasation or retention and is usually related to trauma in the area of the lower lip. It is a common benign lesion in the oral region. Although there are many conservative treatments such as the creation of a pouch (marsupialization), freezing (cryosurgery), micromarsupialization, and CO2 laser vaporization, surgical resection is the most commonly used means. Generally speaking, an elliptic incision was made to fully enucleate the lesion along with the overlying mucosa and the affected glands, then direct suturing is adequate. However, in some cases, direct suturing could cause lower lip deformity, and adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection might be quite necessary. Based on our experience, adjacent mucosal flaps could be used when lesions were close to or even break through the vermilion border or their diameters were much more than 1 cm. A-T advancement flaps and transposition flaps were the mostly applied ones. Follow-up showed that all patients realized primary healing after 1 week postoperatively with satisfactory lower lip appearance, and there was no sign of increasing incidence of relapse. PMID:22421867

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Environmentally Benign Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been a growing interest in replacing current non-biodegradable and toxic nanosystems with environmentally benign biopolymer based ones to minimize post-utilization hazards due to uncontrolled accumulation of nanoparticles in the environment. Lignin based nanoparticles (...

  20. Benign idiopathic partial epilepsy and brain lesion.

    PubMed

    Stephani, U; Doose, H

    1999-03-01

    A 14-year-old girl had severe head trauma from a dog bite at the age of 9 days. This resulted in extensive brain damage, tetraplegia, mental retardation, and epilepsy. The seizures were of rolandic type, and the EEG showed multifocal sharp waves. The course was benign. The initial diagnosis of a pure symptomatic epilepsy was revised after demonstrating typical benign focal sharp waves in the EEG of the healthy sister. Thus a phenocopy of a benign partial epilepsy by the brain lesion could be excluded with sufficient certainty. This observation allows the conclusion that the genetic disposition underlying the sharp-wave trait characteristic of benign partial epilepsies can be involved also in the pathogenesis of seemingly pure symptomatic epilepsies. EEG studies on siblings of such patients are needed to exclude possible phenocopies. PMID:10080522

  1. ENVIRONMENTALLY-BENIGN MULTIPHASE CATALYSIS. (R826034)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental concerns stemming from the use of conventional solvents and from hazardous waste generation have propelled research efforts aimed at developing benign chemical processing techniques that either eliminate or significantly mitigate pollution at the source. This pap...

  2. Current Laser Treatments for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The latest technical improvements in the surgical armamentarium are remarkable. In particular, advancements in the urologic field are so exceptional that we could observe the flare-up of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and laser prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) and holmium laser prostatectomy are the most generalized options for laser surgery of BPH, and both modalities have shown good postoperative results. In comparison to transurethral prostatectomy (TURP), they showed similar efficacy and a much lower complication rate in randomized prospective clinical trials. Even in cases of large prostates, laser prostatectomy showed comparable efficacy and safety profiles compared to open prostatectomy. From a technical point of view, PVP is considered to be an easier technique for the urologist to master. Furthermore, patients can be safely followed up in an outpatient clinic. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) mimics open prostatectomy because the adenomatous tissue is peeled off the surgical capsule in both procedures. Therefore, HoLEP shows notable volume reduction of the prostate similar to open prostatectomy with fewer blood transfusions, shorter hospital stay, and cost reduction regardless of prostate size. Outcomes of laser prostatectomy for BPH are encouraging but sometimes are unbalanced because safety and feasibility studies were reported mainly for PVP, whereas long-term data are mostly available for HoLEP. We need longer-term randomized clinical data to identify the reoperation rate of PVP and to determine which procedure is the ideal alternative to TURP and open prostatectomy for each patient. PMID:21165192

  3. An engineered dimeric protein pore that spans adjacent lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Mantri, Shiksha; Sapra, K. Tanuj; Cheley, Stephen; Sharp, Thomas H.; Bayley, Hagan

    2013-01-01

    The bottom-up construction of artificial tissues is an underexplored area of synthetic biology. An important challenge is communication between constituent compartments of the engineered tissue and between the engineered tissue and additional compartments, including extracellular fluids, further engineered tissue and living cells. Here we present a dimeric transmembrane pore that can span two adjacent lipid bilayers and thereby allow aqueous compartments to communicate. Two heptameric staphylococcal α-hemolysin (αHL) pores were covalently linked in an aligned cap-to-cap orientation. The structure of the dimer, (α7)2, was confirmed by biochemical analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single-channel electrical recording. We show that one of two β barrels of (α7)2 can insert into the lipid bilayer of a small unilamellar vesicle, while the other spans a planar lipid bilayer. (α7)2 pores spanning two bilayers were also observed by TEM. PMID:23591892

  4. Utility of opposed-phase magnetic resonance imaging in differentiating sarcoma from benign bone lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kenneally, Barry E.; Gutowski, Christina J.; Reynolds, Alan W.; Morrison, William B.; Abraham, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the utility of opposed-phase magnetic resonance imaging (OP MRI) in differentiating malignant from benign bone lesions. Materials and methods MRI scans of musculoskeletal lesions including opposed-phase imaging sequences were reviewed by both an experienced musculoskeletal attending radiologist, and a second year radiology resident. The change in signal from IP to OP images was measured. The reviewers' evaluation of the lesions based on T1 and T2-weighted images was compared to their evaluation with inclusion of the OP sequences. Results Twenty-seven lesions in bone were analyzed: 4 malignant primary bone lesions, 3 malignant soft tissue lesions to bone, 3 metastases from visceral malignancies, and 17 benign bone lesions. Benign lesions of bone dropped in signal on OP imaging by an average of 37.1%. Five of the benign lesions decreased in signal by less than 20%, and two increased. Malignant bone lesions dropped in signal by an average of 0.69% with one of the ten lesions showing a greater than 20% drop. When OP sequences were included, concern for malignancy decreased in benign lesions and increased in malignant lesions, for both the resident and attending. Compared with standard MRI, inclusion of these sequences increased the overall confidence in diagnosis for both reviewers. Conclusion Opposed-phase imaging is helpful in differentiating benign from malignant lesions in bone. Confidence in diagnosis rose for both the attending and the resident as result of the inclusion of OP sequences. PMID:26730359

  5. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  6. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  7. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands will...

  8. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  9. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  10. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Benign leiomyomas of the uterus are uncommonly found in association with benign smooth muscle tumors beyond the confines of the uterus. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease in which the lung is described to be the most afflicted extrauterine organ. We present a brief review of the literature, along with case reports for four patients who were followed up after resection of a pulmonary lesion or after pathological confirmation by biopsy. The clinical course of BML varies from chronic asymptomatic appearance to rapid progression, leading to respiratory failure and death. Our BML patients did not complain of pulmonary symptoms, such as cough, dyspnea, or chest tightness. Pathology revealed benign leiomyomas with no atypia and mitotic activity <5 per 10 high-power field. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for actin and desmin. A standard treatment for BML has not yet been established. Because of the hormone-sensitive characteristics of BML, treatments are based on hormonal manipulation along with either surgical or medical oophorectomy. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma can be observed in postmenopausal women. We observed four patients who did not receive adjuvant hormonal therapy because they were postmenopausal or perimenopausal. All patients are still healthy and show no evidence of recurrence or progression of the disease. PMID:24134076

  11. Subcellular concentrations of calcium, zinc, and magnesium in benign nodular hyperplasia of the human prostate: X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried cryosections

    SciTech Connect

    Tvedt, K.E.; Kopstad, G.; Haugen, O.A.; Halgunset, J.

    1987-01-01

    Biopsies from human prostates were obtained from normal and hyperplastic glands. The intracellular concentrations of calcium, zinc, and magnesium were analyzed using X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried cryosections. Two prostate biopsies were obtained from kidney donors, ages 19 and 50 years, without any sign of benign nodular hyperplasia. The normal tissues were frozen within 15 min after circulatory arrest. The central part of biopsies from eight elderly men suffering from benign nodular hyperplasia were frozen within 30 s after excision. Adjacent tissue was processed for light microscopy and histopathological diagnosis. All samples were fresh-frozen using liquid nitrogen cooled pliers, without the use of any freeze-protection, fixation, or staining. In both the normal and the hyperplastic prostates high concentrations (up to above 100 mmol/kg dry weight) of zinc were present in electron dense bodies in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. Together with zinc, about equal concentrations of magnesium were found. Calcium was detected in 4 to 8 times the concentration of zinc. Significant, positive correlation between calcium and zinc as well as between calcium and magnesium in the cytoplasm was a typical finding in both normal and hyperplastic glands. In six of eight patients, older than 60 years of age, high levels of calcium (17.0-38.8 mmol/kg dry weight) were observed in the nuclei of the epithelial cells, while very low values were found in the remaining two. In the two younger cases (19 and 50 years of age), the nuclear calcium level in prostatic epithelium was relatively low (about 10 mmol/kg dry weight). These observations suggest that an increase of intranuclear calcium with advancing age may be of pathogenetic significance to growth disturbances in the prostate.

  12. Hyperspectral imaging system to discern malignant and benign canine mammary tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Amrita; McGoverin, Cushla; Pleshko, Nancy; Sorenmo, Karin; Won, Chang-Hee

    2013-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is an emerging technology in the field of biomedical engineering which may be used as a noninvasive modality to characterize tumors. In this paper, a hyperspectral imaging system was used to characterize canine mammary tumors of unknown histopathology (pre-surgery) and correlate these results with the post-surgical histopathology results. The system consisted of a charge coupled device (CCD) camera, a liquid crystal tunable filter in the near infrared range (650-1100 nm) and a controller. Spectral signatures of malignant and benign canine mammary tumors were extracted and analyzed. The reflectance intensities of malignant tumor spectra were generally lower than benign tumor spectra over the entire wavelength range. Previous studies have shown that cancerous tissues have a higher hemoglobin and water content, and lower lipid concentration with respect to benign tissues. The decreased reflectance intensity observed for malignant tumors is likely due to the increased microvasculature and therefore higher blood content of malignant tissue relative to benign tissue. Peaks at 700, 840, 900 and 970 nm were observed in the second derivative absorption spectra, these peaks were attributed to deoxy-hemoglobin, oxy-hemoglobin, lipid and water respectively. A `Tissue Optical Index' was developed that enhances contrast between malignant and benign canine tumors. This index is based on the ratio of the reflectance intensity values corresponding to the wavelengths associated with the four chromophores. Preliminary results from 22 canine mammary tumors showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the proposed method is 85.7% and 94.6% respectively. These results show promise in the non-invasive optical diagnosis of canine mammary cancer.

  13. Rapid evaluation of fresh ex vivo kidney tissue with full-field optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Manu; Robinson, Brian D.; Salamoon, Bekheit; Thouvenin, Olivier; Boccara, Claude; Mukherjee, Sushmita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) is a real-time imaging technique that rapidly generates images reminiscent of histology without any tissue processing, warranting its exploration for evaluation of ex vivo kidney tissue. Methods: Fresh tissue sections from tumor and adjacent nonneoplastic kidney (n = 25 nephrectomy specimens; clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) = 12, papillary RCC (PRCC) = 4, chromophobe RCC (ChRCC) = 4, papillary urothelial carcinoma (PUC) = 1, angiomyolipoma (AML) = 2 and cystic nephroma = 2) were imaged with a commercial FFOCT device. Sections were submitted for routine histopathological diagnosis. Results: Glomeruli, tubules, interstitium, and blood vessels were identified in nonneoplastic tissue. In tumor sections, the normal architecture was completely replaced by either sheets of cells/trabeculae or papillary structures. The former pattern was seen predominantly in CCRCC/ChRCC and the latter in PRCC/PUC (as confirmed on H&E). Although the cellular details were not very prominent at this resolution, we could identify unique cytoplasmic signatures in some kidney tumors. For example, the hyper-intense punctate signal in the cytoplasm of CRCC represents glycogen/lipid, large cells with abundant hyper-intense cytoplasm representing histiocytes in PRCC, and signal-void large polygonal cell representing adipocytes in AML. According to a blinded analysis was performed by an uropathologist, all nonneoplastic tissues were differentiated from neoplastic tissues. Further, all benign tumors were called benign and malignant were called malignant. A diagnostic accuracy of 80% was obtained in subtyping the tumors. Conclusion: The ability of FFOCT to reliably differentiate nonneoplastic from neoplastic tissue and identify some tumor types makes it a valuable tool for rapid evaluation of ex vivo kidney tissue e.g. for intraoperative margin assessment and kidney biopsy adequacy. Recently, higher resolution images were achieved

  14. The Unusual but Benign in Pediatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shandling, Barry

    1985-01-01

    The problem of what is normal and what is not is closely related to whether or not, if something is indeed abnormal, it matters. Anticipating the outcome will affect the management in infants and children of such relatively benign conditions as hydroceles, umbilical hernias, diseases of the male and female breasts, lymphadenopathy and the intact prepuce. Unnecessary investigations such as barium studies which do not affect management are inadvisable. Congenital torticollis and undescended testis, seemingly benign, must be appropriately treated, however, in order to avoid lifelong sequelae. PMID:21274156

  15. Osteoid osteoma and benign osteoblastoma in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Black, J A; Levick, R K; Sharrard, W J

    1979-01-01

    Three cases of osteoid osteoma and one of benign osteoblastoma in children are described. The main complaint was severe pain which was worse at night; it was relieved by aspirin or other analgesics. The diagnosis was made on clinical and radiological grounds and was confirmed on histological examination of the central nidus removed at operation. The pain was relieved in the patients with osteoid osteoma, and it was very much less after operative removal of the benign osteoblastoma. Both conditions are probably variations of the same disease process, depending on the anatomical site and the type of bone affected. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:475430

  16. Radiofrequency ablation for benign thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, S; Stacul, F; Zecchin, M; Dobrinja, C; Zanconati, F; Fabris, B

    2016-09-01

    Benign thyroid nodules are an extremely common occurrence. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is gaining ground as an effective technique for their treatment, in case they become symptomatic. Here we review what are the current indications to RFA, its outcomes in terms of efficacy, tolerability, and cost, and also how it compares to the other conventional and experimental treatment modalities for benign thyroid nodules. Moreover, we will also address the issue of treating with this technique patients with cardiac pacemakers (PM) or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD), as it is a rather frequent occurrence that has never been addressed in detail in the literature. PMID:27098804

  17. Benign Cystic Mesothelioma Misdiagnosed as Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun Deok; Kim, Suk Bae

    2016-01-01

    Benign cystic mesothelioma (BCM) is a rare benign disease that forms multicystic masses in the abdomen, pelvis, and retroperitoneum. It occurs predominantly in young to middle-aged women. The majority of cases were associated with a history of abdominal or pelvic operation, a history of endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. We present a unique case of BCM which is different to the previous cases. The patient was a 52-year-old man showing features of peritoneal carcinomatosis accompanied by ascites on abdominal computed tomography scans. We herein report a case of BCM misdiagnosed with peritoneal carcinomatosis.

  18. Proton Stereotactic Radiosurgery for the Treatment of Benign Meningiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Halasz, Lia M.; Bussiere, Marc R.; Dennis, Elizabeth R.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Chapman, Paul H.; Loeffler, Jay S.; Shih, Helen A.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Given the excellent prognosis for patients with benign meningiomas, treatment strategies to minimize late effects are important. One strategy is proton radiation therapy (RT), which allows less integral dose to normal tissue and greater homogeneity than photon RT. Here, we report the first series of proton stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) used for the treatment of meningiomas. Methods and Materials: We identified 50 patients with 51 histologically proven or image- defined, presumed-benign meningiomas treated at our institution between 1996 and 2007. Tumors of <4 cm in diameter and located {>=}2 mm from the optic apparatus were eligible for treatment. Indications included primary treatment (n = 32), residual tumor following surgery (n = 8), and recurrent tumor following surgery (n = 10). The median dose delivered was 13 Gray radiobiologic equivalent (Gy[RBE]) (range, 10.0-15.5 Gy[RBE]) prescribed to the 90% isodose line. Results: Median follow-up was 32 months (range, 6-133 months). Magnetic resonance imaging at the most recent follow-up or time of progression revealed 33 meningiomas with stable sizes, 13 meningiomas with decreased size, and 5 meningiomas with increased size. The 3-year actuarial tumor control rate was 94% (95% confidence interval, 77%-98%). Symptoms were improved in 47% (16/ 34) of patients, unchanged in 44% (15/34) of patients, and worse in 9% (3/34) of patients. The rate of potential permanent adverse effects after SRS was 5.9% (3/51 patients). Conclusions: Proton SRS is an effective therapy for small benign meningiomas, with a potentially lower rate of long-term treatment-related morbidity. Longer follow-up is needed to assess durability of tumor control and late effects.

  19. Discrimination between benign and malignant lesions of the breast using ultrasound disparity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Bernard D.; Carlson, Donald L.; Birnbaum, Julia A.

    2001-05-01

    A technique called disparity mapping (DM) processes pairs of ultrasound B-scan images collected while a sonographer varies the probe pressure slightly on the breast surface. Dm measures the apparent displacement of the tissue about each image point and subsequently constructs a correlation map which represents the similarity between the speckle patterns around each point. The continuity of the lesion perimeter in the correlation image is used to separate benign from malignant lesions, with high continuity corresponding well with benign lesions and highly segmented perimeters correlating with malignancies. Twenty five solid masses were evaluated, and the results were compared with histology from core or surgical biopsy, or with cytology from fine needle aspiration. The results analyzed all lesions correctly (15 cancers and 10 benign lesions). There were no false positives or false negatives. The results suggest that DM may be a useful tool in digitally diagnosing breast lesions and consequently in reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies.

  20. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: from Bench to Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Ju

    2012-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent disease, especially in old men, and often results in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This chronic disease has important care implications and financial risks to the health care system. LUTS are caused not only by mechanical prostatic obstruction but also by the dynamic component of obstruction. The exact etiology of BPH and its consequences, benign prostatic enlargement and benign prostatic obstruction, are not identified. Various theories concerning the causes of benign prostate enlargement and LUTS, such as metabolic syndrome, inflammation, growth factors, androgen receptor, epithelial-stromal interaction, and lifestyle, are discussed. Incomplete overlap of prostatic enlargement with symptoms and obstruction encourages focus on symptoms rather than prostate enlargement and the shifting from surgery to medicine as the treatment of BPH. Several alpha antagonists, including alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin, have shown excellent efficacy without severe adverse effects. In addition, new alpha antagonists, silodosin and naftopidil, and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors are emerging as BPH treatments. In surgical treatment, laser surgery such as photoselective vaporization of the prostate and holmium laser prostatectomy have been introduced to reduce complications and are used as alternatives to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and open prostatectomy. The status of TURP as the gold standard treatment of BPH is still evolving. We review several preclinical and clinical studies about the etiology of BPH and treatment options. PMID:22468207

  1. Unusual Benign Tumors of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Adrada, Beatriz E; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Carkaci, Selin; Posleman-Monetto, Flavia E; Ewere, Adesuwa; Whitman, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the imaging characteristics of a variety of benign breast tumors that may be encountered in daily practice, in order to formulate an appropriate differential diagnosis and to establish concordance between the imaging and the pathologic findings, and to assist the clinician with appropriate management. PMID:26085959

  2. CSF imaging in benign intracranial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    James, A. Everette; Harbert, J. C.; Hoffer, P. B.; DeLand, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    The cisternographic images in 10 patients with benign intracranial hypertension were reviewed. Nine were normal. Transfer of labelled tracer from the subarachnoid space was measured in five patients and was found to be abnormal in only two. The relation of these findings to the proposed pathophysiological alterations is discussed. Images

  3. Benign Hepatic Mesenchymal Hamartoma (HMH) - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shaileshkumar Radheshyam; Misra, Vatsala; Verma, Kachnar; Gupta, Pooja; Dhingra, Vishal

    2014-03-01

    A one-year-old male child presented with progressive enlargement of abdomen and loss of appetite which he had suffered from, since 4 months. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in right hypochondrium. Ultrasonography and MRI showed a solid mass arising from right lobe of liver. The resected mass was well encapsulated, yellowish white in colour and it measured 20 x 18 x 17cm. Cut surface showed a Nutmeg like appearance. Histology showed a well-defined, fibrous capsule with numerous ducts which were lined by flat to low cuboidal epithelium and which were surrounded by concentric layers of fibrous tissue which showed myxoid changes at places. Intervening area showed normal appearing hepatocytes with clear cell changes, dilated congested sinusoids, along with extramedullary haematopoiesis. Based on distinctive morphological features, a histological diagnosis of Benign Hepatic Mesenchymal Hamartoma of liver was made. IHC was not done, as no specific marker has been described for making a differential diagnosis. Benign Hepatic Mesenchymal Hamrtoma (HMH) of liver is an extremely rare tumour of childhood and therefore, the case was considered worth documentation. PMID:24783100

  4. Benign anlage tumour: a very unusual neck mass.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Shivani; Gohil, Rohit; Oparka, Richie; Kennedy, Ceilidh

    2016-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman presented with a slow-growing asymptomatic neck swelling at the left medial clavicle. Haematological and biochemical work up was normal and an ultrasound confirmed the swelling, but needle aspiration was non-diagnostic. As lymphoma was the main differential diagnosis, the swelling was completely excised. Immunohistochemistry yielded a rare lesion, suspected to represent a myoepithelial/mixed cellularity tumour of soft tissue. The extreme rarity of these tumours required a confirmatory secondary opinion, which ultimately led to it being identified as a benign anlage tumour (previously known as an ectopic hamartomatous thymoma) This case highlights the fact that thorough assessment of patients with neck swellings should be undertaken to rule out sinister causes-keeping in mind more rare differentials-helping to guide final management. PMID:27194678

  5. [BENIGN TUMORS OF MEDIASTINUM: CLINIC, DIAGNOSIS, SURGICAL TREATMENT].

    PubMed

    Kalabukha, I A; Mayetniy, E M

    2015-12-01

    Results of surgical treatment of 18 patients in a thoracic surgery clinic for benign tumors of mediastinum are presented. The symptoms of benign tumors, efficacy of application of welding technologies in operative intervention were analyzed. PMID:27025028

  6. Isolated benign primary cutaneous plasmacytosis in a child.

    PubMed

    On, Hye Rang; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, You Chan; Kim, Soo-Chan

    2014-01-01

    Isolated benign primary cutaneous plasmacytosis in a child is a very rare and benign disease. Herein we present a case of this condition occurring in a child who showed good response to topical corticosteroid. PMID:25424220

  7. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  8. Air bubble-shock wave interaction adjacent to gelantine surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, P. A.; Tomita, Y.; Onodera, O.; Takayama, K.; Sanada, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kitayama, O.

    1990-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and an air bubble-adjacent to a gelatine surface is investigated in order to simulate human tissue damage resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Using high speed cine photography it is found that a shock wave of strength 11 MPa causes 1-3 mm diameter bubbles to produce high velocity microjets with penetration rates of approximately 110 m/s and penetration depths approximately equal to twice the initial bubble diameter. Theoretical considerations for liquid impact on soft solid of similar density indicate that microjet velocities will be twice the penetration rate, i.e. 220 m/s in the present case. Such events are the probable cause of observed renal tissue damage.

  9. [Surgery of benign vocal fold lesions].

    PubMed

    Olthoff, A

    2016-09-01

    Surgical treatment of benign vocal fold lesions can be indicated for clinical or functional reasons. The principles of phonosurgery have to be maintained in either case. The appropriate phonosurgical technique depends on the type of vocal fold lesion. Depending on the findings, phonosurgery aims to maintain or improve voice quality. The evaluation of clinical and functional results includes indirect laryngoscopy, videostroboscopy, and voice analysis. PMID:27552826

  10. A benign maxillary tumour with malignant features.

    PubMed

    Ricalde, Rosario R; Lim, Aimee Caroline E; Lopa, Ramon Antonio B; Carnate, Jose M

    2010-06-01

    Non-specific biopsy results such as chronic inflammation, hemorrhage, necrosis can be frustrating to the clinician. This is especially true if the patient presents with clinical features suggestive of an aggressive tumour. This is a review of the clinical features, diagnostic dilemmas and surgical management of a benign maxillary mass with malignant features - a disease called hematoma-like mass of the maxillary sinus (HLMMS). Our experience with five cases will also be cited. PMID:20502750

  11. Large Penile Mass With Unusual Benign Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nate; Voznesensky, Maria; VerLee, Graham

    2015-09-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is an extremely rare condition presenting as a lesion on the glans penis in older men. Physical exam without biopsy cannot differentiate malignant from nonmalignant growth. We report a case of large penile mass in an elderly male with a history of lichen sclerosis, highly suspicious for malignancy. Subsequent surgical removal and biopsy demonstrated pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, an unusual benign histopathologic diagnosis with unclear prognosis. We review the literature and discuss options for treatment and surveillance. PMID:26793536

  12. Benign Diseases and Neoplasms of the Penis.

    PubMed

    Wasco, Matthew J; Shah, Rajal B

    2009-03-01

    This article provides comprehensive review of benign diseases and neoplastic conditions of the penis. It describes and provides representative images of clinical, key pathologic features and ancillary techniques to aid in differential diagnoses. It examines these diseases from the epidemiologic standpoint, looks at environmental and genetic factors, and outlines the new histologic entities for penile neoplasms with distinct outcomes and clinical behavior that have been proposed in recent years. PMID:26838101

  13. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: A clinical review.

    PubMed

    Skinder, Danielle; Zacharia, Ilana; Studin, Jillian; Covino, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an increasingly common diagnosis seen in men over age 50 years. Primary care providers must be aware of patient presentation, diagnostic tests, appropriate lifestyle modifications, treatment options, and potential complications in order to properly manage and educate patients with BPH. If left untreated, BPH can significantly decrease a man's quality of life; however, many pharmacologic and surgical treatments are available to control the symptoms. PMID:27367595

  14. Environmentally benign silicon solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Gee, J.M.; Menna, P.; Strebkov, D.S.; Pinov, A.; Zadde, V.

    1998-09-01

    The manufacturing of silicon devices--from polysilicon production, crystal growth, ingot slicing, wafer cleaning, device processing, to encapsulation--requires many steps that are energy intensive and use large amounts of water and toxic chemicals. In the past two years, the silicon integrated-circuit (IC) industry has initiated several programs to promote environmentally benign manufacturing, i.e., manufacturing practices that recover, recycle, and reuse materials resources with a minimal consumption of energy. Crystalline-silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) modules, which accounted for 87% of the worldwide module shipments in 1997, are large-area devices with many manufacturing steps similar to those used in the IC industry. Obviously, there are significant opportunities for the PV industry to implement more environmentally benign manufacturing approaches. Such approaches often have the potential for significant cost reduction by reducing energy use and/or the purchase volume of new chemicals and by cutting the amount of used chemicals that must be discarded. This paper will review recent accomplishments of the IC industry initiatives and discuss new processes for environmentally benign silicon solar-cell manufacturing.

  15. SOLIDS TRANSPORT BETWEEN ADJACENT CAFB FLUIDIZED BEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an experimental investigation of a pulsed, dense-phase pneumatic transport system for controlled circulation between adjacent fluidized beds. A model was developed to predict performance. The program provides technical support for EPA's program to demo...

  16. Border separation for adjacent orthogonal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, B.L.; Khan, F.M.; Sharma, S.C.; Lee, C.K.; Kim, T.H. )

    1991-06-01

    Field border separations for adjacent orthogonal fields can be calculated geometrically, given the validity of some important assumptions such as beam alignment and field uniformity. Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) measurements were used to investigate dose uniformity across field junctions as a function of field separation and, in particular, to review the CCSG recommendation for the treatment of medulloblastoma with separate head and spine fields.

  17. Benign neck masses showing restricted diffusion: Is there a histological basis for discordant behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Das, Abanti; Bhalla, Ashu S; Sharma, Raju; Kumar, Atin; Sharma, Meher; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Thakar, Alok; Sharma, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) evolved as a complementary tool to morphologic imaging by offering additional functional information about lesions. Although the technique utilizes movement of water molecules to characterize biological tissues in terms of their cellularity, there are other factors related to the histological constitution of lesions which can have a significant bearing on DWI. Benign lesions with atypical histology including presence of lymphoid stroma, inherently increased cellularity or abundant extracellular collagen can impede movement of water molecules similar to malignant tissues and thereby, show restricted diffusion. Knowledge of these atypical entities while interpreting DWI in clinical practice can avoid potential misdiagnosis. This review aims to present an imaging spectrum of such benign neck masses which, owing to their distinct histology, can show discordant behavior on DWI. PMID:26981226

  18. Robotic Trachelectomy After Supracervical Hysterectomy for Benign Gynecologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Joelle; Hanna, Rabbie; Papalekas, Eleni; Schiff, Lauren; Theoharis, Evan; Eisenstein, David

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A renewed interest in the supra cervical approach to hysterectomy has created a cohort of patients with a retained cervix at risk of persistent symptoms requiring a subsequent trachelectomy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of robotic trachelectomy after a previous supracervical hysterectomy. Methods: This is a retrospective chart review of women who had robotic trachelectomy after supracervical hysterectomy for benign gynecologic disease from January 2009 through October 2014. Results: Eleven patients underwent robotic trachelectomy for benign conditions during the observed period. Prior supracervical hysterectomy had been performed for pelvic pain (8/11, 73%), abnormal uterine bleeding (7/11, 64%), and dysmenorrhea (5/11, 45%). In 10 of 11 patients, the symptoms leading to robotic trachelectomy were the same as those leading to supracervical hysterectomy. The time from hysterectomy to recurrence of symptoms ranged from 0.5 to 26 months (median, 6), whereas the time interval from previous surgery to robotic trachelectomy ranged from 1 to 57 months (median, 26). Mean age and body mass index at robotic trachelectomy were 42 ± 5.4 years and 32 ± 6.1 kg/m2. Mean length of surgery was 218 ± 88 minutes (range, 100–405). There was 1 major postoperative complication involving bladder perforation and subsequent vesicovaginal fistula (VVF). Endometriosis was seen in 27% of pathologic specimens and cervicitis in another 27%; 45% showed normal tissue histology. In 6 (55%) cases, symptoms leading to trachelectomy resolved completely after surgery, and the other 5 (45%) patients reported a significant improvement. Conclusions: Although trachelectomy can be a challenging surgery, our experience suggests that the robotic approach may be a valuable means of achieving safe and reproducible outcomes. PMID:27493470

  19. ADCY5 mutations are another cause of benign hereditary chorea

    PubMed Central

    Mencacci, Niccolo E.; Wiethoff, Sarah; Hersheson, Joshua; Ryten, Mina; Balint, Bettina; Ganos, Christos; Stamelou, Maria; Quinn, Niall; Houlden, Henry; Wood, Nicholas W.; Bhatia, Kailash P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the contribution of ADCY5 mutations in cases with genetically undefined benign hereditary chorea (BHC). Methods: We studied 18 unrelated cases with BHC (7 familial, 11 sporadic) who were negative for NKX2-1 mutations. The diagnosis of BHC was based on the presence of a childhood-onset movement disorder, predominantly characterized by chorea and no other major neurologic features. ADCY5 analysis was performed by whole-exome sequencing or Sanger sequencing. ADCY5 and NKX2-1 expression during brain development and in the adult human brain was assessed using microarray analysis of postmortem brain tissue. Results: The c.1252C>T; p.R418W mutation was identified in 2 cases (1 familial, 1 sporadic). The familial case inherited the mutation from the affected father, who had a much milder presentation, likely due to low-grade somatic mosaicism. The mutation was de novo in the sporadic case. The clinical presentation of these cases featured nonparoxysmal generalized chorea, as well as dystonia in the most severely affected, but no facial myokymia. We observed significant progression of symptoms in ADCY5 mutation carriers, in contrast to BHC secondary to NKX2-1 mutations. The difference in the clinical course is mirrored by the brain expression data, showing increasing ADCY5 expression in the striatum during brain development, whereas NKX2-1 shows an opposite trend. Conclusions: Our study identifies mutations in ADCY5, the gene previously linked to familial dyskinesia with facial myokymia, as a cause of familial and sporadic BHC. ADCY5 genetic analysis should be performed in cases with a benign choreiform movement disorder even in the absence of facial myokymia. PMID:26085604

  20. Analysis of human breast tissues with Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Jianhong; Yu, Fan; Sun, Shizhong

    2006-01-01

    Raman microspectroscopy was used to study normal, benign and malignant human breast tissues. The Raman spectrum of normal breast tissue recorded with 514.5 nm line of Ar + laser excitation contains features attributed to carotenoids and lipids. The CH II bending mode near 1447 cm -1 in normal tissue shifts up to 1454 cm -1 in diseased tissues (benign and malignant). The band near 1660 cm -1 in normal tissue is narrow and sharp; whereas the band is broaden in the diseased tissues. In the region of C-H stretching mode, the 2902-/2860-cm -1 intensity ratio shows differences among normal, benign and malignant breast tissues. The ratio is the smallest in carcinoma tissue. The observed spectra differences may be used to probe breast lesion. The results show that Raman spectroscopic technique may have clinical applications.

  1. Extraosseous Benign Notochordal Cell Tumor Originating in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Motoi, Toru; Harada, Masahiko; Fukuda, Yumiko; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Horio, Hirotoshi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Benign notochordal cell tumors (BNCTs) are tumors originating in the axial skeleton, where chordomas occur. Although very rare, some cases of extraosseous chordoma, such as in the soft tissue and lungs, have been reported. We report a case of a primary tumor showing the notochordal characteristics of BNCTs within the axial skeleton. An asymptomatic 57-year-old woman presented with an abnormal shadow on her chest radiograph; chest computed tomography revealed a well-defined round nodule. The resected sample tissue contained a jelly-like small nodule. Histologically, it was identified as a BNCT, based on minimal nuclear atypia, extremely low mitotic activity within the tumor cells lying in a sheet-like arrangement, and focal immunopositivity for brachyury. This is the third case report of BNCT originating in the lungs; BNCTs are considered asymptomatic tumors that are identified by using highly developed chest imaging technology; however, our findings also suggest that these notochordal tumors may potentially originate from extraosseous sites that lack ideal precursor cells. Our case suggests that notochordal tumors can arise from organs that are unrelated to known notochordal development. PMID:25569657

  2. Critical review of lasers in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    PubMed

    Gravas, Stavros; Bachmann, Alexander; Reich, Oliver; Roehrborn, Claus G; Gilling, Peter J; De La Rosette, Jean

    2011-04-01

    • Laser treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia has challenged transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) due to advances in laser technology, better understanding of tissue-laser interactions and growing clinical experience. • Various lasers have been introduced including neodymium: yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG), holmium (Ho):YAG, potassium titanyl phosphate:YAG, thulium(Tm) and diode laser. Based on the different wave-length dependent laser-prostatic tissue interactions, the main techniques are coagulation, vaporization, resection and enucleation. • The present review aims to help urologists to distinguish and to critically evaluate the role of different laser methods in the treatment by using an evidence-based approach. It also details further evidence for use in specific patient groups (in retention, on anticoagulation) and addresses the issues of cost and learning curve. • Coagulation-based techniques have been abandoned; holmium ablation/resection of the prostate has been superseded by the enucleation technique Ho-laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). The short-term efficacy of the emerging laser treatments such as diode and Tm prostatectomy has been suggested by low quality studies. HoLEP and photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) represent valid clinical alternatives to TURP. HoLEP is the most rigorously analysed laser technique with durable efficacy for any prostate size and low early and late morbidity. PVP has grown in acceptance and popularity but long-term results from high quality studies are pending. PMID:21438974

  3. 31P magnetic resonance phospholipid profiles of neoplastic human breast tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, T. E.; Meneses, P.; Gierke, L. W.; Den Otter, W.; Glonek, T.

    1991-01-01

    Phospholipids from malignant, benign and noninvolved human breast tissues were extracted by chloroform-methanol (2:1) and analysed by 31P MR spectroscopy at 202.4 MHz. Thirteen phospholipids were identified as constituents of the profiles obtained among the 55 tissue specimens analysed. Observed patterns in phospholipid tissues profiles were distinct, allowing qualitative characterisation of the three tissue groups. Multivariate analysis of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and an uncharacterised phospholipid were shown to be independently significant in predicting benign tissue histology as either fibrocystic disease or fibroadenoma in 92% of cases. Univariate analysis of relative mole-percentage of phosphorus concentrations of individual phospholipids using the Scheffé comparison procedure revealed that in malignant tissues, phosphatidylethanolamine was significantly elevated compared to benign (+ 32%) and noninvolved tissues (+ 22%). Phosphatidylinositol (+ 33%) and phosphatidylcholine plasmalogen (PC plas) (+ 25%) were increased in malignant compared to benign and LPC was decreased (-44%) in malignant compared to noninvolved. LPC was significantly depressed (-39%) in benign tissue compared to normal. Phospholipid indices computed to further characterise the three tissue groups showed PC plas/PC elevated in malignant tissue compared to benign and PE plas/PE depressed in malignant tissue compared to noninvolved. These findings support previous investigations reporting that the alkyl-phospholipid analogues of phosphatidylcholine are released by malignant tissues and that levels of ethanolamine are elevated in malignant tissues. Indices describing the choline-containing phospholipids showed that these lipids are depressed significantly in malignant tissue relative to healthy tissue. PMID:2039694

  4. Clarithromycin Culprit of Benign Intracranial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Habib Rehman; Mason, Colin; Mulcahy, Riona

    2015-01-01

    Benign intracranial hypertension is characterized with increase in CSF opening pressure with no specific etiology. It is predominantly found in women of child bearing age and particularly in individuals with obesity. Visual disturbances or loss and associated headaches are common and can lead to blindness if left untreated. Diagnosis can be achieved once other causes of visual loss, headaches and high opening pressures are excluded. Management consists of serial optic disc assessments although no specific treatment is available despite recent trials using carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Diet modification and weight management can help in therapy. PMID:26713029

  5. OTC tamsulosin for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    2010-10-01

    Earlier this year, tamsulosin, an alpha blocker previously only available on prescription, became available for sale by pharmacists as a treatment for functional symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men aged 45-75 years (Flomax Relief MR - Boehringer Ingelheim). A television advert for the over-the-counter (OTC) product claims that it is a "simple and effective" treatment that can relieve symptoms within 1 week, allowing the user to "take control of your annoying pee problems".¹ Here we review the evidence on tamsulosin and assess whether its availability as an OTC product confers worthwhile advantages. PMID:20926447

  6. Thallium-201 uptake in a benign thymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Campeau, R.J.; Ey, E.H.; Varma, D.G.

    1986-07-01

    A 68-year-old woman was admitted with atypical angina. A chest radiograph showed an anterior mediastinal mass that was confirmed on CT. The mass was relatively avascular and separate from the heart and great vessels. She underwent stress thallium testing that demonstrated no exercise-induced ischemia; however, an abnormal focus of thallium activity was present in the anterior mediastinum on stress and redistribution images. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated a normal left ventriculogram, coronary arteries and thoracic aorta. Subsequent surgery and pathologic examination revealed the mass to be a benign thymoma arising in the right lobe of the thymus gland.

  7. Models for studying benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Mahapokai, W; Van Sluijs, F J; Schalken, J A

    2000-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common diseases affecting aging man. Attempts have been made to clarify the etiology and pathogenesis and, to that end, experimental models have been developed. To date, in vitro and in vivo models have been used, depending on the concept of the study. Spontaneous animal models are limited to the chimpanzee and the dog. Ethical and financial factors restrict the applicability of these models. The hormonal-induced canine BPH model is a good alternative that closely resembles human BPH in many aspects. The experimental models currently used for studying BPH are reviewed. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (2000) 3, 28-33 PMID:12497158

  8. Benign schwannoma of the maxillary antrum

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Oshin; Desai, Dinkar; Bhandarkar, Gowri P.; Paul, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma also known commonly as neurilemmoma and schwann cell tumor is a benign nerve sheath tumor. About 1/3rd cases of schwannoma arise from the head and neck region but rarely from the nasal and paranasal sinuses. The recurrence rate in these cases has reported to be very rare. We report a rare case of schwannoma in a 60-year-old woman arising from the maxillary sinus further eroding the orbital floor and nasal bone. We have also described the clinical presentation, radiological, histological findings, and management of the case. PMID:27095911

  9. Endoscopic management of benign biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Visrodia, Kavel H; Tabibian, James H; Baron, Todd H

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic management of biliary obstruction has evolved tremendously since the introduction of flexible fiberoptic endoscopes over 50 years ago. For the last several decades, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has become established as the mainstay for definitively diagnosing and relieving biliary obstruction. In addition, and more recently, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has gained increasing favor as an auxiliary diagnostic and therapeutic modality in facilitating decompression of the biliary tree. Here, we provide a review of the current and continually evolving role of gastrointestinal endoscopy, including both ERCP and EUS, in the management of biliary obstruction with a focus on benign biliary strictures. PMID:26322153

  10. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Sung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  11. High-Resolution Optical Imaging of Benign and Malignant Mucosa in the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: An Atlas for Image-Guided Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L.; Vila, Peter M.; Park, Richard W.; Schwarz, Richard; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Teng, Marita S.; Gurudutt, Vivek V.; Genden, Eric M.; Miles, Brett; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Sikora, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Background High-resolution optical imaging provides real-time visualization of mucosa in the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) which allows non-invasive discrimination of benign and neoplastic epithelium. The high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) utilizes a fiberoptic probe in conjunction with a tissue contrast agent to display nuclei and cellular architecture. This technology has broad potential applications to intraoperative margin detection and early cancer detection. Methods Our group has created an extensive image collection of both neoplastic and normal epithelium of the UADT. Here, we present and describe imaging characteristics of benign, dysplastic, and malignant mucosa in the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, and esophagus. Results There are differences in the nuclear organization and overall tissue architecture of benign and malignant mucosa which correlate with histopathologic diagnosis. Different anatomic subsites also display unique imaging characteristics. Conclusion HRME allows discrimination between benign and neoplastic mucosa, and familiarity with the characteristics of each subsite facilitates correct diagnosis. PMID:23641314

  12. Spindle Cell Lipoma Occurring in the Buccal Mucosa: An Unusual Location of This Benign Lipomatous Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Milhan, Noala Vicensoto Moreira; Cavalcante, Ana Sueli Rodrigues; Marques, Yonara Maria Freire Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell lipoma is a benign lipomatous neoplasm, which rarely occurs in the oral cavity. The aims of this paper are to report a case of spindle cell lipoma located in buccal mucosa and discuss the main clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical findings of this entity. Thus, we report a 4-year history of an asymptomatic smooth surface nodule in an elderly Caucasian man with clinical hypothesis of fibroma. The histopathological examination showed spindle cells, mature adipose tissue, and many mast cells in a stroma of connective tissue presenting ropey collagen fibers bundles. After immunohistochemical analysis, the final diagnosis was spindle cell lipoma. PMID:26491592

  13. Are deep eutectic solvents benign or toxic?

    PubMed

    Hayyan, Maan; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Hayyan, Adeeb; Al-Saadi, Mohammed A; AlNashef, Inas M; Mirghani, Mohamed E S; Saheed, Olorunnisola Kola

    2013-02-01

    In continuation of investigation for environmentally benign protocol for new solvents termed deep eutectic solvents (DESs), it is herein reported results concerning the toxicity and cytotoxicity of choline chloride (ChCl) based DESs with four hydrogen bond donors including glycerine, ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and urea. The toxicity was investigated using two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and two Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cytotoxicity effect was tested using the Artemia salina leach. It was found that there was no toxic effect for the tested DESs on all of the studied bacteria confirming their benign effects on these bacteria. Nevertheless, it was found that the cytotoxicity of DESs was much higher than their individual components (e.g. glycerine, ChCl) indicating that their toxicological behavior is different. For our best knowledge this is the first time that toxicity and cytotoxicity of DESs were studied. The toxicity and cytotoxicity of DESs varied depending on the structure of components. Careful usage of the terms non-toxicity and biodegradability must be considered. More investigation on this matter is required. PMID:23200570

  14. Breast-feeding and benign breast disease.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, S; Londero, A P; Bertozzi, S; Driul, L; Marchesoni, D; Petri, R

    2012-01-01

    Benign breast disease (BBD) is very common among women in their fertile age, but its correlation with breast reproductive function remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the relation between BBD and breast-feeding. We collected data on 105 women with BBD and 98 controls, focusing on their reproductive history and breast-feeding. We analysed data by R (version 2.12.1) considering p < 0.05 as significant. The results showed that fibroadenoma represented the most frequent BBD (55%), followed by fibrocystic changes (19%), intraductal papilloma (6%) and inflammatory breast disorders (5%). The mean age was 31.5 years (± 6.1), BMI 21.2 kg/m² (± 3.4) and age at menarche 13.0 years (± 1.5). Duration of breast-feeding was not significantly different between controls and BBD types (p = NS). Selecting women with fibroadenoma breast-feeding duration directly correlated with the number of benign lesions (p < 0.05), which remains significant also by multivariate analysis. It was concluded that there seemed to be no difference in breast-feeding among BBDs types, but lactation may influence the number of fibroadenomas. Moreover, prospective studies would better define the correlation between lactation and BBDs. PMID:22185539

  15. Histiocytic sarcoma that mimics benign histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Boisseau-Garsaud, A M; Vergier, B; Beylot-Barry, M; Nastasel-Menini, F; Dubus, P; de Mascarel, A; Eghbali, H; Beylot, C

    1996-06-01

    A 28-year-old man presented with a histiocytic sarcoma of a very uncommon origin, as it had developed for several years like a benign cutaneous histiocytosis resembling generalized eruptive histiocytoma before becoming acute, with nodal and massive pulmonary involvement. Despite various chemotherapies, the patient died within 8 months. Skin biopsies showed histiocytic proliferation in the dermis and node biopsies showed histiocytic proliferation with a sinusoidal pattern. Immunohistochemical analysis, performed on paraffin-embedded sections, demonstrated strong labeling of tumoral cells for CD68 and moderate labeling for CD3 and CD4. CD30 labeling was negative. S-100 protein was positive on a Langerhans' cell reactive subpopulation. Electron microscopy confirmed the histiocytic nature of malignant cells and showed cytoplasmic inclusions such as regularly laminated bodies, dense bodies and pleomorphic inclusions. No Birbeck granules were seen. A gene rearrangement study of T-cell receptor gamma and immunoglobulin heavy chain genes showed a germline configuration. Histiocytic sarcoma is an extremely rare true histiocytic malignancy, the existence of which has been recently debated since it has often been mistaken in the past for large cell lymphomas. Such a deceptive onset as benign cutaneous histiocytosis has not been described in the literature to our knowledge. PMID:8793665

  16. MTA1 Expression in Benign and Malignant Salivary gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Khademi, Bijan; Mirhadi, Hosein; Torabi-Ardekani, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Salivary gland tumors (SGTs) are important parts of human neoplasms. The most common SGT is pleomorphic adenoma and the most common malignant SGTs are mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Metastasis-associated genes 1 (MTA1), a member of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation complex, is one newly discovered gene which recruits histone deacetylation, causing ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling, and regulating transcription. MTA1 had been shown to be overexpressed in malignant tumors with the enhancement of invasion and metastasis. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six samples of salivary gland tumors from the Khalili Hospital archive, including 20 cases of pleomorphic adenoma, 17 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 19 cases of ACC, and 23 cases of normal salivary gland tissues were chosen for immunohistochemical analysis of MTA1. Results: MTA1 expression in the malignant tumors was significantly higher than that in pleomorphic adenoma (P<0.001), and higher in pleomorphic adenoma than the normal salivary glands(P< 0.001). In total, 69.6% of normal salivary gland tissues showed MTA1, but all cases of salivary gland tumors were positive for MTA1. High nuclear expression of MTA1 was detected in 83.3% (30/36) of the malignant salivary gland tumors and 45% (9/20) of pleomorphic adenoma, while low MTA1 expression was seen in all of the normal salivary gland tissues. No statistically significant correlation was found between MTA1 protein expression and any clinicopathological features (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that MTA1 was significantly overexpressed in malignant salivary gland neoplasm in comparison to a lower level in benign pleomorphic adenoma, suggesting that MTA1 protein might be involved in carcinogenesis. PMID:26878004

  17. Reconstructing genome mixtures from partial adjacencies.

    PubMed

    Mahmoody, Ahmad; Kahn, Crystal L; Raphael, Benjamin J

    2012-01-01

    Many cancer genome sequencing efforts are underway with the goal of identifying the somatic mutations that drive cancer progression. A major difficulty in these studies is that tumors are typically heterogeneous, with individual cells in a tumor having different complements of somatic mutations. However, nearly all DNA sequencing technologies sequence DNA from multiple cells, thus resulting in measurement of mutations from a mixture of genomes. Genome rearrangements are a major class of somatic mutations in many tumors, and the novel adjacencies (i.e. breakpoints) resulting from these rearrangements are readily detected from DNA sequencing reads. However, the assignment of each rearrangement, or adjacency, to an individual cancer genome in the mixture is not known. Moreover, the quantity of DNA sequence reads may be insufficient to measure all rearrangements in all genomes in the tumor. Motivated by this application, we formulate the k-minimum completion problem (k-MCP). In this problem, we aim to reconstruct k genomes derived from a single reference genome, given partial information about the adjacencies present in the mixture of these genomes. We show that the 1-MCP is solvable in linear time in the cases where: (i) the measured, incomplete genome has a single circular or linear chromosome; (ii) there are no restrictions on the chromosomal content of the measured, incomplete genome. We also show that the k-MCP problem, for k ≥ 3 in general, and the 2-MCP problem with the double-cut-and-join (DCJ) distance are NP-complete, when there are no restriction on the chromosomal structure of the measured, incomplete genome. These results lay the foundation for future algorithmic studies of the k-MCP and the application of these algorithms to real cancer sequencing data. PMID:23282028

  18. Endoscopic management of benign biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Tarun; Jamidar, Priya A

    2015-01-01

    Benign biliary strictures are a common indication for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Endoscopic management has evolved over the last 2 decades as the current standard of care. The most common etiologies of strictures encountered are following surgery and those related to chronic pancreatitis. High-quality cross-sectional imaging provides a road map for endoscopic management. Currently, sequential placement of multiple plastic biliary stents represents the preferred approach. There is an increasing role for the treatment of these strictures using covered metal stents, but due to conflicting reports of efficacies as well as cost and complications, this approach should only be entertained following careful consideration. Optimal management of strictures is best achieved using a team approach with the surgeon and interventional radiologist playing an important role. PMID:25613176

  19. Benign Intracranial Hypertension: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Gary Y.; Million, Stephanie K.

    2012-01-01

    Benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) (also known as pseudotumor cerebri and empty sella syndrome) remains a diagnostic challenge to most physicians. The modified Dandy criteria consist of, the classic findings of headache, pulsatile tinnitus, papilledema, and elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, however, these are rarely collectively present in any one patient. Furthermore, these findings can wax and wane over time. Due to the nature of this disease, both signs and symptoms may be intermittent, making definitive diagnosis difficult. Newer imaging studies, particularly the magnetic resonance venogram (MRV) along with a constellation of correlative findings and associated diseases have given new impetus in the diagnosis, treatment, and pathophysiology of this disease. This has led the authors to offer modifications to the classic Dandy criteria. This report presents three representative cases of BIH highlighting many of the newer advances in both diagnosis and treatment of this perplexing disorder. PMID:22928139

  20. Clinical Evaluation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    McVary, Kevin T

    2003-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common neoplastic condition afflicting men and constitutes a major factor impacting male health. Clinical evaluation to assess the presence and degree of voiding dysfunction and/or the role of BPH in its presence has an increasingly broad spectrum of treatment goals. The goals of the evaluation of such men are to identify the patient’s voiding or, more appropriately, urinary tract problems, both symptomatic and physiologic; to establish the etiologic role of BPH in these problems; to evaluate the necessity for and probability of success and risks of various therapeutic approaches; and to present the results of these assessments to the patient so he can make an informed decision about management recommendations and available alternatives. PMID:16985961

  1. Clinical Evaluation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    McVary, Kevin T

    2003-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common neoplastic condition afflicting men and constitutes a major factor impacting male health. Clinical evaluation to assess the presence and degree of voiding dysfunction and/or the role of BPH in its presence has an increasingly broad spectrum of treatment goals. The goals of the evaluation of such men are to identify the patient’s voiding or, more appropriately, urinary tract problems, both symptomatic and physiologic; to establish the etiologic role of BPH in these problems; to evaluate the necessity for and probability of success and risks of various therapeutic approaches; and to present the results of these assessments to the patient so he can make an informed decision about management recommendations and available alternatives. PMID:16985968

  2. Benign Vascular Malformation at the Ischial Tuberosity.

    PubMed

    Said, Rami; Bevelaqua, Anna-Christina

    2016-07-01

    A 31-year-old female student was referred to physical therapy with a chief complaint of proximal, posterior left thigh pain that began insidiously 12 months prior, and progressively worsened while training for a half-marathon. A mobile, soft mass was identified just inferior to the ischial tuberosity that was tender and painful to palpation, recreating the patient's chief complaint. Radiographic findings were negative for a suspected avulsion fracture at the ischial tuberosity. Therefore, the physician performed musculoskeletal ultrasonography, which revealed a superficial hypoechoic mass with vascular flow. Magnetic resonance imaging and a subsequent biopsy led to the diagnosis of a benign vascular malformation. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):607. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0410. PMID:27363574

  3. [Benign thyroid nodules: diagnostic and therapeutic approach].

    PubMed

    Durante, Cosimo; Cava, Francesco; Paciaroni, Alessandra; Filetti, Sebastiano

    2008-05-01

    In the last years an increase in thyroid nodules detection has been reported from several epidemiological studies. This trend is largely due to the routine use of diagnostic sonography procedures in clinical practice. Thyroid nodules, both palpable or not palpable, rarely turn out to be malignant. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAc) plays a central role in establishing the nature of the nodule. Excluded the presence of malignant lesions, which are generally treated with surgery, physicians are faced with a variety of therapeutic options, and choosing the optimal approach can be a difficult task. These include a periodic follow-up alone without treatment, the iodine supplementation, the thyroid-hormone suppressive therapy, the radioiodine administration, the percutaneous ethanol injections, and the new technique of laser photocoagulation. In all cases, decisions on the management of benign thyroid nodules should always be based on clinical target and a careful analysis of benefits and risks to the patient. PMID:18581970

  4. Palladium-Catalyzed Environmentally Benign Acylation.

    PubMed

    Suchand, Basuli; Satyanarayana, Gedu

    2016-08-01

    Recent trends in research have gained an orientation toward developing efficient strategies using innocuous reagents. The earlier reported transition-metal-catalyzed carbonylations involved either toxic carbon monoxide (CO) gas as carbonylating agent or functional-group-assisted ortho sp(2) C-H activation (i.e., ortho acylation) or carbonylation by activation of the carbonyl group (i.e., via the formation of enamines). Contradicting these methods, here we describe an environmentally benign process, [Pd]-catalyzed direct carbonylation starting from simple and commercially available iodo arenes and aldehydes, for the synthesis of a wide variety of ketones. Moreover, this method comprises direct coupling of iodoarenes with aldehydes without activation of the carbonyl and also without directing group assistance. Significantly, the strategy was successfully applied to the synthesis n-butylphthalide and pitofenone. PMID:27377566

  5. [Neuroophthalmological aspects of benign intracranial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Eliseeva, N M; Serova, N K; Gasparian, S S; Shifrin, M A

    2008-01-01

    Benign intracranial hypertension (BICH) is characterized by elevated spinal fluid pressure in the absence of space-occupying lesion in the skull, dilated cerebral ventricles, significant neurological disorders, and altered spinal fluid composition. Forty-nine patients with a female predominance were examined. Their age ranged from 4 to 52 years (median 39 years). The most common predictors of BICH were overweight, endocrine disorders, and cerebral sinus thrombosis. Ophthalmoscopically, the patients were found to have early, moderate, and significant papilledema, and secondary optic atrophy. Examination of visual functions revealed these or those disturbances of visual acuity and/or field of vision in 43 of the 49 patients. The incidence and degree of visual disturbances depended on the stage of papilledema. Timely diagnosis and treatment in patients with BICH allows the development of visual disturbances to be prevented in them. PMID:18589651

  6. Benign Duodenocolic Fistula: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Soheili, Marzieh; Honarmand, Shirin; Soleimani, Heshmatollah; Elyasi, Anvar

    2015-08-01

    Benign duodenocolic fistula (DCF), known as a fistula between the duodenum and colon with or without cecum of nonmalignant origin, is an unusual complication of different gastrointestinal diseases. The present paper records a case in which the patient presented with chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss as well as having a history of gastric ulcer. Most frequently the condition presents with signs of malabsorption such as weight loss and diarrhea, but other symptoms include nausea, vomiting (sometimes with fecal), and abdominal pain. Gastrointestinal inflammatory conditions are the usual causes. The most common ones are perforated duodenal ulcer and Crohn's disease. Barium enemas are usually diagnostic. Treatment consists of excising the fistula and repairing the duodenal and colonic defects. Closure of the fistula provides quick relief. PMID:26545997

  7. [Presumed benign ovarian tumors during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Tariel, O; Huissoud, C; Rudigoz, R C; Dubernard, G

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of ovarian tumors diagnosed during pregnancy is between 0.3 and 5.4% (LE2). The most common ovarian tumors diagnosed during pregnancy are functional cysts diagnosed incidentally during the first trimester ultrasound (LE2) and spontaneous regression is often observed. Dermoid cysts and cystadenoma are the most frequent organic benign ovarian tumors diagnosed during pregnancy (LE2). The main complication of presumed benign ovarian tumor (PBOT) during pregnancy is adnexal torsion and is estimated at around 8% (LE2), especially at the end of the first trimester and during the second trimester (LE4). Tumor markers are not reliable during pregnancy to assess the risk of malignancy of ovarian tumor (LE2). Ultrasound remains the gold standard for characterizing an ovarian tumor during pregnancy (LE3), but with a lower specificity for the diagnosis of malignancy. Pelvic MRI is accurate in the diagnosis of ovarian tumors during pregnancy and brings additional information to ultrasound (LE4). Ultrasound-guided aspiration of ovarian tumors is not recommended during pregnancy (grade C). Expectation is recommended in cases of PBOT during pregnancy, which does not enlarge (grade C). Whatever the gestational age, surgery is recommended in patients with symptoms suggesting an adnexal torsion (grade C). Laparoscopy is possible during the first and second trimester of pregnancy for the management of symptomatic PBOT (LE3). The risk of miscarriage following surgery (laparoscopy and laparotomy) for ovarian tumor during pregnancy is estimated at 2.8% (LE3). The route of delivery should not be modified by the ovarian tumour, except in case of praevia cyst requiring a cesarean section, a complication or suspicion of malignancy (grade C). Surgical treatment of PBOT may be performed during a cesarean section indicated for another reason. The risk of torsion is increased during the postpartum period (LE4). PMID:24210242

  8. Stress Reduction in Adjacent Level Discs via Dynamic Instrumentation: A Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Castellvi, Antonio E.; Huang, Hao; Vestgaarden, Tov; Saigal, Sunil; Pienkowski, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Conventional (rigid) fusion instrumentation is believed to accelerate the degeneration of adjacent discs by increasing stresses caused by motion discontinuity. Fusion instrumentation that employs reduced rod stiffness and increased axial motion, or dynamic instrumentation, may partially alleviate this problem, but the effects of this instrumentation on the stresses in the adjacent disc are unknown. We used a finiteelement model to calculate and compare the stresses in the adjacent-level disc that are induced by rigid and dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation. Methods A 3-dimensional finite-element model of the lumbar spine was obtained that simulated flexion and extension. The L5–S1 segment of this model was fused, and the L4–L5 segment was fixed with rigid or dynamic instrumentation. The mechanical properties of the dynamic instrumentation were determined by laboratory testing and then used in the finite-element model. Peak stresses in the lumbar discs were calculated and compared. Results The reduced-stiffness component of the dynamic instrumentation was associated with a 1% to 2% reduction in peak compressive stresses in the adjacent-level disc (at 45° flexion), and the increased axial motion component of this instrumentation reduced peak disc stress by 8% to 9%. Areas of disc tissue exposed to 80% of peak stresses of 6.17 MPa were 47% less for discs adjacent to dynamic instrumentation than for those adjacent to rigid instrumentation. Conclusions Reduced stiffness and increased axial motion of dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation designs result in an approximately 10% cumulative stress reduction for each flexion cycle. The effect of this stress reduction over many cycles may be substantial. Clinical Relevance The cumulative effect of this reduced amplitude and distribution of peak stresses in the adjacent disc may partially alleviate the problem of adjacent-level disc degeneration. PMID:25802582

  9. Ultrasonographic features and clinical implications of benign palpable breast lesions in young women

    PubMed Central

    Comstock, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the breast ultrasonography (US) features and to investigate whether performing a core biopsy is warranted in young women having palpable solid breast masses. Methods: A total of 76 solid palpable masses in 68 consecutive women (≤25 years old) underwent tissue diagnosis by percutaneous core biopsy. Two radiologists, who were blinded to the clinical history and histopathology, independently evaluated the US features according to Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. The frequency of benign and malignant descriptor terms that were used to characterize the lesions were compared to the final pathology. Results: All 76 palpable solid masses yielded benign pathology. On the US, the shape of the mass was described by radiologists 1 and 2 as oval or round (63.2% and 71.1%), margin as circumscribed (68.4% and 77.6%) and orientation as parallel (85.5% and 90.8%); the frequency of using all three benign descriptors was 61.8% and 68.5%, respectively. Suspicious descriptors were used less frequently by radiologists 1 and 2 including irregular shape (9.2% and 13.1%), non-circumscribed margin (31.6% and 22.4%) and non-parallel orientation (14.5% and 9.2%); the frequency of using all three suspicious descriptors was 9.2% and 11.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Despite the variable US features, breast malignancy seems extremely low in 25 years or younger women for palpable breast lesions. Using the BI-RADS lexicon, US accurately predicted benignity in about two thirds of our patients, supporting US surveillance as a safe alternative to invasive tissue sampling in this setting. PMID:25475650

  10. Role of laser therapy in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Riese, Werner T.; Sharpe, Brent A.; Aronoff, David B.; Mittemeyer, Bernhard T.

    2001-05-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in males older than 50 years of age. 75-80% of this population is considered to have some degree of BPH causing clinical symptoms and requiring urological treatment. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P) is currently the standard surgical treatment modality for BPH. In an attempt to minimize the need for hospitalization and the associated perioperative and postoperative morbidity, alternatives have been sought. Various types of laser techniques such as interstitial laser coagulation and side-firing technology have been proposed. Numerous studies have shown that laser procedures safely and effectively reduce the volume of the prostate. Intra- and postoperative bleeding are nearly unknown complications for laser procedures, whereas this is the most relevant complication for the TUR-P. Due to significant tissue edema after laser treatment, patients commonly show delayed time to void adequately and, therefore, catheter drainage is often necessary for 3 to 21 days. Retrograde ejaculation is reported to occur less (0- 10%) compared to TUR-P (greater than 60%). Urinary tract infections are very common after interstitial laser coagulation. Although not many long-term clinical data are available, various studies have shown that BPH patients improve in symptom score, flow rate and post-void residual up to 3 years after laser treatment. This paper presents a concise review of efficacy, advantages and disadvantages of the most frequently used laser techniques as well as the long-term clinical data compared to TUR-P.

  11. [Treatment of benign laryngeal diseases using a CO2 laser].

    PubMed

    Betka, J; Klozar, J; Kasík, P; Taudy, M; Tichý, S

    1989-05-01

    CO2 laser surgery is becoming a part of larynx surgery. The authors inform about their experience in benign larynx tumours treatment. They present analysis of concrete therapeutic procedures in individual larynx affections. They conclude that laser surgery is an advantegous method for benign larynx tumours treatment. PMID:2772545

  12. Navigated Pin-Point Approach to Osteoid Osteoma Adjacent to the Facet Joint of Spine

    PubMed Central

    Neo, Masashi; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Nishizawa, Kazuya; Imai, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a benign osteoblastic tumor. Its curative treatment is complete removal of the nidus, where intraoperative localization of the nidus governs clinical results. However, treatment can be difficult since the lesion is often invisible over the bony surface. Accordingly, establishment of an ideal less invasive surgical strategy for spinal OO remains yet unsettled. We illustrate the efficacy of a computed tomography (CT)-based navigation system in excising OO located adjacent to the facet joint of spine. In our 2 cases, complete and pin-point removal of the nidus located close to the facet joint was successfully achieved, without excessive removal of the bone potentially leading to spinal instability and possible damage of nearby neurovascular structures. We advocate a less invasive approach to spinal OO, particularly in an environment with an available CT-based navigation system. PMID:26949472

  13. Benign Biliary Strictures: Diagnostic Evaluation and Approaches to Percutaneous Treatment.

    PubMed

    Fidelman, Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    Interventional radiologists are often consulted to help identify and treat biliary strictures that can result from a variety of benign etiologies. Mainstays of noninvasive imaging for benign biliary strictures include ultrasound, contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and computed tomography cholangiography. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is the invasive diagnostic procedure of choice, allowing both localization of a stricture and treatment. Percutaneous biliary interventions are reserved for patients who are not candidates for endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (eg, history of distal gastrectomy and biliary-enteric anastomosis to a jejunal roux limb). This review discusses the roles of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and biliary drainage in the diagnosis of benign biliary strictures. The methodology for crossing benign biliary strictures, approaches to balloon dilation, management of recalcitrant strictures (ie, large-bore biliary catheters and retrievable covered stents), and the expected outcomes and complications of percutaneous treatment of benign biliary strictures are also addressed. PMID:26615161

  14. Metachronous Occurrence of Granular Cell Tumor in Breast Skin and Scalp: Diagnostic Challenging Differentiating Benign from Malignant and a Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Akkaya, Hampar; Toru, Havva Serap; Ayva, Ebru Sebnem; Karabulut, Zulfikar; Durusoy, Cicek

    2016-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a Schwann cell related benign neoplasm of soft tissue. GCT is an uncommon entity that occurs in a wide variety of body sites, but it is generally presented in the skin, oral cavity, superficial soft tissue, and respiratory and digestive tracts. Most of the GCTs are benign but clinically and radiologically these may mimic malignancy. Histopathological diagnosis is gold standard for establishing the true nature of the lesion. GCT is most commonly solitary but in about 10% of cases can be multifocal, usually involving various skin and soft tissue sites versus involving various internal sites. Therefore, these can involve skin and soft tissue or submucosa and viscera. GCT is usually benign; however, local recurrence is common due to incomplete removal. Malignant cases are rarely reported in 1-2% of cases. In this study, we report clinical and histopathological findings of a 36-year-old woman with metachronous GCT in breast and scalp. The clinical features raise the question of whether these are metachronous benign GCTs or whether this is establishment of malignant behavior. The aim of this report is to present the histopathological and clinical features of GCT and the diagnostic challenge of differentiating benign from malignant GCT. PMID:26881167

  15. Exchange coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets.

    PubMed

    Dey, H; Csaba, G; Bernstein, G H; Porod, W

    2016-09-30

    We experimentally demonstrate exchange-coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets. Our results show that two neighboring nanomagnets that are each antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled to a common ferromagnetic bottom layer can be brought into strong ferromagnetic interaction. Simulations show that interlayer exchange coupling effectively promotes ferromagnetic alignment between the two nanomagnets, as opposed to antiferromagnetic alignment due to dipole-coupling. In order to experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme, we fabricated arrays of pairs of elongated, single-domain nanomagnets. Magnetic force microscopy measurements show that most of the pairs are ferromagnetically ordered. The results are in agreement with micromagnetic simulations. The presented scheme can achieve coupling strengths that are significantly stronger than dipole coupling, potentially enabling far-reaching applications in Nanomagnet Logic, spin-wave devices and three-dimensional storage and computing. PMID:27535227

  16. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  17. Boundary Layers of Air Adjacent to Cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Park S.

    1974-01-01

    Using existing heat transfer data, a relatively simple expression was developed for estimating the effective thickness of the boundary layer of air surrounding cylinders. For wind velocities from 10 to 1000 cm/second, the calculated boundary-layer thickness agreed with that determined for water vapor diffusion from a moistened cylindrical surface 2 cm in diameter. It correctly predicted the resistance for water vapor movement across the boundary layers adjacent to the (cylindrical) inflorescence stems of Xanthorrhoea australis R. Br. and Scirpus validus Vahl and the leaves of Allium cepa L. The boundary-layer thickness decreased as the turbulence intensity increased. For a turbulence intensity representative of field conditions (0.5) and for νwindd between 200 and 30,000 cm2/second (where νwind is the mean wind velocity and d is the cylinder diameter), the effective boundary-layer thickness in centimeters was equal to [Formula: see text]. PMID:16658855

  18. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  19. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  20. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  1. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  2. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  7. Increased apoptosis in gastric mucosa adjacent to intestinal metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    van Grieken, N C T; Meijer, G A; zur Hausen, A; Meuwissen, S G M; Baak, J P A; Kuipers, E J

    2003-01-01

    Background: The biological processes involved in the development of gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia are still incompletely understood. Reports testing the hypothesis that apoptosis leads to atrophy have yielded conflicting results. The availability of new antibodies for the detection of apoptotic cells in tissue sections has facilitated the analysis of the role of apoptosis in the gastritis–atrophy–intestinal metaplasia sequence. Methods: Archival material from 40 gastric resection specimens with normal mucosa (n = 5), chronic active gastritis (n = 17), or intestinal metaplasia (n = 18) was studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies directed against cleaved cytokeratin 18 and active caspase 3. Slides were scored on a 0–3 scale for the presence of apoptotic cells. Results: Normal gastric mucosa contained low numbers of apoptotic cells at the surface epithelium (mean score, 0.20). This number was significantly increased in cases with chronic gastritis (mean score, 1.06) and in those with intestinal metaplasia (mean score, 2.56). Within the intestinal metaplasia cases, 44 different foci of intestinal metaplasia were identified. In 39 of these 44 areas, concentrations of apoptotic cells were seen immediately adjacent to the foci of intestinal metaplasia, but not in the metaplastic epithelium itself. Conclusions: Apoptosis is uncommon in normal gastric mucosa. Chronic inflammation and intestinal metaplasia are associated with increased apoptosis, but occur mainly at the mucosal surface and not in the deeper layers. These findings do not support the concept that apoptosis underlies the loss of gastric glands and leads to atrophy, but the observed concentration of apoptotic epithelial cells adjacent to foci of intestinal metaplasia could be related to heterogeneity of epithelial damage, causing apoptosis, to which intestinal metaplasia is a response. PMID:12719456

  8. Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Arising Adjacent to a Breast Implant.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Ciara; Ged, Yasser; Quinn, Fiona; Walker, Jan; Kennedy, John; Gillham, Charles; Pittaluga, Stefania; McDermott, Ronan; Vandenberghe, Elisabeth; Grant, Cliona; Flavin, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Breast implant-associated lymphoma has recently gained wide recognition. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is the most frequently diagnosed subtype in this setting but the spectrum is broadening. A 66-year-old woman developed swelling and itch around her saline implant 6 years after its insertion. Imaging revealed a fluid collection surrounding the implant with an adjacent mass. Microscopy showed sclerotic tissue punctuated by discrete cellular nodules comprising small lymphocytes, eosinophils and interspersed large atypical Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS)-like cells. The HRS-like cells stained positively for CD30 and CD15 by immunohistochemistry. Small T-lymphocytes formed rosettes around HRS-like cells. Appearances were consistent with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction demonstrated no clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes, however, a t(14;18)(q32;q21)BCL2-JH translocation involving the major breakpoint region of the bcl2 gene was present. Staging positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan revealed FDG-avid masses in the right axilla and pelvis. Subsequent pathological examination identified low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) with a t(14;18) translocation at these sites. To our knowledge, this is the first case of HL arising adjacent to a breast implant. An awareness of this diagnosis is important as classical HL, with its prominent mixed inflammatory background, may be overlooked as a reactive process when histologically assessing capsulectomy specimens. It is also important in the differential diagnosis for implant-associated ALCL as both contain large atypical CD30-positive cells highlighting the need for full immunohistochemical and molecular workup in such cases. This case also adds to the large body of literature regarding the association between HL and FL. PMID:26888955

  9. Benign disease of the common bile duct.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R; Pradeep, R; Chander, J; Kumar, P; Wig, J D; Yadav, R V; Kaushik, S P

    1988-08-01

    The incidence of common bile duct (CBD) pathology in a group of patients with benign biliary disease (n = 505) was found to be 23.2 per cent. The spectrum included 111 patients (90.2 per cent) with CBD stones, 37 of whom (33.3 per cent) had no symptoms or findings pre-operatively indicating CBD involvement. Five patients had papillary stenosis, three had postoperative CBD strictures, one had a choledochal cyst and one had an external biliary fistula. Of the 100 CBDs measuring more than 10 mm in diameter, 90 harboured calculi. In the remaining 23 CBDs measuring less than 10 mm, calculi were present in 21. The presence of CBD calculi was demonstrated by intra-operative cholangiography in 49 patients. In the remaining patients (n = 74), the diagnosis of CBD pathology was made either by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography, T-tube cholangiography or peroperative palpation. The surgical procedures performed included choledochotomy and T-tube drainage (n = 74), transduodenal sphincteroplasty (n = 27) and choledochoduodenostomy (n = 18). The overall mortality and morbidity of CBD exploration was 3.3 per cent and 24.4 per cent respectively, which was significantly greater than that for cholecystectomy alone (0.3 per cent and 8.6 per cent respectively). Transduodenal sphincteroplasty carried a much higher mortality (11 per cent) and morbidity (52 per cent) when compared with other procedures. PMID:3167536

  10. [Pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Oelke, M; Martinelli, E

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is indicated when men suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) but there are no absolute indications for prostate surgery or severe bladder outlet obstruction. Phytotherapy can be used in men with mild to moderate LUTS and alpha-blockers can quickly and effectively decrease the LUTS and symptomatic disease progression. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-I) are an alternative to alpha-blockers when men experience bothersome side effects from alpha-blockers or erectile dysfunction. If patients predominantly have bladder storage symptoms and a small prostate, muscarinic receptor antagonists are a viable treatment option. The combination of alpha-blocker plus muscarinic receptor antagonist is more efficacious in reducing LUTS than the single drugs alone. The 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI) can significantly decrease LUTS and disease progression (e.g. acute urinary retention and need for prostate surgery) in men with larger prostates (> 30-40 ml). The combination of 5ARI plus alpha-blocker can reduce LUTS and disease progression more effectively than drug monotherapy. Combination therapy with PDE5-I (tadalafil) plus 5ARI (finasteride) reduces LUTS more substantially than 5ARI alone and, additionally, PDE5-Is reduce the sexual side effects during 5ARI treatment. PMID:26676726

  11. Benign and pathological electrocardiographic changes in athletes.

    PubMed

    Machado, Marino; Vaz Silva, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of death in athletes during sport. It is a tragic event that generates significant media attention and discussion throughout society as to whether everything possible had been done to prevent it. Regular physical exercise causes cardiac remodeling at both the mechanical and electrical level, known as athlete's heart, resulting in an electrocardiogram (ECG) considered abnormal compared with the ECGs of the general population. Some of these electrocardiographic changes are considered normal or physiological in athletes, while others suggest underlying cardiac disease with the potential to cause sudden cardiac death. There is thus an urgent need to define the electrocardiographic patterns that allow or prohibit participation in sports, and to differentiate them in terms of gender, ethnicity and age. The purpose of this review is to present the latest data on the electrocardiographic changes considered benign or pathological that are typically found in athletes and to critically analyze the most recent criteria for classifying ECGs in this population (the Seattle criteria), comparing them with previous guidelines and with the latest studies on the subject. This article also examines the question of including ECGs in pre-participation screening programs, the US and European approaches to the subject, and the most up-to-date data on the sensitivity, specificity and cost-effectiveness of the ECG in athletes. PMID:26643438

  12. Benign paroxysmal tonic upgaze of childhood.

    PubMed

    Ouvrier, R A; Billson, F

    1988-07-01

    Four cases of an apparently benign ocular motor syndrome of childhood are reported. The features of the disorder are: (1) onset in early life; (2) periods of constant or variably sustained tonic conjugate upward deviation of the eyes; (3) down-beating saccades in attempted downgaze, which are difficult to sustain below the neutral positions; (4) apparently normal horizontal eye movements; (5) frequent relief by sleep; (6) otherwise normal neurological findings apart from mild ataxia, chronic in one boy and at times of illness in one of the other patients; (7) absence of deterioration during observation spanning up to 15 years; (8) eventual improvement but with some residual ocular movement problems in two cases; (9) normal metabolic, electroencephalographic, and neuroradiologic investigations; (10) normal brain examination findings in one patient who died accidentally; and (11) an apparently good response to levodopa therapy in one patient. To the authors' knowledge, this condition has not been described previously. It may be a new levodopa-responsive condition, secondary to a localized neurotransmitter deficiency. PMID:3209843

  13. Clinical Investigation of Benign Asbestos Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Gemba, Kenichi; Aoe, Keisuke; Kato, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Takako; Usami, Ikuji; Onishi, Kazuo; Mizuhashi, Keiichi; Yusa, Toshikazu; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    There is no detailed information about benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE). The aim of the study was to clarify the clinical features of BAPE. The criteria of enrolled patients were as follows: (1) history of asbestos exposure; (2) presence of pleural effusion determined by chest X-ray, CT, and thoracentesis; and (3) the absence of other causes of effusion. Clinical information was retrospectively analysed and the radiological images were reviewed. There were 110 BAPE patients between 1991 and 2012. All were males and the median age at diagnosis was 74 years. The median duration of asbestos exposure and period of latency for disease onset of BAPE were 31 and 48 years, respectively. Mean values of hyaluronic acid, adenosine deaminase, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the pleural fluid were 39,840 ng/mL, 23.9 IU/L, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Pleural plaques were detected in 98 cases (89.1%). Asbestosis was present in 6 (5.5%) cases, rounded atelectasis was detected in 41 (37.3%) cases, and diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) was detected in 30 (27.3%) cases. One case developed lung cancer (LC) before and after BAPE. None of the cases developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) during the follow-up. PMID:26689234

  14. [Minimally Invasive Treatment of Esophageal Benign Diseases].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Haruhiro

    2016-07-01

    As a minimally invasive treatment of esophageal achalasia per-oral endoscopic myotomy( POEM) was developed in 2008. More than 1,100 cases of achalasia-related diseases received POEM. Success rate of the procedure was more than 95%(Eckerdt score improvement 3 points and more). No serious( Clavian-Dindo classification III b and more) complication was experienced. These results suggest that POEM becomes a standard minimally invasive treatment for achalasia-related diseases. As an off-shoot of POEM submucosal tumor removal through submucosal tunnel (per-oral endoscopic tumor resection:POET) was developed and safely performed. Best indication of POET is less than 5 cm esophageal leiomyoma. A novel endoscopic treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was developed. Anti-reflux mucosectomy( ARMS) is nearly circumferential mucosal reduction of gastric cardia mucosa. ARMS is performed in 56 consecutive cases of refractory GERD. No major complications were encountered and excellent clinical results. Best indication of ARMS is a refractory GERD without long sliding hernia. Longest follow-up case is more than 10 years. Minimally invasive treatments for esophageal benign diseases are currently performed by therapeutic endoscopy. PMID:27440038

  15. Skin conditions: benign nodular skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tam; Zuniga, Ramiro

    2013-04-01

    Benign subcutaneous lesions are a common reason that patients visit family physicians. Lipomas are the most common of these lesions; they most often occur on the trunk and proximal extremities. Recent data show that as many as half of the fat cells in lipomas are atypical. Ultrasound is used increasingly to confirm lipoma diagnosis, but deep lesions should be evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging study or computed tomography scan to exclude involvement of underlying structures and/or liposarcoma. Small lesions can sometimes be managed with serial injections of midpotency steroids. Larger lesions (larger than 5 cm), those compressing other structures, or those suspicious for malignancy should be excised using standard surgical excision or, when possible, the newer minimal-scar segmental extraction technique. Ganglion cysts are another common lesion, the presence of which often is confirmed with ultrasound if the diagnosis is not clinically apparent. Management includes splinting, aspiration, and/or injection of steroids, with or without hyaluronidase. Epidermal inclusion cysts, also called sebaceous cysts, typically are asymptomatic unless they become infected. Ultrasound can aid in diagnosis. The only definitive management is surgical excision with complete removal of the cyst wall or capsule, using minimal-scar segmental extraction or conventional surgical removal. PMID:23600336

  16. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values of the Benign Central Zone of the Prostate: Comparison With Low- and High-Grade Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajan T.; Kauffman, Christopher R.; Garcia-Reyes, Kirema; Palmeri, Mark L.; Madden, John F.; Polascik, Thomas J.; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The apparent diffusion Coefficient (ADC) values for benign central zone (CZ) of the prostate were compared with ADC values of benign periphral zone (PZ), benign transition zone (TZ), and prostate cancer, using histopathologic findings from radical prostatectomy as the reference standard. Materials and Methods The study included 27 patients with prostate cancer (mean [± SD] age, 60.0 ± 7.6 years) who had 3-T endorectal coil MRI of the prostate performed before undergoing prostatectomy with whole-mount histopathologic assessment. Mean ADC values were recorded from the ROI within the index tumor and within benign CZ, PZ, and TZ, with the use of histopathologic findings as the reference standard. ADC values of the groups were compared using paired t tests and ROC curve analysis. Results The ADC of benign CZ in the right (1138 ± 123 × 10−6 mm2/s) and left (1166 ± 141 × 10−6 mm2/s) lobes was not significantly different (p = 0.217). However, the ADC of benign CZ (1154 ± 129 × 10−6 mm2/s) was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than the ADCs of benign PZ (1579 ± 197 × 10−6 mm2/s) and benign TZ (1429 ± 180 × 10−6 mm2/s). Although the ADC of index tumors (1042 ± 134 × 10−6 mm2/s) was significantly lower (p = 0.002) than the ADC of benign CZ there was no significant difference (p = 0.225) between benign CZ and tumors with a Gleason score of 6 (1119 ± 87 × 10−6 mm2/s). In 22.2% of patients (6/27), including five patients who had tumors with a Gleason score greater than 6, the ADC was lower in benign CZ than in the index tumor. The AUC of ADC for the differentiation of benign CZ from index tumors was 72.4% (sensitivity, 70.4%; specificity, 51.9%), and the AUC of ADC for differentiation from tumors with a Gleason score greater than 6 was 76.7% (sensitivity, 75.0%; specificity, 65.0%). Conclusion The ADC of benign CZ is lower than the ADC of other zones of the prostate and overlaps with the ADC of prostate cancer tissue, including high

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of benign liver nodules: Brazilian Society of Hepatology (SBH) recommendations.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Edna; Ferreira, Adalgisa de Souza Paiva; França, Alex Vianey Callado; Lyra, Andre Castro; Barros, Fabio Marinho do Rego; Silva, Ivonete; Garcia, José Huygens Parente; Parise, Edison Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Space-occupying lesions of the liver may be cystic or solid. Ultrasonography is an extremely useful method for initial screening, and suffices for diagnosis of simple hepatic cysts. Complex cysts and solid masses require computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for confirmation. Wide surgical excision is indicated in cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma. Clinical and epidemiological data are important, as nodules in noncirrhotic livers are more likely to be benign. Hemangiomas, the most common benign tumors, require no follow-up after diagnostic confirmation if they are small and asymptomatic. Patients with giant, symptomatic hemangiomas or compression of adjacent structures should be referred to hepatobiliary centers for potential surgery. The genetic heterogeneity of hepatocellular adenomas and their epidemiology and prognosis prompted classification of these tumors into four subtypes based on histology and immunohistochemistry. The major complications of hepatocellular adenomas are rupture with bleeding and malignant transformation. Rupture occurs in approximately 30% of cases. The main risk factors are tumors size >5 cm and inflammatory subtype. Hepatocellular adenomas may enlarge during pregnancy due to marked hormonal stimulation. As oral contraceptive pills and anabolic steroids have associated with hepatocellular adenomas growth, particularly of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alfa subtype, these drugs should be discontinued. Focal nodular hyperplasia is the second most common benign tumor of the liver. It is most frequent in women aged 20 to 60, and 70% to 90% of cases are asymptomatic. In the absence of a central scar and/or other hallmarks of Focal nodular hyperplasia, with uncertainty between this diagnosis and hepatocellular adenoma, liver-specific contrast agents are indicated. PMID:26959805

  18. Aberrant gene expression in mucosa adjacent to tumor reveals a molecular crosstalk in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A colorectal tumor is not an isolated entity growing in a restricted location of the body. The patient’s gut environment constitutes the framework where the tumor evolves and this relationship promotes and includes a complex and tight correlation of the tumor with inflammation, blood vessels formation, nutrition, and gut microbiome composition. The tumor influence in the environment could both promote an anti-tumor or a pro-tumor response. Methods A set of 98 paired adjacent mucosa and tumor tissues from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and 50 colon mucosa from healthy donors (246 samples in total) were included in this work. RNA extracted from each sample was hybridized in Affymetrix chips Human Genome U219. Functional relationships between genes were inferred by means of systems biology using both transcriptional regulation networks (ARACNe algorithm) and protein-protein interaction networks (BIANA software). Results Here we report a transcriptomic analysis revealing a number of genes activated in adjacent mucosa from CRC patients, not activated in mucosa from healthy donors. A functional analysis of these genes suggested that this active reaction of the adjacent mucosa was related to the presence of the tumor. Transcriptional and protein-interaction networks were used to further elucidate this response of normal gut in front of the tumor, revealing a crosstalk between proteins secreted by the tumor and receptors activated in the adjacent colon tissue; and vice versa. Remarkably, Slit family of proteins activated ROBO receptors in tumor whereas tumor-secreted proteins transduced a cellular signal finally activating AP-1 in adjacent tissue. Conclusions The systems-level approach provides new insights into the micro-ecology of colorectal tumorogenesis. Disrupting this intricate molecular network of cell-cell communication and pro-inflammatory microenvironment could be a therapeutic target in CRC patients. PMID:24597571

  19. Benign Fibrous Histiocytoma of Mandible: A Case Report and Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    Sathyabhama, Sudha; Khatri, Rohitashwa; Varma, Sujatha; Narayanan, Navajeevraj Machipalliyil

    2016-01-01

    Benign Fibrous Histiocytoma (BFH) is a well recognised tumour of the soft tissue, developing entirely within the subcutaneous tissue, the deep soft tissues or in the parenchymal organs. However, BFH of bones is poorly defined. It has been rarely reported in the bones with femur, tibia and pelvic bone being the most commonly affected bones. Involvement of the jawbones is rare. Their clinical and radiographic features often simulate the common odontogenic and non-odontogenic lesions of the jaws. Hence, it is imperative for a dentist to have proper knowledge of various conditions affecting the jaws. Here we report a case of BFH which presented as an indolent swelling of the right mandibular posterior region for 15 years. The case emphasizes the need for considering BFH in the differential diagnosis of swellings of the jaws. PMID:27504429

  20. Benign Cystic Mesothelioma in a Child: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tuncer, Ahmet Ali; Narcı, Adnan; Dilek, Fatma Hüsniye; Embleton, Didem Baskın; Çetinkurşun, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Background: Benign cystic mesothelioma (BCM) is a rare tumor with benign characteristic. There are only 8 child cases reported in the English literature. In this report, we present this rare entity a brief review of the literature. Case Report: A two year-old boy presenting with abdominal swelling was hospitalized. Physical examination revealed a mass filling the abdomen. Laboratory findings were not specific. Abdominal computerized tomography showed a 15×13×11 cm cystic mass extending from the bladder to the liver with no solid components and no infiltration to adjacent organs. Operation revealed a cystic mass filled with yellow-green serous fluid which was attached to the right lobe of the liver with a 1 cm thick peduncle. Total excision of the mass was performed by clamping and cutting the narrow attachment. Recovery was uneventful. Pathology revealed multiple cysts lined with mesothelial cells. No recurrence was seen after 5 years of follow-up. Conclusion: BCM should be kept in mind as a rare cause of the abdominal mass in children, as it may lead to confusion in preoperative diagnosis. Although rare, patients should be followed throughout life because of the risk of recurrence and malignant degeneration.

  1. PRRT2 mutation in Japanese children with benign infantile epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Akihisa; Shimojima, Keiko; Kubota, Tetsuo; Abe, Shinpei; Yamashita, Shintaro; Imai, Katsumi; Okanishi, Tohru; Enoki, Hideo; Fukasawa, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Takuya; Dibbens, Leanne M; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2013-08-01

    Mutations in PRRT2 genes have been identified as a major cause of benign infantile epilepsy and/or paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. We explored mutations in PRRT2 in Japanese patients with BIE as well as its related conditions including convulsion with mild gastroenteritis and benign early infantile epilepsy. We explored PRRT2 mutations in Japanese children who had had unprovoked infantile seizures or convulsion with mild gastroenteritis. The probands included 16 children with benign infantile epilepsy, 6 children with convulsions with mild gastroenteritis, and 2 siblings with benign early infantile epilepsy. In addition, we recruited samples from family members when PRRT2 mutation was identified in the proband. Statistical analyses were performed to identify differences in probands with benign infantile epilepsy according to the presence or absence of PRRT2 mutation. Among a total of 24 probands, PRRT2 mutations was identified only in 6 probands with benign infantile epilepsy. A common insertion mutation, c.649_650insC, was found in 5 families and a novel missense mutation, c.981C>G (I327M), in one. The family history of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia was more common in probands with PRRT2 mutations than in those without mutations. Our study revealed that PRRT2 mutations are common in Japanese patients with benign infantile epilepsy, especially in patients with a family history of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. PMID:23131349

  2. Differential Utilization of Dietary Fatty Acids in Benign and Malignant Cells of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Theresa; Höfer, Julia; Gnaiger, Erich; Aufinger, Astrid; Kenner, Lukas; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells adapt via metabolic reprogramming to meet elevated energy demands due to continuous proliferation, for example by switching to alternative energy sources. Nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies and amino acids may be utilized as preferred substrates to fulfill increased energy requirements. In this study we investigated the metabolic characteristics of benign and cancer cells of the prostate with respect to their utilization of medium chain (MCTs) and long chain triglycerides (LCTs) under standard and glucose-starved culture conditions by assessing cell viability, glycolytic activity, mitochondrial respiration, the expression of genes encoding key metabolic enzymes as well as mitochondrial mass and mtDNA content. We report that BE prostate cells (RWPE-1) have a higher competence to utilize fatty acids as energy source than PCa cells (LNCaP, ABL, PC3) as shown not only by increased cell viability upon fatty acid supplementation but also by an increased ß-oxidation of fatty acids, although the base-line respiration was 2-fold higher in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, BE RWPE-1 cells were found to compensate for glucose starvation in the presence of fatty acids. Of notice, these findings were confirmed in vivo by showing that PCa tissue has a lower capacity in oxidizing fatty acids than benign prostate. Collectively, these metabolic differences between benign and prostate cancer cells and especially their differential utilization of fatty acids could be exploited to establish novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26285134

  3. Differential Utilization of Dietary Fatty Acids in Benign and Malignant Cells of the Prostate.

    PubMed

    Dueregger, Andrea; Schöpf, Bernd; Eder, Theresa; Höfer, Julia; Gnaiger, Erich; Aufinger, Astrid; Kenner, Lukas; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells adapt via metabolic reprogramming to meet elevated energy demands due to continuous proliferation, for example by switching to alternative energy sources. Nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies and amino acids may be utilized as preferred substrates to fulfill increased energy requirements. In this study we investigated the metabolic characteristics of benign and cancer cells of the prostate with respect to their utilization of medium chain (MCTs) and long chain triglycerides (LCTs) under standard and glucose-starved culture conditions by assessing cell viability, glycolytic activity, mitochondrial respiration, the expression of genes encoding key metabolic enzymes as well as mitochondrial mass and mtDNA content. We report that BE prostate cells (RWPE-1) have a higher competence to utilize fatty acids as energy source than PCa cells (LNCaP, ABL, PC3) as shown not only by increased cell viability upon fatty acid supplementation but also by an increased ß-oxidation of fatty acids, although the base-line respiration was 2-fold higher in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, BE RWPE-1 cells were found to compensate for glucose starvation in the presence of fatty acids. Of notice, these findings were confirmed in vivo by showing that PCa tissue has a lower capacity in oxidizing fatty acids than benign prostate. Collectively, these metabolic differences between benign and prostate cancer cells and especially their differential utilization of fatty acids could be exploited to establish novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26285134

  4. Mammary radioiodine accumulation due to functional sodium iodide symporter expression in a benign fibroadenoma

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, F.; Unterholzner, S.; Diebold, J.; Knesewitsch, P.; Hahn, K.; Spitzweg, C. . E-mail: Christine.Spitzweg@med.uni-muenchen.de

    2006-11-03

    The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) has been characterized to mediate the active transport of iodide not only in the thyroid gland but also in various non-thyroidal tissues, including lactating mammary gland and the majority of breast cancers, thereby offering the possibility of diagnostic and therapeutic radioiodine application in breast cancer. In this report, we present a 57-year-old patient with multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma, who showed focal radioiodine accumulation in a lesion in the right breast on a posttherapy {sup 131}I scan following radioiodine therapy. CT and MR-mammography showed a focal solid lesion in the right breast suggestive of a fibroadenoma, which was confirmed by histological examination. Immunostaining of paraffin-embedded tumor tissue sections using a human NIS antibody demonstrated NIS-specific immunoreactivity confined to epithelial cells of mammary ducts. In conclusion, in a thyroid cancer patient we identified a benign fibroadenoma of the breast expressing high levels of functionally active NIS protein as underlying cause of focal mammary radioiodine accumulation on a posttherapy {sup 131}I scan. These data show for the first time that functional NIS expression is not restricted to lactating mammary gland and malignant breast tissue, but can also be detected in benign breast lesions, such as fibroadenomata of the breast.

  5. Role of Nuclear Medicine in the Diagnosis of Benign Thyroid Diseases.

    PubMed

    Garberoglio, Sara; Testori, Ornella

    2016-01-01

    A deep understanding of thyroid pathophysiology is the basis for diagnosing and treating benign thyroid diseases with radioactive materials, known as radiopharmaceuticals, which are introduced into the body by injection or orally. After the radiotracer administration, the patient becomes the emitting source, and several devices have been studied to detect and capture these emissions (gamma or beta-negative) and transform them into photons, parametric images, numbers and molecular information. Thyroid scintigraphy is the only technique that allows the assessment of thyroid regional function and, therefore, the detection of areas of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules. Scintigraphy visualizes the distribution of active thyroid tissue and displays the differential accumulation of radionuclides in the investigated cells, thus providing a functional map. Moreover, this technique is a fundamental tool in the clinical and surgical management of thyroid diseases, including: single thyroid nodules with a suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone level, for which fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is used to identify hot nodules; multinodular goiters, especially larger ones, to identify cold or indeterminate areas requiring FNAB and hot areas that do not need cytologic evaluation, and to evaluate mediastinal extension; the diagnosis of ectopic thyroid tissue; subclinical hyperthyroidism to identify occult hyperfunctioning tissue; follicular lesions to identify a functioning cellular adenoma that could be benign, although such nodules are mostly cold on scintigraphy; to distinguish low-uptake from high-uptake thyrotoxicosis, and to determine eligibility for radioiodine therapy. PMID:27003181

  6. Na+ Micro-Current Value Detection as a New Modality for Identification of Benign and Malignant Disease in Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu-Feng; Long, Zhi-Da; Liu, Xue-Min; Ma, Feng; Li, Qiang; Lv, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Increase of intracellular positive ions (mainly Na+) indicates greater possibility of cell malignancy. The present study investigated the correlation between the Na+ micro-current value (MCV) and tissue characteristics (normal, benign or malignant). 346 tissue samples have been detected within 30 min after surgical isolation by Na+ detector. MCV in 102 malignant tumor was significantly higher than that in benign/borderline tumor or normal tissue (33.3 ± 8.9 μA vs. 24.4 ± 8.6 μA and 14.0 ± 4.0 μA, p < 0.001, respectively). MCV in malignant tumor parenchyma was significantly higher than that in the paired paracanceroustissue, normal tissue and surgical margin tissue (33.3 ± 8.9 μA vs. 18.9 ± 4.1, 14.2 ± 4.0 or 15.2 ± 3.3, p < 0.001, respectively). However, the coincidence rate between Na+ detector and pathological examination was different in tissues from different organs or systems, which was high in pancreas, bile duct system, gastrointestinal system, esophagus, breasts, lungs, nose & throat and thyroids, but poor in urinary tissue. The overall coincidence rate was 83.1% (108/130) between Na+ detector and pathological examination. The sensitivity and specificity of correct diagnosis by Na+ detector was 83.3% (70/84) and 82.6% (38/46), respectively. This new modality may have diagnostic potential in complementing frozen examination in differentiating malignant tumor from benign or normal tissue, justifying tumor metastatic scope and confirming surgical margin. PMID:27103487

  7. Na(+) Micro-Current Value Detection as a New Modality for Identification of Benign and Malignant Disease in Surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-Feng; Long, Zhi-Da; Liu, Xue-Min; Ma, Feng; Li, Qiang; Lv, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Increase of intracellular positive ions (mainly Na(+)) indicates greater possibility of cell malignancy. The present study investigated the correlation between the Na(+) micro-current value (MCV) and tissue characteristics (normal, benign or malignant). 346 tissue samples have been detected within 30 min after surgical isolation by Na(+) detector. MCV in 102 malignant tumor was significantly higher than that in benign/borderline tumor or normal tissue (33.3 ± 8.9 μA vs. 24.4 ± 8.6 μA and 14.0 ± 4.0 μA, p < 0.001, respectively). MCV in malignant tumor parenchyma was significantly higher than that in the paired paracanceroustissue, normal tissue and surgical margin tissue (33.3 ± 8.9 μA vs. 18.9 ± 4.1, 14.2 ± 4.0 or 15.2 ± 3.3, p < 0.001, respectively). However, the coincidence rate between Na(+) detector and pathological examination was different in tissues from different organs or systems, which was high in pancreas, bile duct system, gastrointestinal system, esophagus, breasts, lungs, nose &throat and thyroids, but poor in urinary tissue. The overall coincidence rate was 83.1% (108/130) between Na(+) detector and pathological examination. The sensitivity and specificity of correct diagnosis by Na(+) detector was 83.3% (70/84) and 82.6% (38/46), respectively. This new modality may have diagnostic potential in complementing frozen examination in differentiating malignant tumor from benign or normal tissue, justifying tumor metastatic scope and confirming surgical margin. PMID:27103487

  8. Characteristics of "malignant" vs. "benign" electrocardiographic patterns of early repolarization.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, J T; Huikuri, H V

    2015-01-01

    The electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern of early repolarization (ER) has historically been regarded as a benign ECG variant, but during the past few years, this concept has been challenged based on multiple reports linking the ER pattern with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Although the mechanistic basis of ventricular arrhythmogenesis in patients with ER pattern is still incompletely understood, there is increasing information about the ECG and phenotype characteristics of "malignant" vs. "benign" patterns of ER. This review presents the current evidence of markers of "benign" and a more severe nature of ER. PMID:25634766

  9. Interaction between adjacent lightning discharges in clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanhui; Zhang, Guangshu; Zhang, Tong; Li, Yajun; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Tinglong

    2013-07-01

    Using a 3D lightning radiation source locating system (LLS), three pairs of associated lightning discharges (two or more adjacent lightning discharges following an arbitrary rule that their space-gap was less than 10 km and their time-gap was less than 800 ms) were observed, and the interaction between associated lightning discharges was analyzed. All these three pairs of associated lightning discharges were found to involve three or more charge regions (the ground was considered as a special charge region). Moreover, at least one charge region involved two lightning discharges per pair of associated lightning discharges. Identified from electric field changes, the subsequent lightning discharges were suppressed by the prior lightning discharges. However, it is possible that the prior lightning discharge provided a remaining discharge channel to facilitate the subsequent lightning discharge. The third case provided evidence of this possibility. Together, the results suggested that, if the charges in the main negative charge region can be consumed using artificial lightning above the main negative charge regions, lightning accidents on the ground could be greatly reduced, on the condition that the height of the main negative charge region and the charge intensity of the lower positive charge region are suitable.

  10. Prediction of benignancy of the solitary cold thyroid nodule by fluorescent scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, J.A.; Sandler, M.P.; Partain, C.L.

    1985-05-01

    A quantitative x-ray fluorescent scanning technique has been used routinely to determine iodine content ratios (ICR) of nodule to normal thyroid tissue in patients with solitary cold thyroid nodules. A study of 150 patients with histological diagnoses has shown that an ICR above 0.60 is an excellent indicator of benignancy with a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 99%. This technique, in conjuction with careful clinical judgement, can be used to identify those patients that are at low risk for malignancy and can probably undergo conservative clinical management.

  11. Confocal imaging of benign and malignant proliferative skin lesions in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Salvador; Rajadhyaksha, Milind M.; Anderson, R. Rox

    1999-06-01

    Near-infrared confocal reflectance microscopy (CM) provides non- invasive real-time images of thin en-face tissue sections with high resolution and contrast. Imaging of cells, nuclei, other organelles, microvessels, and hair follicles has been possible at resolution comparable to standard histology, to a maximum depth of 250-300 μm in human skin in vivo. We have characterized psoriasis as a prototype of benign proliferative skin conditions, and non-pigmented skin malignancies in vivo based on their unstained, native histologic features using CM. Our data shows that reflectance CM may potentially diagnose and morphometrically evaluate proliferative skin lesions in vivo.

  12. [Diagnosis of presumed benign ovarian tumors].

    PubMed

    Laculle-Massin, C; Collinet, P; Faye, N

    2013-12-01

    Symptoms of presumed benign ovarian tumors (PBOT) are not specific (LE4). Personal or family history of gynecological cancers can guide the diagnostic strategy. Clinical examination is ineffective for positive, topographic and etiologic diagnosis of PBOT (LE4). Signs of hormonal impregnation may refer to certain types of tumors (LE4). For any patient presenting with a pelvic mass, pelvic ultrasound is in the first-line exam (grade A); it can classify most ovarian tumors. In case of pure liquid unilocular mass smaller than 7 cm, ultrasound is sufficient to characterize the mass (grade A). In case of indeterminate or complex ovarian mass on ultrasound, MRI is useful to characterize the mass (LE2). Beyond 7 cm, the diagnostic performance of ultrasound decreases (LE2). When a non-unilocular liquid ovarian formation is characterized using ultrasound as determinate mass, ultrasound scan is the only exam recommended (grade B). MRI is indicated as a second-line scan for indeterminate masses or greater than 7 cm (grade B). Cyst puncture for diagnostic purposes has no place in the diagnostic strategy of ovarian cysts (grade C). In case of PBOT in pre-pubertal period, dosing biomarkers is useful but should not delay care. In adult women with PBOT, the measurement of CA125 is not recommended for first-line diagnosis (grade C). Current literature data are not sufficient to specify the diagnostic strategy for an ovarian tumor discovered incidentally during laparoscopy. In case of discovery of a high CA125 value, pelvic ultrasound is the first-line examination. The literature data are still limited to define a CA125 threshold value requiring further exploration or special monitoring, in case of normal pelvic ultrasound. PMID:24210239

  13. Hereditary benign telangiectasia: first case in Iran.

    PubMed

    Javidi, Zari; Maleki, M; Mashayekhi, V; Nahidi, Y; Omidvar Borna, A

    2006-07-01

    A 14-year-old boy was referred to the Dermatology Clinic of the Medical University of Mashhad, Iran, with numerous cutaneous telangiectasias on the face, ears, lips, and back of the hands, with lesions in the temporal region being the first to appear (Figs 1-3). His mother stated that the lesions had been present for 10 years with an increase in the past 6 months. He had no history of bleeding from the nose, mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and other mucosal surfaces, and there was no sign of organ involvement. On inspection, no lesions were detected on the nasal mucosa, external ear, over the tympanic membrane, or mouth. The patient is one member of a family of six. His mother is healthy, but similar lesions were seen in his father, sister and one of his brothers with similar distributions. Lesions were also seen in his aunt and paternal grandmother, showing disease distribution in six members of this family from three generations. The oldest brother is 20 years of age and mentioned the onset of disease from the age of 10 years. The sister is 18 years of age and lesions started to appear 7 years ago; she claims that the lesions regress during her menstrual period. The youngest brother is 4 years of age and shows no sign of cutaneous lesions as yet. The parents are not consanguineous. Generalized telangiectasia with a predominant distribution on light-exposed skin, an autosomal dominant inheritance, and no sign of systemic or mucosal involvement and bleeding disorders indicates a diagnosis of hereditary benign telangiectasia. Our patient did not consent to biopsy. PMID:16863520

  14. Benign and Malignant Proliferative Fibro-osseous and Osseous Lesions of the Oral Cavity of Dogs.

    PubMed

    Soltero-Rivera, M; Engiles, J B; Reiter, A M; Reetz, J; Lewis, J R; Sánchez, M D

    2015-09-01

    Ossifying fibroma (OF) and fibrous dysplasia (FD) are benign, intraosseous, proliferative fibro-osseous lesions (PFOLs) characterized by replacement of normal bone by a fibrous matrix with various degrees of mineralization and ossification. Osteomas are benign tumors composed of mature, well-differentiated bone. Clinical, imaging, and histologic features of 15 initially diagnosed benign PFOLs and osteomas of the canine oral cavity were evaluated. Final diagnoses after reevaluation were as follows: OF (3 cases), FD (4 cases), low-grade osteosarcoma (LG-OSA) (3 cases), and osteoma (5 cases). Histology alone often did not result in a definitive diagnosis for PFOL. OF appeared as a well-circumscribed, radiopaque mass with some degree of bone lysis on imaging. Most lesions of FD showed soft tissue opacity with bone lysis and ill-defined margins. Low-grade OSA appeared as a lytic lesion with a mixed opacity and ill-defined margins. Osteomas were characterized by a mineralized, expansile, well-circumscribed lesion. Although histologic features of PFOLs were typically bland, the lesions diagnosed as LG-OSA had some features of malignancy (eg, bone invasion or a higher mitotic index). Treatment varied widely. Of the 10 dogs with benign PFOL or osteoma with known outcome (10/12), 9 showed either complete response (6/10) or stable disease (3/10) after treatment. Of the 2 dogs with LG-OSA with known outcome, 1 showed complete response after curative intent surgery, but 1 patient had recurrence after partial maxillectomy. Definitive diagnosis of mandibular/maxillary PFOL is challenging via histopathologic examination alone, and accurate diagnosis is best achieved through assimilation of clinical, imaging, and histopathologic features. PMID:25957357

  15. Irreversible Electroporation of a Hepatocellular Carcinoma Lesion Adjacent to a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Stent Graft

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ernst Michael; Wohlgemuth, Walter A.; Trabold, Benedikt; Haimerl, Michael; Schreyer, Andreas; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    We report in a 65-year-old man hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent to a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent-graft which was successfully treated with irreversible electroporation (IRE). IRE is a new non-thermal tissue ablation technique which uses electrical pulses to induce cell necrosis by irreversible membrane poration. IRE proved to be more advantageous in the ablation of perivascular tumor with little injury to the surrounding structures. PMID:24043975

  16. Gene promoter methylation in colorectal cancer and healthy adjacent mucosa specimens

    PubMed Central

    Coppedè, Fabio; Migheli, Francesca; Lopomo, Angela; Failli, Alessandra; Legitimo, Annalisa; Consolini, Rita; Fontanini, Gabriella; Sensi, Elisa; Servadio, Adele; Seccia, Massimo; Zocco, Giuseppe; Chiarugi, Massimo; Spisni, Roberto; Migliore, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the promoter methylation levels of the APC, MGMT, hMLH1, RASSF1A and CDKN2A genes in 107 colorectal cancer (CRC) samples and 80 healthy adjacent tissues. We searched for correlation with both physical and pathological features, polymorphisms of folate metabolism pathway genes (MTHFR, MTRR, MTR, RFC1, TYMS, and DNMT3B), and data on circulating folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine, which were available in a subgroup of the CRC patients. An increased number of methylated samples were found in CRC respect to adjacent healthy tissues, with the exception of APC, which was also frequently methylated in healthy colonic mucosa. Statistically significant associations were found between RASSF1A promoter methylation and tumor stage, and between hMLH1 promoter methylation and tumor location. Increasing age positively correlated with both hMLH1 and MGMT methylation levels in CRC tissues, and with APC methylation levels in the adjacent healthy mucosa. Concerning gender, females showed higher hMLH1 promoter methylation levels with respect to males. In CRC samples, the MTR 2756AG genotype correlated with higher methylation levels of RASSF1A, and the TYMS 1494 6bp ins/del polymorphism correlated with the methylation levels of both APC and hMLH1. In adjacent healthy tissues, MTR 2756AG and TYMS 1494 6bp del/del genotypes correlated with APC and MGMT promoter methylation, respectively. Low folate levels were associated with hMLH1 hypermethylation. Present results support the hypothesis that DNA methylation in CRC depends from both physiological and environmental factors, with one-carbon metabolism largely involved in this process. PMID:24500500

  17. Soy consumption and histopathologic markers in breast tissue using tissue microarrays.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Erber, Eva; Verheus, Martijn; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Killeen, Jeffrey; Cashin, Suzanne; Cline, J Mark

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relation of soy intake with hormonal and proliferation markers in benign and malignant breast tissue using tissue microarrays (TMAs). TMAs with up to 4 malignant and 4 benign tissue samples for 268 breast cancer cases were constructed. Soy intake in early life and in adulthood was assessed by questionnaire. The TMAs were stained for estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, ERbeta, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and Ki-67 using standard immunohistochemical methods. Logistic regression was applied for statistical analysis. A higher percentage of women showed positive marker expression in malignant than in benign tissue. With one exception, HER2/neu, no significant associations between soy intake and pathologic markers were observed. Early life soy intake was associated with lower HER2/neu and PCNA staining of malignant tissue. In benign tissue, early life soy intake showed higher ER and PR expression, but no difference in proliferation markers. The results of this investigation provide some assurance that soy intake does not adversely affect markers of proliferation. TMAs were shown to be a useful tool for epidemiologic research. PMID:19838945

  18. Renal Capsule Xenografting and Subcutaneous Pellet Implantation for the Evaluation of Prostate Carcinogenesis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Tristan M.; Uchtmann, Kristen S.; Valdez, Conrad D.; Theberge, Ashleigh B.; Miralem, Tihomir; Ricke, William A.

    2013-01-01

    New therapies for two common prostate diseases, prostate cancer (PrCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), depend critically on experiments evaluating their hormonal regulation. Sex steroid hormones (notably androgens and estrogens) are important in PrCa and BPH; we probe their respective roles in inducing prostate growth and carcinogenesis in mice with experiments using compressed hormone pellets. Hormone and/or drug pellets are easily manufactured with a pellet press, and surgically implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of the male mouse host. We also describe a protocol for the evaluation of hormonal carcinogenesis by combining subcutaneous hormone pellet implantation with xenografting of prostate cell recombinants under the renal capsule of immunocompromised mice. Moreover, subcutaneous hormone pellet implantation, in combination with renal capsule xenografting of BPH tissue, is useful to better understand hormonal regulation of benign prostate growth, and to test new therapies targeting sex steroid hormone pathways. PMID:24022657

  19. Renal capsule xenografting and subcutaneous pellet implantation for the evaluation of prostate carcinogenesis and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tristan M; Uchtmann, Kristen S; Valdez, Conrad D; Theberge, Ashleigh B; Miralem, Tihomir; Ricke, William A

    2013-01-01

    New therapies for two common prostate diseases, prostate cancer (PrCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), depend critically on experiments evaluating their hormonal regulation. Sex steroid hormones (notably androgens and estrogens) are important in PrCa and BPH; we probe their respective roles in inducing prostate growth and carcinogenesis in mice with experiments using compressed hormone pellets. Hormone and/or drug pellets are easily manufactured with a pellet press, and surgically implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of the male mouse host. We also describe a protocol for the evaluation of hormonal carcinogenesis by combining subcutaneous hormone pellet implantation with xenografting of prostate cell recombinants under the renal capsule of immunocompromised mice. Moreover, subcutaneous hormone pellet implantation, in combination with renal capsule xenografting of BPH tissue, is useful to better understand hormonal regulation of benign prostate growth, and to test new therapies targeting sex steroid hormone pathways. PMID:24022657

  20. Benign Multicystic Peritoneal Mesothelioma: A Rare Tumour of the Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Soundappan; Khajanchi, Monty; Vaja, Tejas; Jajoo, Bhushan; Dey, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma: a rare tumor of the abdomen, is a diagnostic dilemma. This report emphasizes the importance of diagnostic laparoscopy in the diagnosis of the tumour. PMID:25866695

  1. Treatment Challenges with Benign Bone Tumors of the Orbit

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Helen; Yin, Vivian T.; Pfeiffer, Margaret L.; Wang, Wei-Lien; Sniegowski, Matthew C.; Esmaeli, Bita

    2015-01-01

    Benign mesenchymal tumors of the craniofacial complex present unique challenges for orbital surgeons because of their potential for orbital compartment syndrome, ocular morbidity, and facial disfigurement and because definitive surgical management may be associated with significant morbidity. While the precise classification of such lesions depends on radiologic as well as histologic evaluations and remains controversial, benign tumors involving the bony walls of the orbit share features of bony expansion, facial deformity, and the potential to cause significant orbital and ophthalmic morbidity. We herein present 2 cases of benign mesenchymal tumors with bony involvement in the orbitofacial region (1 juvenile ossifying fibroma and 1 central giant cell granuloma) and review the current management of similar benign fibro-osseous and reactive bone lesions of the orbit. These rare entities presented share common orbital and ophthalmic manifestations and remain without any effective definitive treatment options. PMID:27171013

  2. THE DESIGN OF TECHNOLOGICALLY EFFECTIVE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN SOLVENT SUBSTITUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is presently considerable interest in finding environmentally benign replacement solvents that can perform in many different applications as solvents normally do. This requires solvents with desirable properties, e.g., ability to dissolve certain compounds, and without oth...

  3. Significance of nuclear morphometry in benign and malignant breast aspirates

    PubMed Central

    Narasimha, Aparna; Vasavi, B; Kumar, Harendra ML

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast carcinoma is one of the most common cancers occurring in the female population world-wide. Normal cells gradually transform to form the cancer cells through several stages. Nuclear changes occurring during these transformational steps need to be assessed objectively. Hence nuclear morphometry can be used as a diagnostic tool. Aim: To compare the nuclear morphometric parameters of benign and malignant breast aspirates. Study Design: Cytology was used to categorize aspirates from the breast lumps in to malignant (30 cases), and benign (30 cases). Nuclear parameters were calculated using the Image J 1.44C morphometric software. Several nuclear size parameters were analyzed. Results: The nuclear area, perimeter, diameter, compactness, and concave points were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) parameters in differentiating benign, and malignant aspirates. Conclusion: Nuclear morphometry was thus, a useful objective tool in the differentiating benign, and malignant breast lesions. PMID:23776836

  4. Petroleum basins of Sakhalin and adjacent shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Mavrinski, Y.; Koblov, E. )

    1993-09-01

    Sixty-seven oil and gas fields have been discovered on Sakhalin and the adjacent shelf but the distribution of fields is uneven in north Sakhalin, south Sakhalin, and the Tatar basins. The sedimentary cover is composed of sandy, clayey, and siliceous rocks, with volcanogenic and coal-bearing deposits of Upper Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene 8-12 km thick. Marine clayey and siliceous oil source rocks are regionally developed in the section at different stratigraphic levels; the organic matter is of mixed type and the content varies from 0.5 to 1.5%. The upper Oligocene and middle-upper Miocene source rocks in the north Sakhalin basin are typical, and the organic carbon content ranges from 1 to 5%. The level of organic matter catagenesis and conversion into hydrocarbons is high because of the high differential geothermal gradient in the basins, 30-50[degrees]C per km. Porous sandstones in the Miocene form the reservoirs in all fields with the exception of Okruzhnoye, where the pay zone is a siliceous claystone. Growth-fault rollovers and anticlines form the main traps ranging in area from 5 to 300 km[sup 2], with amplitudes between 100 and 600 m. both stratigraphic and structural traps have been identified. Considerable volumes of reserves are associated with the Miocene deposits of north Sakhalin, which are characterized by an optimum combination of oil source rocks, focused migration paths, and thick sequences of reservoirs and cap rocks. Six large fields have been discovered in the past 15 yr. Oil and condensate reserves stand at over 300 million MT, and gas reserves are about 900 billion m[sup 3].

  5. Laser Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Dosimetric and Thermodynamic Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anvari, Bahman

    1993-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most commonly occurring neoplastic disease in the aging human male. Currently, surgical treatment of BPH is the primary therapeutic method. However, due to surgical complications, less invasive methods of treatment are desirable. In recent years, thermal coagulation of the hyperplastic prostate by a laser has received a considerable amount of attention. Nevertheless, the optimum laser irradiation parameters that lead to a successful and safe treatment of BPH have not been determined. This dissertation studies the physics of laser coagulation of prostate from both basic science and practical perspectives. Optical properties of prostatic tissue are determined over a spectrum of wavelengths. Knowledge of these properties allows for selection of appropriate laser wavelengths and provides a basis for performing dose equivalency studies among various types of lasers. Furthermore, knowledge of optical properties are needed for development of computer simulation models that predict the extent of thermal injury during laser irradiation of prostate. A computer model of transurethral heating of prostate that can be used to guide the clinical studies in determining an optimum dosimetry is then presented. Studies of the effects of non-laser heating devices, optical properties, blood perfusion, surface irrigation, and beam geometry are performed to examine the extent of heat propagation within the prostate. An in vitro model for transurethral laser irradiation of prostate is also presented to examine the effects of an 810 nm diode laser, thermal boundary conditions, and energy deposition rate during Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Results of these studies suggest that in the presence of laminar irrigation, the convective boundary condition is dominated by thermal diffusion as opposed to the bulk motion of the irrigation fluid. Distinct phases of thermal events are also identified during the laser irradiation. The in vivo studies of

  6. Correlation of action potentials in adjacent neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneider, M. N.; Pekker, M.

    2015-12-01

    A possible mechanism for the synchronization of action potential propagation along a bundle of neurons (ephaptic coupling) is considered. It is shown that this mechanism is similar to the salutatory conduction of the action potential between the nodes of Ranvier in myelinated axons. The proposed model allows us to estimate the scale of the correlation, i.e., the distance between neurons in the nervous tissue, wherein their synchronization becomes possible. The possibility for experimental verification of the proposed model of synchronization is discussed.

  7. Diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls in benign vocal fold diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bohlender, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    More than half of patients presenting with hoarseness show benign vocal fold changes. The clinician should be familiar with the anatomy, physiology and functional aspects of voice disorders and also the modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in order to ensure an optimal and patient specific management. This review article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and difficulties of treatment of benign vocal fold tumors, the management and prevention of scarred vocal folds and the issue of unilateral vocal fold paresis. PMID:24403969

  8. Gamma images in benign and metabolic bone diseases: volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sy, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Volume 1 of ''Gamma images in benign and metabolic bone diseases'' comprises chapters devoted to: general remarks and considerations, radiopharmaceuticals, Paget disease, osteomyelitis, trauma, benign bone tumors, chronic renal dialysis, acute renal failure, osteomalacia and rickets, and osteoporosis. Although published in 1981, the most recent references in the book were 1978 and most are 1977 or earlier. One of the strongest aspects of the volume are tables which categorize diseases, pathophysiology of disease, and image abnormalities. (JMT)

  9. Benign skin disease with pustules in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Reginatto, Flávia Pereira; Villa, Damie De; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    The neonatal period comprises the first four weeks of life. It is a period of adaptation where the skin often presents several changes: transient lesions, resulting from a physiological response, others as a consequence of transient diseases and some as markers of severe disorders. The presence of pustules in the skin of the newborn is always a reason for the family and for the assisting doctor to be worried, since the newborn is especially vulnerable to bacterial, viral or fungal infection. However, the majority of neonatal skin pustules is not infectious, comprising the benign neonatal pustulosis. Benign neonatal pustuloses are a group of clinical disease characterized by pustular eruptions in which a contagious agent is not responsible for its etiology. The most common ones are erythema toxicum neonatorum, the transient neonatal pustular melanosis and the benign cephalic pustulosis. These dermatoses are usually benign, asymptomatic and self-limited. It is important that the dermatologist and the neonatologist can identify benign and transient lesions, those caused by genodermatoses, and especially differentiate between neonates with systemic involvement from those with benign skin lesions, avoiding unnecessary diagnostic tests and worries. PMID:27192509

  10. Eosinophilic Cholangitis—A Challenging Diagnosis of Benign Biliary Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Fragulidis, Georgios Panagiotis; Vezakis, Antonios I.; Kontis, Elissaios A.; Pantiora, Eirini V.; Stefanidis, Gerasimos G.; Politi, Aikaterini N.; Koutoulidis, Vasilios K.; Mela, Maria K.; Polydorou, Andreas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract When confronting a biliary stricture, both benign and malignant etiologies must be carefully considered as a variety of benign biliary strictures can masquerade as hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Therefore, patients could undergo a major surgery despite the possibility of a benign biliary disease. Approximately 15% to 24% of patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected biliary malignancy will have benign pathology. Eosinophilic cholangitis (EC) is a rare benign disorder of the biliary tract, which can cause obstructive jaundice and can pose a difficult diagnostic task. We present a rare case of a young woman who was referred to our hospital with obstructive painless jaundice due to a biliary stricture at the confluence of the hepatic bile ducts, with a provisional diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. Though, during her work up she was found to have EC, an extremely rare benign cause of biliary stricture, which is characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tree causing stricturing, fibrosis, and obstruction and which is reversible with short-term high-dose steroids. Despite its rarity, EC should be taken into consideration when imaging modalities demonstrate a biliary stricture, especially if preoperative diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made, in the setting of peripheral eosinophilia and the absence of cardinal symptoms of malignancy. PMID:26735539

  11. Benign skin disease with pustules in the newborn*

    PubMed Central

    Reginatto, Flávia Pereira; Villa, Damie De; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The neonatal period comprises the first four weeks of life. It is a period of adaptation where the skin often presents several changes: transient lesions, resulting from a physiological response, others as a consequence of transient diseases and some as markers of severe disorders. The presence of pustules in the skin of the newborn is always a reason for the family and for the assisting doctor to be worried, since the newborn is especially vulnerable to bacterial, viral or fungal infection. However, the majority of neonatal skin pustules is not infectious, comprising the benign neonatal pustulosis. Benign neonatal pustuloses are a group of clinical disease characterized by pustular eruptions in which a contagious agent is not responsible for its etiology. The most common ones are erythema toxicum neonatorum, the transient neonatal pustular melanosis and the benign cephalic pustulosis. These dermatoses are usually benign, asymptomatic and self-limited. It is important that the dermatologist and the neonatologist can identify benign and transient lesions, those caused by genodermatoses, and especially differentiate between neonates with systemic involvement from those with benign skin lesions, avoiding unnecessary diagnostic tests and worries. PMID:27192509

  12. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) as a method for identifying benign and malignant prostate biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunhui; Guan, Guangying; Ling, Yuting; Lang, Stephen; Wang, Ruikang K.; Huang, Zhihong; Nabi, Ghulam

    2015-03-01

    Objectives. Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. Digital rectal examination (DRE) - a known clinical tool based on alteration in the mechanical properties of tissues due to cancer has traditionally been used for screening prostate cancer. Essentially, DRE estimates relative stiffness of cancerous and normal prostate tissue. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) are new optical imaging techniques capable of providing cross-sectional imaging of tissue microstructure as well as elastogram in vivo and in real time. In this preliminary study, OCE was used in the setting of the human prostate biopsies ex vivo, and the images acquired were compared with those obtained using standard histopathologic methods. Methods. 120 prostate biopsies were obtained by TRUS guided needle biopsy procedures from 9 patients with clinically suspected cancer of the prostate. The biopsies were approximately 0.8mm in diameter and 12mm in length, and prepared in Formalin solution. Quantitative assessment of biopsy samples using OCE was obtained in kilopascals (kPa) before histopathologic evaluation. The results obtained from OCE and standard histopathologic evaluation were compared provided the cross-validation. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for OCE (histopathology was a reference standard). Results. OCE could provide quantitative elasticity properties of prostate biopsies within benign prostate tissue, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical hyperplasia and malignant prostate cancer. Data analysed showed that the sensitivity and specificity of OCE for PCa detection were 1 and 0.91, respectively. PCa had significantly higher stiffness values compared to benign tissues, with a trend of increasing in stiffness with increasing of malignancy. Conclusions. Using OCE, microscopic resolution elastogram is promising in diagnosis of human prostatic diseases. Further studies using this technique to improve the

  13. Smoking habits and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huan; Fu, Shi; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Qi; Gu, Meng; Wang, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have warned against the promoting effects of cigarette smoking on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In contrast, some have argued that smoking confers a protective effect regarding BPH, while others have observed an aggravated effect. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to determine whether cigarette use is associated with BPH risk. To identify articles from observational studies of relevance, a search was performed concurrent to March 21, 2016, on PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, EBSCO, and EMBASE databases. Random-effect model, according to the heterogeneity, was calculated to reveal the relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eight articles were included in this meta-analysis, representing data for 44,100 subjects, of which 5221 (11.8%) had BPH as defined according to the criteria. Seven reports are concerned with analysis between nonsmokers and ex-smokers, in which no significant difference was observed (RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.94–1.05). Another meta-analysis of 7 studies indicated an observable trend, but without significant difference between groups of nonsmokers and current smokers (RR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.98–1.41). Between groups of heavy (6 articles; RR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84–1.24) and light smokers (5 articles; RR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.71–1.15), again no significant difference appears. Finally, we combined individuals as never-smokers and ever-smokers and still found no significant difference between the 2 groups of patients (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.92–1.15). Sensitivity analysis was displayed and confirmed the stability of the present results. Combined evidence from observational studies shows no significant association between cigarette smoking and BPH risk, either for ex-smokers or for current smokers. The trend of elevated BPH risk from smoking was observed only in current smokers compared with nonsmokers, while marginal significance was observed in comparing ever-smokers with

  14. Lasers in soft tissue dental surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pick, Robert M.

    1990-06-01

    In the field of periodontics and oral surgery, the laser is a relatively new, but rapidly emerging, surgical tool. In the new area of soft tissue surgery, i.e., benign lesion and growths, the laser can completely replace the scalpel and offer the periodontist and the oral and maxillofacial surgeon a new and exciting alternative.

  15. Maximum Value Measured by 2-D Shear Wave Elastography Helps in Differentiating Malignancy from Benign Focal Liver Lesions.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wen-Shuo; Lin, Man-Xia; Zhou, Lu-Yao; Pan, Fu-Shun; Huang, Guang-Liang; Wang, Wei; Lu, Ming-De; Xie, Xiao-Yan

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the work described here was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of 2-D shear wave elastography (2-D SWE) in differentiating malignancy from benign focal liver lesions (FLLs). The maxima, minima, means and the standard deviations of 2-D SWE measurements, expressed in kilopascals (Emax, Emin, Emean, ESD), were obtained for 221 patients with 229 FLLs. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of 2-D SWE. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to assess inter-group differences. Emax, Emin, Emean and ESD were significantly higher in the 164 malignant lesions than in the 65 benign lesions (p < 0.001). For identification of malignant FLLs, the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves for Emax, Emin, Emean and ESD were 0.920, 0.710, 0.879 and 0.915, respectively. Emax was 96.21 ± 35.40 for 19 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas and 90.32 ± 54.71 for 35 liver metastatic lesions, which were significantly higher than 61.83 ± 28.87 for 103 hepatocellular carcinomas (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0237). Emax was 38.72 ± 18.65 for 15 focal nodular hyperplasias, which was significantly higher than 20.56 ± 10.74 for 37 hemangiomas (p = 0.0009). The Emax values for adjacent liver parenchyma of hepatocellular carcinomas and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas were significantly higher than those for the other three lesion types (p < 0.005). In conclusion, Emax values of FLLs and adjacent liver parenchyma could help in differentiating malignant from benign FLLs. PMID:27283039

  16. Intracorporeal Electromechanical Tissue Morcellation

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Kimberly A.; Anderson, Ted L.; Nezhat, Ceana H.

    2015-01-01

    Electromechanical morcellators have come under scrutiny with concerns about complications involving iatrogenic dissemination of both benign and malignant tissues. Although the rapidly rotating blade has resulted in morcellator-related vascular and visceral injuries, equally concerning are the multiple reports in the literature demonstrating seeding of the abdominal cavity with tissue fragmented such as leiomyomas, endometriosis, adenomyosis, splenic and ovarian tissues, and occult cancers of the ovaries and uterus. Alternatives to intra-corporeal electric morcellation for tissue extirpation through the vagina and through minilaparotomy are feasible, safe, and have been shown to have comparable, if not superior, outcomes without an increased need for laparotomy. Intracorporeal morcellation within a containment bag is another option to minimize the risk of iatrogenic tissue seeding. Patient safety is a priority with balanced goals of maximizing benefits and minimizing harm. When intracorporeal electromechanical morcellation is planned, physicians should discuss the risks and consequences with their patients. Although data are being collected to quantify and understand these risks more clearly, a minimally invasive alternative to unenclosed intracorporeal morcellation is favored when available. It is incumbent on surgeons to communicate the risks of practices and devices and to advocate for continued improvement in surgical instrumentation and techniques. PMID:25198260

  17. Bone and Soft Tissue Pathology: Diagnostic and Prognostic Implications.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Julie; Henderson-Jackson, Evita; Bui, Marilyn M

    2016-10-01

    Soft tissue and bone tumors are a heterogeneous group of tumors most often classified according to the type of tissue they most closely histologically resemble. Although sarcomas are rare, greater than 100 histologic subtypes of benign and malignant soft tissue and bone tumors are currently recognized. In this article, the authors review the current pathologic definitions, the classification and grading systems, supportive ancillary techniques, and the prognostic implications for some of the more common soft tissue and bone tumors. PMID:27542635

  18. Benign splenosis mimicking peritoneal seeding in a bladder cancer patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Splenosis is a post-traumatic autotrasplantation and proliferation of splenic tissue in ectopic sites. These implants may mimic malignancy in healthy patients or peritoneal metastases in cancer patients. When a previous history of splenic injury is known, the finding of soft tissue nodules in many thoracic and abdominal locations might raise the suspicion of the benign condition of splenosis, in order to avoid unnecessary surgery or chemotherapy. Case presentation A 56-year-old man with history of persistent hematuria from bladder cancer was referred to our Institution for suspected peritoneal carcinosis. For staging purposes he underwent abdominal computed tomography and ultrasound. The integration of patient's history and imaging results led to the diagnosis of peritoneal splenosis. The patient therefore underwent regular Trans Urethral Resection of Bladder for the known malignancy; while no treatment was necessary for splenosis. Two years follow-up was negative for metastases. Conclusion Splenosis is a benign condition after traumatic splenectomy which should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis with peritoneal seeding of malignancy because its appearance may resemble malignancy. PMID:20062618

  19. Incident Cardiovascular Disease Events in Metabolically Benign Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ogorodnikova, Alexandra D.; Kim, Mimi; McGinn, Aileen; Muntner, Paul; Khan, Unab I.; Wildman, Rachel P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE While several studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of metabolically benign obesity, little is known about the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in this group. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using pooled data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities and Cardiovascular Health Studies, we assessed the association of metabolically benign obesity with incident CVD (coronary heart disease and stroke) using three existing definitions of metabolically benign obesity: (1) the ATP-III metabolic syndrome definition (≤2 of the ATP-III components, excluding waist), (2) the expanded ATP-III definition (≤1 of: the ATP-III components, HOMA-IR>75th percentile, systemic inflammation [WBC>75th percentile]), and (3) the insulin resistance (IR) based definition (sex-specific lowest quartile of the HOMA-IR distribution among non-diabetic obese). RESULTS The sample included 4,323 normal weight and 6,121 obese individuals. Among obese, 27.0%, 18.1%, and 20.4% were metabolically benign by the three definitions, respectively. CVD incidence among metabolically benign obese defined by the three definitions (mean follow-up 11.8 years) was 8.7%, 7.2%, and 10.3%, respectively, versus 7.9% in low-risk normal weight individuals. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) of incident CVD in metabolically benign obese compared to low-risk normal weight individuals were 1.24 (0.99-1.57), 1.16 (0.86-1.56), and 1.28 (1.01-1.62), respectively. CONCLUSIONS Regardless of the definition used, we observed a high prevalence of metabolically benign obesity. All three commonly used definitions were similar in terms of both classification and subsequent risk of CVD, with the expanded ATP-III criteria perhaps identifying the obese group at lowest risk of CVD. PMID:21799477

  20. Benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy: An underdiagnosed condition.

    PubMed

    Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Efstathiou, Elisavet; Neubauer, David

    2015-07-01

    Benign paroxysmal torticollis is probably an under-diagnosed condition of infancy. It is a self-limiting disorder characterised by periods of unusual, sustained posture of the head and neck, during which the head tilts to one side. Episodes are often accompanied by marked autonomic features, irritability, ataxia, apathy and drowsiness. They last several hours to a few days and are often recurring every few weeks. They subside within the pre-school years; however, during later childhood, there is a tendency to develop migraine. Three cases of benign paroxysmal torticollis are presented and are compared with cases in the literature. A telephone survey has been conducted to determine what is the general awareness of paediatricians of this condition in Cyprus. Eighty-two paediatricians were randomly selected out of 235 paediatricians. All of them agreed to participate. Our cases revealed that benign paroxysmal torticollis may coexist with other problems during infancy. The telephone survey showed that only two out of eighty-two (2.4%) of the paediatricians are aware of the condition, and none of them was confident regarding the management. Our telephone survey clearly shows that Cypriot paediatricians are not familiar with benign paroxysmal torticollis in infancy which is a benign, self-limiting disorder. It is essential to recognise the condition and to reassure parents of its benign course and not to be misdiagnosed for other disorders, such as epileptic seizures. We have shown again that benign paroxysmal torticollis in infancy may coexist with motor delay and hearing problems. PMID:25644090

  1. [Benign phylloides tumor of the breast. Considerations on a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Biondi, Antonio; Di Giuntao, Michela; Motta, Salvatore; Privitera, Giuseppe; Fichera, Debora Simona; Ciuni, Roberto; Basile, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are unusual biphasic fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast, accounting for < 1% of all breast tumors and raising issues of diagnosis and therapeutic choice. They can grow quickly and when the maximum diameter is greater than 10 cm. We talk about giant phyllodes tumors. Ultrasound, Mammography and FNA are not effective. A potentially useful diagnostic modality is MRI. Core tissue biopsy or incisional biopsy represent the preferred means of pre-operative diagnosis. Conservative treatment can be effective also in giant tumors depending upon the size of the tumor and the breast if a complete excision with an adequate margin of normal breast tissue can be achieved, so avoiding local recurrence often accompanied by worse histopathology. The Authors report the case of a giant benign phyllode tumor of the breast treated with conservative surgery, quadrantectomy and oncoplasty. No local recurrence at 4 years follow-up. PMID:20476682

  2. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters.

    Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about

  3. Load Rate of Facet Joints at the Adjacent Segment Increased After Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Pei, Bao-Qing; Yang, Jin-Cai; Hai, Yong; Li, De-Yu; Wu, Shu-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cause of the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after fusion remains unknown. It is reported that adjacent facet joint stresses increase after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. This increase of stress rate may lead to tissue injury. Thus far, the load rate of the adjacent segment facet joint after fusion remains unclear. Methods: Six C2–C7 cadaveric spine specimens were loaded under four motion modes: Flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending, with a pure moment using a 6° robot arm combined with an optical motion analysis system. The Tecscan pressure test system was used for testing facet joint pressure. Results: The contact mode of the facet joints and distributions of the force center during different motions were recorded. The adjacent segment facet joint forces increased faster after fusion, compared with intact conditions. While the magnitude of pressures increased, there was no difference in distribution modes before and after fusion. No pressures were detected during flexion. The average growth velocity during extension was the fastest and was significantly faster than lateral bending. Conclusions: One of the reasons for cartilage injury was the increasing stress rate of loading. This implies that ASD after fusion may be related to habitual movement before and after fusion. More and faster extension is disadvantageous for the facet joints and should be reduced as much as possible. PMID:25881597

  4. Biomonitoring of organochlorines in women with benign and malignant breast disease

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, M.K.J. . E-mail: mkjs@rediffmail.com; Anand, M.; Mehrotra, P.K.; Sarangi, R.; Mathur, N.

    2005-06-01

    Established risk factors for breast cancer explain breast cancer risk only partially. Organochlorines are considered to be a possible cause for hormone-dependent cancers. A hospital-based case-control study, the first from India, was conducted among 50 women undergoing surgery for breast disease to examine the association between organochlorine exposure and breast cancer risk. Blood, tumor, and surrounding adipose tissue of the breast were collected from the subjects with benign (control) and malignant breast (study) lesions and analyzed to determine organochlorine insecticides using a gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. The {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, and {delta} isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), o,p'-DDT, p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane were frequently detected in three specimens. Total HCH and total DDT levels were higher in the blood of the study group (25 cases) than in those of the controls (25 cases) with only {gamma}-HCH being significantly different (P0.05). However, both total HCH and total DDT were higher in the tumor tissues of the controls than in those of the study group; {gamma}-HCH was significantly different (P0.05). The level of total HCH ({alpha}-HCH was significantly different, P0.05) was higher in the breast adipose tissue of the study group, whereas total DDT was higher in the breast adipose tissue of the control group. The distribution of known confounders of breast cancer including age, body mass index, age at menarche and menopause, duration of breast feeding, and family history related to breast disease did not differ significantly between benign and malignant groups. This pilot study with limited statistical power does not support a positive association between exposure to organochlorines and risk of breast cancer but paves the way for a larger Indian study with greater statistical power encompassing different

  5. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  7. Delayed Acquisition of Non-Adjacent Vocalic Distributional Regularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The ability to compute non-adjacent regularities is key in the acquisition of a new language. In the domain of phonology/phonotactics, sensitivity to non-adjacent regularities between consonants has been found to appear between 7 and 10 months. The present study focuses on the emergence of a posterior-anterior (PA) bias, a regularity involving two…

  8. Lack of a Benign Interpretation Bias in Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Nader; Prouvost, Caroline; Kuckertz, Jennie M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive models of social anxiety posit that recurrent interpretation of ambiguous information as threatening maintains symptoms (e.g. Clark & Wells, 1995, pp. 69–93, Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. New York: Guilford Press; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997, pp. 741–756, Behavior Research and Therapy, 35). However, biased interpretation may also be represented as a failure to make a benign interpretation of the ambiguous event. Furthermore, interpretation bias can be characterized by both an online (automatic) component and an offline (effortful) component (Hirsch & Clark, 2004, pp. 799–825, Clinical Psychology Review, 24). To measure both benign and threat biases, as well as examine the effect of social anxiety on offline versus online interpretations, Beard and Amir (2009, pp. 1135–1141, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46) developed the Word Sentence Association Paradigm (WSAP). In the current study, we administered the WSAP to a group of participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) as well as to a group of non-anxious control (NAC) participants. We found that participants with SAD demonstrated a lack of benign online bias, but not an online threat bias when compared to NACs. However, when examining offline biases, SAD patients endorsed social threat interpretations and rejected benign social interpretations to a greater degree than non-anxious individuals. Our results, when taken together, clearly implicate the role of reduced bias toward benign information in SAD. PMID:22545788

  9. Association of BDNF and BMPR1A with clinicopathologic parameters in benign and malignant gallbladder lesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neurotrophic factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are synthesized in a variety of neural and non-neuronal cell types and regulate survival, proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) inhibit the proliferation of pulmonary large carcinoma cells bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA (BMPR1A). Little is known about the expression of BDNF or BMPR1A in malignant gall bladder lesions. This study was to evaluate BDNF and BMPR1A expression and evaluate the clinicopathological significance in benign and malignant lesions of the gallbladder. Methods The BDNF and BMPR1A expression of gallbladder adenocarcinoma, peritumoral tissues, adenoma, polyp and chronic cholecystitis were Immunohistochemically determined. Results BDNF expression was significantly higher in gallbladder adenocarcinoma than in peritumoral tissues, adenoma, polyps and chronic cholecystitis samples. However, BMPR1A expression was significantly lower in gallbladder adenocarcinoma than in peritumoral tissues, adenomas, polyps and chronic cholecystitis tissues. The specimens with increased expression of BDNF in the benign lesions exhibited moderate- or severe-dysplasia of gallbladder epithelium. BDNF expression was significantly lower in well-differentiated adenocarcinomas with maximum tumor diameter <2 cm, no metastasis to lymph nodes, and no invasion of regional tissues compared to poorly-differentiated adenocarcinomas with maximal tumor diameter >2 cm, metastasis of lymph node, and invasiveness of regional tissues in gallbladder adenocarcinoma. BMPR1A expression were significantly higher in the well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with maximal tumor diameter <2 cm, no metastasis of lymph node, and no invasion of regional tissues compared to poorly-differentiated adenocarcinomas with maximal tumor diameter >2 cm, metastasis of lymph node, and invasiveness of regional tissues in gallbladder. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated

  10. Cytodiagnosis of soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Oland, J; Rosen, A; Reif, R; Sayfan, J; Orda, R

    1988-03-01

    The only acceptable definitive diagnosis of a soft tissue mass is histologic or cytologic examination. In recent years, fine-needle aspiration cytology is used in more and more centers for diagnosis of soft tissue masses. We studied 196 aspiration cytologies performed on soft tissue lesions. Out of these, in 48 cases a definitive surgical procedure or open biopsy for histology and further evaluation were performed. There were 25 sarcomas and 23 benign tumors. There was one false negative cytologic result in this group; no false positive cytologies were detected. It seems that cytodiagnosis of soft tissue masses performed by an experienced pathologist is the method of choice, permitting a good diagnostic evaluation, with almost none of the traumatic and oncologic disadvantages of the other methods of biopsy. PMID:3352270

  11. Wavelet-Based 3D Reconstruction of Microcalcification Clusters from Two Mammographic Views: New Evidence That Fractal Tumors Are Malignant and Euclidean Tumors Are Benign

    PubMed Central

    Batchelder, Kendra A.; Tanenbaum, Aaron B.; Albert, Seth; Guimond, Lyne; Kestener, Pierre; Arneodo, Alain; Khalil, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The 2D Wavelet-Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) method was used to detect microcalcifications (MC) in human breast tissue seen in mammograms and to characterize the fractal geometry of benign and malignant MC clusters. This was done in the context of a preliminary analysis of a small dataset, via a novel way to partition the wavelet-transform space-scale skeleton. For the first time, the estimated 3D fractal structure of a breast lesion was inferred by pairing the information from two separate 2D projected mammographic views of the same breast, i.e. the cranial-caudal (CC) and mediolateral-oblique (MLO) views. As a novelty, we define the “CC-MLO fractal dimension plot”, where a “fractal zone” and “Euclidean zones” (non-fractal) are defined. 118 images (59 cases, 25 malignant and 34 benign) obtained from a digital databank of mammograms with known radiologist diagnostics were analyzed to determine which cases would be plotted in the fractal zone and which cases would fall in the Euclidean zones. 92% of malignant breast lesions studied (23 out of 25 cases) were in the fractal zone while 88% of the benign lesions were in the Euclidean zones (30 out of 34 cases). Furthermore, a Bayesian statistical analysis shows that, with 95% credibility, the probability that fractal breast lesions are malignant is between 74% and 98%. Alternatively, with 95% credibility, the probability that Euclidean breast lesions are benign is between 76% and 96%. These results support the notion that the fractal structure of malignant tumors is more likely to be associated with an invasive behavior into the surrounding tissue compared to the less invasive, Euclidean structure of benign tumors. Finally, based on indirect 3D reconstructions from the 2D views, we conjecture that all breast tumors considered in this study, benign and malignant, fractal or Euclidean, restrict their growth to 2-dimensional manifolds within the breast tissue. PMID:25222610

  12. Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Tacklind, James; MacDonald, Roderick; Rutks, Indy; Wilt, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Background Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate, can lead to obstructive and irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The pharmacologic use of plants and herbs (phytotherapy) for the treatment of LUTS associated with BPH is common. The extract of the berry of the American saw palmetto, or dwarf palm plant, Serenoa repens (also known by its botanical name of Sabal serrulatum), is one of several phytotherapeutic agents available for the treatment of BPH. Objectives This systematic review aimed to assess the effects of Serenoa repens in the treatment of LUTS consistent with BPH. Search strategy Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library), by checking bibliographies, and by handsearching the relevant literature. Selection criteria Trials were eligible if they (1) randomized men with symptomatic BPH to receive preparations of Serenoa repens (alone or in combination) for at least four weeks in comparison with placebo or other interventions, and (2) included clinical outcomes such as urologic symptom scales, symptoms, and urodynamic measurements. Eligibility was assessed by at least two independent observers. Data collection and analysis Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The main outcome measure for comparing the effectiveness of Serenoa repens with placebo or other interventions was the change in urologic symptom-scale scores. Secondary outcomes included changes in nocturia and urodynamic measures. The main outcome measure for side effects or adverse events was the number of men reporting side effects. Main results In this update 9 new trials involving 2053 additional men (a 64.8% increase) have been included. For the main comparison - Serenoa repens versus placebo - 3 trials were added with 419 subjects and 3 endpoints (IPSS, peak urine flow, prostate size

  13. Single-port approach to benign gynecologic pathology. A review.

    PubMed

    Carbonnel, M; Revaux, A; Frydman, R; Yazigi, A; Ayoubi, J M

    2015-06-01

    Laparoscopy is the gold standard in gynecological surgery. Single-port laparoscopic surgery, has been developed in order to improve minimally invasive surgery. We analyzed single-port approach in benign gynecologic pathology and made a bibliographic research on Pubmed and Medline from January 2000 to January 2015. From what emerges from the papers taken into consideration, single-port laparoscopy can be used for salpingostomy or salpingectomy to treat tubal ectopic pregnancy, benign adnexal disease (ovarian cystectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy), and for hysterectomy. We do not have enough data for complex procedures like myomectomy or hysteropexy. Robotic single-port laparoscopy seems to be a very attractive perspective and its use in benign gynecology surgery is expanding. More and more ergonomic limitations of single-port laparoscopy are corrected by development of articulated or flexible instruments and camera. Beyond these preliminary results, more ample prospective studies with an adapted and standardized instrumentation are thus essential to highlight real profits. PMID:25714874

  14. Benign Cystic Peritoneal Mesothelioma Revealed by Small Bowel Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Bray Madoué, Kaimba; Boniface, Moifo; Annick Laure, Edzimbi; Pierre, Herve

    2016-01-01

    Benign cystic peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare tumor which frequently occurs in women of reproductive age. Abdominal pain associated with pelvic or abdominal mass is the common clinical presentation. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman with a pathological proved benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum revealed by a small bowel obstruction and a painful left-sided pelvic mass with signs of psoitis. Contrast enhanced abdominal CT-scan demonstrated a large pelvic cystic mass with mass effect on rectosigmoid and pelvic organs. The patient underwent surgical removal of the tumor. Pathological examination revealed the diagnosis of benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum. The outcome was excellent with a 12-month recoil. PMID:27066288

  15. Benign cementoblastoma of the anterior mandible: an unusual case report

    PubMed Central

    Karöz, Tuğçe Berre; Sumer, Mahmut; Açıkgöz, Aydan; Süllü, Yurdanur

    2016-01-01

    A benign cementoblastoma, which is another name for a true cementoma, is a rare neoplasm that develops from odontogenic ectomesenchyme. It is characterized by a mineralized mass attached to the apex of the root produced by neoplastic cementoblasts. More than 75% of cases arise in the mandible, with 90% of them manifesting in the molar and premolar regions. This neoplasm occurs most commonly in children and young adults, with males being affected slightly more than females. Radiographically, the tumor is observed as a well-defined radiopaque mass that is fused to a tooth root and is surrounded by a radiolucent rim. The treatment of benign cementoblastoma consists of removal of the lesion and extraction of the affected tooth. This report presents an unusual case of benign cementoblastoma in a 31-year-old female, presenting as a densely mineralized mass seen at the apex of the impacted right mandibular canine tooth on radiographs. PMID:27595092

  16. Benign Cystic Peritoneal Mesothelioma Revealed by Small Bowel Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bray Madoué, Kaimba; Boniface, Moifo; Annick Laure, Edzimbi; Pierre, Herve

    2016-01-01

    Benign cystic peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare tumor which frequently occurs in women of reproductive age. Abdominal pain associated with pelvic or abdominal mass is the common clinical presentation. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman with a pathological proved benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum revealed by a small bowel obstruction and a painful left-sided pelvic mass with signs of psoitis. Contrast enhanced abdominal CT-scan demonstrated a large pelvic cystic mass with mass effect on rectosigmoid and pelvic organs. The patient underwent surgical removal of the tumor. Pathological examination revealed the diagnosis of benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum. The outcome was excellent with a 12-month recoil. PMID:27066288

  17. Benign cementoblastoma of the anterior mandible: an unusual case report.

    PubMed

    Çalışkan, Armağan; Karöz, Tuğçe Berre; Sumer, Mahmut; Açıkgöz, Aydan; Süllü, Yurdanur

    2016-08-01

    A benign cementoblastoma, which is another name for a true cementoma, is a rare neoplasm that develops from odontogenic ectomesenchyme. It is characterized by a mineralized mass attached to the apex of the root produced by neoplastic cementoblasts. More than 75% of cases arise in the mandible, with 90% of them manifesting in the molar and premolar regions. This neoplasm occurs most commonly in children and young adults, with males being affected slightly more than females. Radiographically, the tumor is observed as a well-defined radiopaque mass that is fused to a tooth root and is surrounded by a radiolucent rim. The treatment of benign cementoblastoma consists of removal of the lesion and extraction of the affected tooth. This report presents an unusual case of benign cementoblastoma in a 31-year-old female, presenting as a densely mineralized mass seen at the apex of the impacted right mandibular canine tooth on radiographs. PMID:27595092

  18. Imaging of the thyroid in benign and malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Intenzo, Charles M; Dam, Hung Q; Manzone, Timothy A; Kim, Sung M

    2012-01-01

    The thyroid gland was one of the first organs imaged in nuclear medicine, beginning in the 1940s. Thyroid scintigraphy is based on a specific phase or prelude to thyroid hormone synthesis, namely trapping of iodide or iodide analogues (ie, Tc99m pertechnetate), and in the case of radioactive iodine, eventual incorporation into thyroid hormone synthesis within the thyroid follicle. Moreover, thyroid scintigraphy is a reflection of the functional state of the gland, as well as the physiological state of any structure (ie, nodule) within the gland. Scintigraphy, therefore, provides information that anatomical imaging (ie, ultrasound, computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging) lacks. Thyroid scintigraphy plays an essential role in the management of patients with benign or malignant thyroid disease. In the former, the structure or architecture of the gland is best demonstrated by anatomical or cross-sectional imaging, such as ultrasound, CT, or even magnetic resonance imaging. The role of scintigraphy, however, is to display the functional state of the thyroid gland or that of a clinically palpable nodule within the gland. Such information is most useful in (1) patients with thyrotoxicosis, and (2) those patients whose thyroid nodules would not require tissue sampling if their nodules are hyperfunctioning. In neoplastic thyroid disease, thyroid scintigraphy is often standard of care for postthyroidectomy remnant evaluation and in subsequent thyroid cancer surveillance. Planar radioiodine imaging, in the form of the whole-body scan (WBS) and posttherapy scan (PTS), is a fundamental tool in differentiated thyroid cancer management. Continued controversy remains over the utility of WBS in a variety of patient risk groups and clinical scenarios. Proponents on both sides of the arguments compare WBS with PTS, thyroglobulin, and other imaging modalities with differing results. The paucity of large, randomized, prospective studies results in dependence on consensus

  19. Intraoperative handheld probe for 3D imaging of pediatric benign vocal fold lesions using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benboujja, Fouzi; Garcia, Jordan; Beaudette, Kathy; Strupler, Mathias; Hartnick, Christopher J.; Boudoux, Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Excessive and repetitive force applied on vocal fold tissue can induce benign vocal fold lesions. Children affected suffer from chronic hoarseness. In this instance, the vibratory ability of the folds, a complex layered microanatomy, becomes impaired. Histological findings have shown that lesions produce a remodeling of sup-epithelial vocal fold layers. However, our understanding of lesion features and development is still limited. Indeed, conventional imaging techniques do not allow a non-invasive assessment of sub-epithelial integrity of the vocal fold. Furthermore, it remains challenging to differentiate these sub-epithelial lesions (such as bilateral nodules, polyps and cysts) from a clinical perspective, as their outer surfaces are relatively similar. As treatment strategy differs for each lesion type, it is critical to efficiently differentiate sub-epithelial alterations involved in benign lesions. In this study, we developed an optical coherence tomography (OCT) based handheld probe suitable for pediatric laryngological imaging. The probe allows for rapid three-dimensional imaging of vocal fold lesions. The system is adapted to allow for high-resolution intra-operative imaging. We imaged 20 patients undergoing direct laryngoscopy during which we looked at different benign pediatric pathologies such as bilateral nodules, cysts and laryngeal papillomatosis and compared them to healthy tissue. We qualitatively and quantitatively characterized laryngeal pathologies and demonstrated the added advantage of using 3D OCT imaging for lesion discrimination and margin assessment. OCT evaluation of the integrity of the vocal cord could yield to a better pediatric management of laryngeal diseases.

  20. [Botulinum toxin A for the treatment of familial benign pemphigus].

    PubMed

    López-Ferrer, A; Alomar, A

    2012-01-01

    Familial benign pemphigus or Hailey-Hailey disease is a rare bullous disease that presents clinically with recurrent flares of erosions and vesicles that mainly affect the skinfolds. Many topical and systemic therapies have been proposed. Hyperhidrosis is one of the factors that can trigger or aggravate a flare-up, and its treatment is therefore important for controlling the disease and preventing further episodes. We report 3 patients with axillary and/or inguinal benign familial pemphigus that responded favorably to treatment with subcutaneous botulinum toxin. PMID:21872830

  1. Role of metallothioneins in benign and malignant thyroid lesions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings in the past two decades have brought many insights into the biology of thyroid benign and malignant lesions, in particular the papillary and follicular thyroid cancers. Although, much progress have been made, thyroid cancers still pose diagnostic problems regarding differentiation of follicular lesions in relation to their aggressiveness and the treatment of advanced and undifferentiated thyroid cancers. Metallothioneins (MTs) were shown to induce cancer cells proliferation, mediate resistance to apoptosis, certain chemotherapeutics and radiotherapy. Therefore, MTs may be of utility in diagnosis and management of patients with benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid. PMID:23273222

  2. The pigmented portio: benign lentigo of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Schneider, V; Zimberg, S T; Kay, S

    1981-01-01

    The first case of benign lentigo of the uterine cervix is reported, providing further evidence that the cervix is able to form the entire spectrum of melanocytic lesions known to occur in the skin. Review of the literature reveals 19 cases of primary malignant melanoma of the cervix and 30 cases of blue nevus. The reported case offers support that benign lentigines may play a role as premalignant lesions of malignant melanoma not only in the skin, but aldo in mucous membranes. PMID:7327080

  3. Benign adrenal hemangiomas may mimic metastases on PET.

    PubMed

    Calata, Jed F; Sukerkar, Arun N; August, Carey Z; Maker, Ajay V

    2013-11-01

    CT or MRI are utilized in the initial evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas; however, overlap exists between benign and malignant lesions on these examinations. The American College of Radiology recommends PET scans to complement CT and MRI for patients with adrenal masses and a moderate-to-high likelihood of neoplastic disease. We present images of a PET-avid adrenal lesion in a patient with pulmonary and pancreatic neoplasms that mimicked metastasis, but was found to be a benign adrenal hemangioma on surgical resection. The use of PET for adrenal tumors, specifically adrenal hemangiomas, will be reviewed. PMID:24089061

  4. Role of stenting in gastrointestinal benign and malignant diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Pagano, Nico; Arena, Monica; Miraglia, Stefania; Consolo, Pierluigi; Iabichino, Giuseppe; Virgilio, Clara; Luigiano, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Advances in stents design have led to a substantial increase in the use of stents for a variety of digestive diseases. Initially developed as a non-surgical treatment for palliation of esophageal cancer, the stents now have an emerging role in the management of malignant and benign conditions as well as in all segments of the gastrointestinal tract. In this review, relevant literature search and expert opinions have been used to evaluate the key-role of stenting in gastrointestinal benign and malignant diseases. PMID:25992186

  5. Management of benign biliary strictures: current status and perspective.

    PubMed

    Kaffes, Arthur J

    2015-09-01

    Benign biliary strictures are common and occur either from hepato-biliary surgery or from diseases including chronic pancreatitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis, among others. The treatment of many such strictures is endoscopic with evolving new approaches especially with fully covered metal stents. The only classification system available is for postoperative strictures with the intention to guide surgical correction. There is no useful classification system to guide both assessment and management of benign biliary strictures. This proposed classification is relevant to patient care in assisting diagnosis and endoscopic management. PMID:26147976

  6. A Benign Cardiac Growth but Not So Indolent

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sahadev T.; Biederman, Robert W. W.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac lipomatous hypertrophy is a rare benign condition that usually involves the interatrial septum. Due to its benign nature it rarely requires intervention. Its presence outside the interatrial septum is reported infrequently. We present a case of lipomatous hypertrophy in the intraventricular septum that was complicated by a severe, symptomatic, and disabling dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The symptoms significantly improved following the excision of the mass. In our case transthoracic echocardiogram was used to visualize the mass and measure the severity of the obstruction; Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to characterize the mass and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27293911

  7. Single benign metastasising leiomyoma of an inguinal lymph node.

    PubMed

    Laban, Kamil G; Tobon-Morales, Roberto E; Hodge, Janice A L; Schreuder, Henk W R

    2016-01-01

    Benign metastasising leiomyoma (BML) is a rare benign disease associated with uterine leiomyoma and history of uterine surgery. It most frequently occurs in premenopausal woman, with a pulmonary localisation, and consisting of multiple nodules. We present an uncommon case of a 69-year-old woman with a single BML of an inguinal lymph node. CT scans of thorax and abdomen excluded other metastasis localisation. The patient was cured with surgical excision of the mass. Lymph node involvement has been reported incidentally in BML literature. Lymphangitic spread can be considered a possible mechanism of BML metastasis. PMID:27511755

  8. Benign vs. malicious ghosts in higher-derivative theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilga, A. V.

    2005-02-01

    Interacting theories with higher-derivatives involve ghosts. They correspond to instabilities that display themselves at the classical level. We notice that comparatively "benign" mechanical higher-derivative systems exist, where the classical vacuum is stable with respect to small perturbations and the problems appear only at the nonperturbative level. We argue the existence of benign higher-derivative field theories which are stable with respect to small fluctuations with nonzero momenta. A particular example is the 6D N=2 higher-derivative SYM theory, which is finite and unitary at the perturbative level. The instability with respect to small fluctuations of zero-momentum modes is always present, however.

  9. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  10. Methylation in benign prostate and risk of disease progression in men subsequently diagnosed with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rybicki, Benjamin A; Rundle, Andrew; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Mitrache, Nicoleta; Do, Kieu C; Jankowski, Michelle; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Trudeau, Sheri; Belinsky, Steven A; Tang, Deliang

    2016-06-15

    In DNA from prostate tumors, methylation patterns in gene promoter regions can be a biomarker for disease progression. It remains unclear whether methylation patterns in benign prostate tissue--prior to malignant transformation--may provide similar prognostic information. To determine whether early methylation events predict prostate cancer outcomes, we evaluated histologically benign prostate specimens from 353 men who eventually developed prostate cancer and received "definitive" treatment [radical prostatectomy (58%) or radiation therapy (42%)]. Cases were drawn from a large hospital-based cohort of men with benign prostate biopsy specimens collected between 1990 and 2002. Risk of disease progression associated with methylation was estimated using time-to-event analyses. Average follow-up was over 5 years; biochemical recurrence (BCR) occurred in 91 cases (26%). In White men, methylation of the APC gene was associated with increased risk of BCR, even after adjusting for standard clinical risk factors for prostate cancer progression (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 2.26; 95%CI 1.23-4.16). APC methylation was most strongly associated with a significant increased risk of BCR in White men with low prostate specific antigen at cohort entry (HR = 3.66; 95%CI 1.51-8.85). In additional stratified analyses, we found that methylation of the RARB gene significantly increased risk of BCR in African American cases who demonstrated methylation of at least one of the other four genes under study (HR = 3.80; 95%CI 1.07-13.53). These findings may have implications in the early identification of aggressive prostate cancer as well as reducing unnecessary medical procedures and emotional distress for men who present with markers of indolent disease. PMID:26860439

  11. Inflammatory Responses in a Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Epithelial Cell Line (BPH-1) Infected with Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Su; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Han, Ik-Hwan; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2016-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissues from prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer. Chronic prostatic inflammation is known as a risk factor for prostate enlargement, benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms, and acute urinary retention. Our aim was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce inflammatory responses in cells of a benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cell line (BPH-1). When BPH-1 cells were infected with T. vaginalis, the protein and mRNA of inflammatory cytokines, such as CXCL8, CCL2, IL-1β, and IL-6, were increased. The activities of TLR4, ROS, MAPK, JAK2/STAT3, and NF-κB were also increased, whereas inhibitors of ROS, MAPK, PI3K, NF-κB, and anti-TLR4 antibody decreased the production of the 4 cytokines although the extent of inhibition differed. However, a JAK2 inhibitor inhibited only IL-6 production. Culture supernatants of the BPH-1 cells that had been incubated with live T. vaginalis (trichomonad-conditioned medium, TCM) contained the 4 cytokines and induced the migration of human monocytes (THP-1 cells) and mast cells (HMC-1 cells). TCM conditioned by BPH-1 cells pretreated with NF-κB inhibitor showed decreased levels of cytokines and induced less migration. Therefore, it is suggested that these cytokines are involved in migration of inflammatory cells. These results suggest that T. vaginalis infection of BPH patients may cause inflammation, which may induce lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). PMID:27180569

  12. Inflammatory Responses in a Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Epithelial Cell Line (BPH-1) Infected with Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Su; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Han, Ik-Hwan; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissues from prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer. Chronic prostatic inflammation is known as a risk factor for prostate enlargement, benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms, and acute urinary retention. Our aim was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce inflammatory responses in cells of a benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cell line (BPH-1). When BPH-1 cells were infected with T. vaginalis, the protein and mRNA of inflammatory cytokines, such as CXCL8, CCL2, IL-1β, and IL-6, were increased. The activities of TLR4, ROS, MAPK, JAK2/STAT3, and NF-κB were also increased, whereas inhibitors of ROS, MAPK, PI3K, NF-κB, and anti-TLR4 antibody decreased the production of the 4 cytokines although the extent of inhibition differed. However, a JAK2 inhibitor inhibited only IL-6 production. Culture supernatants of the BPH-1 cells that had been incubated with live T. vaginalis (trichomonad-conditioned medium, TCM) contained the 4 cytokines and induced the migration of human monocytes (THP-1 cells) and mast cells (HMC-1 cells). TCM conditioned by BPH-1 cells pretreated with NF-κB inhibitor showed decreased levels of cytokines and induced less migration. Therefore, it is suggested that these cytokines are involved in migration of inflammatory cells. These results suggest that T. vaginalis infection of BPH patients may cause inflammation, which may induce lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). PMID:27180569

  13. Indications of Free Grafts in Mandibular Reconstruction, after Removing Benign Tumors: Treatment Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Alister, Juan Pablo; Uribe, Francisca; Olate, Sergio; Arriagada, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mandibular reconstruction has been the subject of much debate and research in the fields of maxillofacial surgery and head and neck surgery. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was undertaken with 14 patients diagnosed with benign tumorous pathologies and who underwent immediate mandibular resection and reconstruction at the Hospital del Salvador Maxillofacial Surgery Unit and Dr. Rodrigo Fariña’s private clinic between the years 2002 and 2012. We propose a treatment algorithm, which is previous teeth extractions in area that will be removed. Results: Fourteen patients underwent surgery, and a total of 40 dental implants were installed in 6 men and 8 women, the mean age of 33.5 (age range, 14–58 y). Reconstruction with iliac crest bone graft, and rehabilitation following this protocol (average of reconstruction was 8.7 cm), was successful with no complications at all in 12 patients. One patient had a minor complication, and the graft was partially reabsorbed because of communication of the graft with the oral cavity. This complication did not impede rehabilitation with dental implants. Another patient suffered the total loss of the graft due to infection because of dehiscence of oral mucosa and great communication with the mouth. Another iliac crest free graft reconstruction was undertaken 6 months later. Conclusions: The scientific evidence suggests that mandibular reconstruction using free grafts following the removal of benign tumors is a biologically sustainable alternative. The critical factor to improve the prognosis of free grafts reconstruction in benign tumors is to have good quality soft tissue and avoid communication with the oral cavity. For this, it is vital to do dental extractions before removing the tumor.

  14. Ischemia in pelvic organs as an independent pathogenic factor in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia and urinary bladder dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kirpatovskii, V I; Mudraya, I S; Mkrtchyan, K G; Revenko, S V; Efremov, G D; Nadtochii, O N; Kabanova, I V

    2015-04-01

    Blood supply to the pelvic organs of outbred male rats was diminished by graduated constriction of the distal part of the inferior vena cava. Deficiency of intramural blood supply in prostate and urinary bladder was revealed by bioimpedance harmonic analysis according to the magnitude of first cardiac peak in the bioimpedance spectrogram. In 1-1.5 months, the histological examination revealed the glandular-stromal form of progressive benign prostatic hyperplasia in all ischemic rats. The development of hyperplasia was not accompanied by the changes in testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol in blood and prostatic tissue. Assessment of vesical functional status by recording the intravesical pressure during infusion cystometry revealed an increase in the amplitude of spontaneous fluctuations of detrusor tone and intravesical pressure during bladder filling, which can be considered as indicator of detrusor hyperactivity. The data conclude that chronic ischemia of pelvic organs is an individual pathogenic factor in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated urinary disorders. PMID:25896589

  15. Analysis of breast tissue calcifications using FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Rebecca N.; Rogers, Keith D.; Shepherd, Neil; Stone, Nicholas

    2007-07-01

    Microalcifications can be found in both benign and malignant breast lesions and their composition can indicate the disease state. Type I microcalcifications are composed of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) and are associated mainly with benign tissue, whereas hydroxyapatite (HAP) can be present in both tissue types. As current practices such as mammography and histopathology examine the morphology of the specimen, they can not reliably distinguish between the two types of calcification, which frequently are the only mammographic features that indicate the presence of a cancerous lesion. Analysis of tissue by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR) allows biochemical information to be achieved from the sample. Spectral maps have been carried out on paraffinized sections of breast tissue from 9 patients of different pathology types containing calcification. The chemical composition of the calcifications and surrounding tissue has been analysed and correlated with tissue pathology. This preliminary study has demonstrated the ability to conduct FTIR in paraffinized sections of breast tissue, and initial observations show a correlation between HAP carbonate substitution and tissue pathology. It is hoped that this and further studies will give insight into how the calcifications are linked to the disease process and will give an increased understanding of the significance of calcifications in breast tissue. If type II microcalcifications can be differentiated in benign and malignant tissue by spectroscopic techniques, this may have positive implications in early diagnosis if the techniques can be applied in vivo and spectroscopy of paraffin sections enables biochemical information to accompany histopathology of the sample.

  16. 14-Year-Old Boy With Mild Antecedent Neck Pain in Setting of Acute Trauma: A Rare Case of Benign Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Spine.

    PubMed

    Skunda, Raymond; Puckett, Timothy; Martin, Michael; Sanclement, Jose; Peterson, Jo Elle

    2016-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with neck pain after a football accident. Imaging revealed a discrete, expansile, lytic, radiolucent mass extending anterior from the left C2 vertebral body. The differential diagnosis for this mass is broad and includes both benign and malignant lesions. A thorough history and physical examination, along with selective imaging and a tissue sample, are essential in making the correct diagnosis. We report a case of benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) in the cervical spine of a pediatric patient, present the diagnostic dilemma involved in diagnosing BFH, and review the literature to compare the characteristics of BFH with those of other benign bone lesions. To our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of BFH in the cervical spine of a pediatric patient. PMID:26991583

  17. Non-invasive differentiation of benign renal tumors from clear cell renal cell carcinomas using clinically translatable hyperpolarized 13C pyruvate magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Renuka; Van Criekinge, Mark; DeLos Santos, Justin; Keshari, Kayvan R.; Wilson, David M.; Peehl, Donna; Kurhanewicz, John; Wang, Zhen J.

    2016-01-01

    Localized renal tumors are increasingly detected incidentally at imaging. Conventional imaging cannot reliably differentiate the 20% of these tumors that are benign from malignant renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), leading to unnecessary surgical resection and resulting morbidity associated with surgery. Here, we investigated hyperpolarized 13C pyruvate metabolism in live patient-derived renal tumor tissue slices using a novel magnetic resonance (MR) -compatible bioreactor platform. We demonstrated for the first time that clear cell RCCs (ccRCCs), which account for 70–80% of all RCCs, have increased lactate production as well as rapid lactate efflux compared to benign renal tumors. This difference is attributed to increased lactate dehydrogenase A and monocarboxylate transporter 4 expression in ccRCCs. This distinctive metabolic phenotype can be used to differentiate RCCs from benign renal tumors using clinically translatable hyperpolarized 13C pyruvate MR. PMID:27227168

  18. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  20. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature. PMID:27437018

  1. 1. HEBRONVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. HEBRONVILLE, BRISTOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HEBRONVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. HEBRONVILLE, BRISTOL CO., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 193.75. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. 3. DODGEVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR DODGEVILLE, BRISTOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DODGEVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR DODGEVILLE, BRISTOL CO., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 195.55. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. 33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY WITH CONCRETE CULVERT LEADING NORTH OUT OF RAVINE TOWARD JOHNSTON MEMORIAL SITE. VIEW NW. - Shiloh National Military Park Tour Roads, Shiloh, Hardin County, TN

  4. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  5. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 2. THREEQUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-QUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS AND NORTHWEST APPROACH SPANS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Red River Bridge, Spanning Red River at U.S. Highway 82, Garland, Miller County, AR

  7. 1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  8. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  9. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  10. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  11. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. Complications in exodontia--accidental dislodgment to adjacent anatomical areas.

    PubMed

    Grandini, S A; Barros, V M; Salata, L A; Rosa, A L; Soares, U N

    1993-01-01

    The authors report 4 cases of accidental dislodgement of teeth to adjacent anatomical areas during extraction. The causes and their prevention are discussed and solutions for the problem are suggested. PMID:8241759

  13. 6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel 28, view to southwest, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  14. VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION CAMP ROCK FEATURE WITH OVER, ADJACENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION CAMP ROCK FEATURE WITH OVER, ADJACENT TO THE COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL. LOOKING NORTHWEST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  15. Pump house adjacent to the superintendent's house at the west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump house adjacent to the superintendent's house at the west end of the complex near Highway 101. Detail of Holloshaft pump. View to the south. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  16. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 24. INTERIOR VIEW, WILLIAM GRAY AT SIZING GUAGE ADJACENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR VIEW, WILLIAM GRAY AT SIZING GUAGE ADJACENT TO BRADLEY HAMMER; NOTE THIS IS THE SAME TOOL AS BEING FORGED ABOVE - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  18. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  19. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen he designed and installed in the Congdon Canal, facing southeast. Photo dates ca. late 1920's. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  1. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  2. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  3. VIEW OF CONCRETE CHANNEL ADJACENT TO TUMALO FEED CANAL INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CONCRETE CHANNEL ADJACENT TO TUMALO FEED CANAL INTAKE STRUCTURE (DOWNSTREAM SIDE). LOOKING EAST/NORTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  4. Differential expression of androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors in benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lingmin; Shen, Wenhao; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Qiwu; Wang, Yongquan; Zhou, Zhansong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the differential expression levels of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ), and progesterone receptor (PGR) between normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The combination of immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting assay was used to identify the distribution and differential expression of these receptors at the immunoactive biomarker, transcriptional, and protein levels between 5 normal human prostate tissues and 40 BPH tissues. The results were then validated in a rat model of BPH induced by testosterone propionate and estradiol benzoate. In both human and rat prostate tissues, AR was localized mainly to epithelial and stromal cell nuclei; ERα was distributed mainly to stromal cells, but not exclusively; ERβ was interspersed in the basal layer of epithelium, but sporadically in epithelial and stromal cells; PGR was expressed abundantly in cytoplasm of epithelial and stromal cells. There were decreased expression of ERα and increased expression of PGR, but no difference in the expression of ERβ in the BPH compared to the normal prostate of both human and rat. Increased expression of AR in the BPH compared to the normal prostate of human was observed, however, the expression of AR in the rat prostate tissue was decreased. This study identified the activation of AR and PGR and repression of ERα in BPH, which indicate a promoting role of AR and PGR and an inhibitory role of ERα in the pathogenesis of BPH.

  5. Testosterone metabolism of fibroblasts grown from prostatic carcinoma, benign prostatic hyperplasia and skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Schweikert, H.U.; Hein, H.J.; Romijn, J.C.; Schroeder, F.H.

    1982-02-01

    The metabolism of (1,2,6,7-3H)testosterone was assessed in fibroblast monolayers derived from tissue of 5 prostates with benign hyperplasia (BPH), 4 prostates with carcinoma (PC), and 3 biopsy samples of skin, 2 nongenital skin (NG) and 1 genital skin. The following metabolites could be identified: androstanedione androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, epiandrosterone, androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol and androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. Testosterone was metabolized much more rapidly in fibroblasts originating from prostatic tissue than in fibroblasts derived from NG. A significantly higher formation of 5 alpha-androstanes and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroids could be observed in fibroblasts from BPH as compared to PC. 17-ketosteroid formation exceeded 5 alpha-androstane formation in BPH, whereas 5 alpha-reduction was the predominant pathway in fibroblasts grown from PC and NG. Since testosterone metabolism in fibroblasts of prostatic origin therefore resembles in many aspects that in whole prostatic tissue, fibroblasts grown from prostatic tissues might be a valuable tool for further investigation of the pathogenesis of human BPH and PC.

  6. [Soft tissue swelling of the sternoclavicular joint].

    PubMed

    Kloth, J K; Weber, M-A

    2012-05-01

    A 73-year-old woman presented with a swelling of the right sternoclavicular joint the size of a hens egg which had persisted for 2 years. After a corticosteroid injection 8 months previously the swelling was asymptomatic. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed synovialitis of the sternoclavicular joint with edema of the adjacent bone. The constellation is indicative of Tietze syndrome, an inflammation of costochondral junctions of the ribs or chondrosternal joints. The treatment is usually directed at pain relief and benign conditions are often self-limiting. PMID:22584483

  7. Benign Occipital Epilepsies of Childhood: Clinical Features and Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Isabella; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Kivity, Sara; Scheffer, Ingrid E.

    2008-01-01

    The early and late benign occipital epilepsies of childhood (BOEC) are described as two discrete electro-clinical syndromes, eponymously known as Panayiotopoulos and Gastaut syndromes. Our aim was to explore the clinical features, classification and clinical genetics of these syndromes using twin and multiplex family studies to determine whether…

  8. Benign breast disease and consumption of beverages containing methylxanthines.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, C; Franceschi, S; Parazzini, F; Regallo, M; Decarli, A; Gallus, G; Di Pietro, S; Tognoni, G

    1985-05-01

    The relationship between methylxanthine (Mx) consumption and benign breast disease was evaluated in a case-control study of 288 women with histologically confirmed benign breast lumps (203 dysplastic lesions and 85 benign tumors) and 2 groups of control women--285 patients in the hospital for acute conditions apparently unrelated to the consumption of Mx-containing beverages and 291 outpatients. The relative risk estimates of dysplastic breast lesions (fibrocystic disease), with allowance for all identified potential distorting factors, for women who drank 1-2 or 3 or more cups of coffee per day were 4.1 and 6.4, respectively, when the hospital controls were the comparison group and 2.0 and 3.7, respectively, when the outpatient controls were the comparison group. The relationship was even stronger when the total consumption of Mx-containing beverages (coffee plus tea) was considered and increased with increasing duration of use. The association was not explained by any of the major risk factors for fibrocystic breast diseases or by differences in general characteristics or other lifestyle habits between cases and controls. Mx consumption was not related to the risk of benign breast tumors (fibroadenomas). These findings support the hypothesis that Mx consumption is related to the risk of dysplastic lesions of the breast. PMID:3858587

  9. Giant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in a Pakistani Patient.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zafaruddin; Tahir, Muzamil; Ashraf, H Shahzad; Khan Niazi, FazaluRehman; Khan, Munazza; Mustafa, Sadaf; Höti, Naseruddin

    2014-01-01

    "Giant hyperplasia" of the prostate is a rare pathology of the prostate gland. We report one such case, in which a successful retropubic prostatectomy was performed on an elderly male patient in Pakistan. The weight of the resected prostate was 700 g, which is the eighth largest prostate with benign prostatic hyperplasia reported. PMID:26955540

  10. Giant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in a Pakistani Patient*

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zafaruddin; Tahir, Muzamil; Ashraf, H. Shahzad; Khan Niazi, FazaluRehman; Khan, Munazza; Mustafa, Sadaf; Höti, Naseruddin

    2014-01-01

    “Giant hyperplasia” of the prostate is a rare pathology of the prostate gland. We report one such case, in which a successful retropubic prostatectomy was performed on an elderly male patient in Pakistan. The weight of the resected prostate was 700 g, which is the eighth largest prostate with benign prostatic hyperplasia reported. PMID:26955540

  11. Microwave applicators for thermotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a primer.

    PubMed

    Bolmsjö, M B; Vrba, T

    2000-12-01

    Microwave thermotherapy for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is becoming increasingly more common. This article provides an introduction to the functional principles of microwave antennas for delivery of energy to the prostatic gland. Different antenna designs (monopole, dipole, and helical coil types) and impedance matching are discussed. PMID:11108559

  12. Benign and malignant thyroid nodules after neck irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fjaelling, M.T.; Tisell, L.E.; Carlsson, S.; Hansson, G.; Lundberg, L.M.; Oden, A.

    1986-09-15

    A total of 444 persons were examined for the presence of thyroid nodules on average of 43 years after having been treated with x-rays for cervical tuberculous adenitis. Of this total, 101 subjects had undergone surgery for thyroid nodules: 25 for carcinoma (6%) and 76 for benign nodules (17%). Carcinoma occurred with the same frequency in multinodular and uninodular glands. Because of the uneven age distribution in the current series, it could not be decided whether there was a higher susceptibility of the young thyroid to the induction of thyroid carcinoma or benign nodules. The dosage range for the whole series was 0.40 to 50.90 Gy (40-5090 rad). There was a positive correlation between the absorbed radiation dose and the probability of developing benign and malignant thyroid nodules, even after doses of 20 Gy or more. The risk of developing thyroid carcinoma was equal for men and women, while the female-to-male ratio for benign nodules was 2.9:1, indicating that risk factors associated with females are of less importance in irradiated than in nonirradiated populations. The median latency for carcinoma was 40 years, suggesting that the increased risk of thyroid carcinoma after irradiation remains for the rest of the patient's life.

  13. Adjacent Segment Disease Perspective and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra-Pozo, Fanor M.; Deusdara, Renato A. M.; Benzel, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease has become a common topic in spine surgery circles because of the significant increase in fusion surgery in recent years and the development of motion preservation technologies that theoretically should lead to a decrease in this pathology. The purpose of this review is to organize the evidence available in the current literature on this subject. Methods For this literature review, a search was conducted in PubMed with the following keywords: adjacent segment degeneration and disease. Selection, review, and analysis of the literature were completed according to level of evidence. Results The PubMed search identified 850 articles, from which 41 articles were selected and reviewed. The incidence of adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine is close to 3% without a significant statistical difference between surgical techniques (fusion vs arthroplasty). Authors report the incidence of adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine to range from 2% to 14%. Damage to the posterior ligamentous complex and sagittal imbalances are important risk factors for both degeneration and disease. Conclusion Insufficient evidence exists at this point to support the idea that total disc arthroplasty is superior to fusion procedures in minimizing the incidence of adjacent segment disease. The etiology is most likely multifactorial but it is becoming abundantly clear that adjacent segment disease is not caused by motion segment fusion alone. Fusion plus the presence of abnormal end-fusion alignment appears to be a major factor in creating end-fusion stresses that result in adjacent segment degeneration and subsequent disease. The data presented cast further doubt on previously established rationales for total disc arthroplasty, at least with regard to the effect of total disc arthroplasty on adjacent segment degeneration pathology. PMID:24688337

  14. Approximating the largest eigenvalue of network adjacency matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan G.; Ott, Edward; Hunt, Brian R.

    2007-11-01

    The largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of a network plays an important role in several network processes (e.g., synchronization of oscillators, percolation on directed networks, and linear stability of equilibria of network coupled systems). In this paper we develop approximations to the largest eigenvalue of adjacency matrices and discuss the relationships between these approximations. Numerical experiments on simulated networks are used to test our results.

  15. Apparent absence of a benign precursor lesion: Implications for the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.M. )

    1989-09-01

    This review relates concepts derived from the study of chemically induced skin cancer in animal models to the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma in humans. Most chemically induced experimental cancers in animals, including melanomas in rodents, arise within a benign precursor lesion. The initiation-promotion-progression sequence is a central concept in animal models for carcinogenesis. Many human melanomas appear to arise from epidermal melanocytes, with no associated precursor lesion. This article considers why there is no apparent precursor in many human melanomas and the consequences of this absence. Melanocyte physiology and factors that govern escape from defenses such as DNA repair, local tissue environment, and immunity presumably influence melanocyte conversion to melanoma. These factors may determine the absence of a precursor lesion in primary melanomas. In addition, it is possible that some human melanomas arise by cellular mechanisms different from those causing cancer in rodent models. Both molecular and prospective clinical studies will be required to explain this apparent paradox in the pathogenesis of melanoma. A similar approach may help to explain the origin of basal cell carcinoma and perhaps other human cancers that appear to arise directly from normal cells. From a clinical point of view, the absence of an identifiable, benign precursor lesion requires even greater emphasis on melanoma prevention. Research on mechanisms of ultraviolet carcinogenesis indicates that appropriate postexposure treatments may be useful in preventing long-term consequences of sunburn, including melanoma. 69 references.

  16. Topical PDT in the Treatment of Benign Skin Diseases: Principles and New Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miri; Jung, Haw Young; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses a photosensitizer, light energy, and molecular oxygen to cause cell damage. Cells exposed to the photosensitizer are susceptible to destruction upon light absorption because excitation of the photosensitizing agents leads to the production of reactive oxygen species and, subsequently, direct cytotoxicity. Using the intrinsic cellular heme biosynthetic pathway, topical PDT selectively targets abnormal cells, while preserving normal surrounding tissues. This selective cytotoxic effect is the basis for the use of PDT in antitumor treatment. Clinically, PDT is a widely used therapeutic regimen for oncologic skin conditions such as actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma in situ, and basal cell carcinoma. PDT has been shown, under certain circumstances, to stimulate the immune system and produce antibacterial, and/or regenerative effects while protecting cell viability. Thus, it may be useful for treating benign skin conditions. An increasing number of studies support the idea that PDT may be effective for treating acne vulgaris and several other inflammatory/infective skin diseases, including psoriasis, rosacea, viral warts, and aging-related changes. This review provides an overview of the clinical investigations of PDT and discusses each of the essential aspects of the sequence: its mechanism of action, common photosensitizers, light sources, and clinical applications in dermatology. Of the numerous clinical trials of PDT in dermatology, this review focuses on those studies that have reported remarkable therapeutic benefits following topical PDT for benign skin conditions such as acne vulgaris, viral warts, and photorejuvenation without causing severe side effects. PMID:26404243

  17. Optical imaging as an adjunct to sonograph in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Quing; Conant, Emily F.; Chance, Britton

    2000-04-01

    The role of near infrared (NIR) diffusive light imaging as an adjunct to ultrasound in differentiating benign from malignant lesions was evaluated in 27 mammography patients with infiltrating ductal carcinomas, apocrine metaplasia, fibroadenomas, radial scar and ductal hyperplasia, cysts, and normal tissues. Conventional ultrasound/mammography images were graded based on BI-RADS assessment categories. The spatial NIR measurements were made at wavelengths of 750 and 830 nm. Functional images, such as relative changes of deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb) and total blood concentration, were estimated from the dual wavelength measurements. Maximum relative deoxyHb and blood concentration changes were measured, and spatial correlation of masses in relative deoxyHb and blood concentration images for each breast were calculated. For the five biopsy proven benign lesions, ultrasound/mammography diagnoses were suspicious for malignancy (four cases) and highly suspicious for malignancy (one case). Four lesions showed less than 1.0 V maximum deoxyHb and less than 1.5 V maximum blood concentration levels on average and spatial image correlation showed no correlated masses in both deoxyHb and blood concentration images. For the four biopsy proven malignant lesions, ultrasound/mammography diagnoses were highly suspicious for malignancy. Maximum deoxyHb and blood concentration changes were greater than 2.9 V on average except one lesion which showed smaller deoxyHb signal (maximum 0.85 V) but the deoxyHb mass and blood concentration mass were highly correlated.

  18. Expression and Localization of Aquaporins in Benign Prostate Hyperplasia and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Insang; Hwang, Eu-Chang; Song, Seung Hee; Lee, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Sun-Ouck; Kang, Taek-Won; Kwon, Dongdeuk; Park, Kwangsung

    2012-01-01

    The aquaporin (AQP) families of water channels are intrinsic membrane proteins that facilitate selective water and small solute movement across the plasma membrane. The purposes of this study were to determine the expression and localization of AQPs in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Prostatic tissue was collected from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer by transurethral resection of the prostate. The expression and cellular localization of the AQPs were determined in the human prostate by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. AQP1, 3, and 9 were expressed in the human prostate. Western blot analysis revealed bands at 28-36 kDa for the AQP1, 3, and 9 proteins. Of these proteins, AQP3 and 9 were expressed in the epithelium. Immunolabeling showed that AQP1 was mainly expressed in the capillaries and venules of the prostate, AQP9 was expressed in the cytoplasm of the epithelium, and AQP3 was mainly associated with the plasma membrane of the prostatic epithelium. Only AQP3 expression was localized in the cell membrane, and expressed AQP3 was translocated to the cytoplasm in prostate cancer. The epithelium in the human prostate expresses AQP3 and 9 proteins, and the capillaries and venules of the prostate express AQP1. Characterizing or modifying the expression of AQP3 may lead to an understanding of the role of the AQPs in human prostatic disease. PMID:23323224

  19. Topical PDT in the Treatment of Benign Skin Diseases: Principles and New Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Miri; Jung, Haw Young; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses a photosensitizer, light energy, and molecular oxygen to cause cell damage. Cells exposed to the photosensitizer are susceptible to destruction upon light absorption because excitation of the photosensitizing agents leads to the production of reactive oxygen species and, subsequently, direct cytotoxicity. Using the intrinsic cellular heme biosynthetic pathway, topical PDT selectively targets abnormal cells, while preserving normal surrounding tissues. This selective cytotoxic effect is the basis for the use of PDT in antitumor treatment. Clinically, PDT is a widely used therapeutic regimen for oncologic skin conditions such as actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma in situ, and basal cell carcinoma. PDT has been shown, under certain circumstances, to stimulate the immune system and produce antibacterial, and/or regenerative effects while protecting cell viability. Thus, it may be useful for treating benign skin conditions. An increasing number of studies support the idea that PDT may be effective for treating acne vulgaris and several other inflammatory/infective skin diseases, including psoriasis, rosacea, viral warts, and aging-related changes. This review provides an overview of the clinical investigations of PDT and discusses each of the essential aspects of the sequence: its mechanism of action, common photosensitizers, light sources, and clinical applications in dermatology. Of the numerous clinical trials of PDT in dermatology, this review focuses on those studies that have reported remarkable therapeutic benefits following topical PDT for benign skin conditions such as acne vulgaris, viral warts, and photorejuvenation without causing severe side effects. PMID:26404243

  20. Nanostructured systems containing babassu (Orbignya speciosa) oil as a potential alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Valeria Pereira; Crean, Joanne; de Almeida Borges, Vinícius Raphael; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; Tajber, Lidia; Boylan, Fabio; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

    2013-01-01

    The oil of babassu tree nuts (Orbignya speciosa) is a potential alternative for treatment and prophylaxis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Improved results can be obtained by drug vectorization to the hyperplastic tissue. The main objective of this work was the preparation and characterization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle and clay nanosystems containing babassu oil (BBS). BBS was extracted from the kernels of babassu tree nuts and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. BBS-clay nanosystems were obtained by adding polyvinylpyrrolidone, Viscogel B8®, and BBS at a 2:1:1 mass ratio and characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and laser diffraction. The PLGA-BBS nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation-solvent evaporation method. Mean diameter, polydispersity, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscopic images of the nanosystems were analyzed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed successful formation of the nanocomposite. PLGA nanoparticles containing BBS were obtained, with a suitable size that was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Both nanostructured systems showed active incorporation yields exceeding 90%. The two systems obtained represent a new and potentially efficient therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:23990721

  1. Deep soft-tissue leiomyoma of the forearm mimicking a primary bone tumor of the ulna

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Rajoo; Rangaswami, Rajeswaran; Raja, Dorai Kumar; Shanmugasundaram, Gouthaman

    2015-01-01

    Leiomyomas of the soft tissues are rare in general, and extremely uncommon in the forearm. In general, leiomyomas are benign soft-tissue tumors that occur where smooth muscles are present. We present a case of soft-tissue leiomyoma of the forearm eroding the midshaft of the ulna, with emphasis on radiological diagnosis and histopathological correlation.

  2. A review of the natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    A compilation of the known natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries is provided. Food items of adult Cetoniinae include pollen and/or nectar (flower visitors), sap and/or slime flux, ripened fruits on plants, green tissues and leaves, and honey. Of the 36 species of Cetoniinae from Argentina, food items are known only for 11 species (30.5%). Attraction to light and bait-traps, adult activity periods, vertebrate predators, and the occurrence in bird nests are presented and discussed. Other insects that share the same food sources and bait-traps with Cetoniinae are mentioned. PMID:24869870

  3. Malignant soft tissue tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Mihir M

    2013-10-01

    Soft tissue masses are frequently seen in children. Although most are benign or reactive, soft tissue sarcomas (STS)-both rhabdomyosarcoma (most common) and non-rhabdo STS, do occur in the extremities. Appropriate evaluation of extremity soft tissue tumors often includes a biopsy as the clinical and imaging features may not be enough to establish a definitive diagnosis. Much needs to be done for improving the treatment of these rare but often devastating sarcomas. Given the small numbers of these cases seen at various centers, collaborative efforts should be made to further our understanding and improve the management of these challenging cases. PMID:24095080

  4. Chondro-Osseous Lesions of Soft Tissue.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soo-Jin; Horvai, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Soft tissue lesions can contain bone or cartilage matrix as an incidental, often metaplastic, phenomenon or as a diagnostic feature. The latter category includes a diverse group ranging from self-limited proliferations to benign neoplasms to aggressive malignancies. Correlating imaging findings with pathology is mandatory to confirm that a tumor producing bone or cartilage, in fact, originates from soft tissue rather than from the skeleton. The distinction can have dramatic diagnostic and therapeutic implications. This content focuses on the gross, histologic, radiographic, and clinical features of bone or cartilage-producing soft tissue lesions. Recent discoveries regarding tumor-specific genetics are discussed. PMID:26297064

  5. Balance control in sitting and standing in children and young adults with benign cerebellar tumors.

    PubMed

    Schoch, Beate; Hogan, Aidan; Gizewski, Elke R; Timmann, Dagmar; Konczak, Juergen

    2010-09-01

    Children and young adolescents with chronic surgical cerebellar lesions show persistent balance control problems during standing when lesions affect the deep cerebellar fastigial and adjacent interposed nuclei. The purpose of this study is to confirm that the same lesion sites are also associated with permanent signs of trunkal ataxia during sitting. A second aim is to demonstrate that examining the postural control of patients while sitting or standing on a foam cushion may constitute a simple clinical exam yielding results commensurate to a more involved dynamic posturography exam. Balance control was assessed in 16 patients after surgery of a benign cerebellar tumor in chronic state and healthy age- and gender-matched control subjects. Using an ultrasound-based kinematic recording system, trunkal and shoulder sway was measured during sitting and standing in different conditions. High-resolution MRI scans were acquired in the cerebellar patients. Voxel-wise statistical lesion symptom mapping was performed to compare lesioned areas between affected and unaffected patients in a given condition using χ² tests. During sitting, 56% of cerebellar patients exhibited trunkal sway outside the range of healthy controls, and 87.5% of cerebellar patients revealed abnormal sway patterns during standing. Abnormalities were most pronounced when visual information was absent, and somatosensory information became unreliable and/or when the base of support along the medio-lateral axis was minimized during tandem stance. Lesion symptom mapping revealed that pathological values in the behavior data were more likely in patients with surgical lesions involving the fastigial nuclei (NF) and adjacent interposed nuclei (NI). In patients with surgery <1-year lesions of the inferior cerebellar vermis also had an impact on balance function. Our results corroborate previous evidence that the extent of permanent damage to the deep cerebellar nuclei greatly impacts on the recovery on balance

  6. Radiofrequency Transoral Microsurgical Procedures in Benign and Malignant Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Lesions (Institutional Experiences)

    PubMed Central

    Gerlinger, Imre; Lujber, László; Burián, András; Móricz, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Besides cold-steel and laser instruments, the use of radiofrequency (RF) devices in transoral microsurgery is getting increasing popularity mainly due to its minimal thermal effect on the collateral soft tissue. Authors summarize their surgical technique, results, and experience gained with RF applied during laryngeal interventions at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery at Medical School, University of Pécs. Transoral microsurgery using radiofrequency was carried out in 23 cases in total between 1 January 2011 and 1 March 2013. Fourteen histopathologically different benign lesions and 9 malignant planocellular carcinomas of the larynx were removed using different Micro-Larynx RF Probes powered by Surgitron Dual 4.0 MHz Frequency RF (Ellman International, Oceanside, NY, USA) device. No major bleeding event occurred during or after the procedures and neither laryngeal oedema nor significant postoperative pain was recorded. Authors also reviewed the international literature in this topic while detailing some of their most interesting cases. PMID:25789337

  7. Potential protective mechanisms of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vatsal; Vezina, Chad M

    2011-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is an evolutionarily conserved ligand activated transcription factor best known for its role in mediating toxic responses to dioxin-like environmental contaminants. However, AHR signaling has also emerged as an active participant in processes of normal development and disease progression. Here, we review the role of AHR signaling in prostate development and disease processes, with a particular emphasis on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Inappropriate AHR activation has recently been associated with a decreased risk of symptomatic BPH in humans and has been shown to impair prostate development and disrupt endocrine signaling in rodents. We highlight known physiological responses to AHR activation in prostate and other tissues and discuss potential mechanisms by which it may act in adult human prostate to protect against symptomatic BPH. PMID:21684673

  8. Benign incidental findings of osteopoikilosis on Tc-99m MDP bone SPECT/CT

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Szu-Ying; Wang, Shan-Ying; Shiau, Yu-Chien; Wu, Yen-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Osteopoikilosis is a benign but rare condition characterized by bone islands throughout the osseous tissue, which could be easily confused with bone metastasis. We present a case of a 37-year-old man presented to orthopedic outpatient clinic with right hip pain for 2 weeks. There were multiple, small punctate lesions scattered throughout the skeleton on radiograph. Subsequent Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scan with pelvic single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) showed multiple enostoses without abnormal focal MDP uptake. Therefore, clinical diagnosis was compatible with osteopoikilosis while bone metastasis was unlikely. The symptoms then improved by conservative treatments. Osteopoikilosis is usually an incidental finding on radiograph or CT, and a normal MDP confirmed the diagnosis by excluding bone metastasis. It is important for clinicians to recognize the specific image features to prevent further unnecessary interventions. In addition, bone SPECT/CT could also make the diagnosis in one step. PMID:27281099

  9. Is a Solitary Fibrous Tumor in the External Auditory Canal Benign?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an extremely rare, distinct otological soft-tissue tumor. Only two such tumors in the external auditory canal have been reported. A SFT related to hemangiopericytomas (HPC), which commonly arise in the central nervous system. HPCs act malignant in many cases, while SFTs at other sites are mainly benign. A 25-year-old female presented with highly vascular tumor at the right external auditory meatus and bleeding from the mass when a crust was removed from its surface. After excisional biopsy followed by pre-operative embolization, this tumor confirmed with SFT. The recurrence rate of SFT is very low after complete resection, with a slightly increased risk of recurrence with extrathoracic tumors. We describe the third case of SFT in the external auditory canal and review the literature. PMID:27626087

  10. Benign Phyllodes Tumor of the Vulva: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, LeAnn N.; Lokhandwala, Parvez M.

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor is an uncommon breast lesion with characteristic histologic appearance when examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining: leaf-like fronds projecting into cystic spaces on low-power microscopy, and biphasic (epithelial and stromal) components on high-power microscopy. We report a rare primary case of this tumor arising within the vulva. A 34-year old African American female presented with a 3 cm slow-growing vulvar mass initially thought to be an inclusion cyst. The lesion was excised and histologic examination demonstrated this lesion to be a rare case of benign phyllodes tumor with morphologic features similar to those arising from breast tissue. Patient received no further treatment and did not exhibit any recurrence or metastasis. Nearly two years after excision, the patient died due to an unrelated medical cause. This rare tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis for women presenting with a slow-growing vulvar mass. PMID:26788277

  11. Benign Phyllodes Tumor of the Vulva: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Denlinger, LeAnn N; Lokhandwala, Parvez M; Abendroth, Catherine S

    2015-12-29

    Phyllodes tumor is an uncommon breast lesion with characteristic histologic appearance when examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining: leaf-like fronds projecting into cystic spaces on low-power microscopy, and biphasic (epithelial and stromal) components on high-power microscopy. We report a rare primary case of this tumor arising within the vulva. A 34-year old African American female presented with a 3 cm slow-growing vulvar mass initially thought to be an inclusion cyst. The lesion was excised and histologic examination demonstrated this lesion to be a rare case of benign phyllodes tumor with morphologic features similar to those arising from breast tissue. Patient received no further treatment and did not exhibit any recurrence or metastasis. Nearly two years after excision, the patient died due to an unrelated medical cause. This rare tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis for women presenting with a slow-growing vulvar mass. PMID:26788277

  12. Radiofrequency transoral microsurgical procedures in benign and malignant laryngeal and hypopharyngeal lesions (institutional experiences).

    PubMed

    Somogyvári, Krisztina; Gerlinger, Imre; Lujber, László; Burián, András; Móricz, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Besides cold-steel and laser instruments, the use of radiofrequency (RF) devices in transoral microsurgery is getting increasing popularity mainly due to its minimal thermal effect on the collateral soft tissue. Authors summarize their surgical technique, results, and experience gained with RF applied during laryngeal interventions at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery at Medical School, University of Pécs. Transoral microsurgery using radiofrequency was carried out in 23 cases in total between 1 January 2011 and 1 March 2013. Fourteen histopathologically different benign lesions and 9 malignant planocellular carcinomas of the larynx were removed using different Micro-Larynx RF Probes powered by Surgitron Dual 4.0 MHz Frequency RF (Ellman International, Oceanside, NY, USA) device. No major bleeding event occurred during or after the procedures and neither laryngeal oedema nor significant postoperative pain was recorded. Authors also reviewed the international literature in this topic while detailing some of their most interesting cases. PMID:25789337

  13. Is a Solitary Fibrous Tumor in the External Auditory Canal Benign?

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Kyou; Lee, Hyun Ju

    2016-09-01

    A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an extremely rare, distinct otological soft-tissue tumor. Only two such tumors in the external auditory canal have been reported. A SFT related to hemangiopericytomas (HPC), which commonly arise in the central nervous system. HPCs act malignant in many cases, while SFTs at other sites are mainly benign. A 25-year-old female presented with highly vascular tumor at the right external auditory meatus and bleeding from the mass when a crust was removed from its surface. After excisional biopsy followed by pre-operative embolization, this tumor confirmed with SFT. The recurrence rate of SFT is very low after complete resection, with a slightly increased risk of recurrence with extrathoracic tumors. We describe the third case of SFT in the external auditory canal and review the literature. PMID:27626087

  14. [Initial diagnosis of malignant lymphomas with manifestations in the mouth cavity and adjacent tissues].

    PubMed

    Colbow, S; Langanke, B; Teuber, U

    1997-02-01

    The present study investigates a series of 89 lymphomas of the head and neck seen over a 40-year period. The lymphomas were classified according to the Kielclassifikation and staged using the Ann Arbor system. A total of 78 patients had a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 50 high grade and 28 low grade. Eleven patients had Hodgkin's disease. Fifty-seven cases were extra-nodal and 52 nodal; 20 were combined. The 5-year survival with Hodgkin's disease was 52.2%, with non-Hodgkin's disease, 66.5%. Low- and high-grade lymphomas had the same 5-year survival (P = NS). Stages I and II had a better prognosis than stages III and IV (P = 0.3). PMID:9483930

  15. Difficulty distinguishing benign notochordal cell tumor from chordoma further suggests a link between them

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Much discussion about benign notochordal cell tissue in vertebrae has centered on the nature of its relationship, if any, to chordoma. Often referred to as benign notochordal cell tumors (BNCTs), these lesions have unique morphological features, however, differentiating between notochordal cells in discs, BNCT, and chordoma can be difficult. They are described as radiologically distinct from chordoma, with lysis, contrast enhancement, and a soft tissue mass indicating chordoma. Methods All chordomas diagnosed at our institution, the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli (Bologna, Italy), prior to 2008 were reviewed, yielding 174 cases. Five were limited to bone; one was a recurrent chordoma without original data available. The remaining four were re-evaluated in detail. Results There were three women and one man, aged 33–57 years (mean, 48 years). Two were BNCTs and two were mixed lesions containing BNCT and chordoma. On computed tomography, all were radiopaque with areas of lysis. One BNCT was heterogeneous on magnetic resonance imaging, enhancing after contrast. Microscopically, one BNCT had a well-defined cystic area with a sclerotic border. The other had a minute atypical area; it recurred as chordoma. The mixed lesions had areas of definitive BNCT, definitive chordoma, and atypical areas that did not meet the criteria for either. The atypical areas in all three cases ‘blended’ with areas of chordoma or BNCT. Conclusion These cases illustrate the ongoing challenges in differentiating between BNCT and chordoma. All had unique imaging features; three had atypical microscopic areas blending with BNCT or chordoma, strengthening the argument for a relationship between the two entities and supporting the idea that some BNCTs may progress to chordoma. Our study dispels the notion that any single radiologic criterion used to distinguish between chordoma and BNCT is reliable, opening the discussion as to whether or how to monitor BNCTs. PMID:25609192

  16. Benign childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms: neuropsychological findings.

    PubMed

    Germanò, Eva; Gagliano, Antonella; Magazù, Angela; Sferro, Caterina; Calarese, Tiziana; Mannarino, Erminia; Calamoneri, Filippo

    2005-05-01

    Benign childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms is classified among childhood benign partial epilepsies. The absence of neurological and neuropsychological deficits has long been considered as a prerequisite for a diagnosis of benign childhood partial epilepsy. Much evidence has been reported in literature in the latest years suggesting a neuropsychological impairment in this type of epilepsy, particularly in the type with Rolandic paroxysms. The present work examines the neuropsychological profiles of a sample of subjects affected by the early-onset benign childhood occipital seizures (EBOS) described by Panayotopulos. The patient group included 22 children (14 males and 8 females; mean age 10.1+/-3.3 years) diagnosed as having EBOS. The patients were examined with a set of tests investigating neuropsychological functions: memory, attention, perceptive, motor, linguistic and academic (reading, writing, arithmetic) abilities. The same instruments have been given to a homogeneous control group as regards sex, age, level of education and socio-economic background. None of the subjects affected by EBOS showed intellectual deficit (mean IQ in Wechsler Full Scale 91.7; S.D. 8.9). Results show a widespread cognitive dysfunction in the context of a focal epileptogenic process in EBOS. In particular, children with EBOS show a significant occurrence of specific learning disabilities (SLD) and other subtle neuropsychological deficits. We found selective dysfunctions relating to perceptive-visual attentional ability (p<0.05), verbal and visual-spatial memory abilities (p<0.01), visual perception and visual-motor integration global abilities (p<0.01), manual dexterity tasks (p<0.05), some language tasks (p<0.05), reading and writing abilities (p<0.01) and arithmetic ability (p<0.01). The presence of cognitive dysfunctions in subjects with EBOS supports the hypothesis that epilepsy itself plays a role in the development of neuropsychological impairment. Supported by other

  17. Thoracic lymphadenopathy in benign diseases: A state of the art review.

    PubMed

    Nin, Carlos Schüler; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; do Amaral, Ricardo Holderbaum; Schuhmacher Neto, Roberto; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Balbinot, Fernanda; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Santana, Pablo; Gomes, Antônio Carlos Portugal; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    Lymphadenopathy is a common radiological finding in many thoracic diseases and may be caused by a variety of infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic conditions. This review aims to describe the patterns of mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy found in benign diseases in immunocompetent patients. Computed tomography is the method of choice for the evaluation of lymphadenopathy, as it is able to demonstrate increased size of individual nodes, abnormalities of the interface between the mediastinum and lung, invasion of surrounding fat, coalescence of adjacent nodes, obliteration of the mediastinal fat, and hypo- and hyperdensity in lymph nodes. Intravenous contrast enhancement may be needed to help distinguish nodes from vessels. The most frequent infections resulting in this finding are tuberculosis and fungal disease (particularly histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis). Sarcoidosis is a relatively frequent cause of lymphadenopathy in young adults, and can be distinguished from other diseases - especially when enlarged lymph nodes are found to be multiple and symmetrical. Other conditions discussed in this review are silicosis, drug reactions, amyloidosis, heart failure, Castleman's disease, viral infections, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:26860219

  18. Improved computer-assisted analysis of the global lymphatic network in human cervical tissues.

    PubMed

    Balsat, Cédric; Signolle, Nicolas; Goffin, Frédéric; Delbecque, Katty; Plancoulaine, Benoit; Sauthier, Philippe; Samouëlian, Vanessa; Béliard, Aude; Munaut, Carine; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Blacher, Silvia; Noël, Agnès; Kridelka, Frédéric

    2014-06-01

    Lymphatic dissemination is a key event in cervical cancer progression and related tumor lymphatic markers are viewed as promising prognostic factor of nodal extension. However, validating such parameters requires an objective characterization of the lymphatic vasculature. Here, we performed a global analysis of the lymphatic network using a new computerized method applied on whole uterine cervical digital images. Sixty-eight cases of cervical neoplasia (12 CIN3, 10 FIGO stage 1A and 46 stage IB1) and 10 cases of normal cervical tissue were reacted with antibodies raised against D2-40, D2-40/p16 and D2-40/Ki67. Immunostained structures were automatically detected on whole slides. The lymphatic vessel density (D2-40), proliferating lymphatic vessel density (D2-40/ki67) and spatial lymphatic distribution in respect to the adjacent epithelium were assessed from normal cervix to early cervical cancer and correlated with lymphovascular space invasion and lymph node status. Prominent lymphatic vessel density and proliferating lymphatic vessel density are detected under the transformation zone of benign cervix and no further increase is noted during cancer progression. Notably, a shift of lymphatic vessel distribution toward the neoplastic edges is detected. In IB1 cervical cancer, although intra- and peritumoral lymphatic vessel density are neither correlated with lymphovascular space invasion nor with lymph node metastasis, a specific spatial distribution with more lymphatic vessels in the vicinity of tumor edges is predictive of lymphatic dissemination. Herein, we provide a new computerized method suitable for an innovative detailed analysis of the lymphatic network. We show that the transformation zone of the benign cervix acts as a baseline lymphangiogenic niche before the initiation of neoplastic process. During cancer progression, this specific microenvironment is maintained with lymphatic vessels even in closer vicinity to tumor cells. PMID:24309324

  19. Use of Double Layer of Acellular Dermal Matrix and Modified Tunnel Technique to Treat Multiple Adjacent Gingival Recession Defects.

    PubMed

    Mahn, Douglas H

    2016-09-01

    The goal of connective tissue grafting is to cover exposed root surfaces with gingival tissues that are stable and have a natural appearance. The use of an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has been shown to be a successful alternative to the palatal connective tissue graft. Use of a double layer of an ADM has been shown to have stable results for 1 year. Tunnel grafting techniques can yield root coverage with a natural appearing soft-tissue architecture. The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the use of a modified tunnel technique and a double layer of ADM in the treatment of multiple adjacent gingival recession defects. Treated teeth were found to have root coverage and natural soft-tissue contours that were stable at 20 months. PMID:27606567

  20. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling and its involved molecular pathways from one individual with thyroid malignant/benign tumor and hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Liang-Liang; Liu, Guo-Yan; Tzeng, Chi-Meng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: During development, methylation permanently changes gene activity, while aberrant gene methylation is key to human tumorigenesis. Gene methylation is an epigenetic event leading to gene silencing and some tumor suppressor genes that are aberrantly methylated in both thyroid cancer and benign thyroid tumor, suggesting a role for methylation in early thyroid tumorigenesis. Specific gene methylation occurs in certain types of thyroid cancer and depends on particular signaling pathways. Most reports rely on data from varied samples that vary tremendously with respect to methylation. Results: We observed that hyperplastic/malignant (H/M) thyroid tissue and benign/manligant (B/M) tissue had the most profoundly methylated loci compared to hyperplastic/benign (H/B) tissue. These loci are mapped to 863 genes (|Δβ value| > 0.15) in B/M and 1082 genes (|Δβ value| > 0.15) in H/M. After bioinformatic analysis, these genes were found to be involved in T-cell receptor signaling pathway (B/M) and Jak–Stat signaling pathways (H/M). Conclusion: Our study offers the most comprehensive DNA methylation data for thyroid disease to date, using 1 patient with 3 tissue types and high-resolution 450K arrays. Our data may lay the foundation for future identification of novel epigenetic targets or diagnosis of thyroid cancer. PMID:27583899

  1. A 63 element 1.75 dimensional ultrasound phased array for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Khaldon Y; Smith, Nadine Barrie

    2005-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are very common diseases in older American men, thus having a reliable treatment modality for both diseases is of great importance. The currently used treating options, mainly surgical ones, have numerous complications, which include the many side effects that accompany such procedures, besides the invasive nature of such techniques. Focused ultrasound is a relatively new treating modality that is showing promising results in treating prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Thus this technique is gaining more attention in the past decade as a non-invasive method to treat both diseases. Methods In this paper, the design, construction and evaluation of a 1.75 dimensional ultrasound phased array to be used for treating prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia is presented. With this array, the position of the focus can be controlled by changing the electrical power and phase to the individual elements for electronically focusing and steering in a three dimensional volume. The array was designed with a maximum steering angle of ± 13.5° in the transverse direction and a maximum depth of penetration of 11 cm, which allows the treatment of large prostates. The transducer piezoelectric ceramic, matching layers and cable impedance have been designed for maximum power transfer to tissue. Results To verify the capability of the transducer for focusing and steering, exposimetry was performed and the results correlated well with the calculated field. Ex vivo experiments using bovine tissue were performed with various lesion sizes and indicated the capability of the transducer to ablate tissue using short sonications. Conclusion A 1.75 dimensional array, that overcame the drawbacks associated with one-dimensional arrays, has been designed, built and successfully tested. Design issues, such as cable and ceramic capacitances, were taken into account when designing this array. The final prototype

  2. Distribution of histocompatibility and leucocyte differentiation antigens in normal human colon and in benign and malignant colonic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Csiba, A; Whitwell, H L; Moore, M

    1984-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) directed against the framework determinants of Class I and Class II products of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and against leucocyte differentiation antigens were used in an indirect immunoperoxidase technique to study their expression in normal, benign (adenomatous polyps) and malignant disease of the colon. Class I products (detected by the McAb 2A1) were strongly expressed on all cell types in normal and benign tissues but some carcinomas exhibited a heterogenous pattern of epithelial cell staining and 4/15 were completely negative. Class II products (detected by TDR31.1) were strongly expressed on cells (mainly B lymphocytes) within the lamina propria. In carcinomas TDR31.1 staining was mainly interstitial, but in 2/15, DR + epithelial cells were also detected. In normal and benign tissues, leucocytes (reactive with 2D1) found predominantly in the lamina propria, comprised T cells mainly of the helper/inducer (OKT4) subset, DR + cells in approx. equivalent proportion and a few OKM1+ cells mostly of macrophage morphology. Occasional intraepithelial lymphocytes were of cytotoxic/suppressor (OKT8) phenotype. In malignant neoplasms, there was wide inter and intra-tumour variation in the proportion of leucocytes which were heterogeneous with respect to cell type and confined mainly to the stroma. T cells were consistently predominant, but B cells and macrophages were also present. Two neoplasms showed unequivocal evidence of a shift (relative to peripheral blood) in favour of the OKT8+ subset, but in the majority of tumours OKT4+; and OKT8+ cells were present in roughly similar proportions. Natural killer cells (monitored with Leu7, HNK1) were virtually undetectable in both normal and malignant tissues. There were no apparent correlations between the extent and type of leucocyte infiltration, tumour differentiation or expression of MHC products. Some implications for the extrapolation of in vitro data on leucocyte function

  3. Methylation Status of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Promoter in Benign and Malignant Adrenal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pilon, Catia; Rebellato, Andrea; Urbanet, Riccardo; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Cappellesso, Rocco; Sasano, Hironobu; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed a decreased expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA/protein in a small group of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) tissues, suggesting the loss of a protective role of VDR against malignant cell growth in this cancer type. Downregulation of VDR gene expression may result from epigenetics events, that is, methylation of cytosine nucleotide of CpG islands in VDR gene promoter. We analyzed methylation of CpG sites in the VDR gene promoter in normal adrenals and adrenocortical tumor samples. Methylation of CpG-rich 5′ regions was assessed by bisulfite sequencing PCR using bisulfite-treated DNA from archival microdissected paraffin-embedded adrenocortical tissues. Three normal adrenals and 23 various adrenocortical tumor samples (15 adenomas and 8 carcinomas) were studied. Methylation in the promoter region of VDR gene was found in 3/8 ACCs, while no VDR gene methylation was observed in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas. VDR mRNA and protein levels were lower in ACCs than in benign tumors, and VDR immunostaining was weak or negative in ACCs, including all 3 methylated tissue samples. The association between VDR gene promoter methylation and reduced VDR gene expression is not a rare event in ACC, suggesting that VDR epigenetic inactivation may have a role in adrenocortical carcinogenesis. PMID:26843863

  4. Personalized Medicine for Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bechis, Seth K.; Otsetov, Alexander G.; Ge, Rongbin; Olumi, Aria F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) affects over 50 percent of men by age 60 and is the cause of millions of dollars of healthcare expenditure for treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary obstruction. Despite the widespread use of medical therapy, there is no universal therapy that treats all men with symptomatic BPH, and at least 30% of patients do not respond to medical management and a subset require surgery. Significant advances have been made in understanding the natural history and development of the prostate, such as elucidating the role of the enzyme 5α reductase Type 2 (5AR2), and advances in genomics and biomarker discovery offer the potential for a more targeted approach to therapy. We review the current understanding of BPH progression as well as key genes and signaling pathways implicated in the process such as 5α reductase. We also explore the potential of biomarker screening and gene-specific therapies as tools to risk stratify BPH patients and identify those with symptomatic or medically resistant forms. Materials and Methods A PubMed® literature search of current and past peer-reviewed literature on prostate development, lower urinary tract symptoms, BPH pathogenesis, targeted therapy, biomarkers, epigenetics, 5AR2 and personalized medicine was performed. An additional Google Scholar™ search was conducted to broaden the scope of the review. Relevant reviews and original research articles were examined as well as their cited references, and a synopsis of original data was generated with the goal of informing the practicing urologist of these advances and their implications. Results BPH is associated with a state of hyperplasia of both the stromal and epithelial compartments, with 5AR2 and androgen signaling playing key roles in development and maintenance of the prostate. Chronic inflammation, multiple growth factor and hormonal signaling pathways, and medical comorbidities play an intricate role in prostate tissue

  5. Preventive effects of 125I seeds on benign restenosis following esophageal stent implantation in a dog model

    PubMed Central

    GAN, ZHEN; JING, JIAN; ZHU, GUANGYU; QIN, YONGLIN; TENG, GAOJUN; GUO, JINHE

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of iodine-125 (125I) seeds on the proliferation of primary esophageal fibroblasts in dogs, and to assess the safety and preventive efficacy of 125I seed-pre-loaded esophageal stents in benign restenosis following implantation. Primary fibroblasts were cultured with various 125I seed activities, which were then evaluated using cell proliferation and apoptosis assays as well as cell cycle analysis using Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining and PI staining. Prior to sacrification, animals were submitted to esophageal radiography under digital subtraction angiography. Esophageal tissues were collected and examined for macroscopic, microscopic and pathological alterations. The results demonstrated a significant and dose-dependent inhibition of fibroblast proliferation and increased apoptosis following exposure to 125I seeds. G0/G1 fibroblast populations increased in a dose-dependent manner following treatment with 125I seeds, in contrast to cells in S phase. Four weeks following implantation, α-smooth muscle actin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression levels in the experimental group were significantly lower compared with those in the control group; in addition, eight weeks following implantation, esophageal inner diameters were increased in the experimental group. 125I seeds inhibited proliferation of dog esophageal fibroblasts via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In conclusion, 125I seed-pre-loaded esophageal stents inhibited benign hyperplasia in the upper edge of the stent to a certain extent, which relieved benign restenosis following implantation with a good safety profile. PMID:25543838

  6. Extramedullary hematopoiesis in a case of benign mixed mammary tumor in a female dog: cytological and histopathological assessment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Backgroud Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is defined as the presence of hematopoietic stem cells such as erythroid and myeloid lineage plus megakaryocytes in extramedullary sites like liver, spleen and lymph nodes and is usually associated with either bone marrow or hematological disorders. Mammary EMH is a rare condition either in human and veterinary medicine and can be associated with benign mixed mammary tumors, similarly to that described in this case. Case presentation Hematopoietic stem cells were found in a benign mixed mammary tumor of a 7-year-old female mongrel dog that presents a nodule in the left inguinal mammary gland. The patient did not have any hematological abnormalities. Cytological evaluation demonstrated two distinct cell populations, composed of either epithelial or mesenchymal cells, sometimes associated with a fibrillar acidophilic matrix, apart from megakaryocytes, osteoclasts, metarubricytes, prorubricytes, rubricytes, rubriblasts, promyelocytes, myeloblasts. Histological examination confirmed the presence of an active hematopoietic bone marrow within the bone tissue of a benign mammary mixed tumor. Conclusions EMH is a rare condition described in veterinary medicine that can be associated with mammary mixed tumors. It's detection can be associated with several neoplastic and non-neoplastic mammary lesions, i.e. osteosarcomas, mixed tumors and bone metaplasia. PMID:20846427

  7. Benign Osteoblastoma of Maxilla: A Case Report Emphasizing the Histopathological Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    P M, Shameena; Gulati, Saakshi; Banyal, Vishal Singh; Kumar, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Benign osteoblastoma is a rare bone tumour characterized histologically by production of woven bone spicules, which are bordered by prominent osteoblasts. It mainly affects male teenagers and young adults. A case of benign osteoblastoma of maxilla in a nineteen years old male is reported here. Also, histological comparison is made between benign osteoblastoma, aggressive osteoblastoma and osteosarcoma. PMID:25478465

  8. Gastric adenocarcinoma microRNA profiles in fixed tissue and in plasma reveal cancer-associated and Epstein-Barr virus-related expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Treece, Amanda L; Duncan, Daniel L; Tang, Weihua; Elmore, Sandra; Morgan, Douglas R; Dominguez, Ricardo L; Speck, Olga; Meyers, Michael O; Gulley, Margaret L

    2016-06-01

    MicroRNA expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE) or plasma may add value for cancer management. The GastroGenus miR Panel was developed to measure 55 cancer-specific human microRNAs, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded microRNAs, and controls. This Q-rtPCR panel was applied to 100 FFPEs enriched for adenocarcinoma or adjacent non-malignant mucosa, and to plasma of 31 patients. In FFPE, microRNAs upregulated in malignant versus adjacent benign gastric mucosa were hsa-miR-21, -155, -196a, -196b, -185, and -let-7i. Hsa-miR-18a, 34a, 187, -200a, -423-3p, -484, and -744 were downregulated. Plasma of cancer versus non-cancer controls had upregulated hsa-miR-23a, -103, and -221 and downregulated hsa-miR-378, -346, -486-5p, -200b, -196a, -141, and -484. EBV-infected versus uninfected cancers expressed multiple EBV-encoded microRNAs, and concomitant dysregulation of four human microRNAs suggests that viral infection may alter cellular biochemical pathways. Human microRNAs were dysregulated between malignant and benign gastric mucosa and between plasma of cancer patients and non-cancer controls. Strong association of EBV microRNA expression with known EBV status underscores the ability of microRNA technology to reflect disease biology. Expression of viral microRNAs in concert with unique human microRNAs provides novel insights into viral oncogenesis and reinforces the potential for microRNA profiles to aid in classifying gastric cancer subtypes. Pilot studies of plasma suggest the potential for a noninvasive addition to cancer diagnostics. PMID:26950485

  9. Benign Recurrent Intrahepatic Cholestasis in a Young Adult

    PubMed Central

    Charaniya, Riyaz; Ahuja, Arvind; Mittal, Sakshi; Sahoo, Ratnakar

    2016-01-01

    Benign Recurrent Intrahepatic Cholestasis (BRIC) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of cholestatic jaundice. The initial episode of jaundice generally occurs before second decade of life and can persist for several weeks to months before resolving spontaneously. It is a benign disease and even after repeated episodes of jaundice, fibrosis of liver cell does not occur. We had a young adult patient who was having recurrent episodes of cholestatic jaundice with intervening symptom free period for last 20 years. He had first episode of jaundice at the age of eight and since then had several similar episodes. Diagnosis was made by classical clinical presentation and histopathological findings. We intend to report this case due to rarity of this disease in India. PMID:27504332

  10. Benign (non-paroxysmal) familial chorea. Paediatric perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Sleigh, G; Lindenbaum, R H

    1981-01-01

    We describe a non-progressive choreo-athetoid disorder of early onset, present in three families. There were no appreciable abnormalities in pregnancy, during the perinatal period, or in infancy. In each case the family history suggested transmission as an autosomal dominant trait, the gene showing diminished penetrance. Other families have been reported with the disorder and such titles as benign familial chorea, familial essential (benign chorea, or hereditary non-progressive chorea of early onset have been given to it. Our experience suggests that this is not a rare disorder, and that it is one likely to present in the paediatric age group; correct diagnosis is important so that unnecessary investigations are not undertaken, genetic counselling can be given, and proper management advice offered to families and schools. PMID:6455970

  11. Pictorial essay of radiological features of benign intrathoracic masses

    PubMed Central

    Suut, Syahminan; Al-Ani, Zeid; Allen, Carolyn; Rajiah, Prabhakar; Durr-e-Sabih; AL-Harbi, Abdullah; AL-Jahdali, Hamdan; Khan, Ali Nawaz

    2015-01-01

    With increased exposure of patients to routine imaging, incidental benign intrathoracic masses are frequently recognized. Most have classical imaging features, which are pathognomonic for their benignity. The aim of this pictorial review is to educate the reader of radiological features of several types of intrathoracic masses. The masses are categorized based on their location/origin and are grouped into parenchymal, pleural, mediastinal, or bronchial. Thoracic wall masses that invade the thorax such as neurofibromas and lipomas are included as they may mimic intrathoracic masses. All examples are illustrated and include pulmonary hamartoma, pleural fibroma, sarcoidosis, bronchial carcinoid, and bronchoceles together with a variety of mediastinal cysts on plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sometimes a multimodality approach would be needed to confirm the diagnosis in atypical cases. The study would include the incorporation of radionuclide studies and relevant discussion in a multidisciplinary setting. PMID:26664560

  12. Alternative donor transplant of benign primary hematologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tolar, J; Sodani, P; Symons, H

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic SCT is currently the only curative therapy for a range of benign inherited and acquired primary hematologic disorders in children, including BM failure syndromes and hemoglobinopathies. The preferred HLA-matched sibling donor is available for only about 25% of such children. However, there has been substantial progress over the last four decades in the use of alternative donors for those without a matched sibling—including HLA-matched unrelated donors, HLA-haploidentical related donors and unrelated-donor umbilical cord blood—so that it is now possible to find a donor for almost every child requiring an allograft. Below, we summarize the relative merits and limitations of the different alternative donors for benign hematologic conditions, first generally, and then in relation to specific disorders, and suggest recommendations for selecting such an alternative donor. PMID:25665040

  13. Benign metastasizing leiomyomas in the lungs: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Bruliński, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease that occurs in middle-aged women with a history of uterine myomas. The most common location of BML is the lungs. We report the case of a 44-year-old obese woman (BMI 45.5) who underwent surgery to remove uterine leiomyomata and then continued to take a drug containing the hormone estradiol for a period of 15 years. Computed tomography chest examinations revealed multiple size nodules of varying size in both lungs. Videothoracoscopy and right thoracotomy was performed, and a few nodules were enucleated from each lobe of the right lung. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed benign metastasizing leiomyoma staining positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER+, PR+). Because of the hormonally dependent cell proliferation, the previously used hormonal drug was discontinued. Treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog was included, yielding radiological stabilization of the lung lesions. PMID:27212984

  14. Benign metastasizing leiomyomas in the lungs: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wiencek-Weiss, Alina Janina; Bruliński, Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease that occurs in middle-aged women with a history of uterine myomas. The most common location of BML is the lungs. We report the case of a 44-year-old obese woman (BMI 45.5) who underwent surgery to remove uterine leiomyomata and then continued to take a drug containing the hormone estradiol for a period of 15 years. Computed tomography chest examinations revealed multiple size nodules of varying size in both lungs. Videothoracoscopy and right thoracotomy was performed, and a few nodules were enucleated from each lobe of the right lung. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed benign metastasizing leiomyoma staining positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER+, PR+). Because of the hormonally dependent cell proliferation, the previously used hormonal drug was discontinued. Treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog was included, yielding radiological stabilization of the lung lesions. PMID:27212984

  15. Diagnosis and management of long-standing benign oral ulceration.

    PubMed

    Birt, D; From, L; Main, J

    1980-05-01

    The authors formed a Mouth Clinic at Sunnybrook Hospital in 1973 since when there have been 3025 patient visits. Those patients with chronic ulceration present a challenge, the diagnosis sometimes being difficult and therapy not rapidly effective. The differential diagnosis includes lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, discoid lupus erythematosus, erythema multiforme, aphthous ulcers, Behcets disease, periadenitis mucosa necrotica recurrens, specific infections and iatrogenic causes. It is possible to reach a definite diagnosis in virtually every case by means of a good history and careful clinical examination supplemented by biopsies and in some cases direct and indirect immunofluorescent studies. Treatment emphasizes scrupulous attention to oral hygiene with baking soda mouthwashes and careful teeth cleaning to minimize the accumulation of dental plaque. Specific therapy includes topical steroids in lichen planus, intra muscular gold in benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, a previously unreported treatment which considerably improved seven out of ten patients, and tetracycline mouthwashes in aphthous ulcers. PMID:6990140

  16. Pictorial essay of radiological features of benign intrathoracic masses.

    PubMed

    Suut, Syahminan; Al-Ani, Zeid; Allen, Carolyn; Rajiah, Prabhakar; Durr-E-Sabih; Al-Harbi, Abdullah; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Khan, Ali Nawaz

    2015-01-01

    With increased exposure of patients to routine imaging, incidental benign intrathoracic masses are frequently recognized. Most have classical imaging features, which are pathognomonic for their benignity. The aim of this pictorial review is to educate the reader of radiological features of several types of intrathoracic masses. The masses are categorized based on their location/origin and are grouped into parenchymal, pleural, mediastinal, or bronchial. Thoracic wall masses that invade the thorax such as neurofibromas and lipomas are included as they may mimic intrathoracic masses. All examples are illustrated and include pulmonary hamartoma, pleural fibroma, sarcoidosis, bronchial carcinoid, and bronchoceles together with a variety of mediastinal cysts on plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sometimes a multimodality approach would be needed to confirm the diagnosis in atypical cases. The study would include the incorporation of radionuclide studies and relevant discussion in a multidisciplinary setting. PMID:26664560

  17. True Cervicothoracic Meningocele: A Rare and Benign Condition

    PubMed Central

    Pessoa, Bruno L.; Lima, Yara

    2015-01-01

    Cervical meningoceles are rare spinal dysraphism, accounting for approximately 7% of all cystic spinal dysraphism. In spite of the rarity, the clinical course is most of the times benign. The surgical treatment includes resection of the lesion and untethering, when presented. We present a 14-day-old female child with true meningoceles who underwent to surgical excision and dura-mater repair. Retrospect analysis of the literature concerning true cervical meningocele is performed. By reporting this illustrative case, we focus on its classification and its differentiation from other types of cervical spinal dysraphism, such as myelocystocele and myelomeningocele. Although its course is benign, it is mandatory a continuum follow up with periodic magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord, since late neurological deterioration has been described. PMID:26788266

  18. Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Todd J; Manigault, Kendra R; McBurrows, Niesha N; Wray, Tiffany L; Woodard, Laresa M

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also known as benign prostatic hypertrophy, is a nonmalignant adenomatous overgrowth of the periurethral prostate gland commonly seen in aging men. Historically, it has been assumed that the pathophysiology of lower urinary tract symptoms in men is the result of bladder outlet obstruction associated with prostate enlargement. Symptoms such as urinary hesitancy, incomplete bladder emptying, dribbling or prolonged urination, nocturia, urinary urgency, and/or urge incontinence are common. Understanding the differential diagnosis and ordering appropriate laboratory tests are essential in accurately identifying a BPH diagnosis. Management can be broken down into medical or pharmacological and surgical therapies. This article aims to provide an overview of BPH and its management in older adults. PMID:27535076

  19. Trends in trace organic and metal concentrations in the Pechora and Kara Seas and adjacent rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.M.; Champ, M.A.; Wade, T.L.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Chambers, L.; Davis, T.

    1995-12-31

    Trace organic (pesticides, PCBs, PAHs and dioxin/furan) and trace metal concentrations have been measured in surficial sediment and tissue (i.e., clam, fish liver and flesh) samples from the Pechora and Kara Seas and their adjacent rivers -- Pechora, Ob and Yenisey Rivers. Total PAH, PCB and total DDT and chlordane concentrations ranged in surficial sediments from n.d. to 810 ppb, n.d.--8.7 ppb, n.d.--1.2 ppb, and n.d.--1.2 ppb, respectively, in a suite of 40 samples from the Kara Sea and its adjacent rivers. The highest concentrations of many of the trace organic and metal contaminants were found in the lower part of the Yenisey River below the salt wedge. Some trace metals (As for example) were elevated in the Pechora River dispositional plume region. Dioxin ranged from 1.36 to 413 ppt in a subset of 20 sediment samples. Higher trace organic contaminant concentrations compared to sediments were found in tissue samples from the region, especially fish liver samples. Concentrations as high as 1,114 ppb total PAHs, 89 ppb chlordane, 1,011 ppb for total DDT and 663 ppb PCBs were found in some fish liver samples. Dioxin concentrations in tissue samples ranged from 11.7 to 61 ppt. Concentrations of many trace organic and metal contaminants in these Russian marginal seas are influenced by inputs from these large Arctic rivers. Many organic contaminant concentrations in sediments are low, however detecting these compounds in tissue show they are bioavailable.

  20. [Changes in the phosphoinositide metabolism in the blood and tissues of benign and malignant uterine tumors].

    PubMed

    Damirov, M M; Sliusar', N N; Kulakov, V I; Bakuleva, I P; Matruk, T A

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of phosphoinositide levels in the blood, immunocompetent cells, and tumors of 105 patients with uterine myomas, 24 patients with cancer of the corpus uteri, and 17 ones with uterine sarcoma showed that the parameters of phosphoinositide metabolism in the blood of patients with tumors of the uterus reliably differed from those in healthy women. The content of phosphatidylinosites and other phosphoinositide fractions in patients with uterine myomas reliably differed from those in patients with malignant tumors of the uterus, this permitting the use of such measurements in the differential diagnosis. Phosphoinositide mechanism of development of tumors of the uterus is discussed, which is related to the "new" phosphoinositides and secondary messengers directly participating in transfer of cell growth signals. PMID:7785738

  1. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-06-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  2. Therapeutic options in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jaspreet S

    2009-01-01

    Current theraputic options for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are reviewed. Therapeutic options for mild lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), as defined by the American Urological Association, are generally treated medically. Moderate to severe LUTS can be treated medically or with surgical therapy. Current medical and surgical treatments for LUTS secondary to BPH are reviewed and evolving treatments are explored. PMID:19936164

  3. Thermal Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: Radiofrequency and Laser

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Hyun; Valcavi, Roberto; Pacella, Claudio M.; Rhim, Hyunchul; Na, Dong Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Although ethanol ablation has been successfully used to treat cystic thyroid nodules, this procedure is less effective when the thyroid nodules are solid. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation, a newer procedure used to treat malignant liver tumors, has been valuable in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. This article reviews the basic physics, techniques, applications, results, and complications of thyroid RF ablation, in comparison to laser ablation. PMID:21927553

  4. Hysterectomy for Benign Conditions of the Uterus: Total Vaginal Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Jenifer N; Occhino, John A

    2016-09-01

    As minimally invasive technology continues to be developed and refined, surgeons must be discerning in choosing the safest, cost-effective surgical approach associated with the best outcomes for each individual patient. Vaginal hysterectomy can be successfully accomplished even in challenging situations, such as previous pelvic surgery, nulliparity, uterine enlargement, or obesity. Vaginal hysterectomy should be considered the primary route for treatment of benign disease. PMID:27521878

  5. Risperidone Induced Benign Intracranial Hypertension Leading to Visual Loss

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Sushil Thomas; Kattula, Dheeraj; Mannam, Pavithra; Iyyadurai, Ramya

    2016-01-01

    Benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) is a rare but potentially serious condition causing visual loss. Occasionally, medication use has been associated with the occurrence of BIH. We report the case of a 40-year-old obese lady being treated with risperidone for schizophrenia who presented with features of BIH. We report this case, occurring for the 1st time in India, to emphasize that a commonly used atypical antipsychotic drug can rarely cause BIH leading to visual loss. PMID:27335522

  6. [Occult cancer in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Duarte, C; Aguillón, J; Rodríguez, H

    1991-05-01

    The results of a prospective study undertaken in 29 patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are presented. Transrectal ultrasound, ultrasound-guided biopsy and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were utilized in the search for hidden cancer of the prostate. However, no cancer was detected in any patient. Very high values of PSA were found, particularly in patients with an indwelling catheter. Transrectal ultrasound yielded no false negatives and no complications were observed. PMID:1712190

  7. Recent advances in treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    van Rij, Simon; Gilling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), often identified as a worsening ability of a male to pass urine, is a significant problem for men in our society. In 2015, the use of personalised medicine is tailoring treatment to individual patient needs and to genetic characteristics. Technological advances in surgical treatment are changing the way BPH is treated and are resulting in less morbidity. The future of BPH treatments is exciting, and a number of novel techniques are currently under clinical trial. PMID:26918132

  8. Argon Laser Photoablation for Treating Benign Pigmented Conjunctival Nevi

    PubMed Central

    Alsharif, Abdulrahman M.; Al-Gehedan, Saeed M.; Alasbali, Tariq; Alkuraya, Hisham S.; Lotfy, Nancy M.; Khandekar, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of argon laser photoablation of benign conjunctival pigmented nevi with different clinical presentations. Patients and Methods: This interventional case series was conducted between July 2014 and January 2015. Patients presenting with benign conjunctival nevi were included. Data were collected on the clinical features at presentation, argon laser photoablation, and follow-up at 8 and 24 weeks. Postoperative photography allowed recording of the success of each case and the overall success rate. Complete removal of conjunctival pigments was considered an absolute success. Partial pigmentation requiring repeat laser treatment was considered a qualified success. Results: There were 14 eyes (four right eyes and ten left eyes) with benign pigmented conjunctival nevi. There were three males and eight females in the study sample. The median age was 36 (25% percentile: 26 years). Three patients had bilateral lesions. The nevi were located temporally in nine eyes, nasally in three eyes, and on the inferior bulbar conjunctiva in two eyes. The mean horizontal and vertical diameters of nevi were 5 ± 2 mm and 4 ± 2.7 mm, respectively. The mean follow-up period was 5 months. Following laser treatment, no eyes had subconjunctival hemorrhage, infection, scarring, neovascularization, recurrence, or corneal damage. The absolute success rate of laser ablation was 79%. Three eyes with elevated nevi had one to three sessions of laser ablation resulting in a qualified success rate of 100%. Conclusions: Argon laser ablation was a safe and effective treatment for the treatment of selective benign pigmented conjunctival nevi in Arab patients. PMID:27555708

  9. Parkin gene causing benign autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Nisipeanu, P; Inzelberg, R; Abo Mouch, S; Carasso, R L; Blumen, S C; Zhang, J; Matsumine, H; Hattori, N; Mizuno, Y

    2001-06-12

    Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP) is an early-onset parkinsonism caused by exonic deletions or point mutations in the parkingene. The relationship between the type of the genetic defect and the clinical presentation, the response to therapy, and the evolution have not been yet determined. The authors describe a single-basepair deletion at nucleotide 202 in exon 2 of the parkin gene in a kindred with a benign clinical course. PMID:11402119

  10. Recent advances in treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    van Rij, Simon; Gilling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), often identified as a worsening ability of a male to pass urine, is a significant problem for men in our society. In 2015, the use of personalised medicine is tailoring treatment to individual patient needs and to genetic characteristics. Technological advances in surgical treatment are changing the way BPH is treated and are resulting in less morbidity. The future of BPH treatments is exciting, and a number of novel techniques are currently under clinical trial. PMID:26918132

  11. Capillary hemangioma of the testis: A rare benign tumour

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Nathan Colin; Dason, Shawn; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Greenspan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Testicular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign vascular tumour. We report a case of a 66-year-old man who underwent an uncomplicated radical orchiectomy for a painless left testicular mass. Pathology showed capillary hemangioma of the testis. There are only 22 cases reported in the English literature, including the presented case. Appropriate intra-operative recognition of this entity is vital to assess for potential testicular-sparing surgery. PMID:26085871

  12. Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis--25 years of follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Putterman, C.; Keidar, S.; Brook, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    Only 70 cases of recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis have been reported in the literature since the original description of this entity in 1959. The benign nature of the disease has been questioned, some authors suggesting progression to biliary cirrhosis. We report our follow-up of one such patient for over 25 years with no adverse physical consequences or histological deterioration. Sequential liver biopsies were obtained during this period. A conservative approach to diagnosis and treatment is therefore indicated. PMID:3684838

  13. Laser polarization fluorescence of optically anisotropic crystals molecular imaging in the differentiation of biological benign and malignant tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, Yu. A.; Dubolazov, A. V.; Karachevtsev, A. O.; Motrich, A. V.; Sidor, M. I.

    2013-09-01

    The model of laser polarization fluorescence of biological tissues considering the mechanisms of optically anisotropic absorption - linear and circular dichroism of protein networks was suggested.Muellermatrix rotation invariants characterizing polarization manifestations of laser fluorescence are determined.The interconnections between the statistical, correlation and fractal parameters characterizing the Mueller-matrix images of laser polarization fluorescence and the peculiarities of the mechanisms of optically anisotropic absorption of histological sections of uterus wall biopsy were found. Effectiveness of the method of azimuthinvariant Mueller-matrix mapping of laser polarization fluorescence of protein networks in the task of differentiation of benign and malignant tumors of uterus wall was demonstrated.

  14. Benign myoclonus of early infancy: an imitator of West's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maydell, B V; Berenson, F; Rothner, A D; Wyllie, E; Kotagal, P

    2001-02-01

    Benign myoclonus of early infancy is a rare condition characterized by nonepileptic spasms that may resemble the epileptic spasms seen in West's syndrome. The spells in benign myoclonus of early infancy begin before age 1 year and are self-limited. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is invariably normal, and neurologic development is not affected. West's syndrome is characterized by infantile spasms that appear before 1 year of age, an abnormal EEG with hypsarrhythmia, and a poor prognosis. We describe six infants who presented for evaluation of clusters of head, trunk or extremity spasms, eye blinking, brief jerking of upper extremities or trunk, and head nodding episodes. In most, a presumptive diagnosis of West's syndrome was made prior to the referral. One infant had been placed on valproate. Routine EEG recordings or prolonged video EEG monitoring were normal both during and between episodes. After the negative evaluations, the diagnosis of benign myoclonus of early infancy was made in each infant. Subsequently, no infant was treated with anticonvulsants. Follow-up revealed complete resolution of the episodes in all children within 2 weeks to 8 months of onset. All had normal neurologic development. Based on our cases and review of the literature, the prognosis for this disorder is excellent. Care should be taken to recognize this rare entity and avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful antiepileptic therapy. PMID:11292215

  15. Reflectance spectroscopy of pigmented cutaneous benign and malignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, E.; Jeliazkova, Al.; Pavlova, E.; Troyanova, P.; Kundurdjiev, T.; Pavlova, P.; Avramov, L.

    2014-10-01

    For the DRS measurements of skin benign, dysplastic and malignant lesions in vivo we applied halogen lamp (LS-1, OceanOptics Inc, Dunedin, Fl, USA) as a continuous light source in the region of 400-900 nm, optical probe (6+1 fibers) for the delivery of illumination and diffuse reflected light from the skin investigated and microspectrometer USB4000 (OceanOptics Inc., Dunedin, Fl, USA) for a storage and display of the spectra detected. As a diffuse reflectance standard Spectralon® plate was used to calibrate the spectrometer. The reflectance spectra obtained from normal skin in identical anatomic sites of different patients have similar spectral shape features, slightly differ by the reflectance intensity at different wavelengths, depending on the particular patient' skin phototype. One could find diagnostically important spectral features, related to specific intensity changes for a given wavelength due to specific pigments appearance, slope changes by value and sign for the reflectance spectra curves in a specific spectral range, disappearance or manifestation of minima, related to hemoglobin absorption at 410-420 nm, 543, 575 nm. Based on the observed peculiarities multispectral analysis of the reflectance spectra of the different lesions was used and diagnostically specific features are found. Discrimination using the DRS data obtained between benign compound and dermal nevi (45 cases), dysplastic nevi (17 cases) and pigmented malignant melanoma (41 cases) lesions is achieved with a diagnostic accuracy of 96 % for the benign nevi vs. MM, and 90 % for the dysplastic nevi vs. MM.

  16. Choledochoduodenostomy for benign and malignant biliary tract diseases.

    PubMed

    Birkenfeld, S; Serour, F; Levi, S; Abulafia, A; Balassiano, M; Krispin, M

    1988-04-01

    Although nonsurgical alternative treatments for primary or retained common bile duct stones--such as dissolution of gallstones with deoxycholic acids and, especially endoscopic papillotomy--have become available, choledochoduodenostomy (CDS) has been used with increasing frequency over the past decade, with extension of the indications for its use. We report our experience with side-to-side CDS in 116 patients with benign (65 patients) and malignant (46 patients) biliary diseases. Even though the mean age of our patients with benign disease--patients who underwent urgent operations because of obstructive jaundice (74%), liver damage (approximately 60%), and other biliary complications--was 66.8 years, the perioperative mortality was 3.07% and the long-term follow-up results were excellent with no biliary complications. In regard to the controversy about the use of CDS in malignant biliary obstructions, our experience shows that none of the 42 patients had any complication due to malignant invasion of the stoma, and only one patient had ascending cholangitis; the perioperative mortality in this group was 8.6%. In our opinion, CDS is a relatively safe, definitive procedure for treatment of benign and malignant biliary diseases, with good long-term results in high-risk, aged patients. PMID:3353854

  17. On the Adjacent Eccentric Distance Sum Index of Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hui; Cao, Shujuan

    2015-01-01

    For a given graph G, ε(v) and deg(v) denote the eccentricity and the degree of the vertex v in G, respectively. The adjacent eccentric distance sum index of a graph G is defined as ξsv(G)=∑v∈V(G)ε(v)D(v)deg(v), where D(v)=∑u∈V(G)d(u,v) is the sum of all distances from the vertex v. In this paper we derive some bounds for the adjacent eccentric distance sum index in terms of some graph parameters, such as independence number, covering number, vertex connectivity, chromatic number, diameter and some other graph topological indices. PMID:26091095

  18. Nonlinear spin wave coupling in adjacent magnonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have experimentally studied the coupling of spin waves in the adjacent magnonic crystals. Space- and time-resolved Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy is used to demonstrate the frequency and intensity dependent spin-wave energy exchange between the side-coupled magnonic crystals. The experiments and the numerical simulation of spin wave propagation in the coupled periodic structures show that the nonlinear phase shift of spin wave in the adjacent magnonic crystals leads to the nonlinear switching regime at the frequencies near the forbidden magnonic gap. The proposed side-coupled magnonic crystals represent a significant advance towards the all-magnonic signal processing in the integrated magnonic circuits.

  19. Pathogenesis of the discal cysts communicating with an adjacent herniated disc. Histological and ultrastructual studies of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shigeru; Takeno, Kenichi; Uchida, Kenzo; Yayama, Takafumi; Nakajima, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Guerrero, Alexander; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2010-03-01

    Discal cyst of the lumbar spine is a very rare cause of back pain and sciatica. We report two cases of discal cysts communicating with an adjacent herniated disc. From CT and MRI findings, they were diagnosed as having a discal cyst in the epidural space, which compressed the nerve root. After an adequate surgical field was obtained with a microscope and a Casper retractor, the discal cyst could be excised and satisfactory decompression of the adjacent nerve root was obtained. From histological and electron microscopic study, the presence of residual herniated tissues was confirmed in the cyst wall. Macrophages played an important role in the absorption of herniated tissue and the formation of the discal cyst. Hemorrhage in the cyst wall will make the serous hemorrhagic fluid-filled cystic structure in the absorbed spaces of the prolapsed disc. In this study, we confirmed that the discal cyst could have developed from the absorption process of a disc herniation. PMID:20138794

  20. Ectopic prostatic tissue in the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Larraza-Hernandez, O; Molberg, K H; Lindberg, G; Albores-Saavedra, J

    1997-07-01

    This is the first reported case of ectopic prostatic tissue in the uterine cervix, diagnosed in a 38-year-old woman. A cluster of benign prostatic glands with cribriform and papillary patterns and focal squamous metaplasia occupied the superficial endocervical stroma. The glands were immunoreactive for prostatic specific antigen and prostatic specific acid phosphatase. This lesion, which could be confused with microglandular hyperplasia, mesonephric rests, or adenocarcinoma in situ may represent an embryonic rest. PMID:9421098

  1. Tissue macerating instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baehr, E. F.; Burnett, J. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A surgical tissue macerating and removal tool is described which has a rotating rod with a cutting member at one end and which disposed in a tube which is then contained in an extension of the tool handle. A frusto-conical member extends into the extension at the cutter member end of the rotating rod with its small end engaging the tube. The portion of the frusto-conical member outside of the extension forms a tissue engaging member and may be cut-off at an angle to the axis of the rod to form a tissue engaging edge. Apertures are provided in the extension adjacent the frusto-concial member so that treatment fluid supplied in the annular space between the tube and the extension may flow to the operative site. An aperture is provided in the frustoconical member between the extension and the tube so that fluid may also flow into the tube where it mixes with macerated tissue being directed through an aperture in the tube to a passageway which may have suction applied to help remove macerated material.

  2. Distinguishing benign confounding treatment changes from residual prostate cancer on MRI following laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litjens, G.; Huisman, H.; Elliott, R.; Shih, N.; Feldman, M.; Viswanath, S.; Fütterer, J.; Bomers, J.; Madabhushi, A.

    2014-03-01

    Laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) is a relatively new focal therapy technique for the ablation of localized prostate cancer. However, very little is known about the specific effects of LITT within the ablation zone and the surrounding normal tissue regions. For instance, it is important to be able to assess the extent of residual cancer within the prostate following LITT, which may be masked by thermally induced benign necrotic changes. Fortunately LITT is MRI compatible and hence this allows for quantitatively assessing LITT induced changes via multi-parametric MRI. Of course definite validation of any LITT induced changes on MRI requires confirmation via histopathology. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess and distinguish the imaging characteristics of prostate cancer and benign confounding treatment changes following LITTon 3 Tesla multi-parametric MRI by carefully mapping the treatment related changes from the ex vivo surgically resected histopathologic specimens onto the pre-operative in vivo imaging. A better understanding of the imaging characteristics of residual disease and successfully ablated tissue might lead to improved treatment monitoring and as such patient prognosis. A unique clinical trial at the Radboud University Medical Center, in which 3 patients underwent a prostatectomy after LITT treatment, yielded ex-vivo histopathologic specimens along with pre- and post-LITT MRI. Using this data we (1) identified the computer extracted MRI signatures associated with treatment effects including benign necrotic changes and residual disease and (2) subsequently evaluated the computer extracted MRI features previously identified in distinguishing LITT induced changes in the ablated area relative to the residual disease. Towards this end first a pathologist annotated the ablated area and the residual disease on the ex-vivo histology and then we transferred the annotations to the post-LITT MRI using semi-automatic elastic registration. The

  3. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. Colposcopy of vaginal and vulvar human papillomavirus and adjacent sites.

    PubMed

    Hatch, K

    1993-03-01

    Human papillomaviral infections can affect the entire lower female genital tract as multifocal or multicentric disease as well as the surrounding anatomic and adjacent sites. The traditional colposcopic methods are necessary to assist in the diagnosis and help differentiate these infections from other disease mimics. PMID:8392676

  5. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  6. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  7. 2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  8. 10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead setting. Note laced vertical compression members, latticed portal strut, decorative strut bracing, and lightness of diagonal and lateral tension members. View to southeast through southeast portal from truss mid-span. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  9. LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

  10. Effects on stink bugs of field edges adjacent to woodland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers face significant crop losses from stink bug species in the southeastern USA, but the high mobility and polyphagy of the bugs make predictions of their presence in crops difficult. While there is some evidence that they colonize crops from adjacent crops, there are no studies of their colo...

  11. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  16. 45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, WALL ON LEFT DIVIDING CLOTH ROOM ADDED LATER (PROBABLY C. 1970s). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  17. Detail of north intermediate abutment pylon showing proximity of adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north intermediate abutment pylon showing proximity of adjacent 1001-1007 East First Street (James K. Hill and Sons Pickle Works Building), facing east - First Street Bridge, Spanning Los Angeles River at First Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking south. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  19. 4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN BUILDING PERIODS 1 AND 3. NOTE REUSED WOOD STRIP NAILED TO BUILDING PERIOD 1 POST INSCRIBED 'ST. LEONARD'. THERE ARE NO NAIL HOLES IN THE PERIOD 3 POST, THE FARRING STRIPS ADJUST FOR CLADDING - Charles' Gift, State Routes 2 & 4, Lusby, Calvert County, MD

  20. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side of bridge, taken from river level. Note entire east side and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  2. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points. 236.404 Section 236.404 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  3. 12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  4. Discrimination of Benign and Neoplastic Mucosa with a High-Resolution Microendoscope (HRME) in Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Peter M.; Park, Chan W.; Pierce, Mark C.; Goldstein, Gregg H.; Levy, Lauren; Gurudutt, Vivek V.; Polydorides, Alexandras D.; Godbold, James H.; Teng, Marita S.; Genden, Eric M.; Miles, Brett A.; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Sikora, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Background The efficacy of ablative surgery for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) depends critically on obtaining negative margins. While intraoperative "frozen section" analysis of margins is a valuable adjunct, it is expensive, time-consuming, and highly dependent on pathologist expertise. Optical imaging has potential to improve the accuracy of margins by identifying cancerous tissue in real time. Our aim was to determine the accuracy and inter-rater reliability of head and neck cancer specialists using high-resolution microendoscopic (HRME) images to discriminate between cancerous and benign mucosa. Methods Thirty-eight patients diagnosed with HNSCC were enrolled in this single-center study. HRME was used to image each specimen after application of proflavine, with concurrent standard histopathologic analysis. Images were evaluated for quality control, and a training set containing representative images of benign and neoplastic tissue was assembled. After viewing training images, seven head and neck cancer specialists with no prior HRME experience reviewed 37 test images and were asked to classify each. Results The mean accuracy of all reviewers in correctly diagnosing neoplastic mucosa was 97 percent (95% Cl = 94–99%). The mean sensitivity and specificity were 98 percent (97–100%) and 92 percent (87–98%), respectively. The Fleiss kappa statistic for inter-rater reliability was 0.84 (0.77–0.91). Conclusions Medical professionals can be quickly trained to use HRME to discriminate between benign and neoplastic mucosa in the head and neck. With further development, the HRME shows promise as a method of real-time margin determination at the point of care. PMID:22492225

  5. Bipolar radiofrequency ablation of benign thyroid nodules using a multiple overlapping shot technique in a 3-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kohlhase, Konstantin David; Korkusuz, Yücel; Gröner, Daniel; Erbelding, Christian; Happel, Christian; Luboldt, Wolfgang; Grünwald, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the decrease of benign thyroid nodules after bipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in a 3-month follow-up using a multiple overlapping shot technique ('MOST'). Methods A total of 18 patients with 20 symptomatic benign thyroid nodules (17 cold nodules, 3 hyperfunctioning nodules) were treated in one single session by bipolar RFA. Bipolar ablation was performed using MOST. The nodule volumes were measured prior to ablation and 3 months after the procedure using ultrasound. The population consisted of either solid (>80% solid tissue within the volume of interest), complex, or cystic nodules (<20% solid tissue within the volume of interest). Results Bipolar RFA resulted in a highly significant (p < 0.0001) decrease of nodule volume (ΔV), median 5.3 mL (range 0.13-43.1 mL), corresponding to a relative reduction in mean of 56 ± 17.9%. Median initial volume was 8 mL (range 0.48-62 mL); 3 months after ablation a median volume of 2.3 mL (range 0.3-32 mL) was measured. Nodule growth ≥50% occurred in 70% (14 nodules). At the follow-up no complications such as infections, persisting pain, nerve injuries or immunogen stimulation occurred. Patients with cold nodules (15) remained euthyroid, with hyperfunctioning nodules either euthyroid (2) or latent hypofunctional (1). Conclusion The use of bipolar RFA is an effective, safe and suitable thermoablative technique to treat benign thyroid nodules. Combined with the multiple overlapping shot technique it allows sufficient ablation. PMID:27126512

  6. Clinical Significance of Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lakiotaki, Eleftheria; Giaginis, Constantinos; Tolia, Maria; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Giannopoulou, Ioanna; Kyrgias, George; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is comprised of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and proteins responsible for their metabolism participate in many different functions indispensable to homeostatic regulation in several tissues, exerting also antitumorigenic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of CB1 and CB2 expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions. CB1 and CB2 proteins' expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues obtained from 87 patients with benign (n = 43) and malignant (n = 44) lesions and was statistically analyzed with clinicopathological parameters, follicular cells' proliferative capacity, and risk of recurrence rate estimated according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA) staging system. Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was significantly more frequently observed in malignant compared to benign thyroid lesions (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0005, resp.). Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was also significantly more frequently observed in papillary carcinomas compared to hyperplastic nodules (p = 0.0097 and p = 0.0110, resp.). In malignant thyroid lesions, elevated CB2 expression was significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0301). Enhanced CB2 expression was also more frequently observed in malignant thyroid cases with presence of capsular (p = 0.1165), lymphatic (p = 0.1989), and vascular invasion (p = 0.0555), as well as in those with increased risk of recurrence rate (p = 0.1165), at a nonsignificant level though, whereas CB1 expression was not associated with any of the clinicopathological parameters examined. Our data suggest that CB receptors may be involved in malignant thyroid transformation and especially CB2 receptor could serve as useful biomarker and potential therapeutic target in thyroid neoplasia. PMID:26539529

  7. Turbulent urinary flow in the urethra could be a causal factor for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Borges, Anibal R

    2006-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common form of prostate disease in middle-aged and elderly men, and leads to severe impairment later in life. Despite its significant impact on public health, the underlying cause of BPH is yet to be determined. This hypothesis proposes a new causal factor for BPH. Applying concepts of dynamics of fluids to the process of urination it could be stated that a turbulent urinary flow through the passage of the urethra. The turbulent urinary flow in the urethra applies pressure and stretch forces to the surrounding tissue. This stimulus repeated over time and coupled with age-related changes of the urethral tissue could contribute to the development of BPH. In support of this hypothesis, several mechanotransduction studies have shown that vibration and pressure forces applied to different cell tissues can provoke cellular and molecular changes. Another supportive data is the presence of the hyperplasic reaction surrounding the urethra specifically located in the transition zone, the only zone where BPH develops. It is crucial to identify causal factors to understanding the disease and to determine effective primary prevention strategies. Future studies of the dynamics of fluids in the urethra are warranted. The finding of significant forces transmitted to the periurethral tissue from a turbulent urinary flow could give us the clue to the underlying cause of BPH. If this hypothesis proves to be valid there are several primary prevention measures that could be implemented to impede the development of BPH. Educational intervention measures in younger populations to avoid frequent urinary retention and active urination (process of forcing the urine through the urethra at a high velocity) could be considered. Studies of the impact of turbulence in the standing vs. sitting position during urination in men should also be considered. PMID:16764996

  8. Association of TCR-signaling pathway with the development of lacrimal gland benign lymphoepithelial lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian-Min; Cui, Yi-Xin; Ge, Xin; Li, Jing; Li, Jin-Ru; Wang, Xiao-Na

    2015-01-01

    AIM To identify the association of the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling with the development of benign lymphoepithelial lesions (BLEL) of the lacrimal gland. METHODS We collected affected lacrimal gland tissues from 9 patients who underwent dacryoadenectomy in the Capital Medical University Beijing Tongren Hospital Eye Center between August 2010 and March 2013 and were confirmed to have lacrimal gland BLEL by histopathological analysis. Tumor tissues from 9 patients with orbital cavernous hemangioma were also collected and used as control. Whole genome gene expression microarray was used to compare gene expression profiles of affected lacrimal gland tissues from patients with lacrimal gland BLEL to those from of orbital cavernous hemangiomas. Differential expression of TCR pathway genes between these tissues was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Microarray analysis showed that in lacrimal glands with BLEL, 32 signaling pathways were enriched in the upregulated genes, while 25 signaling pathways were enriched in the downregulated genes. In-depth analysis of the microarray data showed that the expression of 27 genes of the TCR signaling pathway increased significantly. To verify the differential expression of three of these genes, CD3, CD4, and interleukin (IL)-10, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry assays were performed. RT-PCR analysis showed that CD3 and CD4 were expressed in the lacrimal glands with BLEL, but IL-10 was not expressed. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that CD3 and CD4 proteins were also present, but IL-10 protein was not. CD3, CD4, or IL-10 expression was not found in the orbital cavernous hemangiomas with either RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSION TCR signaling pathway might be involved in the pathogenesis of lacrimal gland BLEL. PMID:26309862

  9. Surgical management of giant neurofibroma in soft tissue: a single-center retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Si-Ming; Cui, Lei; Guo, Yao; Wang, Jun; Hu, Xin-Bao; Jiang, Hui-Qing; Hong, Zhi-Jian

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibroma, a common benign tumor in soft tissue, continues to grow, and often appears to be giant. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the surgical treatment of 26 patients with giant neurofibromas in our clinic in the past 10 years from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2013. The tumors were located in the head (n = 10), trunk (n = 9), limbs (n = 5), and multi-sites (n = 2). According to the location and extent of the lesion, as well as the adjacent anatomy, surgical management was performed to partially (n = 15) or almost completely (n = 11) resect the tumor. The wounds were repaired by skin flap or skin graft. Among them, one child with a giant tumor in the scalp underwent three times of skin expander treatment, and acquired complete removal of the tumor finally without baldness. Eleven cases underwent the interventional embolization of tumor’s nutrient arteries, which successfully reduced the bleeding in operation. Most of the skin flap and skin graft survived well. After operation, the appearance of the patients and the function of the limbs were improved largely. In conclusion, for the giant neurofibroma, surgical treatment effectively reduces the tumor burden, rehabilitates the appearance and function, and so improves the quality of life. Skin expandor and interventional embolization of nutrient artery can be used when appropriate. PMID:26131098

  10. Infrared spectra of thyroid tumor tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Butra, V. A.

    2010-07-01

    We used infrared spectroscopy methods to study thyroid tumor tissues removed during surgery. The IR spectra of the surgical material are compared with data from histological examination. We show that in malignant neoplasms, the spectra of proteins in the region of C=O vibrations are different from the spectra of these substances in benign tumors and in tissues outside the pathological focus at a distance >1 cm from the margin of the tumor. The differences in the spectra are due to changes in the supermolecular structure of the proteins, resulting from rearrangement of the system of hydrogen bonds. We identify the spectral signs of malignant pathologies.

  11. Benign fasciculations and corticosteroid use: possible association? An update

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Marco; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Oliveira, Acary Bulle; Araújo Leite, Marco Antonio; Júnior, Salem Peter; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Silva, Júlio Guilherme; Sholer, Marzia Puccioni; Guimarães, Fernando Silva; Pereira, Alessandra Cardoso; de Menezes, Sara Lúcia Silveira; da Silva Catharino, Antonio Marcos; Bino, Fabrício

    2011-01-01

    Fasciculations are characterized by visible subtle and fast contractions of muscle, even wormlike in movement, by the contraction of a fascicle of muscle fibers. The authors present the case study of a 28-year-old patient with the appearance of migratory and diffuse fasciculations with an onset after partial tapering off of oral corticosteroides (60 mg total dose) indicated for treatment of Minimal change Glomerulopathy. Clinical Neurological physical exam allied with an ENMG, besides other complementary laboratory exams were used for screening the above-mentioned patient. Afterwards, current research relating to the topic at hand was made in order to update the data available in the Bireme, Scielo and PubMed Data Banks using the following key words: Fasciculation's, motor neuron disease, and benign fasciculations in the Portuguese, English as well as Spanish language. Although fasciculation's are most commonly associated with Motor neuron disease as well as with certain metabolic disorders, they may also be present in individuals with absolutely no underlying pathological disorders. In our case, fasciculation potentials that have been present for six months, with no other signs of a neurogenic disorder as well as absence of laboratory findings, the patient received a diagnosis of Benign Fasciculation Syndrome (BFS).We believe that the use of corticosteroides in high doses with subsequent tapering contributed to the fasciculation's, especially due to the changes that this causes on the ionic channels. Fasciculation's are symptoms seen in a large range of conditions, and also being the main symptom of the so-called Benign Fasciculation Syndrome. We have presented an example of this clinical syndrome in a patient whose complaint was fasciculation's, with complete clinical remission of symptoms following complete tapering off of corticosteroid six months previously. PMID:22053258

  12. Stromal androgen receptor roles in the development of normal prostate, benign prostate hyperplasia, and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wen, Simeng; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Tian, Jing; Shang, Zhiqun; Niu, Yuanjie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-02-01

    The prostate is an androgen-sensitive organ that needs proper androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signals for normal development. The progression of prostate diseases, including benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa), also needs proper androgen/AR signals. Tissue recombination studies report that stromal, but not epithelial, AR plays more critical roles via the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions to influence the early process of prostate development. However, in BPH and PCa, much more attention has been focused on epithelial AR roles. However, accumulating evidence indicates that stromal AR is also irreplaceable and plays critical roles in prostate disease progression. Herein, we summarize the roles of stromal AR in the development of normal prostate, BPH, and PCa, with evidence from the recent results of in vitro cell line studies, tissue recombination experiments, and AR knockout animal models. Current evidence suggests that stromal AR may play positive roles to promote BPH and PCa progression, and targeting stromal AR selectively with AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9, may allow development of better therapies with fewer adverse effects to battle BPH and PCa. PMID:25432062

  13. Anti-Proliferation Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on the Progression of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyung-Sook; Shin, Su-Jin; Lee, Na Young; Cheon, Se-Yun; Park, Wansu; Sun, Seung-Ho; An, Hyo-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a urologic disease that affects most of men over the age 50. But until now there is no such perfect cure without side effects. Because of diverse adverse effects, it is desirable to develop effective and long term-safety-herbal medicines to inhibit the progress of BPH. In spite of garlic's large use and a wide spectrum of studies, including anti-hyperlipidemic, cardio-protective, and anti-inflammatory activities, there was none to prove efficacy for BPH. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of garlic to prove its suppressing effects on BPH. Garlic administration decreased relative prostate weight ratio, suppressed mRNA expression level of AR, DHT serum levels, and the growth of prostatic tissue in BPH-induced rats. Moreover, garlic administration decreased the levels of inflammatory proteins, iNOS, and COX-2 in prostatic tissue. Further investigation showed that garlic induced accumulation of death-inducing signal complex and activation of AMPK and decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and survivin. These results suggest that garlic may have suppressing effects on BPH and it has great potential to be developed as treatment for BPH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27191676

  14. Stromal Androgen Receptor Roles in the Development of Normal Prostate, Benign Prostate Hyperplasia, and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Simeng; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Tian, Jing; Shang, Zhiqun; Niu, Yuanjie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2016-01-01

    The prostate is an androgen-sensitive organ that needs proper androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signals for normal development. The progression of prostate diseases, including benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa), also needs proper androgen/AR signals. Tissue recombination studies report that stromal, but not epithelial, AR plays more critical roles via the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions to influence the early process of prostate development. However, in BPH and PCa, much more attention has been focused on epithelial AR roles. However, accumulating evidence indicates that stromal AR is also irreplaceable and plays critical roles in prostate disease progression. Herein, we summarize the roles of stromal AR in the development of normal prostate, BPH, and PCa, with evidence from the recent results of in vitro cell line studies, tissue recombination experiments, and AR knockout animal models. Current evidence suggests that stromal AR may play positive roles to promote BPH and PCa progression, and targeting stromal AR selectively with AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9, may allow development of better therapies with fewer adverse effects to battle BPH and PCa. PMID:25432062

  15. Laser treatment of benign prostate enlargement--which laser for which prostate?

    PubMed

    Rieken, Malte; Bachmann, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Laser-based prostatectomy for benign prostatic obstruction has emerged over the past decade as a treatment alternative to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and open prostatectomy. These techniques set new standards in minimally invasive surgery and aim to obviate the complications of open surgery while ensuring durability of outcomes. Enucleation, which mimics open prostatectomy in that the whole prostate adenoma is removed, and vaporization, which involves ultra-rapid heating of superficial tissue layers and subsequent ablation, are the most often used surgical techniques in laser prostatectomy. The wavelength and the power output of the laser influence the tissue-laser interactions, which determine the physical properties and the safety profile of the technique. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) and GreenLight(™) laser vaporization of the prostate are the two reference techniques for laser prostatectomy, both of which have been shown to be as effective as TURP, while offering advantages in the safety profile in various randomized trials. Thulium laser enucleation of the prostate (ThuLEP) shares similarities with HoLEP and has shown encouraging results. However, more controlled trials with longer follow-up assessment are needed. Diode lasers come in various wavelengths and fibre designs and have been used for vaporization and enucleation, but require high-quality data to support their clinical use. PMID:24595121

  16. Identification and Clinical Characterization of Children With Benign Ethnic Neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Michael V; Meier, Emily R; Hsieh, Matthew M

    2016-04-01

    Benign ethnic neutropenia (BEN) is an asymptomatic condition reported in adults of African and Middle Eastern descent. The clinical description in children is currently lacking. In our urban outpatient pediatric hematology clinic, the median neutrophil count of children with BEN was lower than previous reports in adults at 893×10 cells/L, but increased with older age. There was an equal male to female ratio and 24% of our BEN children reported ethnicities other than African or Middle Eastern. Children with BEN had a clinical course comparable with other healthy children including otherwise normal blood counts, except for mild anemia. PMID:26925714

  17. [Benign pleural effusion in a carpenter exposed to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rolf; Pedersen, Carsten Franck; Munch, Erik Peter

    2010-10-25

    A 55-year-old carpenter developed pleurisy with pleural effusion on the right side in 2000 and on the left side in 2003. No known causes of pleurisy were found. He had been occupationally exposed to asbestos during a 6-month-period in 1971 while working with roof sheets made of asbestos cement. In the literature there is evidence of asbestos being a cause of benign pleural effusion. We found it likely that the pleurisy with pleural effusion found in this patient was an occupational condition and it should therefore be notified as industrial injury. PMID:21040677

  18. Eutectic salt catalyzed environmentally benign and highly efficient Biginelli reaction.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Najmadin; Dezfuli, Sahar; Hahsemi, Mohmmad Mahmoodi

    2012-01-01

    A simple deep eutectic solvent based on tin (II) chloride was used as a dual catalyst and environmentally benign reaction medium for an efficient synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one derivatives, from aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and urea in good-to-excellent yields and short reaction time. This simple ammonium deep eutectic solvent, easily synthesized from choline chloride and tin chloride, is relatively inexpensive and recyclable, making it applicable for industrial applications. PMID:22649326

  19. Eutectic Salt Catalyzed Environmentally Benign and Highly Efficient Biginelli Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Najmadin; Dezfuli, Sahar; Hahsemi, Mohmmad Mahmoodi

    2012-01-01

    A simple deep eutectic solvent based on tin (II) chloride was used as a dual catalyst and environmentally benign reaction medium for an efficient synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one derivatives, from aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and urea in good-to-excellent yields and short reaction time. This simple ammonium deep eutectic solvent, easily synthesized from choline chloride and tin chloride, is relatively inexpensive and recyclable, making it applicable for industrial applications. PMID:22649326

  20. Hypervitaminosis A causing benign intracranial hypertension. A case report.

    PubMed

    Bhettay, E M; Bakst, C M

    1988-12-01

    Hypervitaminosis A is a well-recognized clinical entity, but the toxic manifestations develop so insidiously and involve so many systems that diagnosis can easily be missed or delayed. A patient with juvenile chronic arthritis developed benign intracranial hypertension and other manifestations of excessive vitamin A intake and made a complete recovery after it was withdrawn. Vitamin A is a non-prescription drug and any history of its ingestion must be obtained during evaluation of papilloedema. A plea is made for the public to be repeatedly reminded that no proposed remedy is safe or effective until it is demonstrated to be so. PMID:3194809